WorldWideScience

Sample records for technological change leading

  1. Teacher Perceptions of Moving toward Technology Innovation: Does an Enhancing Education through Technology Grant Lead to Innovation and Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Kimberly Brown

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the beliefs and perceptions of teachers participating in a project funded by an EETT grant for technology integration, concentrating on factors that reveal how the implementation of the 21st century hardware and staff development might have changed the atmosphere of their classrooms and teaching practices.…

  2. Leading in a Technological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadgir, Sheri A.

    2011-01-01

    Technology is advancing more rapidly than at any time in history since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In fact, experts say that the world is leaving the Industrial Age of the 20th century and entering an Information Age that will lead into the future. These advances mean that important changes are being made in all areas of life--and…

  3. Considering only first-order effects? How simplifications lead to unrealistic technology optimism in climate change mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvesen, Anders, E-mail: anders.arvesen@ntnu.no [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway); Bright, Ryan M.; Hertwich, Edgar G. [Industrial Ecology Programme and Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2011-11-15

    This article challenges the notion that energy efficiency and 'clean' energy technologies can deliver sufficient degrees of climate change mitigation. By six arguments not widely recognized in the climate policy arena, we argue that unrealistic technology optimism exists in current climate change mitigation assessments, and, consequently, world energy and climate policy. The overarching theme of the arguments is that incomplete knowledge of indirect effects, and neglect of interactions between parts of physical and social sub-systems, systematically leads to overly optimistic assessments. Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to preserve the climatic conditions to which the human civilization is adapted. We call for priority to be given to research evaluating aspects of mitigation in a broad, system-wide perspective. - Highlights: > We highlight some of the simplifying assumptions in climate change mitigation scenarios. > Mitigation assessments are the basis of unfounded technology optimism in climate policy. > Society must likely seek deeper changes in social and economic structures to stabilize climate.

  4. Change, Lead, Succeed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Linda; von Frank, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    Redefine leadership in your school, and create capacity through school leadership teams that successfully coordinate professional learning. "Change, Lead, Succeed" shows school leaders and teachers in leadership roles what they need to know to effectively create a culture for change. Find out what distinguishes a school leadership team from other…

  5. Leading change: 2--planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance.

  6. The Changing Way of Leading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytsma, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This conceptual article explores the changing way of leading. It proposes that in contrast to the primarily outer actions that characterize educational change, the inner and outer dimensions of leaders are necessary to change what constitutes leading, thereby making it more appropriate to our times. The unfolding of leading actions and the…

  7. Leading change: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Ford, Debra J

    2017-04-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of leading change. Nurses have been called to lead change to advance the health of individuals, populations, and systems. Conceptual clarity about leading change in the context of nursing and healthcare systems provides an empirical direction for future research and theory development that can advance the science of leadership studies in nursing. Concept analysis. CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite and Business Source Premier databases were searched using the terms: leading change, transformation, reform, leadership and change. Literature published in English from 2001 - 2015 in the fields of nursing, medicine, organizational studies, business, education, psychology or sociology were included. Walker and Avant's method was used to identify descriptions, antecedents, consequences and empirical referents of the concept. Model, related and contrary cases were developed. Five defining attributes of leading change were identified: (a) individual and collective leadership; (b) operational support; (c) fostering relationships; (d) organizational learning; and (e) balance. Antecedents were external or internal driving forces and organizational readiness. The consequences of leading change included improved organizational performance and outcomes and new organizational culture and values. A theoretical definition and conceptual model of leading change were developed. Future studies that use and test the model may contribute to the refinement of a middle-range theory to advance nursing leadership research and education. From this, empirically derived interventions that prepare and enable nurses to lead change to advance health may be realized. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Lead sulphide nanocrystal photodetector technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Rinku; Curry, Richard J.

    2016-02-01

    Light detection is the underlying principle of many optoelectronic systems. For decades, semiconductors including silicon carbide, silicon, indium gallium arsenide and germanium have dominated the photodetector industry. They can show excellent photosensitivity but are limited by one or more aspects, such as high production cost, high-temperature processing, flexible substrate incompatibility, limited spectral range or a requirement for cryogenic cooling for efficient operation. Recently lead sulphide (PbS) nanocrystals have emerged as one of the most promising new materials for photodetector fabrication. They offer several advantages including low-cost manufacturing, solution processability, size-tunable spectral sensitivity and flexible substrate compatibility, and they have achieved figures of merit outperforming conventional photodetectors. We review the underlying concepts, breakthroughs and remaining challenges in photodetector technologies based on PbS nanocrystals.

  9. Technology and Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübler, Arnulf

    2003-10-01

    Technology and Global Change describes how technology has shaped society and the environment over the last 200 years. Technology has led us from the farm to the factory to the internet, and its impacts are now global. Technology has eliminated many problems, but has added many others (ranging from urban smog to the ozone hole to global warming). This book is the first to give a comprehensive description of the causes and impacts of technological change and how they relate to global environmental change. Written for specialists and nonspecialists alike, it will be useful for researchers and professors, as a textbook for graduate students, for people engaged in long-term policy planning in industry (strategic planning departments) and government (R & D and technology ministries, environment ministries), for environmental activists (NGOs), and for the wider public interested in history, technology, or environmental issues.

  10. [Reasons for the changes in anthropogenic lead flows of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Mao, Jian-Su

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, accompanied by a series of comprehensive improvement actions on lead pollution, anthropogenic lead flows of China have somewhat changed; by exploring the reasons, some references can be provided for further improvement in resource utilization and environment quality. In this paper, based on the framework of lead flow analysis, the causes of changes in lead flows were identified and divided into scale factors and technical factors. Based on that and taking indices such as the quantities of lead production and recovered lead scraps, and lead recycling rate and emission rates as the scale and technical indices, respectively, the reasons for the changes of lead flow in our country were analyzed from the aspects of consumption, trade, technology, management and so on. The results showed: the domestic consumption of lead products has been gro wing quickly at an average annual rate of 24.7%, which pulled the growth of domestic lead consumption; The growth of lead consumption further increased the growth of lead production at an average annual rate of 14.2%, which finally pulled the growth of domestic lead ore resource consumption, lead concentrates net imports and lead scraps recovering; The increases in domestic consumption ratio of final lead products promoted the improvement of the lead recycling rate; As national management was strengthened, most lead-enterprises with small scale and old-dated technologies were closed, meanwhile, some advanced technologies were encouraged to be employed, thus the general resource utilization rate was improved and environmental lead emissions rate was reduced.

  11. Leading Schools through Major Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Sarosh

    2013-01-01

    Changing even the smallest things in schools is hard--just ask any principal who has overseen a rescheduling of bus routes. So imagine the difficulty of getting a school to move its curriculum and instruction from familiar learning requirements to brand-new nationwide standards. Yet this is exactly the sort of change public schools in 45 states…

  12. Safe Leads and Lead Changes in Competitive Team Sports

    CERN Document Server

    Clauset, A; Redner, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size $L$ and game time $t$. Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40,000 games across four professional or semi-professional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.

  13. Cities lead on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancost, Richard D.

    2016-04-01

    The need to mitigate climate change opens up a key role for cities. Bristol's year as a Green Capital led to great strides forward, but it also revealed that a creative and determined partnership across cultural divides will be necessary.

  14. Easier Said than Done: Leading Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, David A.; Mangin, Melinda M.

    2013-01-01

    In this case, Mr. Phuture, a district administrator, attempts to lead a diverse team of educators and community members in an effort to develop a district-wide action plan for the integration of instructional technology in K-12 classrooms. Along the way, Mr. Phuture confronts ambiguities in the superintendent's directives, passionate contradicting…

  15. Endogenous Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Romer

    1989-01-01

    Growth in this model is driven by technological change that arises from intentional investment decisions made by profit maximizing agents. The distinguishing feature of the technology as an input is that it is neither a conventional good nor a public good; it is a nonrival, partially excludable good. Because of the nonconvexity introduced by a nonrival good, price-taking competition cannot be supported, and instead, the equilibriumis one with monopolistic competition. The main conclusions are...

  16. DTU Climate Change Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During 2008 and 2009, DTU held a workshop series focusing on assessment of and adaption to climate changes as well as on mitigation of green house gasses. In the workshops, a total of 1500 scientists, government officials and business leaders have outlined scenarios for technology development...

  17. Leading and managing organizational change initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Peus, Claudia; Frey, Dieter; Gerkhardt, Marit; Fischer, Peter; Traut-Mattausch, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Although indispensable for long-term economic growth, organizational changes are usually met with resistance. This article draws on psychological theories and empirical evidence to highlight why and under what conditions changes lead to resistance and what likely consequences of resistance are. Furthermore, the article discusses the variables that have been identified as success factors for organizational change initiatives. These include individual difference variables and objective characte...

  18. Leading and managing organizational change initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Peus, Claudia; Frey, Dieter; Gerkhardt, Marit; Fischer, Peter; Traut-Mattausch, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Although indispensable for long-term economic growth, organizational changes are usually met with resistance. This article draws on psychological theories and empirical evidence to highlight why and under what conditions changes lead to resistance and what likely consequences of resistance are. Furthermore, the article discusses the variables that have been identified as success factors for organizational change initiatives. These include individual difference variables and objective characte...

  19. Solar Cooker Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    1997-01-01

    The challenges which solar cooking technology is facing right now is discussed. Based on a field study in Madras and Gujarat, it is asserted that there is an important incompatibility between the technology and the every day real-life conditions of the "users" of solar cooker. An evaluation report...... on a solar cooker technology in Burkina Faso supports the findings of the study. It is concluded that the users and other important actors have to be incorporated in the technological development process of solar cookers in the future....

  20. Leading successful change 8 keys to making change work

    CERN Document Server

    Shea, Gregory P

    2013-01-01

    Why do as many as 75% of change initiatives fail?We live in an era where constant change is the norm rather than the exception. Given globalization, increased competition, and constant technological turnover, no organization can run in place: change is not optional. However, the sad fact is that the vast majority of change efforts fail. As authors Gregory P. Shea and Cassie A. Solomon argue, they do not fail for a lack of trying or leadership. Chances are you have led or been part of a failed change. But why did it fail and how can the next change be successfully implemented?In this essential

  1. Environmentally sound technologies for recycling secondary lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D.; Raychaudhuri, A.; Frias, C.

    Advances in hydrometallurgy are providing increasingly simple means for controlling the entire lead chain from concentrate to recycled lead. Used in parallel with pyrometallurgy, these processes allow furnace temperatures to be reduced to the minimum, which is essential for casting or alloying. Fumes and atmospheric pollution are minimized, furnace slags are digested, and most residues (other than purification cements) are non-toxic and convertible into marketable products. These new processes provide the cleanest and healthiest practicable means for recycling lead from batteries. By substituting melting for smelting, the heat requirement and cycle time per charge are reduced by more than half. A new hydrometallurgical plant could be installed alongside an existing pyrometallurgical plant without interference, doubling its potential capacity when operational (and more, if electrowinning is used). Over 99.5% of the lead originally present is recovered in tests of a combined PLACID-pyro plant. The average purity of electrowon PLACID lead is 99.995%. Results from the PLINT process should be similar. The purity of the lead chain can thereby be sustained through recycling. Perfect solid/paste separation is not mandatory, and PLINT-type plant units can be of any size. Such processes constitute a good basis for development of clean processes, which are suitable for use in Asian societies.

  2. Changing ecosystem service values following technological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey-Rosés, Jordi; Schneider, Daniel W; Brozović, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Research on ecosystem services has focused mostly on natural areas or remote places, with less attention given to urban ecosystem services and their relationship with technological change. However, recent work by urban ecologists and urban designers has more closely examined and appreciated the opportunities associated with integrating natural and built infrastructures. Nevertheless, a perception remains in the literature on ecosystem services that technology may easily and irreversibly substitute for services previously obtained from ecosystems, especially when the superiority of the engineered system motivated replacement in the first place. We emphasize that the expected tradeoff between natural and manufactured capital is false. Rather, as argued in other contexts, the adoption of new technologies is complementary to ecosystem management. The complementarity of ecosystem services and technology is illustrated with a case study in Barcelona, Spain where the installation of sophisticated water treatment technology increased the value of the ecosystem services found there. Interestingly, the complementarity between natural and built infrastructures may remain even for the very ecosystems that are affected by the technological change. This finding suggests that we can expect the value of ecosystem services to co-evolve with new technologies. Technological innovation can generate new opportunities to harness value from ecosystems, and the engineered structures found in cities may generate more reliance on ecosystem processes, not less.

  3. World leading virtual reality mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    The development of immensely realistic Virtual Reality (VR) underground and surface mining environments resulting from a unique inter-disciplinary collaboration at the University of New South Wales has generated multi-million dollar sales and attracted intense interest across the mining sector. The university is supplying VR technologies to Coal Services Pty Ltd. (CSPL) for safety training. Similar to a giant computer game, each interactive software module recreates mine environments for various training scenarios and is displayed in multiple theatre modes including a 360-degree AVIE version for group training and a 180-degree iDome for individual training sessions. Further information is available from www.nsinnovations.com.au/vrmining. 5 photos.

  4. Leading an Independent School Today Means Leading Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, Andrew Robert Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This Executive Leadership Portfolio (ELP) is the story of my journey through the Ed.D. program that begins with me focusing my work on trying to reverse my school's attrition woes, then changes course as I try to make my project reverse my own failed head of school candidacies, and ends with me discovering that, along the way, I had learned to…

  5. Leading an Independent School Today Means Leading Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, Andrew Robert Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This Executive Leadership Portfolio (ELP) is the story of my journey through the Ed.D. program that begins with me focusing my work on trying to reverse my school's attrition woes, then changes course as I try to make my project reverse my own failed head of school candidacies, and ends with me discovering that, along the way, I had learned to…

  6. Lead-acid battery technologies fundamentals, materials, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Joey; Zhang, Jiujun

    2015-01-01

    Lead-Acid Battery Technologies: Fundamentals, Materials, and Applications offers a systematic and state-of-the-art overview of the materials, system design, and related issues for the development of lead-acid rechargeable battery technologies. Featuring contributions from leading scientists and engineers in industry and academia, this book:Describes the underlying science involved in the operation of lead-acid batteriesHighlights advances in materials science and engineering for materials fabricationDelivers a detailed discussion of the mathematical modeling of lead-acid batteriesAnalyzes the

  7. 76 FR 12944 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... of January 26, 2011 (76 FR 4641), we published a notice (``hearing notice'') announcing that the... COMMISSION Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content; Notice... feasibility of meeting the 100 ppm lead content limit for children's products and associated public...

  8. 75 FR 43942 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... COMMISSION Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content... content limit for children's products. DATES: Written comments and submissions in response to this notice... for children 12 years old and younger, the total lead content limit by weight in any part of...

  9. Technological changes in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, L

    1992-01-01

    Exposures and technologies in the workplace are changing due to a variety of factors, including newly developed technologies, mechanization and automation, and improvements in industrial hygiene primarily effected in many developed countries. In addition substitution and removal of carcinogenic constituents in the workplace and general environment are increasing in a number of instances, particularly in North America, Western Europe, and Japan, and they are being accompanied as well by remediation either by source reduction, recycling, or compliance to more stringent national and international regulations and standards. This overview highlights some of the strategies employed in the technological changes in cancer prevention and cites examples in source reduction, changes in formulation, product or process changes, recycling, and hazardous materials management.

  10. Technological changes in cancer prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbein, L. (International Life Sciences Institute, Washington (United States). Risk Science Institute)

    1992-01-01

    Exposures and technologies in the workplace are changing due to a variety of factors, including newly developed technologies, mechanization and automation, and improvements in industrial hygiene primarily effected in many developed countries. In addition substitution and removal of carcinogenic constituents in the workplace and general environment are increasing in a number of instances, particularly in North America, Western Europe, and Japan, and they are being accompanied as well by remediation either by source reduction, recycling, or compliance to more stringent national and international regulations and standards. This overview highlights some of the strategies employed in the technological ages in cancer prevention and cites examples in source reduction, changes in formulation, product or process changes, recycling, and hazardous materials management

  11. The BGR Contingency Model for Leading Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derek R.; Gordon, Raymond; Rose, Dennis Michael

    2012-01-01

    The continuing failure rates of change initiatives, combined with an increasingly complex business environment, have created significant challenges for the practice of change management. High failure rates suggest that existing change models are not working, or are being incorrectly used. A different mindset to change is required. The BGR…

  12. The BGR Contingency Model for Leading Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derek R.; Gordon, Raymond; Rose, Dennis Michael

    2012-01-01

    The continuing failure rates of change initiatives, combined with an increasingly complex business environment, have created significant challenges for the practice of change management. High failure rates suggest that existing change models are not working, or are being incorrectly used. A different mindset to change is required. The BGR…

  13. Secondary School Department Chairs Leading Successful Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Ann Gaubatz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A foundational understanding within education leadership literature is that education leaders are expected to guide reform efforts within school. This expectation mirrors organizational development literature that describes leaders as individuals who constructively institute change within their organizations. Although leadership and change are portrayed as codependent, no scholarship has linked change models with leadership theories. This article describes a multiple case study that explored the relationship between leadership behaviors and the change process through secondary school department chair stories of change. From this analysis, a clearer picture emerged that illustrates how leaders with little control over decisions implement change. Findings included distinct connections between CREATER change process stages and the Leadership Grid. Suggestions as to how education leaders should approach change attempts within their schools are discussed.

  14. Enterprise Information Technology Organizational Flexibility: Managing Uncertainty and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Karen Prast

    2009-01-01

    Chief Information Officers (CIOs) lead enterprise information technology organizations (EITOs) in today's dynamic competitive business environment. CIOs deal with external and internal environmental changes, changing internal customer needs, and rapidly changing technology. New models for the organization include flexibility and suggest that CIOs…

  15. Did Senior British Officers Effectively Lead Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    must create a vision, devise a strategy, and implement it. They require buy -in from the wider Army but this support is not guaranteed. Indeed, many...investigate. However, there is a compulsion element to any change in the British Army. Orders are orders after all. How much room there is to...support for change evident throughout? Whether Senior Leaders had any power to influence change is important due to the compulsion aspect of the

  16. Subversive Change: Empowering Educators to Lead Innovation from Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Badilla-Saxe

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the quality of education, and even educational reform is goal for most the educational systems in the world. But, it has been proven historically that changing and improving an educational system is probably one of the most difficult and complex tasks in our societies specially, if it is externally and top-down imposed. My proposal here is that change and reform in an educational system must empower educators to take the lead and prove we are able to change and promote change. And to do so, we need show innovation and be credible. We need to empower ourselves from within. In this paper I will present the case of the Faculty of Education of the University of Costa Rica that, with its project LUMEN is leading an impressive innovation process, not only among its different departments and faculty members, but amongst other Faculties at the University such as Engineering and Medicine, for example. I will present also the vital role that the constructionist vision and very new digital technology have played in this case.

  17. Subversive Change: Empowering Educators to Lead Innovation from Within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Badilla-Saxe

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the quality of education, and even educational reform is goal for most the educational systems in the world. But, it has been proven historically that changing and improving an educational system is probably one of the most difficult and complex tasks in our societies specially, if it is externally and top-down imposed. My proposal here is that change and reform in an educational system must empower educators to take the lead and prove we are able to change and promote change. And to do so, we need show innovation and be credible. We need to empower ourselves from within. In this paper I will present the case of the Faculty of Education of the University of Costa Rica that, with its project LUMEN is leading an impressive innovation process, not only among its different departments and faculty members, but amongst other Faculties at the University such as Engineering and Medicine, for example. I will present also the vital role that the constructionist vision and very new digital technology have played in this case.

  18. Leading Organizational Change Is Like Climbing a Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Judith

    2004-01-01

    Leading organizational change is like climbing a mountain. Transformational leaders must prepare to lead change, understand the process and nature of change, and provide the essential gear so that those involved can be successful. The author draws on the literature and personal experiences as a hiker and change leader to provide a guide for…

  19. GPS LifePlan--Leading Campus Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litecky, Larry; Bruner, Mike; Hageman, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    The Goals + Plans = Success (GPS) LifePlan is a new and innovative approach to assist and support students in answering critical questions that give direction to their pursuit of success. The program has brought impressive cultural changes to Century College. It benefited new students by establishing a framework for critical decision making that…

  20. GPS LifePlan--Leading Campus Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litecky, Larry; Bruner, Mike; Hageman, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    The Goals + Plans = Success (GPS) LifePlan is a new and innovative approach to assist and support students in answering critical questions that give direction to their pursuit of success. The program has brought impressive cultural changes to Century College. It benefited new students by establishing a framework for critical decision making that…

  1. Climate change scenarios and technology transfer protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, Socrates; Turton, Hal [Energy Economics Group, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, CH-5232 (Switzerland)

    2011-02-15

    We apply a specific version of MERGE-ETL, an integrated assessment model, to study global climate policies supported by Technology Transfer Protocols (TTPs). We model a specific formulation of such a TTP where donor countries finance via carbon tax revenues, the diffusion of carbon-free technologies in developing countries (DCs) and quantify its benefits. Industrialized countries profit from increased technology exports, global diffusion of advanced technology (leading to additional technology learning and cost reductions) and reduced climate damages through the likelihood of greater global participation in a new international agreement. DCs experience increased welfare from access to subsidized technology, and profit from the reduction of damages related to climate change and expected secondary benefits of carbon abatement (such as reduced local and regional air pollution). The analysis identifies potential candidate technologies that could be supported under a TTP, and the impact of a TTP on economic development (including the flow of transfer subsidies) and global emissions. Although a TTP may encourage additional participation, such a proposal is only likely to be successful if an increased willingness to pay to avoid climate damages is accepted, first by the present and future generations of the industrialized world and later on, when sufficient economic growth is accumulated, by today's developing countries. (author)

  2. Leading Change: Faculty Development through Structured Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Painter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are relentless calls for innovation in higher education programs in response to media and policy-makers attention to such concerns as instructional quality, relevance to employment, costs, and time-to-degree. At the same time, the individual course remains the primary unit of instruction and there is little evidence of faculty development strategies to assist with changing core instructional practices. We faced that dilemma when we led an innovative doctoral program in educational leadership. Soon after beginning, we implemented a regular meeting of all faculty members teaching and advising in the program to address upcoming events and review student progress. Our retrospective analysis indicates that these meetings evolved as a practical and sustainable framework for faculty development in support of deep change for instructional practices. Here we describe the challenge of faculty development for change and draw lessons learned from our four years of leadership centered on experiential learning and community sense-making. We hope that program leaders who aspire to promote faculty development in conjunction with graduate program implementation will find these lessons useful.

  3. Surface 12 lead electrocardiogram recordings using smart phone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquero, Giselle A; Banchs, Javier E; Ahmed, Shameer; Naccarelli, Gerald V; Luck, Jerry C

    2015-01-01

    AliveCor ECG is an FDA approved ambulatory cardiac rhythm monitor that records a single channel (lead I) ECG rhythm strip using an iPhone. In the past few years, the use of smartphones and tablets with health related applications has significantly proliferated. In this initial feasibility trial, we attempted to reproduce the 12 lead ECG using the bipolar arrangement of the AliveCor monitor coupled to smart phone technology. We used the AliveCor heart monitor coupled with an iPhone cellular phone and the AliveECG application (APP) in 5 individuals. In our 5 individuals, recordings from both a standard 12 lead ECG and the AliveCor generated 12 lead ECG had the same interpretation. This study demonstrates the feasibility of creating a 12 lead ECG with a smart phone. The validity of the recordings would seem to suggest that this technology could become an important useful tool for clinical use. This new hand held smart phone 12 lead ECG recorder needs further development and validation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How lead consultants approach educational change in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, J.P.; Westerman, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Lee, N.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Dorr, P.J.; Scheele, F.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Consultants in charge of postgraduate medical education (PGME) in hospital departments ('lead consultants') are responsible for the implementation of educational change. Although difficulties in innovating in medical education are described in the literature, little is known about how lead

  5. Investments in energy technological change under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Ekundayo

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation addresses the crucial problem of how environmental policy uncertainty influences investments in energy technological change. The rising level of carbon emissions due to increasing global energy consumption calls for policy shift. In order to stem the negative consequences on the climate, policymakers are concerned with carving an optimal regulation that will encourage technology investments. However, decision makers are facing uncertainties surrounding future environmental policy. The first part considers the treatment of technological change in theoretical models. This part has two purposes: (1) to show--through illustrative examples--that technological change can lead to quite different, and surprising, impacts on the marginal costs of pollution abatement. We demonstrate an intriguing and uncommon result that technological change can increase the marginal costs of pollution abatement over some range of abatement; (2) to show the impact, on policy, of this uncommon observation. We find that under the assumption of technical change that can increase the marginal cost of pollution abatement over some range, the ranking of policy instruments is affected. The second part builds on the first by considering the impact of uncertainty in the carbon tax on investments in a portfolio of technologies. We determine the response of energy R&D investments as the carbon tax increases both in terms of overall and technology-specific investments. We determine the impact of risk in the carbon tax on the portfolio. We find that the response of the optimal investment in a portfolio of technologies to an increasing carbon tax depends on the relative costs of the programs and the elasticity of substitution between fossil and non-fossil energy inputs. In the third part, we zoom-in on the portfolio model above to consider how uncertainty in the magnitude and timing of a carbon tax influences investments. Under a two-stage continuous-time optimal control model, we

  6. Tracing changes in atmospheric sources of lead contamination using lead isotopic compositions in Australian red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Evans, Andrew James

    2016-07-01

    Air quality data detailing changes to atmospheric composition from Australia's leaded petrol consumption is spatially and temporally limited. In order to address this data gap, wine was investigated as a potential proxy for atmospheric lead conditions. Wine spanning sixty years was collected from two wine regions proximal to the South Australian capital city, Adelaide, and analysed for lead concentration and lead and strontium isotopic composition for source apportionment. Maximum wine lead concentrations (328 μg/L) occur prior to the lead-in-air monitoring in South Australia in the later 1970s. Wine lead concentrations mirror available lead-in-air measurements and show a declining trend reflecting parallel reductions in leaded petrol emissions. Lead from petrol dominated the lead in wine ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.086; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.360) until the introduction of unleaded petrol, which resulted in a shift in the wine lead isotopic composition closer to vineyard soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.137; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.421). Current mining activities or vinification processes appear to have no impact with recent wine samples containing less than 4 μg/L of lead. This study demonstrates wine can be used to chronicle changes in environmental lead emissions and is an effective proxy for atmospherically sourced depositions of lead in the absence of air quality data.

  7. Building Learning Modules for Undergraduate Education Using LEAD Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. D.; Yalda, S.

    2006-12-01

    Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) has as its goal to make meteorological data, forecast models, and analysis and visualization tools available to anyone who wants to interactively explore the weather as it evolves. LEAD advances through the development and beta-deployment of Integrated Test Beds (ITBs), which are technology build-outs that are the fruition of collaborative IT and meteorological research. As the ITBs mature, opportunities emerge for the integration of this new technological capability into the education arena. The LEAD education and outreach initiative is aimed at bringing new capabilities into classroom from the middle school level to graduate education and beyond, and ensuring the congruency of this technology with curricular. One of the principal goals of LEAD is to democratize the availability of advanced weather technologies for research and education. The degree of democratization is tied to the growth of student knowledge and skills, and is correlated with education level (though not for every student in the same way). The average high school student may experience LEAD through an environment that retains a higher level of instructor control compared to the undergraduate and graduate student. This is necessary to accommodate not only differences in knowledge and skills, but the computer capabilities in the classroom such that the "teachable moment" is not lost.Undergraduates will have the opportunity to query observation data and model output, explore and discover relationships through concept mapping using an ontology service, select domains of interest based on current weather, and employ an experiment builder within the LEAD portal as an interface to configure, launch the WRF model, monitor the workflow, and visualize results using Unidata's Integrated Data Viewer (IDV), whether it be on a local server or across the TeraGrid. Such a robust and comprehensive suite of tools and services can create new paradigms for

  8. Stop Managing and Lead Change Your Role, Change Your Results

    CERN Document Server

    Rye, David

    2010-01-01

    With the right training, anyone can lead. With the right tools, anyone can motivate and inspire their workforce. In this book, author David Rye presents the tools managers need to identify and understand the four types of employees: Power Players; Team Players; Diplomatic Players; and Party Players. Using a personality typing system based on the classic Myers-Briggs classifications, managers learn how to motivate and inspire their employees. They move beyond management to leadership--leading their teams to profitability and success.

  9. A Guide for Entrepreneurs Who Lead and Manage Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Llynne Plante

    2012-01-01

      To grow a business, entrepreneurs must know how to lead and manage change. However, the change management literature offers little in the way of specific, practical advice that leaders can use to guide their actions...

  10. Air Guard Unit Capitalizing on Leading-Edge Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2012-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES When the California Air National Guard 129th Rescue Wing deploys next year to the Horn of Africa and Afghanistan, it plans to have a new, game-changing technology developed at the...

  11. Wisconsin Technical College Presidential Perspectives on Leading Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines leadership perceptions of attributes needed for effectively leading organizations within and through change. Current change forces substantiate the need for higher educational institutions to change in order to fulfill their missions. Creating a culture of organizational change presents a leadership challenge. The…

  12. Wisconsin Technical College Presidential Perspectives on Leading Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowicz, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines leadership perceptions of attributes needed for effectively leading organizations within and through change. Current change forces substantiate the need for higher educational institutions to change in order to fulfill their missions. Creating a culture of organizational change presents a leadership challenge. The…

  13. Department Chairs as Change Agents: Leading Change in Resistant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubatz, Julie A.; Ensminger, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Change process research often discusses barriers that impede organizational change (e.g., Banta, 1997; Cavacuiti and Locke, 2013; Mutchler, 1990; Stewart et al., 2012); however, no empirical research has addressed how behaviors established in leadership models counteract these barriers. This study explored these two interconnected constructs of…

  14. Department Chairs as Change Agents: Leading Change in Resistant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubatz, Julie A.; Ensminger, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Change process research often discusses barriers that impede organizational change (e.g., Banta, 1997; Cavacuiti and Locke, 2013; Mutchler, 1990; Stewart et al., 2012); however, no empirical research has addressed how behaviors established in leadership models counteract these barriers. This study explored these two interconnected constructs of…

  15. Addressing strategy execution challenges to lead sustainable change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2011-01-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses strategy execution challenges that must be addressed to lead sustainable change.

  16. Technology and Online Education: Models for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Catherine W.; Sonnenberg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper contends that technology changes advance online education. A number of mobile computing and transformative technologies will be examined and incorporated into a descriptive study. The object of the study will be to design innovative mobile awareness models seeking to understand technology changes for mobile devices and how they can be…

  17. Lead-free solder technology transfer from ASE Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FTHENAKIS,V.

    1999-10-19

    To safeguard the environmental friendliness of photovoltaics, the PV industry follows a proactive, long-term environmental strategy involving a life-of-cycle approach to prevent environmental damage by its processes and products from cradle to grave. Part of this strategy is to examine substituting lead-based solder on PV modules with other solder alloys. Lead is a toxic metal that, if ingested, can damage the brain, nervous system, liver and kidneys. Lead from solder in electronic products has been found to leach out from municipal waste landfills and municipal incinerator ash was found to be high in lead also because of disposed consumer electronics and batteries. Consequently, there is a movement in Europe and Japan to ban lead altogether from use in electronic products and to restrict the movement across geographical boundaries of waste containing lead. Photovoltaic modules may contain small amounts of regulated materials, which vary from one technology to another. Environmental regulations impact the cost and complexity of dealing with end-of-life PV modules. If they were classified as hazardous according to Federal or State criteria, then special requirements for material handling, disposal, record-keeping and reporting would escalate the cost of decommissioning the modules. Fthenakis showed that several of today's x-Si modules failed the US-EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for potential leaching of Pb in landfills and also California's standard on Total Threshold Limit Concentration (TTLC) for Pb. Consequently, such modules may be classified as hazardous waste. He highlighted potential legislation in Europe and Japan which could ban or restrict the use of lead and the efforts of the printed-circuit industries in developing Pb-free solder technologies in response to such expected legislation. Japanese firms already have introduced electronic products with Pb-free solder, and one PV manufacturer in the US, ASE Americas has used a

  18. The Cost of Change in Technology Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullias, Dave

    1987-01-01

    The author states that two costs will be involved in the coming change in technology education: financial and personal. He questions what group of educators will teach technology education in the future. (CH)

  19. Innovate or imitate? Behavioural technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between boundedly rational costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic sub

  20. Innovate or imitate? Behavioural technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Zeppini, P.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a behavioural model of technological change with evolutionary switching between costly innovators and free imitators, and study the endogenous interplay of innovation decisions, market price dynamics and technological progress. Innovation and imitation are strategic substitutes and exhibi

  1. Resistance to Technological Change in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerschell, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Initiating changes in technology, promoting utilization, and managing resistance by faculty may be among the most pressing challenges for academic leadership. Change that involves new technology is an ideal example of the systemic nature of organizational change because it includes infrastructure, expert knowledge, training, long-term vision,…

  2. Resistance to Technological Change in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerschell, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Initiating changes in technology, promoting utilization, and managing resistance by faculty may be among the most pressing challenges for academic leadership. Change that involves new technology is an ideal example of the systemic nature of organizational change because it includes infrastructure, expert knowledge, training, long-term vision,…

  3. Technological change as social proces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The article distinguishes between different meanings that technology has as well as the different 'roles' that technologies play in society. udfoldes tre forståelser af teknologisk forandring. Der sigtes på at fremstille forskellige meningsdannelser, som i sit samspil konstituerer et samfunds opf...

  4. Measuring the bias of technological change

    OpenAIRE

    Doraszelski, Ulrich; Jaumandreu, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Technological change can increase the productivity of the various factors of production in equal terms or it can be biased towards a specific factor. We develop an estimator for production functions when productivity is multi-dimensional. We directly assess the bias of technological change by measuring, at the level of the individual firm, how much of it is factor neutral and how much is labor augmenting. Applying our estimator to panel data from Spain, we find that technological change is in...

  5. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  6. Leading School Change: Nine Strategies to Bring Everybody on Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Make positive and immediate changes in your school with the support of your entire staff. New from acclaimed speaker and bestselling author Todd Whitaker ("What Great Teachers Do Differently, Dealing with Difficult Parents"), Leading School Change provides principals, assistant principals, district superintendents, and other educators with…

  7. The Changing Nature of Educational Technology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    The many changes in educational technologies have been well documented in both the professional and popular literature. What is less well documented is the changing nature of programs that prepare individuals for careers in the broad multi-disciplinary field of educational technology. This article is a first attempt to look at how educational…

  8. Technologies for climate change adaptation. Agriculture sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. (ed.) (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Clements, R.; Quezada, A.; Torres, J. (Practical Action Latin America, Lima (Peru)); Haggar, J. (Univ. of Greenwich, London (United Kingdom))

    2011-08-15

    This guidebook presents a selection of technologies for climate change adaptation in the agriculture sector. A set of 22 adaptation technologies are showcased. These are based primarily on the principles of agroecology, but also include scientific technologies of climate and biological sciences complemented by important sociological and institutional capacity building processes that are required for climate change to function. The technologies cover: 1) Planning for climate change and variability. 2) Sustainable water use and management. 3) Soil management. 4) Sustainable crop management. 5) Sustainable livestock management. 6) Sustainable farming systems. 7) Capacity building and stakeholder organisation. Technologies that tend to homogenise the natural environment and agricultural production have low possibilities of success in environmental stress conditions that are likely to result from climate change. On the other hand, technologies that allow for, and promote diversity are more likely to provide a strategy which strengthens agricultural production in the face of uncertain future climate change scenarios. The 22 technologies showcased in this guidebook have been selected because they facilitate the conservation and restoration of diversity while also providing opportunities for increasing agricultural productivity. Many of these technologies are not new to agricultural production practices, but they are implemented based on the assessment of current and possible future impacts of climate change in a particular location. agroecology is an approach that encompasses concepts of sustainable production and biodiversity promotion and therefore provides a useful framework for identifying and selecting appropriate adaptation technologies for the agriculture sector. The guidebook provides a systematic analysis of the most relevant information available on climate change adaptation technologies in the agriculture sector. It has been compiled based on a literature

  9. All Aboard: Leading Change by Canoe, Sailboat, or Cruise Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereef, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Anyone who wants to make a difference may face a wall of opposition that must be removed with little or no damage. The situation could be delicate, a balance of one's desire and others' resistance. In this article, the author discusses three approaches to leading change; (1) the canoe approach--a one-on-one method that is best used when change…

  10. All Aboard: Leading Change by Canoe, Sailboat, or Cruise Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereef, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    Anyone who wants to make a difference may face a wall of opposition that must be removed with little or no damage. The situation could be delicate, a balance of one's desire and others' resistance. In this article, the author discusses three approaches to leading change; (1) the canoe approach--a one-on-one method that is best used when change…

  11. Technologies for global change earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in the areas of space-based observations, data/information analysis, and spacecraft/operations for the studying of global changes are discussed. Research involving systems analysis, observation technologies, information technologies, and spacecraft technologies is examined. Consideration is given to cryogenic coolers, IR arrays, laser and submillimeter sensing, large array CCD, information visualization, design knowledge capture, optical communications, multiinstrument pointing, propulsion, space environmental effects, and platform thermal systems.

  12. A merge model with endogenous technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Bahn, O.

    2002-03-01

    A new version of the MERGE model, called MERGE-ETL, has been developed to consider endogenous technological change in the energy system. The basic formulation of MERGE-ETL as well as some first results are reported here. (author)

  13. Biosurfactant technology for remediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwarkar, Asha A; Nair, Anupa; Dubey, Kirti V; Singh, S K; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-08-01

    This research focuses on column experiments conducted to evaluate the potential of environmentally compatible rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2 to remove heavy metals (Cd and Pb) from artificially contaminated soil. Results have shown that di-rhamnolipid removes not only the leachable or available fraction of Cd and Pb but also the bound metals as compared to tap water which removed the mobile fraction only. Washing of contaminated soil with tap water revealed that approximately 2.7% of Cd and 9.8% of Pb in contaminated soil was in freely available or weakly bound forms whereas washing with rhamnolipid removed 92% of Cd and 88% of Pb after 36 h of leaching. This indicated that di-rhamnolipid selectively favours mobilization of metals in the order of Cd>Pb. Biosurfactant specificity observed towards specific metal will help in preferential elution of specific contaminant using di-rhamnolipid. It was further observed that pH of the leachates collected from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with di-rhamnolipid solution was low (6.60-6.78) as compared to that of leachates from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with tap water (pH 6.90-7.25), which showed high dissolution of metal species from the contaminated soil and effective leaching of metals with treatment with biosurfactant. The microbial population of the contaminated soil was increased after removal of metals by biosurfactant indicating the decrease of toxicity of metals to soil microflora. This study shows that biosurfactant technology can be an effective and nondestructive method for bioremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soil.

  14. Lead Paint Poisonings: How Can Innovative Technology Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a toxic metal that may cause a range of health effects, from behavioral problems and learning disabilities, to seizures and death. Children six years old and under are most at risk. Exposure to lead usually occurs due to the presence of deteriorating lead-based paint (LBP...

  15. 76 FR 4641 - Children's Products Containing Lead; Technological Feasibility of 100 ppm for Lead Content...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... of meeting the 100 ppm lead content limit for children's products and associated public health... children's products. Section 101(d) of the CPSIA (15 U.S.C. 1278a(d)) provides that a lead limit shall be... children's products in the market now that meet the 100 ppm lead content limits, and that it is not...

  16. Models of change and the adoption of web technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørn Flohr

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates how advanced theories of change are useful in understanding the actual adoption of emergent Internet technologies drawing on surveys of Nordic banks. The point of departure is Van de Ven and Poole's identification of four basic types of theories of change: life cycle...... it connects the change motors. The analysis questions the assumption that participation always helps in overcoming resistance to change. Participation often leads to tensions and conflicts, especially when multiple motors and different change efforts are operating simultaneously. Practically, this application...

  17. Leading Change: Transitioning the AFMS into a High Reliability Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Employees want to know when the change is going to occur; lack of details leads to speculation and rumor, causing concern and workplace disruption...front, demonstrating how to implement the new culture in the workplace .34 People fear the unknown, and leaders can overcome this by successfully...designed to improve patient safety, communication and clinic teamwork skills. The AFMS could collaborate with the Agency for Healthcare Research and

  18. A systems change: leading the way to meeting health needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deisher, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating the efficacy of our practice requires a paradigm shift. Becoming an effective leader and clinician can facilitate opportunities for program development and clinical research. The use of strategic planning strategies, such as needs assessment and SWOT analysis, can help lead the way to such change. The following illustrates the use of strategic planning to develop The Carpal and Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Program (CCTSP) within a growing orthopedic practice. Copyright © 2013 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring senior nurses' experiences of leading organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyal, Amunpreet; Hewison, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The aim of this paper is to explore Senior nurses' experiences of leading organizational change. There is a substantial literature reporting middle-level nurse managers' experiences of change; however, there is less evidence concerning senior nurses' perspectives. In view of this, interview data collected from senior nurses, as part of a study of major organizational change, were analysed to redress this imbalance. Design/methodology/approach - In-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 14) were conducted with senior nurses (between 2009 and 2012). Findings - Senior nurses' activity centred on leadership and workforce issues, internal influences and external pressures. In periods of change, appropriate leadership was vital, and "weak" leaders were considered to have an adverse effect on teams. Concerns were expressed about financial strictures and their impact on patient care and service provision. The senior nurses were striving to provide the best quality of service delivery with the limited resources available. Concentration on operational matters was necessary to maintain stability in periods of change. However, this prevented senior nurses from influencing strategic decision-making in their organizations. Practical implications - If senior nurses are to realise their potential to operate at a strategic level, they need to be given time and support to lead, rather than just react to change. This research emphasises the importance of a "nursing voice" to inform board-level decisions and maintain a focus on patient care. Originality/value - This research sheds light on the work of a key group of staff in health-care organizations. Understanding senior nurses' experience of and contribution to change is a useful contribution to health services research.

  20. Technology Change And Working Conditions – A Cultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2004-01-01

    When technology change improves working conditions, the success is often attributed to skilful change agents. When it is not, the blame is on “resistance to change” and “resilient cultures”. How can these failures be understood differently? A cultural perspective on technology change might be a way...... to facilitate technology change processes that lead to improved working conditions. The research based project described here has developed a special homepage that explains how this might be achieved. The homepage is targeted at working life professionals. The homepage presents theoretical explanations...... of the concept of organizational culture, a model for analysis and several practical case stories. This paper explains how the project tries to reach a broad spectrum of professionals in order to facilitate their use of a cultural perspective. It also discusses the ethical consequences of the cultural...

  1. Evolving Information Technology: A Case Study of the Effects of Constant Change on Information Technology Instructional Design Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A major challenge for Information Technology (IT) programs is that the rapid pace of evolution of computing technology leads to frequent redesign of IT courses. The problem is exacerbated by several factors. Firstly, the changing technology is the subject matter of the discipline and is also frequently used to support instruction; secondly, this…

  2. Leading change: a challenge for leaders in Nordic health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, Lisbeth; Salmela, Susanne

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe personnel's attitudes to change processes between a regional hospital and the primary health care centre as well as investigate these results with regards to theories pertaining to change and leading change. Leadership has three crucial dimensions: focusing on personnel, results/key processes and the ethical base of activities. A survey was conducted in 2003 using a comprehensive questionnaire. The total sample consisted of the personnel (n = 899) at the two organizations (answering rate was 68.8%). The data were analysed descriptively. Approximately two-thirds of the respondents understood why the merger was occurring. Only one-third expressed that they had received sufficient information regarding the merger. In total 67% felt that the merger would create conflict while approximately one-fourth expressed uncertainty. Despite such negative responses, approximately two-thirds felt there were advantages to the merger. Significant differences were seen between the groups. In times of change personnel expect leaders to focus on dialogue with their personnel and to anchor the vision of the change process amongst the personnel. By identifying the 'prison of thought' and creating an atmosphere where reflection and discussion are valued the nurse leader can help prevent resistance to change.

  3. Changing Knowledge, Changing Technology: Implications for Teacher Education Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Kevin; Aubusson, Peter; Brindley, Sue; Schuck, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Recent research in teacher education futures has identified two themes that require further study: the changing nature of knowledge and the changing capabilities of technologies. This article examines the intersection of these two themes and their implications for teacher education. The research employed futures methodologies based on scenario…

  4. Skill-Biased Technological Change in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Skill-Biased Technological Change in Denmark:A Disaggregate Perspective@*In this paper, we provide an industry-level analysis of skill-biased technological change(SBTC) in Denmark over the last two decades. The analysis shows that SBTC has variedconsiderably across industries, and traditionally l...... information aboutfuture labour requirements, as the relative importance of these industries must be expectedto grow, thereby reinforcing the shift in demand for skilled labour.JEL Classification: J24, J31, L6Keywords: skill-biased technological change, Danish industries......Skill-Biased Technological Change in Denmark:A Disaggregate Perspective@*In this paper, we provide an industry-level analysis of skill-biased technological change(SBTC) in Denmark over the last two decades. The analysis shows that SBTC has variedconsiderably across industries, and traditionally...... large Danish industries have experiencedrelatively less SBTC. This may partly explain why wage inequality between skilled and lessskilled has risen less in Denmark than in other countries. We also find that SBTC has beenconcentrated in already skill-intensive industries. This contains important...

