WorldWideScience

Sample records for technological barrier limiting

  1. Subsurface barrier verification technologies, informal report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    One of the more promising remediation options available to the DOE waste management community is subsurface barriers. Some of the uses of subsurface barriers include surrounding and/or containing buried waste, as secondary confinement of underground storage tanks, to direct or contain subsurface contaminant plumes and to restrict remediation methods, such as vacuum extraction, to a limited area. To be most effective the barriers should be continuous and depending on use, have few or no breaches. A breach may be formed through numerous pathways including: discontinuous grout application, from joints between panels and from cracking due to grout curing or wet-dry cycling. The ability to verify barrier integrity is valuable to the DOE, EPA, and commercial sector and will be required to gain full public acceptance of subsurface barriers as either primary or secondary confinement at waste sites. It is recognized that no suitable method exists for the verification of an emplaced barrier's integrity. The large size and deep placement of subsurface barriers makes detection of leaks challenging. This becomes magnified if the permissible leakage from the site is low. Detection of small cracks (fractions of an inch) at depths of 100 feet or more has not been possible using existing surface geophysical techniques. Compounding the problem of locating flaws in a barrier is the fact that no placement technology can guarantee the completeness or integrity of the emplaced barrier. This report summarizes several commonly used or promising technologies that have been or may be applied to in-situ barrier continuity verification

  2. DOE UST interim subsurface barrier technologies workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This document contains information which was presented at a workshop regarding interim subsurface barrier technologies that could be used for underground storage tanks, particularly the tank 241-C-106 at the Hanford Reservation

  3. Nuclear energy technology transfer: the security barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, R.L.

    1975-08-01

    The problems presented by security considerations to the transfer of nuclear energy technology are examined. In the case of fusion, the national security barrier associated with the laser and E-beam approaches is discussed; for fission, the international security requirements, due to the possibility of the theft or diversion of special nuclear materials or sabotage of nuclear facilities, are highlighted. The paper outlines the nuclear fuel cycle and terrorist threat, examples of security barriers, and the current approaches to transferring technology. (auth)

  4. Identifying and overcoming barriers to technology implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, M.; Warren, S.; McCune, M.

    1996-01-01

    In a recent General Accounting Office report, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management was found to be ineffective in integrating their environmental technology development efforts with the cleanup actions. As a result of these findings, a study of remediation documents was performed by the Technology Applications Team within DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) to validate this finding and to understand why it was occurring. A second initiative built on the foundation of the remediation document study and evaluated solutions to the ineffective implementation of improved technologies. The Technology Applications Team examined over 50 remediation documents (17 projects) which included nearly 600 proposed remediation technologies. It was determined that very few technologies are reaching the Records of Decision documents. In fact, most are eliminated in the early stages of consideration. These observations stem from regulators' and stakeholders' uncertainties in cost and performance of the technology and the inability of the technology to meet site specific conditions. The Technology Applications Team also set out to identify and evaluate solutions to barriers to implementing innovative technology into the DOE's environmental management activities. Through the combined efforts of DOE and the Hazardous Waste Action Coalition (HWAC), a full day workshop was conducted at the annual HWAC meeting in June 1995 to solve barriers to innovative technology implementation. Three barriers were identified as widespread throughout the DOE complex and industry. Identified barriers included a lack of verified or certified cost and performance data for innovative technologies; risk of failure to reach cleanup goals using innovative technologies; and communication barriers that are present at virtually every stage of the characterization/remediation process from development through implementation

  5. Regulatory barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusinen, T.L.; Siegel, M.R.

    1991-02-01

    The primary federal regulatory programs that influence the development of new technology for hazardous waste are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also commonly known as Superfund). Two important aspects of RCRA that can create barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation are technology-based waste pre-treatment standards and a cumbersome permitting program. By choosing a technology-based approach to the RCRA land disposal restrictions program, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has simultaneously created tremendous demand for the technologies specified in its regulations, while at the same time significantly reduced incentives for technology innovation that might have otherwise existed. Also, the RCRA hazardous waste permitting process can take years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The natural tendency of permit writers to be cautious of unproven (i.e., innovative) technology also can create a barrier to deployment of new technologies. EPA has created several permitting innovations, however, to attempt to mitigate this latter barrier. Understanding the constraints of these permitting innovations can be important to the success of hazardous waste technology development programs. 3 refs

  6. Innovative technologies - Antiquated procedures how do we romove the barriers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper share the author's perspective, based on her experience, on the procedural, regulatory, institutional, and human barriers limiting the progress and effectiveness of decision making in the Federal government's efforts to develop and demonstrate innovative environmental cleanup technologies. The author has drawn upon her experience as a facilitator for the DOIT Committee process, the EPA/Clean Sites Public/Private Partnership, private industry technology development and demonstration consortia, knowledge gained from facilitating workshops on regulatory and institutional barriers to technology development, and ten years experience as a Superfund attorney. Two main topics are covered in this paper, the first focuses on the use of group processes for decision-making and makes recommendations for improving the success of these processes. The second focus of this paper is on barriers to and solutions for successful development, demonstration, and commercialization of new environmental technologies

  7. Implementation of renewable technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Zimbabwe country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    . The committee was tasked with the responsibility of coming up with recommendations to barrier removal and promotion of RETs. After interested stake holders had presented their candidate projects proposals, the committee started the process of identifying barriers to the projects and selecting feasible projects. A final workshop was then held in August 2000 where the findings of the whole process were presented to all stake holders for discussion and analysis. The problem of barriers was found to be very complex. A good number of RETs projects in the country were successfully implemented. The success of such projects was underpinned by the following factors, addressing the immediate and basic needs of the people, participatory approach, awareness creation and enabling income generation activities. Some projects were also not very successful as they faced a lot of barriers like poor institutional framework, limited financial resources, lack of appreciation of associated benefits and technology failure. A close analysis of barriers revealed that there are two classes of barrier namely primary barriers and secondary barriers. Primary barriers are the real barriers while secondary barriers are more of the effects of primary barriers. (BA)

  8. Frozen soil barrier technology. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The technology of using refrigeration to freeze soils has been employed in large-scale engineering projects for a number of years. This technology bonds soils to give load-bearing strength during construction; to seal tunnels, mine shafts, and other subsurface structures against flooding from groundwater; and to stabilize soils during excavation. Examples of modern applications include several large subway, highway, and water supply tunnels. Ground freezing to form subsurface frozen soil barriers is an innovative technology designed to contain hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soils and groundwater. Frozen soil barriers that provide complete containment (open-quotes Vclose quotesconfiguration) are formed by drilling and installing refrigerant piping (on 8-ft centers) horizontally at approximately 45 degrees angles for sides and vertically for ends and then recirculating an environmentally safe refrigerant solution through the piping to freeze the soil porewater. Freeze plants are used to keep the containment structure at subfreezing temperatures. A full-scale containment structure was demonstrated from May 12 to October 10, 1994, at a nonhazardous site on SEG property on Gallaher Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  9. Diffusion of renewable energy technologies - barriers and stakeholders' perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, S.; Painuly, Jyoti P.

    2004-01-01

    State, India, as a case study, the paper develops a systematic classification of barriers to the adoption of RETs (economic, technological, market and institutional) and ranking them based on the perceptions of various stakeholders. The results provide evidence of how the consumers receive RET...... information and make decisions using their limited analytical capabilities. The analysis is used to enhance the knowledge by introducing ideas based on behavioural theory. Not only do these ideas help understanding the consumer perspective, they also help develop policy interventions. The aim is to define...

  10. Barriers to adoption of recent technology in cervical screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhala Darshana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Pap smear is one of the modern success stories in the field of preventive medicine. Since its introduction as a screening test, there has been a dramatic reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer. However, the search for a better screening test continues. The new technologies, including liquid-based cytology (LBC, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV testing and automated or machine-assisted screening have been introduced. However, there is continuous debate about whether society's limited resources are better spent on reaching the underserved rather than on these technologies. Another question is whether these technologies create yet another kind of disparity in delivering preventive care. For example, despite the wide use of LBC (99% of tests submitted to our laboratory are LBC, conventional Pap smears are still used to screen/follow up some women. It is not clear why some providers continue to prefer conventional smear over LBC and what are the barriers for adopting LBC in cervical cancer screening. We hypothesize the lower cost of conventional compared to LBC Pap testing, patient's lower socio-economic indices, a patient's medical history and provider's subspecialty/training all appear to play a role in the choice of using conventional Pap testing rather than LBC. Unintentionally, this choice results in repeat testing, delayed treatment and potentially higher costs than intended. The ultimate goal of this review article is to understand and explore possible barriers and disparities to adopting new technology in cancer screening.

  11. Barriers to Technology Use in Large and Small School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francom, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Barriers to effective technology integration come in several different categories, including access to technology tools and resources, technology training and support, administrative support, time to plan and prepare for technology integration, and beliefs about the importance and usefulness of technology tools and resources. This study used…

  12. Review of potential subsurface permeable barrier emplacement and monitoring technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riggsbee, W.H.; Treat, R.L.; Stansfield, H.J.; Schwarz, R.M.; Cantrell, K.J.; Phillips, S.J.

    1994-02-01

    This report focuses on subsurface permeable barrier technologies potentially applicable to existing waste disposal sites. This report describes candidate subsurface permeable barriers, methods for emplacing these barriers, and methods used to monitor the barrier performance. Two types of subsurface barrier systems are described: those that apply to contamination.in the unsaturated zone, and those that apply to groundwater and to mobile contamination near the groundwater table. These barriers may be emplaced either horizontally or vertically depending on waste and site characteristics. Materials for creating permeable subsurface barriers are emplaced using one of three basic methods: injection, in situ mechanical mixing, or excavation-insertion. Injection is the emplacement of dissolved reagents or colloidal suspensions into the soil at elevated pressures. In situ mechanical mixing is the physical blending of the soil and the barrier material underground. Excavation-insertion is the removal of a soil volume and adding barrier materials to the space created. Major vertical barrier emplacement technologies include trenching-backfilling; slurry trenching; and vertical drilling and injection, including boring (earth augering), cable tool drilling, rotary drilling, sonic drilling, jetting methods, injection-mixing in drilled holes, and deep soil mixing. Major horizontal barrier emplacement technologies include horizontal drilling, microtunneling, compaction boring, horizontal emplacement, longwall mining, hydraulic fracturing, and jetting methods

  13. Overcoming regulatory barriers: DOE environmental technology development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtyka, B.M.; Clodfelter-Schumack, K.; Evans, T.T.

    1995-01-01

    The potential to improve environmental conditions via compliance or restoration is directly related to the ability to produce and apply innovative technological solutions. However, numerous organizations, including the US General Accounting Office (GAO), the EPA National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT), the DOE Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB), and the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) have determined that significant regulatory barriers exist that inhibit the development and application of these technologies. They have noted the need for improved efforts in identifying and rectifying these barriers for the purpose of improving the technology development process, providing innovative alternatives, and enhancing the likelihood of technology acceptance by all. These barriers include, among others, regulator and user bias against ''unknown/unproven'' technologies; multi-level/multi-media permit disincentives; potential liability of developers and users for failed implementation; wrongly defined or inadequate data quality objectives: and lack of customer understanding and input. The ultimate goal of technology development is the utilization of technologies. This paper will present information on a number of regulatory barriers hindering DOE's environmental technology development program and describe DOE efforts to address these barriers

  14. SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    To make treatment a viable option for remediation you must first identify the barriers to implementing treatment. The primary barrier is economics. Treatment options are relatively expensive and there is a lack of funds for treatment. The cost of technologies can be lowered by 1)...

  15. Overcoming Barriers to Classroom Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Technology-savvy teachers are often the "go to" staff members in schools for their colleagues' technology issues. These teachers are seen as leaders within their schools with respect to technology and often do not understand their peers' difficulties when bringing technology into the classroom. Understanding both the reasons teachers may…

  16. Barriers and facilitators influencing ethical evaluation in health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assasi, Nazila; Schwartz, Lisa; Tarride, Jean-Eric; O'Reilly, Daria; Goeree, Ron

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators influencing the integration of ethical considerations in health technology assessment (HTA). The study consisted of two complementary approaches: (a) a systematic review of the literature; and (b) an eighteen-item online survey that was distributed to fifty-six HTA agencies affiliated with the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment. The review identified twenty-six relevant articles. The most often cited barriers in the literature were: scarcity, heterogeneity and complexity of ethical analysis methods; challenges in translating ethical analysis results into knowledge that is useful for decision makers; and lack of organizational support in terms of required expertise, time and financial resources. The most frequently cited facilitators included: usage of value-based appraisal methods, stakeholder and public engagement, enhancement of practice guidelines, ethical expertise, and educational interventions. Representatives of twenty-six (46.5 percent) agencies from nineteen countries completed the survey. A median of 10 percent (interquartile range, 5 percent to 50 percent) of the HTA products produced by the agencies was reported to include an assessment of ethical aspects. The most commonly perceived barriers were: limited ethical knowledge and expertise, insufficient time and resources, and difficulties in finding ethical evidence or using ethical guidelines. Educational interventions, demand by policy makers, and involvement of ethicists in HTA were the most commonly perceived facilitators. Our results emphasize the importance of simplification of ethics methodology and development of good practice guidelines in HTA, as well as capacity building for engaging HTA practitioners in ethical analyses.

  17. Tritium permeation barriers for fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perujo, A.; Forcey, K.

    1994-01-01

    An important issue concerning the safety, feasibility and fueling (i.e., tritium breeding ratio and recovery from the breeding blanket) of a fusion reactor is the possible tritium leakages through the structural materials and in particular through those operating at high temperatures. The control of tritium permeation could be a critical factor in determining the viability of a future fusion power reactor. The formation of tritium permeation barriers to prevent the loss of tritium to the coolant by diffusion though the structural material seems to be the most practical method to minimize such losses. Many authors have discussed the formation of permeation barriers to reduce the leakage of hydrogen isotopes through proposed first wall and structural materials. In general, there are two routes for the formation of such a barrier, namely: the growth of oxide layers (e.g., Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , etc.) or the application of surface coatings. Non-metals are the most promising materials from the point of view of the formation of permeation barriers. Oxides such as Al 2 O 3 or Cr 2 O 3 or carbides such as SiC or TiC have been proposed. Amongst the metals only tungsten or gold are sufficiently less permeable than steel to warrant investigation as candidate materials for permeation barriers. It is of course possible to grow oxide layers on steel directly by heating in the atmosphere or under a variety of conditions (first route above). The direct oxidizing is normally done in an environment of open-quotes wet hydrogenclose quotes to promote the growth of chromia on, for example, nickel steels or ternary oxides on 316L to prevent corrosion. The application of surface layers (second route above), offers a greater range of materials for the formation of permeation barriers. In addition to reducing permeation, such layers should be adhesive, resistant to attack by corrosive breeder materials and should not crack during thermal cycling

  18. Saudi high school students' attitudes and barriers toward the use of computer technologies in learning English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabti, Ahmed Abdulateef; Chaichan, Rasha Sami

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the attitudes of Saudi Arabian high school students toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. The study also discusses the possible barriers that affect and limit the actual usage of computers. Quantitative approach is applied in this research, which involved 30 Saudi Arabia students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 15 males and 15 females with ages between 16 years and 18 years. Two instruments, namely, Scale of Attitude toward Computer Technologies (SACT) and Barriers affecting Students' Attitudes and Use (BSAU) were used to collect data. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) of Davis (1989) was utilized. The analysis of the study revealed gender differences in attitudes toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. Female students showed high and positive attitudes towards the use of computer technologies in learning English than males. Both male and female participants demonstrated high and positive perception of Usefulness and perceived Ease of Use of computer technologies in learning English. Three barriers that affected and limited the use of computer technologies in learning English were identified by the participants. These barriers are skill, equipment, and motivation. Among these barriers, skill had the highest effect, whereas motivation showed the least effect.

  19. Barriers and Facilitators to Community Mobility for Assistive Technology Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Layton

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobility is frequently described in terms of individual body function and structures however contemporary views of disability also recognise the role of environment in creating disability. Aim. To identify consumer perspectives regarding barriers and facilitators to optimal mobility for a heterogeneous population of impaired Victorians who use assistive technology in their daily lives. Method. An accessible survey investigated the impact of supports or facilitators upon actual and desired life outcomes and health-related quality of life, from 100 AT users in Victoria, Australia. This paper reports upon data pertaining to community mobility. Results. A range of barriers and enablers to community mobility were identified including access to AT devices, environmental interventions, public transport, and inclusive community environs. Substantial levels of unmet need result in limited personal mobility and community participation. Outcomes fall short of many principles enshrined in current policy and human rights frameworks. Conclusion. AT devices as well as accessible and inclusive home and community environs are essential to maximizing mobility for many. Given the impact of the environment upon the capacity of individuals to realise community mobility, this raises the question as to whether rehabilitation practitioners, as well as prescribing AT devices, should work to build accessible communities via systemic advocacy.

  20. Barrier inhomogeneities limited current and 1/f noise transport in GaN based nanoscale Schottky barrier diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Heilmann, M.; Latzel, Michael; Kapoor, Raman; Sharma, Intu; Göbelt, M.; Christiansen, Silke H.; Kumar, Vikram; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    The electrical behaviour of Schottky barrier diodes realized on vertically standing individual GaN nanorods and array of nanorods is investigated. The Schottky diodes on individual nanorod show highest barrier height in comparison with large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film which is in contrast with previously published work. The discrepancy between the electrical behaviour of nanoscale Schottky diodes and large area diodes is explained using cathodoluminescence measurements, surface potential analysis using Kelvin probe force microscopy and 1ow frequency noise measurements. The noise measurements on large area diodes on nanorods array and epitaxial film suggest the presence of barrier inhomogeneities at the metal/semiconductor interface which deviate the noise spectra from Lorentzian to 1/f type. These barrier inhomogeneities in large area diodes resulted in reduced barrier height whereas due to the limited role of barrier inhomogeneities in individual nanorod based Schottky diode, a higher barrier height is obtained. PMID:27282258

  1. Thermal barrier coatings - Technology for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.; Lutz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are a development of the aerospace industry primarily aimed at hot gas flow paths in turbine engines. TBC consists of zirconia ceramic coatings applied over (M)CrAlY. These coatings can provide three benefits: (1) a reduction of metal surface operating temperatures, (2) a deterrent to hot gas corrosion, and (3) improved thermal efficiencies. TBC brings these same benefits to reciprocal diesel engines but coating longevity must be demonstrated. Diesels require thicker deposits and have challenging geometries for the arc-plasma spray (APS) deposition process. Different approaches to plasma spraying TBC are required for diesels, especially where peripheral edge effects play a major role. Bondcoats and ceramic top coats are modified to provide extended life as determined by burner rig tests, using ferrous and aluminum substrates

  2. Barriers and Limitations of Mentoring in Polish Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Mesjasz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In Polish organizations one can recognize a lot of barriers in the mentoring implementation. According to the author, at the root of these barriers are hierarchies of values: social, national, organizational, and hierarchies of values represented by individual employees. The purpose of this article is to trace the sources of constraints in the mentoring implementation process. The analysis is carried out on several levels: from the broadest social perspective, through the national to the perspective of the organization. In the article, there are also presented actions that should be taken by Polish organizations to overcome barriers and constraints in the mentoring implementation process.

