WorldWideScience

Sample records for technological building blocks

  1. Building Blocks: Enmeshing Technology and Creativity with Artistic Pedagogical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Katherine J.; Perry, Beth; Edwards, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Using the analogy of children's building blocks, the reader is guided through the results of a research study that explored the use of three Artistic Pedagogical Technologies (APTs). "Building blocks" was the major theme that emerged from the data. Sub-themes included developing community, enhancing creativity, and risk taking. The…

  2. Identification of critical technology building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Poul Martin; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In order to have a better base for decisions, R&D managers need to know what the critical areas of development are in relation to the technologies they develop, mature, and include in the portfolio. As most of the technologies in a company have the potential to have a significant impact on compet......In order to have a better base for decisions, R&D managers need to know what the critical areas of development are in relation to the technologies they develop, mature, and include in the portfolio. As most of the technologies in a company have the potential to have a significant impact...... on competition, the challenge is to know how to identify and prioritize the development tasks. If possible, an effective strategy can be defined. This article suggests a framework for identification and analysis of a product portfolio, with special emphasis on identifying critical technology building blocks...... based on reasoning about product properties. Current approaches lack such views, and by focusing on these, potential make or break decisions are better supported. It is suggested to adopt the proposed framework to clarify where in the portfolio the technology needs critical attention for the next...

  3. BUILDING BLOCKS: ENMESHING TECHNOLOGY AND CREATIVITY WITH ARTISTIC PEDAGOGICAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J.JANZEN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the analogy of children’s building blocks, the reader is guided through the results of a research study that explored the use of three Artistic Pedagogical Technologies (APTs. ‘Building blocks’ was the major theme that emerged from the data. Sub-themes included developing community, enhancing creativity, and risk taking. The discourse of the paper centers on how selected APTs stimulate interaction, create social presence, and help develop community in the online post-secondary classroom. Additional findings are discussed and implications are presented.

  4. Theoretical and technological building blocks for an innovation accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harmelen, F.; Kampis, G.; Börner, K.; van den Besselaar, P.; Schultes, E.; Goble, C.; Groth, P.; Mons, B.; Anderson, S.; Decker, S.; Hayes, C.; Buecheler, T.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    Modern science is a main driver of technological innovation. The efficiency of the scientific system is of key importance to ensure the competitiveness of a nation or region. However, the scientific system that we use today was devised centuries ago and is inadequate for our current ICT-based society: the peer review system encourages conservatism, journal publications are monolithic and slow, data is often not available to other scientists, and the independent validation of results is limited. The resulting scientific process is hence slow and sloppy. Building on the Innovation Accelerator paper by Helbing and Balietti [1], this paper takes the initial global vision and reviews the theoretical and technological building blocks that can be used for implementing an innovation (in first place: science) accelerator platform driven by re-imagining the science system. The envisioned platform would rest on four pillars: (i) Redesign the incentive scheme to reduce behavior such as conservatism, herding and hyping; (ii) Advance scientific publications by breaking up the monolithic paper unit and introducing other building blocks such as data, tools, experiment workflows, resources; (iii) Use machine readable semantics for publications, debate structures, provenance etc. in order to include the computer as a partner in the scientific process, and (iv) Build an online platform for collaboration, including a network of trust and reputation among the different types of stakeholders in the scientific system: scientists, educators, funding agencies, policy makers, students and industrial innovators among others. Any such improvements to the scientific system must support the entire scientific process (unlike current tools that chop up the scientific process into disconnected pieces), must facilitate and encourage collaboration and interdisciplinarity (again unlike current tools), must facilitate the inclusion of intelligent computing in the scientific process, must facilitate

  5. Lurgi MegaMethanol technology. Delivering the building blocks for the future fuel and monomer demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurzel, T. [Lurgi AG, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The paper describes the central role of methanol within a changing environment with respect to feedstock availability as well as steadily growing demand in fuel and monomer demand. The current large-scale production facilities are described with respect to the technological challenges in order to ensure the availability of sufficient methanol for down-stream applications. Different down-stream applications are described which clearly confirm that methanol is the dominant C1-building block due to its chemical flexibility. It is concluded that by means of the implementation of two MTP (Methanol to Propylene) projects in China initiated the era of ''down-stream methanol'' has begun in the industry. (orig.)

  6. Appropriate schemata and building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Li Minqiang

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate schemata as a novel concept to characterize building blocks are introduced, and then, the traits of appropriate schemata are presented. The effects of building blocks by search operators are analyzed. Hence, the experiments on RR-8X8 are employed to verify that appropriate schemata construct the building blocks. The validity of appropriate schemata and building blocks from the views of theory and practice is presented.

  7. Technological characteristics of compressed earth blocks for its use as a building material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Villalba, Luz Stella; Camacho-Perez, Nancy; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Becerra-Becerra, Javier; Esmeralda Corredor-Pulido, Dery; Fort, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    We present here an innovative building technique, which uses ecological, inexpensive and environmentally friendly materials. These compressed earth blocks seem to be very good for building purposes and that is why we have characterized three types of compressed earth blocks (CEB, named by their color as yellow, grey and red) mineralogically by means of X ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscopy SEM (both blocks and raw materials), petrographically by polarizing optical light microscopy POLM, and SEM, and, mainly, petrophysically: their hydric, physical and physico-mechanical properties by means of determining their capillary water absorption, porosity (open or accessible to water, pore size distribution and micro/macroporosity), and densities, color and ultrasound velocity (together with anisotropy). The particularities of these analyzed materials show that some varieties are more durable than others, and that all of them can be used as building materials with some restrictions related to their appropriate placing in the structures and the exposure to water. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the GEOMATERIALES (S2009/MAT-1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) programmes. Thanks also to the UCM (Complutense University of Madrid) Research Group "Alteración y conservación de los materiales pétreos del patrimonio" / Alteration and conservation of heritage stone materials (ref. 921349).

  8. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  9. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...

  10. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  11. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  12. Subsea building blocks for slender wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabedotti, Sergio

    2010-07-01

    Reduce the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), IOR and improve HSE are fundamental aspects in future subsea field developments. The SBB (Subsea Building Blocks) is an R D effort from Statoil and Aker Solutions to investigate and develop new technology that can allow the industry to achieve these objectives. One important aspect of this initiative is well construction and reduced rig time for drilling, completion and intervention of subsea wells. To enable a slender system and increase the operational flexibility, well equipment (WH, XMT) has been analyzed and redesigned. (Author)

  13. AAC 砌块自由加载墙施工工法%Construction Technology of the Free Loading Wall of AAC Building Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆建辉; 戴伟军; 朱晓波

    2016-01-01

    AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) building block is light in self-weigh, good fireproof, warm-proof and more easily cutting. But the strength of AAC building block is low. The AAC can’t be easily loaded, punched or holed. Its strength and warm-proof will get lower, when it meets water especially. The technology of the free loading wall of AAC building block (AAC wall) adopts the mixed wall structure, which consists of AAC building blocks, shale bricks and concrete bricks. The AAC wall can be easily loaded, punched, holed and free to fit all kinds of deformation, when you put concrete bricks or shale bricks into AAC wall through BIM design. Using the technology of mortar cover with wire mesh and boundary plugging, the AAC wall can be better in waterproof yet. Using the different thickness among building block wall, shale bricks wall and concrete beam or column, adopting the technology of heat bridge of gearing each other, the heat bridge can be overcome. This technology has solved the common quality failing of AAC wall, enlarging its integrity and use range, increasing the function of punching, holing or waterproofing systemically. It can be widely utilized in inside wall or outside wall because of producing and manufacturing in industry.%AAC 砌块自重轻、易切割、防火与保温性好,但其强度低、不能任意加载,开槽开洞局限较多,遇水湿胀且强度和保温性能变低。 AAC 砌块自由加载墙体施工工艺采用 AAC 砌块、页岩砖、素混凝土块混墙结构,通过 BIM 排块设计,在 AAC 砌块墙体中嵌入素混凝土块,在箱体集中处砌筑页岩砖墙体,以自由地适应加载、开槽开洞和墙体变形;利用表面网膜和界面封堵工艺,较好地解决了防渗防漏;利用砌块墙与页岩砖墙、混凝土梁柱间的厚度差,采用热桥咬合工艺,较好地解决了热桥。该工法系统地解决 AAC 砌块墙体的质量通病、使用局限,增强 AAC砌块墙体的

  14. Building-block selectivity of polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Grace F; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-04-01

    For the past decade, polyketide synthases have presented an exciting paradigm for the controlled manipulation of complex natural product structure. These multifunctional enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products by stepwise condensation and modification of metabolically derived building blocks. In particular, regioselective modification of polyketide structure is possible by alterations in either intracellular acyl-CoA pools or, more commonly, by manipulation of acyl transferases that act as the primary gatekeepers for building blocks.

  15. Building Blocks of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This article presents possibilities to impart knowledge of and enthusiasm for particle physics to essentially all non-expert target audiences by the use of LEGO bricks and models of particle physics experiments built from these. Methods of using LEGO models, both as a passive exhibit and as part of interactive outreach events, are presented, along with a historical review of the “Build Your Own Particle Detector” programme and the corresponding idea of hosting competitions in building detector models in LEGO pieces as a perfect setting to grasp people’s attention, get them involved and ultimately convey knowledge in particle physics to them.

  16. Understanding dwarf galaxies as galactic building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, M P

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of a general discussion held during the third EuroConference on galaxy evolution. Various observational features of the stellar populations in present--day dwarf galaxies were presented to introduce the discussion on the possibility that these systems be the main building blocks of spiral and elliptical galaxies. Many people in the audience turned out to think that the inconsistencies among the observed properties of large and dwarf galaxies are too many to believe that the former are built up only by means of successive accretions of the latter. However, theorists of hierarchical galaxy formation suggested that present--day dwarfs are not representative of the galactic building blocks, which may be completely invisible nowadays. Some of them suggested that, contrary to what is usually assumed in hierarchical modelling, the actual building blocks were still fully gaseous systems when their major mergers occurred. If this is the case, then most of the inconsistencies can be overcome, and the ...

  17. SiGe Building Blocks for Microwave Frequency Synthesizers

    OpenAIRE

    Vaucher, Cicero S.; Apostolidou, M; Farrugia, Andrew; Praamsma, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Implementations of Ku- and Ka-band PLL building blocks in the Philips QUBiC4G SiGe technology are presented: a 10 GHz fully-integrated low-phase-noise differential Colpttis oscillator, a 25 GHz low-power adaptive prescaler, and a 18 GHz truly-modular fully-programmable frequency divider.

  18. Building Blocks for Control System Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Johannes F.; Hilderink, G.H.; Amerongen van, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.P.L

    2001-01-01

    Software implementation of control laws for industrial systems seem straightforward, but is not. The computer code stemming from the control laws is mostly not more than 10 to 30% of the total. A building-block approach for embedded control system development is advocated to enable a fast and effici

  19. Buildings for advanced technology

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, E; Murday, James

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the design and construction of buildings for nanoscale science and engineering research. The information provided in this book is useful for designing and constructing buildings for such advanced technologies as nanotechnology, nanoelectronics and biotechnology. The book outlines the technology challenges unique to each of the building environmental challenges outlined below and provides best practices and examples of engineering approaches to address them: • Establishing and maintaining critical environments: temperature, humidity, and pressure • Structural vibration isolation • Airborne vibration isolation (acoustic noise) • Isolation of mechanical equipment-generated vibration/acoustic noise • Cost-effective power conditioning • Grounding facilities for low electrical interference • Electromagnetic interference (EMI)/Radio frequency interference (RFI) isolation • Airborne particulate contamination • Airborne organic and chemical contamination • Environment, safety a...

  20. Porous polymers based on aryleneethynylene building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunz, Uwe H F; Seehafer, Kai; Geyer, Florian L; Bender, Markus; Braun, Ingo; Smarsly, Emanuel; Freudenberg, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Porous conjugated polymers are synthesized by metal-catalyzed coupling reactions. The progress for porous polymers when planar or tetrahedral building blocks are connected by alkyne units into novel materials is highlighted. The most prominent reaction for the buildup of the microporous alkyne-bridged polymers is the Sonogashira reaction, connecting alkynes to aromatic iodides or bromides. The availability of the building blocks and the potency of the Sonogashira reaction allow preparing a large variety of intrinsically porous polymeric materials, in which rigid struts connect multipronged centers. The microporous polymers are used as catalysts and as storage materials for gases and sensors. Postfunctionalization schemes, understanding of structure-property relationships, and the quest for high porosity are pertinent.

  1. Essential Building Blocks of Human Nature

    CERN Document Server

    Frey, Ulrich J; Willführ, Kai P

    2011-01-01

    To understand why we humans are as we are, it is necessary to look at the essential building blocks that comprise our nature. The foundations of this structure are our evolutionary origins as primates and our social roots. Upon these rest features such as our emotions, language and aesthetic preferences, with our self-perceptions, self-deceptions and thirst for knowledge right at the top. The unifying force holding these blocks together is evolutionary theory. Evolution provides a deeper understanding of human nature and, in particular, of the common roots of these different perspectives. To build a reliable and coherent model of man, leading authors from fields as diverse as primatology, anthropology, neurobiology and philosophy have joined forces to present essays  each describing their own expert perspective. Together they provide a convincing and complete picture of our own human nature.

  2. Internet of Things building blocks and business models

    CERN Document Server

    Hussain, Fatima

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the building blocks and introductory business models for Internet of Things (IoT). The author provide an overview of the entire IoT architecture and constituent layers, followed by detail description of each block . Various inter-connecting technologies and sensors are discussed in context of IoT networks. In addition to this, concepts of Big Data and Fog Computing are presented and characterized as per data generated by versatile IoT applications . Smart parking system and context aware services are presented as an hybrid model of cloud and Fog Afterwards, various IoT applications and respective business models are discussed. Finally, author summarizes the IoT building blocks and identify research issues in each, and suggest potential research projects worthy of pursuing. .

  3. Building blocks for correlated superconductors and magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Sarrao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent efforts at Los Alamos to discover strongly correlated superconductors and hard ferromagnets are reviewed. While serendipity remains a principal engine of materials discovery, design principles and structural building blocks are beginning to emerge that hold potential for predictive discovery. Successes over the last decade with the so-called “115” strongly correlated superconductors are summarized, and more recent efforts to translate these insights and principles to novel hard magnets are discussed. While true “materials by design” remains a distant aspiration, progress is being made in coupling empirical design principles to electronic structure simulation to accelerate and guide materials design and synthesis.

  4. Building blocks for correlated superconductors and magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Batista, C. D.; Zhu, J.-X.; Thompson, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Recent efforts at Los Alamos to discover strongly correlated superconductors and hard ferromagnets are reviewed. While serendipity remains a principal engine of materials discovery, design principles and structural building blocks are beginning to emerge that hold potential for predictive discovery. Successes over the last decade with the so-called “115” strongly correlated superconductors are summarized, and more recent efforts to translate these insights and principles to novel hard magnets are discussed. While true “materials by design” remains a distant aspiration, progress is being made in coupling empirical design principles to electronic structure simulation to accelerate and guide materials design and synthesis.

  5. Birth of a nanoscience building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivisatos, A Paul

    2008-08-01

    The first Kavli Prize in Nanoscience has recognized two giants of the field, Louis Brus and Sumio Ijima, who have helped to lay the foundation of the field of nanoscience through their efforts to develop two of the most fundamental nanoscience building blocks: colloidal quantum dots and the carbon nanotube. In this Focus, I provide a brief history on the birth of the field of semiconductor nanoparticles, or quantum dots, and outline the contributions that Louis Brus has made in this area, which have served to advance the field of nanoscience in vast and far-reaching ways.

  6. THE USAGE OF FACEBOOK FUNCTIONAL BUILDING BLOCKS IN UNISEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Abd Latib

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Internet-based social media has made it possible for a personto communicate with thousands of other people to increase the communicationeffectiveness, collaboration among internal organization and knowledge sharing.By engaging employees through social media such as Facebook as a two-waycommunications tool, employers can reach a larger audience and build credibilitywith techno-savvy workers. Although it is clear that Facebook is a very powerfultool for communication, many employers are unable to identify the functionalityof Facebook in terms of developing strategies and to allocate the resourceseffectively. Taking this into account this study sought to identify the usage ofFacebook Functionality building blocks. This survey involved 55 academic staffsfrom the Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Unisel. Theseven functional building blocks identified were Identity (M=3.39, Relationships(M=3.39, Groups (M=3.6, Presence (M=3.28, Sharing (M=3.06, andConversations (M=2.90, Reputation (M=2.05. This study suggests that theability to identify the functional building blocks itself is very important in anorganization in terms of developing their communication strategies. It is hopedthat the results of the study will be applicable to the instituition, current users,and potential users of Facebook.

  7. Topology optimised planar photonic crystal building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Hede, K. K.; Borel, Peter Ingo

    A photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) 1x4 splitter has been constructed from PhCW 60° bends1 and Y-splitters2 that have been designed individually by utilising topology optimisation3. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1) and exhibits a broadband splitting...... for the TE-polarisation with an average excess loss of 1.55±0.54 dB for a 110 nm bandwidth. The 1x4 splitter demonstrates that individual topology-optimised parts can be used as building blocks to realise high-performance nanophotonic circuits. 1L. H. Frandsen et al., Opt. Express 12, 5916-5921 (2004) 2P. I...

  8. Alkoxyallenes as building blocks for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Reinhold; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Alkoxyallenes are unusually versatile C3 building blocks in organic synthesis. Hence this tutorial review summarizes the most important transformations, including subsequent reactions and their applications in the synthesis of relevant compounds, e.g. natural products. The reactivity patterns involved and the synthons derived from alkoxyallenes are presented. Often alkoxyallenes can serve as substitutes of acrolein or acrolein acetals, utilisation of which has already led to interesting products. Most important is the use of lithiated alkoxyallenes which smoothly react with a variety of electrophiles and lead to products with unique substitution patterns. The heterocycles or carbocycles formed are intermediates for the stereoselective synthesis of natural products or for the preparation of other structurally relevant compounds. The different synthons being put into practice by the use of lithiated alkoxyallenes in these variations will be discussed.

  9. A droplet-based building block approach for bladder smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, F; Moon, S J; Emre, A E; Turali, E S; Song, Y S; Hacking, S A; Demirci, U [Department of Medicine, Bio-Acoustic-MEMS in Medicine (BAMM) Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Nagatomi, J, E-mail: udemirci@rics.bwh.harvard.ed [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Tissue engineering based on building blocks is an emerging method to fabricate 3D tissue constructs. This method requires depositing and assembling building blocks (cell-laden microgels) at high throughput. The current technologies (e.g., molding and photolithography) to fabricate microgels have throughput challenges and provide limited control over building block properties (e.g., cell density). The cell-encapsulating droplet generation technique has potential to address these challenges. In this study, we monitored individual building blocks for viability, proliferation and cell density. The results showed that (i) SMCs can be encapsulated in collagen droplets with high viability (>94.2 +- 3.2%) for four cases of initial number of cells per building block (i.e. 7 +- 2, 16 +- 2, 26 +- 3 and 37 +- 3 cells/building block). (ii) Encapsulated SMCs can proliferate in building blocks at rates that are consistent (1.49 +- 0.29) across all four cases, compared to that of the controls. (iii) By assembling these building blocks, we created an SMC patch (5 mm x 5 mm x 20 mum), which was cultured for 51 days forming a 3D tissue-like construct. The histology of the cultured patch was compared to that of a native rat bladder. These results indicate the potential of creating 3D tissue models at high throughput in vitro using building blocks.

  10. A droplet-based building block approach for bladder smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Moon, S J; Emre, A E; Turali, E S; Song, Y S; Hacking, S A; Nagatomi, J; Demirci, U

    2010-03-01

    Tissue engineering based on building blocks is an emerging method to fabricate 3D tissue constructs. This method requires depositing and assembling building blocks (cell-laden microgels) at high throughput. The current technologies (e.g., molding and photolithography) to fabricate microgels have throughput challenges and provide limited control over building block properties (e.g., cell density). The cell-encapsulating droplet generation technique has potential to address these challenges. In this study, we monitored individual building blocks for viability, proliferation and cell density. The results showed that (i) SMCs can be encapsulated in collagen droplets with high viability (>94.2 +/- 3.2%) for four cases of initial number of cells per building block (i.e. 7 +/- 2, 16 +/- 2, 26 +/- 3 and 37 +/- 3 cells/building block). (ii) Encapsulated SMCs can proliferate in building blocks at rates that are consistent (1.49 +/- 0.29) across all four cases, compared to that of the controls. (iii) By assembling these building blocks, we created an SMC patch (5 mm x 5 mm x 20 microm), which was cultured for 51 days forming a 3D tissue-like construct. The histology of the cultured patch was compared to that of a native rat bladder. These results indicate the potential of creating 3D tissue models at high throughput in vitro using building blocks.

  11. Galactic Building Blocks Seen Swarming Around Andromeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Green Bank, WV - A team of astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) has made the first conclusive detection of what appear to be the leftover building blocks of galaxy formation -- neutral hydrogen clouds -- swarming around the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest large spiral galaxy to the Milky Way. This discovery may help scientists understand the structure and evolution of the Milky Way and all spiral galaxies. It also may help explain why certain young stars in mature galaxies are surprisingly bereft of the heavy elements that their contemporaries contain. Andromeda Galaxy This image depicts several long-sought galactic "building blocks" in orbit of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The newfound hydrogen clouds are depicted in a shade of orange (GBT), while gas that comprises the massive hydrogen disk of Andromeda is shown at high-resolution in blue (Westerbork Sythesis Radio Telescope). CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF, WSRT (Click on Image for Larger Version) "Giant galaxies, like Andromeda and our own Milky Way, are thought to form through repeated mergers with smaller galaxies and through the accretion of vast numbers of even lower mass 'clouds' -- dark objects that lack stars and even are too small to call galaxies," said David A. Thilker of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. "Theoretical studies predict that this process of galactic growth continues today, but astronomers have been unable to detect the expected low mass 'building blocks' falling into nearby galaxies, until now." Thilker's research is published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Other contributors include: Robert Braun of the Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy; Rene A.M. Walterbos of New Mexico State University; Edvige Corbelli of the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri in Italy; Felix J. Lockman and Ronald Maddalena of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia; and Edward Murphy of the

  12. Explicit filtering of building blocks for genetic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, C.H.M. van

    1996-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are often applied to building block problems. We have developed a simple filtering algorithm that can locate building blocks within a bit-string, and does not make assumptions regarding the linkage of the bits. A comparison between the filtering algorithm and genetic algorithms re

  13. Explicit filtering of building blocks for genetic algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.H.M. van Kemenade

    1996-01-01

    textabstractGenetic algorithms are often applied to building block problems. We have developed a simple filtering algorithm that can locate building blocks within a bit-string, and does not make assumptions regarding the linkage of the bits. A comparison between the filtering algorithm and genetic

  14. Trihaloethenes as versatile building blocks for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Adriana S; Magauer, Thomas

    2016-06-15

    This review highlights the chemistry of trihaloethene building blocks with a special focus on commercially available 1,1,2-trichloroethene. The topics surveyed herein include the use of trihaloethenes as C2-building blocks for transition metal-catalyzed coupling reactions, addition, elimination and cycloaddition reactions as well as natural product syntheses.

  15. A facile building-block synthesis of multifunctional lanthanide MOFs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, S.; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, M.C.; Rothenberg, G.; Mathonière, C.; Jubera, V.; Smits, J.M.M.; de Gelder, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report a building blocks approach providing a direct route to multifunctional MOFs, that display photoluminescent properties, robustness, porosity and in some cases unique magnetic properties. The self-assembly of [Mo(CN)8]4− with several in situ prepared lanthanide building blocks gives 3D

  16. Data Policy Construction Set - Building Blocks from Childhood Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Dirk; Paul-Stueve, Thilo; Jobmann, Alexandra; Farrenkopf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    A complete construction set of building blocks usually comes with instructions and these instruction include building stages. The products of these building stages usually build from very general parts become highly specialized building parts for very unique features of the whole construction model. This sounds very much like the construction or organization of an interdisciplinary research project, institution or association, doesn't it! The creation process of an overarching data policy for a project group or institution is exactly the combination of individual interests with the common goal of a collaborative data policy and can be compared with the building stages of a construction set of building blocks and the building instructions. Keeping this in mind we created the data policy construction set of textual building blocks. This construction set is subdivided into several building stages or parts each containing multiple building blocks as text blocks. By combining building blocks of all subdivisions it is supposed to create a cascading data policy document. Cascading from the top level as a construction set provider for all further down existing levels such as project, themes, work packages or Universities, faculties, institutes down to the working level of working groups. The working groups are picking from the remaining building blocks in the provided construction set the suitable blocks for its working procedures to create a very specific policy from the available construction set provided by the top level community. Nevertheless, if a working group realized that there are missing building blocks or worse that there are missing building parts, then they have the chance to add the missing pieces to the construction set of direct an future use. This cascading approach enables project or institution wide application of the encoded rules from the textual level on access to data storage infrastructure. This structured approach is flexible enough to allow for

  17. Convenient Syntheses of Some C4 Chiral Building Blocks Starting From (S)-Malic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU TianJun; YU XianYong; ZHENG Xiao; HUANG PeiQiang

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the field of chiral technology, the synthesis of chiral intermediates and chiral building blocks occupies an important position. Chiral building blocks bearing double and / or multiple functionalities is particularly useful for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceuticals and chiral agrochemicals. In the recent years, we have been engaged in the development of synthetic methodology based on (S)-malic acid1-s. In these studies, malimide 2, easily accessible from (S)-malic acid, was shown to be a useful multifunctional building block in the asymmetric synthesis of natural products and chiral drugs (Scheme 1).

  18. Convenient Syntheses of Some C4 Chiral Building Blocks Starting From (S)-Malic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; TianJun

    2001-01-01

    In the field of chiral technology, the synthesis of chiral intermediates and chiral building blocks occupies an important position. Chiral building blocks bearing double and / or multiple functionalities is particularly useful for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceuticals and chiral agrochemicals.  In the recent years, we have been engaged in the development of synthetic methodology based on (S)-malic acid1-s. In these studies, malimide 2, easily accessible from (S)-malic acid, was shown to be a useful multifunctional building block in the asymmetric synthesis of natural products and chiral drugs (Scheme 1).  ……

  19. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  20. The building blocks to the architecture of a cloud platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mvelase, P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is on the identification of components that are general across cloud platforms. These components are classified under hardware, virtualisation and cloud management. These building blocks encompass nodes and clusters, hypervisors...

  1. Installation of a modular building block photovoltaic concentrator array field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J.A.; Cass, D.C.; Broadbent, S.

    1985-06-01

    A building block array field nominally rated at 25 kW has been installed in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The building block is a single source electrical circuit of six center pedestal two-axis tracking arrays connected in parallel and having a nominal operating voltage of 420 volts DC. Each array contains 60 point-focusing Fresnel lens photovoltaic concentrator modules connected in series for a nominal power output of 4.2 kW per array. The structural design uses a center pedestal two-axis cantilevered support tube with a closed loop sun sensor electronic control system. A master control provides manual override of the array field. The installation was accomplished without difficulty and demonstrated the ease of turnkey building block installation. The costs of 1 MW size fields is estimated to be $6.99 per watt installed based on the building block installation.

  2. Building blocks X-FAB SOI 0.18 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizel, J.-B.; Ahmad, S.; Callier, S.; Cornat, R.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; de La Taille, C.; Thienpont, D.

    2015-02-01

    This work has been done in order to study a new technology provided by X-FAB named xt018. It is an SOI (Silicon On Insulator) technology with a minimal gate length of 180 nm. Building blocks have been done to test the advantages and drawbacks of this technology compared to the one currently used (AMS SiGe 0.35 μm). These building blocks have been designed to fit in an existing experience housed by the CALICE collaboration: the read-out chip for the Electromagnetic CALorimeter (ECAL) of the foreseen International Linear Collider (ILC). Performances will be compared to those of the SKIROC2 chip designed by the OMEGA laboratory, trying to fit the same requirements. The chip is being manufactured and will be back for measurements in December, the displayed results are only simulation results and thus the conclusions concerning the performances of these building blocks are subject to change.

  3. Customizable Visualizations with Formula-Linked Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Lauesen, Søren

    . Visualization toolkits allow easier visualization creation in some cases, but customization and interaction are tedious. As an alternative, we developed uVis visualization tool that uses spreadsheet-like formulas to connect building blocks. uVis formulas can refer to building blocks and database tables. We......One approach to visualization construction is to use complex blocks (widgets) that are tailored for specific visualizations, and customize the visualizations by setting the properties of the widgets. This approach allows fast and easy visualization construction but falls short if the user wants...

  4. Build an Assistive Technology Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) by its very nature consists of a variety of personal and customized tools for multiple learning styles and physical challenges. The author not only encourages students, parents, and educators to advocate for AT services, she also wants them to go a step further and build their own AT toolkits that can instill independence…

  5. Recovery technologies for building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karu, Veiko; Nurme, Martin; Valgma, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Mining industry provides building materials for construction. Civil engineers have settled the quality parameters for construction materials. When we produce high quality building materials from carbonate rock (limestone, dolostone), then the estimated waste share is 25% to 30%, depending on crushing principles and rock quality. The challenge is to find suitable technology for waste recovery. During international mining waste related cooperation project MIN-NOVATION (www.min-novation.eu), partners mapped possibilities for waste recovery in mining industry and pointed out good examples and case studies. One example from Estonia showed that when we produce limestone aggregate, then we produce up to 30% waste material (fines with size 0-4mm). This waste material we can see as secondary raw material for building materials. Recovery technology for this fine grained material has been achieved with CDE separation plant. During the process the plant washes out minus 63 micron material from the limestone fines. This technology allows us to use 92% of all limestone reserves. By-product from 63 microns to 4 mm we can use as filler in concrete or as fine limestone aggregate for building or building materials. MIN-NOVATION project partners also established four pilot stations to study other mineral waste recovery technologies and solutions. Main aims on this research are to find the technology for recovery of mineral wastes and usage for new by-products from mineral mining waste. Before industrial production, testing period or case studies are needed. This research is part of the study of Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  6. Sodium phosphaethynolate as a building block for heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodan; Alidori, Simone; Puschmann, Florian Frank; Santiso-Quinones, Gustavo; Benkő, Zoltán; Li, Zhongshu; Becker, Gerd; Grützmacher, Hans-Friedrich; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2014-02-03

    Phosphorus-containing heterocycles have evolved from laboratory curiosities to functional components, such as ligands in catalytically active metal complexes or molecular constituents in electronic devices. The straightforward synthesis of functionalized heterocycles on a larger scale remains a challenge. Herein, we report the use of the phosphaethynolate (OCP)(-) anion as a building block for various sterically unprotected and functionalized hydroxy substituted phosphorus heterocycles. Because the resulting heterocycles are themselves anions, they are building blocks in their own right and allow further facile functionalization. This property may be of interest in coordination chemistry and material science.

  7. Customizable Visualizations with Formula-Linked Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhail, Mohammad Amin; Lauesen, Søren

    different appearance or behavior than what the widgets support. Another approach is to combine primitive graphical elements using traditional programming or visualization toolkits. Traditional programming allows high customizability, but it is time consuming and hard to develop advanced visualizations....... Visualization toolkits allow easier visualization creation in some cases, but customization and interaction are tedious. As an alternative, we developed uVis visualization tool that uses spreadsheet-like formulas to connect building blocks. uVis formulas can refer to building blocks and database tables. We...

  8. Rigid Biobased Building Blocks: Current Developments and Outlook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, van D.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this perspectives paper we will look at the state-of-the-art in rigid renewable building blocks for biobased materials, with a focus on two types of carbohydrate-based difunctional monomers, i.e.,isohexides and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA).

  9. Building Blocks of the Milky Way's Accreted Spheroid

    CERN Document Server

    van Oirschot, Pim; Helmi, Amina; Nelemans, Gijs

    2016-01-01

    In the $\\Lambda$CDM model of structure formation, a stellar spheroid grows by the assembly of smaller galaxies, the so-called building blocks. Combining the Munich-Groningen semi-analytical model of galaxy formation with the high resolution Aquarius simulations of dark matter haloes, we study the assembly history of the stellar spheroids of six Milky Way-mass galaxies, focussing on building block properties such as mass, age and metallicity. These properties are compared to those of the surviving satellites in the same models. We find that the building blocks have higher star formation rates on average, and this is especially the case for the more massive objects. At high redshift these dominate in star formation over the satellites, whose star formation timescales are longer on average. These differences ought to result in a larger $\\alpha$-element enhancement from Type II supernovae in the building blocks (compared to the satellites) by the time Type Ia supernovae would start to enrich them in iron, explain...

  10. Linked supramolecular building blocks for enhanced cluster formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Ross; Palacios, Maria A.; Beavers, Christine M.;

    2015-01-01

    (Figure Presented). Methylene-bridged calix[4]arenes have emerged as extremely versatile ligand supports in the formation of new polymetallic clusters possessing fascinating magnetic properties. Metal ion binding rules established for this building block allow one to partially rationalise the com...

  11. Building blocks of the Milky Way's accreted spheroid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Nelemans, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    In the $\\Lambda$CDM model of structure formation, a stellar spheroid grows by the assembly of smaller galaxies, the so-called building blocks. Combining the Munich-Groningen semi-analytical model of galaxy formation with the high resolution Aquarius simulations of dark matter haloes, we study the

  12. Linked supramolecular building blocks for enhanced cluster formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLellan, Ross; Palacios, Maria A.; Beavers, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    (Figure Presented). Methylene-bridged calix[4]arenes have emerged as extremely versatile ligand supports in the formation of new polymetallic clusters possessing fascinating magnetic properties. Metal ion binding rules established for this building block allow one to partially rationalise the com...

  13. Building blocks of the Milky Way's accreted spheroid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Nelemans, Gijs

    2017-01-01

    In the $\\Lambda$CDM model of structure formation, a stellar spheroid grows by the assembly of smaller galaxies, the so-called building blocks. Combining the Munich-Groningen semi-analytical model of galaxy formation with the high resolution Aquarius simulations of dark matter haloes, we study the as

  14. Gauge Blocks – A Zombie Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Doiron, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: the relatively low cost of delivering very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging systems was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gauges that are nearl...

  15. Building blocks for a clinical imaging informatics environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Marc D; Warnock, Max; Daly, Mark; Toland, Christopher; Meenan, Chris; Nagy, Paul G

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, imaging informatics has been driven by the widespread adoption of radiology information and picture archiving and communication and speech recognition systems. These three clinical information systems are commonplace and are intuitive to most radiologists as they replicate familiar paper and film workflow. So what is next? There is a surge of innovation in imaging informatics around advanced workflow, search, electronic medical record aggregation, dashboarding, and analytics tools for quality measures (Nance et al., AJR Am J Roentgenol 200:1064-1070, 2013). The challenge lies in not having to rebuild the technological wheel for each of these new applications but instead attempt to share common components through open standards and modern development techniques. The next generation of applications will be built with moving parts that work together to satisfy advanced use cases without replicating databases and without requiring fragile, intense synchronization from clinical systems. The purpose of this paper is to identify building blocks that can position a practice to be able to quickly innovate when addressing clinical, educational, and research-related problems. This paper is the result of identifying common components in the construction of over two dozen clinical informatics projects developed at the University of Maryland Radiology Informatics Research Laboratory. The systems outlined are intended as a mere foundation rather than an exhaustive list of possible extensions.

  16. Strategies for Controlled Placement of Nanoscale Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh SeongJin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe capability of placing individual nanoscale building blocks on exact substrate locations in a controlled manner is one of the key requirements to realize future electronic, optical, and magnetic devices and sensors that are composed of such blocks. This article reviews some important advances in the strategies for controlled placement of nanoscale building blocks. In particular, we will overview template assisted placement that utilizes physical, molecular, or electrostatic templates, DNA-programmed assembly, placement using dielectrophoresis, approaches for non-close-packed assembly of spherical particles, and recent development of focused placement schemes including electrostatic funneling, focused placement via molecular gradient patterns, electrodynamic focusing of charged aerosols, and others.

  17. Hydration effects on the electronic properties of eumelanin building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis Oliveira, Leonardo Bruno; L. Fonseca, Tertius; Costa Cabral, Benedito J.; Coutinho, Kaline; Canuto, Sylvio

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical results for the electronic properties of eumelanin building blocks in the gas phase and water are presented. The building blocks presently investigated include the monomeric species DHI (5,6-dihydroxyindole) or hydroquinone (HQ), DHICA (5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid), indolequinone (IQ), quinone methide (MQ), two covalently bonded dimers [HM ≡ HQ + MQ and IM ≡ IQ + MQ], and two tetramers [HMIM ≡ HQ + IM, IMIM ≡ IM + IM]. The electronic properties in water were determined by carrying out sequential Monte Carlo/time dependent density functional theory calculations. The results illustrate the role played by hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions in the electronic properties of eumelanin building blocks in a polar environment. In water, the dipole moments of monomeric species are significantly increased ([54-79]%) relative to their gas phase values. Recently, it has been proposed that the observed enhancement of the higher-energy absorption intensity in eumelanin can be explained by excitonic coupling among eumelanin protomolecules [C.-T. Chen et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 3859 (2014)]. Here, we are providing evidence that for DHICA, IQ, and HMIM, the electronic absorption toward the higher-energy end of the spectrum ([180-220] nm) is enhanced by long-range Coulombic interactions with the water environment. It was verified that by superposing the absorption spectra of different eumelanin building blocks corresponding to the monomers, dimers, and tetramers in liquid water, the behaviour of the experimental spectrum, which is characterised by a nearly monotonic decay from the ultraviolet to the infrared, is qualitatively reproduced. This result is in keeping with a "chemical disorder model," where the broadband absorption of eumelanin pigments is determined by the superposition of the spectra associated with the monomeric and oligomeric building blocks.

  18. Building houses with earth blocks: A guide for upgrading traditional building methods using handmade earth blocks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolton, M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is a guide to building strong earth houses that will last a long time but without having to spend a lot of extra money or hire outside experts to do the building. It supports the process of improving the quality of earth housing...

  19. Gauge Blocks – A Zombie Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Gauge blocks have been the primary method for disseminating length traceability for over 100 years. Their longevity was based on two things: the relatively low cost of delivering very high accuracy to users, and the technical limitation that the range of high precision gauging systems was very small. While the first reason is still true, the second factor is being displaced by changes in measurement technology since the 1980s. New long range sensors do not require master gauges that are nearly the same length as the part being inspected, and thus one of the primary attributes of gauge blocks, wringing stacks to match the part, is no longer needed. Relaxing the requirement that gauges wring presents an opportunity to develop new types of end standards that would increase the accuracy and usefulness of gauging systems. PMID:27096119

  20. Synthesis of triamino acid building blocks with different lipophilicities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotirmoy Maity

    Full Text Available To obtain different amino acids with varying lipophilicity and that can carry up to three positive charges we have developed a number of new triamino acid building blocks. One set of building blocks was achieved by aminoethyl extension, via reductive amination, of the side chain of ortnithine, diaminopropanoic and diaminobutanoic acid. A second set of triamino acids with the aminoethyl extension having hydrocarbon side chains was synthesized from diaminobutanoic acid. The aldehydes needed for the extension by reductive amination were synthesized from the corresponding Fmoc-L-2-amino fatty acids in two steps. Reductive amination of these compounds with Boc-L-Dab-OH gave the C4-C8 alkyl-branched triamino acids. All triamino acids were subsequently Boc-protected at the formed secondary amine to make the monomers appropriate for the N-terminus position when performing Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis.

  1. Block assembly for global registration of building scans

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Feilong

    2016-11-11

    We propose a framework for global registration of building scans. The first contribution of our work is to detect and use portals (e.g., doors and windows) to improve the local registration between two scans. Our second contribution is an optimization based on a linear integer programming formulation. We abstract each scan as a block and model the blocks registration as an optimization problem that aims at maximizing the overall matching score of the entire scene. We propose an efficient solution to this optimization problem by iteratively detecting and adding local constraints. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on buildings of various styles and that our approach is superior to the current state of the art.

  2. Analogue Behavioral Modeling of Switched-Current Building Block Circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xuan; WANG Wei; SHI Jianlei; TANG Pushan; D.ZHOU

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a behavioral modeling technique for the second-generation switched-current building block circuits. The proposed models are capable of capturing the non-ideal behavior of switched-current circuits, which includes the charge injection effects and device mismatch effects. As a result, system performance degradations due to the building block imperfections can be detected at the early design stage by fast behavioral simulations. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed models, we developed a time-domain behavioral simulator. Experimental results have shown that compared with SPICE, the behavioral modeling error is less than 2.15%, while behavioral simulation speed up is 4 orders in time-domain.

  3. Development of a prototype self-configuring building block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hung-Yu; Tsui, Chi-Leung; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Wei-Chih

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the concept and construction of a prototype self-configuring building block for potential application in smart dynamic structure. The design contains several modular self-configuring blocks with integrated controllers, gear trains, extending arms and magnetic latches. The structure could be reconfigured via the connection and disconnection of magnetic latch between the modules. Through the coordination of the individual cubes themselves, the entire structure can reassemble via pushing and pulling the individual components into almost any desired shape. Information as to the current location or the next necessary movement could be passed from cube to cube by a physical connection between the cubes or remotely through broadcast signals. To provide the hardware strategy, we present the mechanical design of the self-configure modules and their latch mechanism of Halbach array. In the end, we will discuss our proposed application in dynamic building structure and storage management.

  4. Synthesis of Chiral Building Blocks for Use in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustum S. Boyce

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade there has been a significant growth in the sales of pharmaceutical drugs worldwide, but more importantly there has been a dramatic growth in the sales of single enantiomer drugs. The pharmaceutical industry has a rising demand for chiral intermediates and research reagents because of the continuing imperative to improve drug efficacy. This in turn impacts on researchers involved in preclinical discovery work. Besides traditional chiral pool and resolution of racemates as sources of chiral building blocks, many new synthetic methods including a great variety of catalytic reactions have been developed which facilitate the production of complex chiral drug candidates for clinical trials. The most ambitious technique is to synthesise homochiral compounds from non-chiral starting materials using chiral metal catalysts and related chemistry. Examples of the synthesis of chiral building blocks from achiral materials utilizing asymmetric hydrogenation and asymmetric epoxidation are presented.

  5. Building Blocks Propagation in Quantum-Inspired Genetic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Nowotniak, Robert; Kucharski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of building blocks propagation in Quantum-Inspired Genetic Algorithm, which belongs to a new class of metaheuristics drawing their inspiration from both biological evolution and unitary evolution of quantum systems. The expected number of quantum chromosomes matching a schema has been analyzed and a random variable corresponding to this issue has been introduced. The results have been compared with Simple Genetic Algorithm. Also, it has been presented how selec...

  6. Topology Optimization of Building Blocks for Photonic Integrated Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Photonic integrated circuits are likely candidates as high speed replacements for the standard electrical integrated circuits of today. However, in order to obtain a satisfactorily performance many design prob- lems that up until now have resulted in too high losses must be resolved. In this work...... we demonstrate how the method of topology optimization can be used to design a variety of high performance building blocks for the future circuits....

  7. Carbon Nanotubes:from Nanoscale Building Blocks to Macrostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have fascinating properties.In order to use these novel one-dimensional structures for applications such as in nano-electronic,nano-mechanical and electrochemical energy storage device and as structural elements in various composites,the structure of nanotubes needs to be tailored and various architectures and macroscale assembles have to be configured using nanotube building blocks.Nanotube macrostructures are macroscopically organized groups of CNTs,which are expecte...

  8. Introduction to Intel’s Threading Building Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Yazdanmehr, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    Intel‘s Threading Building Blocks (Intel TBB) is a C++ template library for implementing task parallelism. This parallel programming approach enables scalable memory allocation and task scheduling. Therefore it suits well for implementing several parallel algorithms. Nevertheless, the achievable parallel performance by TBB for typical scenarios of scientific computing has so far not been systematically studied. Neither does there exist a careful comparison, with respect to the usability, betw...

  9. Building Blocks Incorporating Waste Materials Bound with Bitumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanaya I.N.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper described an investigation and evaluation which was carried out in the United Kingdom-UK, on the properties of masonry building block materials that incorporate waste materials, namely: steel slag, crushed glass, coal fly ash, rice husk ash (RHA, incinerator sewage sludge ash (ISSA, municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA or shortened as IBA, bound with bitumen or asphalt, named as Bitublock. The binder used was 50 pen bitumen. The properties of the blocks evaluated were: compressive strength, density, porosity, initial rate of suction (IRS, creep, and volume stability. It was found that the Bitublock performance can be improved by optimizing porosity and curing regime. Compaction level of 2 MPa and curing regime of 200°C for 24 hours gave satisfactory bitublock performances that at least comparable to concrete block found in the United Kingdom (UK. The Volume stability (expansion of the unit is affected by environment relative humidity.

  10. Building blocks for a wild animal health business case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Investment in wild animal health has not kept pace with investment in health programs for agriculture or people. Previous arguments of the inherent value of wildlife or the possible public health or economic consequences of fish or terrestrial wildlife diseases have failed to motivate sufficient, sustained funding. Wildlife health programs are often funded on an issue-by-issue basis, most often in response to diseases that have already emerged, rather than being funded to protect and promote the health of wild animals on an ongoing basis. We propose that one explanation for this situation is the lack of business cases that explains the value of wild animal health programs to funders. This paper proposes a set of building blocks that inform the creation of wildlife health business cases. The building blocks are a series of questions derived from a literature review, the experience of directors of two large national wildlife health programs and lessons learned in developing a draft business case for one of those programs. The six building blocks are: (1 Know what you are trying to achieve; (2 Describe your capabilities; (3 Identify factors critical to your success; (4 Describe the value you can bring to supporters; (5 Identify who needs your services and why; and (6 Share the plan.

  11. Development of building blocks using vegetable oil and recycled aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Mohamed I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this research was to contribute towards greater sustainability of the construction industry in the Qatar by proposing methods to reduce its dependency on primary imported materials. In this investigation, recycled and secondary aggregates (RSA were combined with non-traditional binders to develop a unique method of manufacturing construction and building blocks. Following an extensive phase of laboratory trials and experimentation, it was realised that many types of graded mineral aggregates, when mixed with vegetable oils (virgin or waste at optimal proportions, then compacted and thermally cured at elevated temperatures can readily generate hardened composites that have the mechanical characteristics of conventional building blocks. The resultant blocks have been named “Vegeblocks” and are viewed as viable alternatives to conventional concrete blocks. Furthermore, the research has demonstrated the feasibility of producing Vegeblocks composed of 100% recycled aggregate and discarded waste cooking oil. Based on physical and mineralogical properties, each type of aggregate has an optimum oil content for maximum compressive strength, beyond which, any additional oil will result in reduction in mechanical properties. Acceptable compressive strength values were achieved by thermally curing Vegeblocks at of 170 °C for 24 hours.

  12. Coarse-Grained Simulations of the Self-Assembly of DNA-Linked Gold Nanoparticle Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armistead, Charles

    The self-assembly of nanoparticles (NPs) of varying shape, size, and composition for the purpose of constructing useful nanoassemblies with tailored properties remains challenging. Although progress has been made to design anisotropic building blocks that exhibit the required control for the precise placement of various NPs within a defined arrangement, there still exists obstacles in the technology to maximize the programmability in the self-assembly of NP building blocks. Currently, the self-assembly of nanostructures involves much experimental trial and error. Computational modeling is a possible approach that could be utilized to facilitate the purposeful design of the self-assembly of NP building blocks into a desired nanostructure. In this report, a coarse-grained model of NP building blocks based on an effective anisotropic mono-functionalization approach, which has shown the ability to construct six building block configurations, was used to simulate various nanoassemblies. The purpose of the study was to validate the model's ability to simulate the self-assembly of the NP building blocks into nanostructures previously produced experimentally. The model can be programmed to designate up to six oligonucleotides attached to the surface of a Au NP building block, with a modifiable length and nucleotide sequence. The model successfully simulated the self-assembly of Au NP building blocks into a number of previously produced nanostructures and demonstrated the ability to produce visualizations of self-assembly as well as calculate interparticle distances and angles to be used for the comparison with the previous experimental data for validation of the model. Also, the model was used to simulate nanoassemblies which had not been produced experimentally for its further validation. The simulations showed the capability of the model to use specific NP building blocks and self-assemble. The coarse-grained NP building block model shows promise as a tool to complement

  13. Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC), in the Energy and Transportation Science Division (ETSD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL),...