  5. Space Technology Mission Directorate: Game Changing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and the aerospace community have deep roots in manufacturing technology and innovation. Through it's Game Changing Development Program and the Advanced Manufacturing Technology Project NASA develops and matures innovative, low-cost manufacturing processes and products. Launch vehicle propulsion systems are a particular area of interest since they typically comprise a large percentage of the total vehicle cost and development schedule. NASA is currently working to develop and utilize emerging technologies such as additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing) and computational materials and processing tools that could dramatically improve affordability, capability, and reduce schedule for rocket propulsion hardware.

  6. Considerations in change management related to technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, John S; Hilty, Donald M; Worley, Linda L; Yager, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the complexity of social processes for implementing technological change. Once a new technology is available, information about its availability and benefits must be made available to the community of users, with opportunities to try the innovations and find them worthwhile, despite organizational resistances. The authors reviewed the literature from psychiatry, psychology, sociology, business, and technology to distill common denominators for success and failure related to implementing technology. Beneficial technological innovations that are simple to use and obviously save everyone time and effort are easy to inaugurate. However, innovations that primarily serve management rather than subordinates or front-line utilizers may fail, despite considerable institutional effort. This article reviews and outlines several of the more prominent theoretical models governing successful institutional change. Successful implementation of difficult technological changes requires visionary leadership that has carefully considered the benefits, consulted with influence leaders at all organizational levels to spot unintended consequences and sources of resistance, and developed a detailed plan and continuous quality assurance process to foster implementation over time.

  7. The re-crystallization issue in lead-bismuth technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, P. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy); Baicchi, E. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: elio.baicchi@brasimone.enea.it; Zucchini, A. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy); Benamati, G. [ENEA C.R. Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-11-01

    Numerical and experimental studies were performed to investigate the behaviour of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) after solidification. Re-crystallization of LBE is the main phenomenon to consider; it may lead to serious over-stressing of structural materials. The conditions for the target vessel of MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) were especially considered. Some general recommendations were deduced in order to help avoiding dangerous events.

  8. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found? Who is at risk? What are the health effects of lead? Get educational material about lead Get certified as a Lead Abatement Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home ...

  9. Leading edge analysis of transcriptomic changes during pseudorabies virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Damarius S; Miller, Laura C

    2016-12-01

    Eight RNA samples taken from the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) of pigs that were either infected or non-infected with a feral isolate of porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) were used to investigate changes in gene expression related to the pathogen. The RNA was processed into fastq files for each library prior to being analyzed using Illumina Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling sequences (DGETP) which were used as the downstream measure of differential expression. Analyzed tags consisted of 21 base pair sequences taken from time points 1, 3, 6, and 14 days' post infection (dpi) that generated 1,927,547 unique tag sequences. Tag sequences were analyzed for differential transcript expression and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to uncover transcriptomic changes related to PRV pathology progression. In conjunction with the DGETP and GSEA, the study also incorporated use of leading edge analysis to help link the TBLN transcriptome data to clinical progression of PRV at each of the sampled time points. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide useful background on applying the leading edge analysis to GSEA and expression data to help identify genes considered to be of high biological interest. The data in the form of fastq files has been uploaded to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (GSE74473) database.

  10. Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation - Agriculture Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uprety, D.C.; Dhar, Subash; Hongmin, Dong

    This guidebook describes crop and livestock management technologies and practices that contribute to climate change mitigation while improving crop productivity, reducing reliance on synthetic fertilizers, and lowering water consumption. It is co-authored by internationally recognised experts...... in the areas of crops, livestock, emissions, and economics, and we are grateful for their efforts in producing this cross disciplinary work. This publication is part of a technical guidebook series produced by the UNEP Risø Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development (URC) as part of the Technology...... to understand their technology needs in a cohesive manner, and prepare Technology Action Plans (TAPs) accordingly. The TNA project is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and is being implemented by UNEP and the URC in 36 developing countries....

  11. Innovation Leads China's Worldleading DMTO Technology into Commercialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN Ling

    2011-01-01

    Using coal to produce ethylene and propylene, which are the basic building blocks for petrochemicals, is becoming more and more important for China - a country relatively abundant in coal but short on oil reserves.Scientists with the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have devoted themselves to the research and development of such technologies for three decades.Joining hands with domestic engineers and entrepreneurs, they successfully pushed forward, for the first time in the world, the industrial demonstration of the methanol to light olefin technology (DMTO), which has been reportedly running in good condition since it was smoothly started up in North China on August 8, 2010.

  12. Technological Change, Globalization, and the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Richard M.; Dellow, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    In early nineteenth-century England, workers now known as Luddites roamed the countryside destroying machinery that they saw as creating unemployment and upsetting their traditional way of life. They believed that the growing mechanization of production, what people would now call technological change, and the expanding volume of trade ushered in…

  13. Technological Change During the Energy Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Smulders, Sjak A.

    2014-01-01

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources has important consequences for technological change and resource extraction. We examine these consequences by incorporating a non-renewable resource and an alternative energy source in a market economy model of endogenous growth t

  14. Technological Change During the Energy Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meijden, G.C.; Smulders, Sjak A.

    2014-01-01

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources has important consequences for technological change and resource extraction. We examine these consequences by incorporating a non-renewable resource and an alternative energy source in a market economy model of endogenous growth t

  15. Networking Technologies and the Rate of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mitchell

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Network technology is changing rapidly and those adept at ICT analysis need resolve rate of change issues. Developments in networking now are in the direction of heuristic intelligence. Since about 1980, networking techniques have encouraged combining bits of information with imagination cognitively to improve ideas about reality. ICT enterprise projects utilize networking to sustain requisite imagination. Assumptions and misassuptions of project builders are rationally comprehended as networking sustains creative processes. The monopolization of valuable network techniques influences in the direction of esoteric networking. Data presents that substantial knowledge and networking is now occurring globally. As a netaphor, networking

  16. Networking Technologies and the Rate of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mitchell

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Network technology is changing rapidly and those adept at ICT analysis need resolve rate of change issues. Developments in networking now are in the direction of heuristic intelligence. Since about 1980, networking techniques have encouraged combining bits of information with imagination cognitively to improve ideas about reality. ICT enterprise projects utilize networking to sustain requisite imagination. Assumptions and misassuptions of project builders are rationally comprehended as networking sustains creative processes. The monopolization of valuable network techniques influences in the direction of esoteric networking. Data presents that substantial knowledge and networking is now occurring globally. As a netaphor, networking

  17. Federalism and technological change in blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Zachary

    2009-12-01

    Recent research has shown how federalism affects health care finance, health care reform, and health policy innovation. The purpose of this article is to extend this research program to study the linkages between federalism and technological change. It does so using comparative case studies spanning five countries to examine innovation and diffusion of two blood technologies-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA blood tests) and heat treatment-in response to the threat to the blood supply posed by HIV during the 1980s. Prior research has produced three contradictory models of the federalism-innovation relationship. This article attempts to resolve these contradictions, posits new hypotheses, and highlights sources of omitted variable bias that have important implications for understanding technological change. The case studies show that overall decentralization, rather than federalism alone, aids technological progress by allowing its supporters to "venue shop" around political resistance. Decentralization also makes the state less vulnerable to capture by status-quo interest groups. Moreover, political decentralization may have a positive effect on technological diffusion, but a far weaker effect on innovation. Thus, prior research that conflates these two effects should be revisited.

  18. Digital Health Technologies to Promote Lifestyle Change and Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Numan; Marvel, Francoise A; Wang, Jane; Martin, Seth S

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with an estimated 17.5 million deaths annually, or 31% of all global deaths, according to the World Health Organization. The majority of these deaths are preventable by addressing lifestyle modification (i.e., smoking cessation, diet, obesity, and physical inactivity) and promoting medication adherence. At present, initiatives to develop cost-effective modalities to support self-management, lifestyle modification, and medication adherence are a leading priority. Digital health has rapidly emerged as technology with the potential to address this gap in cardiovascular disease self-management and transform the way healthcare has been traditionally delivered. However, limited evidence exists about the type of technologies available and how they differ in functionality, effectiveness, and application. We aimed to review the most important and relevant recent studies addressing health technologies to promote lifestyle change and medication adherence including text messaging, applications ("apps"), and wearable devices. The current literature indicates that digital health technologies will likely play a prominent role in future cardiovascular disease management, risk reduction, and delivery of care in both resource-rich and resource-limited settings. However, there is limited large-scale evidence to support adoption of existing interventions. Further clinical research and healthcare policy change are needed to move the promise of new digital health technologies towards reality.

  19. Essays in energy, environment and technological change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yichen Christy

    This dissertation studies technological change in the context of energy and environmental economics. Technology plays a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. Chapter 1 estimates a structural model of the car industry that allows for endogenous product characteristics to investigate how gasoline taxes, R&D subsidies and competition affect fuel efficiency and vehicle prices in the medium-run, both through car-makers' decisions to adopt technologies and through their investments in knowledge capital. I use technology adoption and automotive patents data for 1986-2006 to estimate this model. I show that 92% of fuel efficiency improvements between 1986 and 2006 were driven by technology adoption, while the role of knowledge capital is largely to reduce the marginal production costs of fuel-efficient cars. A counterfactual predicts that an additional 1/gallon gasoline tax in 2006 would have increased the technology adoption rate, and raised average fuel efficiency by 0.47 miles/gallon, twice the annual fuel efficiency improvement in 2003-2006. An R&D subsidy that would reduce the marginal cost of knowledge capital by 25% in 2006 would have raised investment in knowledge capital. This subsidy would have raised fuel efficiency only by 0.06 miles/gallon in 2006, but would have increased variable profits by 2.3 billion over all firms that year. Passenger vehicle fuel economy standards in the United States will require substantial improvements in new vehicle fuel economy over the next decade. Economic theory suggests that vehicle manufacturers adopt greater fuel-saving technologies for vehicles with larger market size. Chapter 2 documents a strong connection between market size, measured by sales, and technology adoption. Using variation consumer demographics and purchasing pattern to account for the endogeneity of market size, we find that a 10 percent increase in market size raises vehicle fuel efficiency by 0.3 percent, as compared

  20. Accelerating technological change. Towards a more sustainable transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vooren, A.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides insights into the mechanisms of technological change by capturing the complexity that characterises the current technological transition of the transport system into existing evolutionary models of technological change. The transition towards a more sustainable transport system

  1. 20 Engineering Technologies Which Changed The World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Sik; Shin, Dong Won; Mun, Jung Yang and others

    2004-07-15

    This book deals with 20 engineering technologies which changed the world, these are about a, compass, papermaking, a lens, gunpowder, machine watch, printing technique, vaccine, a suspension bridge, a railroad, a loom, photograph, petroleum, automobile, electricity, wireless communications, synthetic medicine, a jet engine and a rocket, nuclear bombs, ENIAC, and polymerase chain reaction method. Each skill is introduced with history and the detailed reports by other persons.

  2. Managing Technological Change: The Process is Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    performance suggestive of an electronic sweatshop or informa- and the quality of their work lives has been significantly im- tion assembly line than a...changc the rescrvations system, but without docu- systems, databases, and software applications that comprise mentation or access to the person who...and task HAS BEEN SEEN that instead of trying to minimize change. level, the technology’s inherent flexibili- AS A ITATI particularly with respect to

  3. Dynamics of energy systems: Methods of analysing technology change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neij, Lena

    1999-05-01

    Technology change will have a central role in achieving a sustainable energy system. This calls for methods of analysing the dynamics of energy systems in view of technology change and policy instruments for effecting and accelerating technology change. In this thesis, such methods have been developed, applied, and assessed. Two types of methods have been considered, methods of analysing and projecting the dynamics of future technology change and methods of evaluating policy instruments effecting technology change, i.e. market transformation programmes. Two methods are focused on analysing the dynamics of future technology change; vintage models and experience curves. Vintage models, which allow for complex analysis of annual streams of energy and technological investments, are applied to the analysis of the time dynamics of electricity demand for lighting and air-distribution in Sweden. The results of the analyses show that the Swedish electricity demand for these purposes could decrease over time, relative to a reference scenario, if policy instruments are used. Experience curves are used to provide insight into the prospects of diffusion of wind turbines and photo voltaic (PV) modules due to cost reduction. The results show potential for considerable cost reduction for wind-generated electricity, which, in turn, could lead to major diffusion of wind turbines. The results also show that major diffusion of PV modules, and a reduction of PV generated electricity down to the level of conventional base-load electricity, will depend on large investments in bringing the costs down (through R D and D, market incentives and investments in niche markets) or the introduction of new generations of PV modules (e.g. high-efficiency mass-produced thin-film cells). Moreover, a model has been developed for the evaluation of market transformation programmes, i.e. policy instruments that effect technology change and the introduction and commercialisation of energy

  4. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Burghelea; Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2014-01-01

    In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changin...

  5. The Science of Change: The Importance of Methodology in Leading Change in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-24

    the institution. The scope of these changes is unprecedented and the potential for “organizational whiplash ” is extremely high. Therefore, the...here that CM is the highest order and that all other models, to include tools such as LSS, should be selected and applied as appropriate only after ...potential obstacles in their efforts to lead change in the Army, even after only a cursory review of the model. So, while the table conveniently

  6. The changing environment for technological innovation in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, C S; Gelijns, A C

    1996-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of American health care is its emphasis on advanced technology. Yet today's changing health care environment is overhauling the engine of technological innovation. The rate and direction of technological innovation are affected by a complex of supply- and demandside factors, including biomedical research, education, patent law, regulation, health care payment, tort law, and more. Some distinguishing features of technological innovation in health care are now at increased risk. Regulatory requirements and rising payment hurdles are especially challenging to small technology companies. Closer management of health care delivery and payment, particularly the standardization that may derive from practice guidelines and clamping down on payment for investigational technologies, curtails opportunities for innovation. Levels and distribution of biomedical research funding in government and industry are changing. Financial constraints are limiting the traditional roles of academic health centers in fostering innovation. Despite notable steps in recent years to lower regulatory barriers and speed approvals, especially for products for life-threatening conditions, the Food and Drug Administration is under great pressure from Congress, industry, and patients to do more. Technology gatekeeping is shifting from hundreds of thousands of physicians acting on behalf of their patients to fewer, yet more powerful, managed care organizations and health care networks. Beyond its direct effects on adoption, payment, and use of technologies, the extraordinary buying leverage of these large providers is cutting technology profit margins and heightening competition among technology companies. It is contributing to unprecedented restructuring of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries, leading to unprecedented alliances with generic product companies, health care providers, utilization review companies, and other agents. These industry changes are already

  7. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Appendix I Appendix II Tables Figures State Programs Alabama Alaska Arizona ... Tool Kit Resources Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks File Formats Help: ...

  8. Educational Technology as a Subversive Activity: Questioning Assumptions Related to Teaching and Leading with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger-Ross, Matthew J.; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2012-01-01

    The use of educational technologies is grounded in the assumptions of teachers, learners, and administrators. Assumptions are choices that structure our understandings and help us make meaning. Current advances in Web 2.0 and social media technologies challenge our assumptions about teaching and learning. The intersection of technology and…

  9. INVESTIGATING MASS IMAGING LEAD FREE MATERIALS USING ENCLOSED PRINT HEAD TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CliveAshmore; RickGoldsmith

    2003-01-01

    Within the Surface Mount Assembly (S.M.A.) process, solder paste is primarily used as a mechanical and electrical connection. Solder paste is generally deposited using a mass imaging process, such as squeegees, however this paper will utilise the enclosed print head technology. The process associated with mass imaging is a critical and demanding stage in the soldering phase of S.M.A. It has been documented many times that this process contributes more than 60% of all S.M.A faults; This being the case it illustrates the requirement to have a full comprehension of the mass imaging process. With legal and commercial pressure put on to remove lead from within the electronics sector, the solder paste alloy is obviously under review. Much work is being carried out on the metallurgical properties of these lead free solder pastes such as joint strength and compatibility within the manufacturing process. However, this paper will focus on investigating the process window for mass imaging of lead-free materials. The major influences within the mass imaging process have been documented in numerous studies using lead rich materials. However, the material used to replace the Pb component changes the solder paste properties and therefore the characteristics of the print medium. Therefore to conduct this study a two level three factor Design of Experiments with center points will be utilised .The factors investigated in this paper will be print speed, paste pressure and separation speed. Three material suppliers will be used to ensure the results givea broad representation of the significant effects on the process window. Comparison to a lead rich material will also be carried out to allow an evaluation to be concluded. Each pate will be tested for paste release transfer efficiency using the optimum setting concluded from the characterization stage.

  10. Establishing a sense of urgency for leading transformational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey, Maria R

    2011-04-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools, and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives. In this article, the author discusses successful tactics for establishing a sense of urgency to facilitate organizational change.

  11. ELECTROCHEMICAL DESIGN ASSOCIATES (FORMERLY GEOKINETICS INTERNATIONAL, INC.) LEAD RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents performance and economic data from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program evaluation of Electrochemical Design Associates (EDA), formerly known as Geokinetics International Inc., Lead Recovery Tech...

  12. Lead-Free Piezoelectric Diaphragm Biosensors Based on Micro-Machining Technology and Chemical Solution Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach to the fabrication of integrated silicon-based piezoelectric diaphragm-type biosensors by using sodium potassium niobate-silver niobate (0.82KNN-0.18AN composite lead-free thin film as the piezoelectric layer. The piezoelectric diaphragms were designed and fabricated by micro-machining technology and chemical solution deposition. The fabricated device was very sensitive to the mass changes caused by various targets attached on the surface of diaphragm. The measured mass sensitivity value was about 931 Hz/μg. Its good performance shows that the piezoelectric diaphragm biosensor can be used as a cost-effective platform for nucleic acid testing.

  13. Lead-Free Piezoelectric Diaphragm Biosensors Based on Micro-Machining Technology and Chemical Solution Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Wu, Xiaoqing; Shi, Peng; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2016-01-12

    In this paper, we present a new approach to the fabrication of integrated silicon-based piezoelectric diaphragm-type biosensors by using sodium potassium niobate-silver niobate (0.82KNN-0.18AN) composite lead-free thin film as the piezoelectric layer. The piezoelectric diaphragms were designed and fabricated by micro-machining technology and chemical solution deposition. The fabricated device was very sensitive to the mass changes caused by various targets attached on the surface of diaphragm. The measured mass sensitivity value was about 931 Hz/μg. Its good performance shows that the piezoelectric diaphragm biosensor can be used as a cost-effective platform for nucleic acid testing.

  14. DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD (PB) CHANGES AND IN HIPPOCAMPAL FUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood lead (Pb) exposure has long been associated with reduced IQ, impaired cognitive function, and more recently increases in violence and aggression. We have studied the disruptive effects of developmental Pb exposure on an electrophysiological model of memory, hippocampal...

  15. Institutions, Technological Change and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corderí Novoa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of economic growth try to explain variations in per capita income across countries by differences in capital accumulation and productivity. However, many scholars consider that integrating institutions into economic theory and economic history is an essential step in improving explanations of why some societies are richer than others. This paper develops the empirical and theoretical case that differences in institutions are the fundamental cause of differences in technological change (productivity, hence in economic growth. First, I give a definition of institutions and how they influence economic performance, from a New Institutional Economics point of view. Then, I introduce the theoretical framework based on the economics of ideas and endogenous growth models. Finally, I argue that R&D expenditures -a proxy for technological change- will vary across countries depending on some measures of institutional quality. In the end, this paper finds that stronger institutions (measured by an aggregate of institutional quality encourage greater R&D expenditures. At a disaggregate level, the rule of law is positively correlated and the regulatory burden is negatively correlated with R&D expenditures. Human capital level (measured by the tertiary and primary school enrolment rates has also a significant positive impact in R&D expenditures.

  16. Leading Effective Educational Technology in K-12 School Districts: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lara Gillian C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic grounded theory qualitative study was conducted investigating the process of effectively leading educational technology in New Jersey public K-12 school districts. Data were collected from educational technology district leaders (whether formal or non-formal administrators) and central administrators through a semi-structured online…

  17. Products pipelines facing major operational changes. Lead phasedown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teel, H.L.

    1985-06-01

    This paper studies the impact which the US Environmental Protection Agency's new standards for lead in gasoline will have on petroleum products pipelines. The options that refiners may exercise in their approach to lead phasedown are examined. Although most refiners will have little trouble complying with the 0.1 gm/gal standard, the authors express concern in the area of handling gasoline at 0.1 gm/gal if EPA specifies a minimum lead content necessary to protect those engines that require lead. For those pipelines that operate loading terminals, the handling of sub-grades will tax existing facilities. Alcohol storage tanks must be designed to prevent water entry from rain and snow. Additional mainline monitoring will be required. The types of fuels that multi-product pipelines will be asked to handle as a result of lead phasedown is uncertain at this time. But the authors are certain that the products pipeline business is in for challenging, interesting, and perhaps, even revolutionary times.

  18. Technological changes on the macroeconomic level—mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shananin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider two of the technological changes on the macroeconomic level. The first type is due to changes of addresses of mutual deliveries between producers and the second type is due to technological progress.

  19. The Growth of Obesity and Technological Change: A Theoretical and Empirical Examination

    OpenAIRE

    Darius Lakdawalla; Tomas Philipson

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical examination of the long-run growth in weight over time. We argue that technological change has induced weight growth by making home- and market-production more sedentary and by lowering food prices through agricultural innovation. We analyze how such technological change leads to unexpected relationships among income, food prices, and weight. Using individual-level data from 1976 to 1994, we then find that such technology-based reductions in foo...

  20. DTU climate change technologies. Recommendations on accelerated development and deployment of climate change technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Halsnaes, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, System Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark)); Nielsen, Niels Axel; Moeller, J.S.; Hansen, Jakob Fritz; Froekjaer Strand, I. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2009-09-15

    During 2009, the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has held a number of international workshops for climate change. Participants came from industry, research institutions and government. The workshops focused on sustainable energy systems and climate change adaptation. The summary of conclusions and recommendations from the workshops constitutes a comprehensive set of technology tracks and recommended actions towards accelerated development and deployment of technology within these two key areas. The workshop process has led to three main conclusions. A. Radical changes are needed to develop sustainable energy systems. B. Tools and processes that climate-proof societal planning and management are needed in order to adapt to climate change. C. Partnerships concerning innovation and deployment (research, development and deployment) are required to meet time constraints.

  1. Recent development of recycling lead from scrap CRTs: A technological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Gong; Tian, Xiang-Miao; Wu, Yu-Feng; Zhe-Tan; Lei-Lv

    2016-11-01

    Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) contain numerous harmful substances with different functions. Lead is found in the funnel glass of CRTs. Improperly treated toxic lead may pose significant risks to human health and the environment. This paper reviews and summarizes existing technological processes on the recycling of lead from waste CRTs, including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and product-regeneration. The present situation, advantages, and disadvantages of these techniques are described in detail. Generally, pyrometallurgy shows better practicability in recovery lead from waste CRT than hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, in view of environmental impact, energy-consumption, product formats and safety and maturity of technology. Moreover, the gaps in the existing technologies were identified and recommendations for future research were provided.

  2. Designing institutions for climate change: Why rational design involves technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coninck, H. de [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-09-30

    This paper aims to explore how to augment the institutional solutions offered by current political theory for addressing the unprecedented problem of climate change. Although steering directly at emission reductions in an international treaty has benefits in terms of cost-effectiveness, the paper arrives at the conclusion that considerations around technological development should be drawn into the treaty equation in order to generate sufficient reciprocity to have a politically feasible international regime. It then argues that the benefits of technology agreements for climate change mitigation may be larger than commonly assumed, as they - if properly designed - could lead to real emission reductions and provide more flexibility to reach agreement in post-2012 negotiations than proposals modelled exclusively on the Kyoto Protocol or other types of absolute emission targets. Based on rational design of international institutions for environmental governance, and attempting to take into account considerations of technological dynamics and the 'sociotechnical system', contours of a possible environmentally effective and politically feasible international climate change agreements are sketched.

  3. Transcriptome Changes in Hirschfeldia incana in Response to Lead Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Smouni, Abdelaziz; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Béna, Gilles; Doumas, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb). The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a Pb tolerant plant (H. incana) enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall, and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies.

  4. Transcriptome changes in Hirschfeldia incana in response to lead exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eAuguy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb .The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana and a Pb tolerant plant (Hirschfeldia incana enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies.

  5. Transcriptome Changes in Hirschfeldia incana in Response to Lead Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Smouni, Abdelaziz; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Béna, Gilles; Doumas, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb). The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a Pb tolerant plant (H. incana) enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall, and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies. PMID:26793211

  6. Technology Innovation Mode of Agricultural Leading Enterprise——Based on the Virtual Organization Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of technology innovation of agricultural leading enterprises by domestic and foreign experts and scholars,technology innovation of agricultural enterprises is a process of new market increment,which uses new knowledge,technology,process and production mode,produces new products,offers new services and realizes commercialization. Characteristics of agricultural technology innovation are introduced,such as obvious regionality,relatively high risk,long-term periodicity and public attribute. Predicament for technology innovation of leading enterprises is analyzed,such as technical constraints,financial constraints and personnel constraints. Technological Innovation Mode can be classified into three modes of independent innovation,imitative innovation and cooperative innovation by the method of technology innovation. Among them,since there are some defects in the technology innovation process,independent innovation and imitative innovation are generally not used for the innovation of agricultural enterprises. Cooperative Innovation Mode can rely on foreign aid,can realize complementary advantages and achievement sharing,and can be widely applied in the agricultural innovation enterprise. Virtual organization in cooperation innovation mode is described,which makes up for technology,capital and human resources barriers in the process of agricultural enterprise innovation. Therefore,this mode is popular among the agricultural innovation enterprise.

  7. Three phase partitioning leads to subtle structural changes in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Gulam Mohmad; Gupta, Munishwar Nath

    2013-09-01

    Three phase partitioning consists of precipitation of proteins due to simultaneous presence of ammonium sulphate and t-butanol. The technique has been successfully used for purification and refolding of proteins. There are however indications that the structures of proteins subjected to three phase partitioning are different from native structure of proteins. Taking several proteins, the present work examines the structural changes in proteins by comparing their thermal stabilities, secondary structure contents, surface hydrophobicities, hydrodynamic radii and solubilities in the presence of ammonium sulphate. The results show that while the nature or extent of structural changes may vary, in all the cases the changes are rather subtle and not drastic in nature. Hence, the technique can be safely used for protein purification and refolding.

  8. Leading Culture Change in Global Organizations Aligning Culture and Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Denison, Daniel; Lane, Nancy; Lief, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Filled with case studies from firms such as GT Automotive, GE Healthcare China, Vale, Dominos, Swiss Re Americas Division, and Polar Bank, among others, this book (written by Dan Denison and his co-authors) combines twenty years of research and survey results to illustrate a critical set of cultural dynamics that firms need to manage in order to remain competitive. Each chapter uses a case as a means to illustrate an important aspect of culture change focusing on seven common culture-change dilemmas including creating a strategic alignment, keeping strategy simple, and more.

  9. Leading Change: An Organizational Development Role for Educational Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Cynthia; Ferris, Jennie; Finkelstein, Adam

    2017-01-01

    While educational development has long been aligned with organizational development in the literature (Berquist & Phillips, 1975; Gaffe, 1975), in practice this link has faded with time. Schroeder (2011) has recently asserted that given the broad-based changes in teaching and learning that are taking place at universities, it is important that…

  10. Climate changes may lead to the collapse of ancient civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Studies of an international research consortium indicate that severe monsoon changes might have simultaneously accelerated the fall of two great ancient civilizations, the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), one of the most prosperous reigns in Chinese history, and the Maya civilization in Meso-America that ended in 830 AD.

  11. Leading edge analysis of transcriptomic changes during pseudorabies virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight RNA samples taken from the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) of pigs that were either infected or non-infected with a feral isolate of porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) were used to investigate changes in gene expression related to the pathogen. The RNA was processed into fastq files for each...

  12. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "The Future of Nursing" explores how nurses' roles, responsibilities, and education should change significantly to meet the increased demand for care that will be created by health care reform and to advance improvements in America's increasingly complex health system. At more than 3 million in number, nurses make up the single…

  13. Development of Advanced High Lift Leading Edge Technology for Laminar Flow Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Korntheuer, Andrea; Komadina, Steve; Lin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Advanced High Lift Leading Edge (AHLLE) task performed by Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation, Aerospace Systems (NGAS) for the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project in an effort to develop enabling high-lift technology for laminar flow wings. Based on a known laminar cruise airfoil that incorporated an NGAS-developed integrated slot design, this effort involved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and quality function deployment (QFD) analysis on several leading edge concepts, and subsequently down-selected to two blown leading-edge concepts for testing. A 7-foot-span AHLLE airfoil model was designed and fabricated at NGAS and then tested at the NGAS 7 x 10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. The model configurations tested included: baseline, deflected trailing edge, blown deflected trailing edge, blown leading edge, morphed leading edge, and blown/morphed leading edge. A successful demonstration of high lift leading edge technology was achieved, and the target goals for improved lift were exceeded by 30% with a maximum section lift coefficient (Cl) of 5.2. Maximum incremental section lift coefficients ( Cl) of 3.5 and 3.1 were achieved for a blown drooped (morphed) leading edge concept and a non-drooped leading edge blowing concept, respectively. The most effective AHLLE design yielded an estimated 94% lift improvement over the conventional high lift Krueger flap configurations while providing laminar flow capability on the cruise configuration.

  14. Studies Leading to the Development of High-Rate Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    greatest attention has been given to the lithium - thionyl chloride (Li/SOC12 ) system. Cells and batteries have been demonstrated with energy densities...Studies Leading to the Development of High-Rate Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery Technology John C. Hall and Mark Koch Gould Research Center, Materials...High-Rate 11182to 33182 Lithium -Sulfuryl Chloride Battery Technology 1_1/82_to_3/31/82 S. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMBER 2 7. AUTHOR(*) S. CONTRACT OR

  15. Crystallographic changes in lead zirconate titanate due to neutron irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Henriques

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials are useful as the active element in non-destructive monitoring devices for high-radiation areas. Here, crystallographic structural refinement (i.e., the Rietveld method is used to quantify the type and extent of structural changes in PbZr0.5Ti0.5O3 after exposure to a 1 MeV equivalent neutron fluence of 1.7 × 1015 neutrons/cm2. The results show a measurable decrease in the occupancy of Pb and O due to irradiation, with O vacancies in the tetragonal phase being created preferentially on one of the two O sites. The results demonstrate a method by which the effects of radiation on crystallographic structure may be investigated.

  16. Developing Skills for Technological Change: Some Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfthan, Torkel

    1985-01-01

    The effects of technological change on jobs and the implications for training policies are discussed here in the context of the manufacturing sector. Discusses the impact of new technologies on skills and qualifications of managers, technicians, and skilled workers. (CT)

  17. Leading change to create a healthy and satisfying work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Carolyn L; Krugman, Mary; Schloffman, Danielle H

    2013-01-01

    Nurse executives must take a leadership role in creating a healthy work environment for nurses and all disciplines. Engaging in partnerships and empowering clinical nurses to construct the solutions to barriers that may stand in the way of the goal of a satisfied and healthy workforce are important strategies toward success. This publication outlines many projects a 3-time Magnet-designated academic hospital has implemented, working with our shared leadership councils, to meet the standards for a healthy work environment. These initiatives, from the unit to the hospital level, included standardizing a culture change of uninterrupted meal breaks, the creation of intensive care unit Zen rooms, strategies to better manage increased patient volumes, best practices for facility design, enhancing physician-nurse relations, and a hospital wellness program. Data were benchmarked against national nurse and employee surveys to compare progress and report outcomes. Two important nursing organization structures that have contributed to the success of a healthy and satisfied nursing work environment include UEXCEL, a longstanding clinical nurse professional practice program, and the hospital's 11-year participation in the University HealthSystem Consortium/American Association of Colleges of Nursing National Post-Baccalaureate Nurse Residency Program. A highly engaged, well-educated, and committed nursing workforce, nurtured by a strong leadership team, has created a positive work environment characterized by low turnover and high retention.

  18. Assessing climate change mitigation technology interventions by international institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Coninck, Heleen; Puig, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating the international use of climate mitigation technologies is key if effortsto curb climate change are to succeed, especially in developing countries, where weakdomestic technological innovation systems constrain the uptake of climate change mitigationtechnologies. Several...... intergovernmental agencies have set up specific programmes to supportthe diffusion of climate mitigation technologies. Using a simplified technological innovationsystem-based framework, this paper aims to systematically review these programmes, with thedual aim of assessing their collective success in promoting...

  19. [Lead compound optimization strategy (1)--changing metabolic pathways and optimizing metabolism stability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiang; Liu, Hong

    2013-10-01

    Lead compound optimization plays an important role in new drug discovery and development. The strategies for changing metabolic pathways can modulate pharmacokinetic properties, prolong the half life, improve metabolism stability and bioavailability of lead compounds. The strategies for changing metabolic pathways and improving metabolism stability are reviewed. These methods include blocking metabolic site, reduing lipophilicity, changing ring size, bioisosterism, and prodrug.

  20. LEADING CHANGES IN ASSESSMENT USING AN EVIDENCE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Macaulay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectivesIt is has been widely accepted that assessment of learning is a critical component of education and that assessment drives/guides student learning through shaping study habits and student approaches to learning. However, although most academics would agree that assessment is a critical aspect of their roles as teachers it is often an aspect of teaching that is regarded more as an additional task rather than an integral component of the teaching/learning continuum. An additional impediment to high quality assessment is the non-evidence based-approach to the decision making process. The overall aim of this project was to improve the quality of assessment in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology undergraduate education by promoting high quality assessment.Materials and methodsTo do this we developed and trialled an audit tool for mapping assessment practices. The audit tool was designed to gather data on current assessment practices and identify areas of good practice in which assessment aligned with the learning objectives and areas in need of improvement. This evidence base will then be used to drive change in assessment.Results and conclusionsUsing the assessment mapping tool we have mapped the assessment regime in a Biochemistry and Molecular Biology major at Monash University. Criteria used included: assessment type, format, timing, assessors, provision of feedback, level of learning (Bloom’s, approaches taken to planning assessment. We have mapped assessment of content and the systematic development of higher order learning and skills progression throughout the program of study. The data has enabled us to examine the assessment at unit (course level as well as the vertical development across the major. This information is now being used to inform a review of the units and the major.

  1. Technology Change And Working Conditions – A Cultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    2004-01-01

    When technology change improves working conditions, the success is often attributed to skilful change agents. When it is not, the blame is on “resistance to change” and “resilient cultures”. How can these failures be understood differently? A cultural perspective on technology change might be a way...

  2. Configuration of technology networks in the wind turbine industry. A comparative study of technology management models in European and Chinese lead firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch

    2016-01-01

    Through a comparative analysis of technology management at the component level by wind turbine manufacturers from Europe and China, this article compares strategies of internalisation of core technology components by European and Chinese lead firms and outlines how different internalisation...... or relational ties with key component suppliers, whereas Chinese lead firms modularise and externalise core technology components, hence adopting a more flexible approach to technology management. The latter model mirrors a strategy of overcoming technological barriers by tapping into knowledge through global...

  3. Case study: impact of technology investment on lead discovery at Bristol-Myers Squibb, 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, John G; Banks, Martyn N; Binnie, Alastair; Brenner, Stephen; O'Connell, Jonathan; Petrillo, Edward W

    2008-01-01

    We review strategic approaches taken over an eight-year period at BMS to implement new high-throughput approaches to lead discovery. Investments in compound management infrastructure and chemistry library production capability allowed significant growth in the size, diversity and quality of the BMS compound collection. Screening platforms were upgraded with robust automated technology to support miniaturized assay formats, while workflows and information handling technologies were streamlined for improved performance. These technology changes drove the need for a supporting organization in which critical engineering, informatics and scientific skills were more strongly represented. Taken together, these investments led to significant improvements in speed and productivity as well a greater impact of screening campaigns on the initiation of new drug discovery programs.

  4. Digital Technologies and a Changing Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Raviola, Elena

    Digital technologies are profoundly disturbing not only news delivery, but also the whole organization of news work. The relationship between digital technologies and news has been investigated especially in media and journalism studies. Scholars in these fields have followed the introduction...... of digital technologies into news work (Ursell, 2001; Pavlik, 2000, 2013; Saltzis and Dickinson, 2008; Meikle and Redden, 2011, Plesner 2010), and dealt with a range of organizational consequences of this development. In studies of news organizations, it has been pointed out that the question of digital...

  5. Emerging technologies for the changing global market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott; Goldberg, Ben; Everhart, Kurt

    1993-01-01

    This project served to define an appropriate methodology for effective prioritization of technology efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi-quantative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives. The results will be implemented as a guideline for consideration for current NASA propulsion systems.

  6. Digital Technologies and a Changing Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Raviola, Elena

    Digital technologies are profoundly disturbing not only news delivery, but also the whole organization of news work. The relationship between digital technologies and news has been investigated especially in media and journalism studies. Scholars in these fields have followed the introduction...... of digital technologies into news work (Ursell, 2001; Pavlik, 2000, 2013; Saltzis and Dickinson, 2008; Meikle and Redden, 2011, Plesner 2010), and dealt with a range of organizational consequences of this development. In studies of news organizations, it has been pointed out that the question of digital...... technology appropriation is not just important for technical or economic reasons, but because it affects organizational structures, work practices and representations (Boczkowski, 2004). For instance, reporters and editors must manage market pressures and time pressures in new ways (Klinenberg, 2005) due...

  7. Planning and leading of the technological processes by mechanical working with microsoft project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nae, I.; Grigore, N.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, fabrication systems and methods are being modified; new processing technologies come up, flow sheets develop a minimum number of phases, the flexibility of the technologies grows up, new methods and instruments of monitoring and leading the processing operations also come up. The technological course (route, entry, scheme, guiding) referring to the series of the operation, putting and execution phases of a mark in order to obtain the final product from the blank is represented by a sequence of activities realized by a logic manner, on a well determined schedule, with a determined budget and resources. Also, a project can be defined as a series of specific activities, methodical structured which they aim to finish a specific objective, within a fixed schedule and budget. Within the homogeneity between the project and the technological course, this research is presenting the defining of the technological course of mechanical chip removing process using Microsoft Project. Under these circumstances, this research highlights the advantages of this method: the celerity using of other technological alternatives in order to pick the optimal process, the job scheduling being constrained by any kinds, the standardization of some processing technological operations.

  8. Human choice and climate change. Volume 2: Resources and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.; Malone, E.L.

    1997-12-31

    Foreward: Preface; Introduction; The natural science of global climate change; Land and water use; Coastal zones and oceans; Energy and industry; Energy and social systems; Technological change; and Sponsoring organizations, International Advisory Board, and project participants.

  9. Prediction technologies for assessment of climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperatures, precipitation, and weather patterns are changing, in response to increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. With these relatively rapid changes, existing soil erosion prediction technologies that rely upon climate stationarity are potentially becoming less reliable. This is especiall...

  10. R&D and Technological Change in Coal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joe G.

    This report examines the issue of research and development (R and D) as well as technological changes in coal mining, focusing primarily on deep coal mining from 1970 to the present. First, a conceptual framework for classification of R and D as well as technological change is developed. A review of the literature that gives a mixed impression of…

  11. Future of printing: changes and challenges, technologies and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipphan, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    Digitalization within the graphic arts industry is described and it is explained how it is improving and changing the print production strategies and which new kinds of print production systems are developed or can be expected. The relationship of printed media and electronic media is analyzed and a positioning for the next century is given. The state of the art of conventional printing technologies, especially using direct imagine techniques, and their position within the digital workflow are shortly described. Non-impact printing multicolor printing systems are explained, based on general design criteria and linked to existing and newly announced equipment. The use of high-tech components for building up successful systems with high reliability, high quality and low production costs is included with some examples. Digital printing systems open many opportunities in print production: distributed printing, personalization, print and book on demand are explained as examples. The overview of the several printing technologies and their positioning regarding quality and productivity leads to the scenario about the important position of printed media, also in the distant future.

  12. Digital Technologies and a Changing Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Raviola, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate what role particular new management devices play in the development of the news profession in an organizational setting shifting to new technologies. Design/methodology/approach: This is studied through of observations of work practices...... in the newsroom and through documentary research and qualitative interviews with managers, editors, and other professionals. Findings: It is shown that management devices such as the news table and the news concept are central to the reorganization of news work, as they realize managers’ strategies, just like...... they produce new practices and power relationships. It is shown that the devices produce increased collaboration among journalists and interaction between managers and output journalists, that mundane work and power is delegated to technological devices and that news products are increasingly standardized...

  13. Can subsidizing alternative energy technology development lead to faster global warming?

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Roderick

    2007-01-01

    Modelling global climate changes without taking account of the changes in resource markets can produce climate policy with perverse consequences. In even the simplest economic model of emissions of greenhouse gases, naïve policies that ignore markets can lead to perverse outcomes- the opposite of that intended by the policymakers-such as accelerating global warming. Yet the global climate models that are commonly used to develop climate policy do not adequately model resource markets. As a co...

  14. Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

    2004-08-15

    This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

  15. Investments on a Rugged Landscape: The Effect of Investor Population, Network Structure, and Complexity on Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hain, Daniel; Mas Tur, Elena

    in a specific technological domain. We compare which investor network structures lead to the high rates of technological change and diversity on a given technology landscape. Results from a Monte Carlo simulation indicate networked investor population to outperform the case of isolated stand-alone investors......, in terms of investor benefits as well as achieved technological change. Yet, we also find evidence for the existence of a financial “valley of death” - a certain stage in the technology life-cycle where its characteristics discourage further investments, thereby making the technology likely to “die” due...

  16. Leading change: a three-dimensional model of nurse leaders' main tasks and roles during a change process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Susanne; Eriksson, Katie; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2012-02-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study which explored how nurse leaders described and understood their main tasks and roles during a change process. During a database search for literature, no actual research that highlighted the main tasks and roles of nurse leaders during a change process was found. Earlier research has indicated the need for different leadership styles and the importance of strategies and values. In-depth interviews with 17 nurse leaders took place in 2004. A phenomenological-hermeneutical approach was used for data analysis. The findings resulted in a model of leading change in health care that focuses on good patient care and consists of three dimensions: leading relationships, leading processes and leading a culture. In addition to leading relationships and processes, nurse leaders, as role models, greatly impact caring culture and its inherent ethical behaviour, especially about the responsibility for achieving good patient care. Nurse leaders are also instrumental in leading ward culture. Nurse leaders need guidance and knowledge of what is expected of them during a structural change process. They play different roles by directing, guiding, motivating, supporting and communicating without losing their cultural ethos of caring and use various leadership styles to bring about actual change, which, in turn, requires learning so that the thought patterns, values and attitudes of personnel can be changed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Technologies for climate change mitigation - transport sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salter, R.; Newman, P. (Curtin Univ. Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Perth, WA (Australia)); Dhar, S. (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-03-15

    The options outlined in this guidebook are designed to assist you in the process of developing transport services and facilities in your countries and localities - transport that better serves people's needs and enhances their lives while at the same time producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions. This is a new challenge, as previously improving transport generally led to increased greenhouse gases. The challenge now is to provide transport that: 1) is cheaper, more extensive and better quality 2) reduces pollution, congestion, traffic accidents and other threats to health and wellbeing 3) is accessible to all 4) supports economic development 5) reduces greenhouse emissions overall. This can be achieved if: 1) mass transit, walking and cycling are supported and encouraged, and integrated in a way that allows seamless multimodal travel, including networks of taxis, auto-rickshaws and small buses. 2) the mass transit services - including trains, buses and light-rail - are frequent, extensive, attractive, comfortable, affordable and faster than alternatives, with features like integrated ticketing and real time information accessible through mobile phones and other sources 3) private vehicle use and air travel are discouraged through pricing and other demand management measures, and through the availability of better alternative modes 4) there is support for the adoption of cleaner, lower carbon fuels and technologies and better maintenance practices for all transport modes, including private vehicles, water transport, auto-rickshaws and freight vehicles 5) the overall need for travel is reduced through the development of denser localities with more mixed land use and better access to mass transit (which reduces overall travel in ways that will be explained) 6) travel space is better managed to give higher priority to more sustainable transport modes, to promote safety, and to prevent traffic from adversely affecting residents and businesses. As you address these

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESSON, CARL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO PRESENT A PRELIMINARY PICTURE OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AS A RESULT OF INTRODUCING AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT. ONE AUTOMATED AND SEVERAL CONVENTIONAL TYPE CEMENT PLANTS WERE STUDIED. ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED THROUGH RESEARCH AND DATA COLLECTED DURING THE STUDY REVEALED THAT…

  19. Digital Technologies and a Changing Profession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Raviola, Elena

    2016-01-01

    . Practical implications: The wider implications of these findings seems to be a change in the journalistic profession: TV news journalism is becoming less individualistic and more collective and professionalism becomes a matter of understanding and realizing the news organization’s strategy, rather than...