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Okovity

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology for formation of thermal barrier coatings (TBC based on zirconium dioxide has been developed in the paper. The paper investigates structures of phase composition and thermal stability of such developed coatings. Investigation results pertaining to formation of an oxide system ZrO2 – Y2O3, while using plasma spraying and subsequent high-energy processing, which allows to increase resistance of a thermal barrier coating to thermal cycling heat resistance of the coating at temperature of 1100 °C. This leads to longer protection of bottom layer against high-temperature exposure. The methodology is based on complex metallographic, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy investigations of structural elements in composite plasma coatings of the ZrO2 – Y2O system. Resistance of plasma coatings (Мe – Cr – Al – Y/ZrO2 – Y2O3-type, used as TBC to protect gas turbine engine blades under conditions of frequent thermal cyclings is limited by cleavage of an outer ceramic layer. Structural and electron microprobe investigations have shown that as a result of thermal cycling an outer atmosphere due to porous structure of the ceramic coating layer, migrates to the surface of lower metal coating, causing its oxidation. As a result, the metal-ceramic Al2O3 layer is formed at a metal-ceramic interface and it changes a stress state of the coating that causes a reduction of protective properties. Thus, a high heat resistance of thermal barrier coatings depends on processes occurring at the interface between metal and ceramic coating layers. A laser impact on samples with TBC leads to changes in the structure of the oxide layer of ZrO2 – Y2O3. In this case its initial surface characterized by considerable relief is significantly flattened due to processing and the coating is fractured and it is separated in fragments. As the oxide coating has low thermal conductivity, and the time of laser exposure is about 10–3 sec, a heat flux

  4. Interaction of tide and salinity barrier: Limitation of numerical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphat Vongvisessomjai1

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of interaction of the tide and the salinity barrier in an estuarine area is usually accomplished vianumerical modeling, due to the speed and convenience of modern computers. However, numerical models provide littleinsight with respect to the fundamental physical mechanisms involved. In this study, it is found that all existing numericalmodels work satisfactorily when the barrier is located at some distance far from upstream and downstream boundary conditions.Results are considerably underestimate reality when the barrier is located near the downstream boundary, usually theriver mouth. Meanwhile, this analytical model provides satisfactory output for all scenarios. The main problem of thenumerical model is that the effects of barrier construction in creation of reflected tide are neglected when specifying thedownstream boundary conditions; the use of the boundary condition before construction of the barrier which are significantlydifferent from those after the barrier construction would result in an error outputs. Future numerical models shouldattempt to account for this deficiency; otherwise, using this analytical model is another choice.

  5. Driving forces and barriers for environmental technology development; Drivkrefter og barrierer for utvikling av miljoeteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Driving forces and barriers behind development and usage of environmental technology is discussed, and also whether there are certain characteristics related to environmental innovations compared to other innovations in general. The development of environmental technology is in principle dominated by the same drivers and barriers as any other technology, but the order and strength of the various factors may be different. This examination as well as other empirical studies shows that regulations play a greater part for environmental technology than 'pure market forces'. To many participants it is important to be one step ahead of the regulations, i.e. the expected regulations are equally important as the factual ones in driving the technology development. Players in the business community express that it is important that the authorities cooperate with them when introducing new regulations. This will increase acceptance for the regulations and facilitate the necessary adjustments. The most important barrier in the development and use of the technologies studied is probably the lack of demand.

  6. Nigerian teachers' perception of barriers to technology integration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper documents chemistry teachers' perceptions of barriers to technology integration into the chemistry lessons. Underlying the study was a conceptual underpinning which focused on the concept of ICT integration, competencies of integration and chemistry curriculum. 13 participants were recruited for the study.

  7. The Technological Barriers of Using Video Modeling in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Desha; Myck-Wayne, Janice

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to identify the technological barriers teachers encounter when attempting to implement video modeling in the classroom. Video modeling is an emerging evidence-based intervention method used with individuals with autism. Research has shown the positive effects video modeling can have on its recipients. Educators…

  8. Categories for Barriers to Adoption of Instructional Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although higher education has spent millions of dollars on instructional technologies, often higher education administration complains that instructors are not adopting them. Without a full understanding of possible barriers, higher education institutes are hard-pressed to develop either appropriate goals or sound strategies for the adoption of…

  9. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers

  10. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Permanent Isolation Barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with backup protective features. The objective of current designs is to develop a maintenance-free permanent barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts. Asphalt is being used as an impermeable water diversion layer to provide a redundant layer within the overall barrier design. Data on asphalt barrier properties in a buried environment are not available for the required 100-year time frame. The purpose of this test plan is to outline the activities planned to obtain data with which to estimate performance of the asphalt layers.

  11. Hurdling barriers through market uncertainty: Case studies ininnovative technology adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher T.; Radspieler Jr., Anthony; Payne, Jack

    2002-08-18

    The crisis atmosphere surrounding electricity availability in California during the summer of 2001 produced two distinct phenomena in commercial energy consumption decision-making: desires to guarantee energy availability while blackouts were still widely anticipated, and desires to avoid or mitigate significant price increases when higher commercial electricity tariffs took effect. The climate of increased consideration of these factors seems to have led, in some cases, to greater willingness on the part of business decision-makers to consider highly innovative technologies. This paper examines three case studies of innovative technology adoption: retrofit of time-and-temperature signs on an office building; installation of fuel cells to supply power, heating, and cooling to the same building; and installation of a gas-fired heat pump at a microbrewery. We examine the decision process that led to adoption of these technologies. In each case, specific constraints had made more conventional energy-efficient technologies inapplicable. We examine how these barriers to technology adoption developed over time, how the California energy decision-making climate combined with the characteristics of these innovative technologies to overcome the barriers, and what the implications of hurdling these barriers are for future energy decisions within the firms.

  12. Driving forces and barriers for environmental technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Driving forces and barriers behind development and usage of environmental technology is discussed, and also whether there are certain characteristics related to environmental innovations compared to other innovations in general. The development of environmental technology is in principle dominated by the same drivers and barriers as any other technology, but the order and strength of the various factors may be different. This examination as well as other empirical studies shows that regulations play a greater part for environmental technology than 'pure market forces'. To many participants it is important to be one step ahead of the regulations, i.e. the expected regulations are equally important as the factual ones in driving the technology development. Players in the business community express that it is important that the authorities cooperate with them when introducing new regulations. This will increase acceptance for the regulations and facilitate the necessary adjustments. The most important barrier in the development and use of the technologies studied is probably the lack of demand

  13. On limiting technology by negotiated agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesale, Albert

    1983-10-01

    The substance of my remarks tonight will be far narrower in scope than the prescribed title of my talk would indicate. This reflects two considerations: first, this topical meeting is focused on technologies associated with nuclear weapons systems; and, second, President Reagan recently (i.e., on March 23, 1983) called for ``a program to counter the awesome Soviet missile threat with measures that are defensive.'' In light of these considerations, I will concentrate tonight on the case of anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems as an example of a countinuing effort to limit technology by negotiated agreement? Why limit ABM systems? After all, such systems are defensive in nature, not offensive. Defensive systems are intended to protect people and the things of value to them. It is the offensive systems that cause death and destruction. Why don't we just go ahead and deploy the best available ABM system, and develop and test even better systems for deployment in the future?

  14. Space charge effects and coherent stability limits in barrier buckets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Boine-Frankenheim

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale Vlasov simulation study of the microwave instability below transition energy in a beam confined between two barrier pulses is performed. Starting from a matched distribution function for the confined ion beam including the space charge impedance the stability threshold in the longitudinal impedance plane is obtained. A simple stability criterium is found to be in good agreement with the simulation results.

  15. Improved HEPA Filter Technology for Flexible and Rigid Containment Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinson, Paul Arthur

    1998-01-01

    Safety and reliability in glovebox operations can be significantly improved and waste packaging efficiencies can be increased by inserting flexible, lightweight, high capacity HEPA filters into the walls of plastic sheet barriers. This HEPA filter/barrier technology can be adapted to a wide variety of applications: disposable waste bags, protective environmental barriers for electronic equipment, single or multiple use glovebag assemblies, flexible glovebox wall elements, and room partitions. These reliable and inexpensive filtered barriers have many uses in fields such as radioactive waste processing, HVAC filter changeout, vapor or grit blasting, asbestos cleanup, pharmaceutical, medical, biological, and electronic equipment containment. The applications can result in significant cost savings, improved operational reliability and safety, and total waste volume reduction. This technology was developed at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in 1993 and has been used at ANL-W since then at the TRU Waste Characterization Chamber Gloveboxes. Another 1998 AGS Conference paper titled ''TRU Waste Characterization Gloveboxes'', presented by Mr. David Duncan of ANL-W, describes these boxes

  16. Barriers and possibilities for low-carbon-energy consuming technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli

    consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on low-carbon-technologies, there are many issues that set a barrier for its adequate development and still many actors in these sectors are sceptical about the possibilities. Illumination is a very interesting sector...... to target, since it uses 19% of the total electricity produced in the world. Consequently, this paper takes the Danish office lighting sector as a study object and discusses the question: What are the main barriers and possibilities for the energy saving illumination technologies to efficiently reduce...... their ecological footprint. The discussion is supported by using relevant elements of the cradle-to-grave, eco-design and environmental-innovation theories. It is based on active participation in interdisciplinary projects and face-to-face in-depth interviews with relevant actors along the entire Danish...

  17. Review of Military Mountain Medicine Technology and Research Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    2.4.5 Nutritional and Hydration Guidelines 7 3.0 Review of Militarily-Relevant Mountain Medicine Technology and 7 Research Barriers 3.1...Interventions ( nutritional , pharmaceutical) to improve troop performance and health during high altitude deployments. 3) Prepare a report that: REVIEW OF...Edema (HAPE). The signs and symptoms of AMS are headache accompanied by insomnia, unusual fatigue, dizziness, anorexia , and nausea. AMS is not

  18. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  19. Barriers and Facilitators of Collaborative Management in Technological Innovation Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about innovation tend to a more systemic and cooperative approach in which those networks focused on scientific and technological development are considered. This article aims to identify the barriers and facilitators in the collaborative management process of technological innovation projects and a study has been carried out by the cooperation action for innovation with 17 industries in Brazil. The primary evidence refers to the crucial role of project managers when leading the structural demands, and clarity on the relevance of the communication of strategic guidelines among the organizations involved for the achievement of the results in the industries.

  20. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...

  1. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjekumhene, I.; Atakora, S.B.; Atta-Konadu, R.; Brew-Hammond, A. [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to

  2. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Ghana country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edjekumhene, I; Atakora, S B; Atta-Konadu, R; Brew-Hammond, A [Kumasi Inst. og Technology and Environment (Ghana)

    2001-07-01

    This report presents the experience of Ghana in the development, utilisation and promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs). The report gives a general overview of the state of RETs, describes past/existing institutional, regulatory and policy framework, identifies key barriers to and opportunities for RETs, and recommends directional changes needed to remove barriers and promote wide-scale adoption of RETs in Ghana. A total of eight RETs - biomass-fired dryers, sawdust stoves, sawdust briquette, biogas, solar crop dryer, solar water heater, solar water pump and small hydro power - are covered in the report. Analyses of barriers to the eight RETs are carried out using a framework approach that categorises barriers into socio-technical, economic and crosscutting barriers. Financial analyses, as opposed to economic analyses, have been carried out for all the selected RETs. The report also incorporates stake holders' perspectives and views on barriers and how they can be removed. Ghana is endowed with several renewable energy resources like solar radiation, small hydro, biomass, and wind. Exploitation of Ghana's renewable energy resources has been carried out under two main policy regimes - PND Law 62 (1983) and the Energy Sector Development Programme (ESDP). Several measures and instruments have been employed in the implementation of renewable energy policies. The main measures used are research and development, information and eduction, and some normative measures (like the passing of PNDC Law 62 and the Energy Commission Law). Some economic instruments, such as subsidies, taxes, pricing, financing and duty waiver/reduction, have been used as well but only to a limited extent. The effective development, implementation and dissemination of all the RETs studied are hampered by several barriers, which can be grouped into three main categories - Socio-technical barriers, economic barriers and crosscutting barriers. Socio-technical barriers refer to resource

  3. HRE-Pond Cryogenic Barrier Technology Demonstration: Pre- and Post-Barrier Hydrologic Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moline, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond is the site of a former impoundment for radioactive wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in east Tennessee. The pond received radioactive wastes from 1957 to 1962, and was subsequently drained, filled with soil, and covered with an asphalt cap. The site is bordered to the east and south by an unnamed stream that contains significant concentrations of radioactive contaminants, primarily 90 Sr. Because of the proximity of the stream to the HRE disposal site and the probable flow of groundwater from the site to the stream, it was hypothesized that the HRE Pond has been a source of contamination to the creek. The HRE-Pond was chosen as the site of a cryogenic barrier demonstration to evaluate this technology as a means for rapid, temporary isolation of contaminants in the type of subsurface environment that exists on the ORR. The cryogenic barrier is created by the circulation of liquid CO 2 through a system of thermoprobes installed in boreholes which are backfilled with sand. The probes cool the subsurface, creating a vertical ice wall by freezing adjacent groundwater, effectively surrounding the pond on four sides. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the hydrologic conditions within and around the pond prior to, during, and after the cryogenic barrier emplacement. The objectives were (1) to provide a hydrologic baseline for post-banner performance assessment, (2) to confirm that the pond is hydraulically connected to the surrounding sediments, (3) to determine the likely contaminant exit pathways from the pond, and (4) to measure changes in hydrologic conditions after barrier emplacement in order to assess the barrier performance. Because relatively little information about the subsurface hydrology and the actual configuration of the pond existed, data from multiple sources was required to reconstruct this complex system

  4. Barriers and limitations during implementation of the surgical safety checklist of the World Health Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Amalia Arboleda; Andrés Felipe Ausenón; Jairo Alberto Ayala; Diana Carolina Cabezas; Lina Gissella Calvache; Juan Pablo Caicedo; Jose Andres Calvache

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The surgical safety checklist of the World Health Organization (WHO) is a tool that checks and evaluates each procedure in the operating room. Despite its demonstrated effectiveness, it has many limitations and barriers to its implementation. The aim of this article was to present the current evidence regarding limitations and barriers to achieve a successful implementation of the surgical safety WHO checklist. Methods: A narrative review was designed. We performed a systematic ...

  5. Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms...... accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs...

  6. Barriers to development and deployment of innovative waste minimization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, E.A.; Donaghue, J.F.

    1994-08-01

    Increasing regulation and scrutiny is driving waste generators towards reducing the use of scarce natural resources and reducing or eliminating was streams. There is increasing emphasis on developing and deploying technologies that meet industry needs for recovering valuable materials in a cost-effective manner. At the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, Battelle operates Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL's mission is to develop technologies to clean up the environment, and to assist industry in being competitive on a global scale. One such technology developed by PNL is the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) process. This technology recovers acids from metal-bearing spent solutions, separating out the metals (which are a valuable byproduct of the acid recycling operation) from the acids. WADR uses selective precipitation and distillation together in an innovative waste recycling technology. Selective precipitation removes the heavy metals, and vacuum distillation recovers clean acid. However, WADR and other innovative waste reduction technologies face numerous barriers to successful development and deployment in the field

  7. Everyday couples' communication research: Overcoming methodological barriers with technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reblin, Maija; Heyman, Richard E; Ellington, Lee; Baucom, Brian R W; Georgiou, Panayiotis G; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2018-03-01

    Relationship behaviors contribute to compromised health or resilience. Everyday communication between intimate partners represents the vast majority of their interactions. When intimate partners take on new roles as patients and caregivers, everyday communication takes on a new and important role in managing both the transition and the adaptation to the change in health status. However, everyday communication and its relation to health has been little studied, likely due to barriers in collecting and processing this kind of data. The goal of this paper is to describe deterrents to capturing naturalistic, day-in-the-life communication data and share how technological advances have helped surmount them. We provide examples from a current study and describe how we anticipate technology will further change research capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Temporal Limits of Technological Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    technologically advanced capabilities. “ Technology , in fact, is one of the keys to understanding relations between Hitler’s regime and the German business ...strategy sought to “leverage US advantages in technologies 2 like big data, stealth, advanced manufacturing (e.g. 3-D printing), robotics, and... history has had different parameters and different results, examining historical situations in which a technological advantage has been achieved

  9. Barrier to entry : boom or no boom, oilsands outsiders hit barriers to technology uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2009-05-15

    Oil sands extraction and upgrading innovators are becoming annoyed at what they perceive as the closed door attitude of existing producers. This article discussed various technologies for oil sands extraction and upgrading such as in-situ fireflooding; electro-thermal stimulation; solvent-enhanced steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); as well as oil-digesting bugs and miracle solvents and oleophilic screening and borehole mining. Oilpatch outsiders are offering the oilsands industry green alternatives to hot water flotation separation technology and the heavily natural gas-reliant SAGD extraction method. The author cautioned that these solutions and alternatives are largely unproven and untested. Promoters of new technologies claim that while evolutionary technologies that could mesh readily with existing operations are generally welcomed by industry, the so-called disruptive technologies are rarely adopted as producers seek to protect their investments. Several examples were provided in the article that demonstrated barriers to entry into the market such as Houston-based Planet Resource Recovery. The company was promoting a proprietary chemical product called PetroLuxus, which used nanoscale technology to interrupt the bonding of metals and hydrocarbons in soil, water and oil and gas applications. Early efforts to showcase the product, entirely at the company's expense, were rejected despite success in certified independent lab tests using Utah tar sands. The oleophilic process was also described in detail. Last, the article discussed BioTiger, a natural microbial consortium that was the product of eight years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of bacteria isolates collected from a century-old oil refinery waste lagoon in Poland. A discussion of technologies for borehole mining concluded the article. 1 tab., 5 figs.

  10. The "Third"-Order Barrier for Technology-Integration Instruction: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chai, Ching Sing

    2012-01-01

    Technology integration is a major trend in contemporary education practice. When undertaking technology integration in classrooms, a first-order barrier and a second-order barrier, as proposed by Ertmer (1999), can hinder its implementation. The first-order barrier is external, such as lack of adequate access, time, training and institutional…

  11. Sustainable Hydraulic Barrier Design Technologies for Effective Infrastructure Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitral Wijeyesekera Devapriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration of liquids lead to embarrassing post construction scenarios such as that of leaks from roofs, potable water leaking from water tanks/ reservoirs, rising damp in walls with groundwater seeping into basement structures, leakage of water from ornamental lakes and ponds or leachate leakage into the environment from MSW landfill sites. Such failures demand immediate and expensive maintenance. A stringent control on structural and waterproof stability is deemed necessary for long term service life of structures and in particular underground and near surface structures. On a micro scale and over a longer time scale, the phenomenon of rising dampness occurs in older buildings with the groundwater rising up through walls, floors and masonry via capillary action. Even slower rates of contaminant fluid migration occur through landfill base liners. In this paper a variety of hydraulic barrier technologies is critically discussed against a backdrop of relevant case studies. The choice of an appropriate hydraulic barrier technology for a given scenario will depend also on the sustainability, financial affordability and subjective aesthetics.

  12. A qualitative case study to identify possible barriers that limit effective elementary science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Donald Carey

    The purpose of this case study was to identify barriers that limit the effectiveness of elementary teachers in the teaching of science. It is of the utmost urgency that barriers be first identified, so that possible solutions can be explored to bring about the improvement of elementary science education. This urgency has been imposed by the scheduled national testing of students in science by 2007, as mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Using qualitative case study methods, the researcher conducted interviews with 8 elementary teachers from two schools within one school district who taught 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade. These interviews were designed to gain insight into barriers these elementary teachers perceived as factors limiting their effectiveness in teaching science and preparing students for high-stakes testing. Barriers in the areas of teacher background, typical teaching day, curriculum, inservices, and legislative influences were explored. This study concluded that the barriers explored do have a substantial negative affect on the teaching and learning of science in the elementary grades. Specifically, the barriers revealed in this study include the limited science background of elementary teachers, inadequate class time devoted to science, non-comprehensive curriculum, ineffective or lack of inservice training, and pressures from legislated mandates. But it is also clear that these barriers are so intertwined that one cannot remove these barriers one at a time. It will take a collective effort from all involved, including legislators, administrators, teachers, parents, and students, to alleviate these barriers and discover effective solutions to improve elementary science education.

  13. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The Use of information technology tools to reduce barriers of distance learning

    OpenAIRE

    Targamadzė, Aleksandras; Petrauskienė, Rūta

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning takes place when learning conditions do not allow using traditional learning. Remoteness is the main feature of distance learning; however, it can be various. Remoteness is frequently described as barriers and includes traditional barriers such as distance and time as well as technological, organizational, social, cultural, psychological and other barriers that have not been examined so widely. Barriers can be eliminated or reduced when using information technologies (ITs). ...

  15. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 {times} 10{sup -7} cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 {times} 10{sup -8} cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 {times} 10{sup -9} cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 {times} 10{sup -11} cm/s.

  16. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology data and status report - FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.; Zacher, A.H.