  14. High-performance thermoelectric nanocomposites from nanocrystal building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Maria; Luo, Zhishan; Genç, Aziz; Piveteau, Laura; Ortega, Silvia; Cadavid, Doris; Dobrozhan, Oleksandr; Liu, Yu; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Zebarjadi, Mona; Arbiol, Jordi; Kovalenko, Maksym V; Cabot, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    The efficient conversion between thermal and electrical energy by means of durable, silent and scalable solid-state thermoelectric devices has been a long standing goal. While nanocrystalline materials have already led to substantially higher thermoelectric efficiencies, further improvements are expected to arise from precise chemical engineering of nanoscale building blocks and interfaces. Here we present a simple and versatile bottom-up strategy based on the assembly of colloidal nanocrystals to produce consolidated yet nanostructured thermoelectric materials. In the case study on the PbS-Ag system, Ag nanodomains not only contribute to block phonon propagation, but also provide electrons to the PbS host semiconductor and reduce the PbS intergrain energy barriers for charge transport. Thus, PbS-Ag nanocomposites exhibit reduced thermal conductivities and higher charge carrier concentrations and mobilities than PbS nanomaterial. Such improvements of the material transport properties provide thermoelectric figures of merit up to 1.7 at 850 K.

  15. The scientific building blocks for business coaching: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flip Schutte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Business coaching is a relatively new approach to leadership development. It is also slowly growing as an academic discipline with only a small number of active researchers and a dearth of published literature reviews.Research purpose: This article is an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to business coaching by means of a systematic literature review.Motivation of the study: Previous literature reviews summarised the available published articles. In order to contribute to establishing business coaching as an independent academic discipline, the building blocks for science in the phenomenon under investigation have to be scientifically not only summarised, but also synthesised and explored to ground this new discipline as an academic field of research.Research design, approach and method: A methodological framework has been developed to analyse the information. The data were synthesised according to the following building blocks for science: concepts, definitions, typologies, models, theories and paradigms.Main findings: A total of 84 articles were accessed by the specified search strategy and 36 were analysed according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. Although coaching has not been sufficiently developed as an academic discipline, it is possible to develop a comprehensive definition of coaching, as well as to identify the main models and theories that apply to this field.Practical/managerial implications: This literature review has synthesised and summarised the available data in such a way that it will contribute to the conceptualisation and foundation of business coaching as an academic discipline.Contribution: The building blocks for business coaching as a relatively new and emerging science within the field of business leadership have been defined. This will contribute to the articulation of concepts within this discipline by future researchers and practitioners.

  16. Universal clusters as building blocks of stable quantum matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shimpei; García-García, Antonio M.; Naidon, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    We present an exploratory study that suggests that Efimov physics, a leading research theme in few-body quantum physics, can also induce stable many-body ground states whose building blocks are universal clusters. We identify a range of parameters in a mass-and-density-imbalanced two-species fermionic mixture for which the ground state is a gas of Efimov-related universal trimers. An explicit calculation of the trimer-trimer interaction reveals that the trimer phase is an SU(3) Fermi liquid stable against recombination losses. We propose to experimentally observe this phase in a fermionic 53Cr-6Li mixture.

  17. The Fundamental Problem with the Building Block Hypothesis

    CERN Document Server

    Burjorjee, Keki

    2008-01-01

    Skepticism of the building block hypothesis (BBH) has previously been expressed on account of the weak theoretical foundations of this hypothesis and the anomalies in the empirical record of the simple genetic algorithm. In this paper we hone in on a more fundamental cause for skepticism--the extraordinary strength of some of the assumptions that undergird the BBH. Specifically, we focus on assumptions made about the distribution of fitness over the genome set, and argue that these assumptions are unacceptably strong. As most of these assumptions have been embraced by the designers of so-called "competent" genetic algorithms, our critique is relevant to an appraisal of such algorithms as well.

  18. Building Blocks Propagation in Quantum-Inspired Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Nowotniak, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of building blocks propagation in Quantum-Inspired Genetic Algorithm, which belongs to a new class of metaheuristics drawing their inspiration from both biological evolution and unitary evolution of quantum systems. The expected number of quantum chromosomes matching a schema has been analyzed and a random variable corresponding to this issue has been introduced. The results have been compared with Simple Genetic Algorithm. Also, it has been presented how selected binary quantum chromosomes cover a domain of one-dimensional fitness function.

  19. Building blocks for topology change in 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Ionicioiu, R

    1997-01-01

    We investigate topology change in 3D. Using Morse theory and handle decomposition we find the set of elementary cobordisms for 3-manifolds. These are: (i) Ø S^2; (ii) \\Sigma_g \\Sigma_{g+1}; (iii) \\Sigma_{g_1} \\sqcup interpretations, e.g. Big Bang/Big Crunch, wormhole creation/annihilation and Einstein-Rosen bridge creation/annihilation, respectively. This decomposition into building blocks can be used in the path integral approach to quantum gravity in the sum over topologies.

  20. Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    mumgs0.USmusa 7.AUWOJO 4. CIUTAC Rm6ANT Wuugme*j James V/. Mlahoney DACA? 6-85-C-00 10 NOQ 1 4-85-K-O 124 Artificial Inteligence Laboratory US USS 545...0197 672 IMAGE CHUWING: DEINING SPATIAL UILDING PLOCKS FOR 142 SCENE ANRLYSIS(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAIIAIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE LAO J...Technical Report 980 F-Image Chunking: Defining Spatial Building Blocks for Scene DTm -Analysis S ELECTED James V. Mahoney’ MIT Artificial Intelligence

  1. Phosphaketenes as building blocks for the synthesis of triphospha heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heift, Dominikus; Benkő, Zoltán; Grützmacher, Hansjörg

    2014-09-01

    Unsaturated phosphorus compounds, such as phosphaalkenes and phosphaalkynes, show a versatile reactivity in cycloadditions. Although phosphaketenes (R-P=C=O) have been known for three decades, their chemistry has remained limited. Herein, we show that heteroatom-substituted phosphaketenes, R(3) E-P=C=O (E=Si, Sn), are building blocks for silyl- and stannyl-substituted five-membered heterocycles containing three phosphorous atoms. The structure of the heterocyclic anion depends on the nature of the tetrel atom involved. Although the silyl analogue [P(3)C(2) (OSiR(3))(2)](-) is an aromatic 1,2,4-triphospholide, the stannyl compound [P(CO)(2) (PSnR(3))(2)](-) is a 1,2,4-triphosphacyclopenta-3,5-dionate with a delocalized OCPCO fragment. Because of their anionic character, these compounds can easily be used as building blocks, for example, in the preparation of a silyl-functionalized hexaphosphaferrocene or the parent 1,2,4-triphosphacyclopenta-3,5-dionate [P(CO)(2) (PH)(2)](-). NMR spectroscopic investigations and computations have shown that the heterocycle-formation reactions presented herein are remarkably complex.

  2. Building technologies program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selkowitz, S.E.

    1996-05-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Building Technology Program. The report is divided into four categories: windows and daylighting, lighting systems, building energy simulation, and advanced building systems. The objective of the Building Technologies program is to assist the U.S. building industry in achieving substantial reductions in building-sector energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions while improving comfort, amenity, health, and productivity in the building sector. Past efforts have focused on windows and lighting, and on the simulation tools needed to integrate the full range of energy efficiency solutions into achievable, cost-effective design solutions for new and existing buildings. Current research is based on an integrated systems and life-cycle perspective to create cost-effective solutions for more energy-efficient, comfortable, and productive work and living environments. Sixteen subprograms are described in the report.

  3. Technology: Building Success through Teacher Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Van E.

    1997-01-01

    Empowered technology teams can help realize the financial investment of schools in technology. Teams foster communities of technology users and give teachers and staff opportunities for leadership. A transformational leadership style is essential to the building of a human infrastructure that will use the technological infrastructure. (KS)

  4. Crack-controlling and Leak-prevention Technology of Small Hollow Cinder Concrete Building Block Filler Wall%炉渣混凝土空心小型砌块填充墙控裂防渗技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾华远; 孙建军; 孙春霞

    2001-01-01

    Some technical problems such as hollowness, crack, leak of small building block filler wall containing light aggregates such as cinder will be solved with some technical improvements in such aspects as wall structure, masonry method, plastering method and so on.%炉渣等轻集料空心小型砌块填充墙须通过墙体构造、砌筑工艺、抹灰工艺诸方面的技术进步,方可解决墙体空、裂、渗的技术难题。

  5. Mn-based nanostructured building blocks: Synthesis, characterization and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Huarac, Juan

    The quest for smaller functional elements of devices has stimulated increased interest in charge-transfer phenomena at the nanoscale. Mn-based nanostructured building blocks are particularly appealing given that the excited states of high-spin Mn2+ ions induce unusual d-d energy transfer processes, which is critical for better understanding the performance of electronic and spintronic devices. These nanostructures also exhibit unique properties superior to those of common Fe- and Co-based nanomaterials, including: excellent structural flexibility, enhanced electrochemical energy storage, effective ion-exchange dynamics, more comprehensive transport mechanisms, strong quantum yield, and they act as effective luminescent centers for more efficient visible light emitters. Moreover, Mn-based nanostructures (MBNs) are crucial for the design and assembly of inexpensive nanodevices in diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS), optoelectronics, magneto-optics, and field-effect transistors, owing to the great abundance and low-cost of Mn. Nonetheless, the paucity of original methods and techniques to fabricate new multifunctional MBNs that fulfill industrial demands limits the sustainable development of innovative technology in materials sciences. In order to meet this critical need, in this thesis we develop and implement novel methods and techniques to fabricate zero- and one-dimensional highly-crystalline new-generation MBNs conducive to the generation of new technology, and provide alternative and feasible miniaturization strategies to control and devise at nanometric precision their size, shape, structure and composition. Herein, we also establish the experimental conditions to grow Mn-based nanowires (NWs), nanotubes (NTs), nanoribbons (NRs), nanosaws (NSs), nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocomposites (NCs) via chemical/physical deposition and co-precipitation chemical routes, and determine the pertinent arrangements to our experimental schemes in order to extend our bottom

  6. An analog implementation of biologically plausible neurons using CCII building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifipoor, Ozra; Ahmadi, Arash

    2012-12-01

    This study presents an analog implementation of the spiking neurons based on a piecewise-linear model. This model is a variation of the Izhikevich model, which is capable of reproducing different dynamic behaviors. The proposed circuit utilizes second generation current conveyors (CCII) building blocks. With the same topology and circuit values, this circuit can produce a wide variety of neuron behaviors just by tuning the reference current and voltage sources. In addition, since CCII can be considered as a building block for programmable analog arrays, based on the proposed circuit different neuron types can be implemented on programmable analog platforms. Simulation results are presented for different neuron behaviors with CMOS 350 nm ±1.5 V technology using HSPICE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pyrrolic Amide: A New Hydrogen Bond Building Block for Self-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Zhen-Ming; LI Jian-Feng; HE Jia-Qi; ZHU Xiao-Qing; CHENG Jin-Pei

    2003-01-01

    @@ Molecular self-assembly has emerged as a powerful technology for the synthesis of nanostructured materials. In design of various molecular assemblies, hydrogen bonding is a preferably selected intra- or inter-molecular weak interaction in recent research by virtue of the directionality and specificity. The research for novel hydrogen bond building blocks that self-assembly into well defined structures is great important not only for gaining an understanding of the concepts of self-assembly but also for the design of new molecular materials. Pyrrolic amide moiety has one hydrogen bond acceptor (C =O) and two hydrogen bond donors (pyrrole NH and amide NH). By deliberately design, pyrrolic amide compounds would be new kinds hydrogen bond building blocks. So, pyrrolic amide compounds 1 ~ 6, which bear one, two or three pyrrolic amide moieties respectively, were designed and synthesized.

  8. PUS Services Software Building Block Automatic Generation for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, S.; Sgaramella, F.; Mele, G.

    2008-08-01

    The Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) has been specified by the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) and issued as ECSS-E-70-41A to define the application-level interface between Ground Segments and Space Segments. The ECSS-E- 70-41A complements the ECSS-E-50 and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations for packet telemetry and telecommand. The ECSS-E-70-41A characterizes the identified PUS Services from a functional point of view and the ECSS-E-70-31 standard specifies the rules for their mission-specific tailoring. The current on-board software design for a space mission implies the production of several PUS terminals, each providing a specific tailoring of the PUS services. The associated on-board software building blocks are developed independently, leading to very different design choices and implementations even when the mission tailoring requires very similar services (from the Ground operative perspective). In this scenario, the automatic production of the PUS services building blocks for a mission would be a way to optimize the overall mission economy and improve the robusteness and reliability of the on-board software and of the Ground-Space interactions. This paper presents the Space Software Italia (SSI) activities for the development of an integrated environment to support: the PUS services tailoring activity for a specific mission. the mission-specific PUS services configuration. the generation the UML model of the software building block implementing the mission-specific PUS services and the related source code, support documentation (software requirements, software architecture, test plans/procedures, operational manuals), and the TM/TC database. The paper deals with: (a) the project objectives, (b) the tailoring, configuration, and generation process, (c) the description of the environments supporting the process phases, (d) the characterization of the meta-model used for the generation, (e) the

  9. MECs: "Building Blocks" for Creating Biological and Chemical Instruments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Hill

    Full Text Available The development of new biological and chemical instruments for research and diagnostic applications is often slowed by the cost, specialization, and custom nature of these instruments. New instruments are built from components that are drawn from a host of different disciplines and not designed to integrate together, and once built, an instrument typically performs a limited number of tasks and cannot be easily adapted for new applications. Consequently, the process of inventing new instruments is very inefficient, especially for researchers or clinicians in resource-limited settings. To improve this situation, we propose that a family of standardized multidisciplinary components is needed, a set of "building blocks" that perform a wide array of different tasks and are designed to integrate together. Using these components, scientists, engineers, and clinicians would be able to build custom instruments for their own unique needs quickly and easily. In this work we present the foundation of this set of components, a system we call Multifluidic Evolutionary Components (MECs. "Multifluidic" conveys the wide range of fluid volumes MECs operate upon (from nanoliters to milliliters and beyond; "multi" also reflects the multiple disciplines supported by the system (not only fluidics but also electronics, optics, and mechanics. "Evolutionary" refers to the design principles that enable the library of MEC parts to easily grow and adapt to new applications. Each MEC "building block" performs a fundamental function that is commonly found in biological or chemical instruments, functions like valving, pumping, mixing, controlling, and sensing. Each MEC also has a unique symbol linked to a physical definition, which enables instruments to be designed rapidly and efficiently using schematics. As a proof-of-concept, we use MECs to build a variety of instruments, including a fluidic routing and mixing system capable of manipulating fluid volumes over five orders

  10. Key Building Blocks via Enzyme-Mediated Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jörg

    Biocatalytic approaches to valuable building blocks in organic synthesis have emerged as an important tool in the last few years. While first applications were mainly based on hydrolases, other enzyme classes such as oxidoreductases or lyases moved into the focus of research. Nowadays, a vast number of biotransformations can be found in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries delivering fine chemicals or drugs. The mild reaction conditions, high stereo-, regio-, and chemoselectivities, and the often shortened reaction pathways lead to economical and ecological advantages of enzymatic conversions. Due to the enormous number of enzyme-mediated syntheses, the present chapter is not meant to be a complete review, but to deliver comprehensive insights into well established enzymatic systems and recent advances in the application of enzymes in natural product synthesis. Furthermore, it is focused on the most frequently used enzymes or enzyme classes not covered elsewhere in the present volume.

  11. Hydrotalcite catalysis for the synthesis of new chiral building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Jesus M; Neves, Patricia P; Pombal, Sofia; Rives, Vicente; Trujillano, Raquel; Díez, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of hydrotalcites for the synthesis of two chiral building blocks in a simple way is described as a new and green methodology. The synthesis of these compounds implies a regioselective Baeyer-Villiger reaction in a very selective way with ulterior opening and lactonisation. This methodology should be considered green for the use of hydrogen peroxide as the only oxidant and hydrotalcites as the catalyst, and because no residues are produced apart from water. The procedure is very adequate for using in gram scale, in order to increase the value of the obtained compounds. The conditions are excellent and can be applied for nonstable compounds, as they are very mild. The synthesised compounds are magnific starting materials for the synthesis of biologically active or natural compounds. The use of a cheap, commercial and chiral compound as carvone disposable in both enantiomeric forms adds an extra value to this methodology.

  12. Building Blocks of the Milky Way's Stellar Halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Starkenburg, Else; Helmi, Amina; Nelemans, Gijs

    2016-08-01

    We study the assembly history of the stellar halo of Milky Way-like galaxies using the six high-resolution Aquarius dark matter simulations combined with the Munich-Groningen semi-analytic galaxy formation model. Our goal is to understand the stellar population contents of the building blocks of the Milky Way halo, including their star formation histories and chemical evolution, as well as their internal dynamical properties. We are also interested in how they relate or are different from the surviving satellite population. Finally, we will use our models to compare to observations of halo stars in an attempt to reconstruct the assembly history of the Milky Way's stellar halo itself.

  13. Structure and Interactions of Isolated Biomolecular Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Mattanjah

    2006-03-01

    We investigate biomolecular building blocks and their clusters with each other and with water on a single molecular level. The motivation is the need to distinguish between intrinsic molecular properties and those that result from the biological environment. This is achieved by a combination of laser desorption and jet cooling, applied to aromatic amino acids, small peptides containing those, nucleobases and nucleosides. This approach is coupled with a number of laser spectroscopic techniques, including resonant multi-photon ionization, spectral hole burning and infra-red ion-dip spectroscopy. We will discuss examples illustrating how information can be obtained on spatial structure of individual biomolecules, including peptide conformations and details of DNA base-pairing.

  14. Sequence-defined polymers via orthogonal allyl acrylamide building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porel, Mintu; Alabi, Christopher A

    2014-09-24

    Biological systems have long recognized the importance of macromolecular diversity and have evolved efficient processes for the rapid synthesis of sequence-defined biopolymers. However, achieving sequence control via synthetic methods has proven to be a difficult challenge. Herein we describe efforts to circumvent this difficulty via the use of orthogonal allyl acrylamide building blocks and a liquid-phase fluorous support for the de novo design and synthesis of sequence-specific polymers. We demonstrate proof-of-concept via synthesis and characterization of two sequence-isomeric 10-mer polymers. (1)H NMR and LCMS were used to confirm their chemical structure while tandem MS was used to confirm sequence identity. Further validation of this methodology was provided via the successful synthesis of a sequence-specific 16-mer polymer incorporating nine different monomers. This strategy thus shows promise as an efficient approach for the assembly of sequence-specific functional polymers.

  15. Modular assembly of superstructures from polyphenol-functionalized building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junling; Tardy, Blaise L.; Christofferson, Andrew J.; Dai, Yunlu; Richardson, Joseph J.; Zhu, Wei; Hu, Ming; Ju, Yi; Cui, Jiwei; Dagastine, Raymond R.; Yarovsky, Irene; Caruso, Frank

    2016-12-01

    The organized assembly of particles into superstructures is typically governed by specific molecular interactions or external directing factors associated with the particle building blocks, both of which are particle-dependent. These superstructures are of interest to a variety of fields because of their distinct mechanical, electronic, magnetic and optical properties. Here, we establish a facile route to a diverse range of superstructures based on the polyphenol surface-functionalization of micro- and nanoparticles, nanowires, nanosheets, nanocubes and even cells. This strategy can be used to access a large number of modularly assembled superstructures, including core-satellite, hollow and hierarchically organized supraparticles. Colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations provide detailed insights into the role of surface functionalization and how this facilitates superstructure construction. Our work provides a platform for the rapid generation of superstructured assemblies across a wide range of length scales, from nanometres to centimetres.

  16. Digital building blocks for controlling random waves based on supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-01-01

    Harnessing multimode waves allows high information capacity through modal expansions. Although passive multimode devices including waveguides, couplers, and multiplexers have been demonstrated for broadband responses in momentum or frequency domains, collective switching of multimodes remains a challenge, due to the difficulty in imposing consistent dynamics on all eigenmodes. Here we overcome this limitation by realizing digital switching of spatially random waves, based on supersymmetric pairs of multimode potentials. We reveal that supersymmetric transformations of any parity-symmetric potential derive the parity reversal of all eigenmodes, which allows the complete isolation of random waves at the 'off' state. Building blocks for binary and many-valued logics are then demonstrated for random waves: a harmonic pair for binary switching of arbitrary wavefronts and a P\\"oschl-Teller pair for multi-level switching which implements the fuzzy membership function. Our results establishing global phase matching c...

  17. The building block approach to airborne pod structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Jan D.

    2011-05-01

    The certification and testing of new airborne structures is a costly undertaking. This paper presents which measures can be taken to limit the cost and certification required in order to improve the capabilities of the current airborne as-sets, by applying a building block approach to the design and certification of airborne pod structures. A simple way of improving aircraft capabilities is by adding external pod structures, which has been performed for many applications over many years. However, this paper describes a truly modular approach, in which a typical airborne pod structure may be reconfigured to many various roles, with only limited re-certification requirements. Using existing or general aerodynamic shapes, the basic outer shape for the external store is defined, which is then combined with a modular substructure which can accommodate a large variety of electronic and/or optical sensors. This also allows the airborne pod structure to perform several intelligence collecting operations during the same sortie, thereby limiting the time spent near the danger area. The re-use of existing substructure modules reduces the cost and leadtime of the design phase allowing for a rapid entry into service. The modular design, relying on proven interface systems between the building blocks, significantly reduces risk involved in new programs. The certification process is also discussed in order to optimize the use of the pod structure modularity and certification requirements in order to simplify the certification task, by drawing similarity to existing designs. Finally the paper covers how modularity is implemented in new composite pod designs with stealth capabilities.

  18. Rice Husk Ash Sandcrete Block as Low Cost Building Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Sangeetha,

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a widely used construction material for various types of structures due to its structural stability and strength. The construction industry is today consuming more than 400 million tonnes of concrete every year .Most of the increase in cement demand will be met by the use of supplementary cementing materials, as each ton of Portland cement clinker production is associated with similar amount of CO2 emission, which is a major source of global warming. Partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement with mineral admixtures like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, metakaolin, Rice husk Ash (RHA,etc with plasticizers eliminates these drawbacks. The use of rice husk modifies the physical qualities of fresh cement paste as well as microstructure of paste after hardening. By burning the rice husk under a uncontrolled temperature in the atmosphere, a highly reactive RHA was obtained and the ash was utilized as a supplementary cementing material. This paper presents the effects of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA as a partial cement replacement material in mortar mixes. This work is based on an experimental study of mortar made with replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC with 10%, 20% 30% & 40% RHA. The properties investigated were the compressive strength, setting time, consistency, workability and specific gravity. Finally, a cost analysis was also done to compare the efficiency of rice husk ash sandcrete blocks. From the test results it can be concluded that rice husk ash can be utilized in day today life of manufacturing building blocks which are more economical and more eco-friendly than the cement concrete blocks which are produced now-a-days.

  19. [Technology transfer of building materials by ECOMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the plan for technology transfer of building materials developed by ECOMAT to the commercial private sector. Some of the materials are briefly discussed like foams, fiber reinforcement, fly ash development, and polymer fillers.

  20. Incorporating GIS building data and census housing statistics for sub-block-level population estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.-S.; Wang, L.; Qiu, X.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a deterministic model for sub-block-level population estimation based on the total building volumes derived from geographic information system (GIS) building data and three census block-level housing statistics. To assess the model, we generated artificial blocks by aggregating census block areas and calculating the respective housing statistics. We then applied the model to estimate populations for sub-artificial-block areas and assessed the estimates with census populations of the areas. Our analyses indicate that the average percent error of population estimation for sub-artificial-block areas is comparable to those for sub-census-block areas of the same size relative to associated blocks. The smaller the sub-block-level areas, the higher the population estimation errors. For example, the average percent error for residential areas is approximately 0.11 percent for 100 percent block areas and 35 percent for 5 percent block areas.

  1. Experimental Study on Volume for Fly Ash of Building Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash is a waste substance from thermal power plants, steel mills, etc. That is found in abundance in the world. It has polluted the environment, wasting the cultivated land. This study introduces an experimental research on fly ash being reused effectively, the study introduces raw materials of fly ash brick, production process and product inspection, fly ash content could be amounted to 40%~75%. High doping fly ash bricks are manufactured, which selects wet fly ash from the power plants, adding aggregate with reasonable ratio and additives with reasonable dosage and do the experimental research on manufacture products for properties, production technology and selection about technology parameter of production equipment. Index of strength grade and freezing-thawing resisting etc and the high doping fly ash brick building which we are working on can achieve the national standard on building materials industry. Based on the tests, this achievement of research has a very wide practical prospect in using fly ash, industrial waste residue, environmental protection and reducing the cost of enterprises. The efficient reuse of fly ash from coal boiler and power plants has very vital significance of protecting the environment, benefiting descendants and developing of circular economy.

  2. Utilization of the Building-Block Approach in Structural Mechanics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, Marshall; Jegley, Dawn C.; McGowan, David M.; Bush, Harold G.; Waters, W. Allen

    2005-01-01

    In the last 20 years NASA has worked in collaboration with industry to develop enabling technologies needed to make aircraft safer and more affordable, extend their lifetime, improve their reliability, better understand their behavior, and reduce their weight. To support these efforts, research programs starting with ideas and culminating in full-scale structural testing were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. Each program contained development efforts that (a) started with selecting the material system and manufacturing approach; (b) moved on to experimentation and analysis of small samples to characterize the system and quantify behavior in the presence of defects like damage and imperfections; (c) progressed on to examining larger structures to examine buckling behavior, combined loadings, and built-up structures; and (d) finally moved to complicated subcomponents and full-scale components. Each step along the way was supported by detailed analysis, including tool development, to prove that the behavior of these structures was well-understood and predictable. This approach for developing technology became known as the "building-block" approach. In the Advanced Composites Technology Program and the High Speed Research Program the building-block approach was used to develop a true understanding of the response of the structures involved through experimentation and analysis. The philosophy that if the structural response couldn't be accurately predicted, it wasn't really understood, was critical to the progression of these programs. To this end, analytical techniques including closed-form and finite elements were employed and experimentation used to verify assumptions at each step along the way. This paper presents a discussion of the utilization of the building-block approach described previously in structural mechanics research and development programs at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific examples that illustrate the use of this approach are

  3. Building a Successful Technology Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silicon Valley is the iconic cluster—a dense regional network of companies, universities, research institutions, and other stakeholders involved in a single industry. Many regions have sought to replicate the success of Silicon Valley, which has produced technological innov...

  4. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective production. Here we discuss how the development of computational algorithms, novel modules and methods, omics-based techniques combined with modeling refinement are enabling reduction in development time and thus advance the field of industrial biotechnology. We further discuss how recent technological developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid.

  5. Technologies used for research in intelligent buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolková, Zuzana; Matušov, Jozef; Mokrý, Marián

    2016-06-01

    The efficient use of primary energy and their impact on the environment is influenced in several ways. The key is implementation of modern low-energy structures and technologies in building construction, the use of high energy sources such fossil fuels and renewable energy, the optimal management, appropriate choice of sources of heat and cold. Optimal control of energy consumption in buildings and premises may be an appropriate choice of sources of heat and cold. Energy sources should be in addition to high efficiency and meet the requirement of minimizing the emission load environment. All this can be achieved by implementing the construction of intelligent buildings. University of Žilina in the project Research Centre of the University of Žilina decided to build such building. Use of this building will be addressing many research activities at the university with links to industry.

  6. Nanobiotechnology with S-layer proteins as building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleytr, Uwe B; Schuster, Bernhard; Egelseer, Eva M; Pum, Dietmar; Horejs, Christine M; Tscheliessnig, Rupert; Ilk, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    One of the key challenges in nanobiotechnology is the utilization of self- assembly systems, wherein molecules spontaneously associate into reproducible aggregates and supramolecular structures. In this contribution, we describe the basic principles of crystalline bacterial surface layers (S-layers) and their use as patterning elements. The broad application potential of S-layers in nanobiotechnology is based on the specific intrinsic features of the monomolecular arrays composed of identical protein or glycoprotein subunits. Most important, physicochemical properties and functional groups on the protein lattice are arranged in well-defined positions and orientations. Many applications of S-layers depend on the capability of isolated subunits to recrystallize into monomolecular arrays in suspension or on suitable surfaces (e.g., polymers, metals, silicon wafers) or interfaces (e.g., lipid films, liposomes, emulsomes). S-layers also represent a unique structural basis and patterning element for generating more complex supramolecular structures involving all major classes of biological molecules (e.g., proteins, lipids, glycans, nucleic acids, or combinations of these). Thus, S-layers fulfill key requirements as building blocks for the production of new supramolecular materials and nanoscale devices as required in molecular nanotechnology, nanobiotechnology, biomimetics, and synthetic biology.

  7. Origami building blocks: Generic and special four-vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitukaitis, Scott; van Hecke, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Four rigid panels connected by hinges that meet at a point form a four-vertex, the fundamental building block of origami metamaterials. Most materials designed so far are based on the same four-vertex geometry, and little is known regarding how different geometries affect folding behavior. Here we systematically categorize and analyze the geometries and resulting folding motions of Euclidean four-vertices. Comparing the relative sizes of sector angles, we identify three types of generic vertices and two accompanying subtypes. We determine which folds can fully close and the possible mountain-valley assignments. Next, we consider what occurs when sector angles or sums thereof are set equal, which results in 16 special vertex types. One of these, flat-foldable vertices, has been studied extensively, but we show that a wide variety of qualitatively different folding motions exist for the other 15 special and 3 generic types. Our work establishes a straightforward set of rules for understanding the folding motion of both generic and special four-vertices and serves as a roadmap for designing origami metamaterials.

  8. Dispersions of Aramid Nanofibers: A New Nanoscale Building Block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Cao, Keqin; Sui, Lang; Qi, Ying; Zhu, Jian; Waas, Anthony; Arruda, Ellen; Kieffer, John; Thouless, M. D.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2011-09-27

    Stable dispersions of nanofibers are virtually unknown for synthetic polymers. They can complement analogous dispersions of inorganic components, such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanosheets, etc. as a fundamental component of a toolset for design of nanostructures and metamaterials via numerous solvent-based processing methods. As such, strong flexible polymeric nanofibers are very desirable for the effective utilization within composites of nanoscale inorganic components such as nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and others. Here stable dispersions of uniform high-aspect-ratio aramid nanofibers (ANFs) with diameters between 3 and 30 nm and up to 10 μm in length were successfully obtained. Unlike the traditional approaches based on polymerization of monomers, they are made by controlled dissolution of standard macroscale form of the aramid polymer, that is, well-known Kevlar threads, and revealed distinct morphological features similar to carbon nanotubes. ANFs are successfully processed into films using layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly as one of the potential methods of preparation of composites from ANFs. The resultant films are transparent and highly temperature resilient. They also display enhanced mechanical characteristics making ANF films highly desirable as protective coatings, ultrastrong membranes, as well as building blocks of other high performance materials in place of or in combination with carbon nanotubes.

  9. From Building Blocks to Architects Empowering Learners for Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Juana Mahissa

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Although our ultimate goal is to enable our learners to become autonomous and efficient in their use of the foreign language, whether or not they have the opportunity to ever live and interact in a foreign language setting, our work as teachers must involve a conscious analysis of the different factors involved in this process, as well as the conscious effort to put all the intervening factors into action. Furthermore, it is our responsibility to develop the learners¿ thinking skills as they increase their competence in the target language and at the same time make them aware of their responsibility for their own processes and success by enhancing their autonomy and making them aware of the value of learning strategies. It is our task as teachers to be present on this journey and guide our learners towards becoming architects and masters of their own foreign language construct. In order for this journey to be a successful one, we must make sure we provide the learner with a correct supply of building blocks. In this paper we present an analysis of the main components comprised in teaching English as a foreign language, including a historical overview of methods, approaches, strategies, the concept of learner¿s autonomy, social and psychological factors, aiming at contributing to every teacher¿s reflection on his/her task in the school context.

  10. Polymeric architectures of bismuth citrate based on dimeric building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Four bismuth complexes, (H2En)[Bi2(cit)2(H2O)4/3]·(H2O)x (1), (H2En)3[Bi2(cit)2Cl4]·(H2O)x (2), (HPy)2[Bi2(cit)2(H2O)8/5]·(H2O)x (3) and (H2En)[Bi2(cit)2](H2O)x (4) [cit = citrate4-; En = ethylenediamine; Py = pyridine] have been synthesized and crystallized. The crystal structures reveal that the basic building blocks in all of these complexes are bismuth citrate dimeric units which combine to form polymeric architectures. The embedded protonated ethylenediamine and pyridine moieties in the polymeric frameworks have been identified by X-ray crystallography and solid-state cross polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) 13C NMR. Based on the framework of complex 1, a structural model of a clinically used antiulcer drug, ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) was generated. The behavior of the protonated amine-bismuth citrate complexes in acidic aqueous solution has been studied by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

  11. Aminobenzoates as building blocks for natural product assembly lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher T; Haynes, Stuart W; Ames, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    The ortho-, meta-, and para- regioisomers of aminobenzoate are building blocks for a wide range of microbial natural products. Both the ortho-isomer (anthranilate) and PABA derive from the central shikimate pathway metabolite chorismate while the meta-isomer is not available by that route and starts from UDP-3-aminoglucose. PABA is largely funnelled into folate biosynthesis while anthranilate is the scaffold for biosynthetic elaboration into many natural heterocycles, most notably with its role in indole formation for tryptophan biosynthesis. Anthranilate is also converted to benzodiazepinones, fumiquinazolines, quinoxalines, phenoxazines, benzoxazolinates, quinolones, and phenazines, often with redox enzyme participation. The 5-hydroxy form of 3-aminobenzaote is the starter unit for ansa-bridged rifamycins, ansamitocins, and geldanamycins, whereas regioisomers 2-hydroxy, 4-hydroxy and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-aminobenzoate are key components of antimycin, grixazone, and platencin and platensimycin biosynthesis, respectively. The enzymatic mechanisms for generation of the aminobenzoate regioisomers and their subsequent utilization for diverse heterocycle and macrocycle construction are examined.

  12. Technology evaluation report, commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1976-04-01

    Criteria are presented which are to be met by solar hardware for inclusion in the demonstration program. Assessments are made, based on a survey made of solar hardware manufacturers and developers, of when components, subsystems, and systems will be available for demonstration according to the technology status categories set forth in ERDA 23A. Task outlines are provided for development activity recommended to improve available systems or develop advanced systems for later demonstration cycles. (WDM)

  13. Synthesis of aromatic glycoconjugates. Building blocks for the construction of combinatorial glycopeptide libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Nörrlinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available New aromatic glycoconjugate building blocks based on the trifunctional 3-aminomethyl-5-aminobenzoic acid backbone and sugars linked to the backbone by a malonyl moiety were prepared via peptide coupling. The orthogonally protected glycoconjugates, bearing an acetyl-protected glycoside, were converted into their corresponding acids which are suitable building blocks for combinatorial glycopeptide synthesis.

  14. The Development of Spatial Skills through Interventions Involving Block Building Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…

  15. Building Design Guidelines for Solar Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of "solar architecture" and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings.

  16. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Liquid metallic hydrogen provides a compelling material for constructing a condensed matter model of the Sun and the photosphere. Like diamond, metallic hydrogen might have the potential to be a metastable substance requiring high pressures for forma- tion. Once created, it would remain stable even at lower pressures. The metallic form of hydrogen was initially conceived in 1935 by Eugene Wigner and Hillard B. Huntington who indirectly anticipated its elevated critical temperature for liquefaction (Wigner E. and Huntington H.B. On the possibility of a metallic modification of hydro- gen. J. Chem. Phys. , 1935, v.3, 764–770. At that time, solid metallic hydrogen was hypothesized to exist as a body centered cubic, although a more energetically accessible layered graphite-like lattice was also envisioned. Relative to solar emission, this struc- tural resemblance between graphite and layered metallic hydrogen should not be easily dismissed. In the laboratory, metallic hydrogen remains an elusive material. However, given the extensive observational evidence for a condensed Sun composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate to consider metallic hydrogen as a solar building block. It is anticipated that solar liquid metallic hydrogen should possess at least some layered order. Since layered liquid metallic hydrogen would be essentially incompressible, its invocation as a solar constituent brings into question much of current stellar physics. The central proof of a liquid state remains the thermal spectrum of the Sun itself. Its proper understanding brings together all the great forces which shaped modern physics. Although other proofs exist for a liquid photosphere, our focus remains solidly on the generation of this light.

  17. The building blocks of the full body ownership illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella eMaselli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has reported that it is not difficult to give people the illusion of ownership over an artificial body, providing a powerful tool for the investigation of the neural and cognitive mechanisms underlying body perception and self consciousness. We present an experimental study that uses immersive virtual reality focused on identifying the perceptual building blocks of this illusion. We systematically manipulated visuotactile and visual sensorimotor contingencies, visual perspective, and the appearance of the virtual body in order to assess their relative role and mutual interaction. Consistent results from subjective reports and physiological measures showed that a first person perspective over a fake humanoid body is essential for eliciting a body ownership illusion. We found that the level of realism of the virtual body, in particular the realism of skin tone, plays a critical role: when high enough, the illusion can be triggered by the sole effect of the spatial overlap between the real and virtual bodies, providing congruent visuoproprioceptive information, with no need for the additional contribution of congruent visuotactile and/or visual sensorimotor cues. Additionally, we found that the processing of incongruent perceptual cues can be modulated by the level of the illusion: when the illusion is strong, incongruent cues are not experienced as incorrect. Participants exposed to asynchronous visuotactile stimulation can experience the ownership illusion and perceive touch as originating from an object seen to contact the virtual body. Analogously, when the level of realism of the virtual body and/or the spatial overlap of the two bodies is not high enough, the contribution of congruent multisensory and/or sensorimotor cues is required for evoking the illusion. On the basis of these results and inspired by findings from neurophysiological recordings in the monkey, we propose a model that accounts for many of the results reported

  18. Anisotropy spectra for enantiomeric differentiation of biomolecular building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A C; Meinert, C; Bredehöft, J H; Giri, C; Jones, N C; Hoffmann, S V; Meierhenrich, U J

    2013-01-01

    All biopolymers are composed of homochiral building blocks, and both D-sugars and L-amino acids uniquely constitute life on Earth. These monomers were originally enantiomerically differentiated under prebiotic conditions. Particular progress has recently been made in support of the photochemical model for this differentiation: the interaction of circularly polarized light with racemic molecules is currently thought to have been the original source for life's biological homochirality. The differential asymmetric photoreactivity of particular small molecules can be characterized by both circular dichroism and anisotropy spectroscopy. Anisotropy spectroscopy, a novel derivative of circular dichroism spectroscopy, records the anisotropy factor g = Δε/ε as a function of the wavelength. Anisotropy spectroscopy promisingly affords the wavelength-dependent determination of the enantiomeric excess (ee) inducible into chiral organic molecules by photochemical irradiation with circularly polarized light. Anisotropy spectra of small molecules therefore provide unique means for characterizing the different photochemical behaviors between enantiomers upon exposure to various wavelengths of circularly polarized light. This chapter will: (1) present the theory and configuration of anisotropy spectroscopy; (2) explain experimentally recorded anisotropy spectra of selected chiral biomolecules such as amino acids; and (3) discuss the relevance of these spectra for the investigation of the origin of the molecular homochirality observed in living organisms. This review describes a new chiroptical technique that is of significance for advances in asymmetric photochemistry and that is also highly relevant for the European Space Agency Rosetta Mission, which will determine enantiomeric excesses (ees) in chiral organic molecules in cometary ices when it lands on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in November 2014.

  19. Elemental building blocks of the slow solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepko, L.; Viall, N. M.; Lepri, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    While the source of the fast solar wind is well understood to be linked to coronal holes, the source of the slow solar wind has remained elusive. A distinguishing characteristic of the slow solar wind is the high variability of the plasma parameters, such as magnetic field, velocity, density, composition, and charge state. Many previous studies of the slow solar wind have examined trends in the composition and charge states over long time scales and using data with comparatively low temporal resolution. In this study, we take advantage of high time resolution (12 min) measurements of the charge-state abundances recently reprocessed by the ACE SWICS science team to probe the timescales of solar wind variability of coherent structures at relatively small scales (<2000 Mm, or ~ 90 minutes at slow wind speeds). We use an interval of slow solar wind containing quasi pressure-balanced, periodic number density structures previously studied by Kepko et al and shown to be important in solar wind-magnetospheric coupling. The combination of high temporal resolution composition measurements and the clearly identified boundaries of the periodic structures allows us to probe the elemental slow solar wind flux tubes/structures. We use this train of 2000Mm periodic density structures as tracers of solar wind origin and/or acceleration. We find that each 2000 Mm parcel of slow solar wind, though its speed is steady, exhibits the complete range of charge state and composition variations expected for the entire range of slow solar wind, in a repeated sequence. Each parcel cycles through three states: 1) 'normal' slow wind, 2) compositionally slow wind with very high density, and 3) compositionally fast but typical slow solar wind density. We conclude by suggesting these structures form elemental building blocks of the slow solar wind, and discuss whether it is necessary to decouple separately the process(es) responsible for the release and acceleration.

  20. An Organolanthanide Building Block Approach to Single-Molecule Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Katie L M; Murugesu, Muralee

    2016-06-21

    and experimental chemistry allows us to shed light on the mechanisms and electronic properties that govern the slow relaxation dynamics inherent to this unique set of SMMs, thus providing insight into the role by which both symmetry and crystal field effects contribute to the magnetic properties. As we look to the future success of such materials in practical devices, we must gain an understanding of how the 4f elements communicate magnetically, a subject upon which there is still limited knowledge. As such, we have described our work on coupling mononuclear metallocenes to generate new dinuclear SMMs. Through a building block approach, we have been able to gain access to new double,- triple- and quadruple-decker complexes that possess remarkable properties; exhibiting TB of 12 K and Ueff above 300 K. Our goal is to develop a fundamental platform from which to study 4f coupling, while maintaining and enhancing the strict axiality of the anisotropy of the 4f ions. This Account will present a successful strategy employed in the production of novel and high-performing SMMs, as well as a clear overview of the lessons learned throughout.

  1. Biorefineries for the production of top building block chemicals and their derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Sol; Song, Chan Woo; Shin, Jae Ho

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing concerns on the climate change and sustainability on petrochemical resources, DOE selected and announced the bio-based top 12 building blocks and discussed the needs for developing biorefinery technologies to replace the current petroleum based industry in 2004. Over the last 1...... using micro-organisms will be covered in detail with case studies on succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid as examples....... years after its announcement, many studies have been performed for the development of efficient technologies for the bio-based production of these chemicals and derivatives. Now, ten chemicals among these top 12 chemicals, excluding the l-aspartic acid and 3-hydroxybutyrolactone, have already been...

  2. Evaluation of the technology roadmap for intelligent building technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-01

    A Technology Roadmap (TRM) is a process tool developed to help Canadian industries identify and address the technology challenges in the future. This report presented the findings from an evaluation of the Technology Roadmap for Intelligent Building Technologies (IBT TRM) that began in 1999 and was released in 2002. The IBT TRM was a collaborative research project between industry and 5 Canadian federal government organizations. The project was managed by the Continental Automated Buildings Association (CABA). The purpose of the TRM was to clarify the challenges and opportunities in the general area of intelligent building technologies. The lack of understanding of IBTs by the construction industry was identified by participants as a significant national issue because it was the major obstacle to the adoption of emerging technologies. New initiatives launched by the IBT TRM as a consequence of the evaluation include the creation of the Intelligent and Integrated Buildings Council (IIBC) sub-committee of CABA to act on the recommendations of the TRM; and planning by CABA for a new TRM to focus on residential rather than commercial buildings. It was also noted that a valuable network of contracts was created during the evaluation process. Various promotional initiatives were reviewed. It was concluded that Industry Canada should continue to play a continued role in the TRM, particularly in the area of fostering and facilitating the development of regulations and standards; further leveraging the expertise of federal research facilities; encouraging international trade efforts; and exploring the applications of intelligent building technologies to other industries. It was suggested that TRMs support the sector's strategic objectives related to the development, adaptation, diffusion and use of sustainable technologies.

  3. Building a Case for Blocks as Kindergarten Mathematics Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzer, Cathy; Gerhardt, Kacie; Coca, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Kindergarteners need access to blocks as thinking tools to develop, model, test, and articulate their mathematical ideas. In the current educational landscape, resources such as blocks are being pushed to the side and being replaced by procedural worksheets and academic "seat time" in order to address standards. Mathematics research…

  4. The covenant as fundamental building block of marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Du Plessis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:
    Marriage is an institution of God, a social institution, a multidimensional experience, as well as an intimate personal relationship between a man and a woman. In the Bible the marital relationship is used to describe the covenant relationship between God and human beings. The covenant relationship between God and human beings gives man a secure and safe space where he/she can grow to spiritual and emotional maturity in God, through Jesus Christ. When spouses understand and accept the covenant as a fundamental building block in their marriage, and live accordingly, it creates a profound union and intimacy. Marriage then becomes a safe haven in which spouses can grow to spiritual and emotional wholeness. The question this article explores is how the covenant as the pastoral point of departure may contribute to marriage pastorate. The empirical research has shown that marriage counselling is currently executed reactively, rather than pro-actively.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:
    DIE VERBOND AS FUNDAMENTELE BOUSTEEN VIR DIE HUWELIK
    Die huwelik is ’n instelling van God, ’n sosiale instelling, multidimensionele ervaring, asook ’n intieme persoonlike verhouding tussen ’n man en ’n vrou. In die Bybel word die huweliksverhouding gebruik om die verbondsverhouding tussen God en die mens te beskryf. Die verbondsverhouding tussen God en die mens gee aan die mens sekuriteit en veilige ruimte waarbinne die mens tot volwassenheid in God deur Jesus kan groei. Wanneer huweliksgenote die aspekte van die verbond as fundamentele bousteen in hulle huwelik begryp en daarvolgens leef, ontstaan ’n diepe eenwording en intimiteit. Die huwelik word dan ’n veilige ruimte waarbinne beide huweliksgenote geestelik en emosioneel kan groei tot heelheid. Die vraag wat in hierdie artikel ondersoek word, is op watter manier die verbond as pastorale vertrekpunt kan bydra tot die huwelikspastoraat. Die empiriese

  5. Science Support: The Building Blocks of Active Data Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, A.

    2013-12-01

    While the scientific method is built on reproducibility and transparency, and results are published in peer reviewed literature, we have come to the digital age of very large datasets (now of the order of petabytes and soon exabytes) which cannot be published in the traditional way. To preserve reproducibility and transparency, active curation is necessary to keep and protect the information in the long term, and 'science support' activities provide the building blocks for active data curation. With the explosive growth of data in all fields in recent years, there is a pressing urge for data centres to now provide adequate services to ensure long-term preservation and digital curation of project data outputs, however complex those may be. Science support provides advice and support to science projects on data and information management, from file formats through to general data management awareness. Another purpose of science support is to raise awareness in the science community of data and metadata standards and best practice, engendering a culture where data outputs are seen as valued assets. At the heart of Science support is the Data Management Plan (DMP) which sets out a coherent approach to data issues pertaining to the data generating project. It provides an agreed record of the data management needs and issues within the project. The DMP is agreed upon with project investigators to ensure that a high quality documented data archive is created. It includes conditions of use and deposit to clearly express the ownership, responsibilities and rights associated with the data. Project specific needs are also identified for data processing, visualization tools and data sharing services. As part of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) and National Centre for Earth Observation (NCEO), the Centre for Environmental Data Archival (CEDA) fulfills this science support role of facilitating atmospheric and Earth observation data generating projects to ensure

  6. Biologically inspired strategy for programmed assembly of viral building blocks with controlled dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Jennifer M; Lee, Jae-Hun; Lee, David H; Yi, Hyunmin

    2013-02-01

    Facile fabrication of building blocks with precisely controlled dimensions is imperative in the development of functional devices and materials. We demonstrate the assembly of nanoscale viral building blocks of controlled lengths using a biologically motivated strategy. To achieve this we exploit the simple self-assembly mechanism of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), whose length is solely governed by the length of its genomic mRNA. We synthesize viral mRNA of desired lengths using simple molecular biology techniques, and in vitro assemble the mRNA with viral coat proteins to yield viral building blocks of controlled lengths. The results indicate that the assembly of the viral building blocks is consistent and reproducible, and can be readily extended to assemble building blocks with genetically modified coat proteins (TMV1cys). Additionally, we confirm the potential utility of the TMV1cys viral building blocks with controlled dimensions via covalent and quantitative conjugation of fluorescent markers. We envision that our biologically inspired assembly strategy to design and construct viral building blocks of controlled dimensions could be employed to fabricate well-controlled nanoarchitectures and hybrid nanomaterials for a wide variety of applications including nanoelectronics and nanocatalysis.