  20. Human choice and climate change. Volume 2: Resources and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynor, S.; Malone, E. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This book is Volume 2 of a four-volume set which assesses social science research that is relevant to global climate change from a wide-ranging interdisciplinary perspective. Attention is focused on resources and technology as they relate to climate change. This series is indispensable reading for scientists and engineers wishing to make an effective contribution to the climate change policy debate.

  1. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-08-01

    Ancient civilizations may have dispersed or collapsed under extreme dry conditions. There are indications that the same may hold for modern societies. However, hydroclimatic change cannot be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water-scarce regions. This paper focuses on technological change as a factor that may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. We study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, and model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on many factors intrinsic to coupled human-water dynamics. We do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but assume that it results from societal actions. While the proposed model is a rather simple model of a coupled human-water system, it is shown to be capable of replicating patterns of technological, population, production and consumption per capita changes. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity, but typically it does so only to a certain extent. In general we find that endogenous technology change under increasing water scarcity helps to delay the peak of population size before it inevitably starts to decline. We also analyze the case when water remains constant over time and find that co-evolutionary trajectories can never grow at a constant rate; rather the rate itself grows with time. Thus our model does not predict a co-evolutionary trajectory of a socio-hydrological system where technological innovation harmoniously provides for a growing population. It allows either for an explosion or an eventual dispersal of population. The latter occurs only under increasing water scarcity. As a result, we draw the conclusion that declining consumption per capita despite technological advancement and increase in aggregate production may serve as a useful predictor of upcoming

  2. Configuration of technology networks in the wind turbine industry. A comparative study of technology management models in European and Chinese lead firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen; Kirkegaard, Julia Kirch

    2016-01-01

    Through a comparative analysis of technology management at the component level by wind turbine manufacturers from Europe and China, this article compares strategies of internalisation of core technology components by European and Chinese lead firms and outlines how different internalisation...... strategies impact the networks established by the two types of lead firms. Building on the concept of governance developed by the global value chain literature, the article identifies two different types of networks: European lead firms internalise core technology components and keep strong captive...... or relational ties with key component suppliers, whereas Chinese lead firms modularise and externalise core technology components, hence adopting a more flexible approach to technology management. The latter model mirrors a strategy of overcoming technological barriers by tapping into knowledge through global...

  3. Impact of water quality change on corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundChanges in water qualities have been associated with an increase in lead release from full and partial lead service lines (LSLs), such as the cases of Washington D.C. or more recently of Flint (Mi). Water qualities affect the mineralogy of the scales. Furthermore, follo...

  4. Technology, Structural Change and Manufacturing Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Rothwell, R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents a revised version of Roy Rothwell's contribution to the IIASA Task Force Meeting on "Innovation and Industrial Strategy" in June 1980. It shows the heavy impact of technical change on employment both from the side of processes and products. Discussing the economic mechanisms of long waves the author mentions "...The fact that Menschs' inventions are rather more spread over time than his bunches of innovations, certainly suggests that other factors play a part in forcing th...

  5. Multigenerational organisations: a challenge for technology and social change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Lockett, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses demographic and organisational trends associated with an ageing workforce and introduces the articles in the special issue of Technological Forecasting and Social Change on Ageing2Agility: Multi-stakeholder Technological Forecasting for the Multi-generational Challenges in the

  6. Fundamentals of lead-free solder interconnect technology from microstructures to reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Kim, Choong-Un; Ma, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    This unique book provides an up-to-date overview of the fundamental concepts behind lead-free solder and interconnection technology. Readers will find a description of the rapidly increasing presence of electronic systems in all aspects of modern life as well as the increasing need for predictable reliability in electronic systems. The physical and mechanical properties of lead-free solders are examined in detail, and building on fundamental science, the mechanisms responsible for damage and failure evolution, which affect reliability of lead-free solder joints are identified based on microstructure evolution.  The continuing miniaturization of electronic systems will increase the demand on the performance of solder joints, which will require new alloy and processing strategies as well as interconnection design strategies. This book provides a foundation on which improved performance and new design approaches can be based.  In summary, this book:  Provides an up-to-date overview on lead-free soldering tech...

  7. What determines the rate of growth and technological change?

    OpenAIRE

    ROMER, Paul M.

    1989-01-01

    There is substantial research about cross section and time series correlations between economic growth and various economic, social, demographic and political variables. After analyzing these correlations, the paper makes the following conclusions. Exogenous increases do not seem to cause increases in the rate of technological change, but instead seem to be associated with lower rates of return to capital. Increased openness to international trade speeds up growth and technological change as ...

  8. Effects of technological change in regional labor markets in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Elizabeth Rodríguez Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological change has meant that organizations require workers with higher qualifications, development, implementation and adaptation of technology looking to stay at the forefront in international competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to analyze the changes that have occurred in regional labor markets in Mexico on occupational and wage and identify to what extent these changes may have resulted from technological change and if this behavior is spatially homogeneous. The information source is made up of microdata from the National Survey of Urban Employment (Employment Survey 2000–2004. The empirical analysis –considering workers officiating at high and low technological intensity and applying a Mincerian income function with different classification criteria: education, sex, age groups and regions– during the period indicate that there have been significant changes in the Mexican labor market as a result of biased technological change, as it provides statistical evidence indicating the existence of a higher wage premium for subordinates in the technological area, and different effects at the regional level, encouraging more to the border.

  9. Selection of leading industries for coal resource cities based on coupling coordination of industry's technological innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Jiming; Yu Bo; Yao Xilong

    2012-01-01

    Taking the city of Qitaihe is as an example in order to provide practical methods for the selection of leading industries for coal resource cities,this paper establishes the specific operation scheme for selection of leading industries according to the actual situation of coal resource cities based on the theory of coupling coordination together with the coupling coordination for technological innovation.The results show that the degree for coupling coordination of the technological innovation for each alternative industry differentiates with the development of coal resource cities.For example,the average degree of food processing industry from agricultural produce is 0.9.Therefore,coal resource cities should develop some industries related to coal industry,such as coking industry,some chemical and medicines industry and non-metallic mineral products manufacturing,in the near future,however,some industries with greater market and influence potentials and low carbon emissions should be attached much importance to in the future.

  10. Field experience and improvements with thin tubular-plate lead/acid technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, K.D. [CMP Batteries, Bolton (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-18

    The Classic 25 is the product name for a motive-power lead/acid cell using thin positive tubular plates. This cell was developed for use in electric vehicles and other applications where high specific energy and reliable cycle life is required. It would appear that the best approach is to provide a lead/acid battery that has the highest specific energy while still maintaining excellent cycle life. This technology was implemented by use of 6 V modules, followed by a 2-V design. Since this was first introduced in 1989, more than 20 000 cells and monoblocs have been delivered to various electric vehicle applications such as vans, trucks, and buses. The field experience with this product is therefore excellent, and development is continuing on the battery design and manufacturing techniques to improve performance and life even further. Today, a wide range of products using this technology is available, and the latest developments are a new 6 V monobloc and some maintenance-free cells. (orig.)

  11. The Ethical Imperative To Lead Change: Overcoming the Resistance to Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Raymond L.

    2003-01-01

    Asserting that an effective school administrator understands the significance of needed change and the consequences of what it means to be a change-driven school administrator, discusses various aspects of knowing when it is time to leave one paradigm and embrace a new one. (EV)

  12. [Chronic transvenous pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads implantation induced pathological changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhui; Dykoski, Richard; Li, Jianming

    2015-05-01

    Widely pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation is also related to an increasing need for transvenous lead extraction. Understanding the location and extent of pathological changes, including adhesions and fibrous tissue formation along the course of chronic pacemaker/ICD leads, are essential for operators performing lead extraction operations in order to reduce the potential life threatening complications. Three parts are included in the research, pathological examination on 83 extracted pacemaker/ICD leads using excimer laser technique from March 2008 to March 2011, autopsy examination of one died patient during lead extraction for lead-related infective endocarditis, and anatomical analysis on pacemaker/ICD leads from 10 patients died of other non-cardiac causes. Extensive encapsulated fibrous tissue around the leads and extensive adhesion/fibrosis along the course of the leads from venous entry site to the lead/myocardial interface could be detected on transvenous pacemaker/ICD leads. Since the tissue at the junction between superior vena cava (SVC) and right atrium (RA) is very thin, free of pericardium, thus, this is a common place for extensive adhesion/fibrosis and myocardial perforation/tear during lead extraction, which accounted for one death during extraction in our cohort. Extensive adhesion and fibrosis were also observed at the tricuspid valve and subvalvular structures. Leads implanted to the right ventricular apex were close to the epicardial surface and prone to perforation through myocardium. It is common to observe thrombus on the leads or at the interface between leads and myocardial tissue, especially at right atrial appendage (RAA) at the site of lead insertion. Extensive adhesions and fibrosis can be commonly seen along the course of pacemaker/ICD leads, and at SVC to RA junction, the tricuspid valve/subvalvular structures, and RA/RV lead interface. The tissue at SVC to RA junction is very thin, making it

  13. The issue: Innovation, information technology and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-01-06

    This position paper by the Information Technology Association of Canada (ITAC) outlines the information technology community's position vis-a-vis the Federal Government's 'Climate Change Plan for Canada'. In general, the ITAC is in favour of the Government's plan, however, it asserts that the Plan falls short by not acknowledging the significant contributions that present and emerging information and communications technologies can make to the achievements of Canadian climate change goals. In this regard the paper draws attention to, and explains the significance of the actual and potential contributions made to climate change efforts by teleconferencing, video-conferencing, telecommuting, electronic commerce, and smart buildings technologies. 4 refs.

  14. Change, Technology and Higher Education: Are Universities Capable of Organisational Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Technology and change are so closely related that the use of the word innovation seems synonymous with technology in many contexts, including that of higher education. This paper contends that university culture and existing capability constrain such innovation and to a large extent determine the nature and extent of organisational change. In the…

  15. Changing Academic Teaching with Web 2.0 Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Barbara; Byles, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Academic teaching can change with the use of Web 2.0 technologies, such as blogs and wikis, as these enable a different pedagogical approach through collaborative learning and the social construction of knowledge. Student expectations of their university learning experience have changed as they expect e-learning to be part of the learning…

  16. Introducing a Technological Change in a Public School Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, A. E.

    A segment of a longitudinal study of the changing management philosophy of a public school organization involves the introduction of a new technology--the use of an integrated information system--in an environment that was to have been prepared for change. The administrators and staff of the organization had participated in a feasibility study…

  17. Managing Technological Change in Libraries and Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobas, Jane E.

    1990-01-01

    Examines factors to be considered in the management of technological change in libraries and information services. The organizational climate for change is discussed, and factors to consider when developing a strategy for introducing a new product, service, or system are described, including leadership, goals, political processes, marketing, and…

  18. Evaluation of cumulative lead dose and longitudinal changes in structural MRI in former organolead workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Caffo, Brian; Stewart, Walter F.; Hedlin, Haley; James, Bryan D.; Yousem, David; Davatzikos, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Objective We evaluated whether tibia lead was associated with longitudinal change in brain volumes and white matter lesions in male former lead workers and population-based controls in whom we have previously reported on the cognitive and structural consequences of cumulative lead dose. Methods We used linear regression to identify predictors of change in brain volumes and white matter lesion grade scores, using two MRIs an average of five years apart. Results On average, total brain volume declined almost 30 cm3, predominantly in gray matter. Increasing age at the first MRI was strongly associated with larger declines in volumes and greater increases in white matter lesion scores. Tibia lead was not associated with change in brain volumes or white matter lesion scores. Conclusions In former lead workers in whom cumulative lead dose was associated with progressive declines in cognitive function decades after occupational exposure had ended, cumulative lead dose was associated with earlier persistent effects on brain structure, but not with additional worsening over five years. PMID:20357679

  19. Changes in Blood Lead Levels Associated with Use of Chloramines in Water Treatment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Kim, Dohyeong; Hull, Andrew P.; Paul, Christopher J.; Galeano, M. Alicia Overstreet

    2007-01-01

    Background More municipal water treatment plants are using chloramines as a disinfectant in order to reduce carcinogenic by-products. In some instances, this has coincided with an increase in lead levels in drinking water in those systems. Lead in drinking water can be a significant health risk. Objectives We sought to test the potential effect of switching to chloramines for disinfection in water treatment systems on childhood blood lead levels using data from Wayne County, located in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina. Methods We constructed a unified geographic information system (GIS) that links blood lead screening data with age of housing, drinking water source, and census data for 7,270 records. The data were analyzed using both exploratory methods and more formal multivariate techniques. Results The analysis indicates that the change to chloramine disinfection may lead to an increase in blood lead levels, the impact of which is progressively mitigated in newer housing. Conclusions Introducing chloramines to reduce carcinogenic by-products may increase exposure to lead in drinking water. Our research provides guidance on adjustments in the local childhood lead poisoning prevention program that should accompany changes in water treatment. As similar research is conducted in other areas, and the underlying environmental chemistry is clarified, water treatment strategies can be optimized across the multiple objectives that municipalities face in providing high quality drinking water to local residents. PMID:17384768

  20. A RCK Model with Endogenous Fertility and Exogenous Technological Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The technological change as an exogenous variable is introduced into the RCK model with endogenous fertility in this paper. It is proved that the model has at least a nonzero steady state and the nonzero steady state is unique when the parameters satisfies some conditions. By phrase protrait analysis, the unique nonzero steady state is saddle and the economy has a unique optimal growth path. The results obtained implies that the relationship between the technological change and population growth rate determinated by the economic structure and the parental ethies. For the economy in which the parents is selfish, promoting the technologlcal change rate decreases the fertility at the steady state. On the other hand, for the economy in which the parents is less selfish, the fertility increases as the technological change rate increases.

  1. Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Philip; Tushman, Michael L.

    1990-01-01

    Based on longitudinal studies of the cement, glass, and minicomputer industries, this article proposes a technological change model in which a technological breakthrough, or discontinuity, initiates an era of intense technical variation and selection, culminating in a single dominant design and followed by a period of incremental technical…

  2. Changes in operant behavior of rats exposed to lead at the accepted no-effect level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross-Selbeck, E; Gross-Selbeck, M

    1981-11-01

    After weaning, male and female Wistar rats were fed a daily diet containing 1 g lead acetate/kg food until a level of about 20 micrograms/100 mL blood was obtained. The male rats were subjected to the different behavioral tests, whereas the females were mated to untreated males and further exposed until weaning of the offspring. Behavioral testing of the male offspring was performed between 3 and 4 months of age. General behavior of both groups was tested in the open-field task including locomotion, local movements, and emotionality. The conditioned instrumental behavior was tested in the Skinner box from simple to more complex programs. The blood-lead level was measured by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. No behavioral changes became apparent in the open-field task and in the preliminary operant training. In the more complex programs (DRH = Differential Reinforcement of High Rates), the rats exposed to lead after weaning showed slight changes of DRH performance. By contrast, in pre- and neonatally exposed animals, DRH performance was significantly increased, although blood-lead levels had returned to normal at the time of testing. A comparison of lead effects in animals to possible effects in man is discussed in this paper, and it is concluded that lead exposure to man at doses which presently are suggested to be innocuous may result in subclinical functional changes of the central nervous system.

  3. Safety Lead Optimization and Candidate Identification: Integrating New Technologies into Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambach, Donna M; Misner, Dinah; Brock, Mathew; Fullerton, Aaron; Proctor, William; Maher, Jonathan; Lee, Dong; Ford, Kevin; Diaz, Dolores

    2016-04-18

    Discovery toxicology focuses on the identification of the most promising drug candidates through the development and implementation of lead optimization strategies and hypothesis-driven investigation of issues that enable rational and informed decision-making. The major goals are to [a] identify and progress the drug candidate with the best overall drug safety profile for a therapeutic area, [b] remove the most toxic drugs from the portfolio prior to entry into humans to reduce clinical attrition due to toxicity, and [c] establish a well-characterized hazard and translational risk profile to enable clinical trial designs. This is accomplished through a framework that balances the multiple considerations to identify a drug candidate with the overall best drug characteristics and provides a cogent understanding of mechanisms of toxicity. The framework components include establishing a target candidate profile for each program that defines the qualities of a successful candidate based on the intended therapeutic area, including the risk tolerance for liabilities; evaluating potential liabilities that may result from engaging the therapeutic target (pharmacology-mediated or on-target) and that are chemical structure-mediated (off-target); and characterizing identified liabilities. Lead optimization and investigation relies upon the integrated use of a variety of technologies and models (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo) that have achieved a sufficient level of qualification or validation to provide confidence in their use. We describe the strategic applications of various nonclinical models (established and new) for a holistic and integrated risk assessment that is used for rational decision-making. While this review focuses on strategies for small molecules, the overall concepts, approaches, and technologies are generally applicable to biotherapeutics.

  4. Technological Progress, Structural Change and China's Energy Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junsong; He Canfei

    2009-01-01

    China has witnessed rapid economic development since 1978, and during the time, energy production and consumptiondeveloped at a tremendous speed as well.Energy efficiency which can he measured by energy consumption per unit of GDP, how-ever, experienced continuous decrease.Theoretically, the change of energy efficiency can be attributed to industry structural change and technological change.In order to explain the transformation of Chinese energy efficiency, we adopt logarithmic mean Divisia index techniques to decompose changes in energy intensity in the period of 1994-2005.We find that technological change is the dominant contributor in the decline of energy intensity, but the contribution has declined since 2001.The change in industry structure has decreased the energy intensity before 1998, but raised the intensity after 1998.Decomposed technological effects for all sectors indicate that technological progresses in high energy consuming industries such as raw chemical materials and chemi-cal products, smelting and pressing of ferrous metals, manufacture of non-metallic mineral products and household contribute are the principal drivers of China's declining energy intensity.

  5. Estimating energy-augmenting technological change in developingcountry industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, Alan H.; Roy, Joyashree; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2006-07-07

    Assumptions regarding the magnitude and direction ofenergy-related technological change have long beenrecognized as criticaldeterminants of the outputs and policy conclusions derived fromintegrated assessment models. Particularly in the case of developingcountries, however, empirical analysis of technological change has laggedbehind simulation modeling. This paper presents estimates of sectoralproductivity trends and energy-augmenting technological change forseveral energy-intensive industries in India and South Korea, and, forcomparison, the United States. The key findings are substantialheterogeneity among both industries and countries, and a number of casesof declining energy efficiency. The results are subject to certaintechnical qualifications both in regards to the methodology and to thedirect comparison to integrated assessment parameterizations.Nevertheless, they highlight the importance of closer attention to theempirical basis for common modeling assumptions.

  6. Relationship between climate change and environmental risk's of forestry technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pécsinger, Judit; Polgár, András

    2017-04-01

    Environmental risk analysis of the technological aspects of forestry is an important complement to the climate research. Commonly used forestry technologies, like cleaning cutting or final harvest, causes various environmental effects which presents different environmental risks. Based on their material and energy deductions and emissions, they can contribute in different ways to global environmental problems such as climate change. Using environmental risk assessment we explored the newly emerging environmental hazards of the typical forestry technologies due to climate change. These hazards are known in terms of their properties (eg. aridification, toxic load etc), but the spatial appearance is novel. We investigated the possible stressor-response relationships, then estimated the expected exposure. In the risk characterization, we summarized information received in the previous steps. As a result we set up the risk matrices of the working systems of intermediate cutting and final harvest in the stands of beech, oak and spruce. In the matrices, the technologies ranked by values of Global Warming Potential (GWP 100 years) were placed in relation of the average temperature change (dT [° C]) of climate change scenarios. We defined the environmental risks in text form, specifying classes of risks: - I. Class: high risk - II. Class: medium risk - III. Class: low risk. The use of a risk matrix is an important complement to climate change decision-making when selecting the forestry technologies. It serves as a guideline for both foresters and decision makers. Keywords: climate change / environmental risk / risk assessment / forest technology's risk matrix Acknowledgement: This research has been supported by the Agroclimate.2 VKSZ_12-1- 2013-0034 project.

  7. Technologies for climate change adaptation. The water sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, T. De (ed.) (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Elliott, M.; Armstrong, A.; Lobuglio, J.; Bartram, J. (The Water Institute at the Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    2011-04-15

    This guidebook aims to provide expert information on the technologies most relevant for climate change adaptation in the water sector in developing countries. It is meant to be a practical tool for use by a broad range of stakeholders, including those in governmental agencies, water utilities, community water boards, non-governmental organizations, and private sector companies. Adaptation is an essential element of human response to climate change. The adverse impacts of climate change on the water sector will be experienced worldwide and are often projected to be most severe in resource-poor countries. Therefore, it is necessary to have access to a diverse array of adaptation technologies and practices that are appropriate and affordable in various contexts. The scale of these adaptation technologies/practices should range from the individual household level (e.g. household water treatment), to the community scale (e.g. rainwater collection in small reservoirs), to large facilities that can benefit a city or region (e.g. a desalination plant). The guidebook first reviews the projected impacts of climate change on the water sector. It then addresses the role of adaptation in the water sector and six typologies under which available strategies are categorized. Eleven technologies and practices are given detailed treatment in this guidebook and four others are covered briefly. While these do not constitute all of the adaptation technologies available in the water sector, they do represent many of the most important adaptation technologies for developing countries. For each of the 11 adaptation technologies and practices, the following are addressed: basic description, contribution to climate change and development, institutional and capacity building requirements, costs, barriers and opportunities for implementation, and extensive reference to external resources and case studies. The practical steps and appropriate contexts for implementation are covered in the

  8. Technologies for climate change adaptation. Coastal erosion and flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, X. (ed.) (UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Linham, M.M.; Nicholls, R.J. (Univ. of Southampton (United Kingdom))

    2010-11-15

    This guidebook is intended to be a practical tool for use by coastal zone managers in developing countries. The aim is to provide best practice guidance and assist these managers in assessing their evolving adaptation needs and help them to prepare action plans for adapting to climate change in the coastal zone. The guidebook first reviews the main physical and societal impacts of climate change in the coastal zone. It then considers the process of adaptation to erosion and flooding/inundation hazards where major impacts may occur and a range of adaptation technologies are best developed. Thirteen of these adaptation technologies are presented in this guide, representing examples of the protect, accommodate or (planned) retreat approaches to adaptation. While this does not represent an exhaustive list of the adaptation technologies that are available, these technologies are among those most widely used/considered in the coastal zone today. All the technologies considered are relevant to climate change adaptation and collectively, more widespread application is expected in the future under climate change and rising sea levels. For each adaptation technology the following issues are addressed: (1) definition and description; (2) technical advantages and disadvantages; (3) institutional and organisational requirements; (4) potential costs and opportunities; and (5) barriers to implementation; followed by a case study example. We have endeavoured to include developing country examples wherever possible, but as there is less activity and less documentation of developing world projects and some technologies are barely used in the developing world, this is not always possible. Knowledge and capacity building requirements and monitoring technologies are considered and contrasted across all 13 adaptation technologies. Finally, more detailed sources are indicated. Each adaptation technology has widely varying advantages and disadvantages. As such, selection of measures

  9. Change, technology and higher education: are universities capable of organisational change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Marshall

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology and change are so closely related that the use of the word innovation seems synonymous with technology in many contexts, including that of higher education. This paper contends that university culture and existing capability constrain such innovation and to a large extent determine the nature and extent of organisational change. In the absence of strong leadership, technologies are simply used as vehicles to enable changes that are already intended or which reinforce the current identity. These contentions are supported by evidence from e-learning benchmarking activities carried out over the past five years in universities in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand.

  10. THE IMPACT OF PERSONALITY AND LEADERSHIP STYLES ON LEADING CHANGE CAPABILITY OF MALAYSIAN MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hussein Alkahtani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the influence of the Big Five Dimensions of personality of the Malaysian Managers and the leadership styles these managers use on their leading change capabilities. Total sample of 105 managers was used in this study. The results of this study revealed that the Malaysian managers tend to enjoy personalities that are conscious and open to experience. These managers tend to use consultative leadership style. However, they use autocratic, democratic and some of them use laissez-fair, but the respondents of this study scored higher in consultative leadership style. The results of the study showed that Extroversion personality trait as well as involvement leadership style were positively related with Leading Change. Both Openness to Experience and Emotional Stability were significantly and positively correlated with Consultative Leadership Style that the managers use. Involvement Leadership Style was found to be significantly and positively correlated with Leading Change (R2=.38 In conclusion, this study showed a positively significant correlation between personality of managers, their leadership styles and their leading change capabilities

  11. Leading Schools of Education in the Context of Academic Capitalism: Deans' Responses to State Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  12. Climate Change Management Approaches of Cities: A Comparative Study Between Globally Leading and Turkish Metropolitan Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Filiz Karabag

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on climate change policies and action at the national level, but few have studied policies and action at the city level, especially cities in emerging economies. To address this gap, the present study analyzes the management strategies globally leading cities have developed to address climate change and related issues and compares them with the city strategies of one rapidly urbanizing emerging economy, Turkey. In the analysis, the strategic plans of five leading global cities are compared with those of sixteen Turkish cities. While the leading global cities have specific managerial approaches to mitigate climate change, none of the Turkish cities exhibits any comprehensive approach. Furthermore, while leading global cities modify urban services to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, few Turkish cities adjust any services to address this challenge. Some Turkish cities propose an increased use of renewable energy sources and modification in their transportation system, but the focus in these plans is the current daily needs of their inhabitants. The findings of this study suggest several climate change strategies both for Turkish cities and cities in other developing countries.

  13. Leading Schools of Education in the Context of Academic Capitalism: Deans' Responses to State Policy Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.; Teitelbaum, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    State education policy changes have contributed to a reduced interest in teaching and a decreased enrollment in education degree programs in North Carolina, USA. Pressure to cut budgets and generate revenue has added to a climate of academic capitalism influencing the ways in which deans lead schools of education. The purpose of this mixed-methods…

  14. Gender, technology change and globalization: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Zhao, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience of women workers in China while the country's economy is changing into a globalized, technologically advanced one. New computer-based technology is increasingly acknowledged as a powerful and pervasive force that can shape or, at least in many ways, affect employment. It is hailed for opening up fresh employment opportunities and reducing the physical stress involved in work. However, the possibilities of redundancies or intensification of workload also exist. By focusing on changes in women's work, the article reveals the contradictions inherent in following a development path based on ever-higher levels of technology in the context of an intensive mode of production, to which productivity is the core value. The economy is bolstered and some workers gain employment in expanding industries. However, workers, who lack access to training and who are reliant on the dwindling state support for their reproductive responsibilities, are marginalized and seek employment in the growing informal economy.

  15. Teachers Pedagogical Change Framework: A Diagnostic Tool for Changing Teachers' Uses of Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarling, Isabel; Ng'ambi, Dick

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges facing education systems in general and the South African education system in particular is how to understand ways that teachers change from nonusers of technologies to becoming transformative teachers with technology. Despite numerous initiatives, not limited to training, workshops and so forth, to bring about sustained and…

  16. Changing Models for Researching Pedagogy with Information and Communications Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changing models of pedagogy by drawing on recent research with teachers and their students as well as theoretical developments. In relation to a participatory view of learning, the paper reviews existing pedagogical models that take little account of the use of information and communications technologies as well as those that…

  17. Alvin Toffler: Knowledge Technology and Change in Future Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Fariza Alyati Wan Zakaria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we attempt at analysing the thoughts of Alvin Toffler. Toffler is a prominent futurist and the proponent of the theory of ‘The Third Wave society’. In his theory, Toffler has explicitly discussed the role of knowledge and technology in effecting changes and thus shaping the coming of the new type of society in the future.

  18. Wireless stimulation of antennal muscles in freely flying hawkmoths leads to flight path changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin J Hinterwirth

    Full Text Available Insect antennae are sensory organs involved in a variety of behaviors, sensing many different stimulus modalities. As mechanosensors, they are crucial for flight control in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. One of their roles is to mediate compensatory reflexes of the abdomen in response to rotations of the body in the pitch axis. Abdominal motions, in turn, are a component of the steering mechanism for flying insects. Using a radio controlled, programmable, miniature stimulator, we show that ultra-low-current electrical stimulation of antennal muscles in freely-flying hawkmoths leads to repeatable, transient changes in the animals' pitch angle, as well as less predictable changes in flight speed and flight altitude. We postulate that by deflecting the antennae we indirectly stimulate mechanoreceptors at the base, which drive compensatory reflexes leading to changes in pitch attitude.

  19. How Can Technology Transfer Concepts Lead to a Successful ERP Implementation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Soltanzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs in implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems that are effective on organization success. While scholars have tried to apply concepts such as Change Management (CM, Knowledge Management (KM and Innovation Management (IM to offer solutions to overcome challenges in implementing ERP systems, the Transfer aspect of ERP implementation has been lessdeveloped; transfer from a developer company (vendor to a receiver company. Hence, we have summarized our identified effective measures in ERP implementation and Technology Transfer (TT into a questionnaire that was distributed among managers and experts of four Iranian large companies and their ERP vendors. Results from Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA shows that following five main factors are effective on ERP implementation success: Culture, Organizational Structure, Project Management, Support Activities and Training Issues and the Interaction between Transferor and Transferee. Furthermore, effect of each main factor on organization success has been calculated by Pearson method.

  20. Physical and chemical characterizations of corn stover and poplar solids resulting from leading pretreatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Mago, Gaurav; Balan, Venkatesh; Wyman, Charles E

    2009-09-01

    In order to investigate changes in substrate chemical and physical features after pretreatment, several characterizations were performed on untreated (UT) corn stover and poplar and their solids resulting pretreatments by ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), ammonia recycled percolation (ARP), controlled pH, dilute acid, flowthrough, lime, and SO(2) technologies. In addition to measuring the chemical compositions including acetyl content, physical attributes determined were biomass crystallinity, cellulose degree of polymerization, cellulase adsorption capacity of pretreated solids and enzymatically extracted lignin, copper number, FT-IR responses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) visualizations, and surface atomic composition by electron spectroscopy of chemical analysis (ESCA). Lime pretreatment removed the most acetyl groups from both corn stover and poplar, while AFEX removed the least. Low pH pretreatments depolymerized cellulose and enhanced biomass crystallinity much more than higher pH approaches. Lime pretreated corn stover solids and flowthrough pretreated poplar solids had the highest cellulase adsorption capacity, while dilute acid pretreated corn stover solids and controlled pH pretreated poplar solids had the least. Furthermore, enzymatically extracted AFEX lignin preparations for both corn stover and poplar had the lowest cellulase adsorption capacity. ESCA results showed that SO(2) pretreated solids had the highest surface O/C ratio for poplar, but for corn stover, the highest value was observed for dilute acid pretreatment with a Parr reactor. Although dependent on pretreatment and substrate, FT-IR data showed that along with changes in cross linking and chemical changes, pretreatments may also decrystallize cellulose and change the ratio of crystalline cellulose polymorphs (Ialpha/Ibeta).

  1. How large-scale energy-environment models represent technology and technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    In the process of selecting measures against global warming, it is important to consider the introduction of technological innovations into the models, and studies were made in this connection. An induced technical change model has to be an economically total model that represents various incentives involving the form of profits from innovations; profits from cost functions, research-and-development production functions, and abstract profits from empirical estimates; and the dimensions in which technological change is assumed to progress. Under study at the Stanford Energy Modeling Forum is how to represent various technological assumptions and development, which is necessary to predict the cost for dealing with global warming. At the conference of February 2001, 10 cases of preliminary model scenarios were discussed. In one case, for instance, a carbon tax of $25/ton in 2010 is raised $25 every decade to be $100/ton in 2040. Three working groups are engaged in the study of long-run economy/technology baseline scenarios, characterization of current and potential future technologies, and ways of modeling technological change. (NEDO)

  2. Step change approaches in coal technology and fugitive emissions research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aminossadati S.M.; Amanzadeh M.; Prochon E.; Kok J.; Adam S.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-factor productivity (MFP) in underground coal mining has been on the decline for the last decade. The mining industry requires a viable and sustainable approach to overcome the current downtrend. This is only possible by concurrently focussing on productivity improvement and operating costs reduction, delivered through both incremental and step change technology development. Four technologies are pre-sented in this paper:fibre optic borehole sensing has been demonstrated to reveal detailed information about gas flow influx, water level and borehole blockage events occurring along the length of a surface-to-inseam lateral. Fibre optic gas sensing has also been investigated, and this technology promises a remote, intrinsically safe, distributed solution. Recent developments in continuous water jet drilling tech-nology have demonstrated a step change increase in drilling rates and flexibility for coal seam degassing, applicable in both surface-to-inseam and underground in-seam applications. The application of water jet technology to the cable bolt drilling problem offers potential to address a serious health and safety and productivity issue in the roadway development process.

  3. Data management and global change research: Technology and infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, W.A. (Technical Information Specialist, Congressional Research Service, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    There is a consensus among many scientists who would perform global change research that global-scale scientific data management programs and enabling policies need to be developed and implemented concomitantly with, if not in advance of, global change research programs. They are hopeful that US Federal government policies for scientific and technical data and information management will provide timely archival, analysis, and dissemination of global change research data and will enable them to share that data with colleagues, internationally. Federal data managers believe that data management technology and infrastructure requirements for global change research programs can be met through existing or planned enhancements to systems in operation used for scientific data gathering, processing, and dissemination. Scientists are concerned, however, that because of the scope and diversity of global change research programs entirely new systems and approaches to data management may need to be devised.

  4. Exploring the Process of Implementing Healthy Workplace Initiatives: Mapping to Kotter's Leading Change Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Stacie; Pescud, Melanie; Waterworth, Pippa; Shilton, Trevor; Roche, Dee; Ledger, Melissa; Slevin, Terry; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use Kotter's leading change model to explore the implementation of workplace health and wellbeing initiatives. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 workplace representatives with a healthy workplace initiative. None of the workplaces used a formal change management model when implementing their healthy workplace initiatives. Not all of the steps in Kotter model were considered necessary and the order of the steps was challenged. For example, interviewees perceived that communicating the vision, developing the vision, and creating a guiding coalition were integral parts of the process, although there was less emphasis on the importance of creating a sense of urgency and consolidating change. Although none of the workplaces reported using a formal organizational change model when implementing their healthy workplace initiatives, there did appear to be perceived merit in using the steps in Kotter's model.

  5. Technological Change and Skills Development. EEE700 Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Elaine

    This publication is part of the study materials for the distance education course, Adults Learning: The Changing Workplace A, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University. The first part of the document examines the relationship between technological change and skills development. The following topics are discussed: the new technological…

  6. Optical State-of-Change Monitor for Lead-Acid Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1998-07-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cdl or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  7. Sex- and Tissue-Specific Methylome Changes in Brains of Mice Perinatally Exposed to Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martín, Francisco Javier; Lindquist, Diana M.; Landero-Figueroa, Julio; Zhang, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Cecil, Kim M.; Medvedovic, Mario; Puga, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Changes in DNA methylation and subsequent changes in gene expression regulation are the hallmarks of age- and tissue-dependent epigenetic drift and plasticity resulting from the combinatorial integration of genetic determinants and environmental cues. To determine whether perinatal lead exposure caused persistent DNA methylation changes in target tissues, we exposed mouse dams to 0, 3 or 30 ppm of lead acetate in drinking water for a period extending from 2 months prior to mating, through gestation, until weaning of pups at postnatal day-21, and analyzed whole-genome DNA methylation in brain cortex and hippocampus of 2-month old exposed and unexposed progeny. Lead exposure resulted in hypermethylation of three differentially methylated regions in the hippocampus of females, but not males. These regions mapped to Rn4.5s, Sfi1, and Rn45s loci in mouse chromosomes 2, 11 and 17, respectively. At a conservative fdr<0.001, 1,623 additional CpG sites were differentially methylated in female hippocampus, corresponding to 117 unique genes. Sixty of these genes were tested for mRNA expression and showed a trend towards negative correlation between mRNA expression and methylation in exposed females but not males. No statistically significant methylome changes were detected in male hippocampus or in cortex of either sex. We conclude that exposure to lead during embryonic life, a time when the organism is most sensitive to environmental cues, appears to have a sex- and tissue-specific effect on DNA methylation that may produce pathological or physiological deviations from the epigenetic plasticity operative in unexposed mice. PMID:25530354

  8. The changing role of economic evaluation in valuing medical technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Jason S; Foerster, Douglas; Bridges, John Fp

    2012-12-01

    Economic evaluation is established within health-technology assessment but is challenged by those wanting to use economic evaluation to inform pricing and/or incorporate nontraditional sources of value and the views of diverse stakeholders. The changing role of economic evaluation in (formally or informally) assessing prices/values in four jurisdictions (UK, Australia, Germany and USA) is detailed and the authors propose a taxonomy of factors impacting the value of medical technology spanning clinical utility (effectiveness, safety/tolerability and quality of evidence), consumer demand (consumer preferences, process utility and unmet need), economic incentives (innovation, option value and market competition) and the societal perspective (social justice, social values and national interest). The authors suggest that multicriteria decision analysis methods grounded in hedonic-pricing theory can facilitate the valuing/pricing of medical technologies. The use of such an approach is hindered by a paucity of relevant educational opportunities, vested interests and aversion to placing prices/values on health.

  9. Changes in the Leading Cause of Death: Recent Patterns in Heart Disease and Cancer Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie; Anderson, Robert N

    2016-08-01

    Data from the National Vital Statistics System •Heart disease has consistently been the leading cause of death in the United States and remained so in 2014. •The gap between the number of heart disease and cancer deaths generally widened from 1950 through 1968, narrowed from 1968 through 2012, and then slightly widened again from 2012 through 2014. •The mortality burden of cancer has surpassed that of heart disease in several states. In 2000, there were only 2 states where cancer was the leading cause of death; in 2014, there were 22. •Heart disease remained the leading cause of death for the non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black populations in 2014. •Cancer is now the leading cause of death for the non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander and Hispanic populations. The timing of the leading-cause crossover varied by group. For the total U.S. population, heart disease has been the leading cause of death for decades, with cancer the second leading cause (1). However, the ranking of these causes has varied across demographic group and geographic unit over time. Rankings are based on the number of deaths and reflect mortality burden rather than risk of death (2). This report highlights changes in the mortality burden of heart disease and cancer and presents findings by state, race, and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  10. Leading edge embedded fan airfoil concept -- A new powered high lift technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhan Huu

    A new powered-lift airfoil concept called Leading Edge Embedded Fan (LEEF) is proposed for Extremely Short Take-Off and Landing (ESTOL) and Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) applications. The LEEF airfoil concept is a powered-lift airfoil concept capable of generating thrust and very high lift-coefficient at extreme angles-of attack (AoA). It is designed to activate only at the take-off and landing phases, similar to conventional flaps or slats, allowing the aircraft to operate efficiently at cruise in its conventional configuration. The LEEF concept consists of placing a crossflow fan (CFF) along the leading-edge (LE) of the wing, and the housing is designed to alter the airfoil shape between take-off/landing and cruise configurations with ease. The unique rectangular cross section of the crossflow fan allows for its ease of integration into a conventional subsonic wing. This technology is developed for ESTOL aircraft applications and is most effectively applied to General Aviation (GA) aircraft. Another potential area of application for LEEF is tiltrotor aircraft. Unlike existing powered high-lift systems, the LEEF airfoil uses a local high-pressure air source from cross-flow fans, does not require ducting, and is able to be deployed using distributed electric power systems throughout the wing. In addition to distributed lift augmentation, the LEEF system can provide additional thrust during takeoff and landing operation to supplement the primary cruise propulsion system. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of a conventional airfoil/wing using the NACA 63-3-418 section, commonly used in GA, and a LEEF airfoil/wing embedded into the same airfoil section were carried out to evaluate the advantages of and the costs associated with implementing the LEEF concept. Computational results show that significant lift and augmented thrust are available during LEEF operation while requiring only moderate fan power

  11. Evaluation technology of lead-free solders; Namari free handa zairyo ni okeru hyoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, M.; Shiokawa, K. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, A. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development,Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-09-10

    Solders mainly composed of tin and lead are currently in widespread use in semiconductor devices. However, in view of lead influences on the human body and environmental problems, lead-free solders have been in urgent demand. In this study, aiming to improve the solderability and reliability of a tin-silver solder, one of most promising lead-free solder materials, we have investigated elements to be added. Focusing on typical lead-free tin-silver solders and tin-lead eutectic solders, this paper describes the result of investigations into the mechanical properties solderability, micro structures of the solder materials and gas analysis in soldering. (author)

  12. Evaluation of technological measures to cope with climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Yulchi [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Onogawa Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Because the global warming (climate change) is recognized as a highly probable phenomenon in the next century, the countermeasures to cope with this issue is really Important. International discussion Is progressing towards the conclusion of the treaty to stabilize global warming. Therefore, now is the time to take concrete action to reduce the emission to the greenhouse gases (GHG). To find the way to reduce the emission of the GHG, the procedure as next should be taken. (1) Systematic estimation of GHG emission (GHG analysis), (2) Identification of conventional and Innovative technologies, (3) Assessment of individual sectoral technologies, (4) Comprehensive evaluation of countermeasures as a whole. Both in the U.S.A. and Japan, this kind of research have been made independently. Among these processes, the standard methodologies should be established on the GHG analysis, the assessment of individual technologies and the comprehensive evaluation. From such a background, it is important to discuss the way to evaluate technological measures to cope with climate change between the specialist from the U.S.A. and Japan. And still required to search the possibility to establish a joint project between both countries.

  13. Case study: technology initiative led to advanced lead optimization screening processes at Bristol-Myers Squibb, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Litao; Cvijic, Mary Ellen; Lippy, Jonathan; Myslik, James; Brenner, Stephen L; Binnie, Alastair; Houston, John G

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we review the key solutions that enabled evolution of the lead optimization screening support process at Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) between 2004 and 2009. During this time, technology infrastructure investment and scientific expertise integration laid the foundations to build and tailor lead optimization screening support models across all therapeutic groups at BMS. Together, harnessing advanced screening technology platforms and expanding panel screening strategy led to a paradigm shift at BMS in supporting lead optimization screening capability. Parallel SAR and structure liability relationship (SLR) screening approaches were first and broadly introduced to empower more-rapid and -informed decisions about chemical synthesis strategy and to broaden options for identifying high-quality drug candidates during lead optimization.

  14. Leading research on cell proliferation regulation technology; Saibo zoshoku seigyo gijutsu no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For developing intelligent material, animal test alternative model, bio-cell analysis equipment, self-controlling bio-reactor and medical material, development of functional cells was studied by cell proliferation regulation technology. In fiscal 1996, the expression analysis and separation technology of specific gene for cell proliferation, and the intracellular regulation technology were surveyed from the viewpoint of intracellular regulation. The cell proliferation regulation technology by specific regulating material of cells, extracellular matrix, coculture system and embryonic cell was surveyed from the viewpoint of extracellular regulation. In addition, based on these survey results, new cell culture/analysis technology, new bio-material, artificial organ system, energy saving bio-reactor, environment purification microorganism, and animal test alternative model were surveyed as applications to industrial basic technologies from a long-term viewpoint. The approach to cell proliferation regulation requires preparation of a concrete proliferation regulation technology system of cells, and concrete application targets. 268 refs., 43 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Europe hones an edge in technology Continent leads U.S. in linking PC "grids"

    CERN Multimedia

    Markoff, John

    2003-01-01

    The Swiss-based pharmaceutical company, Novartis, is using a grid to help create drugs. Although the US leads technical developments it is European organisations who have the lead on practical grid projects (2 pages)

  16. Continuing professional development: learning that leads to change in individual and collective clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, S A; Kinnison, T

    2015-07-04

    The lack of effectiveness of traditional models of continuing professional development is increasingly recognised. While they can lead to increased knowledge of participants, research suggests that there is a general failure to produce meaningful and sustained changes in clinician behaviours. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons' (RCVS) new individual outcomes-focused approach to delivery of continuing professional development (CPD) through the reflective accounts of participant experiences. Content analysis of 12 summaries of their learning, produced by early pioneers of the Professional Key Skills (PKS) Module of the RCVS Certificate in Advanced Veterinary Practice, revealed that the benefits of the PKS-related professional development is best understood through 'a framework of 'stakeholder' dynamics', with impact and behavioural change at the individual participant level having an effect on practice team behaviours, leading to patient, owner and business benefits. It can be concluded that, at least for these early pioneers, this new model for CPD has resulted in changes that have gone beyond knowledge accumulation to changed practitioner behaviours and recognisable patient, owner and business benefits. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Monitoring and Correcting for Response Changes in the CMS Lead-tungstate Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Ferri, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) comprises 75848 lead-tungstate scintillating crystals. Changes in the ECAL response, due to crystal radiation damage or changes in photo-detector output, are monitored in real time with a sophisticated system of lasers and LEDs to allow corrections to the energy measurements to be calculated and used. The excellent intrinsic resolution of the CMS ECAL requires the monitoring system itself to be calibrated to a high precision and its stability to be controlled and understood. The components of the CMS ECAL monitoring system, and how it has evolved to include modern solid-state lasers, are described. Several physics channels are exploited to normalize the ECAL response to the changes measured by the monitoring system. These include low energy di-photon resonances, electrons from W and Z decays (using shower energy versus track momentum measurements), and the azimuthal symmetry of low energy deposits in minimum bias events. This talk describes how the monitoring system ...