    1994-09-01

    The asphalt layer within the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier (HPIB) is an important component of the overall design. This layer provides a RCRA equivalent backup to the overlying earthen layers in the unlikely event that these layers are not able to reduce the infiltration rate to less than 0.05 cm/yr. There is only limited amount of information on using asphalt for a moisture infiltration barrier over the long times required by the HPIB. Therefore, a number of activities are under way, as part of the Barrier Development Program, to obtain data on the performance of asphalt as a moisture barrier in a buried environment over a 1000-year period. These activities include (1) determining RCRA equivalency, (2) measurement of physical properties, (3) measurement of aging characteristics, and (4) relationship to ancient asphalt analogs. During FY 1994 progress was made on all of these activities. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and on the prototype barrier constructed over the 216-B-57 crib in the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site. This report presents results obtained from the asphalt technology tasks during FY 1994. Also included are updates to planned activities for asphalt analogs and monitoring the asphalt test pad near the prototype barrier. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity on the HMAC portion of the prototype barrier show that the asphalt layers easily meet the RCRA standard of 1 x 10 -7 cm/s. In-place measurements using a new field falling head technique show an average of 3.66 x 10 -8 cm/s, while cores taken from the north end of the prototype and measured in a laboratory setup averaged 1.29 x 10 -9 cm/s. Measurements made on the fluid applied asphalt membrane (polymer-modified asphalt) show an extremely low permeability of less than 1 x 10 -11 cm/s

  17. Research Data Reusability: Conceptual Foundations, Barriers and Enabling Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Thanos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput scientific instruments are generating massive amounts of data. Today, one of the main challenges faced by researchers is to make the best use of the world’s growing wealth of data. Data (reusability is becoming a distinct characteristic of modern scientific practice. By data (reusability, we mean the ease of using data for legitimate scientific research by one or more communities of research (consumer communities that is produced by other communities of research (producer communities. Data (reusability allows the reanalysis of evidence, reproduction and verification of results, minimizing duplication of effort, and building on the work of others. It has four main dimensions: policy, legal, economic and technological. The paper addresses the technological dimension of data reusability. The conceptual foundations of data reuse as well as the barriers that hamper data reuse are presented and discussed. The data publication process is proposed as a bridge between the data author and user and the relevant technologies enabling this process are presented.

  18. The technology and the limits of increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1994-01-01

    The future world needs a suitable living standard, above all, for the people in the poor countries. This means an increasing use of raw materials, energy and a stricter environmental technology. The technology can make its own contribution. Beside methods of recycling and substitution of material the increasing raw material use requires more energy and stricter avoiding of environmental damage. The today's fossil energy resources are running down and, due to environmental damage, they only can be used restrictedly. For the future there remains solar energy and nuclear energy. Both types of energy are needed. The tasks are to diminish the expense for the solar energy considerably and to introduce a catastrophe-free nuclear technology. For environmental protection a technology in closed cycles has to be applied. It is not necessary that the future of mankind will lead to a dead end. The future task is to solve these problems with caution, discipline and intelligence. (orig.) [de

  19. Technology transfer of brain-computer interfaces as assistive technology: barriers and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, F

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides an analysis of perspectives from different stakeholders on the state-of-the-art of BCI. Three barriers for technology transfer of BCIs as access technologies are identified. First, BCIs are developed with a narrow focus on creating a reliable technology, while a broader focus on creating a usable technology is needed. Second, the potential target group, which could benefit from BCIs as access technologies is expected to be very small. Development costs are therefore high, while reimbursements are expected to be low, which challenges the commercial viability. Third, potential target users should be much more included in the design process of BCIs to ensure that the end-products meet technical, ethical, legal and social requirements. These three issues need to be urgently addressed so that target users may benefit from this promising technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of electric and bubble barriers to limit the movement of Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather A.; Reinhardt, Ulrich G.; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    2006-01-01

    Eurasian ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) is an aquatic invasive species accidentally introduced via ballast water to the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s. Fish barrier technology is being studied to stop the spread of invasive fish species such as ruffe. Electrical barriers have been constructed, most notably in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, to prevent non-indigenous species such as ruffe from spreading into areas where they are currently absent. Information on the response of an invasive fish to barriers can help managers determine strategies to prevent the spread of these species via artificial waterways. In this laboratory study electrical barriers were set up to determine effectiveness of four electrical settings for repelling Eurasian ruffe measuring 10 cm or more in length. In separate tests, airbubble curtains with two bubble sizes and densities were created to test this type of barrier in blocking movement of ruffe less than 10 cm in length. The most effective electrical settings found (5 ms, 6 Hz) repelled only about half of the attempted passes. When ruffe were offered food or shelter on the opposite side of the electrical barrier, neither food-starved nor shelter-deprived ruffe made significantly more attempts to cross the barrier. Ruffe were significantly repelled by all air-bubble curtains, but a large proportion of passes (4.5 passes per fish on average in the treatments) were still observed. Electrical barrier settings and air-bubble curtains used in this study were found ineffective at completely blocking the movement, but somewhat effective at inhibiting the passage of ruffe.

  1. Permeable reactive barrier - innovative technology for ground-water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    Significant advances in the application of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for ground-water remediation have been witnessed in the last 5 years. From only a few full-scale systems and pilot-scale demonstrations, there are currently at least 38 full-scale PRBs using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as a reactive material. Of those, 26 are continuous reactive walls, 9 are funnel-and- gate systems and 3 are in situ reactive vessels. Most of the PRB systems have used granular iron media and have been applied to address the control of contamination caused by chlorinated volatile organic compounds or heavy metals. Many regulatory agencies have expressed interest in PRB systems and are becoming more comfortable in issuing permits. The main advantage of PRB systems is that the installation costs are comparable with those of other ground-water remediation technologies, while the O and M costs are significantly lower and are mostly due to monitoring requirements, which are required for all remediation approaches. In addition, the land use can resume after the installation of the PRB systems, since there are few visible signs of the installation above grounds except for the monitoring wells. It is difficult to make any definite conclusions about the long-term performance of PRB systems because there is no more than 5 years of the record of performance that can be used for such analysis. The two main challenges still facing this technology are: (1) evaluating the longevity (geochemistry) of a PRB; and (2) ensuring/verifying hydraulic performance. A number of public/private partnerships have been established in recent years that are working together to resolve some of these problems. This organized approach by combining the efforts of several government agencies and private companies will likely result in better understanding and, hopefully, better acceptance of this technology in the future. (author)

  2. Barriers and limitations during implementation of the surgical safety checklist of the World Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Amalia Arboleda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The surgical safety checklist of the World Health Organization (WHO is a tool that checks and evaluates each procedure in the operating room. Despite its demonstrated effectiveness, it has many limitations and barriers to its implementation. The aim of this article was to present the current evidence regarding limitations and barriers to achieve a successful implementation of the surgical safety WHO checklist. Methods: A narrative review was designed. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed/MEDLINE. Articles that describe or present as primary or secondary endpoints barriers or limitations during the implementation of the checklist WHO were selected. Observational or experimental articles were included from the date of the official launch of the WHO list. To describe the data a summary table was designed. Detailed results were organized qualitatively extracting the most prevalent limitations. Results: 17 studies were included in the final review process. The main findings were: 1 a large number of constraints reported in the literature that hinder the implementation process, 2 limitations were grouped into 9 categories according to their similarities and 3 the most frequently reported category was “knowledge”. Discussion: There are several factors that limit the proper implementation of the surgical safety checklist WHO. Among these, cultural factors, knowledge, indifference and / or relevance, communication, filling completeness, among others. Effective implementation strategies would reach its successful implementation.

  3. Nurses' perception and barriers to use of information communication technology in a teaching hospital in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinoye, Omolola O; Ayandiran, Emmanuel Olufemi; Fakunle, Imoleayo; Mtshali, Ntombifikile

    2013-08-01

    The impact of information technology on nursing has been a subject of discourse for the latter half of the 20th century and the early part of the 21st. Despite its obvious benefits, adapting information technology to healthcare has been relatively difficult, and rates of use have been limited especially in many developing countries. This quantitative study has shown a generally low usage of information technology among nurses in the study setting. Many of the nurses adjudged themselves as novice in information technology, with 37.8% stating that they had never had formal training in information technology and many rating themselves as possessing little or no skill in the use of spreadsheet, databases, and so on. Many (55.6%) stated that they do not have access to information technology despite the fairly widespread satisfactory perception established among them. Results further showed that unreliable network connections, high work demand, inadequate number of computers, poor access to computers consequent on wrong locations, and poor system design with associated failure to fit work demands are some of the major barriers to the use of information technology in the study setting. These factors therefore need to be taken into consideration in any intervention that seeks to improve the nurses' use of information technology in clinical setting.

  4. Requirements for and barriers towards interoperable ehealth technology in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, Wendeline; van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Huygens, Martine; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Despite eHealth technology's rapid growth, eHealth applications are rarely embedded within primary care, mostly because systems lack interoperability. This article identifies requirements for, and barriers towards, interoperable eHealth technology from healthcare professionals' perspective -- the

  5. Barriers to investments in energy saving technologies. Case study for the industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masselink, Dirk Jan

    2007-01-01

    To realise future energy saving targets, the government needs to increase energy reduction rates. One option to increase energy savings is found in removing barriers to investments in cost-effective energy saving technologies. Many technologies save energ

  6. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T.

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Non-Cost Barriers to Consumer Adoption of New Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Consumer preferences are key to the adoption of new vehicle technologies. Barriers to consumer adoption include price and other obstacles, such as limited driving range and charging infrastructure; unfamiliarity with the technology and uncertainty about direct benefits; limited makes and models with the technology; reputation or perception of the technology; standardization issues; and regulations. For each of these non-cost barriers, this report estimates an effective cost and summarizes underlying influences on consumer preferences, approximate magnitude and relative severity, and assesses potential actions, based on a comprehensive literature review. While the report concludes that non-cost barriers are significant, effective cost and potential market share are very uncertain. Policies and programs including opportunities for drivers to test drive advanced vehicles, general public outreach and information programs, incentives for providing charging and fueling infrastructure, and development of technology standards were examined for their ability to address barriers, but little quantitative data exists on the effectiveness of these measures. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation. View all reports on the TEF Web page, http://www.eere.energy.gov/analysis/transportationenergyfutures/index.html.

  8. The Evolution of Ecosystems for Converging Technologies – Drivers and Barriers of Technology Exploration and Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laufs, Daniel; Giones, Ferran; Schultz, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Convergent technologies, like biotechnology, rely on the contribution of multiple scientific disciplines and are applied to distant needs and markets. As such, the development of technologies and related applications fields require the evolution of ecosystems that involve multidisciplinary......, previously unrelated, actors in collaborative exploration and exploitation processes. We know little on how these processes unfold, in particular in the early stages of the ecosystem development. Previous research suggests that human and social capital [1], patents and VC funding [2], or market orientation....... This helps us to generate an understanding of the pattern of technology convergence as well as of the drivers and barriers that affect the innovation process. In order to develop a holistic framework of the interplay between technology exploration and exploitation and the relevant ecosystem, we perform...

  9. Overcoming Pedagogical, Social/Cultural, and Attitudinal Barriers to Technology Integration in K-5 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durff, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Technology engages and increases academic achievement for K-5 students, but teachers face attitudinal, social/cultural, and pedagogical barriers when they integrate technology for student learning. Although some teachers overcome these barriers, it remains unclear how they do so. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to analyze…

  10. Barriers to Successful Implementation of Technology Integration in Educational Settings: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laferrière, T.; Hamel, C.; Searson, M.

    2013-01-01

    Representing issues discussed at the EduSummIT 2011 relative to essential conditions and barriers to successful technology integration, this article presents a systemic analysis of barriers that needed to be overcome for an information technology initiative (Remote Networked School project) to be successfully implemented. The analysis was…

  11. Barriers and possibilities for the emerging alternative lighting technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Andersen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    the incandescent lamp; However, the emergence of other illumination technologies such as Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are currently raising in question, whether the fluorescent lamp is the technology that best can reduce the (large) illumination cological footprint. Europe and more specifically Denmark, a country......20% of the total electricity produced in the world today is used for illumination. Though the use of energy in Europe almost stagnated during the 1990ies, studies reveal that for the next 30 years the consumption of electricity will again increase making the 20% reduction of CO2 goal almost...... are the main possibilities and limitations for the Danish lighting Industry to help reducing the global illumination ecological footprint and what can be improved in the current illumination value chain in order to use the possibilities?...

  12. CITY TRANSPORT IN BARRIER-FREE ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING SPACE FOR PEOPLE WITH LIMITED MOBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryadko Igor’ Petrovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current state of transport organization for people with limited mobility. The article evaluates the results of the actions the executive authorities of Moscow and Moscow Region take. Barrier-free space organization for disabled people and parents with prams is given a special attention. The lack of strategy in the sphere leads to considerable difficulties for people with limited ability. This problem should be solved in cooperation with the survey of other peoples' needs. The article gives examples of comfortable urban space in Sochi, Moscow, Chita, Mytishchi and analyses the ways urbanism influences people with limited abilities.

  13. The limits of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, D.

    1980-01-01

    The state-of-the-art problem, which plays a major role as an undefined legal concept in lawsuits against nuclear facilities, was examined from various angles at the 6th German Nuclear Law Symposium held in Muenster. This contribution contains its treatment, from an engineer's point of view, for the benefit of lawyers and also of general experts in the field. The formula used in Sec. 7 of the German Atomic Energy Act to define the necessary provision against damage in a nuclear facility assigns to the scientist and the engineer leading roles in the licensing procedure. The piles of documents generated in the course of that procedure contain scientific and technical matters and are also evaluated by scientists and engineers. Lawyers, for the time being, restrict themselves to exercising certain control functions. The political top level of the licensing authority supports its decisions on grounds of a much more general nature. This is why scientists and engineers often find themselves the targets of criticism, labeled 'technocrats' for want of a more precise term. The article deals with the historic development of nuclear safety technology and its criteria and basic principles. (orig.) 891 GL/orig. 892 MKO [de

  14. Technological Determinism and Permissionless Innovation as Technocratic Governing Mentalities: Psychocultural Barriers to the Democratization of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Dotson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite no shortage of thoughtful analysis concerning how to more democratically develop and assess new technologies, practical progress toward democratized innovation has been paltry. This state of affairs suggests that the barriers to such democratic ends merit more attention. Building upon calls to more seriously examine citizens’ understandings of technology as autonomous or deterministic, this paper characterizes the assumptions, beliefs, and patterns of thought undergirding technological determinism and permissionless innovation as technocratic governing mentalities. That is, they contribute to the biasing of political discourses, practices, and organizations toward non-decision making and adaptation with regards to technological change. Indeed, permissionless innovation is quickly becoming the motto of those aiming to legitimate a “hands-off” approach to the sociotechnical “disruptions” sought by Silicon Valley entrepreneurs. Moreover, this paper explores how STS, as both an academic and political endeavor, might better respond to the challenges these modes of thinking present. Drawing upon relevant work within social psychology and communications, several fruitful avenues for engaged research regarding undermining technocratic governing mentalities become apparent. Not only is there a pressing need for accessible and parsimonious counternarratives to technological determinism and permissionless innovation but also rhetorical strategies for making the democratization of technological appear continuous with aspects of status quo systems. Finally, given that technocratic governing mentalities are likely to have practical and material roots, inquiry should be directed toward understanding how different sociotechnical arrangements impact citizens’ perception of the desirability and feasibility of democratizing technology.

  15. Evaluation of a permeable reactive barrier technology for use at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, Brian P.

    2000-01-01

    Three reactive materials were evaluated at laboratory scale to identify the optimum treatment reagent for use in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Treatment System at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). The contaminants of concern (COCS) are uranium, TCE, PCE, carbon tetrachloride, americium, and vinyl chloride. The three reactive media evaluated included high carbon steel iron filings, an iron-silica alloy in the form of a foam aggregate, and a peculiar humic acid based sorbent (Humasorb from Arctech) mixed with sand. Each material was tested in the laboratory at column scale using simulated site water. All three materials showed promise for the 903 Mound Site however, the iron filings were determined to be the least expensive media. In order to validate the laboratory results, the iron filings were further tested at a pilot scale (field columns) using actual site water. Pilot test results were similar to laboratory results; consequently, the iron filings were chosen for the fill-scale demonstration of the reactive barrier technology. Additional design parameters including saturated hydraulic conductivity, treatment residence time, and head loss across the media were also determined and provided to the design team in support of the final design. The final design was completed by the Corps of Engineers in 1997 and the system was constructed in the summer of 1998. The treatment system began fill operation in December, 1998 and despite a few problems has been operational since. Results to date are consistent with the lab and pilot scale findings, i.e., complete removal of the contaminants of concern (COCs) prior to discharge to meet RFETS cleanup requirements. Furthermore, it is fair to say at this point in time that laboratory developed design parameters for the reactive barrier technology are sufficient for fuel scale design; however,the treatment system longevity and the long-term fate of the contaminants are questions that remain unanswered. This

  16. Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier Program: Asphalt technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Romine, R.A.

    1994-11-01

    An important component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier is the use of a two-layer composite asphalt system, which provides backup water diversion capabilities if the primary capillary barrier fails to meet infiltration goals. Because of asphalt's potential to perform to specification over the 1000-year design life criterion, a composite asphalt barrier (HMAC/fluid-applied polymer-modified asphalt) is being considered as an alternative to the bentonite clay/high density poly(ethylene) barriers for the low-permeability component of the Hanford Permanent Isolation Barrier. The feasibility of using asphalt as a long-term barrier is currently being studied. Information that must be known is the ability of asphalt to retain desirable physical properties over a period of 1000 years. This paper presents the approach for performing accelerated aging tests and evaluating the performance of samples under accelerated conditions. The results of these tests will be compared with asphalt artifact analogs and the results of modeling the degradation of the selected asphalt composite to make life-cycle predictions

  17. The transfer of nuclear technology: necessities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunschild, H.-H.

    1978-01-01

    Political and economical importance of the transfer of nuclear technologies to less developed countries is examined. Energy needs of the world create the necessity of technology transfer. Three levels are distinguished: 1) Basic elements of cooperation are agreed between the two Governments, 2) scientific cooperation and 3) industrial cooperation. Technology transfer is more than mere technology export. Limitations of nuclear technology transfer are: the lack of infrastructure, the high price of a nuclear power station but above all the problem of proliferation. In conclusion the solution of international problems of nuclear energy is the concept of cooperation on the basis of equal rights

  18. Structural and Psycho-Social Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Louisa S; Hicks, Christina C; Adger, W Neil; Barnett, Jon; Perry, Allison L; Fidelman, Pedro; Tobin, Renae

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i) the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii) the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii) the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.

  19. Structural and Psycho-Social Limits to Climate Change Adaptation in the Great Barrier Reef Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa S Evans

    Full Text Available Adaptation, as a strategy to respond to climate change, has limits: there are conditions under which adaptation strategies fail to alleviate impacts from climate change. Research has primarily focused on identifying absolute bio-physical limits. This paper contributes empirical insight to an emerging literature on the social limits to adaptation. Such limits arise from the ways in which societies perceive, experience and respond to climate change. Using qualitative data from multi-stakeholder workshops and key-informant interviews with representatives of the fisheries and tourism sectors of the Great Barrier Reef region, we identify psycho-social and structural limits associated with key adaptation strategies, and examine how these are perceived as more or less absolute across levels of organisation. We find that actors experience social limits to adaptation when: i the effort of pursuing a strategy exceeds the benefits of desired adaptation outcomes; ii the particular strategy does not address the actual source of vulnerability, and; iii the benefits derived from adaptation are undermined by external factors. We also find that social limits are not necessarily more absolute at higher levels of organisation: respondents perceived considerable opportunities to address some psycho-social limits at the national-international interface, while they considered some social limits at the local and regional levels to be effectively absolute.

  20. Internal transport barrier and β limit in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreiko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Golant, V.E.