  7. Building design guidelines for solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givoni, B.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main objectives to this publication. The first is to find out the communalities in the experience gained in previous studies and in actual applications of solar technologies in buildings, residential as well as nonresidential. The second objective is to review innovative concepts and products which may have an impact on future developments and applications of solar technologies in buildings. The available information and common lessons were collated and presented in a form which, hopefully, is useful for architects and solar engineers, as well as for teachers of solar architecture'' and students in Architectural Schools. The publication is based mainly on the collection and analysis of relevant information. The information included previous studies in which the performance of solar buildings was evaluated, as well as the personal experience of the Author and the research consultants. The state of the art, as indicated by these studies and personal experience, was summarized and has served as basis for the development of the Design Guidelines. In addition to the summary of the state of the art, as was already applied in solar buildings, an account was given of innovative concepts and products. Such innovations have occurred in the areas of thermal storage by Phase Change Materials (PCM) and in glazing with specialized or changeable properties. Interesting concepts were also developed for light transfer, which may enable to transfer sunlight to the core areas of large multi story nonresidential buildings. These innovations may have a significant impact on future developments of solar technologies and their applications in buildings. 15 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Radix-2α/4β Building Blocks for Efficient VLSI’s Higher Radices Butterflies Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan A. Jaber

    2014-01-01

    has been formulated as the combination of radix-2α/4β butterflies implemented in parallel. By doing so, the VLSI butterfly implementation for higher radices would be feasible since it maintains approximately the same complexity of the radix-2/4 butterfly which is obtained by block building of the radix-2/4 modules. The block building process is achieved by duplicating the block circuit diagram of the radix-2/4 module that is materialized by means of a feed-back network which will reuse the block circuit diagram of the radix-2/4 module.

  9. Effective evaluation of green building technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawers, J. [Reid Crowther and Partners Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-01

    A proposed green building technology evaluation model is described. The model was developed as result of the inability of traditional evaluation techniques such as pay-back period, net present value and life cycle cost, to deal effectively with the intangible benefits of green technologies. Unlike traditional tools which are primarily financial in nature, the proposed model is based on a model developed in the Information Technology (IT) industry. It extends the concept of `benefit` to include a wide range of factors that affect a system`s business value. It also extends the concept of `cost` to include an evaluation of risk. The model considers nine criteria divided into two groups: business criteria and technology criteria. Business criteria encompass economic impact, strategic alignment, competitive advantage, improved management information, competitive risk, and organizational risk. The technological criteria comprise strategic architecture, definition uncertainty, and infrastructure risk. Assignment of weights to each of these criteria is somewhat subjective, but subjectivity can be overcome by the consistent use of good judgment. The green building technologies model draws on both the IT model and the value management concept (i.e. `value to a client within a particular context`). The model provides for the use of a value hierarchy to establish and weigh decision criteria; it expands the definition of project `costs` and `benefits`, and provides a decision matrix and sensitivity analysis. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs. Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-04-01

    This report identifies and characterizes commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects sponsored by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2009.

  11. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weakley, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and characterize commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects funded by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2011.

  12. Buildings R&D Breakthroughs: Technologies and Products Supported by the Building Technologies Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weakley, Steven A.

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of the project described in this report is to identify and characterize commercially available products and emerging (near-commercial) technologies that benefited from the support of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) within the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The investigation specifically focused on technology-oriented research and development (R&D) projects funded by BTP’s Emerging Technologies subprogram from 2005-2011.

  13. Cosmic "Dig" Reveals Vestiges of the Milky Way's Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Peering through the thick dust clouds of our galaxy's "bulge" (the myriads of stars surrounding its centre), and revealing an amazing amount of detail, a team of astronomers has unveiled an unusual mix of stars in the stellar grouping known as Terzan 5. Never observed anywhere in the bulge before, this peculiar "cocktail" of stars suggests that Terzan 5 is in fact one of the bulge's primordial building blocks, most likely the relic of a proto-galaxy that merged with the Milky Way during its very early days. "The history of the Milky Way is encoded in its oldest fragments, globular clusters and other systems of stars that have witnessed the entire evolution of our galaxy," says Francesco Ferraro from the University of Bologna, lead author of a paper appearing in this week's issue of the journal Nature. "Our study opens a new window on yet another piece of our galactic past." Like archaeologists, who dig through the dust piling up on top of the remains of past civilisations and unearth crucial pieces of the history of mankind, astronomers have been gazing through the thick layers of interstellar dust obscuring the bulge of the Milky Way and have unveiled an extraordinary cosmic relic. The target of the study is the star cluster Terzan 5. The new observations show that this object, unlike all but a few exceptional globular clusters, does not harbour stars which are all born at the same time - what astronomers call a "single population" of stars. Instead, the multitude of glowing stars in Terzan 5 formed in at least two different epochs, the earliest probably some 12 billion years ago and then again 6 billion years ago. "Only one globular cluster with such a complex history of star formation has been observed in the halo of the Milky Way: Omega Centauri," says team member Emanuele Dalessandro. "This is the first time we see this in the bulge." The galactic bulge is the most inaccessible region of our galaxy for astronomical observations: only infrared light can

  14. Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

    2012-10-01

    Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

  15. Polymorphic Ring-Shaped Molecular Clusters Made of Shape-Variable Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitel Cervantes-Salguero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling molecular building blocks able to dynamically change their shapes, is a concept that would offer a route to reconfigurable systems. Although simulation studies predict novel properties useful for applications in diverse fields, such kinds of building blocks, have not been implemented thus far with molecules. Here, we report shape-variable building blocks fabricated by DNA self-assembly. Blocks are movable enough to undergo shape transitions along geometrical ranges. Blocks connect to each other and assemble into polymorphic ring-shaped clusters via the stacking of DNA blunt-ends. Reconfiguration of the polymorphic clusters is achieved by the surface diffusion on mica substrate in response to a monovalent salt concentration. This work could inspire novel reconfigurable self-assembling systems for applications in molecular robotics.

  16. Polymorphic Ring-Shaped Molecular Clusters Made of Shape-Variable Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Salguero, Keitel; Hamada, Shogo; Nomura, Shin-ichiro M.; Murata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembling molecular building blocks able to dynamically change their shapes, is a concept that would offer a route to reconfigurable systems. Although simulation studies predict novel properties useful for applications in diverse fields, such kinds of building blocks, have not been implemented thus far with molecules. Here, we report shape-variable building blocks fabricated by DNA self-assembly. Blocks are movable enough to undergo shape transitions along geometrical ranges. Blocks connect to each other and assemble into polymorphic ring-shaped clusters via the stacking of DNA blunt-ends. Reconfiguration of the polymorphic clusters is achieved by the surface diffusion on mica substrate in response to a monovalent salt concentration. This work could inspire novel reconfigurable self-assembling systems for applications in molecular robotics.

  17. Methods for Setting up a Three-Dimensional Industrial Surveying System of "Building Blocks Type"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wenhao

    2004-01-01

    This paper is to advance some relevant techniques to set up a three-dimensional industrial surveying system of "building blocks type", making use of the electronic theodolite, standard ruler and portable computer.

  18. A Working Model of Protein Synthesis Using Lego(TM) Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Mark A.; Fetters, Marcia K.

    2002-01-01

    Uses Lego building blocks to improve the effectiveness of teaching about protein synthesis. Provides diagrams and pictures for a 2-3 day student activity. Discusses mRNA, transfer RNA, and a protein synthesis model. (MVL)

  19. Silicon-Carbide (SIC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMS) For Power Building Block Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project seeks to prove the feasibility of developing high power density modular power electronic building blocks...

  20. RNA and RNP as Building Blocks for Nanotechnology and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hirohisa; Saito, Hirohide

    2016-01-01

    Recent technologies that aimed to elucidate cellular function have revealed essential roles for RNA molecules in living systems. Our knowledge concerning functional and structural information of naturally occurring RNA and RNA-protein (RNP) complexes is increasing rapidly. RNA and RNP interaction motifs are structural units that function as building blocks to constitute variety of complex structures. RNA-central synthetic biology and nanotechnology are constructive approaches that employ the accumulated information and build synthetic RNA (RNP)-based circuits and nanostructures. Here, we describe how to design and construct synthetic RNA (RNP)-based devices and structures at the nanometer-scale for biological and future therapeutic applications. RNA/RNP nanostructures can also be utilized as the molecular scaffold to control the localization or interactions of target molecule(s). Moreover, RNA motifs recognized by RNA-binding proteins can be applied to make protein-responsive translational "switches" that can turn gene expression "on" or "off" depending on the intracellular environment. This "synthetic RNA and RNP world" will expand tools for nanotechnology and synthetic biology. In addition, these reconstructive approaches would lead to a greater understanding of building principle in naturally occurring RNA/RNP molecules and systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biophysics and Thermodynamics: The Scientific Building Blocks of Bio-inspired Drug Delivery Nano Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-01

    Biophysics and thermodynamics are considered as the scientific milestones for investigating the properties of materials. The relationship between the changes of temperature with the biophysical variables of biomaterials is important in the process of the development of drug delivery systems. Biophysics is a challenge sector of physics and should be used complementary with the biochemistry in order to discover new and promising technological platforms (i.e., drug delivery systems) and to disclose the 'silence functionality' of bio-inspired biological and artificial membranes. Thermal analysis and biophysical approaches in pharmaceuticals present reliable and versatile tools for their characterization and for the successful development of pharmaceutical products. The metastable phases of self-assembled nanostructures such as liposomes should be taken into consideration because they represent the thermal events can affect the functionality of advanced drug delivery nano systems. In conclusion, biophysics and thermodynamics are characterized as the building blocks for design and development of bio-inspired drug delivery systems.

  2. A NEW STRATEGY FOR THE DESIGN OF LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMERS WITH FLEXIBLE AND APOLAR BUILDING BLOCKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C. Gupta; H.K. Abdulkadir; S. Chand

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a new series of liquid crystalline polymers, poly(dicycloalkyl vinylterephthalate)s, are reported. The basic building blocks of these polymers are not mesogenic by themselves. However,very stable mesophases can be generated by self-assembly of the polymer molecules. This approach suggests a novel design strategy of liquid crystalline polymers with flexible and apolar building blocks.

  3. Supramolecular assemblies based on 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone building block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sumin; WU Lizhu; ZHANG Liping; TUNG Chenho

    2006-01-01

    With high association constants in nonpolar solvents, the quadruple hydrogen bonding arrays of 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinones are recently considered to be one of the ideal building blocks to construct the complicated and functional supramole- cular systems. In this paper, we review the latest achievements of the supramolecular assemblies based on 2-ureido-4[1H]-pyrimidinone AADD quadruple hydrogen bonding building blocks.

  4. Binding Blocks: Building the Universe One Nucleus at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diget, C. Aa.; Pastore, A.; Leech, K.; Haylett, T.; Lock, S.; Sanders, T.; Shelley, M.; Willett, H. V.; Keegans, J.; Sinclair, L.; Simpson, E. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new teaching and outreach activity based around the construction of a three-dimensional chart of isotopes using LEGO® bricks. The activity, "binding blocks", demonstrates nuclear and astrophysical processes through a seven-meter chart of all nuclear isotopes, built from over 26000 LEGO® bricks. It integrates A-Level and GCSE…

  5. Diatomaceous Fungal and Bacterial Building Blocks for Material Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-08

    duplexes, whereas the second method was geometrically based and used the enzyme T4- DNA ligase . During the last funding year the latter technique was...Blocks Using T4 DNA Ligase Most nanoparticle assembly studies have focused on the use of isotropically functionalized particles since there are very...5’-phosphate group of the AuNP oligonucleotide. T4 DNA ligase was added to the reaction E - F solution to catalyze the formation of a phosphodiester

  6. Trenches for building blocks of advanced planar components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haiyan, Ou

    2004-01-01

    Trenches are fundamental structures used to build advanced optical planar waveguide components. In this letter, the fabrication of trenches across silica-on-silicon waveguides using inductively coupled plasma etching is presented. These trenches were etched deep into the silicon substrate...

  7. Building an organic block storage service at CERN with Ceph

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ster, Daniel; Wiebalck, Arne

    2014-06-01

    Emerging storage requirements, such as the need for block storage for both OpenStack VMs and file services like AFS and NFS, have motivated the development of a generic backend storage service for CERN IT. The goals for such a service include (a) vendor neutrality, (b) horizontal scalability with commodity hardware, (c) fault tolerance at the disk, host, and network levels, and (d) support for geo-replication. Ceph is an attractive option due to its native block device layer RBD which is built upon its scalable, reliable, and performant object storage system, RADOS. It can be considered an "organic" storage solution because of its ability to balance and heal itself while living on an ever-changing set of heterogeneous disk servers. This work will present the outcome of a petabyte-scale test deployment of Ceph by CERN IT. We will first present the architecture and configuration of our cluster, including a summary of best practices learned from the community and discovered internally. Next the results of various functionality and performance tests will be shown: the cluster has been used as a backend block storage system for AFS and NFS servers as well as a large OpenStack cluster at CERN. Finally, we will discuss the next steps and future possibilities for Ceph at CERN.

  8. The Microcontroller: A Paradigm for a Robot Building Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, John; Deal, Walter F., III

    2013-01-01

    Microcontrollers are used extensively in transportation and communications technologies, in automobiles to monitor and control engine speed and performance so as to maximize fuel economy and efficiency, and by manufacturing industries to produce "smart" technology. The flexibility, imagination, and spirit that make these tiny devices so…

  9. The Microcontroller: A Paradigm for a Robot Building Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, John; Deal, Walter F., III

    2013-01-01

    Microcontrollers are used extensively in transportation and communications technologies, in automobiles to monitor and control engine speed and performance so as to maximize fuel economy and efficiency, and by manufacturing industries to produce "smart" technology. The flexibility, imagination, and spirit that make these tiny devices so…

  10. Explicit Building Block Multiobjective Evolutionary Computation: Methods and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-16

    about the entire group without checking each and every member of the group - for any respectable cook knows someone only need sample a spoonful of soup to...tasting the BB soup is statistically described and from it, one can determine a BB’s goodness without checking the entire population. 2.4.2 Sampled Good...initialization, primordial and juxtaposition phases. The use of partially enumerative initialization builds a population of all combinations of BBs of size

  11. The Building Blocks of Life Move from Ground to Tree to Animal and Back to Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    I generally use combinations of big words to describe my science, such as biogeochemistry, ecosystem ecology, nutrient cycling, stoichiometry, tropical deforestation, land-use change, agricultural intensification, eutrophication, greenhouse gas emissions, and sustainable development. I didn't expect to use any of these words, but I was surprised that I couldn't use some others that seem simple enough to me, such as farm, plant, soil, and forest. I landed on "building blocks" as my metaphor for the forms of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other elements that I study as they cycle through and among ecosystems. I study what makes trees and other kinds of life grow. We all know that they need the sun and that they take up water from the ground, but what else do trees need from the ground? What do animals that eat leaves and wood get from the trees? Just as we need building blocks to grow our bodies, trees and animals also need building blocks for growing their bodies. Trees get part of their building blocks from the ground and animals get theirs from what they eat. When animals poop and when leaves fall, some of their building blocks return to the ground. When they die, their building blocks also go back to the ground. I also study what happens to the ground, the water, and the air when we cut down trees, kill or shoo away the animals, and make fields to grow our food. Can we grow enough food and still keep the ground, water, and air clean? I think the answer is yes, but it will take better understanding of how all of those building blocks fit together and move around, from ground to tree to animal and back to ground.

  12. Reconfigurable Secondary Composite Building Blocks for Expandable Habitable Structure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZIN Technologies, Inc. will provide a preliminary design showing the feasibility of a Reconfigurable Multi-functional Architecture (RMA) for a deployable floor...

  13. A novel 300 kW arc plasma inverter system based on hierarchical controlled building block structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To date, the high power arc plasma technology is widely used. A next generation high power arc plasma system based on building block structure is presented. The whole arc plasma inverter system is composed of 12 paralleled units to increase the system output capability. The hierarchical control system is adopted to improve the reliability and flexibility of the high power arc plasma inverter. To ensure the reliable turn on and off of the IGBT module in each building block unit, a special pulse drive circuit is designed by using pulse transformer. The experimental result indicates that the high power arc plasma inverter system can transfer 300 kW arc plasma energy reliably with high efficiency.

  14. Analogue Building Blocks Based on Digital CMOS Gates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucha, Igor

    1996-01-01

    Low-performance analogue circuits built of digital MOS gates are presented. Depending on the threshold voltages of the technology used the final circuits can be operated using low supply voltages. The main advantage using the proposed circuits is the simplicity and ultimate compatibility with the......Low-performance analogue circuits built of digital MOS gates are presented. Depending on the threshold voltages of the technology used the final circuits can be operated using low supply voltages. The main advantage using the proposed circuits is the simplicity and ultimate compatibility...

  15. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Technology Validation and Market Introduction 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for technology validation and market introduction, including ENERGY STAR, building energy codes, technology transfer application centers, commercial lighting initiative, EnergySmart Schools, EnergySmar

  16. Binding Blocks: building the Universe one nucleus at the time

    CERN Document Server

    Diget, C Aa; Leech, K; Haylett, T; Lock, S; Sanders, T; Shelley, M; Willett, H V; Keegans, J; Sinclair, L; Simpson, E C

    2016-01-01

    We present a new teaching and outreach activity based around the construction of a three-dimensional chart of isotopes using LEGO$^{\\copyright}$ bricks. The activity, \\emph{Binding Blocks}, demonstrates nuclear and astrophysical processes through a seven-meter chart of all nuclear isotopes, built from over 26,000 LEGO$^{\\copyright}$ bricks. It integrates A-level and GCSE curricula across areas of nuclear physics, astrophysics, and chemistry, including: nuclear decays (through the colours in the chart); nuclear binding energy (through tower heights); production of chemical elements in the cosmos; fusion processes in stars and fusion energy on Earth; as well as links to medical physics, particularly diagnostics and radiotherapy.

  17. Binding blocks: building the Universe one nucleus at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diget, C. Aa; Pastore, A.; Leech, K.; Haylett, T.; Lock, S.; Sanders, T.; Shelley, M.; Willett, H. V.; Keegans, J.; Sinclair, L.; Simpson, E. C.; the Binding Blocks Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    We present a new teaching and outreach activity based around the construction of a three-dimensional chart of isotopes using \\text{LEG}{{\\text{O}}\\circledR} bricks5. The activity, binding blocks, demonstrates nuclear and astrophysical processes through a seven-meter chart of all nuclear isotopes, built from over 26 000 \\text{LEG}{{\\text{O}}\\circledR} bricks. It integrates A-Level and GCSE curricula across areas of nuclear physics, astrophysics, and chemistry, including: nuclear decays (through the colours in the chart); nuclear binding energy (through tower heights); production of chemical elements in the cosmos; fusion processes in stars and fusion energy on Earth; as well as links to medical physics, particularly diagnostics and radiotherapy.

  18. Biobased building blocks for the rational design of renewable block polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Angela L; Reno, Kaleigh H; Wool, Richard P; Epps, Thomas H

    2014-10-14

    Block polymers (BPs) derived from biomass (biobased) are necessary components of a sustainable future that relies minimally on petroleum-based plastics for applications ranging from thermoplastic elastomers and pressure-sensitive adhesives to blend compatibilizers. To facilitate their adoption, renewable BPs must be affordable, durable, processable, versatile, and reasonably benign. Their desirability further depends on the relative sustainability of the renewable resources and the methods employed in the monomer and polymer syntheses. Various strategies allow these BPs' characteristics to be tuned and enhanced for commercial applications, and many of these techniques also can be applied to manipulate the wide-ranging mechanical and thermal properties of biobased and self-assembling block polymers. From feedstock to application, this review article highlights promising renewable BPs, plus their material and assembly properties, in support of de novo design strategies that could revolutionize material sustainability.

  19. "Science SQL" as a Building Block for Flexible, Standards-based Data Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    We have learnt to live with the pain of separating data and metadata into non-interoperable silos. For metadata, we enjoy the flexibility of databases, be they relational, graph, or some other NoSQL. Contrasting this, users still "drown in files" as an unstructured, low-level archiving paradigm. It is time to bridge this chasm which once was technologically induced, but today can be overcome. One building block towards a common re-integrated information space is to support massive multi-dimensional spatio-temporal arrays. These "datacubes" appear as sensor, image, simulation, and statistics data in all science and engineering domains, and beyond. For example, 2-D satellilte imagery, 2-D x/y/t image timeseries and x/y/z geophysical voxel data, and 4-D x/y/z/t climate data contribute to today's data deluge in the Earth sciences. Virtual observatories in the Space sciences routinely generate Petabytes of such data. Life sciences deal with microarray data, confocal microscopy, human brain data, which all fall into the same category. The ISO SQL/MDA (Multi-Dimensional Arrays) candidate standard is extending SQL with modelling and query support for n-D arrays ("datacubes") in a flexible, domain-neutral way. This heralds a new generation of services with new quality parameters, such as flexibility, ease of access, embedding into well-known user tools, and scalability mechanisms that remain completely transparent to users. Technology like the EU rasdaman ("raster data manager") Array Database system can support all of the above examples simultaneously, with one technology. This is practically proven: As of today, rasdaman is in operational use on hundreds of Terabytes of satellite image timeseries datacubes, with transparent query distribution across more than 1,000 nodes. Therefore, Array Databases offering SQL/MDA constitute a natural common building block for next-generation data infrastructures. Being initiator and editor of the standard we present principles

  20. Sustainable technologies for the building construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanegas, J.A.; DuBose, J.R.; Pearce, A.R. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    As the dawn of the twenty-first century approaches, the current pattern of unsustainable, inequitable and unstable asymmetric demographic and economic growth has forced many segments of society to come together in facing a critical challenge: how can societies across the world meet their current basic human needs, aspirations and desires, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs? At the core of this challenge is the question: how can the human race maintain in perpetuity a healthy, physically attractive and biologically productive environment. The development path that we have been taking, in the past few centuries, has been ultimately detrimental to the health of our surrounding ecological context. We are consuming an increasing share of the natural resources available to use on this planet, and we are creating sufficiently large amounts of waste and pollution such that the earth can no longer assimilate our wastes and recover from the negative impacts. This is a result of a growing population as well as new technologies which make it easier for use to access natural resources and also require the consumption of more resources. Unsustainable technology has been the result of linear rather than cyclic thinking. The paradigm shift from linear to cyclic thinking in technological design is the crux of the shift from unsustainability to sustainability. This paper discusses the implications for the building design and construction industries. Strategies, technologies, and opportunities are presented to improve the sustainability of the built environment.

  1. The Application of Intelligent Building Technologies to Space Hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper reports that over the last few years Intelligent Building technologies have matured and standardised. It compares the functions of command and control systems in future large space facilities such as space hotels to those commonly found in Intelligent Buildings and looks at how Intelligent Building technologies may be applied to space hotels. Many of the functions required in space hotels are the same as those needed in terrestrial buildings. The adaptation of standardised, low cost, Intelligent Building technologies would reduce capital costs and ease development of future space hotels. Other aspects of Intelligent Buildings may also provide useful models for the development and operation of space hotels.

  2. 3D hollow nanostructures as building blocks for multifunctional plasmonics

    KAUST Repository

    De Angelis, Francesco De

    2013-08-14

    We present an advanced and robust technology to realize 3D hollow plasmonic nanostructures which are tunable in size, shape, and layout. The presented architectures offer new and unconventional properties such as the realization of 3D plasmonic hollow nanocavities with high electric field confinement and enhancement, finely structured extinction profiles, and broad band optical absorption. The 3D nature of the devices can overcome intrinsic difficulties related to conventional architectures in a wide range of multidisciplinary applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Electric Hydrostatic Actuation - modular building blocks for industrial applications

    OpenAIRE

    Helbig, Achim; Boes, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Electro Hydrostatic Actuators (EHA) are emerging as a viable option for industrial machine builders as the design combines the best of both electro-mechanical and electro-hydraulic technologies. The EHA is a highly integrated, compact alternative to traditional hydraulic solutions. Automation engineers moving toward electro-mechanical actuation in pursuit of energy efficiency and environmental cleanliness, will find an EHA an attractive option for high force density actuators. This paper will...

  4. Building information modeling based on intelligent parametric technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xudong; TAN Jie

    2007-01-01

    In order to push the information organization process of the building industry,promote sustainable architectural design and enhance the competitiveness of China's building industry,the author studies building information modeling (BIM) based on intelligent parametric modeling technology.Building information modeling is a new technology in the field of computer aided architectural design,which contains not only geometric data,but also the great amount of engineering data throughout the lifecycle of a building.The author also compares BIM technology with two-dimensional CAD technology,and demonstrates the advantages and characteristics of intelligent parametric modeling technology.Building information modeling,which is based on intelligent parametric modeling technology,will certainly replace traditional computer aided architectural design and become the new driving force to push forward China's building industry in this information age.

  5. Mobile Clouds as the Building Blocks of Shareconomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Marcos; Fitzek, Frank; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Mobile clouds embody a concept where mobile and wireless networks naturally embrace social networks in a practically efficient fashion. In addition to enhancing communications performance and improving the efficiency in radio resource utilization, mobile clouds are a flexible platform for sharing...... distributed resources of mobile devices. We explore how physical and immaterial resources can be shared by social networks. Shareable resources residing in the mobile devices are considered primarily, but the resource sharing concept is extended to encompass universal resources. Finally, we shed some light...... on how the converged mobile, wireless, and social networks have the potential to become a key enabling technology of a novel resource trading paradigm called shareconomy....

  6. Lipid Processing Technology: Building a Multilevel Modeling Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Díaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Mustaffa, Azizul Azri; Mukkerikar, Amol

    2011-01-01

    in design and analysis of unit operations; iv) the information and models developed are used as building blocks in the development of methods and tools for computer-aided synthesis and design of process flowsheets (CAFD). The applicability of this methodology is highlighted in each level of modeling through......The aim of this work is to present the development of a computer aided multilevel modeling network for the systematic design and analysis of processes employing lipid technologies. This is achieved by decomposing the problem into four levels of modeling: i) pure component property modeling...... and a lipid-database of collected experimental data from industry and generated data from validated predictive property models, as well as modeling tools for fast adoption-analysis of property prediction models; ii) modeling of phase behavior of relevant lipid mixtures using the UNIFACCI model, development...

  7. Solid-phase route to Fmoc-protected cationic amino acid building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jacob Dahlqvist; Linderoth, Lars; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck;

    2012-01-01

    a freshly prepared trityl bromide resin, followed by ring opening with an appropriate primary amine, on-resin N(ß)-Boc protection of the resulting secondary amine, exchange of the N(a)-protecting group, cleavage from the resin, and finally oxidation in solution to yield the target ¿-aza substituted building...... blocks having an Fmoc/Boc protection scheme. This strategy facilitates incorporation of multiple positive charges into the building blocks provided that the corresponding partially protected di- or polyamines are available. An array of compounds covering a wide variety of ¿-aza substituted analogs...

  8. Molecular Building Blocks for Nanotechnology From Diamondoids to Nanoscale Materials and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mansoori, G. Ali; Assoufid, Lahsen; Zhang, Guoping

    2007-01-01

    This book is a result of the research and educational activities of a group of outstanding scientists worldwide who have authored the chapters of this book dealing with the behavior of nanoscale building blocks. It contains a variety of subjects covering computational, dry and wet nanotechnology. The state-of-the-art subject matters presented here provide the reader with the latest developments on ongoing nanoscience and nanotechnology research from the bottom-up approach, which starts with with atoms and molecules as molecular building blocks.

  9. Origami-inspired building block and parametric design for mechanical metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Ma, Hua; Feng, Mingde; Yan, Leilei; Wang, Jiafu; Wang, Jun; Qu, Shaobo

    2016-08-01

    An origami-based building block of mechanical metamaterials is proposed and explained by introducing a mechanism model based on its geometry. According to our model, this origami mechanism supports response to uniaxial tension that depends on structure parameters. Hence, its mechanical properties can be tunable by adjusting the structure parameters. Experiments for poly lactic acid (PLA) samples were carried out, and the results are in good agreement with those of finite element analysis (FEA). This work may be useful for designing building blocks of mechanical metamaterials or other complex mechanical structures.

  10. RNA LEGO: magnesium-dependent assembly of RNA building blocks through loop-loop interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiya, Satoru; Li, Xianglan; Kawai, Gota; Saito, Ryota; Katoh, Akira; Kobayashi, Koh; Harada, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    We describe the construction of nano-molecular assemblies using RNA building blocks the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) dimerization initiation site (DIS) RNA, that forms stable base pairing through a magnesium-dependent loop-loop interaction ("kissing"). RNA building blocks containing two DIS or DIS-like hairpins connected by a two nucleotide linker self-assembled to form specific structures as observed by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Furthermore, observation of "real time" formation of the molecular assemblies by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy was attempted.

  11. Quantitative NMR Approach to Optimize the Formation of Chemical Building Blocks from Abundant Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elliot, Samuel Gilbert; Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu

    2017-01-01

    The future role of biomass-derived chemicals relies on the formation of diverse functional monomers in high yields from carbohydrates. Recently, it has become clear that a series of α-hydroxy acids, esters and lactones can be formed from carbohydrates in alcohols and water using tin......-containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters with additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. We employ an NMR approach to identify, quantify and optimize the formation these building blocks in the chemocatalytic transformation of abundant carbohydrates by Sn...

  12. IPTV-Internet Protocol Televisions Key Broadcast Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Telcos, in pursuit of the triple play (voice, video, and data, are investing heavily to compete with the cable companies in providing quality video content to the consumer. However, most telco infrastructures do not currently have the bandwidth to support high-quality video distribution. The telcos are updating their Internet protocol (IP networks and using new encoding schemes such as MPEG4-Part 10 (also called H.264-AVC to deliver video content to the consumer. This creates a huge opportunity for supplying telcos with updated equipment including the latest encoders and decoders. This paper will investigate the technology that is fueling this new Internet protocol television (IPTV infrastructure. The first portion will be looking at the video encoding method and the second portion will focus on the video-over-IP network design that is being used for IPTV.

  13. Proteins as Supramolecular Building Blocks for Responsive Materials and Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-20

    Inventions (DD882) Scientific Progress See attachment Technology Transfer See attachment for connection to other research programmes NAME Total Number...between protein and  titrated metal. Clusters of 4*Ni‐Lsm[4+1]4  visualised  by EM, subsequently  dissolve to single ring tectons with addition of EDTA...relationship between protein and  titrated metal. Clusters of 4*Ni‐Lsm[4+1]4  visualised  by EM, subsequently dissolve to single ring tectons with addition of

  14. Primer Part 1-The building blocks of epilepsy genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Ingo; Heinzen, Erin L; Mefford, Heather C

    2016-06-01

    This is the first of a two-part primer on the genetics of the epilepsies within the Genetic Literacy Series of the Genetics Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy. In Part 1, we cover the foundations of epilepsy genetics including genetic epidemiology and the range of genetic variants that can affect the risk for developing epilepsy. We discuss various epidemiologic study designs that have been applied to the genetics of the epilepsies including population studies, which provide compelling evidence for a strong genetic contribution in many epilepsies. We discuss genetic risk factors varying in size, frequency, inheritance pattern, effect size, and phenotypic specificity, and provide examples of how genetic risk factors within the various categories increase the risk for epilepsy. We end by highlighting trends in epilepsy genetics including the increasing use of massive parallel sequencing technologies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Advanced information technology: Building stronger databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses the attributes of the Advanced Information Technology (AIT) tool set, a database application builder designed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. AIT consists of a C library and several utilities that provide referential integrity across a database, interactive menu and field level help, and a code generator for building tightly controlled data entry support. AIT also provides for dynamic menu trees, report generation support, and creation of user groups. Composition of the library and utilities is discussed, along with relative strengths and weaknesses. In addition, an instantiation of the AIT tool set is presented using a specific application. Conclusions about the future and value of the tool set are then drawn based on the use of the tool set with that specific application.

  16. Polyphospholyl ligands as building blocks for the formation of polymeric and spherical assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Heindl, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with polyphospholyl ligands as building blocks for the formation of polymeric and spherical assemblies. Within the scope of this work, the coordination chemistry of 1,2,4-triphosphaferrocenes, 1,2,4-triphospholyl anions and pentaphosphaferrocenes towards Cu(I) halides is investigated. Thereby, the first two substance classes preferably tend to the build-up of novel one-, two- and three-dimensional polymers bearing rather uncommon or even unprecedented structural motif...

  17. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara R Lind

    Full Text Available LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  18. LEGO® bricks as building blocks for centimeter-scale biological environments: the case of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kara R; Sizmur, Tom; Benomar, Saida; Miller, Anthony; Cademartiri, Ludovico

    2014-01-01

    LEGO bricks are commercially available interlocking pieces of plastic that are conventionally used as toys. We describe their use to build engineered environments for cm-scale biological systems, in particular plant roots. Specifically, we take advantage of the unique modularity of these building blocks to create inexpensive, transparent, reconfigurable, and highly scalable environments for plant growth in which structural obstacles and chemical gradients can be precisely engineered to mimic soil.

  19. Media Peace Discourse: Constraints, Concepts and Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Shinar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Normative, professional, and academic premises steer the discussion of the importance and the absence of a peace discourse in the media, and of the need and possibility to invent one. Among the possible points of departure are that the media should be involved in the promotion of peace; that peace coverage is hindered by the absence of a peace discourse in the professional media repertoire; and that the creation, development, and marketing of a media peace discourse should be included in the current research agenda. The development of a peace-oriented media discourse can be assisted by three conceptual elements, namely, the existing strategies employed by the media to cover peace; the competition in the media among dominant and alternative frames, in which news-value is the measure of success; and the concept of “constitutive rhetoric” – the creation, change and legitimization of realities through texts, rhetorical constructs and the manipulation of symbols – as a discourse-building device. Research on the three major strategies used by the media in the coverage of peace – Framing Peace Coverage in War Discourse; Trivialization; and Ritualization – suggests that the latter fits this conceptual framework better than the others, and thus is more suitable for the development of a media peace discourse. Some findings and models of media research can be used for conceptual leverage by providing paradigmatic frameworks and variables. Good examples include the media events and the textual analysis genres, as they are particularly related to professional effects; narrative techniques; and performance styles; and concepts such as “master-frames” and “super-texts” – major motifs, composed of many smaller frames or sub-texts – to suggest the potential contents of a media peace discourse. Finally, it is proposed that research and development efforts of media peace coverage along these lines should include work on adapting the current

  20. 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-11-01

    The 2013 Building Technologies Office Program Peer Review Report summarizes the results of the 2013 Building Technologies Office (BTO) peer review, which was held in Washington, D.C., on April 2–4, 2013. The review was attended by over 300 participants and included presentations on 59 BTO-funded projects: 29 from BTO’s Emerging Technologies Program, 20 from the Commercial Buildings Integration Program, 6 from the Residential Buildings Integration Program, and 4 from the Building Energy Codes Program. This report summarizes the scores and comments provided by the independent reviewers for each project.

  1. Benefits of a translucent building envelope made of DSC-integrated glass blocks

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the benefits deriving from the replacement of the glazed façades of an office building located in Palermo (Sicily) with a new translucent BIPV envelope made of multifunctional glass block panels integrated with Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs). The analysed 11-storey building is cladded by a curtain wall determining high management costs, especially during summer, in order to maintain indoor comfort. After the design of the building envelope and of the com...

  2. Trainer's Guide to Building Blocks for Teaching Preschoolers with Special Needs [CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Gail E.; Sandall, Susan R.; Schwartz, Ilene S.

    2010-01-01

    An essential teaching companion for instructors of pre-K educators, this convenient CD-ROM is a vivid blueprint for effective inclusive education using the popular "Building Blocks" approach. Following the structure of the bestselling textbook, this comprehensive guide helps teacher educators provide effective instruction on the three types of…

  3. N-Unsubstituted and N-Arylated Fulleropyrrolidines: New Useful Building Blocks for C60 Functionalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG,Chen-Hua; WU,Zong-Quan; HOU,Jun-Li; LI,Zhan-Ting

    2006-01-01

    Two series of stable and soluble fulleropyrrolidines have been prepared from the reactions of C60, glycine or its N-arylated derivatives and aliphatic aldehydes or ketones in refluxing toluene or chlorobenzene. The new C60 derivatives represent new useful building blocks for further preparation of more funcionalized C60 derivatives.

  4. A novel method to highly versatile monomeric PNA building blocks by multi component reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dömling, Alexander; Chi, Kai-Zu; Barrère, Mathieux

    1999-01-01

    A novel approach to monomeric PNA building blocks by a solution phase Ugi multi component reaction (MCR) is described. The reaction is easily performed in 96 well plates. The products precipitate from the reaction solution and are thus obtained in high yields and purity. Those products are not amena

  5. Fluorinated building blocks for next-generation polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadekar, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to design, create and study basic building blocks for the construction of self-assembled nanostructured electrodes and membranes for PEMFC. The research described deals with the synthesis of polymerizable fluorosurfactant (1) and its non-polymerizable analogue (2) and t

  6. Chromophores arranged as "magnetic meta atoms": building blocks for molecular metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhals, Heinz; Hofer, Alexander

    2013-06-21

    Benzoperylenetriscarboximides were parallel arranged by stiff spacers where exciton interactions could be controlled by their distance. The most bathochromic electronic transition of the chromophores essentially exhibits only an electric component where an orthogonal magnetic component was established by the distance-controlled interaction of chromophores. Such arrangements were discussed as building blocks for molecular metamaterials.

  7. Green building blocks for biobased plastics: biobased processes and market development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, P.F.H.; Hackmann, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    From a chemical perspective, nearly all building blocks for plastics can be made using renewable raw materials. However, not every process is commercially feasible. Processes often remain inefficient, products have insufficient purity or the raw materials are simply too expensive. This publication p

  8. Using Interlocking Toy Building Blocks to Assess Conceptual Understanding in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    A current emphasis on teaching conceptual chemistry via the particulate nature of matter has led to the need for new, effective ways to assess students' conceptual understanding of this view of chemistry. This article provides a simple, inexpensive way to use interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., LEGOs) in both formative and summative…

  9. Dimeric Building Blocks for Solid-Phase Synthesis of α-Peptide-β-Peptoid Chimeras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seigan, Gitte Bonke; Vedel, Line; Matthias, Witt,

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a novel type of antimicrobial and proteolytically stable peptidomimetic oligomers having an α-peptide-β-peptoid chimeric backbone was reported. The present paper describes efficient protocols for the preparation of a wide range of dimeric building blocks, displaying different types of s...

  10. Para-Functionalized NCN-Pincer Palladium and Platinum Complexes as Building Blocks in Organometallic Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Martijn Quico

    2002-01-01

    A rapidly evolving field in chemistry is the application of organometallic and coordination complexes as building blocks or active components for the construction of new materials exhibiting specific catalytic, redox, optical or sensor activities. A central theme in the construction of these inorgan

  11. Solution scattering studies on a virus capsid protein as a building block for nanoscale assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comellas Aragones, M.; Comellas-Aragones, Marta; Sikkema, Friso D.; Delaittre, Guillaume; Terry, Ann E.; King, Stephen M.; Visser, Dirk; Heenan, Richard K.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Feiters, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled protein cages are versatile building blocks in the construction of biomolecular nanostructures. Because of the defined assembly behaviour the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) protein is often used for such applications. Here we report a detailed solution scattering study of the

  12. Sequential insertion of three different organometallics into a versatile building block containing a PNA backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Malay; Gasser, Gilles; Bobukhov, Dmytro; Merz, Klaus; Shtemenko, Alexander V; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2010-06-28

    In the view of developing a synthetic route for the controlled insertion of distinct organometallic moieties into peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers, a proof-of-principle study of the chemoselective insertion of three different organometallics into a building block containing both a PNA backbone and an alkyne side-chain is presented in this study.

  13. Atomic structure and handedness of the building block of a biological assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loquet, Antoine; Habenstein, Birgit; Chevelkov, Veniamin; Vasa, Suresh Kumar; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Lange, Adam

    2013-12-26

    Noncovalent supramolecular assemblies possess in general several unique subunit-subunit interfaces.The basic building block of such an assembly consists of several subunits and contains all unique interfaces. Atomic-resolution structures of monomeric subunits are typically accessed by crystallography or solution NMR and fitted into electron microscopy density maps. However, the structure of the intact building block in the assembled state remains unknown with this hybrid approach. Here, we present the solid-state NMR atomic structure of the building block of the type III secretion system needle. The building block structure consists of a homotetrameric subunit complex with three unique supramolecular interfaces. Side-chain positions at the interfaces were solved at atomic detail. The high-resolution structure reveals unambiguously the helical handedness of the assembly, determined to be right-handed for the type III secretion system needle.Additionally, the axial rise per subunit could be extracted from the tetramer structure and independently validated by mass-per-length measurements.

  14. Synthesis of N-protected Galactosamine Building Blocks from D-Tagatose via the Heyns Rearrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrodnigg, Tanja M.; Lundt, Inge; Stütz, Arnold E.

    2006-01-01

    N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine (11), a very important naturally occurring building block of oligosaccharides, is easily accessible via the Heyns rearrangement of D-tagatose (3) with benzylamine. The short and efficient synthesis of various differently N-protected D-galactosamine derivatives is reported....

  15. Extended structure design with simple molybdenum oxide building blocks and urea as a directing agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, S.J.; Roy, S.; Filinchuk, Y.; Chernyshov, D.; Petukhov, A.V.; Versluijs-Helder, M.; Broersma, A.; Soulimani, F.; Visser, T.; Kegel, W.K.

    2008-01-01

    We report here a simple one-pot directed synthesis of an oxomolybdate urea composite in which elementary molybdenum oxide building blocks are linked together with the aid of urea. This type of directed material design resulted in large rod-like crystals of an inorganic-organic hybrid extended struct

  16. Para-Functionalized NCN-Pincer Palladium and Platinum Complexes as Building Blocks in Organometallic Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagt, Martijn Quico

    2002-01-01

    A rapidly evolving field in chemistry is the application of organometallic and coordination complexes as building blocks or active components for the construction of new materials exhibiting specific catalytic, redox, optical or sensor activities. A central theme in the construction of these inorgan

  17. Bilberry xyloglucan - novel building blocks containing ß-xylose within a complex structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, H.; Jong, de L.E.; Kabel, M.A.; Verhoef, R.P.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Bilberries are known to have one of the most complex xyloglucan structures described in the plant kingdom until now. To characterise this structure, xyloglucans were enzymatically degraded and the oligosaccharides obtained were analysed. More than 20 different building blocks were found to make up t

  18. The assembly of supramolecular boxes and coordination polymers based on bis-zinc-salphen building blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, M.; Puijk, I.M.; Kleij, A.W.; Tooke, D.M.; Spek, A.L.; Reek, J.N.H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the assembly of supramolecular boxes and coordination polymers based on a rigid bis-zinc(II)-salphen complex and various ditopic nitrogen ligands. The use of the bis-zinc(II)-salphen building block in combination with small ditopic nitrogen ligands gave organic coordination polymers both

  19. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below...

  20. Nanopatterned graphene quantum dots as building blocks for quantum cellular automata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. F.; Liu, Feng

    2011-10-01

    Quantum cellular automata (QCA) is an innovative approach that incorporates quantum entities in classical computation processes. Binary information is encoded in different charge states of the QCA cells and transmitted by the inter-cell Coulomb interaction. Despite the promise of QCA, however, it remains a challenge to identify suitable building blocks for the construction of QCA. Graphene has recently attracted considerable attention owing to its remarkable electronic properties. The planar structure makes it feasible to pattern the whole device architecture in one sheet, compatible with the existing electronics technology. Here, we demonstrate theoretically a new QCA architecture built upon nanopatterned graphene quantum dots (GQDs). Using the tight-binding model, we determine the phenomenological cell parameters and cell-cell response functions of the GQD-QCA to characterize its performance. Furthermore, a GQD-QCA architecture is designed to demonstrate the functionalities of a fundamental majority gate. Our results show great potential in manufacturing high-density ultrafast QCA devices from a single nanopatterned graphene sheet.

  1. Ultrahigh-speed rotating nanoelectromechanical system devices assembled from nanoscale building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanoh; Xu, Xiaobin; Guo, Jianhe; Fan, D. L.

    2014-04-01

    The development of rotary nanomotors is crucial for advancing nanoelectromechanical system technology. In this work, we report design, assembly and rotation of ordered arrays of nanomotors. The nanomotors are bottom-up assembled from nanoscale building blocks with nanowires as rotors, patterned nanomagnets as bearings and quadrupole microelectrodes as stators. Arrays of nanomotors rotate with controlled angle, speed (over 18,000 r.p.m.), and chirality by electric fields. Using analytical modelling, we reveal the fundamental nanoscale electrical, mechanical and magnetic interactions in the nanomotor system, which excellently agrees with experimental results and provides critical understanding for designing metallic nanoelectromechanical systems. The nanomotors can be continuously rotated for 15 h over 240,000 cycles. They are applied for controlled biochemical release and demonstrate releasing rate of biochemicals on nanoparticles that can be precisely tuned by mechanical rotations. The innovations reported in this research, from concept, design and actuation to application, are relevant to nanoelectromechanical system, nanomedicine, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip architectures.

  2. Building America Case Study: Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology, Clovis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology. However, this technology is capable of bringing the air leakage of a building that was built with standard construction techniques and HERS-verified sealing down to levels that would meet DOE Zero Energy Ready Homes program requirements. When a developer is striving to meet a tighter envelope leakage specification, this technology could greatly reduce the cost to achieve that goal by providing a simple and relatively low cost method for reducing the air leakage of a building envelope with little to no change in their common building practices.

  3. Future Directions for Building Services Technologies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2008-01-01

      The hypothesis of this paper is that industrial transformation in the Danish construction sector needs in the future to focus on integrating building services technologies into the buildings. This can be illustrated by analysing historical developments in building services usage, exploring desi...

  4. The Exploitation of Versatile Building Blocks for the Self-Assembly of Novel Molecular Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, M.; Gross, M.; Franz, P.; Biner, M.; Decurtins, S.; Stoeckli-Evans, H.; Neels, A.

    2001-07-01

    Using molecular building blocks to self-assemble lattices supporting long-range magnetic order is currently an active area of solid-state chemistry. Consequently, it is the realm of supramolecular chemistry that synthetic chemists are turning to in order to develop techniques for the synthesis of structurally well-defined supramolecular materials. In recent years we have investigated the versatility and usefulness of two classes of molecular building blocks, namely, tris-oxalato transition-metal (M. Pilkington and S. Decurtins, in "Magnetoscience-From Molecules to Materials," Wiley-VCH, 2000), and octacyanometalate complexes (Pilkington and Decurtins, Chimia 54, 593 (2001)), for applications in the field of molecule-based magnets. Anionic, tris-chelated oxalato building blocks are able to build up two-dimensional honeycomb-layered structural motifs as well as three-dimensional decagon frameworks. The discrimination between the crystallization of the two- or three-dimensional structures relies on the choice of the templating counterions (Decurtins, Chimia 52, 539 (1998); Decurtins et al. Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 273, 167 (1995); New J. Chem. 117 (1998)). These structural types display a range of ferro, ferri, and antiferromagnetic properties (Pilkington and Decurtins, in "Magnetoscience-From Molecules to Materials"). Octacyanometalate building blocks self-assemble to afford two new classes of cyano-bridged compounds namely, molecular clusters and extended three dimensional networks (J. Larionova et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39, 1605 (2000); Pilkington et al., in preparation). The molecular cluster with a MnII9MoV6 core has the highest ground state spin value, S=51/2, reported to-date (Larionova et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 39, 1605 (2000)). In the high-temperature regime, the magnetic properties are characterized by ferromagnetic intracluster coupling. In the magnetic range below 44 K, the magnetic cluster signature is lost as possibly a bulk behavior starts to

  5. Building Technologies Office FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Buildings and homes use more than 73% of the electrical energy consumed in the United States. They also consume 40% of the nation’s total energy, with an annual energy bill of $430 billion. These energy bills can be cost effectively reduced by 20%–50% or more through various energy-efficient technologies and techniques. The Building Technologies Office (BTO) will continue to develop and demonstrate advanced building efficiency technologies and practices to make buildings in the United States more efficient, affordable, and comfortable.

  6. Research and Development Needs for Building-Integrated Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-01-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has identified Building Integrated Solar Technologies (BIST) as a potentially valuable piece of the comprehensive pathway to help achieve its goal of reducing energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings by 50% by the year 2030. This report helps to identify the key research and development (R&D) needs that will be required for BIST to make a substantial contribution toward that goal. BIST include technologies for space heating and cooling, water heating, hybrid photovoltaic-thermal systems (PV/T), active solar lighting, and building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV).

  7. Interlocking Toy Building Blocks as Hands-On Learning Modules for Blind and Visually Impaired Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaku, Samuel; Schreck, James O.; Griffin, Kameron; Dabke, Rajeev B.