  18. I.T. Changes: An Exploration of the Relationship between Motivation, Trust, and Resistance to Change in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culmer, Nathan Paul

    2012-01-01

    Change is an organizational inevitability. There are few fields that undergo change more rapidly than information technology. Keeping up with the pace of change in a field so inclined toward change may take a unique toll on workers in information technology. Yet, little has been done to investigate workers' orientations towards change in this…

  19. I.T. Changes: An Exploration of the Relationship between Motivation, Trust, and Resistance to Change in Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culmer, Nathan Paul

    2012-01-01

    Change is an organizational inevitability. There are few fields that undergo change more rapidly than information technology. Keeping up with the pace of change in a field so inclined toward change may take a unique toll on workers in information technology. Yet, little has been done to investigate workers' orientations towards change in this…

  20. ADVANCED ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE: AN ANALYSIS USING THE GLOBAL CHANGE ASSESSMENT MODEL (GCAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmonds, J. A.; Wise, M. A.; MacCracken, C. N.

    1994-05-01

    We report results from a "top down" energy-economy model employing "bottom up" assumptions embedded in an integrated assessment framework, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). The analys~s shows that from the perspective of long-term energy system development, differences. in results from the "top down" and "bottom up" research communities would appear to be more closely linked to differences in assumptions regarding the economic cost associated with advanced technologies than to differences In modeling approach. The adoption of assumptions regarding advanced energy technologies were shown to have a profound effect on the future rate of anthropogenic climate change. The cumulative effect of the five sets of advanced energy technologies is to reduce annual emissions from fossil fuel use to levels which stabilize atmospheric concentrations below 550 ppmv, the point at which atmospheric concentrations are double those that existed in the m~ddleo f the eighteenth century. While all energy technologies play roles in reducing future fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions, the introduction of advanced biomass energy production technology plays a particularly important role. If biomass energy can be made available at $2.40/GJ or less in quantities sufficient to make it the core energy supply technology in the middle of the next century, then emissions can be cut dramatically relative to the reference case. The problem of emiss~ons reduction becomes one of technology development and deployment in this case, and not one of fiscal and regulatory intervention.

  1. Oxidation flux change on spermatozoa membrane in important pathologic conditions leading to male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2008-06-01

    Free radicals or reactive oxygen species mediate their action through proinflammatory cytokines and this mechanism has been proposed as a common underlying factor for male infertility. There is extensive literature on oxidative stress and its role in male infertility and sperm DNA damage and its effects on assisted reproductive techniques. However, there has never been a report on the oxidation flux change in spermatozoa. Here, the author determined the oxidation flux change in such hypoxic cases, using the simulation test based on nanomedicine technique is used. Of interest, change of flux can be detected. The main pathogenesis should be the direct injury of membrane structure of spermatozoa by free radicals which can lead to sperm defect. Therefore, this work can support the finding that the oxidation flux change corresponding to oxygen pressure change in spermatozoa does not exist. However, the flux change can be seen if the membrane thickness of spermatozoa is varied. Thin membrane spermatozoa are more prone to oxidative stress than thick membrane ones. The defect in the enzymatic system within the spermatozoa should be a better explanation for vulnerability of spermatozoa to oxidative stress. The use of enzymatic modification technique by antioxidants can be useful alternative in management of male infertility.

  2. Leading clinical handover improvement: a change strategy to implement best practices in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina M; Persaud, Drepaul David

    2011-03-01

    Many contemporary acute care facilities lack safe and effective clinical handover practices resulting in patient transitions that are vulnerable to discontinuities in care, medical errors, and adverse patient safety events. This article is intended to supplement existing handover improvement literature by providing practical guidance for leaders and managers who are seeking to improve the safety and the effectiveness of clinical handovers in the acute care setting. A 4-stage change model has been applied to guide the application of strategies for handover improvement. Change management and quality improvement principles, as well as concepts drawn from safety science and high-reliability organizations, were applied to inform strategies. A model for handover improvement respecting handover complexity is presented. Strategies targeted to stages of change include the following: 1. Enhancing awareness of handover problems and opportunities with the support of strategic directions, accountability, end user involvement, and problem complexity recognition. 2. Identifying solutions by applying and adapting best practices in local contexts. 3. Implementing locally adapted best practices supported by communication, documentation, and training. 4. Institutionalizing practice changes through integration, monitoring, and active dissemination. Finally, continued evaluation at every stage is essential. Although gaps in handover process and function knowledge remain, efforts to improve handover safety and effectiveness are still possible. Continued evaluation is critical in building this understanding and to ensure that practice changes lead to improvements in patient safety, organizational effectiveness, and patient and provider satisfaction. Through handover knowledge building, fundamental changes in handover policies and practices may be possible.

  3. SUSTAINING CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION—POLICY, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rechkemmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a world that is becoming more and more exposed and vulnerable to the effects of global climate change, combining integrated risk assessment tools with effective strategies for both mitigation and adaptation is a key prerogative for policy-making. With the focus of both researchers and decision-makers gradually shifting from observing and assessing the bio-physical aspects of climate change to a more human and society centered understanding of the nature of the problem, the social, behavioral, economic and technological aspects have entered center stage of the public discourse. Responses to the climate change challenge have to establish an optimal interplay between mitigation, adaptation and socio-economic instruments. Yet, given the band-width and scale of the climate problematique and its projected impacts, very ambitious mitigation measures have to be undertaken without delays, a fact that is particularly true for emerging economies with their very rapid and unprecedented growth rates, both in GDP and GHG emissions terms. The challenge for the next years is to harmonize poverty eradication and attaining the Millenium Development Goals through stable economic growth with mitigating the effects of climate change. Therefore, “inclusive green growth” has become the motto of the day. But how can this goal be achieved? Obviously, quite fundamental changes have to be introduced that affect both the production and the consumption sectors and allow for real innovation in technologies and energy, in urban mobility, infrastructure and transportation grids. This paper illustrates the deep social and societal nature of climate change response strategies, especially in the area of mitigation, and shows that transitions to green and low-carbon economies will have to embed policies, incentive schemes and economic instruments in a larger societal context of social learning and behavioral change.

  4. Groundwater storage change detection using micro-gravimetric technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Diasty, Mohammed

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, new perspectives and developments in applying a ground-based micro-gravimetric method to detect groundwater storage change in Waterloo Moraine are investigated. Four epochs of gravity survey were conducted using absolute gravimeter (FG5), two relative gravity meters (CG5) and two geodetic global positioning systems (GPS) in the Waterloo Moraine in May and August of 2010 and 2011, respectively. Data were processed using the parametric least-squares method and integrated with geological and hydrological studies. The gravity differences between May and August for 2010 and 2011 epochs were inverted to provide the estimated total water storage changes. Changes in soil water content obtained from land surface models of Ecological Assimilation of Land and Climate Observations (EALCO) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) program were employed to estimate the groundwater storage change. The ratios between the estimated groundwater storage changes and measured water table changes (specific yields) were determined at a local monitoring well located in the survey area. The results showed that the estimates of specific yields between May and August of 2010 and 2011 were consistent at a significant confidence level and are also within the range of the specific yield from geological and hydrological studies. Therefore, the micro-gravimetric (absolute and relative gravity meters) technology has demonstrated the great potential in detecting groundwater storage change and specific yield for local scale aquifers such as Waterloo Moraine.

  5. FTT:Power : A global model of the power sector with induced technological change and natural resource depletion

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a model of Future Technology Transformations for the power sector (FTT:Power), a representation of global power systems based on market competition, induced technological change (ITC) and natural resource use and depletion. It is the first component of a family of sectoral bottom-up models of technology, designed for integration into the global macroeconometric model E3MG. ITC occurs as a result of technological learning produced by cumulative investment and leads to highly nonlinear, irreversible and path dependent technological transitions. The model uses a dynamic coupled set of logistic differential equations. As opposed to traditional bottom-up energy models based on systems optimisation, such differential equations offer an appropriate treatment of the times and structure of change involved in sectoral technology transformations, as well as a much reduced computational load. Resource use and depletion are represented by local cost-supply curves, which give rise to different regional...

  6. Information Technology How Leading Firms Use It to Gain an Advantage

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, William V

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the strategic principles fundamental to using information technology to gain market control. This book provides case examples of how to use IT. It is designed to help managers struggling with how to harness the information revolution. It describes how non-information technology companies are employing strategic principles and using it.

  7. Changes in primary metabolism leading to citric acid overflow in Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legisa, Matic; Mattey, Michael

    2007-02-01

    For citric acid-accumulating Aspergillus niger cells, the enhancement of anaplerotic reactions replenishing tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates predisposes the cells to form the product. However, there is no increased citrate level in germinating spores and a complex sequence of developmental events is needed to change the metabolism in a way that leads to an increased level of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates in mycelia. A review of physiological events that cause such intracellular conditions, with the special emphasis on the discussion of hexose transport into the cells and regulation of primary metabolism, predominantly of glycolytic flux during the process, is presented.

  8. Effects of environmental lead contamination on cattle in a lead/zinc mining area: changes in cattle immune systems on exposure to lead in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Muroya, Taro; Yabe, John; Konnai, Satoru; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Mainda, Geoffrey; Teraoka, Hiroki; Umemura, Takashi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-10-01

    The Republic of Zambia is rich in mineral resources, such as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb), and mining is a key industry in Zambia. A previous study of Pb pollution in Kabwe, one of the main mining areas, found that soil was contaminated with high levels of toxic metals over a substantial area. In the present study, the authors focus on toxic metal pollution in cattle, one of the most important domestic animals in Zambia. Blood samples from cattle in Kabwe and a control area (Lusaka) were tested for toxic metal content. They also measured mRNA expression of metal-responsive proteins and cytokines in white blood cells using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In the present in vitro study, The authors cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cattle, exposing them to Pb acetate for 24 h and analyzing mRNA expression of metal-responsive proteins and selected cytokines. Lead concentrations in cattle blood from Kabwe were significantly greater than those from Lusaka, as were the mRNA expressions of metallothionein-2 (MT-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The present in vitro study demonstrated that Pb exposure led to an increase in the expressions of MT-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS, similar to those found in vivo. These results indicate the possibility of immune system modulations in cattle from the Kabwe area.

  9. A Personal Journey of Discovery: Developing Technology and Changing Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Lee

    2008-07-01

    This autobiographical article describes my experiences in developing chemically based, biological technologies for deciphering biological information: DNA, RNA, proteins, interactions, and networks. The instruments developed include protein and DNA sequencers and synthesizers, as well as ink-jet technology for synthesizing DNA chips. Diverse new strategies for doing biology also arose from novel applications of these instruments. The functioning of these instruments can be integrated to generate powerful new approaches to cloning and characterizing genes from a small amount of protein sequence or to using gene sequences to synthesize peptide fragments so as to characterize various properties of the proteins. I also discuss the five paradigm changes in which I have participated: the development and integration of biological instrumentation; the human genome project; cross-disciplinary biology; systems biology; and predictive, personalized, preventive, and participatory (P4) medicine. Finally, I discuss the origins, the philosophy, some accomplishments, and the future trajectories of the Institute for Systems Biology.

  10. Estimation of Lead (Pb in Toys Using X-Ray Fluorescence Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipayan Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead exists extensively in the environment and it is a heavy metal, which is neurotoxic in nature which is harmful to children. In contrast to trace elements such as iron (Fe and zinc (Zn, lead has no recognized benecial effects in human body. With the economic development in India in recent years, the concentration of lead has increased in the environment and henceforth, lead pollution has become a severe problem in the country. Lead poisoning can create an immense damage and irreversible harm to foetal growth, the growth of teenagers and psychological, behavioural and cognitive development. Aim and Objectives: To estimate the lead content in the sample of toys. Material and Methods: 97 different toys were collected and coded as TS, these toys were kept in plastic lock cover which were lead proof. At rst the toys were arranged in order according to the serial number of the code (TS1 – TS97. The FP X-ray uorescence (Innov-X ray analyzer instrument was placed with the window of the analyzer on the surface of the toy vertically in such a way that there was no gap between the toy surface and the sampling window. The parts per million (ppm values of all toys were recorded. Results: Out of 97 samples tested, 22 samples were above permissible limits. The different materials demonstrate signicant correlation with the lead content in ppm. Lead is used as a stabilizer in some toys as well as children's items made from PVC plastic. Baby toys made up of plastic have higher concentration of lead. Lead can leach out of products when children handle and swallow them involuntarily.

  11. Non-enzymatic Glycation of Almond Cystatin Leads to Conformational Changes and Altered Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Azad A; Sohail, Aamir; Bhat, Sheraz A; Rehman, Md T; Bano, Bilqees

    2015-01-01

    The non-enzymatic reaction between proteins and reducing sugars, known as glycation, leads to the formation of inter and intramolecular cross-links of proteins. Stable end products called as advanced Maillard products or advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have received tremendous attention since last decades. It was suggested that the formation of AGEs not only modify the conformation of proteins but also induces altered biological activity. In this study, cystatin purified from almond was incubated with three different sugars namely D-ribose, fructose and lactose to monitor the glycation process. Structural changes induced in cystatin on glycation were studied using UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD and FTIR techniques. Glycated cystatin was found to migrate slower on electrophoresis as compared to control cystatin. Biological activity data of glycated cystatin showed that D-ribose was most effective in inducing conformational changes with maximum altered activity.

  12. Quantitative resistance can lead to evolutionary changes in traits not targeted by the resistance QTLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, Femke; Lannou, Christian; Gilligan, Christopher A; van de Bosch, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the general concern in plant pathology that the introduction of quantitative resistance in the landscape can lead to increased pathogenicity. Hereto, we study the hypothetical case of a quantitative trait loci (QTL) acting on pathogen spore production per unit lesion area. To regain its original fitness, the pathogen can break the QTL, restoring its spore production capacity leading to an increased spore production per lesion. Or alternatively, it can increase its lesion size, also leading to an increased spore production per lesion. A data analysis shows that spore production per lesion (affected by the resistance QTL) and lesion size (not targeted by the QTL) are positively correlated traits, suggesting that a change in magnitude of a trait not targeted by the QTL (lesion size) might indirectly affect the targeted trait (spore production per lesion). Secondly, we model the effect of pathogen adaptation towards increased lesion size and analyse its consequences for spore production per lesion. The model calculations show that when the pathogen is unable to overcome the resistance associated QTL, it may compensate for its reduced fitness by indirect selection for increased pathogenicity on both the resistant and susceptible cultivar, but whereby the QTLs remain effective. PMID:24665339

  13. Quantitative resistance can lead to evolutionary changes in traits not targeted by the resistance QTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berg, Femke; Lannou, Christian; Gilligan, Christopher A; van de Bosch, Frank

    2014-03-01

    This paper addresses the general concern in plant pathology that the introduction of quantitative resistance in the landscape can lead to increased pathogenicity. Hereto, we study the hypothetical case of a quantitative trait loci (QTL) acting on pathogen spore production per unit lesion area. To regain its original fitness, the pathogen can break the QTL, restoring its spore production capacity leading to an increased spore production per lesion. Or alternatively, it can increase its lesion size, also leading to an increased spore production per lesion. A data analysis shows that spore production per lesion (affected by the resistance QTL) and lesion size (not targeted by the QTL) are positively correlated traits, suggesting that a change in magnitude of a trait not targeted by the QTL (lesion size) might indirectly affect the targeted trait (spore production per lesion). Secondly, we model the effect of pathogen adaptation towards increased lesion size and analyse its consequences for spore production per lesion. The model calculations show that when the pathogen is unable to overcome the resistance associated QTL, it may compensate for its reduced fitness by indirect selection for increased pathogenicity on both the resistant and susceptible cultivar, but whereby the QTLs remain effective.

  14. Consumption dynamics and technological change - exemplified by the mobile phone and related technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    dynamics that operate on the micro level and compel most consumers in the rich countries to be willing contributors to the growing consumption. The second purpose is to investigate how the families use the new technologies, and how these technologies eventually become integrated in gradual changes...... to be a contribution to the understanding of the dynamics of consumption on the micro level. The paper intends to report on some of the findings from a research project regarding households's acquirement of new consumer goods that they have not had before. The purpose is first to reveal some of the consumption...... of everyday life. In the long run, the changes of everyday life can be decisive for the development of the consumption dynamics and for the related environmental effects....

  15. Managing Information Technology as a Catalyst of Change. Track I: Leadership during Times of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Eight papers are presented from the 1993 CAUSE conference track on leadership challenges facing managers of information technology during times of change at colleges and universities. Papers include: (1) "ASURITE: How To Avoid Creating a Distributed Computing 'Tower of Babel'!" (Neil Armann and others), which discusses the Arizona State…

  16. Information and Communication Technology and Cultural Change How ICT Changes Self-Construal and Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Nina; Postmes, Tom; van der Vinne, Nikita; van Thiel, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies whether and how information and communication technology (ICT) changes self-construal and cultural values in a developing country. Ethiopian children were given laptops in the context of an ICT for development scheme. We compared children who used laptops (n = 69) with a control g

  17. The challenges of leading change in health-care delivery from the front-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Vivienne

    2017-09-01

    The public sector is facing turbulent times and this challenges nurses, who are expected to serve both patient interests and the efficiency drives of their organisations. In the context of implementing person-centred health policy, this paper explores the evolving role of front-line nurses as leaders and champions of change. Nurses can be seen to have some autonomy in health-care delivery. However, they are subject to systems of social control. In implementing person-centred policy, nurses can be seen to be doing the best they can within a constrained environment. A survey of nursing practice in person-centred health-policy implementation is presented. Despite much being written about managing health-professional resistance to policy implementation, there is a gap between what is being asked of nurses and the resources made available to them to deliver. In this milieu, nurses are utilising their discretion and leading from the front-line in championing change. Empowering nurses who seek to lead patient involvement could be the key to unlocking health-care improvement. Health services tend to be over-managed and under-led and there is a need to harness the potential of front-line nurses by facilitating leadership development through appropriate organisational support. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Package Technology for Manufacture of Caprolactam Developed by SINOPEC Commands Internationally Leading Position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In October one of SINOPEC's ten core projects to be tackled- "Development of package technology for the 140kt/a caprolactam unit" had passed the technical appraisal organized by the SINOPEC Group.This package technology integrates new techniques relating to the production of cyclohexanone via oxidation of ethylene oxide,the production of cyclohexanone-oxime through ammoximation of cyclohexanone,the triple rearrangement of cyclohexanoneoxime,and the purification ofcaprolactam.The overall package technology has reached the internationally advanced level with independent intellectual property rights,and has filed or has been granted a lot of Chinese and overseas patents.This package technology has been successfully adopted in commercial scale at the Baling Petrochemical Company.

  19. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changing people`s lives, living conditions, their needs and their behaviour as consumers. The literature highlights the factors that influence purchasing behaviour and changes manifested in terms of values, stressing the importance of promoting and protecting consumer`s rights and interests, The new responsible consumer can become a key driving force of sustainable development only if it is able to capitalize on new opportunities and to counter new risks of modern marketing technologies based on the Internet and mobile communications. This involves the assimilation of new knowledge throughout life to keep up with the accelerating pace of technological innovation and diffusion of e-commerce solutions and mobile commerce. We study the correlation between the composite index of consumer conditions and the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes in some Member States, based on secondary analysis of the data available at EU level,. The results confirm that the consumer`s situation is better in countries where the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes is higher. At the same time, however, the correlation is not linear. This shows that the consumer`s situation does not depend exclusively on formal continuing education but also other factors such as timeliness and severity of legal and institutional framework of consumer protection, the acquisition of knowledge through informal means, the requirement of different customers in different

  20. Molycorp to acquire leading rare earth processor Neo Material Technologies in $1.3 Billion Deal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Molycorp, Inc. ("Molycorp") and /Neo Material Technologies Inc. ("Neo Materials,' or "Neo") announced on March 8th the signing of a definitive agreement under which Molycorp will acquire Neo Materials for approximately CDN $1.3 billion. This will create one of the most technologically advanced, vertically integrated rare earth companies in the world.

  1. Developmental alcohol exposure leads to a persistent change on astrocyte secretome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Pablo; Hampton, Brian; Manhães, Alex C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-06-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is the most common cause of mental disabilities in the western world. It has been quite established that acute alcohol exposure can dramatically affect astrocyte function. Because the effects of early alcohol exposure on cell physiology can persist into adulthood, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol exposure in ferrets during a period equivalent to the last months of human gestation leads to persistent changes in astrocyte secretome in vitro. Animals were treated with ethanol (3.5 g/kg) or saline between postnatal day (P)10-30. At P31, astrocyte cultures were made and cells were submitted to stable isotope labeling by amino acids. Twenty-four hour conditioned media of cells obtained from ethanol- or saline-treated animals (ET-CM or SAL-CM) were collected and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry in tandem with liquid chromatography. Here, we show that 65 out of 280 quantifiable proteins displayed significant differences comparing ET-CM to SAL-CM. Among the 59 proteins that were found to be reduced in ET-CM we observed components of the extracellular matrix such as laminin subunits α2, α4, β1, β2, and γ1 and the proteoglycans biglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2, and lumican. Proteins with trophic function such as insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, pigment epithelium-derived factor, and clusterin as well as proteins involved on modulation of proteolysis such as metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were also reduced. In contrast, pro-synaptogeneic proteins like thrombospondin-1, hevin as well as the modulator of extracelular matrix expression, angiotensinogen, were found increased in ET-CM. The analysis of interactome maps through ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the amyloid beta A4 protein precursor, which was found reduced in ET-CM, was previously shown to interact with ten other proteins that exhibited significant changes in the ET-CM. Taken together our results

  2. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from water.

  3. Climate changes and technological disasters in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, E. G.

    2009-04-01

    Global warming and climate change are responsible for many ecological, economic and other significant influences on natural environment and human society. Increasing in number and severity of natural and technological disasters (TD) around the world is among of such influences. Great changes in geographical distribution of disasters are also expected. The study suggested examines this problem by the example of the Russian Federation. Using data base of TD and na-techs (natural-technological disasters) happened in the Russian Federation in 1992-2008 the most important types of disasters caused by various natural hazards were identified and classified for Russian federal regions. In concept of this study na-techs are considered as TD produced by natural factors. 88 percent of all na-techs occurring in the Russian Federation during the observation period were caused by natural processes related to various meteorological and hydrological phenomena. The majority of them were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37%), snowfalls and snowstorms (27%), rainfalls (16%), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12%). 11 types of na-techs caused by meteorological and hydrological hazards were found. These types are: (1) accidents at power and heat supply systems caused by windstorms, cyclones, and hurricanes, snowfalls and sleets, hard frost, rainfalls, hailstones, icing, avalanches, or thunderstorms (more than 50% of all na-techs registered in the data base); (2) accidents at water supply systems caused by hard frost, rainfalls, or subsidence of rock (3%); (3) sudden collapses of constructions caused by windstorms, snowfalls, rainfalls, hard frost, subsidence of rock, or floods (12%); (4) automobile accidents caused by snowfalls and snowstorms, icy conditions of roads, rainfalls, fogs, mist, or avalanches (10%); (5) water transport accidents caused by storms, cyclones, typhoons, or fogs (9%); (6) air crashes caused by windstorms, snowfalls, icing, or fogs; (7) railway

  4. The interdecadal change of the leading mode of the winter precipitation over China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jingwen; Jia, Xiaojing; Lin, Hai

    2016-10-01

    The interdecadal change of the leading mode of the mean winter precipitation over China has been investigated using observational data for the period from 1960 to 2012. The leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode (EOF1) of the winter precipitation over China displays a mono-sign pattern over southeastern China, accounting for 49.7 % of the total variance in the precipitation. Both the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) can impact EOF1. A positive (negative) EOF1 is accompanied by warm (cold) ENSO events and weak (strong) EAWM, and the latters can cause anomalous southerlies (northerlies) along the coast of southeastern China, accompanied by the transportation of water vapor from the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea favoring a wet (dry) winter over southeastern China. An abrupt transition of the EOF1 is observed around the mid-1980s. Therefore, the data are divided into two subperiods, i.e., 1960-1987 (P1) and 1988-2009 (P2). Significant differences in the large scale atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature anomalies associated with EOF1 during these two subperiods are observed. EOF1 is closely related to the mid- to high-latitude atmospheric circulation in P1, while its relationship to the tropics obviously increases during P2. The partial regression analysis results show that the interdecadal change of EOF1 is caused by both the interdecadal changes of the EAWM and ENSO around the mid-1980s. In P1, the lower-level anomalous southerlies along the coastal southeastern China accompanied by water vapor transportation that causes above-average precipitation are related to an anti-cyclonic system centered over the mid-latitude western North Pacific associated with EAWM. In P2, the influence of the EAWM is weaker, and the southerly anomaly over the coastal southeastern China is mainly caused by the anticyclone over Philippines, which is related to the ENSO.

  5. Hacktivism 1-2-3: how privacy enhancing technologies change the face of anonymous hacktivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodó, B.

    2014-01-01

    This short essay explores how the notion of hacktivism changes due to easily accessible, military grade Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs). Privacy Enhancing Technologies, technological tools which provide anonymous communications and protect users from online surveillance enable new forms of onl

  6. ONE PROBABLE MECHANISM OF THE LEARNING-MEMORY DAMAGE BY LEAD: THE CHANGES OF NOS IN HIPPOCAMPUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 赵义; 杨章民; 张进; 李积胜; 司履生; 王一理

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of lead on the activity and expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and relationship between the effects of lead on learning-memory and changes of NOS in subfields of hippocampus. Methods Y-maze test was used to study the effects of lead on ability of learning-memory; NADPH-d histochemistry and immunohistochemistry methods were used to investigate the changes of NOS in subfields of hippocampus. Results Compared with the control group, the ability of learning- memory in lead-exposed rats was significantly decreased (P<0.05); the number of NOS positive neurons in CA1 region and dentate gyrus of lead-exposed rats was significantly decreased(P<0.05), but no marked changes in CA3 region; the number of nNOS positive neurons in CA1 of lead-exposed rats was also significantly decreased(P<0.05), but no obvious changes in CA3. Conclusion Lead could damage the ability of learning-memory in rats. Lead could decrease the activity and expression of NOS in hippocampus and had different effects on NOS in different subfields of hippocampus. The changes of NOS in hippocampus induced by lead may be the mechanism of the learning-memory damage by lead.

  7. Bilateral Relationship between Technological Changes and Income Inequality in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirine MNIF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on the analysis of the bilateral relationship between technological changes and inequality. First, it focus on the impact of technological innovations on inequality and the theory of Skills Biased Technological Changes (SBTC. Given technology can produce inequality; what is the impact of these inequalities on the distribution and the production technologies? Conversely, it´s interested in, the transmission channels through which inequality affect technological changes. And that being said, let's enrich the interactions between inequality and technological changes. The empirical validation is based on the technique of Panel data for a sample of developing countries. The paper concludes that a positive relationship of technological changes on inequality seems to be confirmed. Increased innovation increases inequality. And a negative effect of inequality on technological changes also seems to be confirmed. Rising inequality hampers technological innovations.

  8. Women, e-waste, and technological solutions to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Lucy; Magee, Amanda; Hale, Benjamin

    2014-06-14

    In this paper, we argue that a crossover class of climate change solutions (which we term "technological solutions") may disproportionately and adversely impact some populations over others. We begin by situating our discussion in the wider climate discourse, particularly with regard to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Basel Convention. We then suggest that many of the most attractive technological solutions to climate change, such as solar energy and electric car batteries, will likely add to the rapidly growing stream of electronic waste ("e-waste"). This e-waste may have negative downstream effects on otherwise disenfranchised populations. We argue that e-waste burdens women unfairly and disproportionately, affecting their mortality/morbidity and fertility, as well as the development of their children. Building on this, we claim that these injustices are more accurately captured as problems of recognition rather than distribution, since women are often institutionally under-acknowledged both in the workplace and in the home. Without institutional support and representation, women and children are deprived of adequate safety equipment, health precautions, and health insurance. Finally, we return to the question of climate justice in the context of the human right to health and argue for greater inclusion and recognition of women waste workers and other disenfranchised groups in forging future climate agreements.

  9. Foreign Ownership and Skill-biased Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Michael; Smolka, Marcel

    Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle on the relat......Understanding the effects of foreign direct investment and the behavior of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is a core issue in the study of international economics. We exploit within-firm variation in ownership structure induced by foreign acquisitions in Spain to provide a new angle...... firms due to access to foreign markets through the foreign parent. This market size effect, coupled with a technology-skill complementarity, raises the demand for high-skilled workers as well as worker training upon acquisition. The largest productivity gains predicted by the model accrue to those firms...... empirical evidence that foreign-acquired firms, not only increase their technology level, but also engage in skill upgrading upon acquisition (through both hiring and training). Moreover, we show that these changes are driven by the market size effect, and not by changes in the ownership structure per se...

  10. Climate change and European cleaner coal technology (CCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque Cabal, V.

    2003-07-01

    The debate on the Green Paper 'Towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply' concluded that the deployment of clean coal-technologies (CCTs) contributes very positively to the security of energy supply. This paper reports some of the contributions to the debate. It goes on to summarise 6 successful projects demonstrating advanced CCTs that have been financed through the EU programmes THERMIE or ENERGIE or by the European Investment Bank. These include the demonstration projects at the CHP plant in Cottbus and the supercritical plant at Schwarze Pumpe. A table lists the efficiency and the technologies used at recent European coal-fired power plants. The challenge of mitigating climatic change and increasing the use of clean energy are two of the fundamental objectives of the European Union. The European Climate Change Programme (ECCP) Working Groups have identified measures to enable Kyoto Protocol targets to be achieved. These include, in the period 2001-2010, increasing the thermal efficiency of coal-fired power plants and beyond the Kyoto horizon, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The final section of the paper considers the potential market for CCT in Europe today and stresses the importance of CCTs in achieving environmental objectives which the European Union is ready to launch in the context of the Kyoto Protocol. The paper was presented by the Deputy Head of the European Commission's Coal and Oil Unit. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Explaining technological change of wind power in China and the United States: Roles of energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tian

    The following dissertation explains how technological change of wind power, in terms of cost reduction and performance improvement, is achieved in China and the US through energy policies, technological learning, and collaboration. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how energy policies affect key actors in the power sector to promote renewable energy and achieve cost reductions for climate change mitigation in different institutional arrangements. The dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay examines the learning processes and technological change of wind power in China. I integrate collaboration and technological learning theories to model how wind technologies are acquired and diffused among various wind project participants in China through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)--an international carbon trade program, and empirically test whether different learning channels lead to cost reduction of wind power. Using pooled cross-sectional data of Chinese CDM wind projects and spatial econometric models, I find that a wind project developer's previous experience (learning-by-doing) and industrywide wind project experience (spillover effect) significantly reduce the costs of wind power. The spillover effect provides justification for subsidizing users of wind technologies so as to offset wind farm investors' incentive to free-ride on knowledge spillovers from other wind energy investors. The CDM has played such a role in China. Most importantly, this essay provides the first empirical evidence of "learning-by-interacting": CDM also drives wind power cost reduction and performance improvement by facilitating technology transfer through collaboration between foreign turbine manufacturers and local wind farm developers. The second essay extends this learning framework to the US wind power sector, where I examine how state energy policies, restructuring of the electricity market, and learning among actors in wind industry lead to

  12. The TECS model leads to active use of technology in home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulla Gars; Skov, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Digitization in healthcare is accelerating worldwide. This article focuses on the X-Changery development project involving home-care nurses and their use of the iPad as a new tool in patients’ homes. The goal of the project was to bring knowledge from recent research on technological literacy...... in working life back to a work setting, thus giving nurses new technology competencies with the aim of enhancing their professionalism through the use of the iPad as a work tool. Through field observations, learning labs and focus-group interviews we can see that X-Changery gave home-care nurses a common...... language to exchange experiences and share knowledge about the iPad as a work tool. Use of the iPad in patients’ homes led to new habits and routines. Nurses acquired relational expertise, implying active use of technology. The results show the importance of focusing on and funding reflection...

  13. Quantitative Phase-Change Thermodynamics and Metastability of Perovskite-Phase Cesium Lead Iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastidar, Subham; Hawley, Christopher J; Dillon, Andrew D; Gutierrez-Perez, Alejandro D; Spanier, Jonathan E; Fafarman, Aaron T

    2017-03-16

    The perovskite phase of cesium lead iodide (α-CsPbI3 or "black" phase) possesses favorable optoelectronic properties for photovoltaic applications. However, the stable phase at room temperature is a nonfunctional "yellow" phase (δ-CsPbI3). Black-phase polycrystalline thin films are synthesized above 330 °C and rapidly quenched to room temperature, retaining their phase in a metastable state. Using differential scanning calorimetry, it is shown herein that the metastable state is maintained in the absence of moisture, up to a temperature of 100 °C, and a reversible phase-change enthalpy of 14.2 (±0.5) kJ/mol is observed. The presence of atmospheric moisture hastens the black-to-yellow conversion kinetics without significantly changing the enthalpy of the transition, indicating a catalytic effect, rather than a change in equilibrium due to water adduct formation. These results delineate the conditions for trapping the desired phase and highlight the significant magnitude of the entropic stabilization of this phase.

  14. Monitoring and Correcting for Response Changes in the CMS Lead-tungstate Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Federico

    2012-12-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) comprises 75848 lead-tungstate scintillating crystals. Changes in the ECAL response, due to crystal radiation damage or changes in photo-detector output, are monitored in real time with a sophisticated system of lasers to allow corrections to the energy measurements to be calculated and used. The excellent intrinsic resolution of the CMS ECAL requires the monitoring system itself to be calibrated to a high precision and its stability to be controlled and understood. The components of the CMS ECAL monitoring system, and how it has evolved to include modern solid-state lasers, are described. Several physics channels are exploited to normalise the ECAL response to the changes measured by the monitoring system. These include low energy diphoton resonances, electrons from W and Z decays (using shower energy versus track momentum measurements), and the azimuthal symmetry of low energy deposits in minimum bias events. This paper describes how the monitoring system is operated, how the corrections are obtained, and the resulting ECAL performance.

  15. Renewable energy technologies and climate change policies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkata, R.P. [Winrock International, New Delhi (India); Sinha, C.S. [Tata Energy and Resources Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Inst. of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    2001-07-01

    Fossil fuel use is the largest contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the primary cause of global climate change. India, with a large endowment of coal, has an energy system that is highly carbon intensive. Besides, large quantities of traditional biomass resources consumed for the energy needs of the vast rural population are exerting pressures on forests and village woodlots. Thus, the energy system is turning out to be doubly unsustainable. Renewable energy technologies (RETs), despite their techno-economic potential, have found meagre deployment due to several barriers. Recent developments in global climate change negotiations, which culminated in the Kyoto Protocol, are likely to remove some of the vital barriers to RETs, which allow fossil fuels to externalize the environmental costs. India has had a significant renewable energy program for nearly two decades, and is the only country to have a full-fledged national ministry to deal with renewables. Launched primarily as a response to the perceived rural energy crisis in the 1970s, the Indian renewable energy program received an impetus with the economic liberalization process that began in the early 1990s, with the emphasis shifting from purely subsidy-driven dissemination programs to technology promotion through the commercial route. Thus, India has gained valuable experience in promoting RETs using different approaches, and has achieved a few successes, notably biogas and wind energy. However, a synthesis of this experience shows that a number of barriers still remain to be overcome, if RETs have to become commercially viable alternatives. In the post-Kyoto scenario, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an instrument, which offers the opportunity to enhance the deployment of RETs. In the long run, penetration of RETs will however, depend on the market for carbon offsets and the pace of development of individual RETs. Our analysis of the long-term energy and environment trajectories for India

  16. Renewable energy technologies and climate change policies in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkata Ramana P [Winrock International, New Delhi (India); Chandra Shekhar Sinha [Tata Energy and Resources Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Fossil fuel use is the largest contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the primary cause of global climate change. India, with a large endowment of coal, has an energy system that is highly carbon intensive. Besides, large quantities of traditional biomass resources consumed for the energy needs of the vast rural population are exerting pressures on forests and village woodlots. Thus, the energy system is turning out to be 'doubly unsustainable'. Renewable energy technologies (RETs), despite their techno-economic potential, have found meagre deployment due to several barriers. Recent developments in global climate change negotiations, which culminated in the Kyoto Protocol, are likely to remove some of the vital barriers to RETs, which allow fossil fuels to externalize the environmental costs. India has had a significant renewable energy program for nearly two decades, and is the only country to have a full-fledged national ministry to deal with renewables. Launched primarily as a response to the perceived rural energy crisis in the 1970s, the Indian renewable energy program received an impetus with the economic liberalization process that began in the early 1990s, with the emphasis shifting from purely subsidy-driven dissemination programs to technology promotion through the commercial route. Thus, India has gained valuable experience in promoting RETs using different approaches, and has achieved a few successes, notably biogas and wind energy. However, a synthesis of this experience shows that a number of barriers still remain to be overcome, if RETs have to become commercially viable alternatives. In the post-Kyoto scenario, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an instrument which offers the opportunity to enhance the deployment of RETs. In the long run, penetration of RETs will however, depend on the market for carbon offsets and the pace of development of individual RETs. Our analysis of the long-term energy and environment trajectories

  17. Experiments Study on Charge Technology of Lead-Acid Electric Vehicle Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wen; ZHANG Cheng-ning

    2008-01-01

    The basic theory of the fast charge and several charge methods are introduced. In order to heighten charge efficiency of valve-regulated lead-acid battery and shorten the charge time, five charge methods are investigated with experiments done on the Digatron BNT 400-050 test bench. Battery current, terminal voltage, capacity, energy and terminal pole temperature during battery experiment were recorded, and corresponding curves were depicted. Battery capacity-time ratio, energy efficiency and energy-temperature ratio are put forward to be the appraising criteria of lead-acid battery on electric vehicle (EV). According to the appraising criteria and the battery curves, multistage-current/negative-pulse charge method is recommended to charge lead-acid EV battery.

  18. Women's Contributions to the Leading Journals in Instructional Technology, 1995-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Anne L.; Morgan, Janet

    This study examines the articles from current journal literature in the field of instruction/educational technology to ascertain the number of articles written by women each year and the content that women are addressing in their articles. A previous study of the journal literature (Foley, Gurney, & Branch, 1994) examined women's contributions to…

  19. Piezoelectric Lead Zirconium Titanate Composite Touch Sensors for Integration with Flexible OLED Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, D.B.; Tempelman, E.; Zwaag, S. van der; Groen, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    To enable the design of more intuitive product user interfaces, the prospects of matching piezoelectric touch sensors with flexible organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology are investigated. Low stiffness piezoelectric composite sensors, combining piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 powder with a polyme

  20. Can investments in health systems strategies lead to changes in immunization coverage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenzel, Logan

    2014-04-01

    National immunization programs in developing countries have made major strides to immunize the world's children, increasing full coverage to 83% of children. However, the World Health Organization estimates that 22 million children less than five years of age are left unvaccinated, and coverage levels have been plateauing for nearly a decade. This paper describes the evidence on factors contributing to low vaccination uptake, and describes the connection between these factors and the documented strategies and interventions that can lead to changes in immunization outcomes. The author suggests that investments in these areas may contribute more effectively to immunization coverage and also have positive spill-over benefits for health systems. The paper concludes that while some good quality evidence exists of what works and may contribute to immunization outcomes, the quality of evidence needs to improve and major gaps need to be addressed.

  1. Transitional changes in the CRP structure lead to the exposure of proinflammatory binding sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braig, David; Nero, Tracy L.; Koch, Hans-Georg; Kaiser, Benedict; Wang, Xiaowei; Thiele, Jan R.; Morton, Craig J.; Zeller, Johannes; Kiefer, Jurij; Potempa, Lawrence A.; Mellett, Natalie A.; Miles, Luke A.; Du, Xiao-Jun; Meikle, Peter J.; Huber-Lang, Markus; Stark, G. Björn; Parker, Michael W.; Peter, Karlheinz; Eisenhardt, Steffen U.

    2017-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations rise in response to tissue injury or infection. Circulating pentameric CRP (pCRP) localizes to damaged tissue where it leads to complement activation and further tissue damage. In-depth knowledge of the pCRP activation mechanism is essential to develop therapeutic strategies to minimize tissue injury. Here we demonstrate that pCRP by binding to cell-derived microvesicles undergoes a structural change without disrupting the pentameric symmetry (pCRP*). pCRP* constitutes the major CRP species in human-inflamed tissue and allows binding of complement factor 1q (C1q) and activation of the classical complement pathway. pCRP*–microvesicle complexes lead to enhanced recruitment of leukocytes to inflamed tissue. A small-molecule inhibitor of pCRP (1,6-bis(phosphocholine)-hexane), which blocks the pCRP–microvesicle interactions, abrogates these proinflammatory effects. Reducing inflammation-mediated tissue injury by therapeutic inhibition might improve the outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke and other inflammatory conditions. PMID:28112148

  2. Long-term increase in snow depth leads to compositional changes in arctic ectomycorrhizal fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Luis N; Semenova, Tatiana A; Welker, Jeffrey M; Walker, Marilyn D; Smets, Erik; Geml, József

    2016-09-01

    Many arctic ecological processes are regulated by soil temperature that is tightly interconnected with snow cover distribution and persistence. Recently, various climate-induced changes have been observed in arctic tundra ecosystems, e.g. shrub expansion, resulting in reduction in albedo and greater C fixation in aboveground vegetation as well as increased rates of soil C mobilization by microbes. Importantly, the net effects of these shifts are unknown, in part because our understanding of belowground processes is limited. Here, we focus on the effects of increased snow depth, and as a consequence, increased winter soil temperature on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities in dry and moist tundra. We analyzed deep DNA sequence data from soil samples taken at a long-term snow fence experiment in Northern Alaska. Our results indicate that, in contrast with previously observed responses of plants to increased snow depth at the same experimental site, the ECM fungal community of the dry tundra was more affected by deeper snow than the moist tundra community. In the dry tundra, both community richness and composition were significantly altered while in the moist tundra, only community composition changed significantly while richness did not. We observed a decrease in richness of Tomentella, Inocybe and other taxa adapted to scavenge the soil for labile N forms. On the other hand, richness of Cortinarius, and species with the ability to scavenge the soil for recalcitrant N forms, did not change. We further link ECM fungal traits with C soil pools. If future warmer atmospheric conditions lead to greater winter snow fall, changes in the ECM fungal community will likely influence C emissions and C fixation through altering N plant availability, fungal biomass and soil-plant C-N dynamics, ultimately determining important future interactions between the tundra biosphere and atmosphere.

  3. Transformative Reduction of Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Opportunities for Change in Technologies and Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vimmerstedt, Laura [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schroeder, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chipman, Peter [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States); Johnson, Shawn [U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2015-04-30

    The transportation sector is changing, influenced by concurrent, ongoing, dynamic trends that could dramatically affect the future energy landscape, including effects on the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Battery cost reductions and improved performance coupled with a growing number of electric vehicle model offerings are enabling greater battery electric vehicle market penetration, and advances in fuel cell technology and decreases in hydrogen production costs are leading to initial fuel cell vehicle offerings. Radically more efficient vehicles based on both conventional and new drivetrain technologies reduce greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle-mile. Net impacts also depend on the energy sources used for propulsion, and these are changing with increased use of renewable energy and unconventional fossil fuel resources. Connected and automated vehicles are emerging for personal and freight transportation systems and could increase use of low- or non-emitting technologies and systems; however, the net effects of automation on greenhouse gas emissions are uncertain. The longstanding trend of an annual increase in transportation demand has reversed for personal vehicle miles traveled in recent years, demonstrating the possibility of lower-travel future scenarios. Finally, advanced biofuel pathways have continued to develop, highlighting low-carbon and in some cases carbon-negative fuel pathways. We discuss the potential for transformative reductions in petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions through these emerging transportation-sector technologies and trends and present a Clean Transportation Sector Initiative scenario for such reductions, which are summarized in Table ES-1.

  4. Introducing New Technology into the Workplace: The Dynamics of Technological and Organizational Change. Background Paper No. 8a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Patricia M.

    A human resource strategy to enable the effective integration of new technologies in the workplace must be comprehensive, flexible, and sensitive to the dynamics of technological and organizational change. However, information from macro-level studies provides little guidance for anticipating and planning for the adoption of new technologies,…

  5. Atomistic molecular point of view for liquid lead and lithium in Nuclear Fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile, A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Cuesta-López, S., E-mail: scuesta@ubu.es [Universidad de Burgos, Parque Científico I-D-I, Plaza Misael Bañuelos s/n, 09001 Burgos (Spain); Iglesias, R. [Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento de Física, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Caro, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Perlado, J.M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, ETSI Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-09-15

    Understanding the behavior and properties of liquid metals is a crucial milestone in different current Nuclear Technology developments. Extracting both structural and dynamical properties of liquid metals via Molecular Dynamics simulations, represents a strong pillar for multiscale modeling efforts aiming to understand the suitability of these compounds. Here we present first results on the validation of two semi-empirical potentials for Li and Pb in liquid phase. Our results establish a solid base as a previous, but crucial step, to implement a LiPb cross potential. Structural and thermodynamical analyses confirm that the analyzed potentials for Li and Pb are sufficiently accurate to simulate both elements in the liquid phase, and in conditions of interest for Nuclear Technology.