    2001-01-01

    An Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) was found in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M (R 0 =53 cm, a l =22 cm - circular limiter configuration, B t ≤0.7T, I p ≤175 kA, ≤6.0·10 19 m -3 ). The barrier reveals itself as a formation of a steep gradient on electron temperature and density radial profiles. The regions with reduced diffusion and electron thermal diffusivity are in between r=0.5a and r=0.7a. The ITB appears more frequently in the shots with higher plasma current. At lower currents (I p N limit in the ohmically heated plasma are presented. Stored energy was measured using diamagnetic loops and compared with W calculated from kinetic data obtained by Thomson scattering and microwave interferometry. Measurements of the stored energy and of the β were performed in the ohmic H-mode before and after boronization and in the scenario with the fast Current Ramp-Down in the ohmic H-mode. Maximum value of β T of 2.0 % and β N of 2 were achieved. The β N limit achieved is 'soft' (nondisruptive) limit. The stored energy slowly decays after the Current Ramp-Down. No correlation was found between beta restriction and MHD phenomena. (author)

  1. Internal transport barrier and β limit in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreiko, M.V.; Askinazi, L.G.; Golant, V.E.

    1999-01-01

    An Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) was found in ohmically heated plasma in TUMAN-3M (R 0 = 53 cm, a l = 22 cm - circular limiter configuration, B t ≤ 0.7 T, I p ≤ 175 kA, ≤ 6.0·10 19 m -3 ). The barrier reveals itself as a formation of a steep gradient on electron temperature and density radial profiles. The regions with reduced diffusion and electron thermal diffusivity are in between r = 0.5a and r = 0.7a. The ITB appears more frequently in the shots with higher plasma current. At lower currents (I p N limit in the ohmically heated plasma are presented. Stored energy was measured using diamagnetic loops and compared with W calculated from kinetic data obtained by Thomson scattering and microwave interferometry. Measurements of the stored energy and of the β were performed in the ohmic H-mode before and after boronization and in the scenario with the fast Current Ramp-Down in the ohmic H-mode. Maximum value of β T of 2.0% and β N of 2 were achieved. The β N limit achieved is 'soft' (non-disruptive) limit. The stored energy slowly decays after the Current Ramp-Down. No correlation was found between beta restriction and MHD phenomena. (author)

  2. Flexible barrier technology for enabling rollable AMOLED displays and upscaling flexible OLED lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.M.; Unnikrishnan, S.; Weijer, P. van de; Assche, F. van; Shen, J.; Ellis, T.; Manders, W.; Akkerman, H.; Bouten, P.; Mol, A.M.B. van

    2013-01-01

    The availability of a high performance thin-film barrier is the most critical challenge in upscaling and commercializing flexible OLED products. We report a flexible thin-film-barrier technology that meets lifetime specifications for OLED lighting, and demonstrate it in rollable QVGA a-IGZO AMOLED

  3. Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? Evidence from the Chinese automobile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2006-01-01

    Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? One of the most attractive notions in the field of sustainable energy development is the concept of energy-technology 'leapfrogging'. Leapfrogging through international technology transfer can be especially problematic because often developing countries do not have the technological capabilities to produce or integrate the advanced energy technologies themselves. Until they have acquired the capabilities to produce the advanced technologies themselves, most late-industrializing countries buy their new technologies from industrialized countries, usually through licensing or joint-venture arrangements. Empirical case studies of the three main Sino-US passenger-car joint ventures reveal that until the late 1990s, little energy or environmental leapfrogging occurred in the Chinese automobile industry as the result of the introduction of US automotive technology. An improvement in Chinese capabilities and more stringent Chinese energy and environmental policies are needed to induce energy leapfrogging in the Chinese automobile industry. Foreign firms also have a social responsibility to contribute to China's sustainable industrial development. In order to realize the promise of the leapfrogging, the limits to leapfrogging must be identified and acknowledged so that strategies can be devised to surmount the barriers to the introduction of advanced energy technologies in developing countries

  4. Overcoming barriers to ITS : lessons from other technologies : final task E report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Task E report involves an analysis of franchises and license agreements for the provision of public services, which is the fourth in a series in the study. Overcoming Barriers to ITS - Lessons from Other Technologies. This report follows alternat...

  5. AN ACTIVITY THEORY APPROACH TO STUDY BARRIERS OF FACULTY REGARDING TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro Guzman, Willy

    2016-01-01

    technology. Ertmer’s approach establishes first-order and second-orders barriers as hinderers for teacher’s adoption of technology. The study intends to answer what are the barriers existing in the socalled enthusiastic faculty teachers regarding technology integration in Education? Findings call...... dichotomies between enthusiastic-resistant teachers, the intrinsic-extrinsic barriers, and claims for passing from an individual to a collective approach to ICT integration in education......Information and communication technologies are instruments for supporting new ways of teaching and learning. Nevertheless, its impact concerning scope has not reached the expected level. This strain between benefits and impact has been inquired from the perspective of barriers of teachers to use...

  6. Implementation of renewable energy technology - Opportunities and barriers. Summary of country studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Painuly, J.P.; Fenhann, J.V.

    2002-07-01

    The project was launched to identify barriers to the implementation of renewable energy technologies (RETs) and explore measures to overcome the identified barriers. National institutions in Egypt, Ghana and Zimbabwe carried out the country studies based on the basic methodological framework provided by the UNEP Centre. The objectives of the project included strengthening institutional capacity for analysis and implementation of RET projects in the participating countries and bring out experiences on RETs barriers and removal measures for dissemination so that others can benefit from the knowledge so gained. An important highlight of the studies was involvement of stake holders in the process of identification of barriers and measures to remove them. A preliminary identification of relevant RETs for their countries was done by the country teams in the initial stage of the project. After that, national workshops involving various stake holders were held between July and September 1999 to discuss the RETs and barriers to their implementation. Based on the discussions, a few important RETs were identified for more detailed study. PV systems for rural electrification, solar water heating systems and large-scale biogas system were identified and analysed for barriers in the Egypt country study. Economic, information and policy barriers were identified as major barriers for these technologies. Solar water pumps, biogas and small hydro were the focus of study in Ghana. In this case also, economic, information and policy barriers were found to be the important barriers for the selected technologies. In the case of Zimbabwe, focus was on identification of primary and secondary barriers to RETs dissemination. The primary barriers included lack of capacity to develop proposals, lack of information for policy making and framework for information dissemination. The study concluded that the secondary barriers as seen and experienced by the stake holders are due to primary

  7. Language and technology literacy barriers to accessing government services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available of field experiments are done to gain an improved understanding of the extent to which citizens’ exposure to technology and home language affect their ability to access electronic services. These experiments will influence technology development...

  8. Emerging technologies in point-of-care molecular diagnostics for resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling, Rosanna W; McNerney, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    Emerging molecular technologies to diagnose infectious diseases at the point at which care is delivered have the potential to save many lives in developing countries where access to laboratories is poor. Molecular tests are needed to improve the specificity of syndromic management, monitor progress towards disease elimination and screen for asymptomatic infections with the goal of interrupting disease transmission and preventing long-term sequelae. In simplifying laboratory-based molecular assays for use at point-of-care, there are inevitable compromises between cost, ease of use and test performance. Despite significant technological advances, many challenges remain for the development of molecular diagnostics for resource-limited settings. There needs to be more advocacy for these technologies to be applied to infectious diseases, increased efforts to lower the barriers to market entry through streamlined and harmonized regulatory approaches, faster policy development for adoption of new technologies and novel financing mechanisms to enable countries to scale up implementation.

  9. Investigating rate-limiting barriers to nanoscale nonviral gene transfer with nanobiophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hunter H.

    Nucleic acids are a novel class of therapeutics poised to address many unmet clinical needs. Safe and efficient delivery remains a significant challenge that has delayed the realization of the full therapeutic potential of nucleic acids. Nanoscale nonviral vectors offer an attractive alternative to viral vectors as natural and synthetic polymers or polypeptides may be rationally designed to meet the unique demands of individual applications. A mechanistic understanding of cellular barriers is necessary to develop guidelines for designing custom gene carriers which are expected to greatly impact this delivery challenge. The work herein focused on the relationships among nanocomplex stability, intracellular trafficking and unpacking kinetics, and DNA degradation. Ultrasensitive nanosensors based on QD-FRET were developed to characterize the biophysical properties of nanocomplexes and study these rate-limiting steps. Quantitative image analysis enabled the distributions of the subpopulation of condensed or released DNA to be determined within the major cellular compartments encountered during gene transfer. The steady state stability and unpacking kinetics within these compartments were found to impact transgene expression, elucidating multiple design strategies to achieve efficient gene transfer. To address enzymatic barriers, a novel two-step QD-FRET nanosensor was developed to analyze unpacking and DNA degradation simultaneously, which has not been accomplished previously. Bioresponsive strategies such as disulfide crosslinking and thermosensitivity were evaluated by QD-FRET and quantitative compartmental analysis as case studies to determine appropriate design specifications for thiolated polymers and thermoresponsive polypeptides. Relevant nanobiophotonic tools were developed as a platform to study major rate-limiting barriers to nanomedicine and demonstrated the feasibility of using mechanistic information gained from these tools to guide the rational design of

  10. Barriers affecting successful technology enablement of supply chain: An Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, R.; Haleem, A.; Farooquie, J. A.

    2018-03-01

    In order to compete, organizations need to focus on improving supply chain and technology acts as a major enabler. Technology enablement of supply chain has not always been successful and has been examined by many researchers. The purpose of this paper is to do a systematic literature review of technology enabled supply chain from a strategic viewpoint. The literature is examined from two perspectives. Firstly, it studies the growing interest in technology-enabled supply chain in India. Secondly, it studies barriers affecting technology enablement of supply chain. The literature review identifies that technology enabled supply chain helps in improving performance via effective decision making, monitoring entire supply chain, faster reaction to customer service problems, etc. The research has emphasized the importance of 12 barriers affecting technology enablement. This research will help as a guide for practitioners in order to successfully implement technology and fills the gap in existing literature by highlighting and consolidating the significant research work done in past.

  11. The Trojan Horse Liposome Technology for Nonviral Gene Transfer across the Blood-Brain Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben J. Boado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of blood-borne gene therapy protocols to the brain is limited by the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB. Viruses have been extensively used as gene delivery systems. However, their efficacy in brain is limited by the lack of transport across the BBB following intravenous (IV administration. Recent progress in the “Trojan Horse Liposome” (THL technology applied to transvascular non-viral gene therapy of the brain presents a promising solution to the trans-vascular brain gene delivery problem. THLs are comprised of immunoliposomes carrying nonviral gene expression plasmids. The tissue target specificity of the THL is provided by peptidomimetic monoclonal antibody (MAb component of the THL, which binds to specific endogenous receptors located on both the BBB and on brain cellular membranes, for example, insulin receptor and transferrin receptor. These MAbs mediate (a receptor-mediated transcytosis of the THL complex through the BBB, (b endocytosis into brain cells and (c transport to the brain cell nuclear compartment. The expression of the transgene in brain may be restricted using tissue/cell specific gene promoters. This manuscript presents an overview on the THL transport technology applied to brain disorders, including lysosomal storage disorders and Parkinson's disease.

  12. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to the Use of Emerging Technologies for Suicide Prevention in Europe: Multicountry Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carmen; Sánchez-Prada, Andrés; Parra-Vidales, Esther; de Leo, Diego; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Background This study provides an analysis on the use of emerging technologies for the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the potentiality of using emerging technologies in the area of suicide prevention based on the opinion of different professionals involved in suicide prevention. Methods Opinions of 3 groups of stakeholders (ie, relevant professionals in suicide field) were gathered using a specifically designed questionnaire to explore dimensions underlying perceptions of facilitating factors and barriers in relation to the use of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Results Goal 1 involved facilitating factors for the use of emerging technologies in suicide prevention. Northern European countries, except for Belgium, attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. On the other hand, Southern European countries attach greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. According to different stakeholders, the analysis of these facilitating factors suggest that professionals in the field of social work attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. However, professionals involved in the area of mental health, policy makers, and political decision makers give greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. Goal 2 was related to barriers to the usability of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Both countries and stakeholders attach greater importance to barriers associated with resource constraints than to those centered on personal limitations. There are no differences between countries or between stakeholders. Nevertheless, there is a certain stakeholders-countries interaction that indicates that the opinions on resource constraints expressed by different stakeholders do not follow a uniform pattern in different countries, but they differ

  13. The Relationship between Social Cognitive Barriers and Technology Integration Frequency in a Northeastern School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Although federal and state departments of education have provided funding, programs, and policies to address barriers to technology integration, the frequency to which technology is used in classrooms for teaching and learning remains relatively unchanged. Without justification for continued funding, districts stand to lose a portion of their…

  14. Technology Integration in K-12 Science Classrooms: An Analysis of Barriers and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechter, Richard P.; Vermette, Laurie Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the barriers to technology integration for Manitoban K-12 inservice science educators (n = 430) based on a 10-item online survey; results are analyzed according to teaching stream using the Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. Quantitative descriptive statistics indicated that the leading barriers…

  15. Barriers and benefits to using mobile health technology after operation: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Jonathan S; Kaufman, Elinore; Symer, Matthew; Peters, Alexander; Charlson, Mary; Yeo, Heather

    2017-09-01

    Recently, mobile health technology has emerged as a promising avenue for improving physician-patient communication and patient outcomes. The objective of our study was to determine the public's perception of barriers and benefits to using mobile health technology technologies to enhance recovery after operation. We used the Empire State Poll to ask 2 open-ended questions to 800 participants assessing their perceptions of benefits and barriers to use mobile health technology after operation. All responses were coded independently, and any discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We used grounded theory to allow themes to arise from the codes. Interrater reliability was calculated using Cohen's Kappa. Participants identified a range of possible barriers to using mobile health technology apps after operation including: protecting personal health information, technology effectiveness and failure, preference for face-to-face interaction with their surgeon, level of effort required, and ability of the older adults to navigate mobile health technology. Participants identified multiple possible benefits including: better monitoring, improved communication with their surgeon, minimizing follow-up visits, improved convenience, and increased patient knowledge. In the study, 15% of all respondents stated there were no barriers whereas 6% stated there were no benefits. Participants were receptive to the many potential benefits of this technology to enhance not only their relationships with providers and the convenience of access, but also their health outcomes. We must address participants concerns about data security and their fears of losing a personal relationship with their doctor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Barriers to Technological Acceptance in a Legal Environment: A Case Study of a Florida Law Firm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Theophilus D.

    2010-01-01

    Technology is made available in the law firm to promote time efficient tasks and to provide resources that allows the accurate billing and storing of documents. This study examined the impact of three major technologies that are used by attorneys in a law firm. Quantitative procedures facilitated the identification of barriers to Personal Digital…

  17. Development of a cement-polymer close-coupled subsurface barrier technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, B.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heiser, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Stewart, W.; Phillips, S. [Applied Geotechnical Engineering and Construction, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The primary objective of this project was to further develop close-coupled barrier technology for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and chemically resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of issues concerning barriers and barrier materials to a pilot-scale, multiple individual column injections at Sandia National Labs (SNL) to full scale demonstration. The feasibility of this barrier concept was successfully proven in a full scale ``cold site`` demonstration at Hanford, WA. Consequently, a full scale deployment of the technology was conducted at an actual environmental restoration site at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), Long Island, NY. This paper discusses the installation and performance of a technology deployment implemented at OU-1 an Environmental Restoration Site located at BNL.

  18. Development of a cement-polymer close-coupled subsurface barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Heiser, J.; Stewart, W.; Phillips, S.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to further develop close-coupled barrier technology for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional cement grout curtain followed by a thin inner lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and chemically resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of issues concerning barriers and barrier materials to a pilot-scale, multiple individual column injections at Sandia National Labs (SNL) to full scale demonstration. The feasibility of this barrier concept was successfully proven in a full scale ''cold site'' demonstration at Hanford, WA. Consequently, a full scale deployment of the technology was conducted at an actual environmental restoration site at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL), Long Island, NY. This paper discusses the installation and performance of a technology deployment implemented at OU-1 an Environmental Restoration Site located at BNL

  19. Barriers to the adoption of energy-conserving technologies in the textile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Zussman, S.K.

    1979-09-01

    An overview of the textile industry and a discussion of energy-conserving technologies currently available at the pilot-demonstration stage are presented. Existing and potential barriers to the adoption of these technologies in the textile industry identified are: economic; technical acceptance; conflict between commitments of capital for compliance with environmental and health regulations and for investment in energy conservation measures; and a lack of information and technical expertise. Possible measures to eliminate barriers to the implementation of energy-conserving technologies are discussed. (MCW)

  20. Soil and groundwater cleanup: benefits and limits of emerging technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caliman, Florentina Anca; Robu, Brindusa Mihaela; Smaranda, Camelia; Pavel, Vasile Lucian; Gavrilescu, Maria [Technical University of Iasi, Department of Environmental Engineering and Management, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection, Iasi (Romania)

    2011-04-15

    Contaminated soil and groundwater have been the subject of study and research, so that the field of remediation has grown and evolved, continually developing and adopting new technologies in attempts to improve the decontamination. The cleanup of environmental pollution involves a variety of techniques, ranging from simple biological processes to advanced engineering technologies. Cleanup activities may also address a wide range of contaminants. This article is a short analysis of the technologies for cleaning up groundwater and soil, highlighting knowledge and information gaps. Challenges and strategies for cleaning up different types of contaminants, mainly heavy metals and persistent organic compounds are described. Included are technologies that treat ground water contaminants in place in the subsurface and soil technologies that treat the soil either in place or on site in a treatment unit. Emerging technologies such as those based on oxidation-reduction, bioremediation, and nanotechnologies are covered. It is evident that for a good efficiency of remediation, techniques or even whole new technologies may be incorporated into an existing technology as a treatment train, improving its performance or overcome limitations. Several economic and decision-making elements are developed in the final part, based on the analysis carried out throughout the article. The work highlights the fact that excellence in research and technology progress could be attained by the development of technologies to deal more effectively and economically with certain toxic contaminants such as heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and persistent organic pollutants, associated with optimization of technologies under field remediation conditions and requirements, improving capacity and yields, and reducing costs. Moreover, increasing knowledge of the scope and problem of equipment development could improve the benefits. (orig.)

  1. Information Technology in the Home Barriers, Opportunities, and Research Directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Rosalind

    2000-01-01

    ...; but what are the implications of increased Information Technology (IT) in the home? Can increased in-home IT create opportunities that will change the way we live and function within our homes and communities and facilitate greater societal benefits...

  2. Modified Transdermal Technologies: Breaking the Barriers of Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In-depth analysis, formulation approaches, applications, advantages and disadvantages of these newer technologies are discussed. Keywords: Transdermal drug delivery, microneedles, macroflux, iontophoresis, ultrasound, powderject, skin abrasion. > Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 6 (1) 2007: pp. 633- ...

  3. Barriers to Successful Information Technology (IT) Utilization by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ... use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) among librarians in academic libraries in ... of use and affect towards use, Habits, Social Norms and Facilitating Conditions.

  4. Barriers to Technology Diffusion: The Case of Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  5. Barriers to the Diffusion of Solar Thermal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Despite its considerable potential in household, domestic and industry sectors, the possible contribution of solar heat is often neglected in many academic and institutional energy projections and scenarios. This is best explained by the frequent failure to distinguish heat and work as two different forms of energy transfers. As a result, policy makers in many countries or States have tended to pay lesser attention to solar thermal technologies than to other renewable energy technologies.

  6. Performance of intact and partially degraded concrete barriers in limiting mass transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.C.