    2016-01-01

    Interlocking toy building blocks (e.g., Lego) as chemistry learning modules for blind and visually impaired (BVI) students in high school and undergraduate introductory or general chemistry courses are presented. Building blocks were assembled on a baseplate to depict the relative changes in the periodic properties of elements. Modules depicting…

  8. On the interconnection of clusters and building blocks in barley amylopectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källman, Anna; Bertoft, Eric; Koch, Kristine; Åman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2013-04-01

    Amylopectin is a highly branched starch component built up of a large number of clustered α-D-glucose chains. A single C-chain possesses the reducing end and carries the rest of the macromolecule. The aim of this study was to investigate the interconnection of clusters and domains (groups of clusters) in barley amylopectin by isolation of the units with α-amylolysis and subsequent labelling of the C-chain in the φ,β-limit dextrins of these structural units with the fluorescent compound 2-aminopyridine. Because these C-chains were formed by α-amylolysis of B-chains in amylopectin, they were designated bc-chains to be distinguished from C-chains in amylopectin. Four barley samples were selected for the study, of which two had the amo1 genetic background. Longer bc-chains were found in domains suggesting their role in cluster interconnection. The average chain length of bc-chains was longer than the average chain length of B-chains and the size-distribution of the bc-chains was unimodal implying that the bc-chains comprise a unique category of chains. Extensive α-amylolysis of labelled amylopectin and clusters revealed the distribution of branched building blocks situated at the reducing end of these molecules. Any type of size group of building blocks can be situated at the reducing end, because the size-distribution of these blocks was similar to the distribution of all building blocks present in the sample. This suggested certain randomness in the distribution of the types of building blocks within the amylopectin macromolecule.

  9. Synthesis of homo- and heteromultivalent carbohydrate-functionalized oligo(amidoamines using novel glyco-building blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Wojcik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the solid phase synthesis of carbohydrate-functionalized oligo(amidoamines with different functionalization patterns utilizing a novel alphabet of six differently glycosylated building blocks. Highly efficient in flow conjugation of thioglycosides to a double-bond presenting diethylentriamine precursor is the key step to prepare these building blocks suitable for fully automated solid-phase synthesis. Introduction of the sugar ligands via functionalized building blocks rather than postfunctionalization of the oligomeric backbone allows for the straightforward synthesis of multivalent glycoligands with full control over monomer sequence and functionalization pattern. We demonstrate the potential of this building-block approach by synthesizing oligomers with different numbers and spacing of carbohydrates and also show the feasibility of heteromultivalent glycosylation patterns by combining building blocks presenting different mono- and disaccharides.

  10. Sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators using modern electronic circuit building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Senani, Raj; Singh, V K; Sharma, R K

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a single-source reference to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as a variety of modern electronic circuit building blocks. It provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators and includes a catalogue of over 600 configurations of oscillators and waveform generators, describing their relevant design details and salient performance features/limitations. The authors discuss a number of interesting, open research problems and include a comprehensive collection of over 1500 references on oscillators and non-sinusoidal waveform generators/relaxation oscillators. Offers readers a single-source reference to everything connected to sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators, using classical as well as modern electronic circuit building blocks; Provides a state-of-the-art review of a large variety of sinusoidal oscillators and waveform generators; Includes a catalog of over 600 configurations of oscillato...

  11. Synthesis of bio-based building blocks from vegetable oils: a platform chemicals approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desroches Myriam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review reports the synthesis of various building blocks from vegetable oils in one or two-steps syntheses. Thiol-ene coupling allows to synthesize new biobased reactants with various function and functionality with reaction conditions in agreement with green chemistry principles: it does not use neither solvent nor initiator or need simple purification step, feasible at industrial scale. Esterification and amidification were also used to insert ester or amide groups in fatty chains in order to modifiy properties of thereof synthesized polymers. Building blocks synthesized have various functions and functionality: polyols, polyacids, polyamines and dicyclocarbonates from vegetable oils and from glycerine derivatives. They were used for the synthesis of biobased polyurethanes, polyhydroxyurethanes and epoxy resins.

  12. Cement stabilized red earth as building block and structural pavement layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. RAMA SUBBARAO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Red Earth is most commonly used as material in the building and road construction. Many a times, the red earth found in various quarries is found not suitable for construction. Cement of 4 and 8% of dry mass of red earth was added to improve its suitability as building block and structural pavement material. To know the influence of waste plastic fiber on cement stabilized red earth, 1% fiber was also added to the mixture. It is shown that the compressive strength of cement stabilized red earth blocks was improved with seven days of curing. The addition of cement to red earth enhanced soaked CBR value. The soaked CBR value of fiber reinforced cement stabilized red earth was about 1.3 to 1.5 times that of unreinforced cement stabilized red earth.

  13. Quantitative NMR Approach to Optimize the Formation of Chemical Building Blocks from Abundant Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Samuel G; Tolborg, Søren; Sádaba, Irantzu; Taarning, Esben; Meier, Sebastian

    2017-07-21

    The future role of biomass-derived chemicals relies on the formation of diverse functional monomers in high yields from carbohydrates. Recently, it has become clear that a series of α-hydroxy acids, esters, and lactones can be formed from carbohydrates in alcohol and water solvents using tin-containing catalysts such as Sn-Beta. These compounds are potential building blocks for polyesters bearing additional olefin and alcohol functionalities. An NMR approach was used to identify, quantify, and optimize the formation of these building blocks in the Sn-Beta-catalyzed transformation of abundant carbohydrates. Record yields of the target molecules can be achieved by obstructing competing reactions through solvent selection. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dendrimers and Dendrons as Versatile Building Blocks for the Fabrication of Functional Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Kaga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels have emerged as a versatile class of polymeric materials with a wide range of applications in biomedical sciences. The judicious choice of hydrogel precursors allows one to introduce the necessary attributes to these materials that dictate their performance towards intended applications. Traditionally, hydrogels were fabricated using either polymerization of monomers or through crosslinking of polymers. In recent years, dendrimers and dendrons have been employed as well-defined building blocks in these materials. The multivalent and multifunctional nature of dendritic constructs offers advantages in either formulation or the physical and chemical properties of the obtained hydrogels. This review highlights various approaches utilized for the fabrication of hydrogels using well-defined dendrimers, dendrons and their polymeric conjugates. Examples from recent literature are chosen to illustrate the wide variety of hydrogels that have been designed using dendrimer- and dendron-based building blocks for applications, such as sensing, drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  15. Fragmented Agrarian Space: Building Blocks and Modernisation Trajectories. The Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavič Irma Potočnik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Production, processing and consumption within Slovenian agrarian space are fragmented due to physical constraints (72.4% of the territory categorised as ANC and socio-geographic factors. Based on available data, five essential building blocks of contemporary Slovenian agrarian space (available land, change management, integrated circular economy, adjustable policies, and flexibility of institutions are discussed. Interrelations among the building blocks shape the modernisation trajectories of approx. 70,000 agricultural holdings in Slovenia. The coexistence of three modernisation trajectories, i.e. practised autarky, various forms of pluri-activity, and small-scale intensive and innovative modernisation, creates a complex mosaic. The governance of multifunctional and multi-structured agrarian space is becoming more demanding.

  16. Dendrimers and Dendrons as Versatile Building Blocks for the Fabrication of Functional Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaga, Sadik; Arslan, Mehmet; Sanyal, Rana; Sanyal, Amitav

    2016-04-15

    Hydrogels have emerged as a versatile class of polymeric materials with a wide range of applications in biomedical sciences. The judicious choice of hydrogel precursors allows one to introduce the necessary attributes to these materials that dictate their performance towards intended applications. Traditionally, hydrogels were fabricated using either polymerization of monomers or through crosslinking of polymers. In recent years, dendrimers and dendrons have been employed as well-defined building blocks in these materials. The multivalent and multifunctional nature of dendritic constructs offers advantages in either formulation or the physical and chemical properties of the obtained hydrogels. This review highlights various approaches utilized for the fabrication of hydrogels using well-defined dendrimers, dendrons and their polymeric conjugates. Examples from recent literature are chosen to illustrate the wide variety of hydrogels that have been designed using dendrimer- and dendron-based building blocks for applications, such as sensing, drug delivery and tissue engineering.

  17. Optimal allocation of building blocks between nutrient uptake systems in a microbe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Hugo A; Kiselev, Yuri N; Orlov, Michael V

    2002-03-01

    A bacterial cell must distribute its molecular building blocks among various types of nutrient uptake systems. If the microbe is to maximize its average growth rate, this allocation of building blocks must be adjusted to the environmental availabilities of the various nutrients. The adjustments can be found from growth balancing considerations. We give a full proof of optimality and uniqueness of the optimal allocation regime for a simple model of microbial growth and internal stores kinetics. This proof suggests likely candidates for optimal control regimes in the case of a more realistic model. These candidate regimes differ with respect to the information that the cell's control system must have access to. We pay particular attention to one of the three candidates, a feedback regime based on a cellular control system that monitors only internal reserve densities. We show that allocation converges rapidly to balanced growth under this control regime.

  18. Microbiologically produced carboxylic acids used as building blocks in organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, Andreas; Specht, Robert; Müller, Roland A; Stottmeister, Ulrich; Yovkova, Venelina; Otto, Christina; Holz, Martina; Barth, Gerold; Heretsch, Philipp; Thomas, Franziska A; Sicker, Dieter; Giannis, Athanassios

    2012-01-01

    Oxo- and hydroxy-carboxylic acids are of special interest in organic synthesis. However, their introduction by chemical reactions tends to be troublesome especially with regard to stereoselectivity. We describe herein the biotechnological preparation of selected oxo- and hydroxycarboxylic acids under "green" conditions and their use as promising new building blocks. Thereby, our biotechnological goal was the development of process fundamentals regarding the variable use of renewable raw materials, the development of a multi purpose bioreactor and application of a pilot plant with standard equipment for organic acid production to minimize the technological effort. Furthermore the development of new product isolation procedures, with the aim of direct product recovery, capture of products or single step operation, was necessary. The application of robust and approved microorganisms, also genetically modified, capable of using a wide range of substrates as well as producing a large spectrum of products, was of special importance. Microbiologically produced acids, like 2-oxo-glutaric acid and 2-oxo-D-gluconic acid, are useful educts for the chemical synthesis of hydrophilic triazines, spiro-connected heterocycles, benzotriazines, and pyranoic amino acids. The chiral intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, (2R,3S)-isocitric acid, is another promising compound. For the first time our process provides large quantities of enantiopure trimethyl (2R,3S)-isocitrate which was used in subsequent chemical transformations to provide new chiral entities for further usage in total synthesis and pharmaceutical research.Oxo- and hydroxy-carboxylic acids are of special interest in organic synthesis. However, their introduction by chemical reactions tends to be troublesome especially with regard to stereoselectivity. We describe herein the biotechnological preparation of selected oxo- and hydroxycarboxylic acids under "green" conditions and their use as promising new building

  19. Functional Perfluoroalkyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (F-POSS): Building Blocks for Low Surface Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Functional Perfluoroalkyl Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (F...long chain fluorinated alkyl groups ranging from 6-12 carbon atoms in length. Herein, a disilanol perfluoroalkyl polyhedral oligomeric...FUNCTIONAL PERFLUOROALKYL POLYHEDRAL OLIGOMERIC SILSESQUIOXANES (F-POSS): BUILDING BLOCKS FOR LOW SURFACE ENERGY MATERIA LS Sean M Rami,.e:, Yvonne Dia

  20. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The....... These are the math service, navigational service, naming and location service and the storage service in addition to two communication protocols (TCP/IP and JAVA RMI)....

  1. Synthesis of 4-Halogenated 3-Fluoro-6-methoxyquinolines: Key Building Blocks for the Synthesis of Antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flagstad, Thomas; Petersen, Mette Terp; Hinnerfeldt, Daniel Michael

    2014-01-01

    A practical and scalable 4-step route is presented for the synthesis of 4-bromo-3-fluoro-6-methoxyoquinoline and 3-fluoro-4-iodo-6-methoxyoquinoline from readily available 2,4-dichloro-3-fluoroquinoline with an overall yield of 81-85%. Halogenated quinoline building blocks have found much use in ...... in antimicrobial drug discovery, and the method reported here would be useful for the synthesis of these compounds. © Georg Thieme Verlag....

  2. Application of modified amino acid as a chiral building block in asymmetric synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Phenylglycine 1 as a representative of natural resourceful (-amino acid was modified by reduction and protection of functional group to afford the amino alcohol as a chiral building block 3. A new chiral compound, the chiral building block/spiro-cyclopropane derivative containing four stereogenic centers, compound 7, has been obtained in 52% yield with de≥98% via the tandem double Michael addition/internal nucleophilic substitution under mild condition of 5-l-menthyloxy-3-bromo-2-(5H)-furanone 4 with the nucleophilic reagent, the amino alcohol 3. The new chiral compound 7 is identified on the basis of its analytical data and spectroscopic data, such as UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS and elementary analysis. The absolute configuration of the interesting spiro-cyclopropanes 7 was established by X-ray crystallography. This result can provide new route and method for the introduction of chiral building block and the important synthetic strategy in synthesis of some complex molecules containing spiro-cyclopropane skeleton with multiple chiral centers and the study of their biological activity.

  3. Building block method: a bottom-up modular synthesis methodology for distributed compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krishnan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesizing topologies of compliant mechanisms are based on rigid-link kinematic designs or completely automated optimization techniques. These designs yield mechanisms that match the kinematic specifications as a whole, but seldom yield user insight on how each constituent member contributes towards the overall mechanism performance. This paper reviews recent developments in building block based design of compliant mechanisms. A key aspect of such a methodology is formulating a representation of compliance at a (i single unique point of interest in terms of geometric quantities such as ellipses and vectors, and (ii relative compliance between distinct input(s and output(s in terms of load flow. This geometric representation provides a direct mapping between the mechanism geometry and their behavior, and is used to characterize simple deformable members that form a library of building blocks. The design space spanned by the building block library guides the decomposition of a given problem specification into tractable sub-problems that can be each solved from an entry in the library. The effectiveness of this geometric representation aids user insight in design, and enables discovery of trends and guidelines to obtain practical conceptual designs.

  4. Mussel-inspired nano-building block assemblies for mimicking extracellular matrix microenvironments with multiple functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenming; Jia, Zhanrong; Jiang, Yanan; Li, Pengfei; Han, Lu; Lu, Xiong; Ren, Fuzeng; Wang, Kefeng; Yuan, Huiping

    2017-08-03

    The assembly of nano-building blocks is an effective way to produce artificial extracellular matrix microenvironments with hierarchical micro/nano structures. However, it is hard to assemble different types of nano-building blocks, to form composite coatings with multiple functions, by traditional layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly methods. Inspired by the mussel adhesion mechanism, we developed polydopamine (PDA)-decorated bovine serum albumin microspheres (BSA-MS) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA), and assembled them to form bioactive coatings with micro/nano structures encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). First, PDA-decorated nano-HA (nano-pHA) was obtained by oxidative polymerization of dopamine on nano-HA. Second, BMP-2-encapsulated BSA microspheres were prepared through desolvation, and then were also decorated by PDA (pBSA-MS). Finally, the nano-pHA and pBSA-MS were assembled using the adhesive properties of PDA. Bone marrow stromal cell cultures and in vivo implantation, showed that the pHA/pBSA (BMP-2) coatings can promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and benefited for osteoinductivity. PDA decoration was also applied to assemble various functional nanoparticles, such as nano-HA, polystyrene, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. In summary, this study provides a novel strategy for the assembly of biofunctional nano-building blocks, which surpasses traditional LbL self-assembly of polyelectrolytes, and can find broad applications in bioactive agents delivery or multi-functional coatings.

  5. New Building Technology, Innovation, and Government Interests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    This book explores innovation in the U.S. construction-related industries (i.e., design services, construction, building materials and products manufacture, and facilities operation and maintenance...

  6. Multi-shape memory polymers achieved by the spatio-assembly of 3D printable thermoplastic building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongze; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Yingwu

    2016-04-01

    Multi-shape memory polymers were prepared by the macroscale spatio-assembly of building blocks in this work. The building blocks were methyl acrylate-co-styrene (MA-co-St) copolymers, which have the St-block-(St-random-MA)-block-St tri-block chain sequence. This design ensures that their transition temperatures can be adjusted over a wide range by varying the composition of the middle block. The two St blocks at the chain ends can generate a crosslink network in the final device to achieve strong bonding force between building blocks and the shape memory capacity. Due to their thermoplastic properties, 3D printing was employed for the spatio-assembly to build devices. This method is capable of introducing many transition phases into one device and preparing complicated shapes via 3D printing. The device can perform a complex action via a series of shape changes. Besides, this method can avoid the difficult programing of a series of temporary shapes. The control of intermediate temporary shapes was realized via programing the shapes and locations of building blocks in the final device.

  7. Revisit of Energy Use and Technologies of High Performance Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng; Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-03-30

    Energy consumed by buildings accounts for one third of the world?s total primary energy use. Associated with the conscious of energy savings in buildings, High Performance Buildings (HPBs) has surged across the world, with wide promotion and adoption of various performance rating and certification systems. It is valuable to look into the actual energy performance of HPBs and to understand their influencing factors. To shed some light on this topic, this paper conducted a series of portfolio analysis based on a database of 51 high performance office buildings across the world. Analyses showed that the actual site Energy Use Intensity (EUI) of the 51 buildings varied by a factor of up to 11, indicating a large scale of variation of the actual energy performance of the current HPBs. Further analysis of the correlation between EUI and climate elucidated ubiquitous phenomenon of EUI scatter throughout all climate zones, implying that the weather is not a decisive factor, although important, for the actual energy consumption of an individual building. On the building size via EUI, analysis disclosed that smaller buildings have a tendency to achieving lower energy use. Even so, the correlation is not absolute since some large buildings demonstrated low energy use while some small buildings performed opposite. Concerning the technologies, statistics indicated that the application of some technologies had correlations with some specific building size and climate characteristic. However, it was still hard to pinpoint a set of technologies which was directly correlative with a group of low EUI buildings. It is concluded that no a single factor essentially determines the actual energy performance of HPBs. To deliver energy-efficient buildings, an integrated design taking account of climate, technology, occupant behavior as well as operation and maintenance should be implemented.

  8. Standardization of green building technologies for environment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benuzh Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the structure and field of standardization ISO / TC 205 “Building environment design”, provides examples of green building technologies. The main purpose of the article is to show the interaction between international ISO / TC 205 “Building environment design” and created in Russia in 2016 the Technical Committee of Standardization № 366 “Green technology of the build environment and green innovative products”. Both of these technical committees promote green building technologies for environment design, thereby deal with the negative impact on the environment and the reasons of global warming. Instead of buildings that attempt to suppress and overcome nature, why not design buildings that integrate with the environment, on every possible level? The international standardization work which ISO/TC 205 “Building environment design” performs seeks, in addition to lowering trade barriers for engineering design, to promote and facilitate the design of high performance buildings: higher performing as economic assets for their owners, higher performing as buildings that provide amenable indoor environment for their occupants, and higher performing with respect to resource utilization and environmental impact.

  9. The Building of Grass-roots Agricultural Technology Extension System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YANG; Jian; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the survey of 154 farmers in Guiyang City, we analyze the basic situation of building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system in Guiyang City. Then we point out some problems in the building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system in Guiyang City: the function of grass-roots agricultural technology extension center weakens; the content of agricultural technology extension is difficult to adapt to farmers’ needs for technology; the extension mode of agricultural technology departments does not adapt to the needs of modern agriculture. In order to perfect the building of grass-roots agricultural technology extension system, the countermeasures and recommendations are put forth as follows: strengthening the input of funds, and ensuring that the basic work of public welfare agricultural technology extension is smoothly carried out; innovating upon the system, and improving the function of grass-roots agricultural technology extension center; implementing management on agricultural technology extension personnel’s performance, and promoting the extension efficiency; strengthening the building of extension team in rural areas, and cultivating high-quality agricultural technology extension personnel; exploring the advanced service mode to meet farmers’ needs.

  10. Synthesis of skeletally diverse alkaloid-like molecules: exploitation of metathesis substrates assembled from triplets of building blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil K. Maurya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A range of metathesis substrates was assembled from triplets of unsaturated building blocks. The approach involved the iterative attachment of a propagating and a terminating building block to a fluorous-tagged initiating building block. Metathesis cascade chemistry was used to “reprogram” the molecular scaffolds. Remarkably, in one case, a cyclopropanation reaction competed with the expected metathesis cascade process. Finally, it was demonstrated that the metathesis products could be derivatised to yield the final products. At each stage, purification was facilitated by the presence of a fluorous-tagged protecting group.

  11. Technology and society building our sociotechnical future

    CERN Document Server

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2009-01-01

    Technological change does not happen in a vacuum; decisions about which technologies to develop, fund, market, and use engage ideas about values as well as calculations of costs and benefits. This anthology focuses on the interconnections of technology, society, and values. It offers writings by authorities as varied as Freeman Dyson, Laurence Lessig, Bruno Latour, and Judy Wajcman that will introduce readers to recent thinking about technology and provide them with conceptual tools, a theoretical framework, and knowledge to help understand how technology shapes society and how society shapes technology. It offers readers a new perspective on such current issues as globalization, the balance between security and privacy, environmental justice, and poverty in the developing world. The careful ordering of the selections and the editors' introductions give Technology and Society a coherence and flow that is unusual in anthologies. The book is suitable for use in undergraduate courses in STS and other disciplines...

  12. Building technology. Curse or blessing?; Woontechnologie. Vloek of zegen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puts, H. [Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vringer, K. [Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau MNP, RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Hekkert, M. [Departement Innovatie- en Milieuwetenschappen, Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    A brief overview is given of the effects of intelligent building technology (domotics) on energy consumption. [Dutch] Een kort overzicht wordt gegeven van de effecten van het gebruik van intelligente woontechnologie (domotica) op het energieverbruik.

  13. Synthesis of (-)-Harzialactone A from a Readily Accessible Epoxy Chiral Building Block%Synthesis of (-)-Harzialactone A from a Readily Accessible Epoxy Chiral Building Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何蕾; 张少敏; 伍贻康; 李焰

    2011-01-01

    The antipode of (+)-harzialactone A, an antitumor marine metabolite, was synthesized with the two stereogenic centers in the target structure taken from an optically active epoxy cbiral building block.

  14. A new patented building technology based on ancient Roman knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chains is a new patented building technology by means of which you can build houses, bridges, tunnels, and even ships with longer spans, less material-, and energy consumption, without scaffolding, and making the use of arches, vaults, domes, ribbed shells, and new...

  15. A new patented building technology based on ancient Roman knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Super-light structures with pearl-chains is a new patented building technology by means of which you can build houses, bridges, tunnels, and even ships with longer spans, less material-, and energy consumption, without scaffolding, and making the use of arches, vaults, domes, ribbed shells, and new...

  16. Tall Buildings and Elevators: A Review of Recent Technological Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2015-01-01

    Efficient vertical mobility is a critical component of tall building development and construction. This paper investigates recent advances in elevator technology and examines their impact on tall building development. It maps out, organizes, and collates complex and scattered information on multiple aspects of elevator design, and presents them in an accessible and non-technical discourse. Importantly, the paper contextualizes recent technological innovations by examining their implementation...

  17. A new fixation strategy for addressable nano-network building blocks

    KAUST Repository

    Lundberg, Erik P.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid controlled self-assembly makes DNA ideal for building nanostructures. A problem using hybridized intermediates in hierarchic assembly is their thermodynamic lability. We demonstrate a click-fixation technology by which robust hexagonal DNA modules can be made. This principle is applicable to a wide variety of DNA nanoconstructs. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Application of BIM technology in green scientific research office building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xin; Sun, Jianhua; Wang, Bo

    2017-05-01

    BIM technology as a kind of information technology, has been along with the advancement of building industrialization application in domestic building industry gradually. Based on reasonable construction BIM model, using BIM technology platform, through collaborative design tools can effectively improve the design efficiency and design quality. Vanda northwest engineering design and research institute co., LTD., the scientific research office building project in combination with the practical situation of engineering using BIM technology, formed in the BIM model combined with related information according to the energy energy model (BEM) and the application of BIM technology in construction management stage made exploration, and the direct experience and the achievements gained by the architectural design part made a summary.

  19. Building business from technology: The Sandia experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traylor, L.B.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes New Ventures, a new initiative at Sandia National Laboratories that encourages the creation of new businesses based on laboratory technology as a timely, efficient means of technology transfer. Sandia`s New Ventures program has shown that a dedicated effort can produce significant results. In the three years prior to this program`s launch, just two ventures per year on average were created based on laboratory technology. By comparison, the New Ventures program has enabled 20 new ventures in its first nine months of full operation.

  20. Building business from technology: The Sandia experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traylor, L.B.

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes New Ventures, a new initiative at Sandia National Laboratories that encourages the creation of new businesses based on laboratory technology as a timely, efficient means of technology transfer. Sandia`s New Ventures program has shown that a dedicated effort can produce significant results. In the three years prior to this program`s launch, just two ventures per year on average were created based on laboratory technology. By comparison, the New Ventures program has enabled 20 new ventures in its first nine months of full operation.

  1. Advances in metabolic pathway and strain engineering paving the way for sustainable production of chemical building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Bio-based production of chemical building blocks from renewable resources is an attractive alternative to petroleum-based platform chemicals. Metabolic pathway and strain engineering is the key element in constructing robust microbial chemical factories within the constraints of cost effective pr...... developments contribute to the development of novel cell factories for the production of the building block chemicals: adipic acid, succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid....

  2. A Customizable Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Building Block for the Synthesis of Classical and Reversible Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs.

  3. A Customizable Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata Building Block for the Synthesis of Classical and Reversible Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed; Younes, Ahmed; Hassan, Yasser F

    2015-01-01

    Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) are nanoscale digital logic constructs that use electrons in arrays of quantum dots to carry out binary operations. In this paper, a basic building block for QCA will be proposed. The proposed basic building block can be customized to implement classical gates, such as XOR and XNOR gates, and reversible gates, such as CNOT and Toffoli gates, with less cell count and/or better latency than other proposed designs.

  4. A planning framework for transferring building energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B C; Brown, M A; Mohler, B L; Wilde, M; Abel, F H

    1990-07-01

    Accelerating the adoption of new and existing cost-effective technologies has significant potential to reduce the energy consumed in US buildings. This report presents key results of an interlaboratory technology transfer planning effort in support of the US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT). A guiding assumption for planning was that OBT's R D program should forge linkages with existing programs whose goals involved enhancing energy efficiency in buildings. An ad hoc Technology Transfer Advisory Group reviewed the existing analysis and technology transfer program, brainstormed technology transfer approaches, interviewed DOE program managers, identified applicable research results, and developed a framework that management could use in deciding on the best investments of technology transfer resources. Representatives of 22 organizations were interviewed on their views of the potential for transferring energy efficiency technologies through active linking with OBT. The report describes these programs and interview results; outlines OBT tools, technologies, and practices to be transferred; defines OBT audiences; identifies technology transfer functions and presents a framework devised using functions and audiences; presents some 60 example technology transfer activities; and documents the Advisory Group's recommendations. 37 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Technologies for greywater recycling in buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Anu Talvikki

    2001-01-01

    The potential of four pilot-scale wastewater treatment processes for in-building greywater recycling has been assessed. The evaluation of three membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and a biological aerated filter (BAF) was principally with reference to the non-potable water reuse quality standards. In the steady-state trials the feedwater quality was changed from synthetic greywater to blackwater (primary sewage influent) simulating the variability of domestic wastewater. The submerged MBR met bot...

  6. Metal-Organic Frameworks: Building Block Design Strategies for the Synthesis of MOFs.

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2014-09-01

    A significant and ongoing challenge in materials chemistry and furthermore solid state chemistry is to design materials with the desired properties and characteristics. The field of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) offers several strategies to address this challenge and has proven fruitful at allowing some degree of control over the resultant materials synthesized. Several methodologies for synthesis of MOFs have been developed which rely on use of predetermined building blocks. The work presented herein is focused on the utilization of two of these design principles, namely the use of molecular building blocks (MBBs) and supermolecular building blocks (SBBs) to target MOF materials having desired connectivities (topologies). These design strategies also permit the introduction of specific chemical moieties, allowing for modification of the MOFs properties. This research is predominantly focused on two platforms (rht-MOFs and ftw-MOFs) which topologically speaking are edge transitive binodal nets; ftw being a (4,12)-connected net and rht being a (3,24)-connected net. These highly connected nets (at least one node having connectivity greater than eight) have been purposefully targeted to increase the predictability of structural outcome. A general trend in topology is that there is an inverse relationship between the connectivity of the node(s) and the number of topological outcomes. Therefore the key to this research (and to effective use of the SBB and MBB approaches) is identification of conditions which allow for reliable formation of the targeted MBBs and SBBs. In the case of the research presented herein: a 12-connected Group IV or Rare Earth based hexanuclear MBB and a 24-connected transition metal based SBB were successfully targeted and synthesized. These two synthetic platforms will be presented and used as examples of how these design methods have been (and can be further) utilized to modify existing materials or develop new materials for gas storage and

  7. Synthesis of Orthogonally Protected Muramic Acid Building Blocks for Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Vlahoviček-Kahlina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Muramic acid is found in many peptide natural products containing oligo(polysaccharide moieties. Taking into consideration that the Fmoc methodology is routinely used for solid-phase peptide synthesis, preparation of orthogonally protected muramic acid building blocks for total solid-phase synthesis of these natural products is of particular practical importance. Herein a simple and efficient synthesis of benzyl 2-amino-4,6-O-benzylidene-3-O-[(R-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-N-9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (6 from N-acetylglucosamine (1 is described. Important improvements over previous synthetic approaches to glucopyranosides 2 (benzyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside and 3 (benzyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside, key building blocks in preparation of 6, include synthesis simplification and efficient isolation and purification. Optically pure (S-2-chloropropionic acid 7 was prepared and introduced to the positon 3-O of sugar moiety to give compound 4 (benzyl 2-acetamido-4,6-O-benzylidene-3-O-[(R-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside with the (R-configuration of the lactyl side-chain in excellent overall yield and optical purity. Deacetylation of amino group gave compound 5 (benzyl 2-amino-4,6-O-benzylidene-3-O-[(R-1-carboxyethyl]-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside suitable for incorporation of the Fmoc protecting group to give protected muramic acid derivative 6, a useful building block in peptide synthesis.

  8. Airborne infections and modern building technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaForce, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last 30 yr an increased appreciation of the importance of airborne infection has evolved. The concept of droplet nuclei, infectious particles from 0.5 to 3 ..mu.. which stay suspended in air for long periods of time, has been accepted as an important determinant of infectivity. Important airborne pathogens in modern buildings include legionella pneumophila, Aspergillus sp., thermophilic actinomycetes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, measles, varicella and rubella. Perhaps, the most important microbiologic threat to most buildings is L. pneumophila. This organism can multiply in water cooling systems and contaminate effluent air which can be drawn into a building and efficiently circulated throughout by existing ventilation systems. Hospitals are a special problem because of the concentration of immunosuppressed patients who are uniquely susceptible to airborne diseases such as aspergillosis, and the likelihood that patients ill from diseases that can be spread via the airborne route will be concentrated. Humidifiers are yet another problem and have been shown to be important in several outbreaks of allergic alveolitis and legionellosis. Control of airborne infections is largely an effort at identifying and controlling reservoirs of infection. This includes regular biocide treatment of cooling towers and evaporative condensers and identification and isolation of patients with diseases that may be spread via the airborne route.

  9. Enzymatic Ligation Creates Discrete Multi-Nanoparticle Building Blocks for Self-Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claridge, Shelley A.; Mastroianni, Alexander J.; Au, Yeung B.; Liang, Huiyang W.; Micheel, Christine M.; Frechet, Jean M.J.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-05-27

    Enzymatic ligation of discrete nanoparticle?DNA conjugates creates nanoparticle dimer and trimer structures in which the nanoparticles are linked by single-stranded DNA, rather than double-stranded DNA as in previous experiments. Ligation is verified by agarose gel and small-angle X-ray scattering. This capability is utilized in two ways: first to create a new class of multiparticle building blocks for nanoscale self-assembly; second to develop a system which can amplify a population of discrete nanoparticle assemblies.

  10. Solving Job-Shop Scheduling Problems by Genetic Algorithms Based on Building Block Hypothesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Rong; CHEN You-ping; LI Zhi-gang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new genetic algorithm for job-shop scheduling problems(JSP). The proposed method uses the operation-based representation, based on schema theorem and building block hypothesis, a new crossover is proposed: By selecting short, low order highly fit schemas to genetic operator, the crossover can exchange meaningful ordering information of parents effectively and can search the global optimization. Simulation results on MT benchmark problem coded by C + + show that our genetic operators are very powerful and suitable to job-shop scheduling problems and our method outperforms the previous GA-based approaches.

  11. Molecular building blocks and their architecture in biologically/environmentally compatible soft matter chemical machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Banno, Taisuke; Nitta, Sachiko; Takinoue, Masahiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Natsume, Yuno; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fujinami, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the construction of biologically/environmentally compatible chemical machinery composed of soft matter. Since environmental and living systems are open systems, chemical machinery must continuously fulfill its functions not only through the influx and generation of molecules but also via the degradation and dissipation of molecules. If the degradation or dissipation of soft matter molecular building blocks and biomaterial molecules/polymers can be achieved, soft matter particles composed of them can be used to realize chemical machinery such as selfpropelled droplets, drug delivery carriers, tissue regeneration scaffolds, protocell models, cell-/tissuemarkers, and molecular computing systems.

  12. On the building blocks of the M31 and Milky Way halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monelli, Matteo

    2017-09-01

    We discuss the formation of the halo of M31 and the Milky Way as traced by the population of RR Lyrae stars, in comparison with the population of such stars preent in satellite dwarf galaxies. We find that both halos and the massive dwarf host a population of high amplitude short period RRab stars, absent in low-mass dwarfs. These stars are explained as the metal-rich tail of the RR Lyrae distribution ([Fe/H] ˜ - 1.5), and thus their existence imply fast chemical enrichment in the host system. Their presence in both halos implies that massive building blocks had an important role in their formation.

  13. Metal-oxide based nanoobjects: reactivity, building blocks for polymeric structures and structural variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Achim; Roy, Soumyajit

    2002-12-01

    From the unique 'library' of molybdenum-oxide based building blocks/fragments under reducing conditions in aqueous solution a huge variety of nanoobjects, allowing specific reactions at well-defined positions, can be generated. This enables us to perform a new type of nanochemistry. Examples include the well-known molecular big-wheel of the type {Mo176} and big-ball of the type {Mo132} including their derivatives which are considered here. In addition, the by far largest structurally well-characterised cluster having 368 molybdenum atoms with the shape of a lemon is outlined and discussed. The bibliography includes 71 references.

  14. A Concise Synthesis of Glycolipids Based on Aspartic Acid Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Abbey

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available L-Aspartic acid building blocks bearing galactosyl moieties were used to synthesise glycolipid mimetics of variable hydrocarbon chain length. The glycolipids were readily prepared through amide bond formation using the TBTU/HOBt coupling methodology. It was observed that, under these conditions, activation of the α-carboxylic acid of the intermediates led to near complete racemisation of the chiral centre if the reaction was carried out in the presence of a base such as triethylamine. The enantiomerically pure glycolipids were obtained after careful consideration of the synthetic sequence and by performing the coupling reactions in the absence of base.

  15. Microwave assisted regioselective synthesis of novel pyrazoles and pyrazolopyridazines via fluorine containing building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althagafi, Ismail I.; Shaaban, Mohamed R.

    2017-08-01

    A facile regioselective synthesis of novel pyrazole derivatives containing a fluorophenyl moiety via the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of nitrileimines and enamines using conventional as well as microwave irradiation conditions have been achieved. Fluorine-containing building blocks methodology was used in order to access the targeted fluorinated compounds. The structures of the synthesized products were confirmed by 1H NMR, FT-IR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analyses. Furthermore, the synthesized pyrazoles have been used in the synthesis of some new pyrazolo pyidazines containing pendent to fluorophenyl moiety. An unambiguous structural assignment of the obtained pyrazole regioisomers was determined using the 1H NMR analysis as a valuable tool.

  16. Control over Catenation in Metal−Organic Frameworks via Rational Design of the Organic Building Block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farha, Omar K.; Malliakas, Christos D.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Hupp, Joseph T. (NWU)

    2010-02-19

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a hybrid class of materials comprising inorganic nodes and organic struts, have potential application in many areas due to their high surface areas and uniform pores and channels. One of the key challenges to be overcome in MOF synthesis is the strong propensity for catenation (growth of multiple independent networks within a given crystal), as catenation reduces cavity sizes and diminishes porosity. Here we demonstrate that rational design of organic building blocks, which act as strut-impervious scaffolds, can be exploited to generate highly desired noncatenated materials in a controlled fashion.

  17. New tricyanoiron(Ⅲ) building blocks for the construction of molecule-based magnets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAU; Pui-Ha; WONG; Wing-Tak; LAU; Tai-Chu

    2010-01-01

    A series of tricyanoiron(Ⅲ) complexes with the general formula mer-[FeⅢ(5-Xsap)(CN)3]2-(X = H, Me, MeO, Cl or Br, sapH2 = N-salicylidene-o-aminophenol) have been synthesized. These complexes were characterized by IR, ESI-MS, UV/Vis, elemental analysis and magnetic measurements. The structures of (PPh4)2[FeⅢ(sap)(CN)3] and (PPh4)2[FeⅢ(5-Mesap)(CN)3] have been determined by X-ray crystallography. These low-spin d5 tricyanoiron(Ⅲ) complexes are potential building blocks for the construction of molecule-based magnets.

  18. Conversion of the Iridoid Glucoside Antirrhinoside into 3-Azabicyclo[3.3.0]-octane Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzyk, Henrik; Frederiksen, Signe Maria; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2000-01-01

    The iridoid glucoside antirrhinoside (1) was transformed into polysubstituted 3-azabicyclo[3.3.0]octanes 3, 12 and 13 in 4-5 steps. Ozonolysis of the diacetonide of 1 and of its 7-deoxy-derivative 8 afforded cyclopentanoids 2 and 10, respectively. Conditions for the selective conversion of 2 and 10...... into the corresponding ditosylates 4 and 11 were investigated. Cyclization of 4 and 11 was achieved with benzylamine and 2-methoxybenzylamine to yield bicyclic pyrrolidines 3, 12 and 13. Additional building blocks 14 and 15 were obtained by selective deprotection of the N-benzyl and isopropylidene moieties in 12 and 13...

  19. Double CAN communicating building block based on embedded system μC/OS-Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mo,Chuanmeng; Feng,Xiaoyu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of transplanting successfully a suit of RTOS μC/OS-Ⅱ to MB90F543 MCU, double CAN communicating program module have been embedded into μC/OS-Ⅱ as a building block. Double CAN redundant communication have been realized among several hardware nodes based on μC/OS-Ⅱ. The design mechanism, hardware and software of double CAN communication were described in detail. The paper analyze the differences of CAN communication based on μC/OS-Ⅱ and traditional foreground/background system.Key Word:RTOS; μC/OS-Ⅱ;CAN bus;MB90F543 MCU;redundancy

  20. InGaN micro-LED-pillar as the building block for high brightness emitters

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2013-01-01

    In summary, we confirmed the improved electrical and optical characteristics, with reduced efficiency droop in InGaN μLED-pillars when these devices were scaled down in size. We demonstrated that strain relief contributed to further improvement in EQE characteristics in small InGaN μLED-pillars (D < 50 μm), apart from the current spreading effect. The μLED-pillar can be deployed as the building block for large effective-area, high brightness emitter. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Building blocks for social accountability: a conceptual framework to guide medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Robyn; Larkins, Sarah; Taylor, Judy; Judd, Jenni

    2016-08-26

    This paper presents a conceptual framework developed from empirical evidence, to guide medical schools aspiring towards greater social accountability. Using a multiple case study approach, seventy-five staff, students, health sector representatives and community members, associated with four medical schools, participated in semi-structured interviews. Two schools were in Australia and two were in the Philippines. These schools were selected because they were aspiring to be socially accountable. Data was collected through on-site visits, field notes and a documentary review. Abductive analysis involved both deductive and inductive iterative theming of the data both within and across cases. The conceptual framework for socially accountable medical education was built from analyzing the internal and external factors influencing the selected medical schools. These factors became the building blocks that might be necessary to assist movement to social accountability. The strongest factor was the demands of the local workforce situation leading to innovative educational programs established with or without government support. The values and professional experiences of leaders, staff and health sector representatives, influenced whether the organizational culture of a school was conducive to social accountability. The wider institutional environment and policies of their universities affected this culture and the resourcing of programs. Membership of a coalition of socially accountable medical schools created a community of learning and legitimized local practice. Communities may not have recognized their own importance but they were fundamental for socially accountable practices. The bedrock of social accountability, that is, the foundation for all building blocks, is shared values and aspirations congruent with social accountability. These values and aspirations are both a philosophical understanding for innovation and a practical application at the health systems and

  2. Potential for energy technologies in residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M.M.

    1979-11-01

    The residential-commercial energy technology model was developed as a planning tool for policy analysis in the residential and commercial building sectors. The model and its procedures represent a detailed approach to estimating the future acceptance of energy-using technologies both in new construction and for retrofit into existing buildings. The model organizes into an analytical framework all relevant information and data on building energy technology, building markets, and government policy, and it allows for easy identification of the relative importance of key assumptions. The outputs include estimates of the degree of penetration of the various building energy technologies, the levels of energy use savings associated with them, and their costs - both private and government. The model was designed to estimate the annual energy savings associated with new technologies compared with continued use of conventional technology at 1975 levels. The amount of energy used under 1975 technology conditions is referred to as the reference case energy use. For analytical purposes the technologies were consolidated into ten groupings: electric and gas heat pumps; conservation categories I, II, and III; solar thermal (hot water, heating, and cooling); photovoltaics, and wind systems. These groupings clearly do not allow an assessment of the potential for individual technologies, but they do allow a reasonable comparison of their roles in the R/C sector. Assumptions were made regarding the technical and economic performances of the technologies over the period of the analysis. In addition, the study assessed the non-financial characteristics of the technologies - aesthetics, maintenance complexity, reliability, etc. - that will also influence their market acceptability.

  3. Identification of Biomolecular Building Blocks by Recognition Tunneling: Stride towards Nanopore Sequencing of Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Suman

    DNA, RNA and Protein are three pivotal biomolecules in human and other organisms, playing decisive roles in functionality, appearance, diseases development and other physiological phenomena. Hence, sequencing of these biomolecules acquires the prime interest in the scientific community. Single molecular identification of their building blocks can be done by a technique called Recognition Tunneling (RT) based on Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). A single layer of specially designed recognition molecule is attached to the STM electrodes, which trap the targeted molecules (DNA nucleoside monophosphates, RNA nucleoside monophosphates or amino acids) inside the STM nanogap. Depending on their different binding interactions with the recognition molecules, the analyte molecules generate stochastic signal trains accommodating their "electronic fingerprints". Signal features are used to detect the molecules using a machine learning algorithm and different molecules can be identified with significantly high accuracy. This, in turn, paves the way for rapid, economical nanopore sequencing platform, overcoming the drawbacks of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques. To read DNA nucleotides with high accuracy in an STM tunnel junction a series of nitrogen-based heterocycles were designed and examined to check their capabilities to interact with naturally occurring DNA nucleotides by hydrogen bonding in the tunnel junction. These recognition molecules are Benzimidazole, Imidazole, Triazole and Pyrrole. Benzimidazole proved to be best among them showing DNA nucleotide classification accuracy close to 99%. Also, Imidazole reader can read an abasic monophosphate (AP), a product from depurination or depyrimidination that occurs 10,000 times per human cell per day. In another study, I have investigated a new universal reader, 1-(2-mercaptoethyl)pyrene (Pyrene reader) based on stacking interactions, which should be more specific to the canonical DNA nucleosides. In addition

  4. An Electronic Structure Approach to Charge Transfer and Transport in Molecular Building Blocks for Organic Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickson, Heidi Phillips

    A fundamental understanding of charge separation in organic materials is necessary for the rational design of optoelectronic devices suited for renewable energy applications and requires a combination of theoretical, computational, and experimental methods. Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD)DFT are cost effective ab-initio approaches for calculating fundamental properties of large molecular systems, however conventional DFT methods have been known to fail in accurately characterizing frontier orbital gaps and charge transfer states in molecular systems. In this dissertation, these shortcomings are addressed by implementing an optimally-tuned range-separated hybrid (OT-RSH) functional approach within DFT and TDDFT. The first part of this thesis presents the way in which RSH-DFT addresses the shortcomings in conventional DFT. Environmentally-corrected RSH-DFT frontier orbital energies are shown to correspond to thin film measurements for a set of organic semiconducting molecules. Likewise, the improved RSH-TDDFT description of charge transfer excitations is benchmarked using a model ethene dimer and silsesquioxane molecules. In the second part of this thesis, RSH-DFT is applied to chromophore-functionalized silsesquioxanes, which are currently investigated as candidates for building blocks in optoelectronic applications. RSH-DFT provides insight into the nature of absorptive and emissive states in silsesquioxanes. While absorption primarily involves transitions localized on one chromophore, charge transfer between chromophores and between chromophore and silsesquioxane cage have been identified. The RSH-DFT approach, including a protocol accounting for complex environmental effects on charge transfer energies, was tested and validated against experimental measurements. The third part of this thesis addresses quantum transport through nano-scale junctions. The ability to quantify a molecular junction via spectroscopic methods is crucial to their

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: GREEN BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techno...

  6. Major requirements for building Smart Homes in Smart Cities based on Internet of Things technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Terence K. L.; Sherratt, R. Simon; Diaz Sanchez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The recent boom in the Internet of Things (IoT) will turn Smart Cities and Smart Homes (SH) from hype to reality. SH is the major building block for Smart Cities and have long been a dream for decades, hobbyists in the late 1970s made Home Automation (HA) possible when personal computers started invading home spaces. While SH can share most of the IoT technologies, there are unique characteristics that make SH special. From the result of a recent research survey on SH and IoT technologies, th...

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Flat Roof Technologies for Office Buildings in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Pushkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the current study was to evaluate the environmental damage from three flat roof technologies typically used in Israel: (i concrete, (ii ribbed slab with concrete blocks, and (iii ribbed slab with autoclaved aerated blocks. The roofs were evaluated using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA methodology. The Production and Construction (P and C, Operational Energy (OE, and Maintenance to Demolition (MtoD stages were considered. The roofs were modeled based on an office building module located in the four climate zones of Israel, and the hierarchical ReCiPe2008 Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA method was applied. The percent difference of one, which is the default methodological option of ReCiPe2008, and an ANOVA of the six methodological options of ReCiPe2008 were used. The results revealed that (i in a hot climate, the best roof technology can be selected by considering only the OE stage, whereas in a mild climate, both the OE and P and C stages must be considered; (ii in a hot climate, the best roof technology is a concrete roof, but in a mild climate, the best options are ribbed slab roofs with concrete blocks and autoclaved aerated blocks; and (iii the conjugation of ReCiPe2008 with a two-stage nested ANOVA is the appropriate approach to evaluate the differences in environmental damage in order to compare flat roof technologies.

  8. Optimum Compressive Strength of Hardened Sandcrete Building Blocks with Steel Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alohan Omoregie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of steel chips into an environmentally friendly, responsive, and profitable commodity in the manufacturing and construction industries is a huge and difficult challenge. Several strategies designed for the management and processing of this waste in developed countries have been largely unsuccessful in developing countries mainly due to its capital-intensive nature. To this end, this investigation attempts to provide an alternative solution to the recycling of this material by maximizing its utility value in the building construction industry. This is to establish their influence on the compressive strength of sandcrete hollow blocks and solid cubes with the aim of specifying the range percent of steel chips for the sandcrete optimum compressive strength value. This is particularly important for developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and even Latin America where most sandcrete blocks exhibit compressive strengths far below standard requirements. Percentages of steel chips relative to the weight of cement were varied and blended with the sand in an attempt to improve the sand grading parameters. The steel chips variations were one, two, three, four, five, ten and fifteen percent respectively. It was confirmed that the grading parameters were improved and there were significant increases in the compressive strength of the blocks and cube samples. The greatest improvement was noticed at four percent steel chips and sand combination. Using the plotted profile, the margin of steel chips additions for the optimum compressive strength was also established. It is recommended that steel chip sandcrete blocks are suitable for both internal load bearing, and non-load bearing walls, in areas where they are not subjected to moisture ingress. However, for external walls, and in areas where they are liable to moisture attack after laying, the surfaces should be well rendered. Below ground level, the surfaces should be coated with a water

  9. Final Technical Report. Training in Building Audit Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosemer, Kathleen [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)

    2015-03-27

    In 2011, the Tribe proposed and was awarded the Training in Building Audit Technologies grant from the DOE in the amount of $55,748 to contract for training programs for infrared cameras, blower door technology applications and building systems. The coursework consisted of; Infrared Camera Training: Level I - Thermal Imaging for Energy Audits; Blower Door Analysis and Building-As-A-System Training, Building Performance Institute (BPI) Building Analyst; Building Envelope Training, Building Performance Institute (BPI) Envelope Professional; and Audit/JobFLEX Tablet Software. Competitive procurement of the training contractor resulted in lower costs, allowing the Tribe to request and receive DOE approval to additionally purchase energy audit equipment and contract for residential energy audits of 25 low-income Tribal Housing units. Sault Tribe personnel received field training to supplement the classroom instruction on proper use of the energy audit equipment. Field experience was provided through the second DOE energy audits grant, allowing Sault Tribe personnel to join the contractor, Building Science Academy, in conducting 25 residential energy audits of low-income Tribal Housing units.