  6. And lead us (not) into persuasion…? Persuasive technology and the ethics of communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The paper develops ethical guidelines for the development and usage of persuasive technologies (PT) that can be derived from applying discourse ethics to this type of technologies. The application of discourse ethics is of particular interest for PT, since 'persuasion' refers to an act of communication that might be interpreted as holding the middle between 'manipulation' and 'convincing'. One can distinguish two elements of discourse ethics that prove fruitful when applied to PT: the analysis of the inherent normativity of acts of communication ('speech acts') and the Habermasian distinction between 'communicative' and 'strategic rationality' and their broader societal interpretation. This essay investigates what consequences can be drawn if one applies these two elements of discourse ethics to PT.

  7. How might novel technologies such as optogenetics lead to better treatments in epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krook-Magnuson, Esther; Ledri, Marco; Soltesz, Ivan; Kokaia, Merab

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances open exciting avenues for improving the understanding of mechanisms in a broad range of epilepsies. This chapter focuses on the development of optogenetics and on-demand technologies for the study of epilepsy and the control of seizures. Optogenetics is a technique which, through cell-type selective expression of light-sensitive proteins called opsins, allows temporally precise control via light delivery of specific populations of neurons. Therefore, it is now possible not only to record interictal and ictal neuronal activity, but also to test causality and identify potential new therapeutic approaches. We first discuss the benefits and caveats to using optogenetic approaches and recent advances in optogenetics related tools. We then turn to the use of optogenetics, including on-demand optogenetics in the study of epilepsies, which highlights the powerful potential of optogenetics for epilepsy research.

  8. Did a decline in use of work animals lead to regional climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sines, Taleena; Arritt, Raymond; Gelder, Brian; Groisman, Pavel

    2017-04-01

    Transportation and farm operations relied on horses and other work animals throughout most of human history. Since the middle of the 20th century work animals have largely been replaced by motorized equipment in the United States and many other countries. In the central U.S. this led to a pronounced decrease in farmland for producing oats, which had mostly been used as feed for horses, and corresponding increases in other crops such as soybeans. The same period also saw a strong shift of the central U.S. precipitation intensity spectrum toward heavier events. We investigate possible connections between this technology-driven land use change and precipitation intensity by using the WRF-ARW regional climate model coupled with the Community Land Model, CLM 4.5. Crop acreages for maize, soybean, winter wheat, small grains (which includes oats and spring wheat), and other C3 and C4 crops were reconstructed on a decade by decade basis from 1940-2010 using county-level crop planting data. The resulting crop distributions were included in land surface boundary conditions for two multi-decadal regional climate simulations, one with 1940s land use and another with 2010 land use. The change in crop distribution produced a shift in the simulated precipitation intensity spectrum. Simulations using present-day (2010) land use had higher frequencies of heavy precipitation amounts and lower frequencies of light amounts compared to 1940s land use. These results suggest that replacement of work animals by mechanized transport led to land use changes that contributed to the observed trend toward more intense precipitation over the central United States.

  9. UNESCO active learning approach in optics and photonics leads to significant change in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, K.; Channa, R.; Outzourhit, A.; Azizan, M.; Oueriagli, A.

    2014-07-01

    There are many difficulties in teaching science and technology in developing countries. Several different teaching strategies have to be applied in these cases. More specifically, for developing countries competencies in teaching science in the introductory classroom has attracted much attention. As a specific example we will consider the Moroccan system. In most developing countries everything is moving so slowly that the progress stays static for development. Also, any change needs time, effort and engagement. In our case we discovered that many teachers feel uncomfortable when introducing new teaching methods and evaluation in classes at introductory physics. However, the introduction of an Active Learning in our curricula showed difficulties that students have in understanding physics and especially concepts. Students were interested in having Active Learning courses much more than passive and traditional ones. Changing believes on physical phenomena and reality of the world students become more attractive and their way of thinking Science changed. The main philosophy of fostering modern hands-on learning techniques -adapted to local needs and availability of teaching resources- is elaborated. The Active Learning program provides the teachers with a conceptual evaluation instrument, drawn from relevant physics education research, giving teachers an important tool to measure student learning. We will try to describe the UNESCO Chair project in physics created in 2010 at Cadi Ayyad University since our first experience with UNESCO ALOP program. Many efforts have been done so far and the project helps now to develop more national and international collaborations between universities and Regional Academies of Education and Training. As a new result of these actions and according to our local needs, the translation of the ALOP program into Arabic is now available under the auspice of UNESCO and encouragement of international partners SPIE, ICTP, ICO and OSA.

  10. Lead exposure in pheochromocytoma cells induces persistent changes in amyloid precursor protein gene methylation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Tian; Wan, Yanjian; Xu, Shun-qing

    2012-08-01

    It has been suggested that lead (Pb) exposure in early life may increase amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression and promote the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease in old age. The current study examined whether the DNA methylation patterns of APP gene in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells changed after Pb acetate exposure. Undifferentiated PC12 cells were exposed to three doses of Pb acetate (50, 250, and 500 nM) and one control for 2 days or 1 week. The methylation patterns of APP promoter and global DNA methylation were analyzed. The DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression and the level of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) were also investigated. The results showed that the exposure of the three concentrations of Pb acetate could make the APP promoter hypomethylated. The global DNA methylation level and the expression of DNMT1 were changed in the 500 nM group after 2 days exposure and in the 250 and 500 nM group after 7 days exposure. Thus, Pb may exert neurotoxic effects through mechanisms that alter the global and promoter methylation patterns of APP gene. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2012. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Leading research on next generation metal production technology; Jisedai kinzoku shigen seisan gijutsu no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The energy saving environment-friendly technology for low- grade difficult-to-process ores was researched focusing attention on the hydro-metallurgical process of non-ferrous metals. This research aims at development of both effective leaching system of metals, and separation/crystallization system recognizing the property difference between metal ions in solution. The leaching system allows the inexpensive molecular level control of electron transfer, mass transfer of metal ions and stabilization of leached metal ions in a solid/liquid interface. The system thus allows selective leaching of metals from various resources such as difficult- to-leach sulfide minerals to prepare concentrated solutions. The separation system can obtain high-purity solutions including each metal ion by advanced separation/concentration technology from the solutions. The crystallization technology (including electrolysis) is developed for preparing target metal materials by molecular level control of nucleation, particle growth, thin film formation and bulky metal formation processes. Overall energy consumption is reduced to 1/3 of that of the pyro-metallurgical method, aiming at zero emission. 15 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Designing healthcare information technology to catalyse change in clinical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lester

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The gap between best practice and actual patient care continues to be a pervasive problem in our healthcare system. Efforts to improve on this knowledge_performance gap have included computerised disease management programs designed to improve guideline adherence. However, current computerised reminder and decision support interventions directed at changing physician behaviour have had only a limited and variable effect on clinical outcomes. Further, immediate pay-for-performance financial pressures on institutions have created an environmentwhere disease management systems are often created under duress, appended to existing clinical systems and poorly integrated into the existing workflow, potentially limiting their realworld effectiveness. The authors present a review of disease management as well as a conceptual framework to guide the development of more effective health information technology (HIT tools for translating clinical information into clinical action.

  13. NATO Conference on Work, Organizations, and Technological Change

    CERN Document Server

    Niehaus, Richard

    1982-01-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the Symposium entitled, "Work, Organizations and Technological Change" which was held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, West Germany, 14-19 June 1981. The meeting was sponsored by the Special Panel on Systems Sciences of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division. In proposing this meeting the Symposium Directors built upon several preceding NATO conferences in the general area of personnel systems, manpower modelling, and organization. The most recent NATO Conference, entitled "Manpower Planning and Organization Design," was held in Stresa, Italy in 1977. That meeting was organized to foster research on the interrelationships between programmatic approaches to personnel planning within organizations and behavioral science approachs to organization design. From that context of corporate planning the total internal organizational perspective was the MACRO view, and the selection, assignment, care and feeding of the people was the MICRO view. Conceptually, this meant that an integrated appr...

  14. Use of Digital Image Technology to 'Clearly' Depict Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, B. F.; Carbo, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Earth is dynamic and beautiful. Understanding why, when, how, and how fast its surface changes yields information and serves as a source of inspiration. The artistic use of geoscience information can inform the public about what is happening to their planet in a non-confrontational and apolitical way. While individual images may clearly depict a landscape, photographic comparisons are necessary to clearly capture and display annual, decadal, or century-scale impacts of climate and environmental change on Earth's landscapes. After years of effort to artistically communicate geoscience concepts with unenhanced individual photographs or pairs of images, the authors have partnered to maximize this process by using digital image enhancement technology. This is done, not to manipulate the inherent artistic content or information content of the photographs, but to insure that the comparative photo pairs produced are geometrically correct and unambiguous. For comparative photography, information-rich historical photographs are selected from archives, websites, and other sources. After determining the geographic location from which the historical photograph was made, the original site is identified and eventually revisited. There, the historical photos field of view is again photographed, ideally from the original location. From nearly 250 locations revisited, about 175 pairs have been produced. Every effort is made to reoccupy the original historical site. However, vegetation growth, visibility reduction, and co-seismic level change may make this impossible. Also, inherent differences in lens optics, camera construction, and image format may result in differences in the geometry of the new photograph when compared to the old. Upon selection, historical photos are cleaned, contrast stretched, brightness adjusted, and sharpened to maximize site identification and information extraction. To facilitate matching historical and new images, digital files of each are overlain in

  15. Learning and Leading with Technology: A Case Study of Centennial Campus Magnet Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Bryant, Edye Darlene

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single case study is to describe and document the implementation of a 1:1 laptop program for a middle school with a unique school-university partnership. The goal of this study is two-fold; one being to describe the implementation of a 1:1 laptop program and to document the lessons learned in leading a 1:1 laptop program. This…

  16. A formal model for measuring the effect of technological change on telecentre usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Azizi; Ahmad, Faudziah; Yusop, Nor Iadah; Aji, Zahurin Mat

    2016-08-01

    Technological change (TC), in general refers to continuous invention, innovation and diffusion of technology. In relation to telecentre, TC is seen as the driving force of the centre's operation. However, in recent years, telecentre's usage and operation is declining slowly and this leads to the question about the continued relevance of these centres as well as calls for evidence of impacts to justify further resources and program improvements. The paper aims to present the simulation results on an agent-based model that was developed to show the impact of TC on telecentre's usage. The model was constructed in four phases, Abstraction, Formalization, Simulation and Evaluation. Results showed that the computational model was able to show the effective usage of telecentre in different types of scenarios.

  17. Communication and Cultural Change in University Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2013-01-01

    Faculty culture and communication networks are pivotal components of technology transfer on university campuses. Universities are focused upon diffusing technology to external clients and upon building structure and support systems to enhance technology transfer. However, engaging faculty members in technology transfer requires an internal…

  18. Communication and Cultural Change in University Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2013-01-01

    Faculty culture and communication networks are pivotal components of technology transfer on university campuses. Universities are focused upon diffusing technology to external clients and upon building structure and support systems to enhance technology transfer. However, engaging faculty members in technology transfer requires an internal…

  19. Executive Guide. Improving Mission Performance Through Strategic Information Management and Technology: Learning from Leading Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    these areas. Par 10 GAOfAIMD-94-115 Strategic Information Management Issues How is the mission defined and tied to customer needs ? Mission What are the...Direct Change Support Change I Recogize and comm Rcl 4 Anchor strategic planning in 9 Establish customer/supplier the urgency to • hoage customer needs and...line managers, who could best judge customer needs , took a direct role in defining product characteristics, process design specirications, and

  20. Lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries for the Chinese electric bike market and implications on future technology advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Jonathan X.; Burke, Andrew F.; Wei, Xuezhe

    China has been experiencing a rapid increase in battery-powered personal transportation since the late 1990s due to the strong growth of the electric bike and scooter (i.e. e-bike) market. Annual sales in China reached 17 million bikes year -1 in 2006. E-bike growth has been in part due to improvements in rechargeable valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery technology, the primary battery type for e-bikes. Further improvements in technology and a transition from VRLA to lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries will impact the future market growth of this transportation mode in China and abroad. Battery performance and cost for these two types are compared to assess the feasibility of a shift from VRLA to Li-ion battery e-bikes. The requirements for batteries used in e-bikes are assessed. A widespread shift from VRLA to Li-ion batteries seems improbable in the near future for the mass market given the cost premium relative to the performance advantages of Li-ion batteries. As both battery technologies gain more real-world use in e-bike applications, both will improve. Cell variability is a key problematic area to be addressed with VRLA technology. For Li-ion technology, safety and cost are the key problem areas which are being addressed through the use of new cathode materials.

  1. A simple interpretation of the growth of scientific/technological research impact leading to hype-type evolution curves

    CERN Document Server

    Campani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The empirical and theoretical justification of Gartner hype curves is a very relevant open question in the field of Technological Life Cycle analysis. The scope of the present paper is to introduce a simple model describing the growth of scientific/technological research impact, in the specific case where science is the main source of a new idea driving a technological development, leading to hype-type evolution curves. The main idea of the model is that, in a first stage, the growth of the scientific interest of a new specific field (as can be measured by publication numbers) basically follows the classical logistic growth curve. At a second stage, starting at a later trigger time, the technological development based on that scientific idea (as can be measured by patent deposits) can be described as the integral (in a mathematical sense) of the first curve, since technology is based on the overall accumulated scientific knowledge. The model is tested through a bibliometric analysis of the publication and pat...

  2. Assessment of Stirling Technology Has Provided Critical Data Leading Toward Flight Readiness of the Stirling Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is supporting the development of a Stirling converter with the Department of Energy (DOE, Germantown, Maryland) for an advanced Stirling Radioisotope Power System (SRPS) to provide spacecraft onboard electric power for NASA space science missions. A key technology assessment completed by Glenn and DOE has led to the SRPS being identified as a high-efficiency power source for such deep space missions as the Europa Orbiter and the Solar Probe. In addition, the Stirling system is now being considered for unmanned Mars rovers, especially where mission profiles may exclude the use of photovoltaic power systems, such as exploration at high Martian latitudes or for missions of long duration. The SRPS efficiency of over 20 percent will reduce the required amount of radioisotope by more than a factor of 3 in comparison to current radioisotope thermoelectric generators. This significantly reduces radioisotope cost, radiological inventory, and system cost, and it provides efficient use of scarce radioisotope resources. In support of this technology assessment, Glenn conducted a series of independent evaluations and tests to determine the technology readiness of a 55-We Stirling converter developed by Stirling Technology Company (Kennewick, Washington) and DOE. Key areas evaluated by Glenn included: 1) Radiation tolerance of materials; 2) Random vibration testing of the Stirling converter in Glenn's Structural Dynamics Lab to simulate operation in the launch environment; 3) Electromagnetic interference and compatibility (EMI/EMC) of the converter operating in Glenn's EMI lab; Independent failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis, and life and reliability 4. Independent failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis, and life and reliability assessment; and 5) SRPS cost estimate. The data from these evaluations were presented to NASA Headquarters and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory mission office by a joint industry/Government team

  3. Technologies for adaptation. Perspectives and practical experiences; Climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Lars; Olhoff, A.; Traerup, S.

    2011-11-15

    The present report is the second volume of the UNEP Risoe Centre Technology Transfer Perspectives Series. The report is related to the global Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) project, financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implemented by UNEP Risoe Centre. The nine articles in this volume discuss issues like: a) the concepts and context of technologies for adaptation; b) assessments of adaptation technology needs; c) practical experiences from working with technologies for adaptation. (LN)

  4. Deccan Volcanism: a main trigger of environmental changes leading to the KTB mass extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adatte, Thierry; Fantasia, Alicia; Samant, Bandana; Mohabey, Dhananjay; Keller, Gerta; Gertsch, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The nature and causes of mass extinctions in the geological past have remained topics of intense scientific debate for the past three decades. Central to this debate is the question of whether the eruption of large igneous provinces (LIP) was the primary mechanism driving the environmental changes that are commonly regarded as the proximate causes for four of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. Model results predict that Deccan Traps emplacement was responsible for a strong increase in atmospheric pCO2 accompanied by rapid warming of 4°C that was followed by global cooling. During the warming phase, increased continental weathering of silicates associated with consumption of atmospheric CO2 likely resulted in the drawdown of greenhouse gases that reversed the warming trend leading to global cooling at the end of the Maastrichtian. Massive CO2 input together with massive release of SO2 may thus have triggered the mass extinctions in the marine realm as a result of ocean acidification leading to a carbon crisis and in the terrestrial realms due to acid rains. Global stress conditions related to these climatic changes are well known and documented in planktic foraminifera by a diversity decrease, species dwarfing, dominance of opportunistic species and near disappearance of specialized species. Deccan Traps erupted in three main phases with 6% total Deccan volume in phase-1 (base C30n), 80% in phase-2 (C29r) and 14% in phase-3 (C29n). Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of Deccan trap eruptions (Phase-2) occurred over a relatively short time interval in magnetic polarity C29r, whereas multiproxy studies from central and southeastern India place the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) mass extinction near the end of this main phase of Deccan volcanism suggesting a cause-and-effect relationship. In India a strong floral response is observed as a direct response to Deccan volcanic phase-2. In Lameta (infratrappean) sediments preceding the volcanic eruptions

  5. Will absorbable metal stent technology change our practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, M; Deloose, K; Verbist, J; Peeters, P

    2006-08-01

    Peripheral stents aim to support revascularization procedures of intravascular stenoses by mechanically preventing vessel recoil and counteracting pathophysiologic processes of luminal re-narrowing triggered by procedural injury of the vessel wall. Despite improvements in stenting techniques and concomitant medication, repeated intervention due to target lesion re-stenosis is necessary on a significant percentage of patients. The permanent presence of an artificial implant plays a prominent role in the discussion of mechanisms causing in-stent restenosis. Permanent metallic implants pose the risk of a continuous interaction between non-absorbable stent and surrounding tissue, leading to physical irritation, long-term endothelial dysfunction, or chronic inflammatory reactions. In addition, there is a risk of stent fracture due to external mechanical forces. To overcome these shortcomings, technology of stenting has moved towards the development of temporary implants composed of biocompatible materials which mechanically support the vessel during the period of high risk for recoil and then completely degrade in the long-term perspective. This removes a potential trigger for late restenosis.

  6. Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration Leading to Human Exploration: Results from the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper will provide a summary and analysis of the SpaceOps 2015 Workshop all-day session on "Advanced Technologies for Robotic Exploration, Leading to Human Exploration", held at Fucino Space Center, Italy on June 12th, 2015. The session was primarily intended to explore how robotic missions and robotics technologies more generally can help lead to human exploration missions. The session included a wide range of presentations that were roughly grouped into (1) broader background, conceptual, and high-level operations concepts presentations such as the International Space Exploration Coordination Group Roadmap, followed by (2) more detailed narrower presentations such as rover autonomy and communications. The broader presentations helped to provide context and specific technical hooks, and helped lay a foundation for the narrower presentations on more specific challenges and technologies, as well as for the discussion that followed. The discussion that followed the presentations touched on key questions, themes, actions and potential international collaboration opportunities. Some of the themes that were touched on were (1) multi-agent systems, (2) decentralized command and control, (3) autonomy, (4) low-latency teleoperations, (5) science operations, (6) communications, (7) technology pull vs. technology push, and (8) the roles and challenges of operations in early human architecture and mission concept formulation. A number of potential action items resulted from the workshop session, including: (1) using CCSDS as a further collaboration mechanism for human mission operations, (2) making further contact with subject matter experts, (3) initiating informal collaborative efforts to allow for rapid and efficient implementation, and (4) exploring how SpaceOps can support collaboration and information exchange with human exploration efforts. This paper will summarize the session and provide an overview of the above subjects as they emerged from the SpaceOps 2015

  7. Microfluidics Integrated Biosensors: A Leading Technology towards Lab-on-a-Chip and Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luka, George; Ahmadi, Ali; Najjaran, Homayoun; Alocilja, Evangelyn; DeRosa, Maria; Wolthers, Kirsten; Malki, Ahmed; Aziz, Hassan; Althani, Asmaa; Hoorfar, Mina

    2015-01-01

    A biosensor can be defined as a compact analytical device or unit incorporating a biological or biologically derived sensitive recognition element immobilized on a physicochemical transducer to measure one or more analytes. Microfluidic systems, on the other hand, provide throughput processing, enhance transport for controlling the flow conditions, increase the mixing rate of different reagents, reduce sample and reagents volume (down to nanoliter), increase sensitivity of detection, and utilize the same platform for both sample preparation and detection. In view of these advantages, the integration of microfluidic and biosensor technologies provides the ability to merge chemical and biological components into a single platform and offers new opportunities for future biosensing applications including portability, disposability, real-time detection, unprecedented accuracies, and simultaneous analysis of different analytes in a single device. This review aims at representing advances and achievements in the field of microfluidic-based biosensing. The review also presents examples extracted from the literature to demonstrate the advantages of merging microfluidic and biosensing technologies and illustrate the versatility that such integration promises in the future biosensing for emerging areas of biological engineering, biomedical studies, point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and precision agriculture. PMID:26633409

  8. Microfluidics Integrated Biosensors: A Leading Technology towards Lab-on-a-Chip and Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luka, George; Ahmadi, Ali; Najjaran, Homayoun; Alocilja, Evangelyn; DeRosa, Maria; Wolthers, Kirsten; Malki, Ahmed; Aziz, Hassan; Althani, Asmaa; Hoorfar, Mina

    2015-12-01

    A biosensor can be defined as a compact analytical device or unit incorporating a biological or biologically derived sensitive recognition element immobilized on a physicochemical transducer to measure one or more analytes. Microfluidic systems, on the other hand, provide throughput processing, enhance transport for controlling the flow conditions, increase the mixing rate of different reagents, reduce sample and reagents volume (down to nanoliter), increase sensitivity of detection, and utilize the same platform for both sample preparation and detection. In view of these advantages, the integration of microfluidic and biosensor technologies provides the ability to merge chemical and biological components into a single platform and offers new opportunities for future biosensing applications including portability, disposability, real-time detection, unprecedented accuracies, and simultaneous analysis of different analytes in a single device. This review aims at representing advances and achievements in the field of microfluidic-based biosensing. The review also presents examples extracted from the literature to demonstrate the advantages of merging microfluidic and biosensing technologies and illustrate the versatility that such integration promises in the future biosensing for emerging areas of biological engineering, biomedical studies, point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and precision agriculture.

  9. Microfluidics Integrated Biosensors: A Leading Technology towards Lab-on-a-Chip and Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Luka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor can be defined as a compact analytical device or unit incorporating a biological or biologically derived sensitive recognition element immobilized on a physicochemical transducer to measure one or more analytes. Microfluidic systems, on the other hand, provide throughput processing, enhance transport for controlling the flow conditions, increase the mixing rate of different reagents, reduce sample and reagents volume (down to nanoliter, increase sensitivity of detection, and utilize the same platform for both sample preparation and detection. In view of these advantages, the integration of microfluidic and biosensor technologies provides the ability to merge chemical and biological components into a single platform and offers new opportunities for future biosensing applications including portability, disposability, real-time detection, unprecedented accuracies, and simultaneous analysis of different analytes in a single device. This review aims at representing advances and achievements in the field of microfluidic-based biosensing. The review also presents examples extracted from the literature to demonstrate the advantages of merging microfluidic and biosensing technologies and illustrate the versatility that such integration promises in the future biosensing for emerging areas of biological engineering, biomedical studies, point-of-care diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and precision agriculture.

  10. Dysregulation of apoptosis: a possible mechanism leading to chronic progressive renal histological changes in lupus nephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evakuate apoptosis in lupus nephritis and the relationship between the existence of apoptotic cells in renal tissue and histopathological or clinical changes. Methods Apoptosis was detected by in situ nick-end labeling techniques (TUNEL) in renal biopsies from 25 patients with type Ⅳ lupus nephritis (LN),12 patientswith lgA nephropathy lgAN, 4 patients with idiopathic easangnioproliferative lomerulonephritis(MsPGN) and 3 patients with acute poststreptococcal gornerulonephritis (APGN).Normal renal tissue obtained at nephrectomy for hypernephroma in 4 adults wes used as control. Proliferating cells were identified by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in these patiants. Results Compared to other proliferative glomerulonephritis and controls, the patients with lupus nephritis had lase apoptotic cells, a higher ratio of PCNA+cells/TdT+cells (P/T) in renal tissues; and their P/T ratio in glomeruli and tubulointerstitium correlated with the chronicity index, r=0.4983 (P=0.0132), r -0.8399 (P<0.001), r=0.6614 (,P=0.0033),respactively. P/T retios in the glomerulus and tubule had a positive correlation with 24-hour urinary protein,r=0.8554(P<0.001) and r=0.7134 (P=0.001); and a negative correlation with crsetinine clearance (Ccr), r=-0.4880(P=0.0133) and r=-0.7229(P=0.001),which in tubules positively correlated with serum creatinine (Scr), r=0.4107 (P=0.0414). Conclusions Apoptosis is reduced in proliferative lupus nephritis. Intense proliferation without a commensurate increase in apoptosis is a possible mechanism that leads to chronic progressive renalhistopathological changes.

  11. Energy conservation and technological change as factors in climate change - a pulp and paper industry example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koleff, A.M. [Stone Container Corp., Tucker, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Pulp and Paper Industry in the United States is one of this country`s most energy intensive industries with energy generally being the second or third largest direct operating expense in mill budgets. As such, the industry has long had an effective energy conservation program and has recorded impressive reductions in energy use. It is also one of the two most capital intensive industries in the United States and has a long capital investment cycle, which can be estimated by various techniques at between 20 and 30 years. This paper discusses the estimated impact of the industry`s energy conservation achievements on long term emission reductions of greenhouse gases and will show how technological changes within the industry have impacted past emission reductions and the prospects for continued progress through emerging technologies. The importance to the global competitiveness of the industry of implementing technological change designed to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases within the industry`s normal investment cycle will also be reviewed.

  12. Composition and temperature-induced structural changes in lead-tellurite glasses on different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S; Arora, A K; Sivasubramanian, V; Krishna, P S R; Krishnan, R Venkata

    2012-12-19

    Processes occurring at macroscopic and microscopic length scales across the glass transition (T(g)) in lead-tellurite glass (PbO)(x)(TeO(2))(1-x) (x = 0.1-0.3) are investigated using Brillouin and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. For all the samples, the temperature dependence of the longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode is found to exhibit a universal scaling below T(g) and a rapid softening above T(g). The lower value of elastic modulus at a higher concentration of network modifier PbO, estimated from Brillouin data, arises due to loss of network rigidity. From quantitative analysis of the reduced Raman spectra, several modes are found to exhibit anomalous changes across T(g). Instead of the expected anharmonic behaviour, several modes exhibit hardening, suggesting stiffening of the stretching force constants with temperature, the effect being more pronounced in glasses with higher x. In addition, incorporation of PbO in the glass is also found to narrow down the bond-length distribution, as evident from the sharpening of the Raman bands. The stiffening of the force constants of molecular units at a microscopic length scale and the decrease of elastic constant attributed to loss of network rigidity on a macroscopic length scale appear to be opposite. These different behaviours at two length scales are understood on the basis of a microscopic model involving TeO(n) and PbO units in the structure.

  13. The evolving role of health educators in advancing patient safety: forging partnerships and leading change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Annette

    2007-04-01

    At least 1.5 million preventable injuries because of adverse drug events occur in the United States each year, according to an Institute of Medicine report. IOM and other organizations at the forefront of health care improvement emphasize that stronger partnerships between patients, their families, and health care providers are necessary to make health care safer. Health educators possess a skill set and an ethical framework that effectively equip them to advance patient and family-centered care and contribute in other significant ways to a safer health care system. Health educators in clinical settings are playing varied and significant roles in advancing patient safety. They are removing barriers to clear communication and forging partnerships between patients, their families, and staff. Health educators are leading patient safety culture change within their institutions and contributing to the shift from provider-centric to patient-centric systems. To expand their impact in improving patient safety, health educators in clinical settings are participating in public awareness campaigns. In seeking to enhance patient safety, health educators face a number of challenges. To successfully manage those, health educators must expand their knowledge, broaden connections, and engage patients and families in meaningful ways.

  14. The Impact of Technological Change; The American Experience. Studies in Employment and Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, William; And Others

    Technological change is a complex term involving many more factors than "changes in machinery or automation." Six changes which affect jobs and influence skills in our industrial systems that could logically be called technological change have been identified: (1) scientific management, or time and motion studies, (2) mergers and consolidations,…

  15. Assessing computerized eye tracking technology for gaining insight into expert interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram: an objective quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, R R; Zhu, T; Finlay, D D; Drew, B; Kligfield, P D; Guldenring, D; Breen, C; Gallagher, A G; Daly, M J; Clifford, G D

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that accurate interpretation of the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) requires a high degree of skill. There is also a moderate degree of variability among those who interpret the ECG. While this is the case, there are no best practice guidelines for the actual ECG interpretation process. Hence, this study adopts computerized eye tracking technology to investigate whether eye-gaze can be used to gain a deeper insight into how expert annotators interpret the ECG. Annotators were recruited in San Jose, California at the 2013 International Society of Computerised Electrocardiology (ISCE). Each annotator was recruited to interpret a number of 12-lead ECGs (N=12) while their eye gaze was recorded using a Tobii X60 eye tracker. The device is based on corneal reflection and is non-intrusive. With a sampling rate of 60Hz, eye gaze coordinates were acquired every 16.7ms. Fixations were determined using a predefined computerized classification algorithm, which was then used to generate heat maps of where the annotators looked. The ECGs used in this study form four groups (3=ST elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], 3=hypertrophy, 3=arrhythmias and 3=exhibiting unique artefacts). There was also an equal distribution of difficulty levels (3=easy to interpret, 3=average and 3=difficult). ECGs were displayed using the 4x3+1 display format and computerized annotations were concealed. Precisely 252 expert ECG interpretations (21 annotators×12 ECGs) were recorded. Average duration for ECG interpretation was 58s (SD=23). Fleiss' generalized kappa coefficient (Pa=0.56) indicated a moderate inter-rater reliability among the annotators. There was a 79% inter-rater agreement for STEMI cases, 71% agreement for arrhythmia cases, 65% for the lead misplacement and dextrocardia cases and only 37% agreement for the hypertrophy cases. In analyzing the total fixation duration, it was found that on average annotators study lead V1 the most (4.29s), followed by leads V2 (3.83s

  16. SLJ's 2011 Technology Survey: Things Are Changing. Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Despite the funding challenges nearly all school libraries face, many media specialists are optimistic about the role of technology in the school library, according to "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") 2011 Technology Survey. But in spite of the general optimism, others point to some significant obstacles: technological innovations are often…

  17. SLJ's 2011 Technology Survey: Things Are Changing. Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Despite the funding challenges nearly all school libraries face, many media specialists are optimistic about the role of technology in the school library, according to "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") 2011 Technology Survey. But in spite of the general optimism, others point to some significant obstacles: technological innovations are often…

  18. Dilemmas in the Analysis of Technological Change. A Cognitive Approach to Understand Innovation and Change in the Water Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Borri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue for the need to apply a cognitive approach to understand deep dynamics and determinants of technological evolutions. After examining main contributions from innovation studies to the conceptualization of innovation and change in complex socio-technical environments, we highlight the contribution coming from the application of the cognitive approach to evolutionary studies on technologies and we introduce the concept of technological memory as an interpretative tool to understand those changes. We discuss our hypothesis with reference to several observations carried out in different local contexts – Mexico, India and Italy – in relation to technological change in the water sector. In those cases deliberate attempts to substitute traditional technologies with modern ones led to interesting trajectories of change ranging from the collapse of old technologies to the development of multifaceted hybridization patterns.

  19. Technological and Organizational Changes. Developing a management platform based on participatory institutions and practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Management Programmes aimed at organisational and technological change often run into problems when it comes to implementing change. The purpose of the papeer is to discuss the possibilities for establishing a cooperation based platform for change....

  20. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and structural changes in carotid arteries in normotensive workers occupationally exposed to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreba, Rafał; Poreba, Małgorzata; Gać, Paweł; Andrzejak, Ryszard

    2011-09-01

    Occupational exposure to lead may cause an increase in blood pressure. The aim of the study was to estimate the effect of occupational exposure to lead on selected parameters of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and structural changes in carotid arteries. The study included 33 normotensive men occupationally exposed to lead and 39 unexposed men employed in administration of the foundry. All of the men underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography to determine intima-media thickness (IMT). The group of men occupationally exposed to lead manifested significantly higher mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (MDBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), pulse pressure (PP), variability of diastolic blood pressure (VDBP), and IMT than the unexposed group. The studied groups did not differ in mean values of variability of systolic blood pressure (VSBP). As compared to the unexposed group, in men exposed to lead, atherosclerotic plaques were significantly more common. In the group of persons exposed to lead the Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis revealed significant linear positive correlations between MSBP and IMT, between lead level and the number of atherosclerotic plaques, and between lead level and PP. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that higher lead level in blood and higher triglyceride concentration in blood represent independent risk factors of an increased pulse pressure in the group of individuals occupationally exposed to lead. Occupational exposure to lead can be associated with increased blood pressure and accelerated progression of atherosclerosis.

  1. Directions of changes of hard coal output technologies in Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Turek Marian

    2011-01-01

    The author presents the results being the effect of the analysis of innovative rate of individual technologies applied in opening up, development and extraction works which was carried out within the project: "scenarios of technological development of hard coal extractive industry". After presentation of opening up, development and extraction technologies that are applied in Polish hard coal industry and their classification with regard to innovation degree the author describes those technologies in a detailed manner. He brings attention to the most effective systems for hard coal deposits' opening up, development and their extraction, including the extraction of the residual coal. The attention is also paid to the safety level of the applied technologies.

  2. Fabricating quench condensed lead thin film circuits using MEMS Fab on a Chip technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imboden, Matthias; Han, Han; Del Corro, Pablo; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian; Bishop, David

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a MEMS Fab on a Chip consisting of micro-sources, mass sensors, heaters/thermometers, shutters and a dynamic stencil. The fab only occupies a volume of a few cubic millimeters and consumes milliwatts of power, and hence can be operated in a cryostat. Thin film patterns of arbitrary shapes using multiple materials can be manufactured, while strongly suppressing thermal annealing effects. We demonstrate deposition of quench condensed lead films with fractions of a monolayer thickness control. Furthermore, using low deposition rates it is estimated that the surface temperature of the target heats by only 1.7 K. We study the effects of growing quench condensed films with different evaporation rates to demonstrate thermal annealing effects which occur during deposition. We measure the minimum conduction thickness (insulator to metal transition) as well as the superconducting transition temperature as a function of film thickness in order to shed light on growth of amorphous films and the transition to nanocluster formations. The Fab on a Chip will allow us to build nanocircuits made of ultra-thin materials. Annealing and doping is controlled and measurements occur in situ, without exposing the fabricated circuits to thermal fluctuations or foreign contaminants. This enables new types of experiments based on quantum circuits which cannot be fabricated using standard lithography techniques.

  3. In vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) and change mediated antigen technology (CMAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handfield, Martin; Hillman, Jeffrey D

    2006-09-01

    In this chapter, an overview of in vivo induced antigen technology (IVIAT) and change mediated antigen technology (CMAT) will be presented, including a discussion of the advantages and limitations of these methods. Over fifteen different microbial pathogens have been or are known to be currently studied with these methods. Salient data obtained from the application of IVIAT and/or CMAT to a selection of human and plant pathogens will be summarized. This includes recent reports on Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) in neurological disorders and invasive diseases, Xylella fastidiosa in Pierce's disease, Xanthomonas campestris in bean blight, Salmonella enterica serovar typhi in typhoid fever and Leishmania spp. related infections. Special emphasis will be given to those targets that have been further investigated for the development of novel vaccine, diagnostic and/or antibiotherapy strategies. This encompasses a new point-of-care serological diagnostic test for chronic periodontal diseases. Finally, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vivo induced products will be described as providing a rational basis for differentiating subjects with primary, dormant or secondary tuberculosis infections, from control subjects who have or did not have prior vaccination with BCG.

  4. ARE THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES CHANGING POLITICS? CASE STUDY IN GALICIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda García Vázquez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial society, politicians had to command the language TV since the intensity of the reaction was more important than the length of the message. They had to make categorical statements. In the Information Society with information and communication technologies (TICs, this changes to a great extent due to pluralism and the fact that more people make themselves heard. Blogs appear as a way to give opinion and information, and can be considered as an alternative form of expression –blogs give different views on news ignored by the main media-. Activists, political parties, organizations and citizens use websites, blogs or wikis as a means to insist and create opinion. TICs and cooperative tools of Web 2.0 increase people’s interest in politics, individual commitment and participation and cause political mediators to disappear. This paper presents a reflection on the impact of TICs on the theory of politics, and the results of a quantitative analysis of cases from the observation of how TICs are used on the social platform “Nunca Máis”, as well as by the autonomous government Xunta de Galicia, the Parliament of Galicia and the political party Bloque Nacionalista Galego.

  5. How to change GEBCO outreach activities with Information technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E.; Park, K.

    2014-12-01

    Since 1995, when National Geographic Information Project began, we have great advance in mapping itself and information service on the earth surface in Korea whether paper maps or online service map. By reviewing geological and mine-related information service in current and comparisons of demands, GEBCO outreach master plan has been prepared. Information service cannot be separated from data production and on dissemination policies. We suggest the potential impact of the changes in information technologies such as mobile service and data fusion, and big data on GEBCO maps based. Less cost and high performance in data service will stimulate more information service; therefore it is necessary to have more customer-oriented manipulation on the data. By inquiring questionnaire, we can draw the potential needs on GEBCO products in various aspects: such as education, accessibility. The gap between experts and non-experts will decrease by digital service from the private and public organizations such as international academic societies since research funds and policies tend to pursue "openness" and "interoperability" among the domains. Some background why and how to prepare outreach activities in GEBCO will be shown.

  6. Consumption dynamics and technological change - exemplified by the mobile phone and related technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2003-01-01

    consumer goods. The project was basically motivated by environmental and distributional concerns, and the purpose is first to reveal some important consumption dynamics at work on the micro level, and second to investigate how respondent families use new technologies, and how these are eventually...... integrated into gradual changes of everyday life - thereby influencing consumption dynamics and environmental impacts of everyday life in the longer term. The exposition of empirical findings is organised according to a theoretical framework outlining the acquisition and domestication processes - a framework...... that has emerged through the analytical process. The study illustrates how consumption drives are deeply embedded in the considerations, themes and complexities of everyday life, showing few signs of satiation in the short term. Moreover our findings on domestication indicate that some environmentally...

  7. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, N.; Der, R.; Ross, G.; Fahim, M.

    1978-05-01

    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg lead acetate and 0.5 mg cadmium chloride. The lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  8. Prostatic cellular changes after injection of cadmium and lead into rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, N; Der, R; Ross, G; Fahim, M

    1978-05-01

    Forty male rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as control. Group II received 1 mg. lead injected into the prostate; Group III received 1 mg. cadmium chloride; and Group IV received 0.5 mg. lead acetate and 0.5 mg. cadmium chloride. Results indicated that lead caused stone formation in the bladder and calcification of both bladder and prostate; cadmium caused reduction in size and weight of prostate, and histological observation showed marked atrophy of the gland, cuboidal epithelium, and squamous metaplasia in the acini of the prostate; there was no synergistic effect of lead acetate and cadmium chloride when combined at the level administered to Group IV.

  9. Moderate recurrent hypoglycemia during early development leads to persistent changes in affective behavior in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Holly; Craft, Tara K S; Grimaldi, Lisa M; Babic, Bruna; Brunelli, Susan A; Vannucci, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia is a common problem among infants and children that is associated with several metabolic disorders and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Although studies have reported a relationship between a history of juvenile hypoglycemia and psychological health problems, the direct effects of recurrent moderate hypoglycemia have not been fully determined. Thus, in this study, we used an animal model to examine the effects of recurrent hypoglycemia during the juvenile period on affective, social, and motor function (assessed under euglycemic conditions) across development. To model recurrent hypoglycemia, rats were administered 5 U/kg of insulin or saline twice per day from postnatal day (P)10 to P19. Body weight gain was retarded in insulin-treated rats during the treatment period, but recovered by the end of treatment. However, insulin-treated rats displayed increases in affective reactivity that emerged early during treatment and persisted after treatment into early adulthood. Specifically, insulin-treated pups showed increased maternal separation-induced vocalizations as infants, and an exaggerated acoustic startle reflex as juveniles and young adults. Moreover, young adult rats with a history of recurrent juvenile hypoglycemia exhibited increased fear-potentiated startle and increases in behavioral and hormonal responses to restraint stress. Some of these effects were sex-dependent. The changes in affective behavior in insulin-exposed pups were accompanied by decreases in adolescent social play behavior. These results provide evidence that recurrent, transient hypoglycemia during juvenile development can lead to increases in fear-related behavior and stress reactivity. Importantly, these phenotypes are not reversed with normalization of blood glucose and may persist into adulthood.

  10. Process and technoeconomic analysis of leading pretreatment technologies for lignocellulosic ethanol production using switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling; Aden, Andy; Elander, Richard T; Pallapolu, Venkata Ramesh; Lee, Y Y; Garlock, Rebecca J; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Kim, Youngmi; Mosier, Nathan S; Ladisch, Michael R; Falls, Matthew; Holtzapple, Mark T; Sierra, Rocio; Shi, Jian; Ebrik, Mirvat A; Redmond, Tim; Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E; Hames, Bonnie; Thomas, Steve; Warner, Ryan E

    2011-12-01

    Six biomass pretreatment processes to convert switchgrass to fermentable sugars and ultimately to cellulosic ethanol are compared on a consistent basis in this technoeconomic analysis. The six pretreatment processes are ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute acid (DA), lime, liquid hot water (LHW), soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide-impregnated steam explosion (SO(2)). Each pretreatment process is modeled in the framework of an existing biochemical design model so that systematic variations of process-related changes are consistently captured. The pretreatment area process design and simulation are based on the research data generated within the Biomass Refining Consortium for Applied Fundamentals and Innovation (CAFI) 3 project. Overall ethanol production, total capital investment, and minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) are reported along with selected sensitivity analysis. The results show limited differentiation between the projected economic performances of the pretreatment options, except for processes that exhibit significantly lower monomer sugar and resulting ethanol yields.

  11. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  12. Public policy and clean technology promotion. The synergy between environmental economics and evolutionary economics of technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio Gonzalez, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo

    2004-07-01

    Obstacles to clean technology development, innovation and diffusion are not only related to the lack of internalisation of environmental externalities in production costs, as defended by traditional environmental economics. Empirical studies show that many other obstacles prevent these technologies from penetrating the market. The relevance of these obstacles differs between sectors, firms and technologies. Consequently, a more focused approach is proposed. By taking a look at the specific, real-world barriers to clean technologies, a policy framework as well as some specific measures that target those barriers are suggested. These instruments are useful and complementary in a policy framework that, in addition to specific instruments, takes into account the influence of the style of regulation and the configuration of actors in the environmental technological change process. This paper proposes a coherent framework integrating environmental policy and technology policy instruments. This is deemed necessary in the technological transition to sustainable development. (author)

  13. Exploring Organisational Stratification and Technological Pedagogical Change: Cases of Technology Integration Specialists in Hong Kong International Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, David James

    2015-01-01

    An international school may make organisational choices that divide the school by curriculum, grade-level, language and location. This article explores how a school's organisational stratification impacts how the school supports changing teaching and learning practices through technology. The article draws from case data of technology integration…

  14. Dem Extraction from CHANG'E-1 Lam Data by Surface Skinning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.-B.; Zhang, W.-M.

    2011-08-01

    DEM is a digital model or 3-D representation of a terrain's surface and it is created from terrain elevation data. The main models for DEM extraction based on Lidar data or Laser Altimeter data currently use the idea that point cloud is scattered, such as regular grid model, TIN model and contour model. Essentially, in these above methods, the discrete points are interpolated into regular grid data and irregular grid data. In fact, point cloud generated by Laser Altimeter is not totally scattered, but have some regularity. In this paper, to utilize this regularity, the proposed method adopts surface skinning technology to generate DEM from Chang'E-1 Laser Altimeter data. The surface skinning technology is widely used in the field of mechanical engineering. Surface skinning is the process of passing a smooth surface through a set of curves called sectional curves, which, in general, may not be compatible. In the process of generating section line, a need for attention is that it needs to use curvature method to get a set of characteristic points, and these feature points were used to subdivide segment; the next step is generating several curves on some key places. These curves describe the shape of the curved surface. The last step is to generate a curved surface that through these curves. The result shows that, this idea is feasible, useful and it provides a novel way to generate accurate DEM.