    1992-06-01

    Mass transport through concrete barriers and release rate from concrete vaults are quantitatively evaluated. The thorny issue of appropriate diffusion coefficients for use in performance assessment calculations is covered, with no ultimate solution found. Release from monolithic concrete vaults composed of concrete waste forms is estimated with a semi-analytical solution. A parametric study illustrates the importance of different parameters on release. A second situation of importance is the role of a concrete shell or vault placed around typical waste forms in limiting mass transport. In both situations, the primary factor controlling concrete performance is cracks. The implications of leaching behavior on likely groundwater concentrations is examined. Frequently, lower groundwater concentrations can be expected in the absence of engineered covers that reduce infiltration

  7. A spectral blanking-out controller for demonstration of information barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suping; Gong Jian; Hu Guangchun; Zhang Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    Information barrier technology has become more and more important in the R and D of radiation fingerprint verification associated with classified items such as nuclear warheads, nuclear components and military-used nuclear materials. The function of information barriers is two-fold: one is to prevent the classified information from leaking out; the other is to provide creditable verification. To fulfill these two functions, the information barriers for a viable verification system (including all its hardware and software) must be designed on the basic principles of protecting classified information and the ability to authenticate. The Spectral Blanking-out Controller (SBC) is developed to illustrate the two functions of the information barriers and to explore some practice measures to meet the required design fundamentals. This paper briefs the task assigned to the SBC, the specific design concerns and the practical information barrier measures. The R and D of the SBC embodies the concepts of information barrier technology and has to conform to the basic guidelines: If a verification system is expected to possess strict information barriers, the design of the system must be integrative with due considerations given to the factors such as the efficiency of the verification technique, the possible measures to protect the classified information from directly or indirectly leaking out, the complete openness in all aspects of the system for the inspectors to authenticate the system for the sake of achieving certain degree of confidence on the verification results. (authors)

  8. Older Adults Perceptions of Technology and Barriers to Interacting with Tablet Computers: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaportzis, Eleftheria; Clausen, Maria Giatsi; Gow, Alan J

    2017-10-04

    New technologies provide opportunities for the delivery of broad, flexible interventions with older adults. Focus groups were conducted to: (1) understand older adults' familiarity with, and barriers to, interacting with new technologies and tablets; and (2) utilize user-engagement in refining an intervention protocol. Eighteen older adults (65-76 years old; 83.3% female) who were novice tablet users participated in discussions about their perceptions of and barriers to interacting with tablets. We conducted three separate focus groups and used a generic qualitative design applying thematic analysis to analyse the data. The focus groups explored attitudes toward tablets and technology in general. We also explored the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using tablets, familiarity with, and barriers to interacting with tablets. In two of the focus groups, participants had previous computing experience (e.g., desktop), while in the other, participants had no previous computing experience. None of the participants had any previous experience with tablet computers. The themes that emerged were related to barriers (i.e., lack of instructions and guidance, lack of knowledge and confidence, health-related barriers, cost); disadvantages and concerns (i.e., too much and too complex technology, feelings of inadequacy, and comparison with younger generations, lack of social interaction and communication, negative features of tablets); advantages (i.e., positive features of tablets, accessing information, willingness to adopt technology); and skepticism about using tablets and technology in general. After brief exposure to tablets, participants emphasized the likelihood of using a tablet in the future. Our findings suggest that most of our participants were eager to adopt new technology and willing to learn using a tablet. However, they voiced apprehension about lack of, or lack of clarity in, instructions and support. Understanding older adults' perceptions of technology

  9. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives

  10. Implementation of renewable energy technologies - Opportunities and barriers. Egypt country study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The project used case studies of renewable energy implementation projects to analyse the reasons for success or failure of specific projects or technologies. In particular the study aimed to identify possibilities for 'removing' the main barriers and thus 'promoting' increased implementation of (RETs), and to 'generalise' the experiences from the case studies and produce results that can be disseminated and utilized further in a planned second phase. The specific objectives for Egypt Country Study were: 1) To determine, on the basis of analysis of the past experience, the barriers against implementation of RETs in Egypt, and to identify the favourable conditions and actions required for such implementation. 2) To apply the knowledge gained and results of the analysis of past projects for a detailed analysis of barriers to a chosen set of potential RETs implementation projects with view to success. 3) To identify specific RET projects for implementation including necessary actions to overcome identified barriers. The case study revealed that; for Domestic Solar Water Heating (DSWH) the main barriers are; the economic barriers followed by the awareness / information barriers, then the Technical and Institution barriers. For the PV rural electrification, the most important barriers are; the economic and financial barriers, the awareness and information barriers then the technical barriers. For the large-scale biogas systems, the main barriers are the institution and capacity, economic, policy and awareness / information respectively. According to the project results the main actions that could be taken to overcome the barriers and make use of the available opportunities are: Economic / Financial: 1) Creation of new financial schemes for the RETs applications components and systems. 2) Reducing the taxes and duties for the components and / or materials needed for Renewable Energy (RE) systems. 3) More government-supported market incentives to encourage further

  11. Global wind power potential: Physical and technological limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Carlos de; Mediavilla, Margarita; Miguel, Luis Javier; Frechoso, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This paper is focused on a new methodology for the global assessment of wind power potential. Most of the previous works on the global assessment of the technological potential of wind power have used bottom-up methodologies (e.g. ). Economic, ecological and other assessments have been developed, based on these technological capacities. However, this paper tries to show that the reported regional and global technological potential are flawed because they do not conserve the energetic balance on Earth, violating the first principle of energy conservation (). We propose a top-down approach, such as that in , to evaluate the physical-geographical potential and, for the first time, to evaluate the global technological wind power potential, while acknowledging energy conservation. The results give roughly 1 TW for the top limit of the future electrical potential of wind energy. This value is much lower than previous estimates and even lower than economic and realizable potentials published for the mid-century (e.g. ). - Highlights: → Reported wind power potentials are flawed because they violate energy conservation. → For the first time, it is evaluated the technological wind power potential with a top-down approach. → Our results show 1 TWe for the limit of wind power energy, which is much lower than previous estimates.

  12. Policy drivers and barriers for coal-to-liquids (CtL) technologies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Because of a growing dependence on oil imports, powerful industrial, political and societal stakeholders in the United States are trying to enhance national energy security through the conversion of domestic coal into synthetic hydrocarbon liquid fuels-so-called coal-to-liquids (CtL) processes. However, because of the technology's high costs and carbon intensity, its market deployment is strongly affected by the US energy, technology and climate policy setting. This paper analyses and discusses policy drivers and barriers for CtL technologies in the United States and reaches the conclusion that an increasing awareness of global warming among US policy-makers raises the requirements for the technology's environmental performance and, thus, limits its potential to regional niche markets in coal-producing states or strategic markets, such as the military, with specific security and fuel requirements

  13. Solving the technology barriers in flexible AMOLED displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelinck, G.H.; Steen, J.L. van der; Tripathi, A.K.; Ellis, T.; Akkerman, H.; Leuken, L. van; Li, F.; Maas, J.; Smits, E.; Rovers, M.; Nag, M.; Myny, K.; Malinowski, P.; Ameys, M.; Ke, T.H.; Schols, S.; Steudel, S.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present some of the technology challenges and process temperature trade-offs when realizing AM OLED displays on thin flexible plastic films that can be mechanically bent to a roll radius of ∼1 cm. We furthermore present complementary approaches to realize low-power, high resolution

  14. Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond cryogenic barrier technology demonstration: Pre-barrier subsurface hydrology and contaminant transport investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moline, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    The Homogeneous Reactor Experiment (HRE) Pond is the site of a former impoundment for radioactive wastes that has since been drained, filled with soil, and covered with an asphalt cap. The site is bordered to the east and south by a tributary that empties into Melton Branch Creek and that contains significant concentrations of radioactive contaminants, primarily 90 Sr. Because of the proximity of the tributary to the HRE disposal site and the probable flow of groundwater from the site to the tributary, it is hypothesized that the HRE Pond is a source of contamination to he creek. As a means for temporary containment of contaminants within the impoundment, a cryogenic barrier technology demonstration was initiated in FY96 with a background hydrologic investigation that continued through FY97. Cryogenic equipment installation was completed in FY97, and freezing was initiated in September of 1997. This report documents the results of a hydrologic and geologic investigation of the HRE Pond/cryogenic barrier site. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the hydrologic conditions within and around the impoundment in order to meet the following objectives: (1) to provide a pre-barrier subsurface hydrologic baseline for post-barrier performance assessment; (2) to confirm that the impoundment is hydraulically connected to the surrounding sediments; and (3) to determine the likely contaminant exit pathways from the impoundment. The methods of investigation included water level and temperature monitoring in a network of wells and standpipes in and surrounding the impoundment, a helium tracer test conducted under ambient flow conditions, and geologic logging during the drilling of boreholes for installation of cryogenic probes and temperature monitoring wells

  15. Evaluation of five strategies to limit the impact of fouling in permeable reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Benson, Craig H.

    2010-01-01

    Ground water flow and geochemical reactive transport models were used to assess the effectiveness of five strategies used to limit fouling and to enhance the long-term hydraulic behavior of continuous-wall permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) employing granular zero valent iron (ZVI). The flow model accounted for geological heterogeneity and the reactive transport model included a geochemical algorithm for simulating iron corrosion and mineral precipitation reactions that have been observed in ZVI PRBs. The five strategies that were evaluated are pea gravel equalization zones, a sacrificial pre-treatment zone, pH adjustment, large ZVI particles, and mechanical treatment. Results of simulations show that installation of pea gravel equalization zones results in flow equalization and a more uniform distribution of residence times within the PRB. Residence times within the PRB are less affected by mineral precipitation when a pre-treatment zone is employed. pH adjustment limits the total amount of hydroxide ions in ground water to reduce porosity reduction and to retain larger residence times. Larger ZVI particles reduce porosity reduction as a result of the smaller iron surface area for iron corrosion, and retain longer residence time. Mechanical treatment redistributes the porosity uniformly throughout the PRB over time, which is effective in maintaining residence time.

  16. Value engineering study for seletion of verticle barrier technology at a Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, E.E.; Guglielmetti, J.L.; Butler, P.B.; Brill, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    A value engineering (VE) study was conducted to identify and evaluate vertical barrier technologies and alignments for a Superfund project in New Castle County, Delaware. The objective was to select and recommend the most appropriate vertical barrier(s) for two separate landfills and a portion of the manufacturing plant on the site. A VE team was assembled to identify and evaluate site specific issues related to effectiveness, constructability and cost for numerous vertical barrier technologies. Several cost-effective alternatives were identified that met project objectives. The VE study concluded that a composite vertical barrier system consisting of a soil-bentonite slurry trench and steel sheet piles would provide effective containment of the North Landfill. Additionally, the geologic confining unit specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) was found to be unsuitable as a vertical barrier key and a more suitable, shallow confining unit was discovered. This paper describes the value engineering process and results of the VE study for one of the landfills

  17. Permeable Reactive Barriers: a multidisciplinary approach of a new emerging sustainable groundwater treatment technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diels, L.; Bastiaens, L. [Vito, Mol (BL); O' Hannessin, S. [EnviroMetal Technologies Inc., Ontario (Canada); Cortina, J.L. [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. d' Enginyeria Quimica; Alvarez, P.J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa-City (United States). Center for Biocatalysis and Bioprocessing; Ebert, M. [Christian-Albrechts Univ. Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Geowissenschaften; Schad, H. [I.M.E.S. GmbH, Amtzell (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Permeable reactive barriers or zones are becoming an interesting sustainable and cost-effective technology for in situ treatment of contaminated groundwater. The technology is based on chemical processes as the dehalogenating activity of zerovalent iron, biological processes in bioscreens or reactive zones and on sorption technology (e.g. heavy metal adsorption or adsorption on granular activated carbon). Three technical sessions will be devoted to this nowadays becoming mature technology. This special session intends to pay attention to the discussion about some questions related to PRBs. These include the sustainability (e.g. life time and clogging) especially for zerovalent iron barriers, the need and quality of feasibility tests, drawbacks and restrictions of PRBs. Combined with long term performance monitoring os these systems will be discussed. Further attention will be paid to cost evaluation and the relationship between zerovalent barriers and bacterial growth. Also attention will be paid to new reactive materials (e.g. activated carbon for organics and inorganic materials for heavy metals) and consequences (e.g. environmental impact). Finally the session will combine al these approaches in a discussion about combined barriers or multibarriers for treatment of mixed pollution (e.g. landfill leachates contaminated groundwater). Specialists involved in these subjects will introduce these topics and allow for a large and intensive discussion to improve future applications of this technology. (orig.)

  18. Tax barriers to four renewable electric generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, A.F.; Chapman, R.A.; Reilly, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    The tax loads associated with constructing and owning current and advanced solar central receiver, biomass-electric, and flash and binary cycle geothermal projects are compared to the tax loads incurred by natural gas-fired generation matched in size, hours of operation, and technology status. All but one of the eight renewable projects carry higher tax burdens under current tax codes. These higher tax loads proportionately reduce the competitiveness of renewables. Three tax neutralizing policies are applied to the renewable projects, each restoring competitiveness for some of the projects. The results show that RD and D must be accompanied with such public initiatives as tax neutrality in order for the majority of renewable projects to compete with advanced gas turbines in the emerging electric services market

  19. Physiologic upper limit of pore size in the blood-tumor barrier of malignant solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Gary L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of large pores in the blood-tumor barrier (BTB of malignant solid tumor microvasculature makes the blood-tumor barrier more permeable to macromolecules than the endothelial barrier of most normal tissue microvasculature. The BTB of malignant solid tumors growing outside the brain, in peripheral tissues, is more permeable than that of similar tumors growing inside the brain. This has been previously attributed to the larger anatomic sizes of the pores within the BTB of peripheral tumors. Since in the physiological state in vivo a fibrous glycocalyx layer coats the pores of the BTB, it is possible that the effective physiologic pore size in the BTB of brain tumors and peripheral tumors is similar. If this were the case, then the higher permeability of the BTB of peripheral tumor would be attributable to the presence of a greater number of pores in the BTB of peripheral tumors. In this study, we probed in vivo the upper limit of pore size in the BTB of rodent malignant gliomas grown inside the brain, the orthotopic site, as well as outside the brain in temporalis skeletal muscle, the ectopic site. Methods Generation 5 (G5 through generation 8 (G8 polyamidoamine dendrimers were labeled with gadolinium (Gd-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, an anionic MRI contrast agent. The respective Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vitro by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Following intravenous infusion of the respective Gd-dendrimer generations (Gd-G5, N = 6; Gd-G6, N = 6; Gd-G7, N = 5; Gd-G8, N = 5 the blood and tumor tissue pharmacokinetics of the Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vivo over 600 to 700 minutes by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. One additional animal was imaged in each Gd-dendrimer generation group for 175 minutes under continuous anesthesia for the creation of voxel-by-voxel Gd concentration maps. Results The estimated diameters of Gd-G7 dendrimers were 11 ± 1 nm and those of Gd-G8

  20. THE IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY IN BREAKING BARRIERS TOWARDS WOMEN’S LIBERATION IN OPEN DISTANCE LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    NNDOWISENI RAVHUDZULO, Anniekie

    2015-01-01

    Technology has brought about unique changes in education as a whole, how people communicate; research, preference and social interaction. It presents before the society a growing recognition of the recent and wider possibilities in the new era. The proposed study identified the impact of technology in breaking barriers towards women’s liberation in Open Distance Learning (ODL) to contribute towards enhancing women empowerment. The two concepts Open Distance Learning (ODL) and Distance Educati...

  1. Where Diffusion of Clean Technologies and Barriers to Innovation Clash: Application to the Global Diffusion of the Electrical Arc Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Moya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the role of barriers preventing the worldwide take-up of a clean technology: the electrical arc furnace. It also identifies which barriers affect a parameter that summarises the combined effect of all of them. The first step, determination of the combined effect of the barriers, is carried out using a novel approach to model the diffusion of innovations. This new approach is composed only by terms that account for the driver of innovations and the parameter that summarises the effect of barriers. The objective quantification of the effect of barriers in the diffusion of innovations opens up new opportunities for designing policies to overcome the barriers identified as the most relevant, for identifying the effect of existing policies, for relating innovation indicators with those barriers or for better incorporating the effect of barriers in bottom-up models that forecast the technological evolution of the economy.

  2. Teacher Perception of Barriers and Benefits in K-12 Technology Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lin B.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores K-12 teachers' perceptions of the benefits and barriers to technology integration by either teachers or students in K-12 instruction. The sample was composed of 68 students enrolled in online classes in the graduate studies in education department of a small private liberal arts institution in the southeast. Data was collected…

  3. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  4. Digital Technologies in Mathematics Classrooms: Barriers, Lessons and Focus on Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, drawing from data from several experiences and studies in which I have been involved in Mexico, I reflect on the constraints and inertia of classroom cultures, and the barriers to successful, meaningful and transformative technology integration in mathematics classroom. I focus on teachers as key players for this integration,…

  5. Radical production efficiency and electrical characteristics of a coplanar barrier discharge built by multilayer ceramic technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Erme, Kalev; Levoll, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrical characteristics and radical production efficiency of a coplanar barrier discharge (CBD) device manufactured by Kyocera by multilayer ceramic technology. The device consisted of a number of linear electrodes with electrode and gap widths of 0.75 mm...

  6. Integrating Technology into Instruction at a Public University in Kyrgyzstan: Barriers and Enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhametjanova, Gulshat; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine enablers and barriers to the technology integration into education based on the example of the situation at the Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University as reported by students and instructors. The study employed the mixed-methods research design, combining data obtained from 477 student and 57 instructor…

  7. Three-dimensional printing: technologies, applications, and limitations in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Josephine U; Christophe, Brandon R; Sisti, Jonathan A; Connolly, Edward S

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printers are a developing technology penetrating a variety of markets, including the medical sector. Since its introduction to the medical field in the late 1980s, 3D printers have constructed a range of devices, such as dentures, hearing aids, and prosthetics. With the ultimate goals of decreasing healthcare costs and improving patient care and outcomes, neurosurgeons are utilizing this dynamic technology, as well. Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) can be translated into Stereolithography (STL) files, which are then read and methodically built by 3D Printers. Vessels, tumors, and skulls are just a few of the anatomical structures created in a variety of materials, which enable surgeons to conduct research, educate surgeons in training, and improve pre-operative planning without risk to patients. Due to the infancy of the field and a wide range of technologies with varying advantages and disadvantages, there is currently no standard 3D printing process for patient care and medical research. In an effort to enable clinicians to optimize the use of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, we outline the most suitable 3D printing models and computer-aided design (CAD) software for 3D printing in neurosurgery, their applications, and the limitations that need to be overcome if 3D printers are to become common practice in the neurosurgical field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental barriers to participation and facilitators for use of three types of assistive technology devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widehammar, Cathrine; Lidström, Helene; Hermansson, Liselotte

    2017-08-07

    The aim was to compare the presence of environmental barriers to participation and facilitators for assistive technology (AT) use and study the relation between barriers and AT use in three different AT devices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Inclusion criteria were ≥one year of experience as a user of myoelectric prosthesis (MEP), powered mobility device (PMD), or assistive technology for cognition (ATC) and age 20-90 years. Overall, 156 participants answered the Swedish version of the Craig Hospital Inventory of Environmental Factors and a study-specific questionnaire on facilitating factors. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. Barriers to participation were lowest in MEP users (md=0.12; p>0.001), and highest in ATC users (md=1.56; p>0.001) with the least support for AT use (p>0.001 - p=0.048). A positive correlation between fewer barriers and higher use of MEP was seen (r=0.30, p=0.038). The greatest barriers to participation were Natural environment, Surroundings and Information, and the most support came from relatives and professionals. Support, training and education are vital in the use of AT. These factors may lead to a more sustained and prolonged use of AT and may enable increased participation. Future research should focus on interventions that meet the needs of people with cognitive disabilities.

  9. Development of the SEAtrace{trademark} barrier verification and validation technology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, S.D.; Lowry, W.; Walsh, R.; Rao, D.V. [Science and Engineering Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States); Williams, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Underground Storage Technology Dept.

    1998-08-01

    In-situ barrier emplacement techniques and materials for the containment of high-risk contaminants in soils are currently being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE). Because of their relatively high cost, the barriers are intended to be used in cases where the risk is too great to remove the contaminants, the contaminants are too difficult to remove with current technologies, or the potential movement of the contaminants to the water table is so high that immediate action needs to be taken to reduce health risks. Assessing the integrity of the barrier once it is emplaced, and during its anticipated life, is a very difficult but necessary requirement. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., (SEA) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have developed a quantitative subsurface barrier assessment system using gaseous tracers in support of the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area barrier technology program. Called SEAtrace{trademark}, this system integrates an autonomous, multi-point soil vapor sampling and analysis system with a global optimization modeling methodology to locate and size barrier breaches in real time. The methodology for the global optimization code was completed and a prototype code written using simplifying assumptions. Preliminary modeling work to validate the code assumptions were performed using the T2VOC numerical code. A multi-point field sampling system was built to take soil gas samples and analyze for tracer gas concentration. The tracer concentration histories were used in the global optimization code to locate and size barrier breaches. SEAtrace{trademark} was consistently able to detect and locate leaks, even under very adverse conditions. The system was able to locate the leak to within 0.75 m of the actual value, and was able to determine the size of the leak to within 0.15 m.