  10. Catalytic allylic oxidation of internal alkenes to a multifunctional chiral building block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayeh, Liela; Le, Phong Q.; Tambar, Uttam K.

    2017-07-01

    The stereoselective oxidation of hydrocarbons is one of the most notable advances in synthetic chemistry over the past fifty years. Inspired by nature, enantioselective dihydroxylations, epoxidations and other oxidations of unsaturated hydrocarbons have been developed. More recently, the catalytic enantioselective allylic carbon-hydrogen oxidation of alkenes has streamlined the production of pharmaceuticals, natural products, fine chemicals and other functional materials. Allylic functionalization provides a direct path to chiral building blocks with a newly formed stereocentre from petrochemical feedstocks while preserving the olefin functionality as a handle for further chemical elaboration. Various metal-based catalysts have been discovered for the enantioselective allylic carbon-hydrogen oxidation of simple alkenes with cyclic or terminal double bonds. However, a general and selective allylic oxidation using the more common internal alkenes remains elusive. Here we report the enantioselective, regioselective and E/Z-selective allylic oxidation of unactivated internal alkenes via a catalytic hetero-ene reaction with a chalcogen-based oxidant. Our method enables non-symmetric internal alkenes to be selectively converted into allylic functionalized products with high stereoselectivity and regioselectivity. Stereospecific transformations of the resulting multifunctional chiral building blocks highlight the potential for rapidly converting internal alkenes into a broad range of enantioenriched structures that can be used in the synthesis of complex target molecules.

  11. Equivalence of the EMD- and NEMD-based decomposition of thermal conductivity into microscopic building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hiroki; Kikugawa, Gota; Ishikiriyama, Mamoru; Yamashita, Seiji; Ohara, Taku

    2017-09-01

    Thermal conductivity of a material can be comprehended as being composed of microscopic building blocks relevant to the energy transfer due to a specific microscopic process or structure. The building block is called the partial thermal conductivity (PTC). The concept of PTC is essential to evaluate the contributions of various molecular mechanisms to heat conduction and has been providing detailed knowledge of the contribution. The PTC can be evaluated by equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) in different manners: the EMD evaluation utilizes the autocorrelation of spontaneous heat fluxes in an equilibrium state whereas the NEMD one is based on stationary heat fluxes in a non-equilibrium state. However, it has not been fully discussed whether the two methods give the same PTC or not. In the present study, we formulate a Green-Kubo relation, which is necessary for EMD to calculate the PTCs equivalent to those by NEMD. Unlike the existing theories, our formulation is based on the local equilibrium hypothesis to describe a clear connection between EMD and NEMD simulations. The equivalence of the two derivations of PTCs is confirmed by the numerical results for liquid methane and butane. The present establishment of the EMD-NEMD correspondence makes the MD analysis of PTCs a robust way to clarify the microscopic origins of thermal conductivity.

  12. Self-assembling SAS-6 multimer is a core centriole building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Jayachandran; Guichard, Paul; Smith, Andrew H; Schwarz, Heinz; Agard, David A; Marco, Sergio; Avidor-Reiss, Tomer

    2010-03-19

    Centrioles are conserved microtubule-based organelles with 9-fold symmetry that are essential for cilia and mitotic spindle formation. A conserved structure at the onset of centriole assembly is a "cartwheel" with 9-fold radial symmetry and a central tubule in its core. It remains unclear how the cartwheel is formed. The conserved centriole protein, SAS-6, is a cartwheel component that functions early in centriole formation. Here, combining biochemistry and electron microscopy, we characterize SAS-6 and show that it self-assembles into stable tetramers, which serve as building blocks for the central tubule. These results suggest that SAS-6 self-assembly may be an initial step in the formation of the cartwheel that provides the 9-fold symmetry. Electron microscopy of centrosomes identified 25-nm central tubules with repeating subunits and show that SAS-6 concentrates at the core of the cartwheel. Recombinant and native SAS-6 self-oligomerizes into tetramers with approximately 6-nm subunits, and these tetramers are components of the centrosome, suggesting that tetramers are the building blocks of the central tubule. This is further supported by the observation that elevated levels of SAS-6 in Drosophila cells resulted in higher order structures resembling central tubule morphology. Finally, in the presence of embryonic extract, SAS-6 tetramers assembled into high density complexes, providing a starting point for the eventual in vitro reconstruction of centrioles.

  13. Diffusion of Energy Efficient Technology in Commercial Buildings: An Analysis of the Commercial Building Partnerships Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi Argyro

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication of green building measures by Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, quantitative and qualitative data were gathered relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners' replication efforts of green building approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization's building portfolio, and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States. Findings from this study provided insight into motivations and objectives CBP partners had for program participation. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The optimized approach to the CBP program allows partners to develop green building parameters that fit the specific uses of their building, resulting in greater motivation for replication. In addition, the diffusion model developed

  14. Technologies for faults diagnosis of FPGA logic blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. U. Ngene

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The critical issues of testing field programmable gate arrays (FPGA with a view to diagnosing faults are an important step that ensures the reliability of FPGA designs. Correct diagnosis of faulty logic blocks of FPGAs guarantees restoration of functionality through replacement of faulty block with replacement units. This process can be done autonomously or without the intervention of an engineer depending on application area. This paper considers two methods for analysing test results of FPGA logic blocks with the purpose of localising and distinguishing faults. The algebraic logic and vector-logical methods are proposed for diagnosing faulty logic blocks in FPGA fabric. It is found that the algebraic logic method is more useful for processing of sparse faults tables when the number of coordinates with 1s values with respect to zero values ​​is not more than 20%, whereas the vector-logical method facilitates the analysis of faults table with predominance of 1s values.

  15. Passive Vibration Isolation by Compliant Mechanism Using Topology Optimization with Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vijayan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Compliant Mechanism has been designed for various types of application to transmit desired force and motion. In this study, we have explored an application of Compliant Mechanism for passive vibration isolation systems, for which compliant isolator is used to cancel undesired disturbance, which results in attenuated output amplitude. The Compliant Mechanism is equipped with isolator, which acts as a transmission of force, in order to control the amount of displacement transmitted from it. Compliant Mechanism also used as passive vibration isolator. Here, introducing compliance into the connection, the transmission of applied forces is reduced at some frequencies, at the expense of increasing transmission at other frequencies. The force transmissibility is numerically identical to the motion transmissibility. In order to find the flexible building blocks for force transmissibility, structural optimization approach is applied. The Structural optimization approach focuses on the determination of the topology, shape and size of the mechanism. Thus approach is used to establish the actuator model of the block and it is validated by commercial Finite Element software. A library of compliant elements is proposed in FlexIn. These blocks are in limited number and the basis is composed of 36 elements. The force transmitted to the rigid foundation through the isolator is reduced to avoid transmission of vibration to other machines. Thus the preliminary results of FEA from ANSYS demonstrate that the compliant mechanism can be effectively used to reduce the amount of force transmitted to the surface.

  16. Integrated collaborative building design using Internet technology

    OpenAIRE

    Roshani, D.M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Communication between the parties in a project of an integrated collaborative engineering system has been the subject of active research for many years. The construction industry has a long tradition of collaborative working between the members of the construction team. At the design stage, this has traditionally been based on physical meetings between representatives of the principal design team members. To aid these meetings, the information and communication technologies that are currently...

  17. Prestressed hybrids of AAC and HPC : The BCE (Block Composed Element) building system. A conceptual study

    OpenAIRE

    Bagheri, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    There is an important potential for a development of a building system, if the present AACblock plants are completed with high performance concrete and pre-stressing technique. This can be done as a continuation of a present AAC production or in a site factory. Hybrid cooperation between AAC and concrete is not a new technology. Traditionally, AAC is covered with rendering. The wetted material is first sprayed with cement slurry after which comes lime/cement-based rendering which strengthens ...

  18. Evolution of prefabricated technologies applied to building schools

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Oriol

    2010-01-01

    In the past ten years, a lot of school buildings have been built using prefabricated systems all over Spain. For example, more than 200 schools have been successfully industrialized since 2002 in Catalonia. These are modern schools that have been recognized for: their well designed architecture, their respectful relationship with their environs, their education spaces… This article aims to analyze these centers, along with the interesting technologies used to build them. This text is based on...

  19. Building Technological Capability within Satellite Programs in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle Renee

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. They sometimes pursue this via collaborative satellite development projects with foreign firms that provide training. This phenomenon of collaborative satellite development projects is poorly understood by researchers of technological learning and technology transfer. The approach has potential to facilitate learning, but there are also challenges due to misaligned incentives and the tacit nature of the technology. Perspectives from literature on Technological Learning, Technology Transfer, Complex Product Systems and Product Delivery provide useful but incomplete insight for decision makers in such projects. This work seeks a deeper understanding of capability building through collaborative technology projects by conceiving of the projects as complex, socio-technical systems with architectures. The architecture of a system is the assignment of form to execute a function along a series of dimensions. The research questions explore the architecture of collaborative satellite projects, the nature of capability building during such projects, and the relationship between architecture and capability building. The research design uses inductive, exploratory case studies to investigate six collaborative satellite development projects. Data collection harnesses international field work driven by interviews, observation, and documents. The data analysis develops structured narratives, architectural comparison and capability building assessment. The architectural comparison reveals substantial variation in project implementation, especially in the areas of project initiation, technical specifications of the satellite, training approaches and the supplier selection process. The individual

  20. Roadmap will point way for future intelligent building technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-12-31

    A project, funded by five government departments, is underway to develop a roadmap, or guide, for intelligent building technologies to help the construction industry by identifying emerging technologies and market niches, and thereby help stakeholders to make investment and policy decisions. The project concentrates on technologies related to high-rise residential, commercial, industrial and institutional buildings, and covers a spectrum from main equipment to sensors, and communications, artificial reasoning and automated controls for energy management, office automation, indoor environment, local area networking, security, fire control, and maintenance scheduling. The project is overseen by the Institute for Research in Construction of the National Research Council. Also participating is the Continental Automated Building Association (CABA) who act as project managers. Steering committee membership includes representatives from Bell Canada, Honeywell, Hydro-Quebec, IBM, NRC, Natural Resources Canada, Nortel Networks, Siemens and Tridel Corporation. The project is expected to be completed in late spring/early summer of 2001.

  1. Culture's building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, John J; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    ONE OF THE MOST ESSENTIAL BUT THEORETICALLY VEXING ISSUES REGARDING THE NOTION OF CULTURE IS THAT OF CULTURAL EVOLUTION AND TRANSMISSION: how a group's accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of "culture" into its component "building blocks." In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly.

  2. Culture’s building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Joseph Mcgraw

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most essential but theoretically vexing issues regarding the notion of culture is that of cultural evolution and transmission: how a group’s accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of culture into its component building blocks. In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly.

  3. Cosmic queuing: galaxy satellites, building blocks and the hierarchical clustering paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Lagos, Claudia del P; Cora, Sofia A

    2009-01-01

    We study the properties of building blocks (BBs, i.e. accreted satellites) and surviving satellites of present-day galaxies using the SAG semi-analytic model of galaxy formation in the context of a concordance Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmology. We find higher metallicities for BBs, an effect produced by the same processes behind the build-up of the mass-metallicity relation, namely, the higher peak height in the density fluctuation field occupied by BBs and central galaxies which have collapsed into a single object earlier than surviving satellites. A detailed analysis shows that BBs start to form stars earlier, and build-up half of their final stellar mass (measured at the moment of disruption) up to four times faster than surviving satellites. We show that this effect is a consequence of the epoch in which this occurs; BBs assemble their stellar mass mostly during the peak of the merger activity in the LCDM cosmology, whereas surviving satellites keep increasing their stellar masses down to z=1. The ...

  4. Culture’s building blocks: investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, John J.; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    One of the most essential but theoretically vexing issues regarding the notion of culture is that of cultural evolution and transmission: how a group’s accumulated solutions to invariant challenges develop and persevere over time. But at the moment, the notion of applying evolutionary theory to culture remains little more than a suggestive trope. Whereas the modern synthesis of evolutionary theory has provided an encompassing scientific framework for the selection and transmission of biological adaptations, a convincing theory of cultural evolution has yet to emerge. One of the greatest challenges for theorists is identifying the appropriate time scales and units of analysis in order to reduce the intractably large and complex phenomenon of “culture” into its component “building blocks.” In this paper, we present a model for scientifically investigating cultural processes by analyzing the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly. PMID:25309482

  5. Modelling Technology for Building Fire Scene with Virtual Geographic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wei, M.; Zhang, H.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Building fire is a risky activity that can lead to disaster and massive destruction. The management and disposal of building fire has always attracted much interest from researchers. Integrated Virtual Geographic Environment (VGE) is a good choice for building fire safety management and emergency decisions, in which a more real and rich fire process can be computed and obtained dynamically, and the results of fire simulations and analyses can be much more accurate as well. To modelling building fire scene with VGE, the application requirements and modelling objective of building fire scene were analysed in this paper. Then, the four core elements of modelling building fire scene (the building space environment, the fire event, the indoor Fire Extinguishing System (FES) and the indoor crowd) were implemented, and the relationship between the elements was discussed also. Finally, with the theory and framework of VGE, the technology of building fire scene system with VGE was designed within the data environment, the model environment, the expression environment, and the collaborative environment as well. The functions and key techniques in each environment are also analysed, which may provide a reference for further development and other research on VGE.

  6. Remote Stabilization of Copper Paddlewheel Based Molecular Building Blocks in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wen-Yang; Cai, Rong; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A.; Hogan, Adam; Nugent, Patrick; Williams, Kia; Wojtas, Lukasz; Luebke, Ryan; Weseli; #324; ski, Lukasz J.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Space, Brian; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Shi, Xiaodong; Ma, Shengqian (KAUST); (UC); (USF); (WVU)

    2015-08-21

    Copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks (MBBs) are ubiquitous and have been widely employed for the construction of highly porous metal–organic frameworks (MOFs). However, most copper paddlewheel based MOFs fail to retain their structural integrity in the presence of water. This instability is directly correlated to the plausible displacement of coordinating carboxylates in the copper paddlewheel MBB, [Cu₂(O₂C-)₄], by the strongly coordinating water molecules. In this comprehensive study, we illustrate the chemical stability control in the rht-MOF platform via strengthening the coordinating bonds within the triangular inorganic MBB, [Cu₃O(N4–x(CH)xC-)₃] (x = 0, 1, or 2). Remotely, the chemical stabilization propagated into the paddlewheel MBB to afford isoreticular rht-MOFs with remarkably enhanced water/chemical stabilities compared to the prototypal rht-MOF-1.

  7. Alfven Wave Collisions, The Fundamental Building Block of Plasma Turbulence IV: Laboratory Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, D J; Howes, G G; Kletzing, C A; Skiff, F; Carter, T A; Auerbach, D W

    2013-01-01

    Turbulence is a phenomenon found throughout space and astrophysical plasmas. It plays an important role in solar coronal heating, acceleration of the solar wind, and heating of the interstellar medium. Turbulence in these regimes is dominated by Alfven waves. Most turbulence theories have been established using ideal plasma models, such as incompressible MHD. However, there has been no experimental evidence to support the use of such models for weakly to moderately collisional plasmas which are relevant to various space and astrophysical plasma environments. We present the first experiment to measure the nonlinear interaction between two counterpropagating Alfven waves, which is the building block for astrophysical turbulence theories. We present here four distinct tests that demonstrate conclusively that we have indeed measured the daughter Alfven wave generated nonlinearly by a collision between counterpropagating Alfven waves.

  8. On the building blocks of the M31 and Milky Way halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monelli Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of the halo of M31 and the Milky Way as traced by the population of RR Lyrae stars, in comparison with the population of such stars preent in satellite dwarf galaxies. We find that both halos and the massive dwarf host a population of high amplitude short period RRab stars, absent in low-mass dwarfs. These stars are explained as the metal-rich tail of the RR Lyrae distribution ([Fe/H] ∼ - 1.5, and thus their existence imply fast chemical enrichment in the host system. Their presence in both halos implies that massive building blocks had an important role in their formation.

  9. Methylidynetrisphosphonates: Promising C1 building block for the design of phosphate mimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim D. Romanenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Methylidynetrisphosphonates are representatives of geminal polyphosphonates bearing three phosphonate (PO3H2 groups at the bridged carbon atom. Like well-known methylenebisphosphonates (BPs, they are characterized by a P–C–P backbone structure and are chemically stable mimetics of the endogenous metabolites, i.e., inorganic pyrophosphates (PPi. Because of its analogy to PPi and an ability to chelate metal ions, the 1,1,1-trisphosphonate structure is of great potential as a C1 building block for the design of phosphate mimetics. The purpose of this review is to present a concise summary of the state of the art in trisphosphonate chemistry with particular emphasis on the synthesis, structure, reactions, and potential medicinal applications of these compounds.

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of some building blocks of organic conductors: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, V.; Yadav, T.

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical molecular structures and IR and Raman spectra of di and tetra methyl substituted tetrathiafulvalene and tetraselenafulvalene molecules have been studied. These molecules belong to the organic conductor family and are immensely used as building blocks of several organic conducting devices. The Hartree-Fock and density functional theory with exchange functional B3LYP have been employed for computational purpose. We have also performed normal coordinate analysis to scale the theoretical frequencies and to calculate potential energy distributions for the conspicuous assignments. The exciting frequency and temperature dependent Raman spectra have also presented. Optimization results reveal that the sulphur derivatives possess boat shape while selenium derivatives possess planner structures. Natural bond orbitals analysis has also been performed to study second order interaction between donors and acceptors and to compute molecular orbital occupancy and energy.

  11. Dual-Functional Hydrazide-Reactive and Anhydride-Containing Oligomeric Hydrogel Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascholke, Christian; Loth, Tina; Kohn-Polster, Caroline; Möller, Stephanie; Bellstedt, Peter; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Hacker, Michael C

    2017-02-08

    Biomimetic hydrogels are advanced biomaterials that have been developed following different synthetic routes. Covalent postfabrication functionalization is a promising strategy to achieve efficient matrix modification decoupled of general material properties. To this end, dual-functional macromers were synthesized by free radical polymerization of maleic anhydride with diacetone acrylamide (N-(1,1-dimethyl-3-oxobutyl)acrylamide) and pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate. Amphiphilic oligomers (Mn 40%). Efficient hydrazide/hydrazine immobilization depending on solution pH, hydrogel ketone content as well as ligand concentration for bioconjugation was shown and reversibility of hydrazone formation was indicated by physiologically relevant hydrazide release over 7 days. Proof-of-concept experiments with hydrazido-functionalized hyaluronan demonstrated potential for covalent aECM immobilization. The presented dual-functional macromers have perspective as reactive hydrogel building blocks for various biomedical applications.

  12. Remote stabilization of copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks in metal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Wenyang

    2015-03-24

    Copper paddlewheel based molecular building blocks (MBBs) are ubiquitous and have been widely employed for the construction of highly porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). However, most copper paddlewheel based MOFs fail to retain their structural integrity in the presence of water. This instability is directly correlated to the plausible displacement of coordinating carboxylates in the copper paddlewheel MBB, [Cu2(O2C-)4], by the strongly coordinating water molecules. In this comprehensive study, we illustrate the chemical stability control in the rht-MOF platform via strengthening the coordinating bonds within the triangular inorganic MBB, [Cu3O(N4-x(CH)xC-)3] (x = 0, 1, or 2). Remotely, the chemical stabilization propagated into the paddlewheel MBB to afford isoreticular rht-MOFs with remarkably enhanced water/chemical stabilities compared to the prototypal rht-MOF-1. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  13. Aldo-X Bifunctional Building Blocks for the Synthesis of Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Palanisamy; Lai, Bingbing; Gu, Yanlong

    2017-02-01

    Compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur atoms inside the rings are attracting much attention and interest due to their biological importance. In recent years, several methods for the synthesis of such molecules have been reported by using aldo-X bifunctional building blocks (AXB3 s) as substrates; these are a wide class of organic molecules that contain at least two reactive sites, among them, one aldehyde, acetal, or semiacetal group was involved. Because of the multiple reactivities, AXB3 s are widely used in the one-pot synthesis of biologically important heterocycles. This review summarizes the synthesis of important heterocycles by using AXB3 s as pivotal components in establishing multicomponent reactions, tandem reactions, and so forth. In many cases, the established reaction systems with AXB3 s were characterized by some green properties, such as easy access to the substrate, mild and environmentally benign conditions, and wide scope of the substrate.

  14. Crystal engineering on superpolyhedral building blocks in metal-organic frameworks applied in gas adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying Pin; Liu, Tian Fu; Fordham, Stephen; Zhou, Hong Cai

    2015-12-01

    Two metal-organic frameworks [PCN-426(Ni) and PCN-427(Cu)] have been designed and synthesized to investigate the structure predictability using a SBB (supermolecular building blocks) approach. Tetratopic ligands featuring 120° angular carboxylate moieties were coordinated with a [Ni3(μ3-O)] cluster and a [Cu2O2] unit, respectively. As topologically predicted, 4-connected networks with square coordination adopted the nbo net for the Ni-MOF and ssb net for the Cu-MOF. PCN-426(Ni) was augmented with 12-connected octahedral SBBs, while PCN-427(Cu) was constructed with tetragonal open channels. After a CO2 supercritical drying procedure, the PCN-426(Ni) possessed a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area as high as 3935 m(2) g(-1) and impressively high N2 uptake of 1500 cm(3) g(-1). This work demonstrates the generalization of the SBB strategy, finding an alternative to inconvenient synthetic processes to achieve the desired structural features.

  15. LEP : four building blocks of matter ... times three Conference MT17

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The four building blocks of everyday matter form a family composed of the up-quark, the down-quark, the electron and the electron-neutrino. Similar particles, heavier but otherwise identical, are known to exist - grouped together in two further families. By measuring the number of neutrino types that exist, LEP has shown that there are no more fam-ilies of particles. Nature has chosen the number three. This is an intriguing result, and the reason why there are neither more nor fewer than three particle families is one of the greatest mysteries of modern physics. One important consequence is that we exist. Had there been any fewer than three families of matter particles, the phenomenon known as CP violation - which led to matter dominating anti-matter in the early Universe - would not have occurred. All the matter and antimatter created in the Big Bang would have annihilated.

  16. Density Functional Theory Study on La Complex with Schiff-base as Building Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Shu-Wei; XU Xiang; SUN Ya-Li; FAN Yu-Hua; BI Cai-Feng; ZHANG Dong-Mei; YANG Li-Rong

    2006-01-01

    Quantum density functional theory (DFT) results are reported for the building block [LaL1(NO3)]- of La complex [LaL1(NO3)]NO3·5H2O (L1 = (CH3)2CHCH2CH(NCHC4H3O)COO-). The structure was optimized and the calculation results show that the lanthanum ion is coordinated by one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms of L1 and two oxygen atoms of nitrate ion. The bond length of La-N is 0.2637 nm and the average length of La-O is 0.2526 nm, which are consistent with the literatures. In addition, the stabilities, electronic structural characteristics and IR spectra of the complex have been analyzed, which describe the coordination of lanthanum ion with other atoms in detail.

  17. 2-Alkynylbenzaldoxime: a versatile building block for the generation of N-heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Linman; Nie, Hongming; Qiu, Guanyinsheng; Gao, Yueqiu; Wu, Jie

    2014-12-07

    2-Alkynylbenzaldoxime as a versatile building block has been applied widely for the construction of N-heterocycles in organic synthesis. Since it could be easily transferred to isoquinoline N-oxide via intramolecular 6-endo cyclization in the presence of metal catalysts or electrophiles, the subsequent [3 + 2] cycloaddition/nucleophilic addition and rearrangement could be expected. On the other hand, a Beckmann rearrangement could occur first since an oxime moiety is present in the molecule, which would then undergo an intramolecular cyclization to furnish nitrogen-containing heterocycles. This review reports the recent advancement in the generation of N-heterocycles starting from 2-alkynylbenzaldoximes via tandem reactions based on different reaction types.

  18. Extended structure design with simple molybdenum oxide building blocks and urea as a directing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Sandra J; Roy, Soumyajit; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Petukhov, Andrei V; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Broersma, Alfred; Soulimani, Fouad; Visser, Tom; Kegel, Willem K

    2008-08-04

    We report here a simple one-pot directed synthesis of an oxomolybdate urea composite in which elementary molybdenum oxide building blocks are linked together with the aid of urea. This type of directed material design resulted in large rod-like crystals of an inorganic-organic hybrid extended structure of {MoO 3(NH 2-CO-NH 2)} infinity consisting of right- and left-handed helical units. In the crystal structure urea acts both as a glue that links the inorganic molybdenum units into a helix and as a supramolecular linker for the stabilization of the crystal structure as a whole. This type of molecular topology resulted in an unexpectedly high thermal stability.

  19. Structural insight into RNA recognition motifs: versatile molecular Lego building blocks for biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2012-01-01

    'RNA recognition motifs (RRMs)' are common domain-folds composed of 80-90 amino-acid residues in eukaryotes, and have been identified in many cellular proteins. At first they were known as RNA binding domains. Through discoveries over the past 20 years, however, the RRMs have been shown to exhibit versatile molecular recognition activities and to behave as molecular Lego building blocks to construct biological systems. Novel RNA/protein recognition modes by RRMs are being identified, and more information about the molecular recognition by RRMs is becoming available. These RNA/protein recognition modes are strongly correlated with their biological significance. In this review, we would like to survey the recent progress on these versatile molecular recognition modules.

  20. The assembly of supramolecular boxes and coordination polymers based on bis-zinc-salphen building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuil, Mark; Puijk, Iris M; Kleij, Arjan W; Tooke, Duncan M; Spek, Anthony L; Reek, Joost N H

    2009-01-05

    We report the assembly of supramolecular boxes and coordination polymers based on a rigid bis-zinc(II)-salphen complex and various ditopic nitrogen ligands. The use of the bis-zinc(II)-salphen building block in combination with small ditopic nitrogen ligands gave organic coordination polymers both in solution as well as in the solid state. Molecular modeling shows that supramolecular boxes with small internal cavities can be formed. However, the inability to accommodate solvent molecules (such as toluene) in these cavities explains why coordination polymers are prevailing over well-defined boxes, as it would lead to an energetically unfavorable vacuum. In contrast, for relatively longer ditopic nitrogen ligands, we observed the selective formation of supramolecular box assemblies in all cases studied. The approach can be easily extended to chiral analogues by using chiral ditopic nitrogen ligands.

  1. Digital NMR profiles as building blocks: assembling ¹H fingerprints of steviol glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, José G; Simmler, Charlotte; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2015-04-24

    This report describes a fragment-based approach to the examination of congeneric organic compounds by NMR spectroscopy. The method combines the classic interpretation of 1D- and 2D-NMR data sets with contemporary computer-assisted NMR analysis. Characteristic NMR profiles of key structural motifs were generated by (1)H iterative full spin analysis and then joined together as building blocks to recreate the (1)H NMR spectra of increasingly complex molecules. To illustrate the methodology described, a comprehensive analysis of steviol (1), seven steviol glycosides (2-8) and two structurally related isosteviol compounds (9, 10) was carried out. The study also assessed the potential impact of this method on relevant aspects of natural product research including structural verification, chemical dereplication, and mixture analysis.

  2. Digital NMR Profiles as Building Blocks: Assembling 1H Fingerprints of Steviol Glycosides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, José G.; Simmler, Charlotte; McAlpine, James B.; Lankin, David C.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a fragment-based approach to the examination of congeneric organic compounds by NMR spectroscopy. The method combines the classic interpretation of 1D- and 2D-NMR data sets with contemporary computer-assisted NMR analysis. Characteristic NMR profiles of key structural motifs were generated by 1H iterative full spin analysis and then joined together as building blocks to recreate the 1H NMR spectra of increasingly complex molecules. To illustrate the methodology described, a comprehensive analysis of steviol (1), seven steviol glycosides (2–8) and two structurally related isosteviol compounds (9, 10) was carried out. The study also assessed the potential impact of this method on relevant aspects of natural product research including structural verification, chemical dereplication, and mixture analysis. PMID:25714117

  3. Technology Roadmaps: Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost a third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling as well as hot water are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and save 710 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of energy by 2050. Most of these technologies -- which include solar thermal, combined heat and power (CHP), heat pumps and thermal energy storage -- are commercially available today. The Energy-Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment Roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of the key underlying technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if the building stock of the future is to consume less energy and result in lower CO2 emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap's vision.

  4. Multifunctional hybrids by combining ordered mesoporous materials and macromolecular building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Illia, Galo J A A; Azzaroni, Omar

    2011-02-01

    This critical review presents and discusses the recent advances in complex hybrid materials that result from the combination of polymers and mesoporous matrices. Ordered mesoporous materials derived from supramolecular templating present high surface area and tailored pore sizes; pore surfaces can be further modified by organic, organometallic or even biologically active functional groups. This permits the creation of hybrid systems with distinct physical properties or chemical functions located in the framework walls, the pore surface, and the pore interior. Bringing polymeric building blocks into the game opens a new dimension: the possibility to create phase separated regions (functional domains) within the pores that can behave as "reactive pockets" of nanoscale size, with highly controlled chemistry and interactions within restricted volumes. The possibilities of combining "hard" and "soft" building blocks to yield these novel nanocomposite materials with tuneable functional domains ordered in space are potentially infinite. New properties are bound to arise from the synergy of both kinds of components, and their spatial location. The main object of this review is to report on new approaches towards functional polymer-inorganic mesostructured hybrids, as well as to discuss the present challenges in this flourishing research field. Indeed, the powerful concepts resulting from the synergy of sol-gel processing, supramolecular templating and polymer chemistry open new opportunities in the design of advanced functional materials: the tailored production of complex matter displaying spatially-addressed chemistry based on the control of chemical topology. Breakthrough applications are expected in the fields of sustainable energy, environment sensing and remediation, biomaterials, pharmaceutical industry and catalysis, among others (221 references).

  5. Combinatorial chemistry in nematodes: modular assembly of primary metabolism-derived building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reuss, Stephan H; Schroeder, Frank C

    2015-07-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was the first animal to have its genome fully sequenced and has become an important model organism for biomedical research. However, like many other animal model systems, its metabolome remained largely uncharacterized, until recent investigations demonstrated the importance of small molecule-based signalling cascades for virtually every aspect of nematode biology. These studies have revealed that nematodes are amazingly skilled chemists: using simple building blocks from conserved primary metabolism and a strategy of modular assembly, C. elegans and other nematode species create complex molecular architectures to regulate their development and behaviour. These nematode-derived modular metabolites (NDMMs) are based on the dideoxysugars ascarylose or paratose, which serve as scaffolds for attachment of moieties from lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, citrate, and nucleoside metabolism. Mutant screens and comparative metabolomics based on NMR spectroscopy and MS have so-far revealed several 100 different ascarylose ("ascarosides") and a few paratose ("paratosides") derivatives, many of which represent potent signalling molecules that can be active at femtomolar levels, regulating development, behaviour, body shape, and many other life history traits. NDMM biosynthesis appears to be carefully regulated as assembly of different modules proceeds with very high specificity. Preliminary biosynthetic studies have confirmed the primary metabolism origin of some NDMM building blocks, whereas the mechanisms that underlie their highly specific assembly are not understood. Considering their functions and biosynthetic origin, NDMMs represent a new class of natural products that cannot easily be classified as "primary" or "secondary". We believe that the identification of new variants of primary metabolism-derived structures that serve important signalling functions in C. elegans and other nematodes provides a strong incentive for a comprehensive

  6. Utilization of some non coded amino acids as isosters of peptide building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaváček, J; Marcová, R; Ježek, R; Slaninová, J

    1996-09-01

    In our study on non coded amino acids and their utilization in peptide chemistry we synthesized methylene-thio (CH2-S) and methyleneoxy (CH2-O) group containing amino acids and pseudodipeptides which could be used as building blocks for the construction of peptide hormone analogues. The (CH2-S) isoster of peptide bond exhibits increased flexibility, lipophility and resistance to proteolytic enzymes. This group exhibits similar properties as the isosteric disulfide bond in the side chain of cystine residue. The (CH2-O) isoster is moreover similar in its geometry to extended conformation of peptide bond. As a consequence, the changed profile of biological activities could be expected for peptide hormone analogues containing such isosteric moiety. The (CH2-S) isosters of the peptide bond were prepared by alkylation of thiolates of 2-mercaptocarboxylic acids, the disulfide bond by alkylation of cysteine or homocysteine. The (CH2-O) isosters were prepared by (AcO)4Rh2 catalyzed addition of carbenes of alkyl diazocarboxylates to N-protected aminoalcohols. Pseudodipeptides H-Leu-ψ(CH2-S)-Gly-NH2 and H-Leu-ψ(CH2-O)-Gly-NH2 were introduced into the C-terminal part of the oxytocin molecule using solution methods of peptide chemistry. Both inserted isosteric bonds were resistant against proteolytic degradation, the first one was found to decrease an enzymic cleavage of the distant Tyr(2)-Ile(3) bond in the corresponding analogue, too. The (CH2-S) isosters of the disulfide bond containing an orthogonal protection of theirα-amino (Fmoc) andα-(OAll, OH) orω-(OBu(+), OH) carboxylic groups were applied in the solid phase synthesis of the aminoterminal 1-deamino-15-pentadecapeptide of endothelin-I which represents a strong vasoactive agent. The solid phase synthesis was carried out by the step-wise protocol on the Rink or Merrifield type resin using orthogonally protected carba cystine building blocks.

  7. Combinatorial chemistry in nematodes: modular assembly of primary metabolism-derived building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was the first animal to have its genome fully sequenced and has become an important model organism for biomedical research. However, like many other animal model systems, its metabolome remained largely uncharacterized, until recent investigations demonstrated the importance of small molecule-based signalling cascades for virtually every aspect of nematode biology. These studies have revealed that nematodes are amazingly skilled chemists: using simple building blocks from conserved primary metabolism and a strategy of modular assembly, C. elegans and other nematode species create complex molecular architectures to regulate their development and behaviour. These nematode-derived modular metabolites (NDMMs) are based on the dideoxysugars ascarylose or paratose, which serve as scaffolds for attachment of moieties from lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, citrate, and nucleoside metabolism. Mutant screens and comparative metabolomics based on NMR spectroscopy and MS have so-far revealed several 100 different ascarylose (“ascarosides”) and a few paratose (“paratosides”) derivatives, many of which represent potent signalling molecules that can be active at femtomolar levels, regulating development, behaviour, body shape, and many other life history traits. NDMM biosynthesis appears to be carefully regulated as assembly of different modules proceeds with very high specificity. Preliminary biosynthetic studies have confirmed the primary metabolism origin of some NDMM building blocks, whereas the mechanisms that underlie their highly specific assembly are not understood. Considering their functions and biosynthetic origin, NDMMs represent a new class of natural products that cannot easily be classified as “primary” or “secondary”. We believe that the identification of new variants of primary metabolism-derived structures that serve important signalling functions in C. elegans and other nematodes provides a strong incentive for

  8. BEHAVIOUR OF STONE FACADES IN URBAN CENTERS INNOVATIVE BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Monaco

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available An innovative technology using stone and granite as exterior sheeting of modern steel and concrete tall buildings is presented, Granites are chosen for the indubitable superior durability in any wheather and polluted atmosfere condition. But to guarantee durability stone sheets have to be mounted in such a way as to avoid any inner irregular stress. In particular stresses from deformation of the main structure must not be trasmitted to the exterior sheeting. Moreover an all-proof wheather barrier has to be incorporated in the factory builded sheeting panel. The innovative technology allowing use of granite and stone in facing of tall buildings is here presented along with two very important realisations: The North Tower in Genoa and the Canary Wharf in London.

  9. Office of Building Technologies evaluation and planning report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Building Technologies (OBT) encourages increased efficiency of energy use in the buildings sector through the conduct of a comprehensive research program, the transfer of research results to industry, and the implementation of DOE`s statutory responsibilities in the buildings area. The planning and direction of these activities require the development and maintenance of database and modeling capability, as well as the conduct of analyses. This report summarizes the results of evaluation and planning activities undertaken on behalf of OBT during the past several years. It provides historical data on energy consumption patterns, prices, and building characteristics used in OBT`s planning processes, and summaries of selected recent OBT analysis activities.

  10. Office of Building Technologies evaluation and planning report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Building Technologies (OBT) encourages increased efficiency of energy use in the buildings sector through the conduct of a comprehensive research program, the transfer of research results to industry, and the implementation of DOE`s statutory responsibilities in the buildings area. The planning and direction of these activities require the development and maintenance of database and modeling capability, as well as the conduct of analyses. This report summarizes the results of evaluation and planning activities undertaken on behalf of OBT during the past several years. It provides historical data on energy consumption patterns, prices, and building characteristics used in OBT`s planning processes, and summaries of selected recent OBT analysis activities.

  11. Determination of Technological Electric Power Consumption for Its Transportation while Using Block-Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavlovets

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for calculation of the technological electric power consumption for its transportation in the elements of power network while using block-stations under conditions of differently-directed electric power transfer.The calculation of technological electric power consumption for its transportation can be applied while supplying several consumers with one element of power network simultaneously with block-station operation. 

  12. Energy-efficient building design and operation: The role of computer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.

    1990-09-01

    Computer technology provides many opportunities to improve the energy performance of commercial buildings throughout the entire building life cycle. We are faced with developing those technologies to put the results of many years of buildings research into the hands of building owners, designers, and operators. This report discusses both the philosophical and technological aspect associated with this topic.

  13. Integrating Si nanoscale building blocks into micro-sized materials to enable practical applications in lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ran; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-28

    This article highlights recent advances in micro-sized silicon anode materials composed of silicon nanoscale building blocks for lithium-ion batteries. These materials show great potential in practical applications since they combine good cycling stability, high rate performance, and high volumetric capacity. Different preparation methods are introduced and the features and performance of the resulting materials are discussed. Key take-away points are interspersed through the discussion, including comments on the roles of the nanoscale building blocks. Finally, we discuss current challenges and provide an outlook for future development of micro-sized silicon-based anode materials.

  14. Shortcut access to peptidosteroid conjugates: building blocks for solid-phase bile acid scaffold decoration by convergent ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzele, Dieter; Figaroli, Sara; Madder, Annemieke

    2011-12-07

    We present three versatile solid-supported scaffold building blocks based on the (deoxy)cholic acid framework and decorated with handles for further derivatization by modern ligation techniques such as click chemistry, Staudinger ligation or native chemical ligation. Straightforward procedures are presented for the synthesis and analysis of the steroid constructs. These building blocks offer a new, facile and shorter access route to bile acid-peptide conjugates on solid-phase with emphasis on heterodipodal conjugates with defined spatial arrangements. As such, we provide versatile new synthons to the toolbox for bile acid decoration.

  15. Shortcut Access to Peptidosteroid Conjugates: Building Blocks for Solid-Phase Bile Acid Scaffold Decoration by Convergent Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Figaroli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present three versatile solid-supported scaffold building blocks based on the (deoxycholic acid framework and decorated with handles for further derivatization by modern ligation techniques such as click chemistry, Staudinger ligation or native chemical ligation. Straightforward procedures are presented for the synthesis and analysis of the steroid constructs. These building blocks offer a new, facile and shorter access route to bile acid-peptide conjugates on solid-phase with emphasis on heterodipodal conjugates with defined spatial arrangements. As such, we provide versatile new synthons to the toolbox for bile acid decoration.

  16. Building Quality Report Cards for Geriatric Care in The Netherlands: Using Concept Mapping to Identify the Appropriate "Building Blocks" from the Consumer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, A. Stef; van Exel, N. Job A.; Berg, Marc; Huijsman, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports on a study to identify "building blocks" for quality report cards for geriatric care. Its aim is to present (a) the results of the study and (b) the innovative step-by-step approach that was developed to arrive at these results. Design and Methods: We used Concept Mapping/Structured Conceptualization to…

  17. Strategies for Promoting Green Building Technologies Adoption in the Construction Industry-An International Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert Ping Chuen Chan; Amos Darko; Ernest Effah Ameyaw

    2017-01-01

    Because green building technologies (GBTs) adoption is a promising way of ameliorating the sustainability performance of buildings, GBTs are receiving increased interest in the global construction community...

  18. Technology for melting amber chips to produce a solid block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhareva, A. S.; Melnikov, A. G.; Utyev, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    This research is relevant, because the bulk of the mined amber comes in amber chips. Therefore, we have decided to review the current ways of melting amber chips to develop the most technologically efficient algorithm and to use it further for producing decorative items. The purpose of the work is to perfect the technology of obtaining whole-piece amber from amber chips and to explore the usability of the obtained material in decorative items and jewelry.

  19. Tall Buildings and Elevators: A Review of Recent Technological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheir Al-Kodmany

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient vertical mobility is a critical component of tall building development and construction. This paper investigates recent advances in elevator technology and examines their impact on tall building development. It maps out, organizes, and collates complex and scattered information on multiple aspects of elevator design, and presents them in an accessible and non-technical discourse. Importantly, the paper contextualizes recent technological innovations by examining their implementations in recent major projects including One World Trade Center in New York; Shanghai Tower in Shanghai; Burj Khalifa in Dubai; Kingdom Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; and the green retrofit project of the Empire State Building in New York. Further, the paper discusses future vertical transportation models including a vertical subway concept, a space lift, and electromagnetic levitation technology. As these new technological advancements in elevator design empower architects to create new forms and shapes of large-scale, mixed-use developments, this paper concludes by highlighting the need for interdisciplinary research in incorporating elevators in skyscrapers.

  20. A Semantics-Rich Information Technology Architecture for Smart Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bonino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The design of smart homes, buildings and environments currently suffers from a low maturity of available methodologies and tools. Technologies, devices and protocols strongly bias the design process towards vertical integration, and more flexible solutions based on separation of design concerns are seldom applied. As a result, the current landscape of smart environments is mostly populated by defectively designed solutions where application requirements (e.g., end-user functionality are too often mixed and intertwined with technical requirements (e.g., managing the network of devices. A mature and effective design process must, instead, rely on a clear separation between the application layer and the underlying enabling technologies, to enable effective design reuse. The role of smart gateways is to enable this separation of concerns and to provide an abstracted view of available automation technology to higher software layers. This paper presents a blueprint for the information technology (IT architecture of smart buildings that builds on top of established software engineering practices, such as model-driven development and semantic representation, and that avoids many pitfalls inherent in legacy approaches. The paper will also present a representative use case where the approach has been applied and the corresponding modeling and software tools.

  1. Technologies for building integrated energy supply; Teknologier for bygningsintegreret energiforsyning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katic, I.

    2011-07-15

    The current report is part of the deliverables from the project ''Building Integrated Energy Supply'' supported by the Danish Energy Authority R and D program. It describes a range of technologies for individual supply of heat and/or electricity to dwellings with respect to their stage of development and possible application in the near future. Energy supply of buildings is becoming more and more complex, partly as a result of increasing demands for comfort, efficiency and reduced emissions, partly as a result of rising oil prices and improved competitiveness of alternative energy sources. The days where ordinary boilers were the dominant source of individual supply of dwellings are becoming past these years. The challenge of the new range of technologies lies to a high extent in the fluctuating nature of their energy conversion and their interaction with the supply grids for heat and electricity. There is thus an increasing demand to understand the nature of the different supply technologies, besides a regular update of their economical key figures. The technologies briefly described in this study are: Solar heating, passive solar energy, biofuel boilers, heat pumps, micro CHP, solar photovoltaic and energy storage systems. The selected technologies are all assessed to play an important role in future's mix of supply technologies in Denmark, especially heat pumps and solar. (Author)

  2. Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies in Buildings Technology Characterizations for Energy Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, SW

    2004-10-11

    The energy use in America's commercial and residential building sectors is large and growing. Over 38 quadrillion Btus (Quads) of primary energy were consumed in 2002, representing 39% of total U.S. energy consumption. While the energy use in buildings is expected to grow to 52 Quads by 2025, a large number of energy-related technologies exist that could curtail this increase. In recent years, improvements in such items as high efficiency refrigerators, compact fluorescent lights, high-SEER air conditioners, and improved building shells have all contributed to reducing energy use. Hundreds of other technology improvements have and will continue to improve the energy use in buildings. While many technologies are well understood and are gradually penetrating the market, more advanced technologies will be introduced in the future. The pace and extent of these advances can be improved through state and federal R&D. This report focuses on the long-term potential for energy-efficiency improvement in buildings. Five promising technologies have been selected for description to give an idea of the wide range of possibilities. They address the major areas of energy use in buildings: space conditioning (33% of building use), water heating (9%), and lighting (16%). Besides describing energy-using technologies (solid-state lighting and geothermal heat pumps), the report also discusses energy-saving building shell improvements (smart roofs) and the integration of multiple energy service technologies (CHP packaged systems and triple function heat pumps) to create synergistic savings. Finally, information technologies that can improve the efficiency of building operations are discussed. The report demonstrates that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. The five technology areas alone can potentially result in total primary energy savings of between 2 and

  3. The new chamber building of Malta: architectural image and building technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Sapienza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the most innovative technologies is a basic tool for all the protagonists of the building process. This is because the right resolution of the details is the main way to obtain an architectonic image that is correctly related to the design intents. This work would like to contribute to the spread of the expertise, through the choice of an interesting case study: the new Chamber Building of the Republic of Malta. The history of construction has in the evolution of the stone technology one of the most complex and interesting matter, since the Roman age. The last chapter is probably written in the new Chamber Building of the Republic of Malta, that is going to be finished in the next few months. The concept of the stone façade is founded on two main points, the formal image and the functionality. The article is addressed to the designers, construction managers and researchers who would like to have an approach to the most innovative building technologies.

  4. SiC Multi-Chip Power Modules as Power-System Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lostetter, Alexander; Franks, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The term "SiC MCPMs" (wherein "MCPM" signifies "multi-chip power module") denotes electronic power-supply modules containing multiple silicon carbide power devices and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) control integrated-circuit chips. SiC MCPMs are being developed as building blocks of advanced expandable, reconfigurable, fault-tolerant power-supply systems. Exploiting the ability of SiC semiconductor devices to operate at temperatures, breakdown voltages, and current densities significantly greater than those of conventional Si devices, the designs of SiC MCPMs and of systems comprising multiple SiC MCPMs are expected to afford a greater degree of miniaturization through stacking of modules with reduced requirements for heat sinking. Moreover, the higher-temperature capabilities of SiC MCPMs could enable operation in environments hotter than Si-based power systems can withstand. The stacked SiC MCPMs in a given system can be electrically connected in series, parallel, or a series/parallel combination to increase the overall power-handling capability of the system. In addition to power connections, the modules have communication connections. The SOI controllers in the modules communicate with each other as nodes of a decentralized control network, in which no single controller exerts overall command of the system. Control functions effected via the network include synchronization of switching of power devices and rapid reconfiguration of power connections to enable the power system to continue to supply power to a load in the event of failure of one of the modules. In addition to serving as building blocks of reliable power-supply systems, SiC MCPMs could be augmented with external control circuitry to make them perform additional power-handling functions as needed for specific applications: typical functions could include regulating voltages, storing energy, and driving motors. Because identical SiC MCPM building blocks could be utilized in a variety of ways, the cost

  5. A Concise Strategy for Polymer-supported Regio-oriented Introduction of Various Building Blocks onto Glucopyranoside Scaffold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖云; 李正名; 黄乃正

    2001-01-01

    A new strategy was devised to stereo-specifically introduce various building blocks, mainly heterocycles such as pyrimidines and triazines onto a multi-hydroxy molecule. A glucopyranoside was chosen as a target scaffold. Two polymerbased protective reagents were jointly integrated in the implementation of the strategy. It was found that in the α-D-giu-copyranoside, which has four free hydroxyl groups within the same molecule, its 4, 6-di-OH could be simultaneously protected by polystyryl boronic acid, which left the 2, 3-di-OH free for substitution. Due to the steric effects within the molecule, the 2-OH is much more liabile to electrophilic stubstitution. Thus the first and the second building blocks could be introduced regioselectively onto the 2-OH and the 3-OHpositions. After a facile deprotection, the4,6-di-OH were left free and by apiication of a second protecting reagentpolystyryltritylchloride onto 6-OH, a third building block was introduced onto the 4-OH position. After further deprotection, the fourth building block was later introduced onto the 6-OH position. The new strategy was successfully applied in the combinatorial synthesis by application of the split-mix technique. The respective eleven small libraries were obtained and confirmed by HPLC-MS and NMR. Some preliminary results on chemical structure/herbicidal activity relationship were discussed.