  15. Climate change-induced vegetation shifts lead to more ecological droughts despite projected rainfall increases in many global temperate drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Britta; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.; Laurenroth, William K.; Hall, Sonia A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Hochstrasser, Tamara; Jia, Gensuo; Munson, Seth M.; Pyke, David A.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2017-01-01

    Drylands occur world-wide and are particularly vulnerable to climate change since dryland ecosystems depend directly on soil water availability that may become increasingly limited as temperatures rise. Climate change will both directly impact soil water availability, and also change plant biomass, with resulting indirect feedbacks on soil moisture. Thus, the net impact of direct and indirect climate change effects on soil moisture requires better understanding.We used the ecohydrological simulation model SOILWAT at sites from temperate dryland ecosystems around the globe to disentangle the contributions of direct climate change effects and of additional indirect, climate change-induced changes in vegetation on soil water availability. We simulated current and future climate conditions projected by 16 GCMs under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for the end of the century. We determined shifts in water availability due to climate change alone and due to combined changes of climate and the growth form and biomass of vegetation.Vegetation change will mostly exacerbate low soil water availability in regions already expected to suffer from negative direct impacts of climate change (with the two RCP scenarios giving us qualitatively similar effects). By contrast, in regions that will likely experience increased water availability due to climate change alone, vegetation changes will counteract these increases due to increased water losses by interception. In only a small minority of locations, climate change induced vegetation changes may lead to a net increase in water availability. These results suggest that changes in vegetation in response to climate change may exacerbate drought conditions and may dampen the effects of increased precipitation, i.e. leading to more ecological droughts despite higher precipitation in some regions. Our results underscore the value of considering indirect effects of climate change on vegetation when assessing future soil moisture conditions in water

  16. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  17. Functions of Innovation Systems : A new approach for analysing technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marco; Suurs, R.A.A.; Negro, Simona; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Smits, Ruud

    2007-01-01

    The central idea of this paper is that innovation systems are a very important determinant of technological change. We describe that the emergence of a new innovation system and changes in existing innovation systems co-evolve with the process of technological change. Therefore, it is necessary to c

  18. Functions of Innovation Systems : A new approach for analysing technological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marco; Suurs, R.A.A.; Negro, Simona; Kuhlmann, Stefan; Smits, Ruud

    2007-01-01

    The central idea of this paper is that innovation systems are a very important determinant of technological change. We describe that the emergence of a new innovation system and changes in existing innovation systems co-evolve with the process of technological change. Therefore, it is necessary to

  19. Educating the Adolescent for Technological Changes: Some Implications for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Lau Kam

    Generally concerned with how the schools can better educate the adolescent for adulthood, this paper briefly discusses the adolescent's need for work as a means of attaining adulthood, some promises and threats of technology, and effects of technological advances on society. Particular attention is given to four main effects having direct…

  20. NASA Composite Cryotank Technology Project Game Changing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this project was to provide new and innovative cryotank technologies that enable human space exploration to destinations beyond low earth orbit such as the moon, near-earth asteroids, and Mars. The goal ... to mature technologies in preparation for potential system level flight demonstrations through significant ground-based testing and/or laboratory experimentation

  1. Concrete Poetry as Sign of Technological Changes in Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This case deals with the large cultural perspectives and the technological imagination evident in the Swedish critic Torsten Ekbom's review of Danish concrete poetry......This case deals with the large cultural perspectives and the technological imagination evident in the Swedish critic Torsten Ekbom's review of Danish concrete poetry...

  2. Beyond Change Blindness: Embracing the Technology Revolution in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Kimberly Kode; DeSantis, Josh

    2017-01-01

    The pace of education technology innovation outpaces many professors' abilities to thoughtfully integrate new tools in their teaching practice. This poses challenges for higher education faculty as well as those responsible for planning professional development in higher education. This article explores recent trends in education technology and…

  3. Changing Technologies Offer New Opportunities in the Plant Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M. Culley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant sciences are now facing an unprecedented time in our history in which technology is advancing at a rapid pace, creating a wide variety of novel opportunities for our field. Applications in Plant Sciences is a new source for sharing exciting and innovative applications of new technologies that have the potential to propel plant research forward into the future.

  4. Quantitative resistance can lead to evolutionary changes in traits not targeted by the resistance QTLs.

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, F.; Lannou, C.; Gilligan, CA; Bosch, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the general concern in plant pathology that the introduction of quantitative resistance in the landscape can lead to increased pathogenicity. Hereto, we study the hypothetical case of a quantitative trait loci (QTL) acting on pathogen spore production per unit lesion area. To regain its original fitness, the pathogen can break the QTL, restoring its spore production capacity leading to an increased spore production per lesion. Or alternatively, it can increase its lesion ...

  5. Beyond Kotters Leading Change: A Broad Perspective on Organizational Change for Senior U.S. Military Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-16

    organization. Military writers have long called for the adoption of a culture of innovation to encourage such bottom-up behaviors.6 Second...military culture of authority associated with being a unit commander (whether brigade, battalion, ship, or squadron). Urgency and resistance, however, take...change. Section E (“Crafting the Change Effort”) constitutes the meat of this paper. For change efforts in the military, this section offers ideas on

  6. Leading Change and Innovation in Teacher Preparation: A Blueprint for Developing TPACK Ready Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tommye; Herring, Mary; Redmond, Pamela; Smaldino, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    When preparing TPACK ready teacher candidates, faculty must incorporate and model TPACK within the teacher education curriculum, which often requires an ongoing change process. But for change to take place we must consider the role leadership plays in the innovation of change. Leaders, deans and department heads must be an integral part of this…

  7. Opportunity in an Age of Disruption: How Independent Schools Can Lead the Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, John; Horn, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Technologies used in new business models have disrupted almost every sector of the economy. Many are now beginning to discuss when disruption will come to independent schools. The answer, of course, is that it has already happened; in areas such as admissions, college guidance, and learning content, there are disruptive innovations that are…

  8. Leading the Comprehensive Community College Library: Defining, Aligning, and Supporting Innovation and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Donna L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this multi-case study was to describe how library deans and directors at large comprehensive community colleges strategically advocate for and support instructional and technological innovation despite the reality of limited resources and the stress caused by recurring funding crises in higher education. It further sought to examine…

  9. Lead tolerance capacity of clinical bacterial isolates and change in their antibiotic susceptibility pattern after exposure to a heavy metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Garhwal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metal pollutions of soil and wastewater are a significant environmental problem as they are not degraded or destroyed. Several metal resistance mechanisms have been identified which is responsible for alteration of normal cell physiology leading to development of drug resistance in microorganisms. Heavy metals used in industry and in household products are, along with antibiotics, creating a selective pressure in the environment that leads to the mutations in microorganisms. The present study was carried out to study the heavy metal lead tolerance by bacteria and change in antibiotic-sensitivity pattern after its exposure. Materials and Methods: 30 clinical isolates from various samples received in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Surat, were included in the study. To check the lead tolerance capacity, isolates were exposed to graded concentration of lead nitrate by plate dilution method, starting from 50 up to 1000 μg/ml strength. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. A change in antibiotic susceptibility pattern was studied before and after lead exposure. Result: 30 clinical isolates were included in the study, 25 Gram negative (83.3% and 5 Gram positive (16.7%. MIC to lead was higher in Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. (600-1000 μg/ml as compared to E. coli, Klebsiella spp., S. aureus (50-150 μg/ml. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexes were changed significantly after lead exposure. Conclusion: Bacteria exposed to high levels of heavy metals in their environment have adapted to this stress by developing various resistance mechanism. Infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms create problem in treatment and management of patients. We should take efforts to prevent environmental pollution with such heavy metals and transmission of antibiotic-resistant microorganism from environment to health care set up.

  10. Employment rights of people with diabetes: changing technology and changing law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John W

    2013-03-01

    Though the treatment of diabetes has advanced remarkably, the law and many employers have not always kept pace. New insulins, delivery systems, and monitoring systems give people with diabetes exceptional control over their blood sugar and virtually eliminate serious complications such as hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Changes in the law, particularly the Americans with Disabilities Act and its 2008 amendments, give people with diabetes greater rights and employment opportunities than ever before. Despite these advances, many employers continue to use blanket bans or ill-considered standards to bar people with diabetes. Efforts to break down these remaining barriers are ongoing through employee litigation and through the American Diabetes Association's collaboration with entities that set occupational standards. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. The Relationship of ST Segment Changes in Lead aVR with Outcomes after Myocardial Infarction; a Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Beyranvand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the 12 leads studied in electrocardiography (ECG, lead aVR can be considered as the most forgotten part of it since no attention is paid to it as the mirror image of other leads. Therefore, the present study has been designed with the aim of evaluating the prevalence of ST segment changes in lead aVR and its relationship with the outcome of these patients.Methods: In this retrospective cross sectional study medical profiles of patients who had presented to emergency department with the final diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI in a 4-year period were evaluated regarding changes of ST segment in lead aVR and its relationship with in-hospital mortality, the number of vessels involved, infarct location and cardiac ejection fraction.Results: 288 patients with the mean age of 59.00 ± 13.14 (18 – 91 were evaluated (79.2% male. 168 (58.3% patients had the mentioned changes (79.2% male. There was no significant relationship between presence of ST changes in lead aVR with infarct location (p = 0.976, number of vessels involved (p = 0.269 and ejection fraction on admission (p = 0.801. However, ST elevation ≥ 1 mv in lead aVR had a significant relationship with mortality (Odds = 7.72, 95% CI: 3.07 – 19.42, p < 0.001. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios of ST elevation ≥ 1 for prediction of in-hospital mortality were 41.66 (95% CI: 22.79 – 63.05, 91.53 (95% CI: 87.29 – 94.50, 31.25 (95% CI: 16.74 – 50.13, 94.44 (95% CI: 90.65 – 96.81, 0.45 (95% CI: 0.25 – 0.79, and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.03 – 0.09, respectively.Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the prevalence of ST segment changes in lead aVR was estimated to be 58.3%. There was no significant relationship between these changes and the number of vessels involved in angiography, infarct location and cardiac ejection fraction. However, presence of ST elevation ≥ 1 in lead a

  12. Premature mortality in Belgium in 1993-2009: leading causes, regional disparities and 15 years change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Françoise; Tafforeau, Jean; Deboosere, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Reducing premature mortality is a crucial public health objective. After a long gap in the publication of Belgian mortality statistics, this paper presents the leading causes and the regional disparities in premature mortality in 2008-2009 and the changes since 1993. All deaths occurring in the periods 1993-1999 and 2003-2009, in people aged 1-74 residing in Belgium were included. The cause of death and population data for Belgium were provided by Statistics Belgium , while data for international comparisons were extracted from the WHO mortality database. Age-adjusted mortality rates and Person Year of Life Lost (PYLL) were calculated. The Rate Ratios were computed for regional and international comparisons, using the region or country with the lowest rate as reference; statistical significance was tested assuming a Poisson distribution of the number of deaths. The burden of premature mortality is much higher in men than in women (respectively 42% and 24% of the total number of deaths). The 2008-9 burden of premature mortality in Belgium reaches 6410 and 3440 PYLL per 100,000, respectively in males and females, ranking 4th and 3rd worst within the EU15. The disparities between Belgian regions are substantial: for overall premature mortality, respective excess of 40% and 20% among males, 30% and 20% among females are observed in Wallonia and Brussels as compared to Flanders. Also in cause specific mortality, Wallonia experiences a clear disadvantage compared to Flanders. Brussels shows an intermediate level for natural causes, but ranks differently for external causes, with less road accidents and suicide and more non-transport accidents than in the other regions. Age-adjusted premature mortality rates decreased by 29% among men and by 22% among women over a period of 15 years. Among men, circulatory diseases death rates decreased the fastest (-43.4%), followed by the neoplasms (-26.6%), the other natural causes (-21.0%) and the external causes (-20.8%). The larger

  13. Nitrogen dioxide reducing ascorbic acid technologies in the ventilator circuit leads to uniform NO concentration during inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezone, Matthew J; Wakim, Matthew G; Denton, Ryan J; Gamero, Lucas G; Roscigno, Robert F; Gilbert, Richard J; Lovich, Mark A

    2016-08-31

    Conventional inhaled NO systems deliver NO by synchronized injection or continuous NO flow in the ventilator circuitry. Such methods can lead to variable concentrations during inspiration that may differ from desired dosing. NO concentrations in these systems are generally monitored through electrochemical methods that are too slow to capture this nuance and potential dosing error. A novel technology that reduces NO2 into NO via low-resistance ascorbic-acid cartridges just prior to inhalation has recently been described. The gas volume of these cartridges may enhance gas mixing and reduce dosing inconsistency throughout inhalation. The impact of the ascorbic-acid cartridge technology on NO concentration during inspiration was characterized through rapid chemiluminescence detection during volume control ventilation, pressure control ventilation, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure using an in vitro lung model configured to simulate the complete uptake of NO. Two ascorbic acid cartridges in series provided uniform and consistent dosing during inspiration during all modes of ventilation. The use of one cartridge showed variable inspiratory concentration of NO at the largest tidal volumes, whereas the use of no ascorbic acid cartridge led to highly inconsistent NO inspiratory waveforms. The use of ascorbic acid cartridges also decreased breath-to-breath variation in SIMV and CPAP ventilation. The ascorbic-acid cartridges, which are designed to convert NO2 (either as substrate or resulting from NO oxidation during injection) into NO, also provide the benefit of minimizing the variation of inhaled NO concentration during inspiration. It is expected that the implementation of this method will lead to more consistent and predictable dosing.

  14. Intensive Mentoring that Contributes to Change in Beginning Elementary Teachers' Learning to Lead Classroom Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanulis, Randi Nevins; Little, Sarah; Wibbens, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether targeted mentoring can make a difference during the induction years. The effects of a mentoring intervention based on principles of instructional quality and effective professional development were studied. Learning to lead classroom discussions is a high-leverage practice related to effective teaching. Forty-two…

  15. Prospective Predictors of Suicidality: Defeat and Entrapment Lead to Changes in Suicidal Ideation over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Peter James; Gooding, Patricia A.; Wood, Alex M.; Johnson, Judith; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives into suicidality have suggested that heightened perceptions of defeat and entrapment lead to suicidality. However, all previous empirical work has been cross-sectional. We provide the first longitudinal test of the theoretical predictions, in a sample of 79 students who reported suicidality. Participants completed…

  16. Skill-Biased Technological Change. Evidence from a Firm-Level Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Donald S.

    A study addressed the effects of technological change using a new, rich source of firm-level data on technology usage and labor force composition. The empirical investigation is based on a survey of Long Island manufacturers' usage of computer-integrated manufacturing systems (CIMS) or advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). The study also…

  17. Educational Technology Training Workshops for Mathematics Teachers: An Exploration of Perception Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wilfred Wing Fat; Yuen, Allan Hoi Kau

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of educational technology training workshops on perception changes of mathematics teachers. Three perceptions, namely, pedagogical orientation, efficacy, and liking in relation to technology integration, were explored in this study. Two research questions were addressed: Do educational technology training workshops…

  18. Skill-Biased Technological Change. Evidence from a Firm-Level Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Donald S.

    A study addressed the effects of technological change using a new, rich source of firm-level data on technology usage and labor force composition. The empirical investigation is based on a survey of Long Island manufacturers' usage of computer-integrated manufacturing systems (CIMS) or advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). The study also…

  19. The importance of observation of structural changes of lead acid battery active mass in special applications in the mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zimáková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To be able to use lead acid batteries in particularly difficult conditions in the mining industry, it is very important to understand the events that occur during traction operation of mining carts, or auxiliary lighting. Failure of lead accumulators in the hazardous environments, where it is desired non-explosive embodiment, may have fatal consequences. The paper describes the possibility of observing changes in active materials at the microscopic level. The process of charging and discharging lead-acid accumulator has been described in many publications. The aim of this article is to supplement known information about a series of images and analysis that will accurately show progressive changes in the structure of the negative electrode. Negative electrodes are, at each cycle, charged and discharged under the same conditions, scanned with a scanning electron microscope, the elemental analysis (EDS is performed, and the size of the individual sulfate crystals is measured. Previously measured results indicate that during the charging the conversion of PbSO4 crystals into a charged form of the active mass is not complete, and there is a rapid increase in the size of lead sulfate crystals on the negative electrode. This article compares changes in electrode surface composition after two cycles. There is a clear loss of lead and, on the other hand, the visible growth of sulfur. This indicates progressive surface sulfation.

  20. Be a CHANGEMASTER: 12 Coaching Strategies for Leading Professional and Personal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Karla

    2012-01-01

    "Be a CHANGEMASTER" is a practical guide for school and district leaders that provides 12 strategies for overcoming resistance to change. Unlike more theoretical books, this text shows how to adopt a coaching style of leadership as a systemic change strategy. Numerous examples demonstrate how the strategies used in this book have led to…

  1. A Pathway Forward to School Change: Leading Together and Achieving Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Eric M.; Chrispeels, Janet H.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes and analyzes the actions taken by the principal and a middle school leadership team, which resulted in a change from a seven- to a six-period bell schedule. Change was facilitated through the interaction of three forces: (a) transformational leadership of the principal; (b) the development of a strong leadership team, and (c)…

  2. Be a CHANGEMASTER: 12 Coaching Strategies for Leading Professional and Personal Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Karla

    2012-01-01

    "Be a CHANGEMASTER" is a practical guide for school and district leaders that provides 12 strategies for overcoming resistance to change. Unlike more theoretical books, this text shows how to adopt a coaching style of leadership as a systemic change strategy. Numerous examples demonstrate how the strategies used in this book have led to…

  3. On the Optimal Allocation of R&D Resources for Climate Change Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanford, G J; Clarke, L E

    2003-11-03

    While technology studies and integrated assessment models incorporating endogenous technological change have demonstrated that advancing technology is a crucial component of an optimal greenhouse gas abatement strategy, the R&D process itself has received little analytical attention. This paper presents a conceptual framework for considering and exploring the optimal allocation of R&D resources for climate change technology development. The framework is then applied to a stylized application that considers the allocation between R&D focused on resolving uncertainties about the retention of sequestration and R&D focused on improving the performance of renewable energy technologies.

  4. A low-protein diet combined with low-dose endotoxin leads to changes in glucose homeostasis in weanling rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandsma, Robert H. J.; Ackerley, Cameron; Koulajian, Khajag; Zhang, Ling; van Zutphen, Tim; van Dijk, Theo H.; Xiao, Changting; Giacca, Adria; Lewis, Gary F.

    2015-01-01

    Severe malnutrition is a leading cause of global childhood mortality, and infection and hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia are commonly present. The etiology behind the changes in glucose homeostasis is poorly understood. Here, we generated an animal model of severe malnutrition with and without low-grad

  5. The Scanfin Merger: Technology, Strategy and Change (Case D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Pernille; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio

    -operation. Aiming to give a strong message on the changing nature of the CIO job, the Scanfin 'UberCIO' fired Olaf during a meeting and demanded quick and relevant changes from the remaining CIOs. The Finnish IT team, headed by Markku, carries out the technical changes in collaboration with the IT functions from...

  6. The Scanfin Merger: Technology, Strategy and Change (Case D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Pernille; Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, Antonio

    -operation. Aiming to give a strong message on the changing nature of the CIO job, the Scanfin 'UberCIO' fired Olaf during a meeting and demanded quick and relevant changes from the remaining CIOs. The Finnish IT team, headed by Markku, carries out the technical changes in collaboration with the IT functions from...

  7. Preserving Heritage Through Technology in a City Undergoing Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Mathias; Nielsen, Emil; van Heijster, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in information and communication technology have advanced the connectivity of cities, both in terms of scope and efficiency. The connected nature of a city is one of the key characteristics of the concept of a smart city; a modern city whose urban growth is fueled by technology...... for the preservation of a city’s threatened heritage. The present paper aims to place a city’s heritage in the context of a smart city, and how it is affected by such urban development. Using Aalborg in Denmark as a case study, this paper presents a potential way to use recent technological advancements to transfer...... the preservation of a city’s heritage from its museums to the urban environment....

  8. Wood anatomical changes due to uptake of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeynab Shahpoori; Vilma Bayramzadeh; Vahid Reza Safdari; Manoochehr Khan Zarinkafsh; Pedram Attarod; Roghayeh Jirroodnejad

    2012-01-01

    We investigated wood anatomical changes due to uptake and accumulation of cadmium and lead from contaminated soils in Acer velutinum Boiss seedlings.Two-year old seedlings were exposed for 180 days to soil concentrations with varying cadmium and lead concentrations.We measured three wood anatomical traits,average vessel area (μm2),vessel number per square millimetre,and vessel lumen area percentage (%).For assessing the cadmium and lead accumulation,we measured the concentrations in the soil,leaf,stem,and root.Average vessel area and vessel lumen area percentage were similar (p>0.05) in control and treated seedlings.Vessel number per square millimetre showed a decreasing trend from pith to bark in control and treated seedlings,and the trend was more pronounced in treated seedlings.We conclude that vessel number per square millimetre in A.velutinum is influenced by soil contamination.A.velutinum Boiss is not a suitable species for remediation of soils contaminated by cadmium and lead but it can be used as an indicator of the soil lead contamination,because lead concentrations in seedlings increased with increasing amount of lead in the soil.

  9. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  10. Academic Librarians' Perceptions of Teamwork and Organizational Structure in a Time of Rapid Technological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of academic librarians on two topics: the delivery of services to students and faculty in a time of rapid technological changes and an organizational structure appropriate for delivering services to students in a time of rapid technological changes. Several researchers agree that to…

  11. Technological Change in the Workplace: A Statewide Survey of Community College Library and Learning Resources Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Carolyn E.; Denny, Emmett

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of technostress on library personnel focuses on an investigation that examined how employees in Florida community college libraries and learning resources centers are dealing with technological change in their work environment. Considers implications for planning and implementing technological change and includes…

  12. Effect of Technology Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Understanding of Buoyant Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of technology enhanced conceptual change texts on elementary school students' understanding of buoyant force was investigated. The conceptual change texts (written forms) used in this study are proven for effectiveness and are enriched by using technology support in this study. These texts were tried out on two groups. A…

  13. Academic Librarians' Perceptions of Teamwork and Organizational Structure in a Time of Rapid Technological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Beth L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of academic librarians on two topics: the delivery of services to students and faculty in a time of rapid technological changes and an organizational structure appropriate for delivering services to students in a time of rapid technological changes. Several researchers agree that to…

  14. Measuring embodied technological change in Indonesian textiles : The core-machinery approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirmai, A; Timmer, MP; Van der Kamp, R

    2002-01-01

    This article focuses on the measurement of embodied technological change. It develops the core-machinery approach to capital measurement, which is based on an engineering perspective on technological change. Using technical characteristics of different types of machinery, technical progress in the c

  15. Technology and the Politics of Change at Work: The Case of Dalebake Bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Patrick; Gunson, Nicky

    2002-01-01

    A case study of automation in the British baking industry illustrates several perspectives: (1) technological change as inevitable due to external market forces; (2) selection and implementation of technology as an outcome of strategic choices; and (3) awareness of the need for change as part of a political process in which choices are made among…

  16. The OHS consultant as a 'political reflective navigator' in technological change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The occupational health service (OHS) in Denmark is rarely involved as adviser when technological changes take place in client enterprises. To support OHS efforts in this area, the work practice of OHS consultants has been studied in four cases of technological change. Traditionally, the role of ...

  17. Serum protein changes in lead exposed mice infected with Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R; Johri, G N

    1990-01-01

    Significant decrease in serum globulin took place in Hymenolepis nana mouse model treated with lead prior to infection. Decrease of alpha, beta and gamma globulins was maximum on day 4 in comparison to that of control, gradually tapering off by day 100 when suppression was minimum with the experimental values almost reaching the same level as those of the control. Thus, suppression of globulins was neither total nor permanent.

  18. Histological and ultrastructure changes in Medicago sativa in response to lead stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, human activities such industry and agriculture promote heavy metal release into the environment. Lead is the most contaminant metals in environment which adversely affects both plant and human life. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of Pb on structural characteristics in Medicago sativa L. 30 days plants treated with Pb in 5 treatments (0,120, 240, 500, 1000µM Pb with 3 repeat in per treatment for 10 days. Histochemical method of lead detection revealed significant accumulation of this metal in cortex and xylem tissues in roots and in stems lead deposits on cell wall of collenchymas tissues. The analysis of scanning electron micrographs of the leaf surface of M. sativa grown on hydroponic culture treated with Pb showed an increase in the size of guard cells in adaxial surface and decrease in abaxial surface, decrease in size of stomata aperture and closure of stomata in 1000 µM Pb in medium. Alternation of epicuticular waxes is one of the most important of pollution symptoms, in our study, alteration in structure and deposition of epicuticular waxes were observed. Also anatomical characteristics of stem and root affected by Pb contamination. Under Pb toxicity, anatomical symptoms including increase the diameter of stems and root as well as amplified vascular bundles and pith area were obsreved.

  19. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu Leads Delegation to Local Government Climate Change Leadership Summit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>From June 1 to 10, a CPAFFC delegation led by its president Chen Haosu attended the Local Government Climate Change Leadership Summit and the UCLG World Council Meeting in Copenhagen, Demark. The Local

  20. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    : climate change, elasticity of substitution between renewable and fossil energy and three different sources of technological uncertainty (i.e. R&D returns, innovation propensity and technological transferability). The performance of eight different GCF and non-GCF based policy regimes is evaluated in light of various end-of-century climate policy targets. Then I combine traditional scenario discovery data mining methods (Bryant and Lempert, 2010) with high dimensional stacking methods (Suzuki, Stem and Manzocchi, 2015; Taylor et al., 2006; LeBlanc, Ward and Wittels, 1990) to quantitatively characterize the conditions under which it is possible to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions and keep temperature rise below 2°C before the end of the century. Finally, I describe a method by which it is possible to combine the results of scenario discovery with high-dimensional stacking to construct a dynamic architecture of low cost technological cooperation. This dynamic architecture consists of adaptive pathways (Kwakkel, Haasnoot and Walker, 2014; Haasnoot et al., 2013) which begin with carbon taxation across both regions as a critical near term action. Then in subsequent phases different forms of cooperation are triggered depending on the unfolding climate and technological conditions. I show that there is no single policy regime that dominates over the entire uncertainty space. Instead I find that it is possible to combine these different architectures into a dynamic framework for technological cooperation across regions that can be adapted to unfolding climate and technological conditions which can lead to a greater rate of success and to lower costs in meeting the end-of-century climate change objectives agreed at the 2015 Paris Conference of the Parties. Keywords: international technological change, emerging nations, climate change, technological uncertainties, Green Climate Fund.

  1. A Review of Technology Education in Ireland; a Changing Technological Environment Promoting Design Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Keelin; Phelan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    In Ireland, Technology Education's structure and organisation across the levels of education is not delivered or governed in a coherent manner. Technology Education in primary level education, for students between 5 and 12 years of age, does not explicitly exist as a separate subject. In primary level education, Social, Environmental and…

  2. A Review of Technology Education in Ireland; a Changing Technological Environment Promoting Design Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Keelin; Phelan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    In Ireland, Technology Education's structure and organisation across the levels of education is not delivered or governed in a coherent manner. Technology Education in primary level education, for students between 5 and 12 years of age, does not explicitly exist as a separate subject. In primary level education, Social, Environmental and…

  3. Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM): Catalyzing Change Amid the Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakos, Lynn; Lujan, Vanessa; Strang, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Over the past eight years or so, educators have struggled to make sense of the many views and definitions of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and what constitutes quality in STEM practices. The multitude of recent STEM funding opportunities has done little to create a common understanding about how to best engage…

  4. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of international environmental debates. This thesis addresses, firstly, the possible methods of technology transfer and secondly, how current international environmental laws play its role to facilitate the transfer. Accordingly, I have focused on the concerned provisions of Kyoto Protocol and its subsequent...

  5. Negotiating over Technological Change in Banking and Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Edythe

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the provisions of recent negotiation agreements focusing on effects of technological developments in banking and insurance; general provisions; procedural provisions; and substantive provisions relating to job security, early retirement, working hours, retraining, downgrading, severance pay, and safety and health. (Author/SK)

  6. Smartphone Technology and Apps: Rapidly Changing Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Cox, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased availability of smartphones and health applications (apps), little is known about smartphone technology and apps for implementation in health promotion practice. Smartphones are mobile devices with capabilities for e-mail, text messaging, video viewing, and wireless Internet access. It is essential for health promotion…

  7. Smartphone Technology and Apps: Rapidly Changing Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Cox, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased availability of smartphones and health applications (apps), little is known about smartphone technology and apps for implementation in health promotion practice. Smartphones are mobile devices with capabilities for e-mail, text messaging, video viewing, and wireless Internet access. It is essential for health promotion…

  8. Induced attitude change on online gaming among adolescents: an application of the less-leads-to-more effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2008-04-01

    The negative impact of Internet use on adolescents has received much popular attention and has also become a popular research topic. How to induce adolescent players to change their attitudes toward online gaming is one of the most important issues in online gaming addiction. The present study is based on the less-leads-to-more effect of dissonance theory. Experimental research was conducted to examine the effects of rewards and decision freedom on attitude change toward online gaming among adolescents considered at risk for addiction. The results supported predictions based on external justification in dissonance theory. Specifically, fewer rewards produced greater attitude change toward online gaming in the condition of personal freedom of choice after participants exhibited attitude-discrepant behavior. However, the less-leads-to-more effect was not prominent in the condition without personal freedom of choice. Adopting a reward strategy to induce game players to disengage online gaming is discussed.

  9. Thawing Permafrost in Arctic Peatlands Leads to Changing Vegetation Composition, Decline in Plant Biodiversity, but Little Change in Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, S. R.; Hough, M.; McClure, A.; Saleska, S. R.; Rich, V. I.

    2016-12-01

    As permafrost thaws over the next century due to a rapidly changing climate, the shifting nature and amount of bioavailable soil organic matter (SOM) are causing ecosystem-level changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. These greenhouse gases could drive a positive feedback to climate change, increasing the rate of permafrost thaw. The change in SOM is due to (a) new availability of previously frozen permafrost carbon (C), and (b) shifting plant communities. Appreciable study has focused on the former; we focus here on the latter, at a `natural' permafrost thaw gradient in Arctic Abisko, Sweden. As previously frozen soil destabilizes and collapses into a waterlogged habitat, dominant vegetation type shifts from smaller, woodier plants to moss-dominated sites, then to taller, leafier sedges. This plant community succession is associated with increased CO2 uptake, which could partially offset the thaw-associated C release from soils if it resulted in greater C storage. We tested the hypothesis that C stored in plant biomass increases spatially across the thaw gradient by sampling both above and belowground biomass. We also took time points from the early and peak-growing season (early June to late July) to test if differences in plant growth seasonality impacted our biomass measures. Surprisingly, we found that total above and belowground biomass together do not significantly change from the intact to the fully-thawed habitats, despite previous research showing that productivity appears to be higher in the fully water-logged fen. However, biodiversity significantly decreased from the intact to waterlogged sites. The lack of observed biomass increase despite the increase in NPP observed in other studies from this site could be explained if the C taken up by sedges in fen sites is deposited in SOM at increased rates either through root exudates or annual litter deposition. Since the shift in plant community composition is associated with the observed

  10. Lead Induced Changes in the Growth and Antioxidant Metabolism of the Lead Accumulating and Non-accumulating Ecotypes of Sedum alfredii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Liu; Ting-Qiang Li; Xiao-Fen Jin; Xiao-E Yang; Ejazul Islam; Qaisar Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    The phytotoxicity and antioxidative adaptations of lead (Pb) accumulating ecotype (AE) and non-accumulating ecotype (NAE) of Sedum alfredii Hance were investigated under different Pb treatments involving 0, 0.02 mmol/L Pb, 0.1 mmol/L Pb and 0.1 mmol/L Pb/0.1 mmol/L ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 6days. With the Increasing Pb level, the Pb concentration in the shoots of AE plants enhanced accordingly, and EDTA supply helped 51% of Pb translocation to shoots of AE compared with those treated with 0.1 mmol/L Pb alone. Moreover, the presence of EDTA alleviated Pb phytotoxicity through changes in plant biomass, root morphology and chlorophyll contents. Lead toxicity Induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation and lipid peroxidation in both ecotypes of S. alfredii. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase elevated in both leaves and roots of AE as well as in leaves of NAE with the increasing Pb levels, but SOD and G-POD declined in roots of NAE. Enhancement in glutathione reductase activity was only detected in roots of NAE while a depression in catalase activity was recorded in the leaves of NAE. A significant enhancement in glutathione and ascorbic acid (AsA) levels occurred In both ecotypes exposed to Pb and Pb/EDTA treatment compared with the control, however, the differences between these two treatments were insignificant. The dehydroascorbate (DHA) contents in roots of both ecotypes were 1.41 to 11.22-fold higher than those in leaves, whereas the ratios of AsA to DHA (1.38 to 6.84) in leaves altering more to the reduced AsA form were much higher than those in roots. These results suggested that antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants play an important role in counteracting Pb stress in S. alfredii.

  11. Incubation of human blood fractions leads to changes in apparent miRNA abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Jørgensen, Stine Thuen; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    A basic investigation on the presence and composition of miRNA species and their reaction to in vitro incubation and stimulation (borosilicate glass beads), in plasma, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), red blood cells (RBC), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells...... in significant changes in the abundance of miR-21, miR-155, Let-7c and Let 7f in plasma, miR-21, miR-23a and miR-150 in RBC and miR-15b, miR-126, miR155 and Let-7g in PBMC, while no change was seen in PRP and PMN. Interestingly, in the samples incubated with glass beads, no miRNAs were significantly affected...... in plasma, RBC, PBMC and PMN, while expression of miR-25, miR15a, miR-126 and miR223 was significantly changed in PRP. Thus, PRP, as the only blood fraction depended on stimulation to change its miRNA profile upon incubation. For the other fractions, stimulation either leveled out the changes induced...

  12. Lead isotopic evidence for evolutionary changes in magma-crust interaction, Central Andes, southern Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiro, B.A. (California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Clark, A.H. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1984-07-01

    Lead isotopic measurements were made on Andean igneous rocks of Jurassic to Recent age in Moquegua and Tacna Departments, southernmost Peru, to clarify the petrogenesis of the rocks and, in particular, to investigate the effect of crustal thickness on rock composition. This location in the Cordillera Occidental is ideal for such a study because the ca. 2 Ga Precambrian basement rocks (Arequipa massif) have a distinct Pb isotopic signature which is an excellent tracer of crustal interaction, and because geomorphological research has shown that the continental crust was here thickened drastically in the later Tertiary.

  13. SERUM PROTEIN CHANGES IN RABBITS AFTER CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF LEAD AND CADMIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo HRISTEV

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of lead (5mg/kg b.w and cadmium (2mg/kg b.w after chronic treatment of the rabbits on serum protein is investigated. Signifi cantly raised content of the cholesterol, ASAT and ALAT; hypo-albuminemia and hyperbetaglobulinemia of the background of one hypoproteinemia and low A/G coeffi cient are established. On basis of obtained result can to show degree of liver parenchyma damage and as trial for used the hyperbeta-globulinemia (at chronic treatment with cadmium is stronger markedly as indicator for delimitation of enteral from parenteral toxication, at that is noted hypergamma-globulinemia.

  14. Managing the ERP implementation journey - change in discourse from classical IT project to technology-driven organisational change initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Rose, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    In the implementation of an ERP system in a large Danish production company (here referred to as Omega), discourse surrounding the project changed appreciably during the course of the project. Drawing on recent adaptations of discourse theory, we provide a theoretical model which relates...... technological discourse to actions and outcomes. The model provides a theoretical explanation for how one dominant technological discourse in an organisation can be replaced by another. The ERP implementation at Omega was originally cast as a classical IT project (reflecting the dominant ways of thinking about...... system development and project management both in industry and academia); however, the experience of the project clearly changed the sense-making of the participants and the implementation later came to be regarded as an technology-driven organisational change initiative. The new technological discourse...

  15. Managing the ERP implementation journey - change in discourse from classical IT project to technology-driven organisational change initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Rose, Jeremy

    In the implementation of an ERP system in a large Danish production company (here referred to as Omega), discourse surrounding the project changed appreciably during the course of the project. Drawing on recent adaptations of discourse theory, we provide a theoretical model which relates...... technological discourse to actions and outcomes. The model provides a theoretical explanation for how one dominant technological discourse in an organisation can be replaced by another. The ERP implementation at Omega was originally cast as a classical IT project (reflecting the dominant ways of thinking about...... system development and project management both in industry and academia); however, the experience of the project clearly changed the sense-making of the participants and the implementation later came to be regarded as an technology-driven organisational change initiative. The new technological discourse...

  16. Evidence-based medicine in rapidly changing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may....... Special considerations should be given in rapidly developing fields. If started too early the resulting comparison will likely turn out to be irrelevant because the new technology is not fully developed, not mastered or the device may have undergone major modifications rendering the results obsolete....... On the other hand, if started too late there is a chance that data may be lost because the technology has already been introduced into the daily clinics and physicians may be unwilling to recruit patients. Or the opposite, that the technique may have been rejected without a proper trial. In this situation...

  17. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Benjamin

    2005-10-25

    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology, particularly Geographic Information Systems, have allowed political parties and other organizations to create election districts with increasingly precise political and demographic characteristics. Scholars have made considerable progress in measuring and evaluating the racial and partisan biases of districting plans, and some states have tried to use Geographic Information Systems technology to produce more representative districts. However, case studies of Texas and Arizona illustrate that such analytic and technical advances have not overcome the basic contradictions that underlie the American system of territorial political representation.

  18. DOES ORGANIC FOOD INTERVENTION IN SCHOOL LEAD TO CHANGED DIETARY PATTERNS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    During adolescence food habits, physical activity, and life style of young people are easily influenced by a number of actors and phenomena in the environment including parents, friends, advertisements and all of the changes occurring in society. The meal patterns formed during adolescence...

  19. Principal Preparedness for Leading in Demographically Changing Schools: Where Is the Social Justice Training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Catherine M.; Martin, Barbara N.

    2015-01-01

    This multi-case study sought to construct meaning using a cultural capital lens in relation to educational leadership preparation programs building the capacities of social justice leaders in demographically changing schools. Data revealed principals' perceptions about preparation, expectations and general beliefs and assumptions related to…

  20. Benzo[a]pyrene treatment leads to changes in nuclear protein expression and alternative splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Chunlan; Wu Wei [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Li Haiyan [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Huzhou Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313000 (China); Zhang Guanglin [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J. [Department of Basic Sciences, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Zhu Xinqiang, E-mail: zhuxq@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Yang Jun, E-mail: gastate@zju.edu.cn [Department of Toxicology, Zhejiang University School of Public Health, 388 Yu-Hang-Tang Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Zhejiang-California International Nanosystems Institute, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 (China)

    2010-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a potent pro-carcinogen generated from the combustion of fossil fuel and cigarette smoke. Previously, using a proteomic approach, we have shown that BaP can induce changes in the expression of many cellular proteins, including transcription regulators. In the present study, using a similar approach, we examined the nuclear protein response to BaP in HeLa cells and found that BaP treatment caused expression changes in many nuclear proteins. Twenty-four of these proteins were successfully identified, several of which are involved in the alternative splicing of mRNA, DNA replication, recombination, and repair. The changed expression levels were further confirmed by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies for two proteins, Lamin A and mitotic checkpoint protein Bub3. The nuclear localization of these two proteins was also confirmed by confocal microscopy. To determine whether alternative splicing was activated following BaP treatment, we examined Fas and CD44, two genes previously shown to be targets of alternative splicing in respond to DNA damage. While no significant activation of alternative splicing was observed for Fas, CD44 splicing variants were found after BaP treatment. Together, these data show that DNA damage induces dramatic changes in nuclear protein expression, and that alternative splicing might be involved in the cellular response to DNA damage.

  1. Twelve Factors Leading to Fundamental Pedagogical Change in a Primary School: A Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Cathleen; Soloway, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    A school can change. In this case study, the authors describe the 12 factors they have identified as being key in the transformation of the core pedagogical practices at Nan Chiau Primary School, Singapore, from direct instruction to inquiry, from a 20th to a 21st century school. While the adoption of 1:1 mobile devices played a catalytic role in…

  2. U.S. Forest Service Leads Climate Change Adaptation in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Effective climate change engagement on public lands is characterized by (1) an enduring science-management partnership, (2) involvement of key stakeholders, (3) consideration of broad landscapes with multiple landowners, (4) science-based, peer-reviewed assessments of sensitivity of natural resources to climate change, (5) adaptation strategies and tactics developed by resource managers, (6) leadership and a workforce motivated to implement climate-smart practices in resource planning and project management. Using this approach, the U.S. Forest Service, in partnership with other organizations, has developed climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans for diverse ecosystems and multiple resources in national forests and other lands in the western United States, although implementation (step 6) has been slow in some cases. Hundreds of meetings, strategies, plans, and panels have focused on climate change adaptation over the past decade, but only direct engagement between scientists and resource managers (less research, less planning, more action) has resulted in substantive outcomes and increased organizational capacity for climate-smart management.

  3. The changing demographic, legal, and technological contexts of political representation

    OpenAIRE

    Forest, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    Three developments have created challenges for political representation in the U.S. and particularly for the use of territorially based representation (election by district). First, the demographic complexity of the U.S. population has grown both in absolute terms and in terms of residential patterns. Second, legal developments since the 1960s have recognized an increasing number of groups as eligible for voting rights protection. Third, the growing technical capacities of computer technology...

  4. Development Challenges of Game-Changing Entry System Technologies From Concept to Mission Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin; Ellerby, Don; Feldman, Jay; Gage, Peter; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies.

  5. Regaining America's leading global position in the innovation of science and technology: Increasing engineering program enrollment in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burklo, Daniel A.

    While the United States has always been a global leader in the innovation of science and technology, this leading global position is in jeopardy. As other developing countries produce intellectual capital in the form of engineers at increasing rates, the country will continue to lose ground. Today the need for the country to produce engineers is greater than ever before. Recognizing this need, attempts have been made to increase entrance into engineering fields in higher education by providing STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) activities during K-12 education. While STEM initiatives create awareness and interest, this study investigates what actually motivates individuals to choose engineering programs in higher education. A quantitative study utilizing survey results from 202 first year engineering students in the state of Ohio illustrates what has motivated them to choose engineering as a major. The study examines who, when, and what motivated the students to choose engineering by examining the relationship of influential people and STEM initiatives participated in during their K-12 education to enrollment in engineering programs at colleges and universities in the state of Ohio. The study proved the general hypothesis that there are influential people in an individual's college choice, such as the parent, and there are time periods during K-12 education when individuals are more motivated, such as the high school years. The study also showed a positive correlation between the motivation toward engineering programs and the number of STEM opportunities in which individuals participated yet there was little difference when comparing the different types of STEM initiatives.

  6. The Role of Change Agents in Technology Adoption Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert

    Although the total or partial failure of Information Technology (IT) projects are well documented such failures are not entirely technical in nature (Donohue et al, 2001). Project failures are often caused by lack of attention to social factors. (2002) identified ethical issues whilst (1999) and (2002) point to human factors, which in essence are the norms and culture of the implementation environment. On the. influence of culture on project success, (2003) noted that, the cultural problems are much bigger than the technical ones, adding: "The biggest hurdle is making people realise that information needs to be shared. It is only with this ethos of sharing information that take-up of technologies will be hastened." Consequently, research and debate about IT implementation is likely to continue until the development process is under better control (Nolan 1999). This state of constant evaluation is crucial because aborted IT projects are still common place. According to (1998), 31% of all corporate technology development projects resulted in cancellation. Although in broad terms, there seems to be ample evidence of the influence of non-technical factors on project failure the dynamics of how this happens is not widely discussed. There are some pointers to the dynamics of the process in literature.

  7. BetterPoints: Motivating behaviour change using technology-driven incentivisation

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Lancaster

    2015-01-01

    Background Conference theme: Using behaviour change theory to create high-quality interventions and products. BetterPoints is a localised behaviour change system that uses incentivisation, recognition and social interaction – all driven by an innovative technology. Our main method of engagement is a proprietary smartphone app. The app is part of a powerful behaviour change technology platform that allows rapid customisation, massive reward flexibility and sophisticated reporting. This...

  8. The impact of changing technology on the demand for air transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1978-01-01

    Demand models for air transportation that are sensitive to the impact of changing technology were developed. The models are responsive to potential changes in technology, and to changing economic, social, and political factors as well. In addition to anticipating the wide differences in the factors influencing the demand for long haul and short haul air travel, the models were designed to clearly distinguish among the unique features of these markets.