  10. Development of the SEAtrace trademark barrier verification and validation technology. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, S.D.; Lowry, W.; Walsh, R.; Rao, D.V.; Williams, C.

    1998-08-01

    In-situ barrier emplacement techniques and materials for the containment of high-risk contaminants in soils are currently being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE). Because of their relatively high cost, the barriers are intended to be used in cases where the risk is too great to remove the contaminants, the contaminants are too difficult to remove with current technologies, or the potential movement of the contaminants to the water table is so high that immediate action needs to be taken to reduce health risks. Assessing the integrity of the barrier once it is emplaced, and during its anticipated life, is a very difficult but necessary requirement. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., (SEA) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have developed a quantitative subsurface barrier assessment system using gaseous tracers in support of the Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area barrier technology program. Called SEAtrace trademark, this system integrates an autonomous, multi-point soil vapor sampling and analysis system with a global optimization modeling methodology to locate and size barrier breaches in real time. The methodology for the global optimization code was completed and a prototype code written using simplifying assumptions. Preliminary modeling work to validate the code assumptions were performed using the T2VOC numerical code. A multi-point field sampling system was built to take soil gas samples and analyze for tracer gas concentration. The tracer concentration histories were used in the global optimization code to locate and size barrier breaches. SEAtrace trademark was consistently able to detect and locate leaks, even under very adverse conditions. The system was able to locate the leak to within 0.75 m of the actual value, and was able to determine the size of the leak to within 0.15 m

  11. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Patricia M., E-mail: pmg24@drexel.edu [Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19038 (United States); Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey [Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19038 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  12. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Patricia M.; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use LCA to study environmental impacts of grouting techniques for site remediation. ► We consider colloidal silica permeation grouting and cement jet grouting. ► Manufacturing and transportation contribute significantly in all impact categories. ► Activity outside of direct site activity is important in assessing impacts. ► LCA can be used to consider sustainability criteria for remediation decisions. -- Abstract: Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental “systems-level” decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required

  13. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Auto-vehicles and environment: Emission limits and innovative technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchera, G.

    1992-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the main design and performance characteristics and maintenance requirements of the principal types of catalytic converters currently being marketed in Italy. An assessment is made of the contribution of these devices to air pollution abatement in Italy as car owners conform to recently passed stricter emission limits. A historical review is made of trends in auto-vehicle pollution limits in the USA and Italy. Comparisons are made of efforts by industrialized countries to reduce air pollution in the transportation sector. Here, the author notes the slowness of Italy's response to the air pollution problem, in particular, this foreign-oil-dependent Nation's over-emphasis on energy consuming and highly polluting road transport systems, as well as, its lack of technology utilization and commercialization in the pollution equipment sector. Suggestions are made as to ways to overcome the worsening situation with regard to urban area traffic derived air pollution, e.g., the bolstering of mass transit systems and more R ampersand D investment in pollution abatement technologies

  15. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to the Use of Emerging Technologies for Suicide Prevention in Europe: Multicountry Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Juan-Luis; Delgado, Carmen; Parra-Vidales, Esther; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2018-01-24

    This study provides an analysis on the use of emerging technologies for the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. The objective of this study was to analyze the potentiality of using emerging technologies in the area of suicide prevention based on the opinion of different professionals involved in suicide prevention. Opinions of 3 groups of stakeholders (ie, relevant professionals in suicide field) were gathered using a specifically designed questionnaire to explore dimensions underlying perceptions of facilitating factors and barriers in relation to the use of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Goal 1 involved facilitating factors for the use of emerging technologies in suicide prevention. Northern European countries, except for Belgium, attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. On the other hand, Southern European countries attach greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. According to different stakeholders, the analysis of these facilitating factors suggest that professionals in the field of social work attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. However, professionals involved in the area of mental health, policy makers, and political decision makers give greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. Goal 2 was related to barriers to the usability of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Both countries and stakeholders attach greater importance to barriers associated with resource constraints than to those centered on personal limitations. There are no differences between countries or between stakeholders. Nevertheless, there is a certain stakeholders-countries interaction that indicates that the opinions on resource constraints expressed by different stakeholders do not follow a uniform pattern in different countries, but they differ depending on the country. Although all

  16. Barriers to using consumer science information in food technology innovations: An exploratory study using Delphi methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian E. Raley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food technology innovation has the potential to deliver many benefits to society, although some technologies have been problematic in terms of public acceptance. In promoting the commercial success of innovative technological processes and resultant products it will be important to incorporate information relating to consumer preferences and concerns during their development. The barriers to the utilisation of consumer information during technological development was explored using a two round Delphi study involving 75 experts with an interest in new food technology (food technologists and consumer scientists. There was overall agreement that consumer information should be used in technology implementation and product design, and that good communication between key actors at pivotal stages during the development of new food technologies and products was important. However disciplinary differences were perceived to be a barrier to communication, as were difficulties associated with producing consumer information usable by food technologists. A strategy to improve inter-disciplinary communication is proposed, involving the creation of multi-disciplinary teams working together throughout the development project’s duration, including those with interdisciplinary experience. Deficiencies in the specification of the information required from consumer scientists need to be overcome. Consumer science results need to be concrete and presented as salient to and usable by food technologists.

  17. A design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of the viscous barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Yen, P.; Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Williams, P.; Myer, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-09-01

    This report is the design study for a medium-scale field demonstration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The test site is located in central California in a quarry owned by the Los Banos Gravel Company in Los Banos, California, in heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and -ravel typical of many of the and DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the Hanford site. The coals of the field demonstration are (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier isolating a medium-scale volume (30 ft long by 30 ft wide by 20 ft deep, i.e. 1/10th to 1/8th the size of a buried tank at the Hanford Reservation) in the subsurface, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier

  18. Barriers to the Transfer of Low-carbon Electricity Generation Technologies in Four Latin American Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desgain, Denis DR; Haselip, James Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low-carbon ene......This article discusses the conclusions of four national Technology Needs Assessment (TNA) processes in Latin America (2011-2013), as applied to the electricity sector. The primary focus is on the financial and economic barriers identified by countries to the transfer of prioritized low......-carbon energy technologies. While many electricity markets in Latin America were liberalized during the 1990s and 2000s, such market-driven reform policies were far from uniform and in reality there exist a diversity of governance frameworks for national electricity markets, exemplified here by Argentina, Cuba...... to the debate about the relationship between financial and economic barriers to technology transfer and electricity market structures, based on a new round of country-driven priorities and analysis, in support of the UNFCCC process on climate change mitigation....

  19. Review of Renewable Energy Technologies in Zambian Households: Capacities and Barriers Affecting Successful Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Kachapulula-Mudenda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern renewable energy has been hailed as one of the prerequisites for fostering green growth and the achievement of sustainable development. Despite efforts to promote the use of renewable energy in households, its adoption has remained fairly low, hence the need for an inquiry into household capabilities needed for the acquisition and adoption of renewable energy technologies. This paper reviews the requisite capacities of households for the adoption of renewable energy services and expounds on some of the barriers hampering renewable energy among households. It takes a desk research approach to analyse the capacities which should be possessed by Zambian households and possible barriers constraining the widespread deployment of renewable energy technologies. The findings reveal that there is a need for a broader, multidimensional understanding of access to renewable energy in order for deployment to be effective. Barriers to the successful adoption of clean energy technologies include underserved populations, policy inadequacies; an underexploited renewable energy sector and heavy reliance on a service-challenged hydro-power utility. Since most of the aforementioned challenges are institutional in nature, the paper concludes with a recommendation of a baseline assessment to understand knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and drivers for renewable energy technology adoption among households.

  20. Gaps, barriers and conceptual chasms: theories of technology transfer and energy in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, E. [University of Lancaster (United Kingdom). Centre for the Study of Environmental Change

    1998-12-01

    Having shown how much energy might be saved through the use of economically worthwhile measures and technologies, researchers and policy makers then find themselves trying to close the gap between current practice and recognised technical potential. The ensuing process of technology transfer is often seen as a process of overcoming 'non technical barriers' which inhibit the realisation of proven technical potential. This familiar approach depends upon a strong conceptual distinction between the social, on the one hand, and the technical, on the other. But does it make sense to talk of technical potential in the abstract? Do people really have technologies 'transferred' upon them? Drawing upon ideas from the sociology of science and technology and on recent research funded by Britain's Economic and Social Research Council, this paper unpacks conventional beliefs about the diffusion of energy efficient technologies and suggests an alternative approach which acknowledges the social structuring of technical innovation. (author)

  1. Barriers against implementing and managing quality in information technology industry of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, A.

    2010-01-01

    This research paper presents major barriers to implement quality in IT sector of Pakistan. The paper not only explores (exploration w.r.t quality management covering discussion like what is done, what is not done, what are the loopholes, what must be done and / or what must not be done), but also presents detailed explanation of the main highlights by performing necessary qualitative analysis. In addition to exploration and explanation of barriers (the paper specifically talks of barriers concerning behavior, management and culture) to quality within IT sector of Pakistan, the paper also explains all the important issues arising due to the deprived quality management. As a result of detailed analysis performed, the paper finally identifies important remedies for revitalization of quality management function as recommendations. Mainly, exploration, explanation and analysis of reasons and remedial actions are focused. Discussion and analysis is limited to behavioral, cultural and managerial perspective. (author)

  2. Overcoming financial barriers to wider use of renewable energy technology in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.R.; Turkson, J.

    2001-01-01

    Future energy demand in Africa will rise dramatically due to development desires and increased industrial needs. Coping with this demand will pose a serious challenge because of the economic and environmental constraints of the continent. Exploiting its vast renewable energy sources for this purpose will assist greatly, but financial and other barriers to the rapid growth of associated technologies are significant. This paper explores measures that can be implemented to reduce these financial barriers. The analyses, which are based on lessons from experiences in and out of the region, show that replicating and enhancing current initiatives along with the implementation of suggested policy options could substantially increase the use of renewable energy technologies in Africa. (author)

  3. [Neurological disorders and the blood-brain barrier. Strategies and limitations for drug delivery to the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alazne; Álvarez, Antonia; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe

    2014-03-01

    The incidence in the central nervous system diseases has increased with a growing elderly population. Unfortunately, conventional treatments used to treat the mentioned diseases are frequently ineffective due to the presence of the blood brain barrier. To illustrate the blood-brain barrier properties that limit drug transport into the brain and the main strategies employed to treat neurologic disorders. The blood-brain barrier is mainly composed of a specialized microvascular endothelium and of glial cells. It constitutes a valuable tool to separate the central nervous system from the rest of the body. Nevertheless, it also represents an obstacle to the delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain. To be effective, drugs must reach their target in the brain. On one hand, therapeutic agents could be designed to be able to cross the blood brain barrier. On the other hand, drug delivery systems could be employed to facilitate the therapeutic agents' entry into the central nervous system. In vivo models of neurological diseases, in addition to in vitro models of the blood brain barrier, have been widely employed for the evaluation of drugs utilized to treat central nervous system diseases.

  4. Performance of intact and partially degraded concrete barriers in limiting fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.C.; Seitz, R.R.

    1991-07-01

    Concrete barriers will play a critical role in the long-term isolation of low-level radioactive wastes. Over time the barriers will degrade, and in many cases, the fundamental processes controlling performance of the barriers will be different for intact and degraded conditions. This document examines factors controlling fluid flow through intact and degraded concrete disposal facilities. Simplified models are presented fro predicting build up of fluid above a vault; fluid flow through and around intact vaults, through flaws in coatings/liners applied to a vault, and through cracks in a concrete vault; and the influence of different backfill materials around the outside of the vault. Example calculations are presented to illustrate the parameters and processes that influence fluid flow. 46 refs., 49 figs., 2 tabs

  5. RENBAR: Overcoming Environmental, Administrative and Socio-economic Barriers to Renewable Energy Technology Deployment. A guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    IEA-RETD prepared a guidebook for policy makers and project developers, illustrating how to deal with possible negative side effects or barriers for deployment of renewable technologies, like visual or noise impacts, or increased local transport for biomass. Many good practices demonstrate that renewables can be integrated in the 'backyards' of modern societies. Some examples: stakeholder involvement, participation and compensation; clear spatial planning; and trustworthy legal procedures. Four case studies are also included.

  6. Barriers to women leaders in academia:tales from science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Howe-Walsh, Liza; Turnbull, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the lack of women in senior positions in science and technology (ST) in United Kingdom (UK) universities. Previous research has enhanced our understanding of the challenges women in academia face to progress their careers. In contrast, relatively little is known as to why so few women reach leadership positions in ST. This article reports on research to examine women’s experiences regarding the perceived barriers to leadership in ST faculties in UK universit...

  7. The Dragons of Inaction: Psychological Barriers That Limit Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Most people think climate change and sustainability are important problems, but too few global citizens engaged in high-greenhouse-gas-emitting behavior are engaged in enough mitigating behavior to stem the increasing flow of greenhouse gases and other environmental problems. Why is that? Structural barriers such as a climate-averse infrastructure…

  8. Reactive barrier technologies for treatment of contaminated groundwater at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marozas, D.C.; Bujewski, G.E.; Castaneda, N.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area is supporting the investigation of reactive barrier technologies to mitigate the risks associated with mixed organic/radioactive waste at several DOE sites. Groundwater from a small contaminated plume at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is being used to evaluate passive reactive material treatment. Permeable reactive barriers which intercept contaminants and destroy the VOC component while containing radionuclides are attractive for a number of reasons relating to public and regulatory acceptance. In situ treatment keeps contaminants away from the earth's surface, there is no above-ground treatment equipment that could expose workers and the public and operational costs are expected to be lower than currently used technologies. This paper will present results from preliminary site characterization and in-field small-scale column testing of reactive materials at RFETS. Successful demonstration is expected to lead to full-scale implementation of the technology at several DOE sites, including Rocky Flats

  9. Barriers to the use of Information and Communication Technology by occupational therapists working in a rural area of New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedid, Rebecca Jean; Dew, Angela; Veitch, Craig

    2013-06-01

    This qualitative study formed part of a large-scale, multi-phase study into the delivery of therapy services to people with a disability, living in one rural area of New South Wales, Australia. The study's purpose was to identify the impact of Information and Communication Technology on the workforce practices of occupational therapists' working in a rural area of New South Wales. Individual semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 13 occupational therapists working in disability, health and private practice in a rural area of New South Wales. Participants were asked about access to, skills and limitations of using Information and Communication Technology. A modified grounded theory approach, based on thematic analysis and constant comparison, was used to analyse the interview transcripts. This study found widespread use of technology by rurally based occupational therapists working in the disability sector in New South Wales. However, Information and Communication Technology was primarily used for client contact, professional development and professional networking rather than therapy provision. The study identified individual, workplace and community barriers to greater uptake of Information and Communication Technology by this group. The individual barriers included: age cohort, knowledge and personal preferences. The workplace barriers included: support and training and availability of resources. The community barriers included: infrastructure and perceptions of clients' acceptance. The potential exists for Information and Communication Technology to supplement face-to-face therapy provision, enhance access to professional development and reduce professional isolation thereby addressing the rural challenges of large distances, travel times and geographic isolation. To overcome these challenges, individual, workplace and community Information and Communication Technology barriers should be addressed concurrently. © 2012 The Authors Australian

  10. WERF Nutrient Challenge investigates limits of nutrient removal technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neethling, J B; Clark, D; Pramanik, A; Stensel, H D; Sandino, J; Tsuchihashi, R

    2010-01-01

    The WERF Nutrient Challenge is a multi-year collaborative research initiative established in 2007 to develop and provide current information about wastewater treatment nutrients (specifically nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater), their characteristics, and bioavailability in aquatic environments to help regulators make informed decisions. The Nutrient Challenge will also provide data on nutrient removal so that treatment facilities can select sustainable, cost-effective methods and technologies to meet permit limits. To meet these goals, the Nutrient Challenge has teamed with a wide array of utilities, agencies, consultants, universities and other researchers and practitioners to collaborate on projects that advance these goals. The Nutrient Challenge is focusing on a different approach to collaborating and leveraging resources (financial and intellectual) on research projects by targeting existing projects and research that correspond with its goals and funding those aspects that the Nutrient Challenge identified as a priority. Because the Nutrient Challenge is focused on collaboration, outreach is an absolutely necessary component of its effectiveness. Through workshops, webinars, a web portal and online compendium, published papers, and conference lectures, the Nutrient Challenge is both presenting important new information, and soliciting new partnerships.

  11. Biosensor Technology Reveals the Disruption of the Endothelial Barrier Function and the Subsequent Death of Blood Brain Barrier Endothelial Cells to Sodium Azide and Its Gaseous Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Dan T; Johnson, Rebecca H; O'Carroll, Simon J; Angel, Catherine E; Graham, E Scott

    2017-09-21

    Herein we demonstrate the sensitive nature of human blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells to sodium azide and its gaseous product. Sodium azide is known to be acutely cytotoxic at low millimolar concentrations, hence its use as a biological preservative (e.g., in antibodies). Loss of barrier integrity was noticed in experiments using Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) biosensor technology, to measure endothelial barrier integrity continuously in real-time. Initially the effect of sodium azide was observed as an artefact where it was present in antibodies being employed in neutralisation experiments. This was confirmed where antibody clones that were azide-free did not mediate loss of barrier function. A delayed loss of barrier function in neighbouring wells implied the influence of a liberated gaseous product. ECIS technology demonstrated that the BBB endothelial cells had a lower level of direct sensitivity to sodium azide of ~3 µM. Evidence of gaseous toxicity was consistently observed at 30 µM and above, with disrupted barrier function and cell death in neighbouring wells. We highlight the ability of this cellular biosensor technology to reveal both the direct and gaseous toxicity mediated by sodium azide. The sensitivity and temporal dimension of ECIS technology was instrumental in these observations. These findings have substantial implications for the wide use of sodium azide in biological reagents, raising issues of their application in live-cell assays and with regard to the protection of the user. This research also has wider relevance highlighting the sensitivity of brain endothelial cells to a known mitochondrial disruptor. It is logical to hypothesise that BBB endothelial dysfunction due to mitochondrial dys-regulation could have an important but underappreciated role in a range of neurological diseases.

  12. Radical production efficiency and electrical characteristics of a coplanar barrier discharge built by multilayer ceramic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jõgi, Indrek; Erme, Kalev; Levoll, Erik; Stamate, Eugen

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the electrical characteristics and radical production efficiency of a coplanar barrier discharge (CBD) device manufactured by Kyocera by multilayer ceramic technology. The device consisted of a number of linear electrodes with electrode and gap widths of 0.75 mm, immersed into a ceramic dielectric barrier. A closed flow-through system necessary for the measurements was prepared by placing a quartz plate at a height of 3 mm from the ceramic barrier. The production of nitrogen radicals was determined from the removal of a trace amount of NO in pure N 2 gas, while the production of oxygen radicals was determined by ozone production in pure O 2 or synthetic air. The production efficiency of N and O radicals and NO oxidation in synthetic air was comparable with the efficiency of a volume barrier discharge device. The power density per unit of surface area of the CBD device was more than two times larger than that of a similar volume barrier discharge setup, which makes the CBD device a compact alternative for gas treatment. The production of ozone and different nitrogen oxides was also evaluated for the open system of the CBD which is usable for surface treatment. The ozone concentration of this system was nearly independent from the input power, while the concentration of nitrogen oxides increased with input power. The open system of the CBD was additionally tested for the treatment of a silicon surface. An increase of applied power decreased the time required to reduce the water contact angle below 10 degrees but also started to have an impact on the surface roughness. (paper)

  13. Strategies to overcome barriers for cleaner generation technologies in small developing power systems: Sri Lanka case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, Priyantha D.C.; Siriwardena, Kanchana; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, Ram M.; Attalage, Rahula A.