  6. Bottom-up nanoarchitecture of semiconductor nano-building blocks by controllable in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuan

    2017-08-10

    Here we demonstrate that the building blocks of semiconductor WO3 nanowires can be controllably soldered together by a novel nano-soldering technique of in situ SEM-FIB thermal soldering, in which the soldering temperature can precisely remain in an optimal range to avoid a strong thermal diffusion.

  7. The Building Blocks of Digital Media Literacy: Socio-Material Participation and the Production of Media Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezuanni, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the knowledge and skills students develop when they engage in digital media production and analysis in school settings. The metaphor of "digital building blocks" is used to describe the material practices, conceptual understandings and production of knowledge that lead to the development of digital media literacy.…

  8. The asc trinodal platform: Two-step assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander

    2013-02-10

    The self-assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks affords the first example of a trinodal family of metal-organic materials. Four examples of isoreticular expanded and functionalized frameworks are detailed. Gas adsorption experiments validated the permanent porosity of the parent structure. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Playing with structures at the nanoscale: designing catalysts by manipulation of clusters and nanocrystals as building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnello, Matteo; Fornasiero, Paolo; Gorte, Raymond J

    2013-12-02

    The purpose of this Concept is to highlight some of the most recent and promising methods for the preparation of tailored catalysts by designing and preparing the component building blocks and by assembling them in a controlled fashion. We want to emphasize how rational design and synthesis of catalysts must be coupled to precise catalytic and structural characterization of the systems in an ideal feedback loop. New catalyst design and preparation techniques, dictated by information about the active sites that the specific application requires, are frequently available. The building blocks for developing these novel catalysts include colloidal methods for the preparation of uniform nanostructures, physical methods for rational assembly of the building blocks (Langmuir-Blodgett, liquid-air self-assembly), and development of rational interactions between the building blocks for enhanced activity of the assemblies. These methods, which apply techniques normally used in other fields of nanotechnology to catalysis, offer exciting opportunities to help improve currently available catalytic systems in terms of activity, stability and selectivity.

  10. Network diversity through two-step crystal engineering of a decorated 6-connected primary molecular building block

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Qing-Yuan

    2016-10-04

    [Cr3O(nicotinate)6]+ was isolated and then utilised as a new primary molecular building block, PMBB, linked by 2-, 3- and 4-connected metal centres. Five novel metal–organic materials (MOMs) with acs, stp, rtl, fsc and pcu topologies were thereby isolated and characterised.

  11. The Building Blocks of Digital Media Literacy: Socio-Material Participation and the Production of Media Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezuanni, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the knowledge and skills students develop when they engage in digital media production and analysis in school settings. The metaphor of "digital building blocks" is used to describe the material practices, conceptual understandings and production of knowledge that lead to the development of digital media literacy.…

  12. Threaded molecular wires as building blocks for advanced polymer blends: WPLEDs, ultra-broadband optical amplifiers, multi color lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, Sergio; Mroz, Marta; Sforazzini, Giuseppe; Virgili, Tersilla; Meinardi, Franco; Paleari, Alberto; Anderson, Harry L.; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Cacialli, Franco

    2011-03-01

    The ability to produce semiconducting polymer blends with white emission spectra, large emission cross sections and broad optical gain is critical to their application in white PLEDs, lasers and broadband amplifiers. Cyclodextrin-encapsulation is an effective means of suppressing detrimental intermolecular interactions, and energy transfer (ET) channels in polymer blends, thus enabling fabrication of white-PLEDs. We show that all such properties combine into a high impact photonic application: ultra-broad optical gain and two-color lasing in a binary polyrotaxane blend. We study the ultrafast photophysics of a blend of a conventional and an encapsulated polyfluorene. The morphology is investigated by microRaman imaging, AFM, and fluorescence lifetime microscopy. We ascribe the ultra-broad optical gain (>850 meV), and the simultaneous ASE for both constituents, to the dual effect of reduced polaron formation and suppressed ET. Our results demonstrate that polyrotaxanes could realistically represent the building blocks for advanced polymer blends with highly controlled optical properties, for applications in solid state lightning, lasers and photovoltaic technologies.

  13. Search for water and life's building blocks in the universe: A summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Kwok, Sun; Bergin, Edwin

    2015-08-01

    Water and organic compounds are essential ingredients for life on Earth and possibly elsewhere. In gaseous form water acts as a coolant that allows interstellar gas clouds to collapse to form stars, whereas water ice covers small dust particles that agglomerate to form planetesimals and planets. The variety of organic compounds identified in interstellar and circumstellar regions reflects complex reaction schemes in the gaseous and icy/solid state. Interstellar volatiles and refractory materials were processed and radially mixed within the protostellar disk from which our solar system formed. But the dynamic solar nebula was also a source for new materials and the search for water and life’s building blocks on terrestrial planets, most of the outer-solar-system satellites as well as small solar system bodies reveals exciting new findings. The analysis of small bodies and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles, sheds lights onto the extraterrestrial delivery process of prebiotic molecules to young planets and the pathways to life’s origin on Earth and possibly elsewhere. We summarize the results of invited and contributed papers of this Focus Meeting which will allow us to better assess the habitability of objects in our solar system and provide constraints for exoplanets.

  14. Building blocks for automated elucidation of metabolites: Machine learning methods for NMR prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Stefan; Egert, Björn; Neumann, Steffen; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Background Current efforts in Metabolomics, such as the Human Metabolome Project, collect structures of biological metabolites as well as data for their characterisation, such as spectra for identification of substances and measurements of their concentration. Still, only a fraction of existing metabolites and their spectral fingerprints are known. Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation (CASE) of biological metabolites will be an important tool to leverage this lack of knowledge. Indispensable for CASE are modules to predict spectra for hypothetical structures. This paper evaluates different statistical and machine learning methods to perform predictions of proton NMR spectra based on data from our open database NMRShiftDB. Results A mean absolute error of 0.18 ppm was achieved for the prediction of proton NMR shifts ranging from 0 to 11 ppm. Random forest, J48 decision tree and support vector machines achieved similar overall errors. HOSE codes being a notably simple method achieved a comparatively good result of 0.17 ppm mean absolute error. Conclusion NMR prediction methods applied in the course of this work delivered precise predictions which can serve as a building block for Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation for biological metabolites. PMID:18817546

  15. Building blocks for automated elucidation of metabolites: Machine learning methods for NMR prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann Steffen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current efforts in Metabolomics, such as the Human Metabolome Project, collect structures of biological metabolites as well as data for their characterisation, such as spectra for identification of substances and measurements of their concentration. Still, only a fraction of existing metabolites and their spectral fingerprints are known. Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation (CASE of biological metabolites will be an important tool to leverage this lack of knowledge. Indispensable for CASE are modules to predict spectra for hypothetical structures. This paper evaluates different statistical and machine learning methods to perform predictions of proton NMR spectra based on data from our open database NMRShiftDB. Results A mean absolute error of 0.18 ppm was achieved for the prediction of proton NMR shifts ranging from 0 to 11 ppm. Random forest, J48 decision tree and support vector machines achieved similar overall errors. HOSE codes being a notably simple method achieved a comparatively good result of 0.17 ppm mean absolute error. Conclusion NMR prediction methods applied in the course of this work delivered precise predictions which can serve as a building block for Computer-Assisted Structure Elucidation for biological metabolites.

  16. Identification of candidate molecules for the building blocks of life's earliest polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hud, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Chemists have yet to find a plausible prebiotic route to RNA polymers, and most proposed mechanisms for prebiotic peptide synthesis are inefficient. We are exploring the hypothesis that RNA and peptides have both evolved from polymers with different chemical structures. We have found that molecules closely related to amino acids and the nucleobases of RNA, which were likely present on the prebiotic Earth, greatly facilitate the formation of polypeptides and RNA-like structures (Chen et al., 2014; Forsythe et al., 2015). The identification of molecules that may have served as precursors to the building blocks of extant polymers, or as prebiotic catalysts for biopolymer formation, has direct implications regarding which molecules that should be considered as possible signs of chemistries that can support the emergence of life in the universe. Furthermore, the possibility that life started with molecules that can be repeatedly cycled between their monomeric and polymeric states, as is still the case with extant biopolymers, suggests environmental characteristics that would have facilitated the formation and early evolution of functional biopolymers (Walker et al., 2012). M. C. Chen, et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 5640-5646 J. G. Forsythe, et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl., 2015, 54, 9871-9875. M.A. Walker, et al., PLoS ONE, 2012, 7, e34166.

  17. An organometallic building block approach to produce a multidecker 4f single-molecule magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Jennifer J; Jeletic, Matthew; Gorelsky, Serge I; Korobkov, Ilia; Ungur, Liviu; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murugesu, Muralee

    2013-03-06

    An organometallic building block strategy was employed to investigate the magnetic properties of a Ln(III) organometallic single-ion magnet (SIM) and subsequent single-molecule magnet (SMM) after coupling two of the monomeric units. New homoleptic Dy(III)COT″2 and Ln(III)2COT″3 (Ln = Gd, Dy) complexes have been synthesized. DFT calculations of the bimetallic Dy(III) complex indicate strong metal-ligand covalency and uneven donation to the Dy(III) ions by the terminal and internal COT″(2-) (cyclooctatetraenide) rings that correlate with the respective bond distances. Interestingly, the studies also point to a weak covalent interaction between the metal centers, despite a large separation. The ac susceptibility data indicates that both Dy(III)COT″2 and Dy(III)2COT″3 act as an SIM and an SMM, respectively, with complex multiple relaxation mechanisms. Ab initio calculations reveal the direction of the magnetic anisotropic axis is not perpendicular to the planar COT″ rings for both Dy(III)COT″2 and Dy(III)2COT″3 complexes due to the presence of trimethylsilyl groups on the COT″ rings. If these bulky groups are removed, the calculations predict reorientation of the anisotropic axis can be achieved.

  18. Stepwise transformation of the molecular building blocks in a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie

    2013-04-24

    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal-organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C 44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd 2(COO)6]2- molecular building blocks (MBBs) into novel tetranuclear [Cu4X2(COO)6(S) 2] MBBs to form P11-Cu. The transformation occurs in single-crystal to single-crystal fashion, and its stepwise mechanism was studied by varying the Cd2+/Cu2+ ratio of the solution in which crystals of P11 were immersed. P11-16/1 (Cd in framework retained, Cd in encapsulated porphyrins exchanged) and other intermediate phases were thereby isolated and structurally characterized. P11-16/1 and P11-Cu retain the microporosity of P11, and the relatively larger MBBs in P11-Cu permit a 20% unit cell expansion and afford a higher surface area and a larger pore size. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  19. The cluster Terzan 5 as a remnant of a primordial building block of the Galactic bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Mucciarelli, A; Beccari, G; Rich, R M; Origlia, L; Lanzoni, B; Rood, R T; Valenti, E; Bellazzini, M; Ransom, S M; Cocozza, G; 10.1038/nature08581

    2009-01-01

    Globular star clusters are compact and massive stellar systems old enough to have witnessed the entire history of our Galaxy, the Milky Way. Although recent results suggest that their formation may have been more complex than previously thought, they still are the best approximation to a stellar population formed over a relatively short time scale (less than 1 Gyr) and with virtually no dispersion in the iron content. Indeed, only one cluster-like system (omega Centauri) in the Galactic halo is known to have multiple stellar populations with a significant spread in iron abundance and age4,5. Similar findings in the Galactic bulge have been hampered by the obscuration arising from thick and varying layers of interstellar dust. Here we report that Terzan 5, a globular-cluster-like system in the Galactic bulge, has two stellar populations with different iron content and ages. Terzan 5 could be the surviving remnant of one of the primordial building blocks that are thought to merge and form galaxy bulges.

  20. Crystal engineering on superpolyhedral building blocks in metal–organic frameworks applied in gas adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Pin; Liu, Tian-Fu; Fordham, Stephen; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2015-11-07

    Two metal–organic frameworks [PCN-426(Ni) and PCN-427(Cu)] have been designed and synthesized to investigate the structure predictability using a SBB (supermolecular building blocks) approach. Tetratopic ligands featuring 120° angular carboxylate moieties were coordinated with a [Ni33-O)] cluster and a [Cu2O2] unit, respectively. As topologically predicted, 4-connected networks with square coordination adopted thenbonet for the Ni-MOF andssbnet for the Cu-MOF. PCN-426(Ni) was augmented with 12-connected octahedral SBBs, while PCN-427(Cu) was constructed with tetragonal open channels. After a CO2supercritical drying procedure, the PCN-426(Ni) possessed a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area as high as 3935 m2 g-1and impressively high N2uptake of 1500 cm3 g-1. This work demonstrates the generalization of the SBB strategy, finding an alternative to inconvenient synthetic processes to achieve the desired structural features.

  1. Assembly of Robust Bacterial Microcompartment Shells Using Building Blocks from an Organelle of Unknown Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassila, JK; Bernstein, SL; Kinney, JN; Axen, SD; Kerfeld, CA

    2014-05-29

    Bacterial microconnpartnnents (BMCs) sequester enzymes from the cytoplasmic environment by encapsulation inside a selectively permeable protein shell. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that many bacteria encode BMC clusters of unknown function and with diverse combinations of shell proteins. The genome of the halophilic myxobacterium Haliangium ochraceum encodes one of the most atypical sets of shell proteins in terms of composition and primary structure. We found that microconnpartnnent shells could be purified in high yield when all seven H. ochraceum BMC shell genes were expressed from a synthetic operon in Escherichia coll. These shells differ substantially from previously isolated shell systems in that they are considerably smaller and more homogeneous, with measured diameters of 39 2 nm. The size and nearly uniform geometry allowed the development of a structural model for the shells composed of 260 hexagonal units and 13 hexagons per icosahedral face. We found that new proteins could be recruited to the shells by fusion to a predicted targeting peptide sequence, setting the stage for the use of these remarkably homogeneous shells for applications such as three-dimensional scaffolding and the construction of synthetic BMCs. Our results demonstrate the value of selecting from the diversity of BMC shell building blocks found in genomic sequence data for the construction of novel compartments. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural Influence on Superatomic Orbitals of Typical Gold Nanostructure Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanrun; Gao, Yang; Xu, Dexuan; Liu, Fang; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    We compared superatomic orbitals mainly contributed by 6s atomic orbitals among spherical core-shell cluster Au13, hexagonal plane Au7 and a (5,5) nanotube segment Au35 through first-principles density functional theory calculations. The compatibility between geometry and orbital morphology influences both the presence and the energy level order of particular superatomic orbitals. Taking Au13 as a reference, which possesses a regular configuration of 1S 21P 61D 5, the hexagonal Au7 in 1S 21P 41D 1 lacks the 1P occupied superatomic orbital which is distributed out of the structural plane. Different from the nearly degenerated five occupied 1D orbitals in Au13, Au35 in 1S 21P 61D 101F 101G 61H 1 shows energy separations over 4.0 eV between split 1D regions and 1F regions according to the preference of tubular geometry to different orbital morphologies. The structural reliance of the electronic structure revealed by these typical building blocks might be informative for bottom-up design and fabrication of nanoscale devices based on a gold nanostructure and contributes to the variety and operability of nanoscale materials.

  3. Intrinsic Optical Activity and Environmental Perturbations: Solvation Effects in Chiral Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemler, Paul M.; Vaccaro, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The non-resonant interaction of electromagnetic radiation with an isotropic ensemble of chiral molecules, which causes the incident state of linear polarization to undergo a signed rotation, long has served as a metric for gauging the enantiomeric purity of asymmetric syntheses. While the underlying phenomenon of circular birefringence (CB) typically is probed in the condensed phase, recent advances in ultrasensitive circular-differential detection schemes, as exemplified by the techniques of Cavity Ring-Down Polarimetry (CRDP), have permitted the first quantitative analyses of such processes to be performed in rarefied media. Efforts to extend vapor-phase investigations of CB to new families of chiral substrates will be discussed, with particular emphasis directed towards the elucidation of intrinsic (e.g., solvent-free) properties and their mediation by environmental perturbations (e.g., solvation). Specific species targeted by this work will include the stereoselective building blocks phenylpropylene oxide and α-methylbenzyl amine, both of which exhibit pronounced solvent-dependent changes in measured optical activity. The nature of chiroptical response in different environments will be highlighted, with quantum-chemical calculations serving to unravel the structural and electronic provenance of observed behavior.

  4. Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Steen, Marijke; Stevens, Christian V

    2009-01-01

    A lot of attention is currently being paid to the transition to a biobased economy. In this movement, most efforts concentrate on the development of bioenergy applications including bioethanol, biodiesel, thermochemical conversion of biomass, and others. However, in the energy sector other nonbiomass alternatives are known, whereas no valuable alternatives are available when thinking about chemical building blocks. Therefore, it is also essential to develop new routes for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals and materials derived thereof. Such intermediates can originate either from plants or from animals. Castor oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), which grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, around one million tons of castor seeds are produced every year, the leading producing areas being India, PR China, and Brazil.2 10-Undecenoic acid or undecylenic acid is a fatty acid derived from castor oil that, owing to its bifunctional nature, has many possibilities to develop sustainable applications.

  5. Novel layered two-dimensional semiconductors as the building blocks for nano-electronic/photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guoxiong; De, Debtanu; Hadjiev, Viktor G.; Peng, Haibing

    2014-06-01

    Layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors beyond graphene have been emerging as potential building blocks for the next-generation electronic/photonic applications. Representative metal chalcogenides, including the widely studied MoS2, possess similar layered crystal structures with weak interaction between adjacent layers, thus allowing the formation of stable thin-layer crystals with thickness down to a few or even single atomic layer. Other important chalcogenides, involving earth-abundant and environment-friendly materials desirable for sustainable applications, include SnS2 (band gap: 2.1 eV) and SnS (band gap: 1.1 eV). So far, commonly adopted for research purpose are mechanical and liquid exfoliation methods for creating thin layers of such 2D semiconductors. Most recently, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was attracting significant attention as a practical method for producing thin films or crystal grains of MoS2. However, critical yet still absent is an effective experimental approach for controlling the positions of thin crystal grains of layered 2D semiconductors during the CVD process. Here we report the controlled CVD synthesis of thin crystal arrays of representative layered semiconductors (including SnS2 and SnS) at designed locations on chip, promising large-scale optoelectronic applications. Our work opens a window for future practical applications of layered 2D semiconductors in integrated nano-electronic/photonic systems.

  6. A LEON2&3 Emulation Board Qualified for Space Programs Based on Reusable Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleno, Mauro; Quere, Gregory; Chenu, Xavier

    2014-08-01

    ESA/ESTEC has granted Airbus Defense and Space a study for the development of a versatile LEON2 and LEON3 emulation board hosted on a COTS FPGA board.The LEON Emulation Board (LEB) is a component for System Simulators used as Software Validation Facilities and Operational Simulators. It is an alternative to the full software simulation of the LEON processor; additionally, because it embeds the actual VHDL of the LEON processor, it is fully representative and delivers a performance higher than the instruction-set software simulators.The LEB enables simulating in software the functions of Systems on Chip not already embedded in the LEB. It is available in 3 configurations for the LEON2 FT and the LEON3. Moreover, as it is built around a set of reusable simulation building blocks (VHDL + software driver), it can easily be reassembled to emulate more accurately different Systems on Chips (SoC).This paper presents the key functions of the LEB, its performance, applications and potential future developments.

  7. A computerized tutor prototype for prostate cryotherapy: key building blocks and system evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Yoed; Shimada, Kenji; Joshi, Purva; Sehrawat, Anjali; Keelan, Robert; Wilfong, Dona M.; McCormick, James T.

    2017-02-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of a prototype for a computer-based tutoring system for prostate cryosurgery, while reviewing its key building blocks and their benchmark performance. The tutoring system lists geometrical constraints of cryoprobe placement, displays a rendered shape of the prostate, simulates cryoprobe insertion, enables distance measurements, simulates the corresponding thermal history, and evaluates the mismatch between the target region shape and a pre-selected planning isotherm. The quality of trainee planning is measured in comparison with a computergenerated plan, created for each case study by a previously developed planning algorithm, known as bubble-packing. While the tutoring level in this study aims only at geometrical constraints on cryoprobe placement and the resulting thermal history, it creates a unique opportunity to gain insight into the process outside of the operation room. System validation of the tutor has been performed by collecting training data from surgical residents, having no prior experience or advanced knowledge of cryotherapy. Furthermore, the system has been evaluated by graduate engineering students having no formal education in medicine. In terms of match between a planning isotherm and the target region shape, results demonstrate medical residents' performance improved from 4.4% in a pretest to 37.8% in a posttest over a course of 50 minutes of training (within 10% margins from a computer-optimized plan). Comparing those results with the performance of engineering students indicates similar results, suggesting that planning of the cryoprobe layout essentially revolves around geometric considerations.

  8. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Terrestrial Planets: Building Blocks and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Terrestrial Planets: Building Blocks and Differentiation: included the following topics:Magnesium Isotopes in the Earth, Moon, Mars, and Pallasite Parent Body: High-Precision Analysis of Olivine by Laser-Ablation Multi-Collector ICPMS; Meteoritic Constraints on Collision Rates in the Primordial Asteroid Belt and Its Origin; New Constraints on the Origin of the Highly Siderophile Elements in the Earth's Upper Mantle; Further Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Isotopic Data on Planetary Materials and Consequences for Planetary Differentiation; A Deep Lunar Magma Ocean Based on Neodymium, Strontium and Hafnium Isotope Mass Balance Partial Resetting on Hf-W System by Giant Impacts; On the Problem of Metal-Silicate Equilibration During Planet Formation: Significance for Hf-W Chronometry ; Solid Metal-Liquid Metal Partitioning of Pt, Re, and Os: The Effect of Carbon; Siderophile Element Abundances in Fe-S-Ni-O Melts Segregated from Partially Molten Ordinary Chondrite Under Dynamic Conditions; Activity Coefficients of Silicon in Iron-Nickel Alloys: Experimental Determination and Relevance for Planetary Differentiation; Reinvestigation of the Ni and Co Metal-Silicate Partitioning; Metal/Silicate Paritioning of P, Ga, and W at High Pressures and Temperatures: Dependence on Silicate Melt Composition; and Closure of the Fe-S-Si Liquid Miscibility Gap at High Pressure and Its Implications for Planetary Core Formation.

  9. Nucleic acids and smart materials: advanced building blocks for logic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2014-09-03

    Logic gates can convert input signals into a defined output signal, which is the fundamental basis of computing. Inspired by molecular switching from one state to another under an external stimulus, molecular logic gates are explored extensively and recognized as an alternative to traditional silicon-based computing. Among various building blocks of molecular logic gates, nucleic acid attracts special attention owing to its specific recognition abilities and structural features. Functional materials with unique physical and chemical properties offer significant advantages and are used in many fields. The integration of nucleic acids and functional materials is expected to bring about several new phenomena. In this Progress Report, recent progress in the construction of logic gates by combining the properties of a range of smart materials with nucleic acids is introduced. According to the structural characteristics and composition, functional materials are categorized into three classes: polymers, noble-metal nanomaterials, and inorganic nanomaterials. Furthermore, the unsolved problems and future challenges in the construction of logic gates are discussed. It is hoped that broader interests in introducing new smart materials into the field are inspired and tangible applications for these constructs are found. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor

    CERN Document Server

    Frebel, Anna; Simon, Joshua D

    2009-01-01

    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. Based on the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. However, verification of the iron-deficiency and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are mandatory for demonstrating that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming the iron abundance of less than 1/4000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern mirrors th...

  11. Nanocluster building blocks of artificial square spin ice: Stray-field studies of thermal dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlit, Merlin, E-mail: pohlit@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Porrati, Fabrizio; Huth, Michael; Müller, Jens [Institute of Physics, Goethe-University Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Ohno, Yuzo; Ohno, Hideo [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We present measurements of the thermal dynamics of a Co-based single building block of an artificial square spin ice fabricated by focused electron-beam-induced deposition. We employ micro-Hall magnetometry, an ultra-sensitive tool to study the stray field emanating from magnetic nanostructures, as a new technique to access the dynamical properties during the magnetization reversal of the spin-ice nanocluster. The obtained hysteresis loop exhibits distinct steps, displaying a reduction of their “coercive field” with increasing temperature. Therefore, thermally unstable states could be repetitively prepared by relatively simple temperature and field protocols allowing one to investigate the statistics of their switching behavior within experimentally accessible timescales. For a selected switching event, we find a strong reduction of the so-prepared states' “survival time” with increasing temperature and magnetic field. Besides the possibility to control the lifetime of selected switching events at will, we find evidence for a more complex behavior caused by the special spin ice arrangement of the macrospins, i.e., that the magnetic reversal statistically follows distinct “paths” most likely driven by thermal perturbation.

  12. Standards, building codes, and certification programs for solar technology applicatons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, J. D.; Odland, R.; Barker, H.

    1979-07-01

    This report is a primer on solar standards development. It explains the development of standards, building code provisions, and certification programs and their relationship to the emerging solar technologies. These areas are important in the commercialization of solar technology because they lead to the attainment of two goals: the development of an industry infrastructure and consumer confidence. Standards activities in the four phases of the commercialization process (applied research, development, introduction, and diffusion) are discussed in relation to institutional issues. Federal policies have been in operation for a number of years to accelerate the development process for solar technology. These policies are discussed in light of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular on federal interaction with the voluntary consensus system, and in light of current activities of DOE, HUD, and other interested federal agencies. The appendices cover areas of specific interest to different audiences: activities on the state and local level; and standards, building codes, and certification programs for specific technologies. In addition, a contract for the development of a model solar document let by DOE to a model consortium is excerpted in the Appendix.

  13. Forensic intelligence framework. Part II: Study of the main generic building blocks and challenges through the examples of illicit drugs and false identity documents monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, Simon; Morelato, Marie; Ribaux, Olivier; Beavis, Alison; Tahtouh, Mark; Kirkbride, K Paul; Esseiva, Pierre; Margot, Pierre; Roux, Claude

    2015-05-01

    The development of forensic intelligence relies on the expression of suitable models that better represent the contribution of forensic intelligence in relation to the criminal justice system, policing and security. Such models assist in comparing and evaluating methods and new technologies, provide transparency and foster the development of new applications. Interestingly, strong similarities between two separate projects focusing on specific forensic science areas were recently observed. These observations have led to the induction of a general model (Part I) that could guide the use of any forensic science case data in an intelligence perspective. The present article builds upon this general approach by focusing on decisional and organisational issues. The article investigates the comparison process and evaluation system that lay at the heart of the forensic intelligence framework, advocating scientific decision criteria and a structured but flexible and dynamic architecture. These building blocks are crucial and clearly lay within the expertise of forensic scientists. However, it is only part of the problem. Forensic intelligence includes other blocks with their respective interactions, decision points and tensions (e.g. regarding how to guide detection and how to integrate forensic information with other information). Formalising these blocks identifies many questions and potential answers. Addressing these questions is essential for the progress of the discipline. Such a process requires clarifying the role and place of the forensic scientist within the whole process and their relationship to other stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipid Processing Technology: Building a Multilevel Modeling Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz Tovar, Carlos Axel; Mustaffa, Azizul Azri; Hukkerikar, Amol

    of these unit operations with respect to performance parameters such as minimum total cost, product yield improvement, operability etc., and process intensification for the retrofit of existing biofuel plants. In the fourth level the information and models developed are used as building blocks...... in the upcoming years major challenges in terms of design and development of better products and more sustainable processes. Although the oleo chemical industry is mature and based on well established processes, the complex systems that lipid compounds form, the lack of accurate predictive models...... for their physical properties and unit operation models for their processing have limited computeraided methods and tools for process synthesis, modeling and simulation to be widely used for design, analysis, and optimization of these processes. In consequence, the aim of this work is to present the development...

  15. BUILDING BLOCKS IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE CLASSROOM (PILARES BÁSICOS EN EL AULA DE IDIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coto Keith Rossina

    2010-12-01

    presents each separately, giving the idea that only one or two can be used in the language classroom, thus missing some important matters. The point of this article is that in order to be more effective, Learning Styles, Multiple Intelligences and Language Learning Strategies must intertwine, so as to create a solid building block. The author first gives an overview of each of these areas. She then explains in the review of the literature how they should be used as a closely-knit unit. Next, she provides an example of this integration through a lesson plan on the topic of environmental conservation for an Oral Communication course for English majors at School of Modern Languages, University of Costa Rica. Finally, some advice is given to instructors on the incorporation of each of these building blocks.

  16. Reversible Redox Activity in Multicomponent Metal-Organic Frameworks Constructed from Trinuclear Copper Pyrazolate Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Binbin; Pang, Qingqing; Xu, Huoshu; Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Yulin; Ma, Zhen; Weng, Linhong; Li, Qiaowei

    2017-06-14

    Inorganic functionalization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), such as incorporation of multiple inorganic building blocks with distinct metals into one structure and further modulation of the metal charges, endows the porous materials with significant properties toward their applications in catalysis. In this work, by an exploration of the role of 4-pyrazolecarboxylic acid (H2PyC) in the formation of trinuclear copper pyrazolate as a metalloligand in situ, four new MOFs with multiple components in order were constructed through one-pot synthesis. This metalloligand strategy provides multicomponent MOFs with new topologies (tub for FDM-4 and tap for FDM-5) and is also compatible with a second organic linker for cooperative construction of complex MOFs (1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid for FDM-6 and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid for FDM-7). The component multiplicity of these MOFs originates from PyC's ability to separate Cu and Zn on the basis of their differentiated binding affinities toward pyrazolate and carboxylate. These MOFs feature reversible and facile redox transformations between Cu(I)3(PyC)3 and Cu(II)3(μ-OH)(PyC)3(OH)3 without altering the connecting geometries of the units, thus further contributing to the significant catalytic activities in the oxidation of CO and aromatic alcohols and the decomposition of H2O2. This study on programming multiple inorganic components into one framework and modulating their electronic structures is an example of functionalizing the inorganic units of MOFs with a high degree of control.

  17. Leveraging "raw materials" as building blocks and bioactive signals in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renth, Amanda N; Detamore, Michael S

    2012-10-01

    Components found within the extracellular matrix (ECM) have emerged as an essential subset of biomaterials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Collagen, glycosaminoglycans, bioceramics, and ECM-based matrices are the main categories of "raw materials" used in a wide variety of tissue engineering strategies. The advantages of raw materials include their inherent ability to create a microenvironment that contains physical, chemical, and mechanical cues similar to native tissue, which prove unmatched by synthetic biomaterials alone. Moreover, these raw materials provide a head start in the regeneration of tissues by providing building blocks to be bioresorbed and incorporated into the tissue as opposed to being biodegraded into waste products and removed. This article reviews the strategies and applications of employing raw materials as components of tissue engineering constructs. Utilizing raw materials holds the potential to provide both a scaffold and a signal, perhaps even without the addition of exogenous growth factors or cytokines. Raw materials contain endogenous proteins that may also help to improve the translational success of tissue engineering solutions to progress from laboratory bench to clinical therapies. Traditionally, the tissue engineering triad has included cells, signals, and materials. Whether raw materials represent their own new paradigm or are categorized as a bridge between signals and materials, it is clear that they have emerged as a leading strategy in regenerative medicine. The common use of raw materials in commercial products as well as their growing presence in the research community speak to their potential. However, there has heretofore not been a coordinated or organized effort to classify these approaches, and as such we recommend that the use of raw materials be introduced into the collective consciousness of our field as a recognized classification of regenerative medicine strategies.

  18. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  19. International vs. domestic technology in-licensing: How do Chinese firms build their technological capabilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Yuandi

    2011-01-01

    attention in the extant literature on both innovation management and international business. However, little has been done to reach a clear understanding on whether Chinese firms can benefit from international or domestic technology in-licensing and improve their own technological capabilities. This study......This paper investigates the different impacts of international and domestic technology in-licensing for Chinese firms as licensees on their technological capability building. The evolution of firms in developing countries and development of their technological capabilities has received increasing......, therefore, pursues this endeavor by using a unique dataset from China State of Intellectual Property Office (SIPO) containing information on large Chinese firms. The findings of this empirical study indicate that firms with international technology in-licensing possess stronger technological innovation...

  20. Understanding the build-up of a technological innovation system around hydrogen and fuel cell technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suurs, Roald A.A. [Innovation Studies Group, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Business Unit Innovation and Environment, Van Mourik Broekmanweg 6, 2628 XE Delft (Netherlands); Hekkert, Marko P.; Smits, Ruud E.H.M. [Innovation Studies Group, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    This study provides insight into the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the Netherlands (1980-2007). This is done by applying a Technological Innovation System (TIS) approach. This approach takes the perspective that a technology is shaped by a surrounding network of actors, institutions and technologies. When a technology is in an early stage of development, a TIS has yet to be built up in order to propel technological progress. This build-up process is studied for the hydrogen and fuel cell innovation system in the Netherlands. This is done by systematically studying the dynamics of seven key activities that accelerated (or slowed down) developments around hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. The analysis contributes to a better understanding of these dynamics and of the drivers and barriers that caused them to emerge. The study derives important lessons for practitioners. (author)

  1. Modelling of Shaded and Unshaded Shallow-Ground Heat Pump System for a Residential Building Block in a Mediterranean Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottarelli, M.; Yousif, C.

    2017-01-01

    Heat pumps may be coupled to shallow-ground geothermal fields and used for the purpose of space heating and cooling of buildings. However, quite often it is not possible to locate the geothermal field in cleared grounds, especially in cities where building density is high and land has a high premium. This leads to the possibility of burying the geothermal field under the basement of new building blocks, before construction of the building. In the present work, the shaded-unshaded arrangement is numerically studied by coupling the software DesignBuilder-EnergyPlus to assess the building’s energy requirement with the software FEFLOW to solve the heat transfer equation in porous media. Assuming a standard residential building block, the coupling between the two software is performed by assigning the thermal energy requirement for air conditioning, as calculated by EnergyPlus, to a flat-panel typology of ground heat exchanger simplified in a 2D FEFLOW’s domain. The results show that it is necessary to opt for a dual-source heat pump (air/geothermal) system to ensure that the ground is not frozen or over-heated at peak times and to improve the overall performance of the system.

  2. Capacity building in renewable energy technologies in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, Ingvar

    2010-09-15

    The renewable energy sources are expected to provide 20-40% of the world primary energy in 2050, depending on scenarios. A key element in the mitigation of climate change is capacity building in renewable energy technologies in the developing countries, where the main energy use growth is expected. An innovative training programme for geothermal energy professionals developed in Iceland is an example of how this can be done effectively. In 1979-2009, 424 scientists/engineers from 44 developing countries have completed the 6 month courses. In many countries in Africa, Asia, C-America, and E-Europe, UNU-GTP Fellows are among the leading geothermal specialists.

  3. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Proposed and existing passive and inherent safety-related structures, systems, and components (building blocks) for advanced light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Moses, D.L.; Lewis, E.B.; Gibson, R.; Pearson, R.; Reich, W.J.; Murphy, G.A.; Staunton, R.H.; Kohn, W.E.

    1989-10-01

    A nuclear power plant is composed of many structures, systems, and components (SSCs). Examples include emergency core cooling systems, feedwater systems, and electrical systems. The design of a reactor consists of combining various SSCs (building blocks) into an integrated plant design. A new reactor design is the result of combining old SSCs in new ways or use of new SSCs. This report identifies, describes, and characterizes SSCs with passive and inherent features that can be used to assure safety in light-water reactors. Existing, proposed, and speculative technologies are described. The following approaches were used to identify the technologies: world technical literature searches, world patent searches, and discussions with universities, national laboratories and industrial vendors. 214 refs., 105 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Stability of proton and maximally symmetric minimal unification model for basic forces and building blocks of matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the hypothesis that all independent degrees of freedom of basic building blocks should be treated equally on the same footing and correlated by a possible maximal symmetry, we arrive at a 4-dimensional space-time unification model. In this model the basic building blocks are Majorana fermions in the spinor repre- sentation of 14-dimensional quantum space-time with a gauge symmetry GM4D = SO(1,3)×SU(32)×U(1)A×SU(3)F. The model leads to new physics including mirror particles of the standard model. It enables us to issue some fundamental questions that include: why our living space-time is 4-dimensional, why parity is not con- served in our world, how the stability of proton is, what the origin of CP violation is and what the dark matter can be.

  6. Stability of proton and maximally symmetric minimal unification model for basic forces and building blocks of matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YueLiang

    2007-01-01

    With the hypothesis that all independent degrees of freedom of basic building blocks should be treated equally on the same footing and correlated by a possible maximal symmetry, we arrive at a 4-dimensional space-time unification model. In this model the basic building blocks are Majorana fermions in the spinor representation of 14-dimensional quantum space-time with a gauge symmetry G4MD =SO(1,3)× SU(32)× U(1)A× SU(3)F. The model leads to new physics including mirror particles of the standard model. It enables us to issue some fundamental questions that include: why our living space-time is 4-dimensional, why parity is not conserved in our world, how the stability of proton is, what the origin of CP violation is and what the dark matter can be.

  7. Use of Mixed Micelles for Presentation of Building Blocks in a New Combinatorial Discovery Methodology: Proof-of-Concept Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Toth

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new method of combinatorial screening in which building blocks, instead of being linked together chemically, are placed on the surface of nanoparticles. Two- or three-dimensional structures form on the surface of these particles through the close approach of different building blocks, with sufficient flexibility to be able to adapt and interact with putative binding sites in biological systems. The particles assemble without the need for formation of chemical bonds, so libraries comprised of many structures can be prepared rapidly, with large quantities of material available for testing. Screening methods can include solid and solution-phase binding assays, or tissue culture models, for example looking for structures which can change the behaviour of cells in a disease-modifying manner.

  8. Energy profiling of FPGA-based PHY-layer building blocks encountered in modern wireless communication systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bartzoudis, Nikolaos; Font Bach, Oriol; Payaró Llisterri, Miquel; Pascual Iserte, Antonio; Rubio López, Javier; García Fernández, Juan José; García Armada, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Proceeding at: IEEE 8th Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM), took place 2014, Jun, 22-25 in Coruña (españa). The event web site of http://www.gtec.udc.es/sam2014/ . Characterizing the energy cost of different physical (PHY) layer building blocks is becoming increasingly important in modern cellular-based communications, considering the cross sector requirements for performance enhancements and energy savings. This paper presents energy profiling metrics of diffe...

  9. Motivational interviewing competencies among UK family nurse partnership nurses: a process evaluation component of the building blocks trial

    OpenAIRE

    Channon, Susan; Bekkers, Marie-Jet; Sanders, Julia; Cannings-John, Rebecca; Robertson, Laura; Bennert, Kristina; Butler, Christopher; Hood, Kerenza; Robling, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a person-centred counselling approach to behaviour change which is increasingly being used in public health settings, either as a stand-alone approach or in combination with other structured programmes of health promotion. One example of this is the Family Nurse Partnership (FNP) a licensed, preventative programme for first time mothers under the age of 20, delivered by specialist family nurses who are additionally trained in MI. The Building Block...

  10. Gear-like array of (H2O)12 as building blocks in one-dimensional supramolecular assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ray analysis revealed that every six Co(Hsae)2 forms a cyclic chip and every 12 water forms a novel gear-like cluster. Acting as building blocks, the gear-like water cluster and complex chip are connected in A-B fashion and extend into one-dimensional supramolecular chain. Hydrogen bond is the primary bridging force in the formation of supramolecular framework.

  11. Selectively fluorinated cyclohexane building blocks: Derivatives of carbonylated all-cis-3-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrafluorocyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Salah Ayoup

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Palladium catalysed carbonylation reactions using the meta- and para-iodo derivatives of all-cis-3-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrafluorocyclohexane (4 are illustrated as the start point for a variety of functional group interconversions. The resultant benzaldehyde and benzoic acids offer novel building blocks for further derivatisation and facilitate the incorporation of the facially polarised all-cis-1,2,4,5-tetrafluorocyclohexane motif into more advanced molecular scaffolds.

  12. Semiconductor nanowires self-assembled from colloidal CdTe nanocrystal building blocks: optical properties and application perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    RAKOVICH, YURY; DONEGAN, JOHN FRANCIS

    2012-01-01

    PUBLISHED Solution-based self-assembly of quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures (nanowires) from quasi-zero-dimensional (quantum dots) colloidal nanocrystal building blocks has proven itself as a powerful and flexible preparation technique. Polycrystalline CdTe nanowires self-assembled from light-emitting thiol-capped CdTe nanocrystals are the focus of this Feature Article. These nanowires represent an interesting model system for quantum dot solids, where electronic coupling ...

  13. Semiconductor nanowires self-assembled from colloidal CdTe nanocrystal building blocks: optical properties and application perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Rakovich, Yury P.; Jäckel, Frank; Donegan, John F.; Rogach, Andrey L

    2012-01-01

    Solution-based self-assembly of quasi-one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures (nanowires) from quasi-zero-dimensional (quantum dots) colloidal nanocrystal building blocks has proven itself as a powerful and flexible preparation technique. Polycrystalline CdTe nanowires self-assembled from light-emitting thiol-capped CdTe nanocrystals are the focus of this Feature Article. These nanowires represent an interesting model system for quantum dot solids, where electronic coupling between the i...

  14. Design and construction of self-assembling supramolecular protein complexes using artificial and fusion proteins as nanoscale building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naoya; Arai, Ryoichi

    2017-02-01

    The central goal of nanobiotechnology is to design and construct novel biomaterials of nanometer sizes. In this short review, we describe recent progress of several approaches for designing and creating artificial self-assembling protein complexes and primarily focus on the following biotechnological strategies for using artificial and fusion proteins as nanoscale building blocks: fusion proteins designed for symmetrical self-assembly; three-dimensional domain-swapped oligomers; self-assembling designed coiled-coil peptide modules; metal-directed self-assembling engineered proteins; computationally designed self-assembling de novo proteins; and self-assembling protein nanobuilding blocks (PN-Blocks) using an intermolecularly folded dimeric de novo protein. These state-of-the-art nanobiotechnologies for designing supramolecular protein complexes will facilitate the development of novel functional nanobiomaterials.

  15. Design and Field Programmable Gate Array Implementation of Basic Building Blocks for Power-Efficient Baugh-Wooley Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad H. Rais

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As growing demands on portable computing and communication systems, the power-efficient multipliers play an important role. In these multipliers basic multiplication follows the Baugh-Wooley algorithms and can easily be implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA devices because the development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs are high. These algorithms should be verified and optimized before implementation. Approach: This study presented the design and implementation of basic building blocks used in power-efficient Baugh-Wooley multipliers using FPGA Spartan-3AN device. The implementation of power-efficient Baugh-Wooley multipliers is done using Very High speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL. Results: The design and implementation of basic building blocks of power-efficient Baugh-Wooley multipliers showed reasonable FPGA resource utilization, which is an indication that rest of the available resources could be utilized for other embedded resources. Conclusion: The Spartan-3AN FPGA device could be used at this stage of basic building blocks reasonably.

  16. White biotechnology for green chemistry: fermentative 2-oxocarboxylic acids as novel building blocks for subsequent chemical syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottmeister, U; Aurich, A; Wilde, H; Andersch, J; Schmidt, S; Sicker, D

    2005-12-01

    Functionalized compounds, which are difficult to produce by classical chemical synthesis, are of special interest as biotechnologically available targets. They represent useful building blocks for subsequent organic syntheses, wherein they can undergo stereoselective or regioselective reactions. "White Biotechnology" (as defined by the European Chemical Industry [ http://www.europabio.org/white_biotech.htm ], as part of a sustainable "Green Chemistry,") supports new applications of chemicals produced via biotechnology. Environmental aspects of this interdisciplinary combination include: Use of renewable feedstock Optimization of biotechnological processes by means of: New "high performance" microorganisms On-line measurement of substrates and products in bioreactors Alternative product isolation, resulting in higher yields, and lower energy demand In this overview we describe biotechnologically produced pyruvic, 2-oxopentaric and 2-oxohexaric acids as promising new building blocks for synthetic chemistry. In the first part, the microbial formation of 2-oxocarboxylic acids (2-OCAs) in general, and optimization of the fermentation steps required to form pyruvic acid, 2-oxoglutaric acid, and 2-oxo-D-gluconic acid are described, highlighting the fundamental advantages in comparison to chemical syntheses. In the second part, a set of chemical formula schemes demonstrate that 2-OCAs are applicable as building blocks in the chemical synthesis of, e.g., hydrophilic triazines, spiro-connected heterocycles, benzotriazines, and pyranoic amino acids. Finally, some perspectives are discussed.

  17. RELATIVE DISTANCE: THE KEY TO THE SHAPE OF HEPATIC BUILDING BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M Ruijter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The delineation and the shape of the smallest structural units of the liver is still the subject of debate. However,the blood flow from an upstream terminal branch of the portal vein to a downstream central vein is thought to induce a functional zonation in hepatocyte gene expression. This property was used to determine boundary conditions for the shape of the hepatic building blocks. Histochemical techniques that specifically label periportally or pericentrally expressed enzymes can be used to distinguish periportal and pericentral areas in a liver section. Pairs of images from aligned serial sections, one stained for a portal and the next for a central enzyme, are used. Segmentation and skeletonisation of these images results in the skeletons of the portal and central areas. Distance transformation with respect to these skeletons gives for each point in the image pair the distance to the nearest terminal branches of the portal vein and the central vein. For each point the relative position on the porto-central radius can then be calculated as its distance to a portal vein divided by the sum of its portal and its central distance. In the resulting relative radius image, the area occupied by 'zones' of equivalent relative radius can be measured. According to the principle of Delesse the relative area of a zone in the image is equal to the relative volume of that zone in the tissue. For structural units of plate-like, cylindrical or spherical shape, the relative volume of a zone is equal to the relative radius of that zone to the power 1, 2 or 3, respectively. Thus, the exponent in the relative area - relative radius relation gives information on the shape of the structural unit. Measurement of the areas of each relative radius zone and determination of the area - radius relation in images of random sections of adult mouse liver results in an exponent of 1.1. This suggests that the smallest structural unit of the mouse liver has the shape of a

  18. Air-core microcavities and metal-dielectric filters - building blocks for optofluidic microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Trevor Warren

    This thesis describes a study on two optical devices intended to be building blocks for the creation of integrated optical/microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. First, arrays of curved-mirror dome-shaped microcavities were fabricated by buckling self-assembly of a-Si/SiO2 multilayers. This novel technique employs controlled, stress-induced film delamination to form highly symmetric cavities with minimal roughness defects or geometrical imperfections. Measured cavity heights were in good agreement with predictions from elastic buckling theory. Also, the measured finesse (> 103) and quality factor (> 104 in the 1550-nm range) were close to reflectance-limited predictions, indicating low defects and roughness. Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian modes were observable, indicating a high degree of cylindrical symmetry. In the second part of the research, transmittance in periodic metal-dielectric multilayer structures was studied. Metal-dielectric stacks have many potential applications in optofluidic microsystems, including as transmission filters, superlenses, and substrates for surface plasmon sensors. In this work, we showed that potential transmittance theory provides a good method for describing the tunneling of photons through metal-dielectric stacks, for both Fabry-Perot and surface plasmon resonances. This approach explains the well-known fact that for a given thickness of metal, subdividing the metal into several thin films can increase the maximum transmittance. Conditions for admittance matching of dielectric-metal-dielectric unit cells to an external air medium were explored for Fabry-Perot based tunneling, revealing that thicker metal films require higher-index dielectrics for optimal admittance matching. It was also shown for the first time that potential transmittance theory can be used to predict the maximum possible transmittance in surface-plasmon-mediated tunneling. In a subsequent study, potential transmittance was used to derive an expression for

  19. Intelligence, integration & industrialisation for the building services technologies of the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis of this paper is that the construction sector's industrial transformation needs to focus on integrating building services technologies in the buildings of the future. This can be achieved by analysing developments in intelligent building services, exploring design strategies...... for effectively integrating building services, and by developing new industrialised solutions for building services technologies. This paper is based on current Danish research and practice, and it is based on linking research knowledge on building services to knowledge on user needs, building design and new...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPORT-SUBSTITUTING TECHNOLOGIES FOR BUILDING MATERIAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Berezovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on rational usage of mineral resources. In particular, it has shown the possibility to increase a period of raw material serviceability and its application for production of building products depending on chemical and mineralogical composition of the waste. Analysis of the executed investigations shows that import substitution of anthracite, lignite and black coal for local fuels (milled peat and its sub-standard product is possible in the production technology of porous building materials.A mathematical model for drying process has been developed in the paper. Technology for thermal performance of a sintering machine with calculation of its length at the given pallet speed has been proposed on the basis of the developed model. Once-through circulation of flue gases and heated materials is the main specific feature of belt sintering machines being used in production. In such a case the whole drying process can be divided into two periods: a period of constant drying rate and a period of falling drying rate. Calculations have shown that the drying rate depends on moisture content but it does not depend on heat exchange Bio-criteria, however, heating rate is a function of temperature and Biq. A mechanism of moisture transfer using various drying methods is the same as in an environment with constant temperature and so in an environment with variable temperature. Application of the mathematical model provides the possibility to save significantly power resources expended for drying process.The paper gives description of methodology for calculation of technologically important optimum parameters for sintering processes of agglomeration while using milled peat.