  9. Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Nunes, Carlos; Ansotegui, Ignacio; D'Amato, Maria; Liccardi, Gennaro; Sofia, Matteo; Canonica, Walter G

    2013-02-11

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases has increased dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor vehicles has been indicated as one of the major risk factors responsible for this increase.Although genetic factors are important in the development of asthma and allergic diseases, the rising trend can be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile and decreasing trends of some key air pollutants, air quality is an important concern for public health in the cities throughout the world.Due to climate change, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanized areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health.The observational evidence indicates that recent regional changes in climate, particularly temperature increases, have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems in many parts of the world. Associations between thunderstorms and asthma morbidity in pollinosis subjects have been also identified in multiple locations around the world.Allergens patterns are also changing in response to climate change and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens especially in presence of specific weather conditions.The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known yet. The consequences on health vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.Factor clouding the issue is that laboratory evaluations do not reflect what happens during natural exposition, when atmospheric pollution mixtures in polluted cities are inhaled. In addition, it is important to recall that an individual's response to pollution exposure depends on the source and components of air pollution, as well as meteorological conditions. Indeed, some air pollution-related incidents with asthma aggravation do not depend

  10. Older Adults' Current and Potential Uses of Information Technologies in a Changing World: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hall, Amanda K; Thielke, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Technologies have become a major force in people's lives. They change how people interact with the environment, even as the environment changes. We propose that technology use in the setting of changing environments is motivated by essential needs and tensions experienced by the individual. We apply three developmental and behavioral theories (Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model) to explain technology-related behaviors among older adults. We consider how technology use has addressed and can address major ecological changes, in three areas: health promotion, natural disasters, and disparities. We propose that considering these theories can help researchers and developers ensure that technologies will help promote a healthier world for older adults. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Older Adults’ Current and Potential Uses of Information Technologies in a Changing World: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hall, Amanda K.; Thielke, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Technologies have become a major force in people’s lives. They change how people interact with the environment, even as the environment changes. We propose that technology use in the setting of changing environments is motivated by essential needs and tensions experienced by the individual. We apply three developmental and behavioral theories (Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model) to explain technology-related behaviors among older adults. We consider how technology use has addressed and can address major ecological changes, in three areas: health promotion, natural disasters, and disparities. We propose that considering these theories can help researchers and developers ensure that technologies will help promote a healthier world for older adults. PMID:26215298

  12. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  13. Methamphetamine-induced vascular changes lead to striatal hypoxia and dopamine reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Kousik, Sharanya M.; Graves, Steven M.; Napier, T. Celeste; Zhao, Chaohui; Carvey, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a potent psychostimulant known to cause neurotoxicity. Clinical reports suggest meth abuse is a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease. We investigated changes in the blood brain barrier and cerebral vasculature as a mechanism underlying this risk in rats treated acutely and trained to self-administer meth. We observed blood brain barrier leakage in rats treated acutely with meth. Hypoperfusion in the striatum was detected with acute and chronic meth treatment and assoc...

  14. Leading Healthcare Change Across the Care Continuum: An Interview With Dr Kenneth Rempher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz; Joseph, M Lindell

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Rempher, PhD, MBA, CENP, RN, is the chief nursing officer for the University of Iowa (UI) Hospitals and Clinics. In his 20-year career, he has distinguished himself as a visionary healthcare leader. Colleagues describe Dr Rempher as a strong, transformational leader, guiding the UI enterprise through a time of uncertainty and change. This interview by the CGEAN provides insight to his leadership style, successes, and ideas on the future of care delivery.

  15. Change management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available by Fullan’s work (2006) on Learning to Lead Change; the idea that change needs energy, ideas, commitment and ownership rather than a controlling management. The following is a summary of the Change Leadership training modules which were presented... Cost of Ownership model ..................................... 231 7.5 Selecting technology for sustainability: multi-criteria technology selection model...

  16. Building Change Readiness Practices for Information Technology Support Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dianna Joseph

    2014-01-01

    With the turbulent economic conditions of the healthcare market, organizational leaders are faced with significant factors driving unprecedented change. Healthcare organizations are challenged with reimbursement reductions, high costs, modification of government regulations, and demanding healthcare consumers. Survival for healthcare organizations…

  17. Building Change Readiness Practices for Information Technology Support Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Dianna Joseph

    2014-01-01

    With the turbulent economic conditions of the healthcare market, organizational leaders are faced with significant factors driving unprecedented change. Healthcare organizations are challenged with reimbursement reductions, high costs, modification of government regulations, and demanding healthcare consumers. Survival for healthcare organizations…

  18. Focal experimental injury leads to widespread gene expression and histologic changes in equine flexor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Else; Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B; Little, Christopher B; Smith, Margaret M

    2015-01-01

    It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3 cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re-injury in clinical cases. Our data suggest that successful treatments of focal injuries will need to address pathology in the entire tendon, and that better methods to monitor the development and resolution of tendinopathy are required.

  19. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  20. Exposure to Sound Vibrations Lead to Transcriptomic, Proteomic and Hormonal Changes in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ritesh; Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Choi, Bosung; Kwon, Young Sang; Bae, Dong Won; Park, Soo-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Bae, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    Sound vibration (SV) is considered as an external mechanical force that modulates plant growth and development like other mechanical stimuli (e.g., wind, rain, touch and vibration). A number of previous and recent studies reported developmental responses in plants tailored against SV of varied frequencies. This strongly suggests the existence of sophisticated molecular mechanisms for SV perception and signal transduction. Despite this there exists a huge gap in our understanding regarding the SV-mediated molecular alterations, which is a prerequisite to gain insight into SV-mediated plant development. Herein, we investigated the global gene expression changes in Arabidopsis thaliana upon treatment with five different single frequencies of SV at constant amplitude for 1 h. As a next step, we also studied the SV-mediated proteomic changes in Arabidopsis. Data suggested that like other stimuli, SV also activated signature cellular events, for example, scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration of primary metabolism, and hormonal signaling. Phytohormonal analysis indicated that SV-mediated responses were, in part, modulated by specific alterations in phytohormone levels; especially salicylic acid (SA). Notably, several touch regulated genes were also up-regulated by SV treatment suggesting a possible molecular crosstalk among the two mechanical stimuli, sound and touch. Overall, these results provide a molecular basis to SV triggered global transcriptomic, proteomic and hormonal changes in plant. PMID:27665921

  1. [Changing the teaching of neurosurgery with information technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Jean-Jacques; Caire, François; Kalamarides, Michel; Mireau, Etienne; Dauger, Frédéric; Coignac, Marie-Jo; Charlin, Bernard

    2009-10-01

    A digital campus is a distance learning site that uses the potential of information and communication technologies to disseminate and improve educational services. This website, with open and free access, is built from free software with Web 2.0 technology. It is hosted at the University of Limoges. It functions as a digital library, containing scanned books, slide shows, more than 200 hours of recorded courses and round tables accessible by streaming video. The site is indexed according to the users' needs, by level of knowledge, specialty, keywords, and supplementary MeSH terms. The campus is organized as the College of Neurosurgery (http://college.neurochirurgie.fr). The durability of this type of training (in existence for 9 years now) is made possible by a powerful and committed consortium: the French Society of Neurosurgery, which has created high-quality intellectual and scientific resources, the University of Limoges, the Dupuytren University Hospital Center in Limoges, the region of Limousin, and the French-language Virtual Medical University, which have provided logistic and financial support. To target appropriate levels at various users, we distinguished four groups: medical students, neurosurgery students, neurosurgeons (continuing medical education), and students in allied health fields. All areas of neurosurgery are concerned. All the courses, including tests for self-evaluation and scientific meetings (organized with information and communication technologies) are digitally recorded for the site. The principles that make it possible for a medical discipline to organize around an online project are: a pedagogical conception of projects built in the form of models reusable by other health specialties; a stronghold within professional societies of the relevant specialties able to create high-quality intellectual and scientific resources; an organization by educational levels that can be extended transversally to other health disciplines; and free

  2. The impact of technological change on census taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackstone, G J

    1984-01-01

    The increasing costs of traditional census collection methods have forced census administrators to look at the possibility of using administrative record systems in order to obtain population data. This article looks at the recent technological developments which have taken place in the last decade, and how they may affect data collection for the 1990 census. Because it is important to allow sufficient developmental and testing time of potential automated methods and technologies, it is not too soon to look at the trends resulting from technological advances and their implications for census data collection. These trends are: 1) the declining ratio of computing costs to manpower costs; 2) the increasing ratio of power and capacity of computers to their physical size; 3) declining data storage costs; 4) the increasing public acceptance of computers; 5) the increasing workforce familiarity with computers; and 6) the growing interactive computing capacity. Traditional use of computers for government data gathering operations were primarily for the processing stage. Now the possibility of applying these trends to census material may influence all aspects of the process; from questionnaire design and production, to data analysis. Examples include: the production of high quality maps for geographic frameworks, optical readers for data entry, the ability to provide users with a final data base, as well as printed output, and quicker dissemination of data results. Although these options exist, just like the use of administrative records for statistical purposes, they must be carefully analysed in context to the purposes for which they were created. The limitations of using administrative records for the and 2) definition, coverage, and quality limitations could bias statistical data derived from them. Perhaps they should be used as potential complementary sources of data, and not as replacements for census data. Influencing the evolution of these administrative records

  3. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    implementation measures. I have also taken in to account the decisions of the annual meetings of the Conference of the parties (COPs) of the UNFCCC. The thesis has also made a brief comparative discussion between the provisions of international environmental laws and the provisions of intellectual property...... of international environmental debates. This thesis addresses, firstly, the possible methods of technology transfer and secondly, how current international environmental laws play its role to facilitate the transfer. Accordingly, I have focused on the concerned provisions of Kyoto Protocol and its subsequent...

  4. Application of electrochemical technology for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from produced water using lead dioxide and boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Gargouri, Olfa Dridi; Gargouri, Bochra; Trabelsi, Souhel Kallel; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Although diverse methods exist for treating polluted water, the most promising and innovating technology is the electrochemical remediation process. This paper presents the anodic oxidation of real produced water (PW), generated by the petroleum exploration of the Petrobras plant-Tunisia. Experiments were conducted at different current densities (30, 50 and 100 mA cm(-2)) using the lead dioxide supported on tantalum (Ta/PbO2) and boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes in an electrolytic batch cell. The electrolytic process was monitored by the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the residual total petroleum hydrocarbon [TPH] in order to know the feasibility of electrochemical treatment. The characterization and quantification of petroleum wastewater components were performed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The COD removal was approximately 85% and 96% using PbO2 and BDD reached after 11 and 7h, respectively. Compared with PbO2, the BDD anode showed a better performance to remove petroleum hydrocarbons compounds from produced water. It provided a higher oxidation rate and it consumed lower energy. However, the energy consumption and process time make useless anodic oxidation for the complete elimination of pollutants from PW. Cytotoxicity has shown that electrochemical oxidation using BDD could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of hydrocarbons compounds. All results suggest that electrochemical oxidation could be an effective approach to treat highly concentrated organic pollutants present in the industrial petrochemical wastewater and significantly reduce the cost and time of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lead isotopic evidence for evolutionary changes in magma-crust interaction, Central Andes, southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, Barbara A.; Clark, Alan H.

    1984-07-01

    Lead isotopic measurements were made on Andean igneous rocks of Jurassic to Recent age in Moquegua and Tacna Departments, southernmost Peru, to clarify the petrogenesis of the rocks and, in particular, to investigate the effect of crustal thickness on rock composition. This location in the Cordillera Occidental is ideal for such a study because the ca. 2 Ga Precambrian basement rocks (Arequipa massif) have a distinct Pb isotopic signature which is an excellent tracer of crustal interaction, and because geomorphological research has shown that the continental crust was here thickened drastically in the later Tertiary. Seven samples of quartz diorites and granodiorites from the Ilo and Toquepala intrusive complexes, and seven samples of Toquepala Group subaerial volcanics were analyzed for Pb isotopic compositions. The plutonic rocks range in age from Jurassic to Eocene; the volcanic rocks are all Late Cretaceous to Eocene. With one exception, the Pb isotopic ratios are in the ranges 206Pb/ 204Pb= 18.52-18.75, 207Pb/ 204Pb= 15.58-15.65, and 208Pb/ 204Pb= 38.53-38.74. The data reflect very little or no interaction with old continental material of the Arequipa massif type. Lead from four Miocene Huaylillas Formation ash-flow tuffs, two Pliocene Capillune Formation andesites and five Quaternary Barroso Group andesites has lower 206Pb/ 204Pb than that in the pre-Miocene rocks, but relatively high 207Pb/ 204Pb and 208Pb/ 204Pb ( 206Pb/ 204Pb= 18.16-18.30, 207Pb/ 204Pb= 15.55-15.63, 208Pb/ 204Pb= 38.45-38.90). Tilton and Barreiro [9] have shown that contamination by Arequipa massif granulites can explain the isotopic composition of the Barosso Group lavas, and the new data demonstrate that this effect is evident, to varying degrees, in all the analysed Neogene volcanic rocks. The initial incorporation of such basement material into the magma coincided with the Early Miocene uplift of this segment of the Cordillera Occidental [32], and thus with the creation of a thick

  6. Gestation under chronic constant light leads to extensive gene expression changes in the fetal rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichiger, Carlos; Torres-Farfan, Claudia; Galdames, Hugo A; Mendez, Natalia; Alonso-Vazquez, Pamela; Richter, Hans G

    2015-12-01

    Recent reports account for altered metabolism in adult offspring from pregnancy subjected to abnormal photoperiod, suggesting fetal programming of liver physiology. To generate a pipeline of subsequent mechanistic experiments addressing strong candidate genes, here we investigated the effects of constant gestational light on the fetal liver transcriptome. At 10 days of gestation, dams were randomized in two groups (n = 7 each): constant light (LL) and normal photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark; LD). At 18 days of gestation, RNA was isolated from the fetal liver and subjected to DNA microarray (Affymetrix platform for 28,000 genes). Selected differential mRNAs were validated by quantitative PCR (qPCR), while integrated transcriptional changes were analyzed with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and other bioinformatics tools. Comparison of LL relative to LD fetal liver led to the following findings. Significant differential expression was found for 3,431 transcripts (1,960 upregulated and 1,471 downregulated), with 393 of them displaying ≥ 1.5-fold change. We validated 27 selected transcripts by qPCR, which displayed fold-change values highly correlated with microarray (r(2) = 0.91). Different markers of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease were either upregulated (e.g., Ndn and Pnpla3) or downregulated (e.g., Gnmt, Bhmt1/2, Sult1a1, Mpo, and Mat1a). Diverse pathways were altered, including hematopoiesis, coagulation cascade, complement system, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The microRNAs 7a-1, 431, 146a, and 153 were upregulated, while the abundant hepatic miRNA 122 was downregulated. Constant gestational light induced extensive modification of the fetal liver transcriptome. A number of differentially expressed transcripts belong to fundamental functional pathways, potentially contributing to long-term liver disease.

  7. Focal experimental injury leads to widespread gene expression and histologic changes in equine flexor tendons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Jacobson

    Full Text Available It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3 cm regions for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry and gene expression (real time PCR analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03 with no differences between overstressed (medial and stress-deprived (lateral tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02, with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02 and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001. Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001, whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001. In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes

  8. Focal Experimental Injury Leads to Widespread Gene Expression and Histologic Changes in Equine Flexor Tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Else; Dart, Andrew J.; Mondori, Takamitsu; Horadogoda, Neil; Jeffcott, Leo B.; Little, Christopher B.; Smith, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    It is not known how extensively a localised flexor tendon injury affects the entire tendon. This study examined the extent of and relationship between histopathologic and gene expression changes in equine superficial digital flexor tendon after a surgical injury. One forelimb tendon was hemi-transected in six horses, and in three other horses, one tendon underwent a sham operation. After euthanasia at six weeks, transected and control (sham and non-operated contralateral) tendons were regionally sampled (medial and lateral halves each divided into six 3cm regions) for histologic (scoring and immunohistochemistry) and gene expression (real time PCR) analysis of extracellular matrix changes. The histopathology score was significantly higher in transected tendons compared to control tendons in all regions except for the most distal (P ≤ 0.03) with no differences between overstressed (medial) and stress-deprived (lateral) tendon halves. Proteoglycan scores were increased by transection in all but the most proximal region (P < 0.02), with increased immunostaining for aggrecan, biglycan and versican. After correcting for location within the tendon, gene expression for aggrecan, versican, biglycan, lumican, collagen types I, II and III, MMP14 and TIMP1 was increased in transected tendons compared with control tendons (P < 0.02) and decreased for ADAMTS4, MMP3 and TIMP3 (P < 0.001). Aggrecan, biglycan, fibromodulin, and collagen types I and III expression positively correlated with all histopathology scores (P < 0.001), whereas lumican, ADAMTS4 and MMP14 expression positively correlated only with collagen fiber malalignment (P < 0.001). In summary, histologic and associated gene expression changes were significant and widespread six weeks after injury to the equine SDFT, suggesting rapid and active development of tendinopathy throughout the entire length of the tendon. These extensive changes distant to the focal injury may contribute to poor functional outcomes and re

  9. Needs, resources and climate change: Clean and efficient conversion technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2011-02-01

    Energy "powers" our life, and energy consumption correlates strongly with our standards of living. The developed world has become accustomed to cheap and plentiful supplies. Recently, more of the developing world populations are striving for the same, and taking steps towards securing their future energy needs. Competition over limited supplies of conventional fossil fuel resources is intensifying, and more challenging environmental problems are springing up, especially related to carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions. There is strong evidence that atmospheric CO 2 concentration is well correlated with the average global temperature. Moreover, model predictions indicate that the century-old observed trend of rising temperatures could accelerate as carbon dioxide concentration continues to rise. Given the potential danger of such a scenario, it is suggested that steps be taken to curb energy-related CO 2 emissions through a number of technological solutions, which are to be implemented in a timely fashion. These solutions include a substantial improvement in energy conversion and utilization efficiencies, carbon capture and sequestration, and expanding the use of nuclear energy and renewable sources. Some of these technologies already exist, but are not deployed at sufficiently large scale. Others are under development, and some are at or near the conceptual state. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology is Changing What's "Fair Use" in Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Howe-Steiger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Doctrine of Fair Use was established by the courts to exempt certain activities such as teaching and research from the legal requirements of the copyright law. Before the 1976 Revision of the Copyright Act, only two cases were brought against teachers for copyright infringements. In both cases the teachers lost because their extensive copying was found to impact the copyright owner's market for legally published copies. Although the 1976 Act explicitly recognizes the existence of potentially Fair Uses, the act makes application of the principle highly situational. Classroom Guidelines attached to the Act make application even more murky and constrained. After 1976 photocopy technology and the advent of the coursepack began a trend towards circumscribing situations in which Fair Use may be applied. Potential impact on a new, lucrative market for sale of rights to copy portions of books and journals appears to dominate contemporary case law. Desktop publishing and Internet and web-based teaching, the authors believe, will further erode traditional applications of Fair Use for educational purposes. They argue that instructors and researchers should assume that there is no Fair Use on the Internet. Guidelines are provided for faculty and others considering dissemination of potentially copyrighted materials to students via digital technologies.

  11. Science, Technology and Social Change Course's Effects on Technological Literacy Levels of Social Studies Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigit, E. Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Social studies curricula are required in order to prepare to educate children who continue to learn after their formal training, and it is vital that teachers receive an education properly. In Social Studies Education Departments of Education Faculties Science, Technology and Social Change course is convenient to this aim and it contributes to…

  12. Cell cytoskeletal changes effected by static compressive stress lead to changes in the contractile properties of tissue regenerative collagen membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gellynck

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Static compressive stress can influence the matrix, which subsequently affects cell behaviour and the cell’s ability to further transform the matrix. This study aimed to assess response to static compressive stress at different stages of osteoblast differentiation and assess the cell cytoskeleton’s role as a conduit of matrix-derived stimuli. Mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs (D1 ORL UVA, osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 and post-osteoblast/pre-osteocyte-like cells (MLO-A5 were seeded in hydrated and compressed collagen gels. Contraction was quantified macroscopically, and cell morphology, survival, differentiation and mineralisation assessed using confocal microscopy, alamarBlue® assay, real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR and histological stains, respectively. Confocal microscopy demonstrated cell shape changes and favourable microfilament organisation with static compressive stress of the collagen matrix; furthermore, cell survival was greater compared to the hydrated gels. The stage of osteoblast differentiation determined the degree of matrix contraction, with MSCs demonstrating the greatest amount. Introduction of microfilament disrupting inhibitors confirmed that pre-stress and tensegrity forces were under the influence of gel density, and there was increased survival and differentiation of the cells within the compressed collagen compared to the hydrated collagen. There was also relative stiffening and differentiation with time of the compressed cell-seeded collagen, allowing for greater manipulation. In conclusion, the combined collagen chemistry and increased density of the microenvironment can promote upregulation of osteogenic genes and mineralisation; MSCs can facilitate matrix contraction to form an engineered membrane with the potential to serve as a ‘pseudo-periosteum’ in the regeneration of bone defects.

  13. Managing the ERP implementation journey - change in discourse from classical IT project to technology-driven organisational change initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Rose, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    In the implementation of an ERP system in a large Danish production company (here referred to as Omega), discourse surrounding the project changed appreciably during the course of the project. Drawing on recent adaptations of discourse theory, we provide a theoretical model which relates technological discourse to actions and outcomes. The model provides a theoretical explanation for how one dominant technological discourse in an organisation can be replaced by another. The ERP implementation...

  14. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  15. Correction of Hypothyroidism Leads to Change in Lean Body Mass without Altering Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirigiri, Sangeetha; Vaikkakara, Suresh; Sachan, Alok; Srinivasarao, P V L N; Epuri, Sunil; Anantarapu, Sailaja; Mukka, Arun; Chokkapu, Srinivasa Rao; Venkatanarasu, Ashok; Poojari, Ravi

    2016-12-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and abnormal body composition. This study assessed changes in body composition and insulin resistance after thyroxine (T4) replacement in overt hypothyroidism. In this prospective longitudinal study carried out in a tertiary care center, adult nondiabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism were rendered euthyroid on T4. Anthropometry including skinfold thickness (SFT) at the triceps and subscapularis was recorded. Patients underwent testing for fasting plasma glucose, creatinine, serum insulin, T4, thyrotropin (TSH) and body composition analysis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) both before and at 2 months after restoration to the euthyroid state. Twenty-seven patients (20 female and 7 male) aged 35.3 ± 11.0 years (min-max: 17-59 years) with overt hypothyroidism were recruited. Serum T4 at the time of recruitment was 48.9 ± 24.6 nmol/l (normal range = 64.4-142 nmol/l). All patients had TSH ≥50 µIU/l. Following treatment, there was a mean body weight reduction of 1.7 kg (p = 0.01). Waist circumference as well as triceps and subscapularis SFT decreased significantly (p change in fat mass (FM), percentage of fat (%FM) or bone mineral content in any of the specified regions or in the body as a whole. In contrast, mean lean body mass (LBM) decreased significantly by 0.8 kg (p resistance and level of glycemia were not affected by treatment with T4. LBM decreases significantly without affecting FM after correction of hypothyroidism. Insulin resistance was not influenced by T4 treatment.

  16. Fitwits(TM) Leads to Improved Parental Recognition of Childhood Obesity and Plans to Encourage Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bethany A; Powell, Jonathan R; McGaffey, Ann; Wislo, Valerie M P; Boron, Elaine; D'Amico, Frank J; Hogan, Linda; Hughes, Kristin; Jewell, Ilene Katz; Abatemarco, Diane J

    2017-01-01

    Brief tools are needed to help physicians and parents reach consensus on body mass index (BMI) categories for children and to discuss health-improving behaviors. This study tested the Fitwits(TM) intervention with interactive flashcards and before and- after surveys to improve parents' perceptions of children's BMI status. We enrolled 140 parents and their 9- to 12-year-old children presenting for well child care, regardless of BMI status, scheduled with 53 Fitwits-trained physicians. The Fitwits tool guided a conversation with all parent-child dyads regarding understanding BMI, nutrition, activity, and portion sizes. A survey addressed BMI category perceptions before and after the intervention, requested 2 goal selections, and included open-ended comment areas. Fifty-three percent of children were overweight or obese. The primary outcome variable was the rate of correct parental identification of their child's weight status (underweight, healthy, overweight, or obese). The survey before the intervention resulted in 50.0% correct BMI category designations. This changed to 60.6% correct perceptions after the intervention, with movement between correct overweight (34.5% to 51.7%) and obese (4.4% to 24.4%) categories. Secondary outcome variables included specific behavior change goals and the qualitative responses of parents, children, and physicians to the intervention. Parent-child dyads predominantly commented favorably and chose (75.8%) goals corresponding to Fitwits card suggestions. An improvement was observed in parental ability to identify the correct BMI category after the intervention during a preadolescent well child visit. Parent underrecognition of overweight/obese children was also observed. Most parent comments were appreciative of the physician interaction, Fitwits flashcards, and health improvement exchange. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  17. Changing the school: experiences from a Dutch "technology-enriched school" project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, Jef; Collis, Betty

    1992-01-01

    Educational change does not occur easily. Intensive and long-standing efforts are necessary. Such efforts are happening in many countries, particularly with reference to technology as a stimulus for the change. But are these efforts resulting in real changes in schools? In this paper we will describ

  18. Combined analysis of climate, technological and price changes on future arable farming systems in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Kros, J.; Webber, H.; Zhao, G.; Britz, W.; Reinds, G.J.; Ewert, F.; Vries, de W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compare the relative importance of climate change to technological, management, price and policy changes on European arable farming systems. This required linking four models: the SIMPLACE crop growth modelling framework to calculate future yields under climate change for arable cr

  19. Evidence-based medicine in rapidly changing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T V

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may...... be modified and refined and the device may be developed and inherent technical weaknesses may need to be corrected. Therefore the best time to conduct a trial may be discussed. The appropriate time to initiate a RCT is when all the participating surgeons or therapists have gone through their learning curve....... Special considerations should be given in rapidly developing fields. If started too early the resulting comparison will likely turn out to be irrelevant because the new technology is not fully developed, not mastered or the device may have undergone major modifications rendering the results obsolete...

  20. Social Modification With The Changing Technology in The Case of Simplification Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Nur Ülker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mc. Luhan’s told “The world become global village” came truth. The global village, which main tools are mass media technologies, especially internet, made civilization socials. Withthe rise of the global communication, every new inventions can be known easily and the technology can be observed. As Marcuse said that the global communication not only makes people same but also simple. Tools are being simple which is understood byeverybody from every civilization indeed every age period. In this study, we try to debate this matter, why and how “simplification theory” can make people and technology simple.The simplification theory can be defined as when the media technologies are changed, peoples values and overlook of world are modified. Due to fact that societies’ value and argument about the world translated technologic devices. To sum up, all the instrument of the about human being has changed.Key words: Simplification, Social Modification, Mass Media, Technology, Globalization

  1. Communicating intended routes in ECDIS: evaluating technological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porathe, Thomas; Lützhöft, Margareta; Praetorius, Gesa

    2013-11-01

    Misunderstanding each other's intentions is one of the most common causes of shipping accidents. By sending out a number of waypoints ahead and displaying them on the Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) a ship's intentions would be clearly visible for other ships. Displaying ships' intentions would be a major change compared to navigation today. It could be very beneficial but it could also have unintended consequences. This paper reports on findings from an evaluation looking for unintended consequences of change using system simulation. During the simulation an unanticipated behavior was observed. Bridge crews started to click and drag waypoints too negotiate crossing situations ahead of time. The behavior could be compared to agreeing over the VHF. However further research is needed to evaluate this new behavior and how it aligns to COLREGS.

  2. Leading change: introducing an electronic medical record system to a paramedic service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Shawn; Boak, George

    2016-05-03

    Purpose Leaders in health-care organizations introducing electronic medical records (EMRs) face implementation challenges. The adoption of EMR by the emergency medical and ambulance setting is expected to provide wide-ranging benefits, but there is little research into the processes of adoption in this sector. The purpose of this study is to examine the introduction of EMR in a small emergency care organization and identify factors that aided adoption. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews with selected paramedics were followed up with a survey issued to all paramedics in the company. Findings The user interfaces with the EMR, and perceived ease of use, were important factors affecting adoption. Individual paramedics were found to have strong and varied preferences about how and when they integrated the EMR into their practice. As company leadership introduced flexibility of use, this enhanced both individual and collective ability to make sense of the change and removed barriers to acceptance. Research limitations/implications This is a case study of one small organization. However, there may be useful lessons for other emergency care organizations adopting EMR. Practical implications Leaders introducing EMR in similar situations may benefit from considering a sense-making perspective and responding promptly to feedback. Originality/value The study contributes to a wider understanding of issues faced by leaders who seek to implement EMRs in emergency medical services, a sector in which there has been to date very little research on this issue.

  3. Competition and facilitation may lead to asymmetric range shift dynamics with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Ailene; HilleRisLambers, Janneke

    2017-09-01

    Forecasts of widespread range shifts with climate change stem from assumptions that climate drives species' distributions. However, local adaptation and biotic interactions also influence range limits and thus may impact range shifts. Despite the potential importance of these factors, few studies have directly tested their effects on performance at range limits. We address how population-level variation and biotic interactions may affect range shifts by transplanting seeds and seedlings of western North American conifers of different origin populations into different competitive neighborhoods within and beyond their elevational ranges and monitoring their performance. We find evidence that competition with neighboring trees limits performance within current ranges, but that interactions between adults and juveniles switch from competitive to facilitative at upper range limits. Local adaptation had weaker effects on performance that did not predictably vary with range position or seed origin. Our findings suggest that competitive interactions may slow species turnover within forests at lower range limits, whereas facilitative interactions may accelerate the pace of tree expansions upward near timberline. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Tracking and sustaining improvement initiatives: leveraging quality dashboards to lead change in a neurosurgical department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nancy; Afsar-Manesh, Nasim; Ragland, Victoria; Buxey, Farzad; Martin, Neil A

    2014-03-01

    Increasingly, hospitals and physicians are becoming acquainted with business intelligence strategies and tools to improve quality of care. In 2007, the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Department of Neurosurgery created a quality dashboard to help manage process measures and outcomes and ultimately to enhance clinical performance and patient care. At that time, the dashboard was in a platform that required data to be entered manually. It was then reviewed monthly to allow the department to make informed decisions. In 2009, the department leadership worked with the UCLA Medical Center to align mutual quality-improvement priorities. The content of the dashboard was redesigned to include 3 areas of priorities: quality and safety, patient satisfaction, and efficiency and use. Throughout time, the neurosurgery quality dashboard has been recognized for its clarity and its success in helping management direct improvement strategies and monitor impact. We describe the creation and design of the neurosurgery quality dashboard at UCLA, summarize the evolution of its assembly process, and illustrate how it can be used as a powerful tool of improvement and change. The potential challenges and future directions of this business intelligence tool are also discussed.

  5. Information and Communication Technology as a Driver for Change in Agri-food Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Krijn J.; Wolfert, J.; Verdouw, Cor; Verwaart, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Agri-food chains will be changed in the coming years by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Technological trends and economic analysis suggest that ICT will be a major driver for innovation. Satellites and sensors make precision agriculture possible. More and more data are being generate

  6. Managing technological and organizational change in relation to the social system of the company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian

    1996-01-01

    The paper aims at the discussion of why some work design questions are taken up in the technology management process, and other questions often are neglected or changed through the management process. It is described how the agenda for technology management is created through a complex political...

  7. Human Aspects of the Management of Technological Change: A Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Liam; Mullan, Cathal

    1973-01-01

    Describes the switchover from an outdated cargo warehouse using shelves and forklifts'' technology to a new semi-automatic facility with electronically controlled freight storage and retrieval, and an associated computerized documentation system. Illustrates the management of the personnel aspects in introducing technological change. (Author)

  8. Big Bang Technology: What's Next in Design Education, Radical Innovation or Incremental Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of digital media, design education has been challenged by the ongoing advancement of technology. Technological change has created unprecedented possibilities for designers to engage in the broadening realm of interactive digital media. The increasing sophistication of interactivity has brought a complexity which needs to be…

  9. A Changing Gastric Environment Leads to Adaptation of Lipopolysaccharide Variants in Helicobacter pylori Populations during Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Christina; Björkholm, Britta; Normark, Staffan; Engstrand, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of half of the human population, and causes development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis (ChAG) with loss of the acid-producing parietal cells, is correlated with an increased risk for development of gastric adenocarinoma. The majority of H. pylori isolates produce lipopolysaccharides (LPS) decorated with human-related Lewis epitopes, which have been shown to phase-vary in response to different environmental conditions. We have characterized the adaptations of H. pylori LPS and Lewis antigen expression to varying gastric conditions; in H. pylori isolates from mice with low or high gastric pH, respectively; in 482 clinical isolates from healthy individuals and from individuals with ChAG obtained at two time points with a four-year interval between endoscopies; and finally in isolates grown at different pH in vitro. Here we show that the gastric environment can contribute to a switch in Lewis phenotype in the two experimental mouse models. The clinical isolates from different human individuals showed that intra-individual isolates varied in Lewis antigen expression although the LPS diversity was relatively stable within each individual over time. Moreover, the isolates demonstrated considerable diversity in the levels of glycosylation and in the sizes of fucosylated O-antigen chains both within and between individuals. Thus our data suggest that different LPS variants exist in the colonizing H. pylori population, which can adapt to changes in the gastric environment and provide a means to regulate the inflammatory response of the host during disease progression. PMID:19517017

  10. A changing gastric environment leads to adaptation of lipopolysaccharide variants in Helicobacter pylori populations during colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoglund

    Full Text Available The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of half of the human population, and causes development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis (ChAG with loss of the acid-producing parietal cells, is correlated with an increased risk for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. The majority of H. pylori isolates produce lipopolysaccharides (LPS decorated with human-related Lewis epitopes, which have been shown to phase-vary in response to different environmental conditions. We have characterized the adaptations of H. pylori LPS and Lewis antigen expression to varying gastric conditions; in H. pylori isolates from mice with low or high gastric pH, respectively; in 482 clinical isolates from healthy individuals and from individuals with ChAG obtained at two time points with a four-year interval between endoscopies; and finally in isolates grown at different pH in vitro. Here we show that the gastric environment can contribute to a switch in Lewis phenotype in the two experimental mouse models. The clinical isolates from different human individuals showed that intra-individual isolates varied in Lewis antigen expression although the LPS diversity was relatively stable within each individual over time. Moreover, the isolates demonstrated considerable diversity in the levels of glycosylation and in the sizes of fucosylated O-antigen chains both within and between individuals. Thus our data suggest that different LPS variants exist in the colonizing H. pylori population, which can adapt to changes in the gastric environment and provide a means to regulate the inflammatory response of the host during disease progression.

  11. Leading change through collaborative partnerships: a profile of leadership and capacity among local public health leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Branda; Harrison, Lisa Macon

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative partnerships have grown in prominence as vehicles for systems change and organizational development among a network of organizations, particularly in the complex field of public health. Likewise, supporting the functioning and effectiveness of collaborative partnerships has become a key interest among organizational development scholars and community psychologists alike. In the question of capacity-building, no aspect of collaborative capacity has received greater attention than that of leadership. Research on collaborative partnerships has highlighted the importance of shared leadership while at the same time acknowledging that specific individuals do and often must emerge and assume more prominent roles in the partnership in order for the work of the partnership to move forward. However, we have limited knowledge of these key individuals and the roles that they play in non-hierarchical, voluntary partnerships. The present study is a comparative case study of prominent leaders in three regional public health partnerships. The aim of this investigation is to explore the questions: (1) What does it mean to be a leader in a context where no one is "in charge?" (2) What roles do those individuals identified as leaders play?, and (3) What are the specific capacities that enable the enactment of these roles? We find that those viewed as leaders by their partnerships shared a similar profile both in the range and types of roles they play and the capacities that enable them to carry out these roles. Further, we find that while individual attributes such as passion, knowledge, and leadership skills are important, some of the most prominent capacities are rooted in the organizational and institutional contexts within which the leader is nested.

  12. Phase Change Permeation Technology for Environmental Control & Life Support Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will explore a recent advancement in Phase Change Permeation™ technology to enable improved (1) water recovery from urine/brine for Environmental...

  13. Managing Positive Stress for Change in the Implementation of Technology in Schools

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carol Vanvooren; Douglas Devore; Norma Ambriz-Galaviz

    2011-01-01

    ... leaders to manage the rapid change. With resistance just a parking lot whisper away, leaders must orchestrate the right amount of stress to create a need in the staff to constantly evolve to a new level of technology implementation...

  14. New NIH-Funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... funded Ultrasound Technology is Changing Lives around the World Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents A ... to dramatically improve patient care all over the world. With a one-hand user interface, Vscan provides ...

  15. Managing Positive Stress for Change in the Implementation of Technology in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Vanvooren

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Information Age, faculty and staff in large institutions and schools make transformative changes slowly. The implementation of technology as a tool for communication and in classroom integration for instruction is also slow for many educators. However, today there is an urgency to bring the most recent technology systems, applications, and strategies into the educational organization, creating an environment that requires knowledgeable leaders to manage the rapid change. With resistance just a parking lot whisper away, leaders must orchestrate the right amount of stress to create a need in the staff to constantly evolve to a new level of technology implementation. The five positive stress inducing strategies for change, first introduced by DeVore in 1994 [4], have proven to be used by highly effective leaders from elementary schools through college. With leaders trained in these key strategies, the likelihood of faculty and staff commitment to the needed changes in technology integration is greatly increased. Leaders can’t wait for the experienced employee to consider using technology as a tool; even elementary students race past the limited and readily outdated technology skills of most teachers. Leaders must create the positive stressors to initiate change for technology in their organizations now.

  16. Managing Positive Stress for Change in the Implementation of Technology in Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Vanvooren

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Information Age, faculty and staff in large institutions and schools make transformative changes slowly. The implementation of technology as a tool for communication and in classroom integration for instruction is also slow for many educators. However, today there is an urgency to bring the most recent technology systems, applications, and strategies into the educational organization, creating an environment that requires knowledgeable leaders to manage the rapid change. With resistance just a parking lot whisper away, leaders must orchestrate the right amount of stress to create a need in the staff to constantly evolve to a new level of technology implementation. The five positive stress inducing strategies for change, first introduced by DeVore in 1994 [4], have proven to be used by highly effective leaders from elementary schools through college. With leaders trained in these key strategies, the likelihood of faculty and staff commitment to the needed changes in technology integration is greatly increased. Leaders can’t wait for the experienced employee to consider using technology as a tool; even elementary students race past the limited and readily outdated technology skills of most teachers. Leaders must create the positive stressors to initiate change for technology in their organizations now.

  17. Continuous renal replacement therapy. Keeping pace with changes in technology and technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ian

    2002-01-01

    The rapidly changing nature of new technologies and techniques in acute health care means it can be difficult keeping pace. Most facilities, large or small, are usually in continuous evaluation of a new technology. Published reviews and professional group guidelines can assist the process of change for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) technologies and techniques. The current techniques and technologies are a mixed application of old and new technologies providing a combination of convective and diffusive solute clearance methods. There are a variety of anticoagulation approaches. New, purpose-built CRRT machines offer many advantages over old technology but their costs can be prohibitive and users do not always meet them with rapid behavioral change. Reading journal publications and texts, scientific meetings, education and training, Internet web site review/participation, quality improvement activities and an accurate local data base are the keys to keeping pace with changes and identifying whether a benefit can be anticipated and demonstrated. Possible changes for the future of techniques and technologies may be in the areas of modified approaches to continuous therapy with tailored approaches for specific patient care settings. Improved membrane characteristics for wider indications and the bio-artificial kidney are emerging along with blood pump and circuit design improvements, with new machine/operator interfaces.

  18. Preparing for the changing role of instructional technologies in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Bernard R; McNeil, Sara G; Cook, David A; Agarwal, Kathryn L; Singhal, Geeta R

    2011-04-01

    As part of an international faculty development conference in February 2010, a working group of medical educators and physicians discussed the changing role of instructional technologies and made recommendations for supporting faculty in using these technologies in medical education. The resulting discussion highlighted ways technology is transforming the entire process of medical education and identified several converging trends that have implications for how medical educators might prepare for the next decade. These trends include the explosion of new information; all information, including both health knowledge and medical records, becoming digital; a new generation of learners; the emergence of new instructional technologies; and the accelerating rate of change, especially related to technology. The working group developed five recommendations that academic health leaders and policy makers may use as a starting point for dealing with the instructional technology challenges facing medical education over the next decade. These recommendations are (1) using technology to provide/support experiences for learners that are not otherwise possible-not as a replacement for, but as a supplement to, face-to-face experiences, (2) focusing on fundamental principles of teaching and learning rather than learning specific technologies in isolation, (3) allocating a variety of resources to support the appropriate use of instructional technologies, (4) supporting faculty members as they adopt new technologies, and (5) providing funding and leadership to enhance electronic infrastructure to facilitate sharing of resources and instructional ideas.

  19. Technological innovation, human capital and social change for sustainability. Lessons learnt from the industrial technologies theme of the EU's Research Framework Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabadie, Jesús Alquézar

    2014-05-15

    Europe is facing a twofold challenge. It must maintain or even increase its competitiveness, a basic requirement in a globalised economy and under the current demographic threat. It needs also to tackle the so-called "grand challenges", especially environmental issues, through a sustainable model of production and consumption. Such challenges should lead to new business and industrial models, based on more sustainable production and consumption chains, from design to end of life. This implies a need for new industrial materials and processes, new skills and, indeed, new values and life-styles. Sustainability and innovation are key elements of EU's Research and Innovation Framework Programmes, particularly in the field of industrial technologies (nanotechnologies, materials and industrial technologies), which objective is to "improve the competitiveness of the European industry and generate knowledge to ensure its transformation from a resource intensive to a knowledge intensive industry". Sustainability and innovation are interrelated challenges for R&D. Research can develop technical solutions to tackle environmental or societal challenges, but such technologies need to be successfully commercialised to have a real environmental impact. Several socio-economic studies carried-out by the European Commission show not only the emerging technological and industrial trends, but they also emphasise the need for linking sustainable technologies with social change. Human capital and new social behaviours are critical factors to combine economic competitiveness and sustainability: technology alone is no longer able to solve global challenges. But what kind of human capital (skills, behaviours, and values) are we referring to? How to encourage the shift towards a greener society through human capital? Which reforms are needed in education systems to move towards a sustainable economy? Are there examples of social innovation to be extrapolated and/or generalised? © 2013

  20. Smartphone technology facilitates dietary change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipjian, Michelle L; Johnston, Carol S

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals are advised to adhere to specific diet plans for their personal health; hence, it is important that tools are available to support these behaviors. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist health care professionals in educating their clients on specific dietary modifications. This pilot study focused on a single dietary modification, reducing sodium intake, to determine whether a commercial health app is useful for promoting dietary change. Thirty healthy adults (age 34.4 ± 15.7 y; body mass index 25.6 ± 4.3 kg/m(2)) were recruited from a university community and completed this 4-wk randomized parallel trial. Participants were instructed to reduce their sodium intake to ≤2300 mg/d by using the MyFitnessPal app to receive feedback on sodium content of foods or by paper tallying of estimated sodium intake. The predicted 24-h sodium excretion, estimated using the ratio of sodium to creatinine from the first morning urine void, and participant satisfaction were the main outcomes measured. The change in the predicted 24-h sodium excretion differed between groups: -838 ± 1093 and +236 ± 1333 mg/24 h predicted for the app and journal groups, respectively (P = 0.010). Moreover, participants in the app group reported significantly greater satisfaction with their method of diet tracking than the journal group (P = 0.001). These data suggest that smartphone apps have the potential to facilitate the implementation of dietary advice. This was a small pilot study with limited scope, and more research is necessary to determine the value of smartphone apps for facilitating dietary change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of change management theories in gaining acceptance of telemedicine technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufo, Rebecca Zapatochny

    2012-01-01

    The success of telemedicine applications within health care begins with the process of implementing planned change. The attitudes of staff and their willingness to embrace new technology can be positively influenced in order to gain acceptance of new ways to perform tasks. Telemedicine applications have been designed to improve operational efficiency and obtain improved outcomes, but system designers and procurers are dependent upon the organization's leadership to effect attitudinal and behavioral changes that are essential for acceptance and usage of new technology.

  2. Structural transformation, biased technological change, and employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors...... and the overall Vietnamese economy to examine the roles played by structural transformation, technical change, and institutional bias toward capital intensive development to evaluate the Vietnamese development experience. We find that while some of the difference between GDP and employment growth can...

  3. Structural Transformation, Biased Technological Change, and Employment in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Tarp, Finn; Wu, Ce

    2015-01-01

    Employment in Vietnam and elsewhere in Asia has grown more slowly than GDP over the last several decades. This means GDP per capita is rising. Vietnamese policymakers, however, are concerned that ongoing structural transformation is creating too few jobs. We use data for seven aggregated sectors...... and the overall Vietnamese economy to examine the roles played by structural transformation, technical change and institutional bias towards capital-intensive development to evaluate the Vietnamese development experience. We find that while some of the difference between GDP and employment growth can...