    2006-01-01

    The penetration of cleaner and energy efficient technologies in small power systems such as the one in Sri Lanka has encountered many problems. This has caused major concerns among the policy makers, mainly in the context of the growing need to reduce harmful emissions in the electricity supply industry from the point of view of both local environmental pollution as well as the global warming concerns. This paper presents the outcome of a study involved in identifying and ranking the barriers to the promotion of cleaner and energy efficient technologies and strategies to overcome these barriers in Sri Lanka. Barriers for renewable energy based systems such as wind and wood fuel fired plants (dendro thermal power) and cleaner technologies such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) fired combined cycle and IGCC (coal) were identified based on a survey. A direct assessment multi-criteria decision making method called Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the barriers. The most effective strategies are proposed to address the three major barriers for each of these technologies based on extensive discussions with all the stakeholders in the electricity industry. It was found that lack of financing instruments, high initial cost and lack of assurance of resource supply or availability are the main barriers for renewable technologies. As for cleaner fuel and technology options associated with conventional generation systems, the lack of a clear government policy, uncertainty of fuel supplies and their prices and the reliability of the technologies themselves are the major barriers. Strategies are identified to overcome the above barriers. Establishment of a proper feed in tariff, geographical diversification of installations and capacity building in commercial banks are suggested for wind power. Investment incentives, streamlining of wood production and research on site identification are proposed for wood fuel fired plants. Also the study suggests delayed

  14. Barriers and Misperceptions Limiting Widespread Use of Intrauterine Contraception Among Canadian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Brian; Costescu, Dustin

    2015-07-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a major social and public health problem with adverse effects on neonatal and developmental outcomes, as well as maternal health and wellbeing. Traditionally, family planning policies have focused on increasing contraceptive uptake in non-users; however, rates of non-use are low in many developed nations. A high proportion of unintended pregnancies are attributable to contraceptive failure, particularly when using barrier and short-acting hormonal contraceptives. Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) are highly effective and have been shown to reduce unintended pregnancy rates. Despite this, global utilization rates are low, and IUCD uptake in Canada has been particularly low. In this review we explore why IUCDs are not more widely used, and specifically focus on barriers and misperceptions that may influence IUCD uptake, particularly in Canada. We reviewed relevant articles published in English between 1990 and 2014, through searches of PubMed and Medline, including primary studies of any design containing information on the knowledge and attitudes of health care providers and women. Providing education to care providers, women, and policy makers may help overcome misperceptions about the use of IUCDs, and may facilitate greater use. Increased support from federal and provincial health programs may also encourage the use of IUCDs in Canadian women, and help to reduce unintended pregnancy rates.

  15. Overcoming political, social and economic barriers to promote solar photovoltaic technology in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijesooriya, P.; Hande, H.; Gunaratne, L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper narrates the experiences of a private sector commercial company and that of a private developers (non-profit organization) in their efforts to promote solar PV in a developing country. The country chosen is Sri Lanka, in which a considerable PV effort has already been witnessed. However, substantial political, economic and social barriers exist which have hindered PV promotion in that country. The authors point that similar constraints may impede promotional efforts in many developing countries and recommend that a global paradigm to promote the technology must assign an important role to the issue of obstacles

  16. Current Barriers to Large-scale Interoperability of Traceability Technology in the Seafood Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Marah J; Flett, Keith; Howell, Colleen J

    2017-08-01

    Interoperability is a critical component of full-chain digital traceability, but is almost nonexistent in the seafood industry. Using both quantitative and qualitative methodology, this study explores the barriers impeding progress toward large-scale interoperability among digital traceability systems in the seafood sector from the perspectives of seafood companies, technology vendors, and supply chains as a whole. We highlight lessons from recent research and field work focused on implementing traceability across full supply chains and make some recommendations for next steps in terms of overcoming challenges and scaling current efforts. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Opportunities and barriers for OHS consultants in a technological change process at a client enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hermund, Ingelise

    2003-01-01

    In a case study of the design of inside finish and equipment of a new factory building the opportunities and barriers for OHS consultants in integrating work environment aspects are discussed. The work prac-tice of OHS consultants is studied in terms of theories from the sociology of technology....... Taking initially the role as experts the consultants in a reflective process change their strategy towards establishing a net-work in the client enterprise, going beyond the joint safety organization and more directly to the designers of new buildings and equipment. This indicates that the conditions...

  18. Sustainable technology and the limits of ecological modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    1997-01-01

    This essay addresses the question of how sustainable development is possible, giving special reference to the role of technology. It argues that the dominant strategy for sustainable development that is now operative, ecological modernization, is insufficient, and that the reform of technology and

  19. Vasoinhibins regulate the inner and outer blood-retinal barrier and limit retinal oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo Zamarripa, David; Díaz-Lezama, Nundehui; Meléndez García, Rodrigo; Chávez Balderas, Jesús; Adán, Norma; Ledesma-Colunga, Maria G; Arnold, Edith; Clapp, Carmen; Thebault, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    Vasoinhibins are prolactin fragments present in the retina, where they have been shown to prevent the hypervasopermeability associated with diabetes. Enhanced bradykinin (BK) production contributes to the increased transport through the blood-retina barrier (BRB) in diabetes. Here, we studied if vasoinhibins regulate BRB permeability by targeting the vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) components of this barrier. Intravitreal injection of BK in male rats increased BRB permeability. Vasoinhibins prevented this effect, as did the B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140. BK induced a transient decrease in mouse retinal and brain capillary endothelial monolayer resistance that was blocked by vasoinhibins. Both vasoinhibins and the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NAME, but not the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), blocked the transient decrease in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cell (BUVEC) monolayer resistance induced by BK; this block was reversed by the NO donor DETANONOate. Vasoinhibins also prevented the BK-induced actin cytoskeleton redistribution, as did L-NAME. BK transiently decreased human RPE (ARPE-19) cell monolayer resistance, and this effect was blocked by vasoinhibins, L-NAME, and NAC. DETANONOate reverted the blocking effect of vasoinhibins. Similar to BK, the radical initiator Luperox induced a reduction in ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, which was prevented by vasoinhibins. These effects on RPE resistance coincided with actin cytoskeleton redistribution. Intravitreal injection of vasoinhibins reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, particularly in the RPE and capillary-containing layers. Thus, vasoinhibins reduce BRB permeability by targeting both its main inner and outer components through NO- and ROS-dependent pathways, offering potential treatment strategies against diabetic retinopathies.

  20. Vasoinhibins regulate the inner and outer blood-retinal barrier and limit retinal oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eArredondo Zamarripa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasoinhibins are prolactin fragments present in the retina, where they have been shown to prevent the hypervasopermeability associated with diabetes. Enhanced bradykinin (BK production contributes to the increased transport through the blood-retina barrier (BRB in diabetes. Here, we studied if vasoinhibins regulate BRB permeability by targeting the vascular endothelium and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE components of this barrier. Intravitreal injection of BK in male rats increased BRB permeability. Vasoinhibins prevented this effect, as did the B2 receptor antagonist Hoe-140. BK induced a transient decrease in mouse retinal and brain capillary endothelial monolayer resistance that was blocked by vasoinhibins. Both vasoinhibins and the nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME, but not the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, blocked the transient decrease in bovine umbilical vein endothelial cell (BUVEC monolayer resistance induced by BK; this block was reversed by the NO donor DETANONOate. Vasoinhibins also prevented the BK-induced actin cytoskeleton redistribution, as did L-NAME. BK transiently decreased human RPE (ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, and this effect was blocked by vasoinhibins, L-NAME, and NAC. DETANONOate reverted the blocking effect of vasoinhibins. Similar to BK, the radical initiator Luperox induced a reduction in ARPE-19 cell monolayer resistance, which was prevented by vasoinhibins. These effects on RPE resistance coincided with actin cytoskeleton redistribution. Intravitreal injection of vasoinhibins reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in retinas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, particularly in the RPE and capillary-containing layers. Thus, vasoinhibins reduce BRB permeability by targeting both its main inner and outer components through NO- and ROS-dependent pathways, offering potential treatment strategies against diabetic retinopathies.

  1. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  2. Healthcare professionals' organisational barriers to health information technologies-a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Maria

    2011-12-01

    This literature review identifies and categorises, from an organisational management perspective, barriers to the use of HIT or ICT for health. Based on the review, it offers policy interventions. This systematic literature review was carried out during December 2009 and January 2010. Additional on-going reviews of updates through automated system alerts took place up until this paper was submitted. A total of thirty-one sources were searched including nine software platforms/databases, fifteen specialised websites/targeted databases, Google Scholar, ISI Science Citation Index and five journals hand-searched. The study covers seventy-nine articles on organisational barriers to ICT adoption by healthcare professionals. These are categorised under five main headings - (I) Structure of healthcare organisations; (II) Tasks; (III) People policies; (IV) Incentives; and (V) Information and decision processes. A total of ten subcategories are also identified. By adopting an organisational management approach, some recommendations to remove organisational management barriers are made. Despite their apparent promise, health information technologies (HIT) have proved difficult to implement. This systematic review reveals the implementation barriers associated to organisational management and their interrelations. Several important future directions in the field are also suggested: (1) there is a need for further research providing evidence of HIT cost-effectiveness as well as the development of optimal HIT applications; (2) more information is needed regarding organisational change, incentives, liability issues, end-users HIT competences and skills, structure and work process issues involved in realising the benefits from HIT. Future policy interventions should consider the five dimensions identified when addressing the impact of HIT in healthcare organisational systems, and how the impact of an intervention aimed at a particular dimension would interrelate with others. 2011

  3. BARRIERS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF E-BUSINESS TECHNOLOGIES IN SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMEs IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ali Shah G. SYED

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The current research investigates the Barriers in implementation of E-Business Technologies in Small and Medium enterprises (SMEs in Pakistan. Data were collected from 2000 respondents by using simple random technique. A structural questionnaire was developed for the data collection and reliability and validity of data. It was revealed that most of the SMEs business owners are not familiar in using internet and in many cases they are not computer literate. It was further revealed that Government should provide some basic computer training to the Small and Medium Enterprises so they will able to use computer. The proper implementation of E-Business technologies in SMEs in Pakistan, Government and other related agencies can initiate E-Business in SMEs to achieve competitive edge.

  4. Studying the place of technology to lower financial barriers for dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, K A; Maitland, J

    2010-01-01

    Current dietary self-monitoring systems assume users have access to healthy foods and resources to effectively implement and monitor dietary behavioral change. The purpose of this qualitative study is to understand the specific financial-related barriers that caregivers of low socioeconomic status encounter when attempting to make dietary behavior change. In this qualitative study, we conducted a focus group and 14 in-person interviews with the primary caregivers of low socioeconomic families. Participants were recruited from a community considered to be 'at risk' through high levels of exposure to multiple modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. All participants were English-speaking caregivers, who had children under eight years old. The families lived in an urban, public housing community. The focus group and interviews were transcribed and coded during data analysis sessions, then analyzed for emergent themes. We abstracted three main themes from the data. The caregivers of 17 families: 1) feared trying healthier food alternatives because of possibly wasting the food; 2) planned meals only when they had enough time, space, and financial security; and 3) defined produce as luxury items and often could only afford staple food items, such as meat and grains. We challenge the community to design technological interventions to lower the financial barriers presented with existing information and communication technology available to low socioeconomic populations. In addition, we encourage interventions to foster a community's social capital to decrease feelings of isolation and increase opportunities for cooperation.

  5. African Journal of Science and Technology (AJST) USE OF LIMITED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linear regression models for all stations show the expected strong positive association of ... streams in which flow rates are stochastic in nature. Effective flood ... Use of Limited Hydrological Data and Mathematical Parameters for Catchment.

  6. Scaling limits and reliability of SOI CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioannou, D E

    2005-01-01

    As bulk and PD-SOI CMOS approach their scaling limit (at gate length of around 50 nm), there is a renewed interest on FD-SOI because of its potential for continued scalability beyond this limit. In this review the performance and reliability of extremely scaled FD transistors are discussed and an attempt is made to identify critical areas for further research. (invited paper)

  7. Work reorganisation and technological change: limits of trade union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article suggests that this unidimensional strategy meant that building the union's capacity was neglected, reducing its ability to respond proactively to technological innovation and work reorganisation. While it does not present union capacity as a panacea, the article presents international examples that indicate that ...

  8. Cell Phone-Based and Adherence Device Technologies for HIV Care and Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings: Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeffrey I; Haberer, Jessica E

    2015-12-01

    Numerous cell phone-based and adherence monitoring technologies have been developed to address barriers to effective HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Because most people living with HIV and AIDS reside in resource-limited settings (RLS), it is important to understand the development and use of these technologies in RLS. Recent research on cell phone-based technologies has focused on HIV education, linkage to and retention in care, disease tracking, and antiretroviral therapy adherence reminders. Advances in adherence devices have focused on real-time adherence monitors, which have been used for both antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis. Real-time monitoring has recently been combined with cell phone-based technologies to create real-time adherence interventions using short message service (SMS). New developments in adherence technologies are exploring ingestion monitoring and metabolite detection to confirm adherence. This article provides an overview of recent advances in these two families of technologies and includes research on their acceptability and cost-effectiveness when available. It additionally outlines key challenges and needed research as use of these technologies continues to expand and evolve.

  9. Barriers to the use of e-health technology in nurse practitioner_patient consultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Adams

    2007-06-01

    Conclusions Study NPs had received only very limited information technology (IT training, but nevertheless were enthusiastic about computer use. This suggests that with further training they could adapt their practice to embrace more EHT, which would enhance their ability to be more autonomous and to base their practice on sound clinical evidence.

  10. FCC catalyst technologies expand limits of process capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiby, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that over the past 30 or so years, many improvements in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) operation have been achieved as the result of innovations in catalyst formulation. During the 1990s, new environmental regulations on issues such as reformulated gasoline will place new demands on both the refining industry and catalyst suppliers. An overview of cracking catalyst technology therefore seems in order. Today, high-technology innovations by catalyst manufacturers are rapid, but profit margins are slim. Catalyst formulations are shrouded in secrecy and probably depend almost as much on art as on science. Special formulations for specific cracking applications get the greatest emphasis today. To illustrate this point, OGJ's Worldwide Catalyst Report lists over 200 FCC catalyst designations. Catalysts containing components to enhance gasoline octane now account for about 70% of total U.S. FCC catalyst usage

  11. Leveraging Technological Capabilities across Polarized Cultures: Shanghai Delco Electronics Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Lucy A. Ojode

    2006-01-01

    Rallying its units for an impending spin-off from General Motors, the Delphi Automotive Systems division cleared the Delphi Delco Electronics (Delphi-D) unit to begin planning for entry into China in 1994. Delphi saw China as ideal for leveraging its technological and innovation capabilities as well as the enormous General Motor heritage and reputation from years of experience delivering quality products to the automotive industry. Delphi-D found a perfect partner in Shanghai Changjiang YiBia...

  12. Technology assessment guide for application of engineered sorbent barriers to low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Jones, E.O.; Depner, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    An engineered sorbent barrier (ESB) uses sorbent materials (such as activated carbon or natural zeolites) to restrict migration of radionuclides from low-level waste sites. The permeability of the ESB allows moisture to pass while the sorbent material traps or absorbs contaminants. In contrast, waste sites with impermeable barriers could fill with water, especially those waste sites in humid climates. A sorbent barrier can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for restricting radionuclide migration. This report provides information and references to be used in assessing the sorbent barrier technology for low-level waste disposal. The ESB assessment is based on sorbent material and soil properties, site conditions, and waste properties and inventories. These data are used to estimate the thickness of the barrier needed to meet all performance requirements for the waste site. This document addresses the following areas: (1) site information required to assess the need and overall performance of a sorbent barrier; (2) selection and testing of sorbent materials and underlying soils; (3) use of radionuclide transport models to estimate the required barrier thickness and long-term performance under a variety of site conditions; (4) general considerations for construction and quality assurance; and (5) cost estimates for applying the barrier. 37 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Crash tests with Smartcrash barriers, a technology with a future; Zukunftssichere Crashtests mit Smartcrash-Barrieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barz, D.; Evers, W. [Kistler Instrumente AG (Switzerland). Geschaeftsbereich Fahrzeugmesstechnik

    2005-02-01

    The Smartcrash barrier by Kistler is a completely new technology. State-of-the-art data processing with Microdau modules is combined with a singular mechanical modularity which meets all requirements of present and future crash standards. Together with a piezo measuring system perfectly tuned to the highly dynamic processes during crash tests, this provides a basis for making crash laboratories economically efficient, with safe and accurate data, and compatible with other measuring systems. The system is a 'must' for every modern crash laboratory. (orig.) [German] Die Smartcrash-Barriere von Kistler setzt in jeder Hinsicht Massstaebe. Neueste Technologie der Datenverarbeitung beim Crash mit Microdau-Modulen, wie sie auch in Dummys eingesetzt werden, wird mit einer einzigartigen mechanischen Modularitaet kombiniert, die alle erforderlichen Voraussetzungen fuer bestehende und zukuenftige Crash-Standards bietet. In Verbindung mit der fuer die Messung von hochdynamischen Kraftverlaeufen beim Crash praedestinierte Piezo-Messtechnik ist hiermit die Basis geschaffen, Crash-Laboratorien wirtschaftlich und hinsichtlich des Datenakquisition sicher und kompatibel mit anderen Messgroessen im Labor auszuruesten. Ein 'Muss' fuer jedes moderne Crash-Labor. (orig.)

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL BARRIERS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GRAIN INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Yeremchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a significant deterioration in the quality of Russian grain and a reduction in the production of food wheat. In the structure of the crop in 2016, food wheat was 28%, the remaining 78% was the fourth and fifth grade wheat, used for the production of forage grains. Five years ago, the ratio of food wheat and wheat of the fourth and fifth grades was 1: 1. The article considers four main groups of technological barriers affecting the development of the domestic grain industry. The patent – conjunctural analysis of each direction was carried out, the key laws of its development, and the availability of a raw and infrastructural base for its development, scientific and technical rewards for the further development of the industry were allocated. The conclusion about the need for an integrated approach to the development of all areas in general was done. It is shown that the development of related technologies in the grain industry, such as precision farming, can not significantly improve the efficiency of the industry in the absence of strong basic technologies such as grain selection and seed conservation, fertilizer production and soil quality improvement, production of chemical plant protection products, storage of grain.

  15. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels ( -2 s -1 ) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables

  16. Asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings: an overview of the technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.G.; Hartley, J.N.; Freeman, H.D.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Dunning, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) office, has developed an asphalt emulsion cover system to reduce the release of radon from uranium mill tailings. The system has been field tested at Grand Junction, Colorado. Results from laboratory and field tests indicate that this system is effective in reducing radon release to near-background levels (<2.5 pCi m/sup -2/s/sup -1/) and has the properties required for long-term effectiveness and stability. Engineering specifications have been developed, and analysis indicates that asphalt emulsion covers are cost-competitive with other cover systems. This report summarizes the technology for asphalt emulsion radon barrier systems. 59 references, 45 figures, 36 tables.

  17. Technological barriers to the growth of the export potential of Russian grain industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Eremchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia is the world's largest wheat exporter. The sales volume on foreign markets in 2015 amounted to $3.9 billion, or 10.1% of global exports. By the end of 2015, the volume of exports of agricultural products exceeded revenues from sales of arms in foreign markets. However, in dollar terms, wheat exports correspond to only a fifth place in the world. The article analyzes the reasons for a significant gap in the volume of exports and revenue, barriers to the development of export of agricultural deep processed products. The assumption is made that the development of technologies for deep processing of grain crops will increase the share of exports of Russian products with high added value.

  18. Opportunities and barriers for OHS consultants in a technological change process at a client enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ingelise; Broberg, Ole

    2003-01-01

    . Taking initially the role as experts the consultants in a reflective process change their strategy towards establishing a net-work in the client enterprise, going beyond the joint safety organization and more directly to the designers of new buildings and equipment. This indicates that the conditions......In a case study of the design of inside finish and equipment of a new factory building the opportunities and barriers for OHS consultants in integrating work environment aspects are discussed. The work prac-tice of OHS consultants is studied in terms of theories from the sociology of technology...... for the work of OHS consultants can be challenged and changed if the consultants are able to take the role of a political reflective navigator....