  1. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-04-07

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  2. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  3. Farewell faults in complex fault blocks with multi-technological integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guang-lin; HU Xiao-hui; YAN Jing-hua

    2008-01-01

    In the middle and second half of oilfield development, further exploration and development of petroleum reservoirs in complex fault blocks are major tasks. Based on the characteristics of fully developed farewell faults in the Wenweigu oil field and the data from 3D earthquakes, RFT, HDT and other techniques, farewell faults and their distribution were identified. Conformation of the fault blocks has been provided and the precision of describing the farewell faults improved. Research technology of farewell faults has applied these methods in this region.

  4. COMPETENCE BUILDING FRAMEWORK REQUIREMENTS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mohan Bhatt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive efforts have been evolving continuously for the betterment of the services of the Information Technology for Educational Management(ITEM. These services require data intensive and communication intensive applications. Due to the massive growth of information, situation becomes difficult to manage these services. Here the role of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT infrastructure particularly data centre with communication components becomes important to facilitate these services. The present paper discusses the related issues such as competent staff, appropriate ICT infrastructure, ICT acceptance level etc. required for ITEM competence building framework considering the earlier approach for core competences for ITEM. It this connection, it is also necessary to consider the procurement of standard and appropriate ICT facilities. This will help in the integration of these facilities for the future expansion. This will also enable to create and foresee the impact of the pairing the management with information, technology, and education components individually and combined. These efforts will establish a strong coupling between the ITEM activities and resource management for effective implementation of the framework.

  5. Culture’s building blocks: Investigating cultural evolution in a LEGO construction task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGraw, John J.; Wallot, Sebastian; Mitkidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    the ways people develop conventions in a series of LEGO construction tasks. The data revealed a surprising pattern in the selection of building bricks as well as features of car design across consecutive building sessions. Our findings support a novel methodology for studying the development...... and transmission of culture through the microcosm of interactive LEGO design and assembly....

  6. Sick building syndrome in blocks of an academic institution of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Ortiz Terán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2015/04/28 - Accepted: 2015/06/17This research focusses on characterizing the sick building syndrome (SBS on three buildings of the Engineering Sciences Faculty, at the Occidental Campus of the Universidad Tecnológica Equinoccial. By means of a comparative analysis between the prevalence result obtained within the research work and a comparison with the allowable levels according to NTP290 Spanish Code, determination was made that, in effect SBS exists in the studied buildings. The physical risk questionnaire was applied to the universe of studied people (N=64. Based on the results and in accordance to the prevalence appraisal, a proposal was formulated for the remediation of the involved working conditions on the studied buildings. This research will serve as an institutional reference for the building quality indicator of the University facilities and also for future researches.

  7. Open standard building in South Africa: new concepts, strategies and technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ” of the structures prohibited adaptation over time. This paper constructs a framework for developing, validating, and applying Open Standard Building in South Africa. The paper finds that Open Standard Building concepts, strategies and technologies can deliver...

  8. Building Robust E-learning Software Systems Using Web Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana BUTUCEA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a robust e-learning software platform represents a major challenge for both the project manager and the development team. Since functionalities of these software systems improves and grows by the day, several aspects must be taken into consideration – e.g. workflows, use-casesor alternative scenarios – in order to create a well standardized and fully functional integrated learning management system. The paper will focus on a model of implementation for an e-learning software system, analyzing its features, its functional mechanisms as well as exemplifying an implementation algorithm. A list of some of the mostly used web technologies (both server-side and client-side will be analyzed and a discussion over major security leaks of web applicationswill also be put in discussion.

  9. Simulation Technology Laboratory Building 970 hazards assessment document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.L.; Starr, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Simulation Technology Laboratory, Building 970. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 78 and 46 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters.

  10. Building Learning Modules for Undergraduate Education Using LEAD Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R. D.; Yalda, S.

    2006-12-01

    Linked Environments for Atmospheric Discovery (LEAD) has as its goal to make meteorological data, forecast models, and analysis and visualization tools available to anyone who wants to interactively explore the weather as it evolves. LEAD advances through the development and beta-deployment of Integrated Test Beds (ITBs), which are technology build-outs that are the fruition of collaborative IT and meteorological research. As the ITBs mature, opportunities emerge for the integration of this new technological capability into the education arena. The LEAD education and outreach initiative is aimed at bringing new capabilities into classroom from the middle school level to graduate education and beyond, and ensuring the congruency of this technology with curricular. One of the principal goals of LEAD is to democratize the availability of advanced weather technologies for research and education. The degree of democratization is tied to the growth of student knowledge and skills, and is correlated with education level (though not for every student in the same way). The average high school student may experience LEAD through an environment that retains a higher level of instructor control compared to the undergraduate and graduate student. This is necessary to accommodate not only differences in knowledge and skills, but the computer capabilities in the classroom such that the "teachable moment" is not lost.Undergraduates will have the opportunity to query observation data and model output, explore and discover relationships through concept mapping using an ontology service, select domains of interest based on current weather, and employ an experiment builder within the LEAD portal as an interface to configure, launch the WRF model, monitor the workflow, and visualize results using Unidata's Integrated Data Viewer (IDV), whether it be on a local server or across the TeraGrid. Such a robust and comprehensive suite of tools and services can create new paradigms for

  11. Combination of ionic self-assembly and hydrogen bonding as a tool for the synthesis of liquid-crystalline materials and organogelators from a simple building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerel, Franck; Faul, Charl F J

    2003-08-07

    In this communication we report on the facile combination of hydrogen bonding and the ionic self-assembly (ISA) process to produce organized materials and fiber-containing organogel superstructures from functionalised oligoelectrolytic building blocks.

  12. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Research and Development 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for research and development, including residential and commercial integration, lighting, HVAC and water heating, envelope, windows, and analysis tools.

  13. Azaborabutadienes: Synthesis by Metal-Free Carboboration of Nitriles and Utility as Building Blocks for B,N-Heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingbing; Lu, Wei; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Kinjo, Rei

    2016-11-14

    Metal-free regioselective carboboration of arylnitriles with L2 PhB: (1: L=oxazol-2-ylidene) catalyzed by Et3 B afforded the unprecedented acyclic 2-aza-4-borabutadienes 2, thus demonstrating a new strategy to construct a B,C,N-mixed π-system involving B=C and C=N bonds. Thermal isomerization of 2 gave C-borylimines (3), and diverse reactivity of 2 a towards several substrates, such as H(+) , F(+) , O2 , S, Se, and isonitriles, allowed construction of boron-containing heterocycles with various ring sizes, thus illustrating the utility of 2 as a synthetic building block.

  14. Characterization of low loss microstrip resonators as a building block for circuit QED in a 3D waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoepfl, D.; Muppalla, P. R.; Schneider, C. M. F.; Kasemann, S.; Partel, S.; Kirchmair, G.

    2017-08-01

    Here we present the microwave characterization of microstrip resonators, made from aluminum and niobium, inside a 3D microwave waveguide. In the low temperature, low power limit internal quality factors of up to one million were reached. We found a good agreement to models predicting conductive losses and losses to two level systems for increasing temperature. The setup presented here is appealing for testing materials and structures, as it is free of wire bonds and offers a well controlled microwave environment. In combination with transmon qubits, these resonators serve as a building block for a novel circuit QED architecture inside a rectangular waveguide.

  15. Building of the rating assessments of the Russian Federation subjects by the blocks of socio-economic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Molchanova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article implements the econometric approach to the building of rating assessments of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The author defines three blocks of indicators for the construction of integral indices: “quality of the population”, “welfare of the population” and “quality of the social sphere”. They serve as the basis for determining the value of a single combined integral indicator. The author also gives recommendations on the improvement of the medical and demographic situation and enhancement of the “quality of the population” at the regional level

  16. Building block extraction and classification by means of Markov random fields using aerial imagery and LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsolis, E.; Sigelle, M.; Charou, E.

    2016-10-01

    Building detection has been a prominent area in the area of image classification. Most of the research effort is adapted to the specific application requirements and available datasets. Our dataset includes aerial orthophotos (with spatial resolution 20cm), a DSM generated from LiDAR (with spatial resolution 1m and elevation resolution 20 cm) and DTM (spatial resolution 2m) from an area of Athens, Greece. Our aim is to classify these data by means of Markov Random Fields (MRFs) in a Bayesian framework for building block extraction and perform a comparative analysis with other supervised classification techniques namely Feed Forward Neural Net (FFNN), Cascade-Correlation Neural Network (CCNN), Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). We evaluated the performance of each method using a subset of the test area. We present the classified images, and statistical measures (confusion matrix, kappa coefficient and overall accuracy). Our results demonstrate that the MRFs and FFNN perform better than the other methods.

  17. Deconstructing Building Blocks: Preschoolers' Spatial Assembly Performance Relates to Early Mathematical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdine, Brian N.; Golinkoff, Roberta M.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Newcombe, Nora S.; Filipowicz, Andrew T.; Chang, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on three main goals: First, 3-year-olds' spatial assembly skills are probed using interlocking block constructions (N = 102). A detailed scoring scheme provides insight into early spatial processing and offers information beyond a basic accuracy score. Second, the relation of spatial assembly to early mathematical skills…

  18. Power Block Geometry Applied to the Building of Power Electronics Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, E. C., Jr.; da Silva, E. R. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology, Power Block Geometry (PBG), for the presentation of power electronics topologies that process ac voltage. PBG's strategy uses formal methods based on a geometrical representation with particular rules and defines a universe with axioms and conjectures to establish a formation law. It allows power…

  19. Development of valence-directed nanoparticle building blocks on the basis of controlled bio/nano-interfacing chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hwan

    The assembly of nanoparticles in controllable and predictable ways would not only aid practical nanoscale assembly, which requires accurate and scalable assembly of large and complex nanoscale structures, but also would increase their utility for many applications, including electronics, optics, sensing and imaging, medical diagnostics, etc. Well-defined and controlled functionality and directionality of the building blocks are essential to actively control the molecular assembly processes at the nanometer scale. Such controls over the functionality and directionality would enable us to construct sophisticated nanostructures to take advantage of the increasing number of available nanocomponents and ultimately to approximate the complexity and the functionality of current microfabrication. We have developed a serial solid-phase placement approach to synthesize anisotropically or symmetrically functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), in which the functionality and directionality (e.g., numbers, locations, and orientations) of the functional ligands are controlled. Two types of bi-functionalized (bif-) AuNPs were synthesized at a site-specific manner with increased yield and accuracy: (1) homo-bif-AuNPs with two carboxyl groups at ˜180° angle (para-configuration) and (2) hetero-bif-AuNPs with one carboxyl and one amine functional groups at less than 180°, but greater than 90° angle (meta-configuration). With such control, we successfully demonstrated the assembly of intentionally designed one-dimensional (1D) chains with homo-bif-AuNPs and two-dimensional (2D) rings with hetero-bif-AuNPs, confirming the high functional as well as directional selectivity of the functionalized NPs. This study represents an important step towards accurate, reliable, and scaled-up manufacturing of complex nanoscale structures, potentially making 'bottom-up' nanofabrication of practical use. We have further developed the ligand replacement technology to achieve such active controls

  20. The IMPACT Common Module - A Low Cost, Reconfigurable Building Block for Next Generation Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    ADC ,” ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers, pp. 182 -183, Feb. 2011. 17 A. Ali, et al. , “A 14b 1GS/s RF sampling pipelined ADC with background calibration...both communications and radar functions), etc. Although their performance is being characterized by the research community , these ESAs, and most of...IMPACT Block Diagram Analog to Digital Conversion Stanford University is providing an 8 bit analog-to-digital converter ( ADC ) capable of sampling at

  1. Developing the basic building blocks of mathematics to be employed in practical embedded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tickle, A J; Harvey, P K; Smith, J S [Intelligence Engineering and Industrial Automation Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Wu, F, E-mail: a.j.tickle@liverpool.ac.u [RF Engines Ltd, Innovation Centre, St. Cross Business Park, Newport, Isle of Wight, PO30 5WB (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Mathematics is vitally important as it is used in many areas of science and engineering, in particular are functions such as sine, cosine and the exponent in addition to being to able to carry out such tasks as decimal division. The sine wave is vitally important in physics and communications due to its ability to retain its waveshape when added to another sine wave of the same frequency and arbitrary phase. It is the only periodic waveform that has this property and leads to techniques such as Fourier analysis. Unfortunately these blocks are not included in the standard DSP Builder blockset in Simulink and so a method of creating these operations must be created if this methodology is to be employed in real world tasks such as power relay protection and stereo vision systems. Shown here is a method of performing these calculations using the limited blocks provided for a 50-bit based embedded system with a discussion about the accuracy when compared to traditional digital system counterparts. The order of the equations used and the scaling factors of the blocks are investigated to provide evidence of why certain values need to be changed depending upon the calculation being performed.

  2. Synthesis of histone proteins by CPE ligation using a recombinant peptide as the C-terminal building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Toru; Yoshikawa, Ryo; Fujiyoshi, Yuki; Mishima, Yuichi; Hojo, Hironobu; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2015-11-01

    The post-translational modification of histones plays an important role in gene expression. We report herein on a method for synthesizing such modified histones by ligating chemically prepared N-terminal peptides and C-terminal recombinant peptide building blocks. Based on their chemical synthesis, core histones can be categorized as two types; histones H2A, H2B and H4 which contain no Cys residues, and histone H3 which contains a Cys residue(s) in the C-terminal region. A combination of native chemical ligation and desulphurization can be simply used to prepare histones without Cys residues. For the synthesis of histone H3, the endogenous Cys residue(s) must be selectively protected, while keeping the N-terminal Cys residue of the C-terminal building block that is introduced for purposes of chemical ligation unprotected. To this end, a phenacyl group was successfully utilized to protect endogenous Cys residue(s), and the recombinant peptide was ligated with a peptide containing a Cys-Pro ester (CPE) sequence as a thioester precursor. Using this approach it was possible to prepare all of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 with any modifications. The resulting proteins could then be used to prepare a core histone library of proteins that have been post-translationally modified.

  3. The building blocks of drinking experience across men and women: A case study with craft and industrial beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Corona, Carlos; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Chollet, Sylvie; Valentin, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    In today's market, every product seems to be marked by the label of "experience". It is expected that successful products give the consumer "extraordinary experiences". The research in consumption experience is growing, but much work still needs to be done to understand the food and beverage experience. A qualitative study was conducted using contextual focus groups to explore the building blocks of consumers' drinking experience of industrial and craft beers. The results show that drinking experience is shaped by our cognitive, sensory or affective systems, especially during the core consumption experience. Elements such as attitudes, consumption habits, and individual versus social consumption, shopping experience and product benefits are also responsible for shaping the experience, but are more relevant during the pre-consumption or post-consumption experience. Gender differences occur more frequently in the affective experience, as women search more for relaxation while men for excitement and stimulation while drinking beer. When comparing industrial users versus craft, in the latter the cognitive and shopping experiences are more relevant. Overall, the results showed that the drinking experience of beers can be studied as a function of the salient human system used during product interaction, and this systems act as the building blocks of the drinking experience of beer. This information can be applied in consumer research studies to further study the experiential differences across products and consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Theoretical modeling of 2D porous matrices with tunable architecture: From cruciform molecular building blocks to enantioselective adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperski, Adam; Rżysko, Wojciech; Szabelski, Paweł

    2016-12-01

    The ability of capturing guest molecules in a selective way is one of desirable properties of modern structured adsorbents. This refers to a wide class of guest molecules, especially to those which are chiral and whose enantiomers are to be efficiently separated. In this contribution, using Monte Carlo modeling, we show how simple molecular building blocks with cruciform shape can be used to create 2D porous matrices with tunable adsorptive properties. To that end we consider different self-assembled structures comprising cross-shaped molecules and probe their ability to retain model guest molecules differing in size and shape. In particular we focus on the adsorption of enantiomeric pairs on these substrates and quantify the associated selectivity. The obtained results show that a suitable choice of the building block, including size and aspect ratio allows for the creation of 2D functional matrices with programmed adsorption performance. The findings of our theoretical investigations can be helpful in designing molecular guest-host systems with potential applications in separations, sensing and heterogeneous catalysis.

  5. Bifunctional pincer-type organometallics as substrates for organic transformations and as novel building blocks for polymetallic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gema; Albrecht, Martin; Schoenmaker, Jeroen; Ford, Alan; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; van Koten, Gerard

    2002-05-08

    The reactivity of the bifunctionalized ligand NC(Br)N-I 1 [IC(6)H(2)(CH(2)NMe(2))(2)-3,5-Br-4] has been studied as a versatile synthon for organic and/or organometallic synthesis. Chemoselective metalation (M = Pd, Pt, Li) at the C(aryl)-I or C(aryl)-Br bonds was achieved by choosing the appropriate metal precursors. In this way a series of Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes were prepared that have a second functional group available for further reactions. These Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes were subjected to a wide range of organic and organometallic reactions, revealing the remarkable stability of their M-C sigma-bond and opening an easy route for the synthesis of mono- and (hetero)bimetallic building blocks. The scope of the chemistry of such building blocks shows that they are good candidates for use in the synthesis of dendrimers, bioorganometallic systems, or polymetallic materials. The X-ray crystal structures of the most representative complexes (2, 3a, 19, 20, and 24) are also reported.

  6. Accelerating the green agenda through innovative building technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available of clinics, schools, and student residences. The aim of the study was to encourage innovation in the building industry as a means of accelerating green building. Green building rating systems include, as part of their objectives, demonstrating leadership...

  7. The Role of public agencies in fostering new technology and innovation in building

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dibner, David R; Lemer, Andrew C

    1992-01-01

    ... AND INNOVATION IN BUILDING COMMITTEE ON NEW TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN BUILDING Building Research Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council David R. Dibner Andrew C. Lemer Editors NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1992 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version f...

  8. Technological options for and Chinese government regulation of building energy efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANYaming; LINZhenguo; FUXiangzhao

    2003-01-01

    Improvement of building energy efficiency, as a part of sustainable development strategies, makes great contribution to global environment protection and energy security. Presented in this paper are (i) a comprehensive overview of the technological options for building energy efficiency, (ii) government regulation of building energy efficiency, especially in China, (iii) some suggestions suitable for China.

  9. Atomic layer deposition assisted pattern transfer technology for ultra-thin block copolymer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wenhui; Luo, Jun; Meng, Lingkuan; Li, Junjie; Xiang, Jinjuan; Li, Junfeng; Wang, Wenwu; Chen, Dapeng; Ye, Tianchun; Zhao, Chao

    2016-08-31

    As an emerging developing technique for next-generation lithography, directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymer (BCP) has attracted numerous attention and has been a potential alternative to supplement the intrinsic limitations of conventional photolithography. In this work, the self-assembling properties of a lamellar diblock copolymer poly(styrene-b-methylmethacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA, 22k-b-22k, L{sub 0} = 25 nm) on Si substrate and an atomic layer deposition (ALD)-assisted pattern transfer technology for the application of DSA beyond 16/14 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology nodes, were investigated. Firstly, two key processing parameters of DSA, i.e. annealing temperatures and durations of BCP films, were optimized to achieve low defect density and high productivity. After phase separation of BCP films, self-assembling patterns of low defect density should be transferred to the substrate. However, due to the nano-scale thickness and the weak resistance of BCP films to dry etching, it is nearly impossible to transfer the BCP patterns directly to the substrate. Therefore, an ALD-based technology was explored in this work, in which deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} selectively reacts with PMMA blocks thus hardening the PMMA patterns. After removing PS blocks by plasma etching, hardened PMMA patterns were left and transferred to underneath SiO{sub 2} hard mask layer. Using this patterned hard mask, nanowire array of 25 nm pitch were realized on Si substrate. From this work, a high-throughput DSA baseline flow and related ALD-assisted pattern transfer technique were developed and proved to have good capability with the mainstream CMOS technology. - Highlights: • Optimization on self-assembly process for high productivity and low defectivity • Enhancement of etching ratio and resistance by atomic layer deposition (ALD) • A hard mask was used for pattern quality improvement and contamination control.

  10. Complexities in building innovation systems : the case of radical medical technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukk, P.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to facilitate a further understanding of how firms behind innovative technologies deal with different complexities in system-building strategies and the co-dependencies among different technologies, actors and system-building activities, while contributing to the

  11. Complexities in building innovation systems : the case of radical medical technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukk, P.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to facilitate a further understanding of how firms behind innovative technologies deal with different complexities in system-building strategies and the co-dependencies among different technologies, actors and system-building activities, while contributing to the buil

  12. A tribo-mechanical analysis of PVA-based building-blocks for implementation in a 2-layered skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Hurtado, M; de Vries, E G; Zeng, X; van der Heide, E

    2016-09-01

    Poly(vinyl) alcohol hydrogel (PVA) is a well-known polymer widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility properties and easy manufacturing. In this work, the tribo-mechanical properties of PVA-based blocks are studied to evaluate their suitability as a part of a structure simulating the length scale dependence of human skin. Thus, blocks of pure PVA and PVA mixed with Cellulose (PVA-Cel) were synthesised via freezing/thawing cycles and their mechanical properties were determined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and creep tests. The dynamic tests addressed to elastic moduli between 38 and 50kPa for the PVA and PVA-Cel, respectively. The fitting of the creep compliance tests in the SLS model confirmed the viscoelastic behaviour of the samples with retardation times of 23 and 16 seconds for the PVA and PVA-Cel, respectively. Micro indentation tests were also achieved and the results indicated elastic moduli in the same range of the dynamic tests. Specifically, values between 45-55 and 56-81kPa were obtained for the PVA and PVA-Cel samples, respectively. The tribological results indicated values of 0.55 at low forces for the PVA decreasing to 0.13 at higher forces. The PVA-Cel blocks showed lower friction even at low forces with values between 0.2 and 0.07. The implementation of these building blocks in the design of a 2-layered skin model (2LSM) is also presented in this work. The 2LSM was stamped with four different textures and their surface properties were evaluated. The hydration of the 2LSM was also evaluated with a corneometer and the results indicated a gradient of hydration comparable to the human skin.

  13. Optimal Technology Investment and Operation in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings with Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has launched the Zero-Net-Energy (ZNE) Commercial Building Initiative (CBI) in order to develop commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge energy-efficient technologies and meet their remaining energy needs through on-site renewable energy generation. We examine how such buildings may be implemented within the context of a cos...

  14. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  15. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG)- Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Donisha; Harris, Barbara; Blue, Cynthia; Gaskins, Charla

    2014-09-16

    The original BetterBuildings for Greensboro grant program included an outreach campaign to inform 100% of the Greensboro community about the benefits of reducing energy use; a plan to reduce energy consumption in at least 34% of the homes and 10% of the other buildings in the east Greensboro target area; and a plan to create and retain jobs in the energy conservation industry. Under the original program structure the City of Greensboro planned to partner with local and regional lenders to create a diversified portfolio of loan products to meet the needs of various income levels and building types. All participants would participate in the loan programs as a method of meeting the program’s 5 to1 private capital match/leverage requirements. In June 2011 the program was restructured to include partnerships with large commercial and multifamily projects, with these partners providing the greater portion of the required match/leverage. The geographic focus was revised to include reducing energy consumption across the entire City of Greensboro, targeting neighborhoods with high concentrations of low-moderate income households and aged housing stock. The community outreach component used a neighborhood-based approach to train community residents and volunteers to conduct door-to-door neighborhood sweeps; delivered high quality information on available program resources; helped residents to evaluate alternative energy efficiency measures and alternative financing sources; assisted with contractor selections and monitoring/evaluation of work; coordinated activities with BetterBuildings program partners; and collected data required by the Department of Energy. Additionally, HERO (Home Energy Response Officers) delivered intro packages (energy efficiency information and products) to thousands of households at the initial point of contact. A pilot program (Early Adopters) was offered from March 1, 2011 through June 30, 2011. The Early Adopters program was designed to offer

  16. Computer-aided design of nanostructures from self- and directed-assembly of soft matter building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Dac

    2011-12-01

    Functional materials that are active at nanometer scales and adaptive to environment have been highly desirable for a huge array of novel applications ranging from photonics, sensing, fuel cells, smart materials to drug delivery and miniature robots. These bio-inspired features imply that the underlying structure of this type of materials should possess a well-defined ordering as well as the ability to reconfigure in response to a given external stimulus such as temperature, electric field, pH or light. In this thesis, we employ computer simulation as a design tool, demonstrating that various ordered and reconfigurable structures can be obtained from the self- and directed-assembly of soft matter nano-building blocks such as nanoparticles, polymer-tethered nanoparticles and colloidal particles. We show that, besides thermodynamic parameters, the self-assembly of these building blocks is governed by nanoparticle geometry, the number and attachment location of tethers, solvent selectivity, balance between attractive and repulsive forces, nanoparticle size polydispersity, and field strength. We demonstrate that higher-order nanostructures, i.e. those for which the correlation length is much greater than the length scale of individual assembling building blocks, can be hierarchically assembled. For instance, bilayer sheets formed by laterally tethered rods fold into spiral scrolls and helical structures, which are able to adopt different morphologies depending on the environmental condition. We find that a square grid structure formed by laterally tethered nanorods can be transformed into a bilayer sheet structure, and vice versa, upon shortening, or lengthening, the rod segments, respectively. From these inspiring results, we propose a general scheme by which shape-shifting particles are employed to induce the reconfiguration of pre-assembled structures. Finally, we investigate the role of an external field in assisting the formation of assembled structures that would

  17. Orientation of Government’s Role in Building the Technology System of Circular Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article expounds the economic characteristics of circular agricultural technology.Since the circular agricultural technology has characteristics and externality of public goods,the government participation is necessary in building the technology system of circular agriculture,in order to avoid "free rider" behavior in the consumption of public goods and internalize externality.We analyze the orientation of government’s role in building the technology system of circular agriculture:the government is the leader,designer,organizer and regulator in building the technology system of circular agriculture;the government orientates the four roles precisely in building the technology system of circular agriculture,to ensure that they do not cross the line,but be indispensable all the while.

  18. Simulation Technology of Environmental Impacts by Zero-energy Residential Buildings Based on Emergy Analysis Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhou; XiaoLong Xue; WangShu Yang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation technology of environmental impact for the building. By emergy analysis method, emergy costs of building( or construction engineering) can be calculated in the life cycle. It includes the engineering cost, environmental cost and social cost of building. Through integrating GIS technology with multi-agent technology, life cycle substance and energy metabolism of building ( construction engineering) can be simulated and their environmental influence can be dynamically displayed. Based on the case study of entries works ‘Sunny Inside’ by Xiamen University in 2013 China International Solar Decathlon Competition, we discovered the changing pattern of surrounding environmental impact from waste streams of the zero-energy building and ordinary construction. The simulation results verified and showed the Odum principles of maximum power. This paper provides a new research perspective and integration approach for the environmental impact assessment in building and construction engineering. The result will help decision-making in design and construction engineering scheme.

  19. The Magic Au60 Nanocluster: A New Cluster-Assembled Material with Five Au13 Building Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongbo; Fu, Fangyu; Zhang, Jun; Chai, Jinsong; Kang, Xi; Li, Peng; Li, Shengli; Zhou, Hongping; Zhu, Manzhou

    2015-07-13

    Herein, we report the synthesis and atomic structure of the cluster-assembled [Au60Se2(Ph3P)10(SeR)15](+) material. Five icosahedral Au13 building blocks from a closed gold ring with Au-Se-Au linkages. Interestingly, two Se atoms (without the phenyl tail) locate in the center of the cluster, stabilized by the Se-(Au)5 interactions. The ring-like nanocluster is unprecedented in previous experimental and theoretical studies of gold nanocluster structures. In addition, our optical and electrochemical studies show that the electronic properties of the icosahedral Au13 units still remain unchanged in the penta-twinned Au60 nanocluster, and this new material might be a promising in optical limiting material. This work offers a basis for deep understanding on controlling the cluster-assembled materials for tailoring their functionalities. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hierarchical assembly of inorganic nanostructure building blocks to octahedral superstructures-a true template-free self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL-32816 (United States); Karakoti, Ajay S [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL-32816 (United States); Seal, Sudipta [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL-32816 (United States)

    2007-02-21

    A room temperature, template-free, wet chemical synthesis of ceria nanoparticles and their long term ageing characteristics are reported. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy techniques are used to observe the variation in size, structure and oxidation state, respectively as a function of time. The morphology variation and the hierarchical assembly (octahedral superstructure) of nanostructures are imputed to the inherent structural aspects of cerium oxide. It is hypothesized that the 3-5 nm individual building blocks will undergo an intra-agglomerate re-orientation to attain the low energy configuration. This communication also emphasizes the need for long term ageing studies of nanomaterials in various solvents for multiple functionalities.

  1. Bark polyflavonoids from Pinus radiata as functional building-blocks for polylactic acid (PLA-based green composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Garcia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA was melt-blended with Pinus radiata unmodified and modified (hydroxypropyled bark polyflavonoids in order to use such polyphenolic building-blocks as functional additives for envisaged applications. Rheological, morphological, molecular, thermal, and flexural properties were studied. Polyflavonoids improved blend processability in terms of short-time mixing. Furthermore, hydroxypropylated polyflavonoids improve miscibility in binary and ternary blends. Blend-composition affects crystallization-, melting-, and glass transition-temperature of PLA, as well as thermal resistance, and flexural properties of the blends. Polyflavonoids induced PLA-crystallization, and polymer-chain decomposition. Modified and unmodified bark polyflavonoids from radiata pine can be used successfully in PLA-based green composites beyond the food-packaging applications. The high compatibility between PLA and hydroxypropyled polyflavonoids highlights the potential of such phenolic derivatives for PLA-based material design.

  2. Naphthalene Bis(4,8-diamino-1,5-dicarboxyl)amide Building Block for Semiconducting Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Brian J; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S; Manley, Eric F; Fabiano, Simone; Mouat, Aidan R; Chen, Lin X; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J

    2017-09-26

    We report a new naphthalene bis(4,8-diamino-1,5-dicarboxyl)amide (NBA) building block for polymeric semiconductors. Computational modeling suggests that regio-connectivity at the 2,6- or 3,7-NBA positions strongly modulates polymer backbone torsion and, therefore, intramolecular -conjugation and aggregation. Optical, electrochemical, and X-ray diffraction characterization of 3,7- and 2,6-dithienyl-substituted NBA molecules and corresponding isomeric NBA-bithiophene co-polymers P1 and P2, respectively, reveal the key role of regio-connectivity. Charge transport measurements demonstrate that while the twisted 3,7-NDA-based P1 is a poor semiconductor, the planar 2,6-functionalized NBA polymers (P2-P4) exhibit ambipolarity with µe and µh of up to 0.39 and 0.32 cm2/(V·s) , respectively.

  3. An Overview of Metallic Nanowire Networks, Promising Building Blocks for Next Generation Transparent Conductors: Emergence, Fundamentals and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirsalami, Sedigheh; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba; Daneshmanesh, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Transparent conductors (TCs) have a wide range of applications in numerous electronic and optoelectronic devices. This review provides an overview of the emergence of metallic nanowire networks (MNNs) as promising building blocks for the next generation transparent conductors. The fundamental aspects, structure-property relations, fabrication techniques and the corresponding challenges are reviewed. Theoretical and experimental researches suggest that nanowires with smaller diameter, longer length and higher aspect ratio have higher performance. Yet, the development of an efficient synthesis technique for the production of MNNs has remained a challenge. The synthesis method is also crucial to the scalability and the commercial potential of these emerging TCs. The most promising techniques for the synthesis together with their advantages, limitations and the recent findings are here discussed. Finally, we will try to show the promising future research trends in MNNs to have an approach to design the next generation TCs.

  4. Chemical evolution of biomolecule building blocks. Can thermodynamics explain the accumulation of glycine in the prebiotic ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szori, Milán; Jójárt, Balázs; Izsák, Róbert; Szori, Kornél; Csizmadia, Imre G; Viskolcz, Béla

    2011-04-28

    It has always been a question of considerable scientific interest why amino acids (and other biomolecule building blocks) formed and accumulated in the prebiotic ocean. In this study, we suggest an answer to this question for the simplest amino acid, glycine. We have shown for the first time that classical equilibrium thermodynamics can explain the most likely selection of glycine (and the derivative of its dipeptide) in aqueous media, although glycine is not the lowest free energy structure among all (404) possible constitutional isomers. Species preceding glycine in the free energy order are either supramolecular complexes of small molecules or such molecules likely to dissociate and thus get back to the gas phase. Then, 2-hydroxyacetamide condensates yielding a thermodynamically favored derivative of glycine dipeptide providing an alternative way for peptide formation. It is remarkable that a simple equilibrium thermodynamic model can explain the accumulation of glycine and provide a reason for the importance of water in the formation process.

  5. Combining a Ru(II) "Building Block" and Rapid Screening Approach to Identify DNA Structure-Selective "Light Switch" Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Erin; Moyá, Diego; Glazer, Edith C

    2017-02-13

    A chemically reactive Ru(II) "building block", able to undergo condensation reactions with substituted diamines, was utilized to create a small library of luminescent "light switch" dipyrido-[3,2-a:2',3'-c] phenazine (dppz) complexes. The impact of substituent identity, position, and the number of substituents on the light switch effect was investigated. An unbiased, parallel screening approach was used to evaluate the selectivity of the compounds for a variety of different biomolecules, including protein, nucleosides, single stranded DNA, duplex DNA, triplex DNA, and G-quadruplex DNA. Combining these two approaches allowed for the identification of hit molecules that showed different selectivities for biologically relevant DNA structures, particularly triplex and quadruplex DNA.

  6. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Risks associated with climate change are mostly still understood and analyzed in a sector- or hazard-specific and rarely in a systemic, dynamic and scenario-based manner. In addition, socio-economic trends are often neglected in local vulnerability and risk assessments although they represent potential key determinants of risk and vulnerability. The project ARISE (Adaptation and Decision Support via Risk Management Through Local Burning Embers) aims at filling this gap by applying a participatory approach to socio-economic scenario building as building block of a local vulnerability assessment and risk management tool. Overall, ARISE aims at developing a decision support system for climate-sensitive iterative risk management as a key adaptation tool for the local level using Lienz in the East-Tyrol as a test-site City. One central building block is participatory socio-economic scenario building that - together with regionalized climate change scenarios - form a centrepiece in the process-oriented assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability. Major vulnerabilities and risks may stem from the economic performance, the socio-economic or socio-demographic developments or changes in asset exposition and not from climate change impacts themselves. The IPCC 5th assessment report underlines this and states that for most economic sectors, the impact of climate change may be small relative to the impacts of other driving forces such as changes in population growth, age, income, technology, relative prices, lifestyle, regulation, governance and many other factors in the socio-economy (Arent et al., 2014). The paper presents the methodology, process and results with respect to the building of long-term local socio-economic scenarios for the City of Lienz and the surrounding countryside. Scenarios were developed in a participatory approach using a scenario workshop that involved major stakeholders from the region. Participatory approaches are increasingly recognized as

  7. Microring resonator-based diamond optothermal switch: a building block for a quantum computing network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhihong; Faraon, Andrei; Santori, Charles; Acosta, Victor; Beausoleil, Raymond G.

    2013-03-01

    The negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond has motivated many groups building scalable quantum information processors based on diamond photonics. This is owning to the long-lived electronic spin coherence and the capability for spin manipulation and readout of NV centers.1-4 The primitive operation is to create entanglement between two NV centers, based on schemes such as 'atom-photon entanglement' proposed by Cabrillo et al.5To scale this type of scheme beyond two qubits, one important component is an optical switch that allows light emitted from a particular device to be routed to multiple locations. With such a switch, one has choices of routing photons to specified paths and has the benefit of improving the entanglement speed by entangling multiple qubits at the same time. Yield of the existing diamond cavities coupled with NV centers are inevitably low, due to the nature of randomness for NV placement and orientation, variation of spectral stability, and variation of cavity resonance frequency and quality factor. An optical switch provides the capability to tolerate a large fraction of defective devices by routing only to the working devices. Many type of switching devices were built on conventional semiconductor materials with mechanisms from mechanical, thermal switching to carrier injection, photonics crystal, and polymer refractive index tuning .6-8 In this paper, we build an optical-thermal switch on diamond with micro-ring waveguides, mainly for the simplicity of the diamond fabrication. The the switching function was realized by locally tuning the temperature of the diamond waveguides. Switching efficiency of 31% at 'drop' port and 73% at 'through' port were obtained.

  8. Molecular modeling of the elastomeric properties of repeating units and building blocks of resilin, a disordered elastic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Md Shahriar K; Dudek, Daniel M; Beers, Eric P; Dillard, David A; Bevan, David R

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the properties of disordered elastomeric proteins are not well known. To better understand the relationship between elastomeric behavior and amino acid sequence, we investigated resilin, a disordered rubber-like protein, found in specialized regions of the cuticle of insects. Resilin of Drosophila melanogaster contains Gly-rich repetitive motifs comprised of the amino acids, PSSSYGAPGGGNGGR, which confer elastic properties to resilin. The repetitive motifs of insect resilin can be divided into smaller partially conserved building blocks: PSS, SYGAP, GGGN and GGR. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we studied the relative roles of SYGAP, and its less common variants SYSAP and TYGAP, on the elastomeric properties of resilin. Results showed that SYGAP adopts a bent structure that is one-half to one-third the end-to-end length of the other motifs having an equal number of amino acids but containing SYSAP or TYGAP substituted for SYGAP. The bent structure of SYGAP forms due to conformational freedom of glycine, and hydrogen bonding within the motif apparently plays a role in maintaining this conformation. These structural features of SYGAP result in higher extensibility compared to other motifs, which may contribute to elastic properties at the macroscopic level. Overall, the results are consistent with a role for the SYGAP building block in the elastomeric properties of these disordered proteins. What we learned from simulating the repetitive motifs of resilin may be applicable to the biology and mechanics of other elastomeric biomaterials, and may provide us the deeper understanding of their unique properties.

  9. Synthesis of a Versatile Building Block Combining Cyclen-derivative DO3A with a Polyamine via a Rigid Spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Trávníček

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The five-step synthesis of a polydentate building block combining a cyclen-based macrocycle (DO3A with N-(2-aminoethylpropane-1,3-diamine, which are linked through the xylylen moiety as a rigid C-spacer is described. These two molecular parts were coupled by subsequent bromine atom substitution in 1,4-bis(bromomethylbenzene. First, N-(2-aminoethylpropane-1,3-diamine was protected by phthaloyl moieties and then it was reacted with 1,4-bis(bromomethylbenzene to form (2-phthalimidoethyl(3-phthalimido-prop-1-yl(4-bromomethylbenzylamine (2. This compound underwent a substitution reaction with DO3A in the form of its tert-butyl esters leading to the intermediate 1-{4-[(2-phthalimidoethyl(3-phthalimidoprop-1-ylaminomethyl]phenylmethyl}-4,7,10-tris(t-butoxy-carbonylmethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (3. The phthaloyl as well as the t-butyl protecting groups were removed in the next two reaction steps to form the final product 1-{4-[(2-aminoethyl(3-aminoprop-1-ylaminomethyl]phenylmethyl}-4,7,10-tris(carboxy-methyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (5. The intermediates 1–4 as well as the final product 5 were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and multinuclear (1H and 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The final product 5 could serve as a potential building block in subsequent syntheses of binuclear complexes of lanthanides and/or transition metals.

  10. Synthesis of renewable fine-chemical building blocks by reductive coupling between furfural derivatives and terpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklaus, Céline M; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Feringa, Ben L; de Vries, Johannes G

    2013-09-01

    Sugar and Spice…: The use of renewable resources to produce fine chemicals is an underdeveloped area. A waste-free technology will be necessary to further convert platform chemicals, readily available from biomass. We show that furfurals, which can be obtained from C5 sugars, can be coupled with terpenes in up to 95% yield through ruthenium-catalyzed reductive couplings developed by Krische et al.

  11. Carbon Dioxide Flooding Technology Research and Field Test in Liuzan North Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanshi; Luo, Pingya; Sun, Lei; Fu, Zhijun

    2014-12-01

    The fault roots of Liuzan north block in Jidong oilfield of China have been long-term explored by solution gas drive. Recently, oil production declined rapidly because of shortage of formation energy and needing high water injection pressure. Carbon dioxide injection pressure is found to be generally low, and CO2 has good solubility in crude oil to supply formation energy and achieve high oil recovery efficiency. In this work, a pilot program of CO2 EOR technology was carried out. The slim tube test results showed that the minimal miscible pressure of Liuzan north block was 28.28 MPa. The injection parameters were optimized by numerical simulation method: the injection method was continuous, the slug size was 0.2 HCPV and the EOR efficiency was 7.23%. After two months of gas injection field test, the formation pressure of two gas injectors just increased by 14.02 MPa and 2.98 MPa, respectively, indicating that carbon dioxide could supply the formation energy effectively. 16 months after gas injection, the CO2 injection amount was 14640 t, and the oil increment was 16424 t. The present work demonstrates the potential applicability of CO2 flooding technology from high water injection reservoirs.

  12. Experiments in engagement: Designing public engagement with science and technology for capacity building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Cynthia; Rawlings, Kelly Campbell; de Ridder-Vignone, Kathryn; Sadowski, Jathan; Altamirano Allende, Carlo; Gano, Gretchen; Davies, Sarah R; Guston, David H

    2017-08-01

    Public engagement with science and technology is now widely used in science policy and communication. Touted as a means of enhancing democratic discussion of science and technology, analysis of public engagement with science and technology has shown that it is often weakly tied to scientific governance. In this article, we suggest that the notion of capacity building might be a way of reframing the democratic potential of public engagement with science and technology activities. Drawing on literatures from public policy and administration, we outline how public engagement with science and technology might build citizen capacity, before using the notion of capacity building to develop five principles for the design of public engagement with science and technology. We demonstrate the use of these principles through a discussion of the development and realization of the pilot for a large-scale public engagement with science and technology activity, the Futurescape City Tours, which was carried out in Arizona in 2012.

  13. Preparation of a disulfide-linked precipitative soluble support for solution-phase synthesis of trimeric oligodeoxyribonucleotide 3´-(2-chlorophenylphosphate building blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit M. Jabgunde

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a disulfide-tethered precipitative soluble support and its use for solution-phase synthesis of trimeric oligodeoxyribonucleotide 3´-(2-chlorophenylphosphate building blocks is described. To obtain the building blocks, N-acyl protected 2´-deoxy-5´-O-(4,4´-dimethoxytritylribonucleosides were phosphorylated with bis(benzotriazol-1-yl 2-chlorophenyl phosphate. The “outdated” phosphotriester strategy, based on coupling of PV building blocks in conjunction with quantitative precipitation of the oligodeoxyribonucleotide with MeOH is applied. Subsequent release of the resulting phosphate and base-protected oligodeoxyribonucleotide trimer 3’-pTpdCBzpdGibu-5’ as its 3’-(2-chlorophenyl phosphate was achieved by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bond.

  14. Preparation of a disulfide-linked precipitative soluble support for solution-phase synthesis of trimeric oligodeoxyribonucleotide 3´-(2-chlorophenylphosphate) building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Alejandro Gimenez; Virta, Pasi; Lönnberg, Harri

    2015-01-01

    Summary The preparation of a disulfide-tethered precipitative soluble support and its use for solution-phase synthesis of trimeric oligodeoxyribonucleotide 3´-(2-chlorophenylphosphate) building blocks is described. To obtain the building blocks, N-acyl protected 2´-deoxy-5´-O-(4,4´-dimethoxytrityl)ribonucleosides were phosphorylated with bis(benzotriazol-1-yl) 2-chlorophenyl phosphate. The “outdated” phosphotriester strategy, based on coupling of PV building blocks in conjunction with quantitative precipitation of the oligodeoxyribonucleotide with MeOH is applied. Subsequent release of the resulting phosphate and base-protected oligodeoxyribonucleotide trimer 3’-pTpdCBzpdGibu-5’ as its 3’-(2-chlorophenyl phosphate) was achieved by reductive cleavage of the disulfide bond. PMID:26664575

  15. Green Building Retrofit for the Library of Indian Institute Technology, Roorkee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naphade, A.; Sharma, A.; Chani, P. S.; Garg, P.

    2013-03-01

    The major focus world over is on constructing environment friendly buildings. Buildings symbolize uncontrolled consumption of energy and natural resources and also have negative environmental impact. In India, the residential and commercial sector consumes 30 % of the total electricity usage of the country and a major portion of this is used in buildings. Designing and developing new buildings based on the energy efficiency concept and applying retrofit options to the existing buildings could improve the energy use in the building sector. This paper studies an existing building, Central Library of Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, and recommends retrofit options for sustainable aspects such as site planning, energy and water use, materials and resources and indoor environment quality. The results of this study can be utilized for green retrofits of the other buildings in the campus.

  16. Building-block architecture of botulinum toxin complex: Conformational changes provide insights into the hemagglutination ability of the complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Suzuki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum produces the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT. Previously, we provided evidence for the “building-block” model of botulinum toxin complex (TC. In this model, a single BoNT is associated with a single nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA, yielding M-TC; three HA-70 molecules are attached and form M-TC/HA-70, and one to three “arms” of the HA-33/HA-17 trimer (two HA-33 and one HA-17 further bind to M-TC/HA-70 via HA-17 and HA-70 binding, yielding one-, two-, and three-arm L-TC. Of all TCs, only the three-arm L-TC caused hemagglutination. In this study, we determined the solution structures for the botulinum TCs using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS. The mature three-arm L-TC exhibited the shape of a “bird spreading its wings”, in contrast to the model having three “arms”, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. SAXS images indicated that one of the three arms of the HA-33/HA-17 trimer bound to both HA-70 and BoNT. Taken together, these findings regarding the conformational changes in the building-block architecture of TC may explain why only three-arm L-TC exhibited hemagglutination.

  17. Building block diode laser concept for high brightness laser output in the kW range and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Fabio; Fritsche, Haro; Grohe, Andreas; Hagen, Thomas; Kern, Holger; Koch, Ralf; Kruschke, Bastian; Reich, Axel; Sanftleben, Dennis; Steger, Ronny; Wallendorf, Till; Gries, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The modular concept of DirectPhotonics laser systems is a big advantage regarding its manufacturability, serviceability as well as reproducibility. By sticking to identical base components an economic production allows to serve as many applications as possible while keeping the product variations minimal. The modular laser design is based on single emitters and various combining technics. In a first step we accept a reduction of the very high brightness of the single emitters by vertical stacking several diodes in fast axis. This can be theoretically done until the combined fast axis beam quality is on a comparable level as the individual diodes slow axis beam quality without loosing overall beam performance after fiber coupling. Those stacked individual emitters can be wavelength stabilized by an external resonator, providing the very same feedback to each of those laser diodes which leads to an output power of about 100 W with BPP of stacking those building blocks using the very same dense spectral combing technique up to multi kW Systems without further reduction of the BPP. The 500 W building blocks are consequently designed in a way that they feature a high flexibility with regard to their emitting wavelength bandwidth. Therefore, new wavelengths can be implemented by only exchanging parts and without any additional change of the production process. This design principal theoretically offers the option to adapt the wavelength of those blocks to any applications, from UV, visible into the far IR as long as there are any diodes commercially available. This opens numerous additional applications like laser pumping, scientific applications, materials processing such as cutting and welding of copper aluminum or steel and also medical application. Typical operating at wavelengths in the 9XX nm range, these systems are designed for and mainly used in cutting and welding applications, but adapted wavelength ranges such as 793 nm and 1530 nm are also offered. Around 15

  18. Appendix E: New Building Technology and Innovation: A Selective Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    This book explores innovation in the U.S. construction-related industries (i.e., design services, construction, building materials and products manufacture, and facilities operation and maintenance...

  19. Solar Energy Windows and Smart IR Switchable Building Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarny, James; Kornish, Brian

    2011-09-30

    The three building envelope functions with the largest impact on the energy usage are illumination, energy flux and energy production. In general, these three functions are addressed separately in the building design. A step change toward a zero-energy building can be achieved with a glazing system that combines these three functions and their control into a single unit. In particular, significant value could be realized if illumination into the building is dynamically controlled such that it occurs during periods of low load on the grid (e.g., morning) to augment illumination supplied by interior lights and then to have that same light diverted to PV energy production and the thermal energy rejected during periods of high load on the grid. The objective of this project is to investigate the feasibility of a glazing unit design that integrates these three key functions (illumination and energy flux control, and power production) into a single module.