  4. International change and technological evolution in the fashion industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Andy; Borrione, Paola; Lavanga, Mariangela; Ovidio, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this research is to sketch out the parameters of the fashion industry. Whilst, without doubt fashion is a means of personal and cultural expression, it is also an industry. The industrial and economic aspects have been relatively under-researched. We highlight the fact that the fashion industry is fast evolving, and growing. Traditional economic analyses have under-examined some of the crucial drivers of change in this sector but these are all important issues for a num...

  5. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum on Lead-induced Biochemical changes in Soft tissues of Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum (Meaning pungent belongs to the Alliaceae family and genus Allium, is generally known in the developing world for its characteristic flavor, a medicinal plant and a source of vegetable oil. Besides, the plant is reported to have various biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, antiatherosclerotic, anticoagulant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-diabetic, anti-tumor agent; used for treating various disease such as inflammation, cardiovascular and liver diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of Allium sativum on lead induced toxicity in mice. Chronic dose of lead (2 mg/Kg body weight, i.p., showed significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and the nonenzymatic antioxidant as glutathione (GSH and total protein content in the liver, kidney and brain. This decrease was accompanied with significant increase in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol level. Also, there were disturbances in the liver, kidney and brain functions manifested by significant changes in their functional markers. Efficacy of garlic to reduce tissue lead concentration was also evaluated. Mostly, all of the investigated parameters were restored nearly to the normal values after raw garlic extract treatment. In conclusion, garlic exerts its effects not only as an antioxidant but also as a sulfur donor. So, garlic has a promising role and it is worth to be considered as a natural chelating agent for lead intoxication.

  6. A Summary of Change Detection Technology of Remotely-Sensed Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shilun

    2013-01-01

      ABSRACT:This paper will describe three aspects of change detection technology of remotely-sensed images. At first, the process of change detection is presented. Then, the author makes a summary of several common change detection methods and a brief review of the advantages and disadvantages of them. At the end of this paper, the applications and difficulty of current change detection techniques are discussed.

  7. Ergonomic evaluation of technology change at work and its effect on health

    OpenAIRE

    Chaikumarn, Montakarn

    2005-01-01

    The change at work in the context of technology change has affected human’s health in relation to their working condition, attitude, and MSDs risk factors. These changes were included: adopting new tools, work concept work environments, and work system. Ergonomic methods, can be applied as tools for identify, evaluate these effects of the changes whether they give better health and work condition to workers. The purpose of this thesis is to apply the ergonomic methods to evaluate/identify the...

  8. International Legal Mechanisms Of Responsibility For The Harm To Climate Leading To Change Of The State Territory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey D. Belockiy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzed question international legal responsibility of state’s for harm done by the climatic changes caused by the emission of greenhouse gases in the course of activity in the power sphere, leading to flooding of the state territories formation. Such mechanisms are based on a number of international legal acts, from which the documents of the system UN FCCC play a key role, including both FCCC, and the Kyoto Protocol and the decisions made within the Conference of parties. At the same time there is a number of problems, unresolved within the modern international law, namely mechanisms of such responsibility realization and proof of connection existence between emissions of greenhouse gases by this state and flooding of other state territory which in principle have to lead to the responsibility occurrence. Author explains that this moment is especially important because international law doesn't forbid emissions of greenhouse gases itself. Besides, recently perspectives of climate changes began to be considered as a threat to peace and safety, what makes it possibility of implement other then UN FCCC mechanisms. Author notes that, for example, they are considered by the UN Security Council. In the conclusion author makes a statement that at this stage of development of international law we deal with a forming mechanism of the state’s international legal responsibility for the harm done by the climate changes caused by factors, including emission of greenhouse gases in the course of activity in the power sphere.

  9. THE ASSESSMENT OF OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS FOR CHANGES OF TECHNOLOGIES AGGREGATE THROUGH ORDER PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Nelyubina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, author considers a class of technologies aggregates, which can be present as complex socio-economic systems. The order parameters are chosen as instrument of reflect the system integrity of this technologies aggregates. The analysis of aggregates through order parameters permit: to diagnose the state of the system and its life phase, understand the compatibility extent between the current state of system and the assumed modifications in it, understand the nature of attendant risks. It also allows to compare the systems, track the dynamics of order parameters and forecast the trends of the future changes. Author formulates number and definitions of order parameters for this class of technologies aggregates; proposes the assessment method of condition of order parameters for technologies aggregate of region; makes express-assessment of preparedness level of technologies aggregates of some regions to innovation changes.

  10. Lead Acetate-induced Histopathological Changes in the Gills and Digestive System of Silver Sailfin Molly (Poecilia latipinna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Mahmoud Sharaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of a single sublethal concentration of lead acetate on the gills and digestive system of the silver mollies. After LC50 determination, twenty five mollies were randomly chosen and divided into two groups. The first one served as control; while the second group exposed to 0.8 mg lead acetate/liter of H2O for 96 h. Afterwards fish were anesthetized, dissected out and the gills, liver, pancreas, stomach and intestine were processed for paraffin embedding, stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined by light microscopy. Lead acetate-exposed fish exhibited a decrease of swimming activity and brilliant silvery body color, accumulation of lead acetate on ovarian surface and an increased secretion of mucus from gills and skin. The gills showed hyperplasia, hypertrophy and destruction of the lamellar architecture, fusion of lamellae and lamellar clubbing. The livers showed disarrangement of hepatic cords, shrinkage of hepatocytes and dilatation of liver sinusoids and extravasation of blood. Hepatopancreas damage included loss of contact between hepatocytes and pancreocytes, lysis of pancreocyte membranes and appearance of pyknotic/apoptotic nuclei. The exocrine pancreas revealed necrosis, increased adipocytes and atrophy of pancreatic acini. The stomach exhibited irregularity, shrinkage and fusion of its microvilli, pyknotic/apoptotic nuclei of microvilli epithelium and atrophy of submucosal zone. The intestinal damage included fusion of intestinal microvilli, necrosis and irregularities of the microvilli cells, microvilli loss, flattening and hypertrophy. The study concluded that lead acetate exposure resulted in severe histopathological changes in the gills and in the selected digestive organs of silver mollies.

  11. Controlling Your "App"etite: How Diet and Nutrition-Related Mobile Apps Lead to Behavior Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Belvedere, Lindsay M; Andreasen, Rebecca; Frandsen, Christine; Hall, P Cougar; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2017-07-10

    In recent years, obesity has become a serious public health crisis in the United States. Although the problem of obesity is being addressed through a variety of strategies, the use of mobile apps is a relatively new development that could prove useful in helping people to develop healthy dietary habits. Though such apps might lead to health behavior change, especially when relevant behavior change theory constructs are integrated into them, the mechanisms by which these apps facilitate behavior change are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify which behavior change mechanisms are associated with the use of diet- and nutrition-related health apps and whether the use of diet- and nutrition-related apps is associated with health behavior change. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a total of 217 participants. Participants responded to questions on demographics, use of diet and nutrition apps in the past 6 months, engagement and likability of apps, and changes in the participant's dietary behaviors. Regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with reported changes in theory and separately for reported changes in actual behavior, after controlling for potential confounding variables. The majority of study participants agreed or strongly agreed with statements regarding app use increasing their motivation to eat a healthy diet, improving their self-efficacy, and increasing their desire to set and achieve health diet goals. Additionally, majority of participants strongly agreed that using diet/nutrition apps led to changes in their behavior, namely increases in actual goal setting to eat a healthy diet (58.5%, 127/217), increases in their frequency of eating healthy foods (57.6%, 125/217), and increases in their consistency of eating healthy foods (54.4%, 118/217). Participants also responded favorably to questions related to engagement and likability of diet/nutrition apps. A number of predictors were also positively

  12. Technological changes in present-day conditions: reflections of an economist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SYLOS LABINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available All economists agree that technological changes constitute the main source of economic development. Nonetheless, many economists are convinced that such changes are important only in pushing up the rate of economic development, which in the long run would otherwise be lower and constant, with capital accumulation and labor force growth taking place gradually. To the contrary, the present work argues that in the long run, technical progress is not the main factor of economic development, but rather a necessary condition. The author examines technological change in economic theory and the history of economic development. Technological unemployment and Keynesian unemployment are then considered as well as the reduction of working hours. Finally, the author considers more recent technological and economic developments and their relation to manual and intellectual labour.

  13. Technology for Climate Change Adaptation in Nepal Himalaya: Policy, Practices and Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, K.; Panthi, J., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    The recent scientific findings and the periodic reports corroborated by IPCC has disclosed the climate change is unequivocal and the Himalayan region is one of the hardest hit by the change and variability in climatic system due to its sensitive ecosystem, low resilience capacity and geographical extremes. Nepal, which lies in the central Himalayan region, has developed its strategies to mitigate the impacts of climate change by developing national, regional and local plan of actions which are being implemented and some of them have already been proven. Nepal, as a party to the UNFCCC, has accomplished technology need assessment that identifies the need for new technology, equipment, knowledge and skills for reducing vulnerability to climate change. The plan has recommended an enabling framework for the diffusion of the prioritized technologies and the actions necessary to reduce or remove policy finance and technology related barriers. This paper aims to analyze the technological penetration in national level policy instruments such as NAPA, LAPA, Climate Change Policy and how those technologies have been used in actual field during the implementation of LAPA activities in western Nepal taking two administrative districts, one from low land and another from highland, as a pilot study.

  14. Trailing edges projected to move faster than leading edges for large pelagic fish habitats under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, L. M.; Hobday, A. J.; Possingham, H. P.; Richardson, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    There is mounting evidence to suggest that many species are shifting their ranges in concordance with the climate velocity of their preferred environmental conditions/habitat. While accelerated rates in species' range shifts have been noted in areas of intense warming, due to climate change, few studies have considered the influence that both spatial temperature gradients and rates of warming (i.e., the two components of climate velocity) could have on rates of movement in species habitats. We compared projected shifts in the core habitat of nine large pelagic fish species (five tuna, two billfish and two shark species) off the east coast of Australia at different spatial points (centre, leading and trailing edges of the core habitat), during different seasons (summer and winter), in the near-(2030) and long-term (2070), using independent species distribution models and habitat suitability models. Model projections incorporated depth integrated temperature data from 11 climate models with a focus on the IPCC SRES A2 general emission scenario. Projections showed a number of consistent patterns: southern (poleward) shifts in all species' core habitats; trailing edges shifted faster than leading edges; shifts were faster by 2070 than 2030; and there was little difference in shifts among species and between seasons. Averaging across all species and climate models, rates of habitat shifts for 2030 were 45-60 km decade-1 at the trailing edge, 40-45 km decade-1 at the centre, and 20-30 km decade-1 at the leading edge. Habitat shifts for 2070 were 60-70 km decade-1 at the trailing edge, 50-55 km decade-1 at the centre, and 30-40 km decade-1 at the leading edge. It is often assumed that the leading edge of a species range will shift faster than the trailing edge, but there are few projections or observations in large pelagic fish to validate this assumption. We found that projected shifts at the trailing edge were greater than at the centre and leading of core habitats in

  15. Enhancing international technology cooperation for climate change mitigation. Lessons from an electromobility case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhasin, Shikha

    2014-07-01

    As a global agreement on climate mitigation and absolute emissions reductions remains grid-locked, this paper assesses whether the prospects for international technology cooperation in low-carbon sectors can be improved. It analyses the case of international cooperation on electric vehicle technologies to elaborate on the trade-offs that cooperation such as this inherently attempts to balance- national growth objectives of industrial and technology development versus the global goods benefit of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It focuses on bilateral German-Chinese programmes for electric vehicle development, as well as multilateral platforms on low-carbon technology cooperation related to electric vehicles. Based on insights from these cases studies, this paper ultimately provides policy recommendations to address gaps in international technology cooperation at a bilateral level for ongoing German-Chinese engagement on electric vehicles; and at a multilateral level with a focus on the emerging technology cooperation framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  16. The Quality of Distance Learning in the Situation of Technological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targamadze, Aleksandras; Petrauskiene, Ruta

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses challenges for higher education raised by the rapid development of information and communication technologies. The paper explores the enhancement of distance education leading to new opportunities to improve quality and develop services in higher education institutions. The paper overviews technical means and systems and also…

  17. Business Model Change Methodology: Applying New Technology in Organization: The Case of Mobile Technology in Learning Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Nastaran Hajiheydari; Payam Hanafizadeh

    2013-01-01

    The present study intends to design a methodology for examining the influence of modern information and communication technology on business models (BMs). Theoretical framework is mainly selected based on literature as well as consultation with expert focus groups. This methodology is validated by expert judgment and simulated as a real case applying system dynamics. The outcome of the survey includes a change methodology formulated in 5 phases and 37 activities. Not only has this study cover...

  18. Technologically-assisted behaviour change: a systematic review of studies of novel technologies for the management of chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Benjamin A; Vowles, Kevin E; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher; Mountain, Gail A

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to investigate the use of technology in achieving behaviour change in chronic illness. The areas reviewed were: (1) methods employed to adapt traditional therapy from a face-to-face medium to a computer-assisted platform; (2) targets of behaviour change; and (3) level of human (e.g. therapist) involvement. The initial literature search produced 2032 articles. A total of 45 articles reporting 33 separate interventions met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were reviewed in detail. The majority of interventions reported a theoretical basis, with many arising from a cognitive-behavioural framework. There was a wide range of therapy content. Therapist involvement was reported in 73% of the interventions. A common problem was high participant attrition, which may have been related to reduced levels of human interaction. Instigating successful behaviour change through technological interventions poses many difficulties. However, there are potential benefits of delivering therapy in this way. For people with long-term health conditions, technological self-management systems could provide a practical method of understanding and monitoring their condition, as well as therapeutic guidance to alter maladaptive behaviour.

  19. Existential Computer Anxiety and Changes in Computer Technology: What Past Research on Computer Anxiety Has Missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Valerie L.; Zhao, Yong

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that the existing literature on computer anxiety has neglected to consider two issues: (1) that there is an existential element to computer anxiety, and (2) that computer technology has undergone historical changes that bring with them subsequent changes in the metaphors used to understand computers. (Contains 72 references.) (Author/LRW)

  20. Implementing change thoughout the faculty: combining educational priciples, stategy and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes key guidelines underlying a major change process occurring in the Faculty of Educational Science and Technology at the University of Twente in The Netherlands. The change process involves re-designing all of our courses, within a short period of time, to reflect a new instructio

  1. Resituation or Resistance? Higher Education Teachers' Adaptations to Technological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Nicola; McNaughton, Susan; Billot, Jennie; Gaeta, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a project that explored teachers' adaptations to technological change in four large classes in higher education. In these classes, lecturers changed from single- to multi-lecture settings mediated by videoconferencing, requiring them to transfer their beliefs and practices into a new pedagogical space.…

  2. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Keyworth

    2015-10-01

    Technological supports aiming to change the behaviour of healthcare professionals show considerable promise, particularly those involving computer-generated reminders and feedback. Due to the lack of theoretically-informed interventions, we were unable to draw conclusions around the effectiveness of theory-behaviour change interventions in this context. Interventions currently lack consistency in delivery method and content, which future research should address.

  3. Not Missing the Future: The Case for Technology and Business Process Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, Doug

    2010-01-01

    As technology has evolved, the opportunity to transform and enhance the business processes of academic records managers has become more attractive. Many institutions embrace business-process change as a part of their ongoing strategy, but others defer--or simply avoid--any such change. But now more than ever, according to this author, it is…

  4. From Ignoring to Leading Changes – What Role do Universities Play in Developing Countries? (Case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavica Singer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the model of entrepreneurial university, the paper presents major blockages (university’s own institutional rigidity, fragmented organization, lack of mutual trust between the business sector and universities, no real benchmarks, legal framework not supportive of opening the university to new initiatives in Triple Helix interactions in Croatia. Comparing identified blockages with expectations (multidimensional campus, cooperation with the business sector and other stakeholders in designing new educational and research programs expressed by HEIs in developed countries around the world (2008 EIU survey indicates new challenges for universities in developing countries. With Triple Helix approach, not confined within national borders, but as an international networking opportunity, these challenges can be seen as opportunities, otherwise they are threats. On the scale of ignoring, observing, participating and leading positive changes in its surroundings, for the purpose of measuring vitality of Triple Helix interactions, Croatian universities are located more between ignoring and observing position. To move them towards a leading position, coordinated and consistent policies are needed in order to focus on eliminating identified blockages. Universities should take the lead in this process; otherwise they are losing credibility as desired partners in developing space for Triple Helix interactions.

  5. Program on Promoting Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Bridging Policy Making and Science Research in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y.; Chiang, W.; Sui, C.; Tung, C.; Ho, H.; Li, M.; Chan, S.; Climate Change Adaptation Technologies Program, National Science Council, Taiwan

    2010-12-01

    Climate changes adaptation needs innovative technological revolution on demand for transdisciplinary studies in various temporal and spatial scales. In our proposed program, a systematic and scientific framework will be developed to promote innovative adaptation technologies with respect to providing decision making information for government sectors, enhancing applicability of scientific research output, strengthening national research capabilities, and integrating both academic and non-academic resources. The objectives of this program are to identify key issues, required technologies, and scientific knowledge for climate change adaptations, and to build a transdisciplinary platform bridging science-supported technologies required by government sectors and demand-oriented scientific research conducted by academic communities. The approach proposed herein will be practiced in vulnerable regions, such as urban, rural, mountain, river basin, and coastal areas, which are particularly sensitive to climate change. The first phase of 3-year (2011~2013) work is to deploy framework and strategies of climate change impact assessment and adaptation measures between related government sectors and researchers from academic communities. The proposed framework involves three principle research groups, namely Environmental System, Vulnerability Assessment, and Risk Management and Adaptation Technology. The goal of the first group, Environmental System, is to combine climate change projections with enhanced scientific and environmental monitoring technologies for better adaptations to future scenarios in different social, economic, and environmental sectors to support adaptation measures planning and to reduce uncertainties on assessing vulnerability. The goal of the second group, Vulnerability Assessment, is to identify interfaces and information structures of climate change vulnerably issues and to develop protocol, models, and indices for vulnerability assessment. The goal of

  6. Events that lead university students to change their major to Information Systems: A retroductive South African case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Florence Seymour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of computing skills is a global concern as it affects national development and business success. Yet, despite high job availability and high salaries in computing professions, insufficient numbers of students are choosing to study the various computing disciplines. This South African study looks at the Information Systems (IS major which is misunderstood by high school students. This retroductive case study identifies the events which lead students to change their major to IS. The study confirms the importance of interest in a major as well as the perceived high value of a major, which feature as dominant factors in the literature. Yet these are not the initial events that lead to students changing their major to IS. Events that initiate the process include losing passion for a previous major, experiencing difficulty in a previous major as well as enjoying the introductory IS course. The paper has practical advice for IS Departments and argues for a generic first year for students as well as a focus on enjoyment and skills aligned to IS professional practice in introductory IS courses. These findings can be generalised to other majors and, hence, the theoretical contribution adds to the literature on career choice in general.

  7. Changing Literacies, Changing Formations: The Role of Elicitation in Teacher Action Research with New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong-Wilson, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    As new technologies promise to be an enduring feature of the landscape of teachers' work, we consider how teachers implicitly bring stories forward into their classroom explorations with new media as a part of their "informal learning". By "stories" is meant specific classroom texts as well as preferred teacher practices with those texts. The…

  8. Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Failure by the international community to make substantive progress in reducing CO2 emissions, coupled with recent evidence of accelerating climate change, has brought increasing urgency to the search for additional remediation approaches.  This book presents a selection of state-of-the-art geoengineering methods for deliberately reducing the effects of anthropogenic climate change, either by actively removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or by decreasing the amount of sunlight absorbed at the Earth’s surface.  These methods contrast with more conventional mitigation approaches which focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. Geoengineering technologies could become a key tool to be used in conjunction with emissions reduction to limit the magnitude of climate change.  Featuring authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, this book presents a wide range of climate change remediation technologies. Examines th...

  9. Indigenous Technologies Fishing Settlement Response to Climate Change Variability’s in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert, C. O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on indigenous technologies used by fishermen in southern Nigeria as adaptation measures to climate change variability’s. Interview schedule was used to elicit information from sixty respondents in three (3 communities using simple random sampling technique. Percentage and mean scores were utilized for data analysis. The study established that the climate change experiences were: rise in sea level, rise in temperature, high wind, change in tidal pattern and frequent storms. The effects of climate change experiences on fishing include low fish catch, increase in boat mishap, reduced fish production and low growth rate of fishes. Indigenous technologies used as mitigating steps include building of bigger boats, the use of diverse fishing gears and observation of weather. These technologies had been very effective as mitigating steps. The study recommended mainly that modern weather forecasting facilities should be provided for the fishermen.

  10. Changes to the structure of the hydrographic network within the Silesia-Cracow area of zinc and lead exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradela Alicja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditions related to mining activities in the Silesia-Cracow area go back to the 11th century when lead, silver, and iron ores were exploited from open pit mines. For centuries, the growth in ore exploitation was an incentive for the development of other industries (hard coal mining, steelmaking. This, in consequence, resulted in progressive urbanization. The areas analyzed are of highly transformed character, mainly because of mining activities. These changes are especially seen in relation to the aquatic environment since this component is exposed to heavy modifications due to the mining processes. Hence the study was carried out in order to determine the quantitative changes in the surface hydrographic network. It was found, that of the 62 main watercourses (existing during the whole analyzed period 25 changed only slightly in terms of their length, 20 shortened by a few hundred meters and 17 lengthened. In the case of the aggregated length of the tributaries, the value increased for the 41 main watercourses, for 10 of them it was constant and was reduced slightly for a further 11. The areas where the length of the watercourses increased and the drainage density grew were found to be as well those where the total area of wetlands decreased. The element of the hydrographic network which was affected by the most changes was the water bodies. During the analyzed period of over 200 years, their number increased from 154 to 1413.

  11. Technology for monitoring global change. [NASA Technology Initiative for space based observations of Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Gordon I.; Hudson, Wayne R.

    1989-01-01

    Multiinstrumented earth-science platforms currently being planned for both LEO and GEO positions will furnish data for the compilation of systematic and intercorrelated information that is suitable for the treatment of interdisciplinary questions concerning atmospheric, oceanic, hydrological, geological, and biological changes of an either natural or anthropogenic nature. Attention will be given in these observational campaigns to such essential earth variables as atmospheric pressure, rainfall/snowfall, vegetation cover, soil nutrient cycles, sea surface temperatures, ocean circulation, and ocean biological productivity.

  12. Active assistance technology for health-related behavior change: an interdisciplinary review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan; Buchan, Iain

    2012-06-14

    Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in dialog systems for behavior change, with

  13. Does conditional approval for new oncology drugs in Europe lead to differences in health technology assessment decisions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipska, I; Hoekman, J; McAuslane, N; Leufkens, Hgm; Hövels, A M

    2015-01-01

    An early access pathway of conditional approval for potentially beneficial medicines is available within the European regulatory framework. However, marketing authorization does not necessarily result in recommendations for public funding by health technology assessment (HTA) agencies. As conditiona

  14. Advanced Technology Section semiannual progress report, April 1-September 30, 1977. Volume 1. Biotechnology and environmental programs. [Lead Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, W.W. Jr.; Mrochek, J.E. (comps.)

    1980-06-01

    Research efforts in six areas are reported. They include: centrifugal analyzer development; advanced analytical systems; environmental research; bioengineering research;bioprocess development and demonstration; and, environmental control technology. Individual abstracts were prepared for each section for ERA/EDB. (JCB)

  15. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  16. Cardiothoracic surgery at a crossroads: The impact of disruptive technologic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen David J

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At the beginning of the twenty-first century, cardiothoracic surgery is arguably the most successful of all medical specialties. There are effective treatments including transplantation, for almost all cardiac and thoracic diseases that can be performed with low morbidity and mortality. Cardiothoracic surgeons have mastered technical difficulties through innovation, hard work, planning and skill. Yet in the past decade, the primacy of cardiothoracic surgery has been challenged by new technologies. This paper applies business school theories to examine how cardiothoracic surgeons might best respond to such "disruptive technologies". Otherwise well-managed business and industrial enterprises have had difficulty dealing with disruptive technological change because of well-recognized organizational impediments. Cardiothoracic surgeons must understand the characteristics of disruptive technologies and consider organizational changes that will allow the profession to better adapt to them.

  17. Economics of technological change - A joint model for the aircraft and airline industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneafsey, J. T.; Taneja, N. K.

    1981-01-01

    The principal focus of this econometric model is on the process of technological change in the U.S. aircraft manufacturing and airline industries. The problem of predicting the rate of introduction of current technology aircraft into an airline's fleet during the period of research, development, and construction for new technology aircraft arises in planning aeronautical research investments. The approach in this model is a statistical one. It attempts to identify major factors that influence transport aircraft manufacturers and airlines, and to correlate them with the patterns of delivery of new aircraft to the domestic trunk carriers. The functional form of the model has been derived from several earlier econometric models on the economics of innovation, acquisition, and technological change.

  18. On the changeover timescales of technology transitions and induced efficiency changes: an overarching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, Jean-Francois

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a general theory that aims at explaining timescales observed empirically in technology transitions and predicting those of future transitions. This framework is used further to derive a theory for exploring the dynamics that underlie the complex phenomenon of irreversible and path dependent price or policy induced efficiency changes. Technology transitions are known to follow patterns well described by logistic functions, which should more rigorously be modelled mathematically using the Lotka-Volterra family of differential equations, originally developed to described the population growth of competing species. The dynamic evolution of technology has also been described theoretically using evolutionary dynamics similar to that observed in nature. The theory presented here joins both approaches and presents a methodology for predicting changeover time constants in order to describe real systems of competing technologies. The problem of price or policy induced efficiency changes becomes natu...

  19. Cardiothoracic surgery at a crossroads: the impact of disruptive technologic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David J

    2007-08-08

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, cardiothoracic surgery is arguably the most successful of all medical specialties. There are effective treatments including transplantation, for almost all cardiac and thoracic diseases that can be performed with low morbidity and mortality. Cardiothoracic surgeons have mastered technical difficulties through innovation, hard work, planning and skill. Yet in the past decade, the primacy of cardiothoracic surgery has been challenged by new technologies. This paper applies business school theories to examine how cardiothoracic surgeons might best respond to such "disruptive technologies". Otherwise well-managed business and industrial enterprises have had difficulty dealing with disruptive technological change because of well-recognized organizational impediments. Cardiothoracic surgeons must understand the characteristics of disruptive technologies and consider organizational changes that will allow the profession to better adapt to them.

  20. Gross world product and consumption in a global warming model with endogenous technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlagh, Reyer; Van der Zwaan, Bob [IVM/VU, Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2003-02-01

    This paper analyzes the macro-economic costs and effects on consumption and energy demand of limiting the global average atmospheric temperature increase to 2C. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy technologies (carbon and non-carbon, respectively), technological change is represented endogenously, and energy is aggregated through a CES function implying positive demand for the relatively expensive non-carbon technology. Technological change is represented through a learning curve describing decreasing energy production costs as a function of cumulative experience. We find that energy savings constitutes an important mechanism for decreasing abatement costs in the short- and medium-term, while the acquisition of additional learning experience substantially decreases abatement costs in the longer-term.

  1. Technology Transfer and Climate Change: Additional Considerations for Implementation under the UNFCCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sullivan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Technology transfer is recognised as playing a central and critical role in the global response to climate change, as embodied in the Unite Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC. However, technology transfer is a complex process, and despite numerous attempts to prescribe approaches to optimisation, there remain serious obstacles to its effective operation. The breadth of technologies and range of would-be recipient territories under the climate change regime serve to complicate things even further. Against this background, the Expert Group on Technology Transfer have produced a robust Strategy, which it will now fall to the Technology Mechanism announced in Cancun to implement. However, despite the rigour with which the technology transfer strategy was produced, it is never possible to cover all possible eventualities. It is on this basis that this article presents a number of tactical and strategic issues which may merit further consideration as the implementation process moves forward. At the operational level, such issues include a possible role for a centralised or regional technology procurement effort, the need for greater emphasis on sectoral specific approaches to technology transfer, and a pragmatic approach to reducing the impact of some barriers to transactions by the expedient use of insurance to reduce risk, as opposed to the longer term approach of international standardisation. At the strategic level, there are major issues with regard to prioritisation of resources applied to technology transfer, and in particular the resolution of the tensions existing between achieving sustainable development and the time critical need to achieve climate stabilisation.

  2. Technology-enhanced education for Millennials: how the Information Society is changing the way of learning

    OpenAIRE

    Noguera, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    The Information Society has provided the context for the development of a new generation, known as the Millennials, who are characterized by their intensive use of technologies in everyday life. These features are changing the way of learning, prompting educational institutions to attempt to better adapt to young needs by incorporating technologies into education. Based on this premise, we have reviewed the prominent reports of the integration of ICT into education at different leve...

  3. Mechanisms of behavior change in alcoholics anonymous: does Alcoholics Anonymous lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Stout, Robert L; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J Scott; Pagano, Maria E

    2010-04-01

    Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA's effects. Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol-dependent adults (n = 1706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months. Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was mediated partially by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA's proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. AA attendance was associated both concurrently and predictively with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was associated additionally with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional wellbeing which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change.

  4. Technological Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Global strategy differs from domestic strategy in terms of content and process as well as context and structure. The content of global strategy can contain five key elements, while the process of global strategy can have six major stages. These are expounded below. Global strategy is influenced b...

  5. Technological change and salary variation in Mexican regions: Analyzing panel data for the service sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camberos C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Hypothesis Biased Technological Change is applied for Mexican workers services sector, belonging several Mexican regions. Economics Census microdata, 1998, 2003 and 2008 are used. Hypothesis is proved with technological gaps, under consideration of different index and result statistics consistency by taking account panel analysis. Mayor wages differences at 2008 year were find out between Capital region and South one, about five hundred percent on 1998 year; but it was lower on 2008, two hundred percent. This result is in correspondence with diminishing technological gap, perhaps caused by economic crisis impact.

  6. Applications of Advanced Technology for Monitoring Forest Carbon to Support Climate Change Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Hurtt, G. C.; Dubayah, R.; Hagen, S. C.; Vargas, R.; Nehrkorn, T.; Domke, G. M.; Houghton, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) is a broad concept guiding the application of monitoring technology to the needs of countries or entities for reporting and verifying reductions in greenhouse gas emissions or increases in greenhouse gas sinks. Credibility, cost-effectiveness, and compatibility are important features of global MRV efforts that can support implementation of climate change mitigation programs such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation and Sustainable Forest Management (REDD+). Applications of MRV technology may be tailored to individual country circumstances following guidance provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; hence, there is no single approach that is uniquely viable but rather a range of ways to integrate new MRV methods. MRV technology is advancing rapidly with new remote sensing and advanced measurement of atmospheric CO2, and in situ terrestrial and ocean measurements, coupled with improvements in data analysis, modeling, and assessing uncertainty. Here we briefly summarize some of the most application-ready MRV technologies being developed under NASA's Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) program, and illustrate how these technologies may be applied for monitoring forests using several case studies that span a range of scales, country circumstances, and stakeholder reporting requirements. We also include remarks about the potential role of advanced monitoring technology in the context of the global climate accord that is expected to result from the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is expected to take place in December 2015, in Paris, France.

  7. On the optimal allocation of green technology under climate change agreements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, David

    2009-07-15

    This report investigates whether a technology transfer mechanism can help to reach a cooperative outcome, in a game on a climate change treaty that involves emission caps for both developed and developing countries. A climate change treaty without the inclusion of developing countries and their acceptance of emission limits is likely to be ineffective. Too little research and development of green technology is currently undertaken, considering its potential global impact, especially in developing countries. Analyzing a simple game with two asymmetric players, a tentative result is that the technology-transfer mechanism considered here cannot help to establish the cooperative outcome as a Nash equilibrium. However, the inclusion of secondary benefits in the payoff function, which are likely to occur when such a transfer takes place, could change this result. (Author)

  8. Estimating climate change, CO2 and technology development effects on wheat yield in northeast Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannayan, M.; Mansoori, H.; Rezaei, E. Eyshi

    2014-04-01

    Wheat is the main food for the majority of Iran's population. Precise estimation of wheat yield change in future is essential for any possible revision of management strategies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of climate change, CO2 concentration, technology development and their integrated effects on wheat production under future climate change. This study was performed under two scenarios of the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES): regional economic (A2) and global environmental (B1). Crop production was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) in comparison with a baseline year (2005) for Khorasan province located in the northeast of Iran. Four study locations in the study area included Mashhad, Birjand, Bojnourd and Sabzevar. The effect of technology development was calculated by fitting a regression equation between the observed wheat yields against historical years considering yield potential increase and yield gap reduction as technology development. Yield relative increase per unit change of CO2 concentration (1 ppm-1) was considered 0.05 % and was used to implement the effect of elevated CO2. The HadCM3 general circulation model along with the CSM-CERES-Wheat crop model were used to project climate change effects on wheat crop yield. Our results illustrate that, among all the factors considered, technology development provided the highest impact on wheat yield change. Highest wheat yield increase across all locations and time periods was obtained under the A2 scenario. Among study locations, Mashhad showed the highest change in wheat yield. Yield change compared to baseline ranged from -28 % to 56 % when the integration of all factors was considered across all locations. It seems that achieving higher yield of wheat in future may be expected in northeast Iran assuming stable improvements in production technology.

  9. Estimating climate change, CO2 and technology development effects on wheat yield in northeast Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannayan, M; Mansoori, H; Rezaei, E Eyshi

    2014-04-01

    Wheat is the main food for the majority of Iran's population. Precise estimation of wheat yield change in future is essential for any possible revision of management strategies. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of climate change, CO2 concentration, technology development and their integrated effects on wheat production under future climate change. This study was performed under two scenarios of the IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES): regional economic (A2) and global environmental (B1). Crop production was projected for three future time periods (2020, 2050 and 2080) in comparison with a baseline year (2005) for Khorasan province located in the northeast of Iran. Four study locations in the study area included Mashhad, Birjand, Bojnourd and Sabzevar. The effect of technology development was calculated by fitting a regression equation between the observed wheat yields against historical years considering yield potential increase and yield gap reduction as technology development. Yield relative increase per unit change of CO2 concentration (1 ppm(-1)) was considered 0.05 % and was used to implement the effect of elevated CO2. The HadCM3 general circulation model along with the CSM-CERES-Wheat crop model were used to project climate change effects on wheat crop yield. Our results illustrate that, among all the factors considered, technology development provided the highest impact on wheat yield change. Highest wheat yield increase across all locations and time periods was obtained under the A2 scenario. Among study locations, Mashhad showed the highest change in wheat yield. Yield change compared to baseline ranged from -28 % to 56 % when the integration of all factors was considered across all locations. It seems that achieving higher yield of wheat in future may be expected in northeast Iran assuming stable improvements in production technology.

  10. Progress and Trend of Lead Wastewater Advanced Treatment Technology of Lead Battery Industry%铅蓄电池行业含铅废水深度处理技术进展与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁刚; 李红艺; 曹莹; 杨丽; 段凯华; 姚慕雪; 吴磊

    2014-01-01

    This articleanalyzesthesourcesandharms ofthe wastewatercontaining lead oflead acid batteryindus-try ,and summarizesthe advantages and disadvantagesofthe advancedprocessing methods .Furthermore ,it in-troduces the development history of membrane technology at home and abroad ,and discussesthe development and application prospectsofthethe reverse osmosis membrane technology .%对铅酸电池含铅废水的来源,危害及深度处理技术及其各自的优缺点进行了综述,深入介绍了国内外膜技术的发展历史,详细探讨了反渗透膜技术的发展及应用前景。

  11. The accumulation of brain injury leads to severe neuropathological and neurobehavioral changes after repetitive mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huabin; Han, Zhaoli; Bai, Ruojing; Huang, Shan; Ge, Xintong; Chen, Fanglian; Lei, Ping

    2017-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem with long-term neurobehavioral sequela. The evidences have revealed that TBI is a risk factor for later development of neurodegenerative disease and both the single and repetitive brain injury can lead to the neurodegeneration. But whether the effects of accumulation play an important role in the neurodegenerative disease is still unknown. We utilized the Sprague Dawley (SD) rats to develop the animal models of repetitive mild TBI and single mild TBI in order to detect the neurobehavioral changes. The results of neurobehavioral test revealed that the repetitive mild TBI led to more severe behavioral injuries than the single TBI. There were more activated microglia cells and astrocytes in the repetitive mild TBI group than the single TBI group. In consistent with this, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher and the expression of IL-10 was lower in the repetitive mild TBI group compared with the single TBI group. The expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) increased in the repetitive TBI group detected by ELISA and western blot. But the levels of total tau (Tau-5) and P-tau (ser202) seem no different between the two groups in most time point. In conclusion, repetitive mild TBI could lead to more severe neurobehavioral impairments and the effects of accumulation may be associated with the increased inflammation in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hypoxia during pregnancy in rats leads to the changes of the cerebral white matter in adult offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingxing; Cai, Ruowei [Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Lv, Guorong, E-mail: lxingwan502@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Huang, Ziyang; Wang, Zhenhua [Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China)

    2010-05-28

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of reduced fetal oxygen supply on cerebral white matter in the adult offspring and further assess its susceptibility to postnatal hypoxia and high-fat diet. Based on a 3 x 2 full factorial design consisting of three factors of maternal hypoxia, postnatal high-fat diet, and postnatal hypoxia, the ultrastructure of myelin, axon and capillaries were observed, and the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-H+L(NF-H+L), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was analyzed in periventricular white matter of 16-month-old offspring. Demyelination, injured axon and damaged microvasculars were observed in maternal hypoxia offspring. The main effect of maternal hypoxia lead to decreased expression of MBP or NF-H+L, and increased expression of GFAP (all P < 0.05). Moreover, there was positive three-way interaction among maternal hypoxia, high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia on MBP, NF-H+L or GFAP expression (all P < 0.05). In summary, our results indicated that maternal hypoxia during pregnancy in rats lead to changes of periventricular white matter in adult offspring, including demyelination, damaged axon and proliferated astroglia. This effect was amplified by high-fat diet and postnatal hypoxia.

  13. From ER to E.T. how electromagnetic technologies are changing our lives

    CERN Document Server

    Bansal, Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    From ER to ET: How Electromagnetic Technologies Are Changing Our Lives explores electromagnetic wave theory including its founders, scientific underpinnings, ethical issues, and applications through history. Utilizing a format of short essays, this book explains in a balanced, and direct style how electromagnetic technologies are changing the world we live in and the future they may create for us. Quizzes at the end of each chapter provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the material. This book is a valuable resource for microwave engineers of varying levels of experience, and for instructors to motivate their students and add depth to their assignments.

  14. Full Scale Experiences with Didactic Changes in Distance Education in Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo, Jan; Knudsen, Morten Haack; Borch, Ole M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper report the main results of didactic changes in the first year of an experiment in ICT-based distance learning. The results are based on a full scale experiment in the education, Master of Industrial Information Technology (MII). The experiment transforming the well functioning on......-campus engineering program based on project organized collaborative learning to the technology supported distance education program failed. Despite of many miner didactic changes we did not obtain the same self regulating learning effect in the group work among the off-campus students as is the case for oncampus....... Questionnaires, discussions and measurements of the internet activities show results which are contradictory compared to expectations....

  15. The OHS consultant as a 'political reflective navigator' in technological change processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2004-01-01

    The occupational health service (OHS) in Denmark is rarely involved as adviser when technological changes take place in client enterprises. To support OHS efforts in this area, the work practice of OHS consultants has been studied in four cases of technological change. Traditionally, the role...... is an 'actor' who pursues a work environment agenda in a complex network in which other actors pursue other agendas such as productivity, economics, quality, etc. The consultant is political in the sense of pursuing a work environment agenda; the consultant is reflective in the sense of being able to switch...

  16. Structural modification of resveratrol leads to increased anti-tumor activity, but causes profound changes in the mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherzberg, Maria-Christina; Kiehl, Andreas; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Stark, Holger [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stein, Jürgen [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Internal Medicine, Sachsenhausen Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fürst, Robert [Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Steinhilber, Dieter [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Ulrich-Rückert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.ulrich@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Biozentrum, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 9, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    (Z)-3,5,4′-Trimethoxystilbene (Z-TMS) is a resveratrol analog with increased antiproliferative activity towards a number of cancer cell lines compared to resveratrol, which has been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization in vitro. The purpose of this study was to investigate if Z-TMS still shows potential for the prevention of metabolic diseases as known for resveratrol. Cell growth inhibition was determined with IC{sub 50} values for Z-TMS between 0.115 μM and 0.473 μM (resveratrol: 110.7 μM to 190.2 μM). Flow cytometric analysis revealed a G{sub 2}/M arrest after Z-TMS treatment, whereas resveratrol caused S phase arrest. Furthermore, Z-TMS was shown to impair microtubule polymerization. Beneficial effects on lipid accumulation were observed for resveratrol, but not for Z-TMS in an in vitro steatosis model. (E)-Resveratrol was confirmed to elevate cAMP levels, and knockdown of AMPK attenuated the antiproliferative activity, while Z-TMS did not show significant effects in these experiments. SIRT1 and AMPK activities were further measured indirectly via induction of the target gene small heterodimer partner (SHP). Thereby, (E)-resveratrol, but not Z-TMS, showed potent induction of SHP mRNA levels in an AMPK- and SIRT1-dependent manner, as confirmed by knockdown experiments. We provide evidence that Z-TMS does not show beneficial metabolic effects, probably due to loss of activity towards resveratrol target genes. Moreover, our data support previous findings that Z-TMS acts as an inhibitor of tubulin polymerization. These findings confirm that the methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in the mode of action, which should be taken into consideration when conducting lead structure optimization approaches. - Highlights: • Methylation of resveratrol leads to profound changes in biologic activity. • Z-TMS does not prevent hepatic steatosis, but inhibits tubulin polymerization. • Resveratrol analog Z-TMS does not influence known targets like

  17. Global assessment of technological innovation for climate change adaptation and mitigation in developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenle, Ademola A; Azadi, Hossein; Arbiol, Joseph

    2015-09-15

    Concerns about mitigating and adapting to climate change resulted in renewing the incentive for agricultural research investments and developing further innovation priorities around the world particularly in developing countries. In the near future, development of new agricultural measures and proper diffusion of technologies will greatly influence the ability of farmers in adaptation and mitigation to climate change. Using bibliometric approaches through output of academic journal publications and patent-based data, we assess the impact of research and development (R&D) for new and existing technologies within the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation. We show that many developing countries invest limited resources for R&D in relevant technologies that have great potential for mitigation and adaption in agricultural production. We also discuss constraints including weak infrastructure, limited research capacity, lack of credit facilities and technology transfer that may hinder the application of innovation in tackling the challenges of climate change. A range of policy measures is also suggested to overcome identified constraints and to ensure that potentials of innovation for climate change mitigation and adaptation are realized.

  18. 几种新技术铅蓄电池的研究进展%Research Progress of Several New Technologies Lead Storage Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳颖

    2016-01-01

    Lead acid battery has the disadvantages of low energy, short cycle life and high power performance.The development of new technology and new structure has greatly improved the performance of battery, and expanded the application field of the battery.This article introduced the research and development, industrialization and application of several new technologies of lead storage batteries.%铅蓄电池存在比能量低、循环寿命短、高功率性能差等缺点,相关新技术、新结构的开发,极大地改善了电池性能,拓展了电池应用领域.文章介绍了几种铅蓄电池新技术的研究开发、产业化及应用情况.

  19. 2012 U. S. Marine Corps S&T Strategic Plan: Leading Edge Technology for the Marines of Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    ROMO ) including attended and unattended space, air, ground and sea sensors down to the individual warfighter. Flagpole to fighting hole, forces...SEA-STO-4: Forecasting adverse sea conditions Develop technologies and decision support tools to forecast wind , waves, and ship motions far...range of military operations ( ROMO ) Goal: The Naval Medicine S &T planning process will identify and prioritize relevant capability gaps

  20. Can the Adoption of Desalination Technology Lead to Aquifer Preservation? A Case Study of a Sociotechnical Water System in Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie McEvoy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing concern about the sustainability of groundwater supplies worldwide. In many regions, desalination—the conversion of saline water to freshwater—is viewed as a way to increase water supplies and reduce pressure on overdrawn aquifers. Using data from reports, articles, interviews, a survey, and a focus group, this paper examines if, and how, the adoption of desalination technology can lead to aquifer preservation in Baja California Sur (BCS, Mexico. The paper outlines existing institutional arrangements (i.e., laws, rules, norms, or organizations surrounding desalination in BCS and concludes that there are currently no effective mechanisms to ensure aquifer preservation. Four mechanisms that could be implemented to improve groundwater management are identified, including: 1 integrated water-and land-use planning; 2 creation of an institute responsible for coordinated and consistent planning; 3 improved groundwater monitoring; and 4 implementation of water conservation measures prior to the adoption of desalination technology. This paper concludes that viewing water technologies, including desalination, as sociotechnical systems—i.e., a set of technological components that are embedded in complex social, political, and economic contexts—has the potential to create a more sustainable human–environment–technology relationship. By assessing desalination technology as a sociotechnical system, this study highlights the need to focus on institutional development and capacity building, especially within local water utilities and urban planning agencies.