  20. Nanoscale building blocks in a novel lithium arsenotungsten bronze: Synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pei [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Mangir Murshed, M., E-mail: murshed@uni-bremen.de [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Huq, Ashfia [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Grossmann, Henrike K.; Mädler, Lutz [Foundation Institute of Materials Science (IWT), Department of Production Engineering, University of Bremen, Badgasteiner Strasse 3, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Alekseev, Evgeny V. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52428 Jülich, and Institut für Kristallographie, RWTH Aachen, Jägerstraße 17-19, D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Gesing, Thorsten M. [Chemische Kristallographie fester Stoffe, Universität Bremen, Leobener Straße, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    We report on a novel compound Li{sub 3}AsW{sub 7}O{sub 25} obtained by solid-state reaction and characterized by diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The bronze-type compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca with a=724.38(3) pm, b=1008.15(4) pm, c=4906.16(17) pm and Z=8. The structure is built up by chains of WO{sub 6} octahedra interconnected by AsO{sub 4} tetrahedra and WO{sub 6} octahedra forming a polyhedral arrangement as seen in intergrowth tungsten bronzes. The X-ray single crystal structure refinement allows solving the complex arsenotungstate framework. The powder neutron diffraction data analysis locates the lithium atoms. Thermal analysis showed that Li{sub 3}AsW{sub 7}O{sub 25} is stable up to its melting at 1135(3) K followed by a decomposition at 1182(5) K. The Kubelka–Munk treatment of the UV–vis spectrum revealed a wide band gap in the range of 2.84–3.40 eV depending on the presumed electron transition type. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Li{sub 3}AsW{sub 7}O{sub 25} showing different schematic components. - Highlights: • A report on a novel compound Li{sub 3}AsW{sub 7}O{sub 25} obtained by solid-state reaction. • Chains and nano-blocks of WO{sub 6} octahedra and AsO{sub 4} tetrahedra formed a structure like intergrowth tungsten bronzes. • X-ray diffraction allowed solving the complex arsenotungstate framework. • Powder neutron diffraction data analysis locates the lithium atoms. • UV–vis spectrum revealed the band-gap.

  1. Bacillus spores as building blocks for stimuli-responsive materials and nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Mahadevan, L.; Driks, Adam; Sahin, Ozgur

    2014-02-01

    Materials that respond mechanically to external chemical stimuli have applications in biomedical devices, adaptive architectural systems, robotics and energy harvesting. Inspired by biological systems, stimuli-responsive materials have been created that can oscillate, transport fluid, provide homeostasis and undergo complex changes in shape. However, the effectiveness of synthetic stimuli-responsive materials in generating work is limited when compared with mechanical actuators. Here, we show that the mechanical response of Bacillus spores to water gradients exhibits an energy density of more than 10 MJ m-3, which is two orders of magnitude higher than synthetic water-responsive materials. We also identified mutations that can approximately double the energy density of the spores and found that they can self-assemble into dense, submicrometre-thick monolayers on substrates such as silicon microcantilevers and elastomer sheets, creating bio-hybrid hygromorph actuators. To illustrate the potential applications of the spores, we used them to build an energy-harvesting device that can remotely generate electrical power from an evaporating body of water.

  2. 5,10-linked naphthodithiophenes as the building block for semiconducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Itaru; Komatsu, Koki; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Takimiya, Kazuo

    2014-04-01

    We present new semiconducting polymers incorporating naphtho[1, 2-b:5, 6-b‧] dithiophene (NDT3) and naphtho[2, 1-b:6, 5-b‧] dithiophene (NDT4), which are linked at the naphthalene positions, in the polymer backbone. It is interesting that the trend in the ordering structure and thus charge transport properties are quite different from what were observed in the isomeric polymers where the NDT3 and NDT4 cores are linked at the thiophene α-positions. In the thiophene-linked NDT system, the NDT3-based polymer (PNDT3BT) gave the better ordering in thin films and thus the high charge carrier mobility compared to the NDT4-based polymer (PNDT4BT). In the meantime, in the naphthalene-linked NDT system, the NDT4-based polymer (PNDT4iBT) provided the superior properties. Considering that PNDT4iBT has relatively low highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level (-5.2 eV) and moderately high mobilities in the order of 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1, the NDT4 core, when linked at the naphthalene positions, can be a good building unit for the development of high-performance semiconducting polymers for both organic field-effect transistors and photovoltaic devices.

  3. Methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination of methane: A building block for chemicals and fuels from natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, R.L.; Brown, S.S.D.; Ferguson, S.P.; Jarvis, R.F. Jr. [Dow Corning Corp., Carrollton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this program are to (a) develop a process for converting natural gas to methyl chloride via an oxyhydrochlorination route using highly selective, stable catalysts in a fixed-bed, (b) design a reactor capable of removing the large amount of heat generated in the process so as to control the reaction, (c) develop a recovery system capable of removing the methyl chloride from the product stream and (d) determine the economics and commercial viability of the process. The general approach has been as follows: (a) design and build a laboratory scale reactor, (b) define and synthesize suitable OHC catalysts for evaluation, (c) select first generation OHC catalyst for Process Development Unit (PDU) trials, (d) design, construct and startup PDU, (e) evaluate packed bed reactor design, (f) optimize process, in particular, product recovery operations, (g) determine economics of process, (h) complete preliminary engineering design for Phase II and (i) make scale-up decision and formulate business plan for Phase II. Conclusions regarding process development and catalyst development are presented.

  4. 5,10-linked naphthodithiophenes as the building block for semiconducting polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaru Osaka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present new semiconducting polymers incorporating naphtho[1, 2-b:5, 6-b'] dithiophene (NDT3 and naphtho[2, 1-b:6, 5-b'] dithiophene (NDT4, which are linked at the naphthalene positions, in the polymer backbone. It is interesting that the trend in the ordering structure and thus charge transport properties are quite different from what were observed in the isomeric polymers where the NDT3 and NDT4 cores are linked at the thiophene α-positions. In the thiophene-linked NDT system, the NDT3-based polymer (PNDT3BT gave the better ordering in thin films and thus the high charge carrier mobility compared to the NDT4-based polymer (PNDT4BT. In the meantime, in the naphthalene-linked NDT system, the NDT4-based polymer (PNDT4iBT provided the superior properties. Considering that PNDT4iBT has relatively low highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO energy level (−5.2 eV and moderately high mobilities in the order of 10−2 cm2 V−1 s−1, the NDT4 core, when linked at the naphthalene positions, can be a good building unit for the development of high-performance semiconducting polymers for both organic field-effect transistors and photovoltaic devices.

  5. Automated learning of generative models for subcellular location: building blocks for systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Murphy, Robert F

    2007-12-01

    The goal of location proteomics is the systematic and comprehensive study of protein subcellular location. We have previously developed automated, quantitative methods to identify protein subcellular location families, but there have been no effective means of communicating their patterns to integrate them with other information for building cell models. We built generative models of subcellular location that are learned from a collection of images so that they not only represent the pattern, but also capture its variation from cell to cell. Our models contain three components: a nuclear model, a cell shape model and a protein-containing object model. We built models for six patterns that consist primarily of discrete structures. To validate the generated images, we showed that they are recognized with reasonable accuracy by a classifier trained on real images. We also showed that the model parameters themselves can be used as features to discriminate the classes. The models allow the synthesis of images with the expectation that they are drawn from the same underlying statistical distribution as the images used to train them. They can potentially be combined for many proteins to yield a high resolution location map in support of systems biology.

  6. Achieving high performance non-fullerene organic solar cells through tuning the numbers of electron deficient building blocks of molecular acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Chen, Yusheng; Chen, Shangshang; Dong, Tao; Deng, Wei; Lv, Lei; Yang, Saina; Yan, He; Huang, Hui

    2016-08-01

    Two analogous dimer and tetramer compounds, SF-PDI2 and SF-PDI4, were designed, theoretically calculated, synthesized, and developed as electron acceptors for organic solar cells. The effects of the number of the electron deficient building blocks on the optical absorption, energy levels, charge transport, morphology, crystallinity, and photovoltaic performance of the molecules were investigated. In combination with two different donors, PTB7-Th and PffBT4T-2OD, the results showed that increasing the numbers of PDI building blocks is beneficial to photovoltaic performance and leads to efficiency over 5%.

  7. Quarks, atoms, molecules. On the hunt for the smallest building blocks of the world; Quarks, Atome, Molekuele. Auf der Jagd nach den kleinsten Bausteinen der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staguhn, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    What exactly are molecules, atoms, quarks - the enigmating smallest building blocks of all life? By this book even hardcore physics and chemistry muffles become experts. The reknown science journalist Gerhard Staguhn embarks on a thrilling quest to find out what holds our world together: The smallest building blocks of the universe, the tiny operations that are taking place in the invisible world of the microcosm. In 69 chapters he tells fascinatingly and easily to be understood from the properties of the atoms and why the quarks until today prefer to be not seen.

  8. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies andStrategies in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-09-01

    Commercial buildings account for a large portion of summer peak electric demand. Research results show that there is significant potential to reduce peak demand in commercial buildings through advanced control technologies and strategies. However, a better understanding of commercial buildings contribution to peak demand and the use of energy management and control systems is required to develop this demand response resource to its full potential. The main objectives of the study were: (1) To evaluate the size of contributions of peak demand commercial buildings in the U.S.; (2) To understand how commercial building control systems support energy efficiency and DR; and (3) To disseminate the results to the building owners, facility managers and building controls industry. In order to estimate the commercial buildings contribution to peak demand, two sources of data are used: (1) Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) and (2) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). These two sources indicate that commercial buildings noncoincidental peak demand is about 330GW. The project then focused on technologies and strategies that deliver energy efficiency and also target 5-10% of this peak. Based on a building operations perspective, a demand-side management framework with three main features: (1) daily energy efficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic, event-driven DR are outlined. A general description of DR, its benefits, and nationwide DR potential in commercial buildings are presented. Case studies involving these technologies and strategies are described. The findings of this project are shared with building owners, building controls industry, researchers and government entities through a webcast and their input is requested. Their input is presented in the appendix section of this report.

  9. Winter energy behaviour in multi-family block buildings in a temperate-cold climate in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippin, C. [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); Larsen, S. Flores [CONICET - CC302, Santa Rosa, 6300 La Pampa (Argentina); INENCO - Instituto de Investigaciones en Energias No Convencionales, U.N.Sa., CONICET, Avda. Bolivia 5150 - CP 4400, Salta Capital (Argentina); Mercado, V. [LAHV-Laboratorio de Ambienet Humano y Vivienda (INCIHUSA-CCT-CONICET) (Argentina)

    2011-01-15

    This paper analyzes the thermal and energy behaviour of apartments in three-story block buildings located along a NE-SW axis (azimuth = 120 ) in a temperate-cold climate (latitude: 36 57'; longitude: 64 27') in the city of Santa Rosa, La Pampa, central Argentina. Four apartments had been monitored during May and June 2009. Three of them are located in Block 126. Two of these apartments face South: 15 and 23 on the SE end, ground and first floor, respectively; 18 faces N on the second floor. Finally apartment, 12 is located in Block 374, on the first floor, faces N and shows a carpentry-closed balcony. The purpose of this work is - to study the evolution of the indoor temperature in each apartment; to analyze energy consumption and comfort conditions; to study energy potential and energy intervention in order to reduce energy consumption; to analyze bioclimatic alternatives feasibility and the possibility to extrapolate results to all blocks. On the basis of the analysis of natural gas historical consumption records, results showed that regarding heating energy consumption during the period May-June, Apartment 12, facing N, with its only bedroom facing NW and its carpentry-closed, transparent glass balcony, presented a mean temperature of 21.2 C, using a halogen heater for 6 h/day between 9 pm and 2 am (0.16 kWh/day/m{sup 2}). Apartment 15, on the SE end, first floor of the block consumed 22.5 kWh/day (0.43 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.2 C). Apartment 23, located on the second and top floor (on top of Apartment 15) with higher energy loss, consumed 28 kWh/day (0.54 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature 23.7 C). Apartment 18, also on the second floor and facing N, located in the centre and with its only bedroom facing SE, consumed 18.8 kWh/day (0.48 kWh/day/m{sup 2}) (mean temperature = 22.3 C). Apartment 23, with higher thermal loss through its envelope, but with heat transfer from the apartment located below, is the one that showed the highest

  10. Lightweight concrete blocks with EVA recycled aggregate: a contribution to the thermal efficiency of building external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Melo, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The regions with lots of shoe production suffer environmental impacts from waste generation during manufacturing of insoles and outsoles. Research conducted in Brazil has demonstrated the technical feasibility to recycle these wastes, especially Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA, as lightweight aggregate, in the production of non-structural cement blocks. This article presents an evaluation of thermal performance with measurements of temperature variation in mini walls (1 m2 built with different materials, including various kinds of EVA block and ceramic bricks. Tests have shown efficient thermal performance for masonry blocks with EVA. These results and supplementary estimates contribute to add value to the EVA block, considering that there are good expectations that the component, with the new geometry proposed, can contribute to the energy efficiency of buildings, highlighting its suitability to most Brazilian bioclimatic regions.Las regiones con una gran producción de calzado sufren impactos ambientales derivados de la generación de residuos durante la producción de plantillas y suelas. Investigaciones realizadas en Brasil han demostrado la viabilidad técnica para el reciclaje de estos residuos, especialmente el Etileno Vinil Acetato (EVA, como agregado ligero en la fabricación de bloques de hormigón no estructurales. Este trabajo presenta una evaluación del rendimiento térmico, con mediciones de la variación de la temperatura en pequeñas paredes (1 m2 construidas con diversos materiales, incluyendo algunos tipos de bloques EVA y ladrillos de cerámica. Las pruebas demostraron actuaciones térmicas eficientes para las muestras con bloques EVA. Estos resultados y cálculos adicionales contribuyen con un aporte de valor añadido al bloque EVA, considerando que existen buenas expectativas del componente, con una nueva propuesta de geometría, pudiendo contribuir a la eficiencia energética de edificios, especialmente por su adecuación a la

  11. Nano-structure multilayer technology fabrication of high energy density capacitors for the power electronic building book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbee, T.W.; Johnson, G.W.; Wagner, A.V.

    1997-10-21

    Commercially available capacitors do not meet the specifications of the Power Electronic Building Block (PEBB) concept. We have applied our propriety nanostructure multilayer materials technology to the fabrication of high density capacitors designed to remove this impediment to PEBB progress. Our nanostructure multilayer capacitors will also be enabling technology in many industrial and military applications. Examples include transient suppression (snubber capacitors), resonant circuits, and DC filtering in PEBB modules. Additionally, weapon applications require compact energy storage for detonators and pulsed-power systems. Commercial applications run the gamut from computers to lighting to communications. Steady progress over the last five years has brought us to the threshold of commercial manufacturability. We have demonstrated a working dielectric energy density of > 11 J/cm3 in 20 nF devices designed for 1 kV operation.

  12. Building technology. Renewable energies, building automation, energy efficiency; Gebaeudetechnik. Erneuerbare Energien, Gebaeudeautomation, Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veit, Joerg; Schmidt, Peer (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The functionality and efficiency of a building significantly are influenced by the installations of technical building equipment and especially by the building automation. Under this aspect, the authors of the book under consideration report on new ideas for an enhanced energy efficiency. At first, important regulations and laws (Renewable Energy Law, Act for the Retention, Modernisation and Expansion of Combined Heat and Power) are presented. In the chapter on renewable energies, the authors specifically address photovoltaic systems. Other features of this book are building automation, energy efficiency, operational and project management. The last chapter of this book presents an overview of trade fairs and events as well as training centres of the Zentralverband der Deutschen Elektro- und Informationstechnischen Handwerke (Frankfurt (Main), Federal Republic of Germany) and of the national associations.

  13. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  14. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG): Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Kat A.

    2014-01-10

    The Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge (N2N) brought together a consortium of 14 leading clean energy rural, suburban, and low income communities throughout Connecticut. N2N was awarded $4.2 million from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) competitive BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program on August 10, 2010 to run a two-year pilot program (plus one year of transition and evaluation) (Award No. EMCBC- 00969-10). N2N tested innovative program models and hypotheses for improving Connecticut’s existing residential energy efficiency programs that are overseen by the ratepayer fund board and administered by CT utilities. N2N’s original goal was to engage 10 percent of households in participating communities to reduce their energy usage by 20 percent through energy upgrades and clean energy measures. N2N planned for customers to complete more comprehensive whole-home energy efficiency and clean energy measures and to achieve broader penetration than existing utility-administered regulated programs. Since this was an ARRA award, we report the following figures on job creation in Table 1. Since N2N is not continuing in its current form, we do not provide figures on job retention. Table 1 N2N Job Creation by Quarter Jobs Created 2010 Q4 6.65 2011 Q1 7.13 2011 Q2 4.98 2011 Q3 9.66 2011 Q4 5.43 2012 Q1 11.11 2012 Q2 6.85 2012 Q3 6.29 2012 Q4 6.77 2013 Q1 5.57 2013 Q2 8.35 2013 Q3 6.52 Total 85.31 The N2N team encountered several gaps in the existing efficiency program performance that hindered meeting N2N’s and DOE’s short-term program goals, as well as the State of Connecticut’s long-term energy, efficiency, and carbon reduction goals. However, despite the slow program start, N2N found evidence of increasing upgrade uptake rates over time, due to delayed customer action of one to two years from N2N introduction to completion of deeper household upgrades. Two main social/behavioral principles have contributed to driving deeper upgrades in CT: 1. Word of mouth

  15. Building block style recipes for productivity improvement in OPC, RET and ILT flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linghui; Kwa, Denny; Wan, Jinyin; Wang, Tom; St. John, Matt; Deeth, Steven; Chen, Xiaohui; Cecil, Tom; Meng, Xiaodong; Lucas, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Traditional model-based Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) and rule-based Resolution Enhancement Technology (RET) methods have been the workhorse mask synthesis methods in volume production for logic and memory devices for more than 15 years. Rule-based OPC methods have been in standard use for over 20 years now. With continuous technical enhancements, these methods have proven themselves robust, flexible and fast enough to meet many of the technical needs of even the most advanced nodes. Inverse Lithography Technology (ILT) methods are well known to have strong benefits in finding flexible mask pattern solutions to improve process window for the most advanced design locations where traditional methods are not sufficient. However, OPC/RET requirements at each node have changed radically in the last 20 years beyond just technical requirements. The volume of engineering work to be done has also skyrocketed. The number of device layers which need OPC/RET can be 10X higher than in earlier nodes. Additionally, the number of mask layers per device layer is often 2X or more times higher with multiple patterning. Finally, the number of features to correct per mask increases ~2X with each node. These factors led to a large increase in the number of OPC engineers needed to develop the complex new OPC/RET recipes for advanced nodes. In this paper, we describe new developments which significantly improve the productivity of OPC engineers to deploy Rule Based OPC (RBOPC), Model Based OPC (MBOPC), AF, and ILT recipes in modern manufacturing flows. In addition to technical improvements such as novel multiple segment hotspot fixing solvers and ILT hot-spot fixing necessary to support correction needs, we have re-architected the entire flow based on how OPC engineers now develop and maintain OPC/RET recipes. The re-architecture of the flow takes advantages of more recent developments in modular and structured programming methods which are known to benefit ease engineering software

  16. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Gowri, Krishnan; Lane, Michael D.; Thornton, Brian A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-28

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process, methodology and assumptions for development of the 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Highway Lodging Buildings, a design guidance document intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in highway lodging properties over the energy-efficiency levels contained in ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  17. Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) and research utilization/technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burn, G. (comp.)

    1990-07-01

    The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Programs is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months..

  18. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Overview 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Overview 2008, including market overview and federal role, program vision, mission, design and structure, and goals and multi-year targets.

  19. Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan Program Portfolio Management 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-01-01

    Building Technologies Program Multi-Year Program Plan 2008 for program portfolio management, including the program portfolio management process, program analysis, performance assessment, stakeholder interactions, and cross-cutting issues.

  20. Observations from the fire and collapse of the Faculty of Architecture Building, Delft University of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhardt, M.D.; Meacham, B.; Kodur, V.; Kirk, A.; Park, H.; Straalen, IJ.J. van; Maljaars, J.; Weeren, K. van; Feijter, R. de; Both, K.

    2013-01-01

    On May 13, 2008, a fire occurred at the Faculty of Architecture Building at the Delft University of Technology (TUD) in the Netherlands. The fire ultimately led to the collapse of a major portion of the building. Data was collected on this fire event by an international team that included

  1. Fire and collapse, Faculty of Architecture building, Delft University of Technology: Data collection and preliminary analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, B.; Park, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Kirk, A.; Kodur, V.; Straalen, IJ.J.; Maljaars, J.; Weeren, K. van; Feijter, R. de; Both, K.

    2010-01-01

    On the morning of May 13, 2008, a fire that started in a coffee vending machine on the 6th floor of the 13-story Faculty of Architecture Building at the Delft University of Technology (TUD), Delft, the Netherlands, quickly developed into an extreme loading event. Although all building occupants evac

  2. 78 FR 34347 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; the Building Construction Technology Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... collection. Sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Manufacturing...-tuning. Re-tuning is a systematic semi-automated process of identifying operational problems in commercial and industrial buildings. It leverages data collected from the building automation system...

  3. Fire and collapse, Faculty of Architecture building, Delft University of Technology: Data collection and preliminary analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, B.; Park, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Kirk, A.; Kodur, V.; Straalen, IJ.J.; Maljaars, J.; Weeren, K. van; Feijter, R. de; Both, K.

    2010-01-01

    On the morning of May 13, 2008, a fire that started in a coffee vending machine on the 6th floor of the 13-story Faculty of Architecture Building at the Delft University of Technology (TUD), Delft, the Netherlands, quickly developed into an extreme loading event. Although all building occupants

  4. Energy Efficient Improvements of Existing Buildings through Building Envelope Upgrade Case Study of High Rise Block of Flats on 76, Boulevard Partizanski Odredi in Karpos IV, Skopje

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    AIM: This research examines the important issue of energy efficient improvements to the existing building stock through building envelope upgrade. To facilitate this, the energy performance characteristics of the existing building stock were identified with a view to establishing an existing building stock type, where building envelope upgrades can contribute to a higher level of energy efficiency improvements. The literature review along with the selected building precedents was used to esta...

  5. Multi-energy systems applied to the building sector (Heat Pump Technology)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Izquierdo, Marta

    2008-01-01

    The project deals with the study of multi-energy systems applied to the building sector. Nowadays, this thematic is very important because the use of systems integrating different energy sources and energy technologies is a key element in the design of low emission buildings. In particular, the project focuses on heat pump technologies. In the first part of the project an over view of the status of the heat pump development is investigated. Then, a numerical model to simulat...

  6. Application of multiple attributes fusion technology in the Su-14 Well Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Jian; Hu, Guang-Min; Cao, Jun-Xing

    2010-09-01

    In this study area the geological conditions are complicated and the effective sandstone is very heterogeneous. The sandstones are thin and lateral and vertical variations are large. We introduce multi-attribute fusion technology based on pre-stack seismic data, pre-stack P- and S-wave inversion results, and post-stack attributes. This method not only can keep the fluid information contained in pre-stack seismic data but also make use of the high SNR characteristics of post-stack data. First, we use a one-step recursive method to get the optimal attribute combination from a number of attributes. Second, we use a probabilistic neural network method to train the nonlinear relationship between log curves and seismic attributes and then use the trained samples to find the natural gamma ray distribution in the Su-14 well block and improve the resolution of seismic data. Finally, we predict the effective reservoir distribution in the Su-14 well block.

  7. 基于JSP的网页阻断技术的实现%IMPLEMENTING JSP-BASED WEBPAGE BLOCKING TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚华雄; 王泰

    2011-01-01

    介绍一种使用JSP语言实现网页阻断的技术.该技术利用防火墙来实现硬件阻断,主要包括三个模块:界面设计,命令处理和阻断实现.该技术对指定网址的内容能进行完全的阻断,并且具有操作简单,易于与其他模块集成等优点.%The paper presents a technology of webpage blocking using JSP language.The technology uses the firewall to implement the function of hardware block.It includes three modules: interface designing, command processing and block implementation.It can completely block the contents of the specified web address, and has the advantages of simply operating and easily integrating with other modules.

  8. Building Technologies Program Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-02-01

    Details about BTP's budget request for FY2012. BTP’s FY 2012 activities reflect a significant shift by EERE in budget development of incorporating analytically based integrated planning, review, and performance assessment of its programs. BTP’s FY 2012 portfolio will achieve rapid gains in the efficient use of buildings energy through a balanced set of strategies.

  9. Structure, adsorption and magnetic properties of chiral metal-organic frameworks bearing linear trinuclear secondary building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zilu; Liu, Xianlin; Zhang, Chuanbing; Zhang, Zhong; Liang, Fupei

    2011-03-07

    The reactions of new chiral organic ligands trimesoyltri(L-alanine) (L-TMTAH(3)) or trimesoyltri(D-alanine) (D-TMTAH(3)) with transition metal salts in the presence of an ancillary ligand of 4,4'-bipyridine gave two pairs of three dimensional frameworks [Co(3)(L-TMTA)(2)(4,4'-bpy)(4)]·28H(2)O (1), [Co(3)(D-TMTA)(2)(4,4'-bpy)(4)]·28H(2)O (2) [Ni(3)(L-TMTA)(2)(4,4'-bpy)(4)]·2C(2)H(5)OH·14H(2)O (3) and [Ni(3)(D-TMTA)(2)(4,4'-bpy)(4)]·2C(2)H(5)OH·14H(2)O (4). These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis and the structures of 1-3 were determined from X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. Complexes 1-4 feature linear trinuclear secondary building blocks [M(3)(COO)(4)](2+) formed via the connection of three metal ions by four carboxylato groups from four TMTA(3-) ligands. Every adjacent two linear trinuclear secondary building blocks are linked by one and three 4,4'-bipyridine molecules along the a and c axis, respectively, to form two-dimensional sheets, which are further connected by TMTA(3-) ligands to construct a porous three dimensional framework with one-dimensional channels. Compound 3 was taken as an example to investigate the adsorption properties of compounds 1-4. It revealed a saturated hydrogen uptake of 216.6 cm(3) g(-1) (2.0 wt%) at 11.1 atm measured at 77 K, a maximum CO(2) uptake of 119.4 cm(3) g(-1) (23.5 wt%) at 19.5 atm measured at 298 K and a saturated CH(4) uptake of 77.8 cm(3) g(-1) (5.6 wt%) at 27.1 atm measured at 298 K. The magnetic studies of complexes 1 and 3 indicate the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the metal ions in the two compounds.

  10. Building Computer Technology Skills in TESOL Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelliCarpini, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on an action research study that investigated factors influencing TESOL (teaching English to speakers of other languages) teacher candidates' (TCs) selection and use of technology in the English as a second language (ESL) classroom and the influence of explicit training in context in the use of computer technology for second…

  11. New Technology's Surprising Security Threats. Building Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huwe, Terence

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, security issues have increasingly come to dominate the technological development process--although still in a more reactive than proactive mode. It now seems more important than ever to monitor security trends and policy developments, especially if technology is regarded as a potential community builder. This article suggests…

  12. Expedite Protocol for Construction of Chiral Regioselectively N-Protected Monosubstituted Piperazine, 1,4-Diazepane, and 1,4-Diazocane Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Witt, Matthias; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first study of solution-phase synthesis of chiral monosubstituted piperazine building blocks from nosylamide-activated aziridines. The protocol, involving aminolysis of the starting aziridines with ω-amino alcohols and subsequent Fukuyama−Mitsunobu cyclization, offers...

  13. Role of Solvent, pH, and Molecular Size in Excited-State Deactivation of Key Eumelanin Building Blocks: Implications for Melanin Pigment Photostability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauden, M.; Pezzella, A.; Panzella, L.

    2008-01-01

      Ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to investigate the excited state dynamics of the basic eumelanin building block 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid  (DHICA) its acetylated, methylated and carboxylic ester derivatives as well as two oligomers, a dimer and a trim...

  14. Synthesis of a Hoechst 32258 analogue amino acid building block for direct incorporation of a fluorescent, high-affinity DNA binding motif into peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, C; Harrit, N; Nielsen, P E

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of a new versatile "Hoechst 33258-like" Boc-protected amino acid building block for peptide synthesis is described. It is demonstrated that this new ligand is an effective mimic of Hoechst 33258 in terms of DNA affinity and sequence specificity. Furthermore, this minor groove binder...

  15. Caesium fluoride-promoted Stille coupling reaction: an efficient synthesis of 9Z-retinoic acid and its analogues using a practical building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okitsu, Takashi; Iwatsuka, Kinya; Wada, Akimori

    2008-12-21

    A highly efficient and rapid total synthesis of 9Z-retinoic acid was accomplished by caesium fluoride-promoted Stille coupling reaction; using a common building block, 9Z-retinoic acid analogues were also prepared by the same method without isomerisation of the Z-double bond.

  16. A common building block for the syntheses of amorfrutin and cajaninstilbene acid libraries toward efficient binding with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidhen, Indrapal S; Mukkamala, Ramesh; Weidner, Christopher; Sauer, Sascha

    2015-01-16

    A common building block for the synthesis of amorfrutin and cajaninstilbene acid derivatives has been developed. The library of synthesized compounds has enabled identification of new nontoxic ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and potential inhibitors of the transcriptional corepressor protein NCoR. The biological data holds promise in identification of new potential leads for the antidiabetic drug discovery process.

  17. Systems thinking in practice: the current status of the six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening in three BHOMA intervention districts of Zambia: a baseline qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutale, Wilbroad; Bond, Virginia; Mwanamwenge, Margaret Tembo; Mlewa, Susan; Balabanova, Dina; Spicer, Neil; Ayles, Helen

    2013-08-01

    The primary bottleneck to achieving the MDGs in low-income countries is health systems that are too fragile to deliver the volume and quality of services to those in need. Strong and effective health systems are increasingly considered a prerequisite to reducing the disease burden and to achieving the health MDGs. Zambia is one of the countries that are lagging behind in achieving millennium development targets. Several barriers have been identified as hindering the progress towards health related millennium development goals. Designing an intervention that addresses these barriers was crucial and so the Better Health Outcomes through Mentorship (BHOMA) project was designed to address the challenges in the Zambia's MOH using a system wide approach. We applied systems thinking approach to describe the baseline status of the Six WHO building blocks for health system strengthening. A qualitative study was conducted looking at the status of the Six WHO building blocks for health systems strengthening in three BHOMA districts. We conducted Focus group discussions with community members and In-depth Interviews with key informants. Data was analyzed using Nvivo version 9. The study showed that building block specific weaknesses had cross cutting effect in other health system building blocks which is an essential element of systems thinking. Challenges noted in service delivery were linked to human resources, medical supplies, information flow, governance and finance building blocks either directly or indirectly. Several barriers were identified as hindering access to health services by the local communities. These included supply side barriers: Shortage of qualified health workers, bad staff attitude, poor relationships between community and health staff, long waiting time, confidentiality and the gender of health workers. Demand side barriers: Long distance to health facility, cost of transport and cultural practices. Participating communities seemed to lack the capacity

  18. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.

  19. Chitosan microspheres with an extracellular matrix-mimicking nanofibrous structure as cell-carrier building blocks for bottom-up cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Gao, Huai-Ling; Shen, Li-Li; Pan, Zhao; Mao, Li-Bo; Wu, Tao; He, Jia-Cai; Zou, Duo-Hong; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-07

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) which closely mimic the physicochemical properties of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) have been proven to advantageously favor cell attachment, proliferation, migration and new tissue formation. Recently, as a valuable alternative, a bottom-up TE approach utilizing cell-loaded micrometer-scale modular components as building blocks to reconstruct a new tissue in vitro or in vivo has been proved to demonstrate a number of desirable advantages compared with the traditional bulk scaffold based top-down TE approach. Nevertheless, micro-components with an ECM-mimicking nanofibrous structure are still very scarce and highly desirable. Chitosan (CS), an accessible natural polymer, has demonstrated appealing intrinsic properties and promising application potential for TE, especially the cartilage tissue regeneration. According to this background, we report here the fabrication of chitosan microspheres with an ECM-mimicking nanofibrous structure for the first time based on a physical gelation process. By combining this physical fabrication procedure with microfluidic technology, uniform CS microspheres (CMS) with controlled nanofibrous microstructure and tunable sizes can be facilely obtained. Especially, no potentially toxic or denaturizing chemical crosslinking agent was introduced into the products. Notably, in vitro chondrocyte culture tests revealed that enhanced cell attachment and proliferation were realized, and a macroscopic 3D geometrically shaped cartilage-like composite can be easily constructed with the nanofibrous CMS (NCMS) and chondrocytes, which demonstrate significant application potential of NCMS as the bottom-up cell-carrier components for cartilage tissue engineering.

  20. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  1. Building the Digital Branch A Library Technology Report

    CERN Document Server

    King, David Lee

    2009-01-01

    This issue of Library Technology Reports explores the idea of the digital branch-a library website that is a vital, functional resource for patrons and enhances the library's place within its community.

  2. Automation and information technology solutions for buildings and homes

    OpenAIRE

    Cuacos Encarnación, David

    2008-01-01

    This investigation is part of Master’s of Science degree in Industrial Engineering at the Universidad Carlos III of Madrid. The work has been carried out at Automation Technology Laboratory, of Helsinki University of Technology (TKK). This research is part of Assistive Automation project, which develops devices and systems assist independent living of elderly and disabled persons. The home automation system prototype is expected to increase the safety, comfort and independence of these people...

  3. Hand in Glove? Small Building Contractors, Mobile Technology and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buser, Martine; Koch, Christian; Tambo, Torben

    2010-01-01

    and wireless communication; prices of powerful laptops, pocketpc, smart phones, blackberry's and PDA's continue to drop and their functionality approaches the computing power of laptops. Moreover those generic technologies have become commonly used. By the end of 2005, there were more mobile phones in use...... developed rapidly, it possess features fitting the mobility patterns of the small craftsmen enterprises operating on construction sites. The new options of mobile computing encompass telecommunication, devices, IT-architecture and: Telecommunication such as cellular phone communication technologies...

  4. Surface tectonics of nanoporous networks of melamine-capped molecular building blocks formed through interface Schiff-base reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuan-He; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Control over the assembly of molecules on a surface is of great importance for the fabrication of molecule-based miniature devices. Melamine (MA) and molecules with terminal MA units are promising candidates for supramolecular interfacial packing patterning, owing to their multiple hydrogen-bonding sites. Herein, we report the formation of self-assembled structures of MA-capped molecules through a simple on-surface synthetic route. MA terminal groups were successfully fabricated onto rigid molecular cores with 2-fold and 3-fold symmetry through interfacial Schiff-base reactions between MA and aldehyde groups. Sub-molecular scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging of the resultant adlayer revealed the formation of nanoporous networks. Detailed structural analysis indicated that strong hydrogen-bonding interactions between the MA groups persistently drove the formation of nanoporous networks. Herein, we demonstrate that functional groups with strong hydrogen-bond-formation ability are promising building blocks for the guided assembly of nanoporous networks and other hierarchical 2D assemblies. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Could the ethics of institutionalized health care be anything but Kantian? Collecting building blocks for a unifying metaethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldis, Byron

    2005-01-01

    Is a Health Care Ethics possible? Against sceptical and relativist doubts Kantian deontology may advance a challenging alternative affirming the possibility of such an ethics on the condition that deontology be adopted as a total programme or complete vision. Kantian deontology is enlisted to move us from an ethics of two-person informal care to one of institutions. It justifies this affirmative answer by occupying a commanding meta-ethical stand. Such a total programme comprises, on the one hand, a dual-aspect strategy incorporating the macro- (institutional) and micro- (person-to-person) levels while, on the other, it integrates consistently within moral epistemology a meta-ethics with lower-ground moral theories. The article describes the issues to be dealt with and the problems which have to be solved on the way to a unifying theory of that kind (Sections I-III) and indicates elements of Kantian moral philosophy which may serve as building blocks (Section IV). Among these are not only Kant's ideas concerning the moral acting of persons and his ideas concerning civil society and state but also his ideas concerning morality, schematism and religion.

  6. CdTe magic-sized clusters and the use as building blocks for assembling two-dimensional nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hu; Hou, Yumei; Zhang, Hua

    2017-06-01

    A facile one-pot noninjection synthesis of CdTe magic-sized clusters (MSCs) and their use as building blocks for assembling two-dimensional (2D) quantum confined nanoplatelets (NPLs) are reported. Four distinct MSC families, with the first exciton absorption peaks at 447 nm (F447), 485 nm (F485), 535 nm (F535), and 555 nm (F555), are synthesized by the reaction between cadmium oleate and trioctylphosphine tellurium (TOP-Te) in octadecene media containing primary amine and TOP at appropriate intermediate temperatures. Especially, F447 is obtained in pure form and can self-assemble in situ into 2D NPLs in the reaction solution. The formation, growth, and transformation of CdTe MSCs are monitored mainly by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The pure F447 and its assembled 2D NPLs are further characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The influence of various experimental variables, including reaction temperature, the nature, and amount of capping ligands, on the stability and growth kinetics of the obtained MSC families has been systematically investigated. Experimental results indicate that the appropriate reaction temperature and the presence of long hydrocarbon chain primary amines play a crucial role in the formation of MSCs and the subsequent assembly into 2D NPLs. Primary amines can also promote ultra-small sized CdTe regular nanocrystals to transform into MSCs, and therefore, CdTe MSCs can be obtained indirectly from regularly sized nanocrystals. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. A 50/50 electronic beam splitter in graphene nanoribbons as a building block for electron optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leandro R. F.; Hernández, Alexis R.; Pinheiro, Felipe A.; Lewenkopf, Caio

    2016-12-01

    Based on the investigation of the multi-terminal conductance of a system composed of two graphene nanoribbons, in which one is on top of the other and rotated by {{60}\\circ} , we propose a setup for a 50/50 electronic beam splitter that neither requires large magnetic fields nor ultra low temperatures. Our findings are based on an atomistic tight-binding description of the system and on the Green function method to compute the Landauer conductance. We demonstrate that this system acts as a perfect 50/50 electronic beam splitter, in which its operation can be switched on and off by varying the doping (Fermi energy). We show that this device is robust against thermal fluctuations and long range disorder, as zigzag valley chiral states of the nanoribbons are protected against backscattering. We suggest that the proposed device can be applied as the fundamental element of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer, as well as a building block of many devices in electron optics.

  8. Controlled loading of building blocks into temporary self-assembled scaffolds for directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, L Todd; Danila, Delia C; Sharpe, Katie; Durkin, Melissa; Clayton, Benjamin; Anderson, Ben; Richter, Andrew; Pinkhassik, Eugene

    2008-10-21

    Using temporary self-assembled scaffolds to preorganize building blocks is a potentially powerful method for the synthesis of organic nanostructures with programmed shapes. We examined the underlying phenomena governing the loading of hydrophobic monomers into lipid bilayer interior and demonstrated successful control of the amount and ratio of loaded monomers. When excess styrene derivatives or acrylates were added to the aqueous solution of unilamellar liposomes made from saturated phospholipids, most loading occurs within the first few hours. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence of aggregation caused by monomers. Bilayers appeared to have a certain capacity for accommodating monomers. The total volume of loaded monomers is independent of monomer structure. X-ray scattering showed the increase in bilayer thickness consistent with loading monomers into bilayer interior. Loading kinetics is inversely proportional to the hydrophobicity and size of monomers. Loading and extraction kinetic data suggest that crossing the polar heads region is the rate limiting step. Consideration of loading kinetics and multiple equilibria are important for achieving reproducible monomer loading. The total amount of monomers loaded into the bilayer can be controlled by the loading time or length of hydrophobic lipid tails. The ratio of loaded monomers can be varied by changing the ratio of monomers used for loading or by the time-controlled replacement of a preloaded monomer. Understanding and controlling the loading of monomers into bilayers contributes to the directed assembly of organic nanostructures.

  9. Using the fingerprints of solar magnetic reconnection to identify the elemental building blocks of the slow solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepko, Larry; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Kasper, Justin; Lepri, Sue

    2015-04-01

    While the source of the fast solar wind is well understood to be linked to coronal holes, the source of the slow solar wind has remained elusive. Many previous studies of the slow solar wind have examined trends in the composition and charge states over long time scales and found strong relationships between the solar wind velocity and these plasma parameters. These relationships have been used to constrain models of solar wind source and acceleration. In this study, we take advantage of high time resolution (12 min) measurements of solar wind composition and charge-state abundances recently reprocessed by the ACE Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) science team to probe the timescales of solar wind variability at relatively small scales. We study an interval of slow solar wind containing quasi-periodic 90 minute structures and show that they are remnants of solar magnetic reconnection. Each 90-minute parcel of slow solar wind, though the speed remains steady, exhibits the complete range of charge state and composition variations expected for the entire range of slow solar wind, which is repeated again in the next 90-minute interval. These observations show that previous statistical results break down on these shorter timescales, and impose new and important constraints on models of slow solar wind creation. We conclude by suggesting these structures were created through interchange magnetic reconnection and form elemental building blocks of the slow solar wind. We also discuss the necessity of decoupling separately the process(es) responsible for the release and acceleration.

  10. Total synthesis of woodrosin I--part 1: preparation of the building blocks and evaluation of the glycosylation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstner, Alois; Jeanjean, Fabien; Razon, Patrick; Wirtz, Conny; Mynott, Richard

    2003-01-03

    The preparation of three building blocks required for the total synthesis of woodrosin I (1) is outlined, a complex resin glycoside bearing a macrolide ring which spans four of the five sugars of its oligosaccharide backbone. Key steps involve the enantioselective, titanium-catalyzed addition of dipentylzinc to 5-hexenal, the glycosylation of the resulting alcohol 18 with the glucose-derived trichloroacetimidate 7, and further elaboration of the resulting product 19 into disaccharide 22 on treatment with the orthogonally protected glycosyl donor 15. The trichloroacetimidate method is also used for the formation of the second synthon represented by disaccharide 38. A model study shows that the assembly of the pentasaccharidic perimeter of 1 depends critically on the phasing of the glycosylation events between fragments 22, 38 and the rhamnosyl donor 27 due to the severe steric hindrance in the product. A particularly noteworthy finding is the fact that diol 22 can be regioselectively glycosylated at the 3'-OH group in high yield without protection of the neighboring 2'-OH function.

  11. Hexakis(4-iodophenyl)-peri-hexabenzocoronene- a versatile building block for highly ordered discotic liquid crystalline materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jishan; Watson, Mark D; Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhaohui; Müllen, Klaus

    2004-01-14

    Hexakis (4-iodophenyl)-peri-hexabenzocoronene (5), a novel functionalizable mesogenic building block, was prepared by rational multistep synthesis. Although sparingly soluble in common solvents, it can be obtained in pure form and then functionalized via Hagihara-Sonogashira coupling to give a series of highly ordered columnar liquid crystalline molecules 14a-c. The total synthesis involves five 6-fold transformations, all in excellent to near quantitative isolated yields. Their thermotropic liquid crystalline behavior was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Compared to the normal alkyl-subsituted hexabenzocoronenes (HBCs), 14a-c exhibit more highly ordered columnar mesophases, including three-dimensionally ordered superstructures (helical columnar mesophase). These could arise from additional intracolumnar pi-pi interactions between, and space-filling requirements introduced by, the rigid-rod side groups. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed self-assembled bundles of columnar aggregates in spin-coated films and isolated several-micron-long nanoribbons composed of a defined number of columns in drop cast films.

  12. Scout: An Impact Analysis Tool for Building Energy-Efficiency Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Chioke; Langevin, Jared; Roth, Amir; Phelan, Patrick; Parker, Andrew; Ball, Brian; Brackney, Larry

    2016-08-26

    Evaluating the national impacts of candidate U.S. building energy-efficiency technologies has historically been difficult for organizations with large energy efficiency portfolios. In particular, normalizing results from technology-specific impact studies is time-consuming when those studies do not use comparable assumptions about the underlying building stock. To equitably evaluate its technology research, development, and deployment portfolio, the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Office has developed Scout, a software tool that quantitatively assesses the energy and CO2 impacts of building energy-efficiency measures on the national building stock. Scout efficiency measures improve upon the unit performance and/or lifetime operational costs of an equipment stock baseline that is determined from the U.S. Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook (AEO). Scout measures are characterized by a market entry and exit year, unit performance level, cost, and lifetime. To evaluate measures on a consistent basis, Scout uses EnergyPlus simulation on prototype building models to translate measure performance specifications to whole-building energy savings; these savings impacts are then extended to a national scale using floor area weighting factors. Scout represents evolution in the building stock over time using AEO projections for new construction, retrofit, and equipment replacements, and competes technologies within market segments under multiple adoption scenarios. Scout and its efficiency measures are open-source, as is the EnergyPlus whole building simulation framework that is used to evaluate measure performance. The program is currently under active development and will be formally released once an initial set of measures has been analyzed and reviewed.

  13. From the Schoolhouse to the Statehouse: Building a Statewide Model for Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhine, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This article details the journey Luke Rhine, a Program Specialist in Career and Technology Education at the Maryland State Department of Education, as he went about the difficult task of building consistency and establishing rigorous expectations for Technology education in Maryland. As a result, Maryland has developed a model for Technology…

  14. Building the digital enterprise a guide to constructing monetization models using digital technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Skilton, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The digital economy is at a tipping point. This practical book defines digital ecosystems, discusses digital design using converging technologies of social networking, mobility, big data and cloud computing, and provides a methods for linking digital technologies together to meet the challenges of building a digital enterprise in the new economy.

  15. Windows and Building Envelope Research and Development: A Roadmap for Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    This Building Technologies Office (BTO) Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap identifies priority windows and building envelope R&D areas of interest. Cost and performance targets are identified for each key R&D area. The roadmap describes the technical and market challenges to be overcome, R&D activities and milestones, key stakeholders, and potential energy savings that could result if cost and performance targets are met. Methods for improving technology performance and specific strategies for reducing installed costs and mitigating any other market barriers, which would increase the likelihood of mass-market technology adoption, are identified. This roadmap is a useful resource for public and private decision makers evaluating and pursuing high-impact R&D focused on advancing next-generation energy efficient windows and building envelope technologies.

  16. Nanoparticle building blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent M. Rotello

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Monolayer-protected clusters (MPCs and mixed monolayer-protected clusters (MMPCs2 provide crucial tools for bridging the gap between ‘bottomup’ synthetic methods and ‘top-down’ fabrication. MPCs are core-shell type systems that feature a metallic or semiconductor core functionalized with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM. This monolayer provides two key functions. Firstly preventing core-core contact that would lead to agglomeration and secondly providing a structured environment for the attachment of functional molecular entities, including devices and sensors. MMPCs feature multiple functionality on the shell monolayer, greatly extending the versatility of these core-shell systems.

  17. Relationship Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santabarbara, Todd; Erbe, Ryan; Cooper, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Intimate or romantic relationships for young people today play an integral role in their health and quality of life. Between the ages of 11 and 13 students become more interested in the opposite sex and as a result they begin to develop more intimate relationships. Around this age students are learning to deal with these feelings of attraction and…

  18. Building Science and Technology Solutions for National Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Alan R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-05

    The nation's investment in Los Alamos has fostered scientific capabilities for national security missions. As the premier national security science laboratory, Los Alamos tackles: (1) Multidisciplinary science, technology, and engineering challenges; (2) Problems demanding unique experimental and computational facilities; and (3) Highly complex national security issues requiring fundamental breakthroughs. Our mission as a DOE national security science laboratory is to develop and apply science, technology, and engineering solutions that: (1) ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the US nuclear deterrent; (2) protect against the nuclear threat; and (3) solve national security challenges.

  19. Solar technology and building implementation in Malaysia: A national paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Nizam Kamaruzzaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar technology is becoming increasingly popular. For example, the production of solarcells quadrupled in the 1999-2004 period, with a capacity of four gigawatts worldwide. Renewableenergy including solar power produces few or no harmful emissions and it is becoming increasinglyimportant to exploit it in the future. This paper presents a literature review of the application ofnumerous types of solar technology in buildings in Malaysia and identifies the challenges faced.Although several newly constructed green buildings use solar technology, Malaysia has yet to acceptit wholesale. If solar technology is to be adopted widely, then both public and private sectors mustcooperate to provide large-scale financial incentives and produce specialists in solar technology. Asthe first step, the government has established the Low Energy Office and the Green Energy Office,which use passive solar design and photovoltaic systems in their own buildings. However, the privatesector has yet to follow suit. It is anticipated that the application of solar technology in buildings willencourage sustainable development when all non-renewable energy sources decrease significantly. Ifpeople do not recognise the potential of such technology in daily life, it will soon be too late.

  20. Building a Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulmin, Charles N.; Groome, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    The global economy has "flattened" the world in terms of skills and technology. A new workforce of problem-solvers, innovators, and inventors who are self-reliant and able to think logically is one of the critical foundations that drive innovative capacity in a state. The K-12 (kindergarten through grade 12) education system, with the…