  19. Energy renovation of Danish single-family houses Economy - barrier, motivation and limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Plenge, Mary-Ann Knudstrup

    a large percentage who have not heard about the offers compared to the other income groups. There have been many reflections about energy saving initiatives and many of the initiatives have already been performed. There is however still a high number missing and particularly the depth of the renovation...... needs to be increased for Denmark to approach the defined objectives. The positive is that the listed tasks are predominantly carried out or considered to save energy, indicating that the homeowners are aware of this benefit. On the wish list presented to the homeowners, five wishes were selected.......000 DKK and 310.000DKK) are fair compared to the outcome, but when the needed investment is at 550.000 DKK and above, the majority think it is too expensive despite the benefits. The investment limit for the private renovations is defined on the basis on the homeowners’ interest in performing similar...

  20. Technology CAD of silicided Schottky barrier MOSFET for elevated source-drain engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.R.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Bose, C.; Maiti, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    Technology CAD has been used to study the performance of a silicided Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFET with gate, source and drain contacts realized with nickel-silicide. Elevated source-drain structures have been used towards the S/D engineering of CMOS devices. A full process-to-device simulation has been employed to predict the performance of sub-micron SB n-MOSFETs for the first time. A model for the diffusion and alloy growth kinetics has been incorporated in SILVACO-ATLAS and ATHENA to explore the processing and design parameter space for the Ni-silicided MOSFETs. The temperature and concentration dependent diffusion model for NiSi have been developed and necessary material parameters for nickel-silicide and epitaxial-Si have been incorporated through the C-interpreter function. Two-dimensional (2D) process-to-device simulations have also been used to study the dc and ac (RF) performance of silicided Schottky barrier (SB) n-MOSFETs. The extracted sheet resistivity, as a function of annealing temperature of the silicided S/D contacts, is found to be lower than the conventional contacts currently in use. It is also shown that the Technology CAD has the full capability to predict the possible dc and ac performance enhancement of a MOSFET with elevated S/D structures. While the simulated dc performance shows a clear enhancement, the RF analyses show no performance degradation in the cut-off frequency/propagation delay and also improve the ac performance due to the incorporation of silicide contacts in the S/D region

  1. Technology CAD of silicided Schottky barrier MOSFET for elevated source-drain engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.R. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT, Kharagpur 721302 (India)]. E-mail: ars.iitkgp@gmail.com; Chattopadhyay, S. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT, Kharagpur 721302 (India); School of Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Bose, C. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Calcutta 700032 (India); Maiti, C.K. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2005-12-05

    Technology CAD has been used to study the performance of a silicided Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFET with gate, source and drain contacts realized with nickel-silicide. Elevated source-drain structures have been used towards the S/D engineering of CMOS devices. A full process-to-device simulation has been employed to predict the performance of sub-micron SB n-MOSFETs for the first time. A model for the diffusion and alloy growth kinetics has been incorporated in SILVACO-ATLAS and ATHENA to explore the processing and design parameter space for the Ni-silicided MOSFETs. The temperature and concentration dependent diffusion model for NiSi have been developed and necessary material parameters for nickel-silicide and epitaxial-Si have been incorporated through the C-interpreter function. Two-dimensional (2D) process-to-device simulations have also been used to study the dc and ac (RF) performance of silicided Schottky barrier (SB) n-MOSFETs. The extracted sheet resistivity, as a function of annealing temperature of the silicided S/D contacts, is found to be lower than the conventional contacts currently in use. It is also shown that the Technology CAD has the full capability to predict the possible dc and ac performance enhancement of a MOSFET with elevated S/D structures. While the simulated dc performance shows a clear enhancement, the RF analyses show no performance degradation in the cut-off frequency/propagation delay and also improve the ac performance due to the incorporation of silicide contacts in the S/D region.

  2. Development of Diffusion barrier coatings and Deposition Technologies for Mitigating Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions (FCCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Cole, James

    2013-02-27

    The goal of this project is to develop diffusion barrier coatings on the inner cladding surface to mitigate fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). FCCI occurs due to thermal and radiation enhanced inter-diffusion between the cladding and fuel materials, and can have the detrimental effects of reducing the effective cladding wall thickness and lowering the melting points of the fuel and cladding. The research is aimed at the Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in which higher burn-ups will exacerbate the FCCI problem. This project will study both diffusion barrier coating materials and deposition technologies. Researchers will investigate pure vanadium, zirconium, and titanium metals, along with their respective oxides, on substrates of HT-9, T91, and oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels; these materials are leading candidates for ABR fuel cladding. To test the efficacy of the coating materials, the research team will perform high-temperature diffusion couple studies using both a prototypic metallic uranium fuel and a surrogate the rare-earth element lanthanum. Ion irradiation experiments will test the stability of the coating and the coating-cladding interface. A critical technological challenge is the ability to deposit uniform coatings on the inner surface of cladding. The team will develop a promising non-line-of-sight approach that uses nanofluids . Recent research has shown the feasibility of this simple yet novel approach to deposit coatings on test flats and inside small sections of claddings. Two approaches will be investigated: 1) modified electrophoretic deposition (MEPD) and 2) boiling nanofluids. The coatings will be evaluated in the as-deposited condition and after sintering.

  3. Barriers to the diffusion of renewable energy technologies - A case study of the state of Maharashtra, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, B.S. [Indira Gandhi Inst. of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    2001-07-01

    India's expanding economy and the strong growth expected in the next few decades (at around 10% per annum), will require additional energy. The use of fossil fuels is likely to dominate the strategy for meeting these needs in the near and medium term. However, India's own reserves are finite and will only be available for a limited period and the use of fossil fuels is not sustainable and is directly linked to environmental problems, particularly CO{sub 2} emissions and climate change. The importance of the increasing use of renewable energy sources was recognized in India in the early 1970s. During the past quarter century, a significant effort has gone into the development, trial and induction of a variety of technologies for use in different sectors. Today, India has one of the world's largest programs for renewable energy. The activities cower all the major renewable energy sources, including biogas, biomass, solar, wind and small-hydro power and other emerging technologies. By the end of 20th century nearly three million family-sized biogas plants (second in number in the world and next only to China's) and 30 million improved wood stoves have been established. These technologies could save about 15 million tons of fuel wood every year. Several other renewable energy technologies and products are now commercially available, and are economically viable in comparison to fossil fuels for some applications. However, there are many barriers to achieve the full potential of the renewable energy technologies. In order to study the potential and evaluate different RETs, we carried out a study of barriers to RETs in the state of Maharashtra, which accounts for about 16% of the Gross Domestic Product and 17% of the electricity supply in India. The study has been carried out in two parts. In the first part analysis was done on two technologies, viz., solar and wind. For doing this, information was collected from various secondary sources such as

  4. Recovery rates, enhanced oil recovery and technological limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggeridge, Ann; Cockin, Andrew; Webb, Kevin; Frampton, Harry; Collins, Ian; Moulds, Tim; Salino, Peter

    2014-01-13

    Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques can significantly extend global oil reserves once oil prices are high enough to make these techniques economic. Given a broad consensus that we have entered a period of supply constraints, operators can at last plan on the assumption that the oil price is likely to remain relatively high. This, coupled with the realization that new giant fields are becoming increasingly difficult to find, is creating the conditions for extensive deployment of EOR. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the nature, status and prospects for EOR technologies. It explains why the average oil recovery factor worldwide is only between 20% and 40%, describes the factors that contribute to these low recoveries and indicates which of those factors EOR techniques can affect. The paper then summarizes the breadth of EOR processes, the history of their application and their current status. It introduces two new EOR technologies that are beginning to be deployed and which look set to enter mainstream application. Examples of existing EOR projects in the mature oil province of the North Sea are discussed. It concludes by summarizing the future opportunities for the development and deployment of EOR.

  5. Limiting technologies for particle beams and high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1985-07-01

    Since 1930 the energy of accelerators had grown by an order of magnitude roughly every 7 years. Like all exponential growths, be they human population, the size of computers, or anything else, this eventually will have to come to an end. When will this happen to the growth of the energy of particle accelerators and colliders. Fortunately, as the energy of accelerators has grown the cost per unit energy has decreased almost as fast as has the increase in energy. The result is that while the energy has increased so dramatically the cost per new installation has increased only by roughly an order of magnitude since the 1930's (corrected for inflation), while the number of accelerators operating at the frontier of the field has shrunk. As is shown in the by now familiar Livingston chart this dramatic decrease in cost has been achieved largely by a succession of new technologies, in addition to the more moderate gains in efficiency due to improved design, economies of scale, etc. We are therefore facing two questions: (1) Is there good reason scientifically to maintain the exponential growth, and (2) Are there new technologies in sight which promise continued decreases in unit costs. The answer to the first question is definitely yes; the answer to the second question is maybe

  6. Summary report on close-coupled subsurface barrier technology: Initial field trials to full-scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiser, J.H.

    1997-09-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate the installation and measure the performance of a close-coupled barrier for the containment of subsurface waste or contaminant migration. A close-coupled barrier is produced by first installing a conventional, low-cost, cement-grout containment barrier followed by a thin lining of a polymer grout. The resultant barrier is a cement-polymer composite that has economic benefits derived from the cement and performance benefits from the durable and resistant polymer layer. The technology has matured from a regulatory investigation of the issues concerning the use of polymers to laboratory compatibility and performance measurements of various polymer systems to a pilot-scale, single column injection at Sandia to full-scale demonstration. The feasibility of the close-coupled barrier concept was proven in a full-scale cold demonstration at Hanford, Washington and then moved to the final stage with a full-scale demonstration at an actual remediation site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). At the Hanford demonstration the composite barrier was emplaced around and beneath a 20,000 liter tank. The secondary cement layer was constructed using conventional jet grouting techniques. Drilling was completed at a 45 degree angle to the ground, forming a cone-shaped barrier. The primary barrier was placed by panel jet-grouting with a dual-wall drill stem using a two part polymer grout. The polymer chosen was a high molecular weight acrylic. At the BNL demonstration a V-trough barrier was installed using a conventional cement grout for the secondary layer and an acrylic-gel polymer for the primary layer. Construction techniques were identical to the Hanford installation. This report summarizes the technology development from pilot- to full-scale demonstrations and presents some of the performance and quality achievements attained

  7. "Willing but unwilling": attitudinal barriers to adoption of home-based health information technology among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Willis, Erin; Cameron, Glen; Geana, Mugur

    2014-06-01

    While much research focuses on adoption of electronic health-care records and other information technology among health-care providers, less research explores patient attitudes. This qualitative study examines barriers to adoption of home-based health information technology, particularly personal electronic health records, among older adults. We conducted in-depth interviews (30-90 min duration) with 35 American adults, aged 46-72 years, to determine their perceptions of and attitudes toward home-based health information technology. Analysis of interview data revealed that most barriers to adoption fell under four themes: technological discomfort, privacy or security concerns, lack of relative advantage, and perceived distance from the user representation. Based on our findings, systems to promote home-based health information technology should incorporate familiar computer applications, alleviate privacy and security concerns, and align with older adults' active and engaged self-image.

  8. Technology and the environment: supportive resource or barrier for people with developmental disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammel, Joy

    2003-06-01

    such specialized services and for proactive later-life screenings that can identify issues early and make the most use of AT-EI strategies to address aging issues [26,28]. At any given point in time in the life of people with developmental disabilities, many different professionals and systems may be involved in decisions that could include AT-EI. Medical, educational, vocational, independent living, and case management systems may all be working with the person; however, there is often limited or no communication between them, particularly as the person ages or transitions between settings. Health care professionals, even when they are working with an individual on a limited basis, can and should take on active roles in linking consumers and important others with other systems and should ensure that information about their AT-EI needs is transferred accurately between systems. Most likely, nurses may be in a role to refer a person to specialized services, whether they may be medical, rehabilitative, AT-EI-specific, or disability advocacy groups that can help support the person as they face barriers or seek out AT. Nurses may also be in a role to pass on important information about the person's health and medical status that can help to better inform AT-EI decisions to ensure the AT meets the person's needs across contexts. As an interface, nurses may assume a role as a supporting advocate for accessing resources, not as a gatekeeper who makes decisions for people. This includes referring individuals with developmental disabilities to people and groups that know how to get AT-EI, how to fund it, and how to troubleshoot it, and linking them to other people with disabilities who are sharing strategies in person and on-line. It also includes focusing beyond basic self-care and considers AT-EI strategies that enable a person to participate in high meaning activities and roles in the home and the community. Participation in activities identified as highly meaningful and

  9. Microfluidic organ-on-chip technology for blood-brain barrier research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Helm, Marinke W; van der Meer, Andries D; Eijkel, Jan C T; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes I

    2016-01-01

    Organs-on-chips are a new class of microengineered laboratory models that combine several of the advantages of current in vivo and in vitro models. In this review, we summarize the advances that have been made in the development of organ-on-chip models of the blood-brain barrier (BBBs-on-chips) and the challenges that are still ahead. The BBB is formed by specialized endothelial cells and separates blood from brain tissue. It protects the brain from harmful compounds from the blood and provides homeostasis for optimal neuronal function [corrected]. Studying BBB function and dysfunction is important for drug development and biomedical research. Microfluidic BBBs-on-chips enable real-time study of (human) cells in an engineered physiological microenvironment, for example incorporating small geometries and fluid flow as well as sensors. Examples of BBBs-on-chips in literature already show the potential of more realistic microenvironments and the study of organ-level functions. A key challenge in the field of BBB-on-chip development is the current lack of standardized quantification of parameters such as barrier permeability and shear stress. This limits the potential for direct comparison of the performance of different BBB-on-chip models to each other and existing models. We give recommendations for further standardization in model characterization and conclude that the rapidly emerging field of BBB-on-chip models holds great promise for further studies in BBB biology and drug development.

  10. Limitations and barriers for adopting sustainable management practices in different farm types across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Portero, Ángela; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Pedrera, Ana; Jesús Gaitán, Antonio; Ten Berge, Hein

    2014-05-01

    Although apparently the conservation of natural resources such as water and soil does not represent important concerns for our society, the evolution of the world population and the degradation of these resources pose a challenge to improving agricultural food production capacity and conserving, and in some cases restoring, the environmental quality. Unfortunately, the history contains numerous examples of abandonment of these resources (McNeill 1992, Montgomery 2007). Although most of the agronomic conservation practices have been known for millennia, their implementation has often been hindered by non-agricultural motives (Davis et al. 2012). The European project CATCH-C (ten Berge 2011) started last year with the aim of evaluating sustainable soil management practices and exploring the difficulties for their adoption, both at farm and institutional level, to overcome them in the near future. As a first step with that purpose, a selection of best management practices (BMPs) based on interviews with advisors and scientific knowledge were proposed for each of the considered farm typologies: arable crops, permanent crops and pasture. These farm types are representative of the Mediterranean area in terms of agroecological properties, extension, economical importance and soil degradation problems. Semi-structured interviews were carried out by addressing different profiles of farmers to identify in a qualitative way the main limitations for adopting these BMPs on their farms. Different questionnaires were prepared based on the farmers' responses and launched at a larger scale, with the aim of achieving approximately 100 responses per each farm typology. Finally, responses from the questionnaires will be analyzed to explore the causes that hinder or impede the adoption of BMPs in different farm typologies. References: Davis A.S. et al. 2012. Plos ONE 7(10): e4719. doi:10.1371/journalpone.0047149. McNeill, J.R. 1992. The mountains of the Mediterranean world. Cambridge

  11. Technology development for the design of waste repositories at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion and capillary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.; Hakonson, T.; Lopez, E.A.

    1986-03-01

    The field research program involving the development of technology for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of biointrusion barriers installed at an active low-level radioactive waste disposal site (Area G) at Los Alamos are presented. A second experiment was designed to test the ability of a capillary barrier to effectively convey water infiltrating a SLB trench around and away from underlying buried wastes. The performance of the capillary barrier was tested in the field for a barrier of known thickness (2 m), slope (10%), and slope length (2 m), and for one combination of porous materials [a crushed tuff-clay (2% w/w) mixture overlying Ottawa sand] subjected to a known water addition rate. The waste management implications of both studies are also discussed

  12. 40 CFR 450.22 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best available technology economically achievable (BAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... best available technology economically achievable (BAT). 450.22 Section 450.22 Protection of... limitations reflecting the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40... the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). (a) Beginning no later than August 1...

  13. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS ASSESSMENT (TNA FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION IN AGRICULTURE SECTOR: CRITERIA, PRIORITIZING AND BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasdi Subagyono

    2010-11-01

    greenhouse gas emission, yet technologies need for have not been assessed. The technology needs assessment for the agriculture sector cover paddy field, perennial crops, peat soil, and livestock. The concern of the assessment is categorized into technology options, priority/key technology, barriers, and modalities. Selected technologies are based on criteria and priority options of technology needs. Data and information have been collected from related agencies, center, institutes and other relevant sources as well as through a workshop. Technology selection process for mitigation considered general criteria of reducing GHG emissions from crops and livestock, promoting resource conservation, promoting sustainable biodiversity, promoting green energy, sustaining food security, and promoting energy alternative; and specific criteria of promoting local technology for mitigation, sustaining site-specific germ plasms, promoting simple and cheap technology for poor farmers, promoting less emission crop varieties, substituting chemical with organic fertilizers/compost, and reduce CH4 emissions. Those criteria are scored into 4 classes, i.e. high value/high relevant/high impact (score: 5, Medium value/relevant/med impact (score: 3; Low value/less relevant/less impact (score: 1; nil – not relevant/no impact (score: 0. The assessment has come up with the results that priority technologies needed for mitigation are (a low methane emitter crops varieties, appropriate fertilizing, no tillage, and intermittent irrigation for paddy fields, (b appropriate slash and burn and bio-fuel for perennial crops, (c composting manure and biogas production for livestock, and (d overcoming slash and burn, avoiding over drain and maintaining soil moisture for peat soils.

  14. Academic Workload: The Silent Barrier to the Implementation of Technology-Enhanced Learning Strategies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Mary Sarah-Jane; Lodge, Jason Michael

    2015-01-01

    The effect of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) strategies in higher education has arguably been transformative despite the not-insignificant barriers existing in this context. Throughout the discourse very little attention has been paid to those primarily responsible for this implementation--academic teaching staff. This paper aims to highlight…

  15. Barriers to Use of Educational Technology in the Learning Process of Primary School Students in District 13 in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshmanziari, Esfandiar; Mostafavi, Aida

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the barriers to use of educational technology in the learning process of primary school students in district 13 of Tehran. This research in terms of purpose is practical, in terms of the title characteristics of the research is descriptive, and in terms of data collection method is a field research. The…

  16. On the front line of HIV virological monitoring: barriers and facilitators from a provider perspective in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutstein, S E; Golin, C E; Wheeler, S B; Kamwendo, D; Hosseinipour, M C; Weinberger, M; Miller, W C; Biddle, A K; Soko, A; Mkandawire, M; Mwenda, R; Sarr, A; Gupta, S; Mataya, R

    2016-01-01

    Scale-up of viral load (VL) monitoring for HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a priority in many resource-limited settings, and ART providers are critical to effective program implementation. We explored provider-perceived barriers and facilitators of VL monitoring. We interviewed all providers (n = 17) engaged in a public health evaluation of dried blood spots for VL monitoring at five ART clinics in Malawi. All ART clinics were housed within district hospitals. We grouped themes at patient, provider, facility, system, and policy levels. Providers emphasized their desire for improved ART monitoring strategies, and frustration in response to restrictive policies for determining which patients were eligible to receive VL monitoring. Although many providers pled for expansion of monitoring to include all persons on ART, regardless of time on ART, the most salient provider-perceived barrier to VL monitoring implementation was the pressure of work associated with monitoring activities. The work burden was exacerbated by inefficient data management systems, highlighting a critical interaction between provider-, facility-, and system-level factors. Lack of integration between laboratory and clinical systems complicated the process for alerting providers when results were available, and these communication gaps were intensified by poor facility connectivity. Centralized second-line ART distribution was also noted as a barrier: providers reported that the time and expenses required for patients to collect second-line ART frequently obstructed referral. However, provider empowerment emerged as an unexpected facilitator of VL monitoring. For many providers, this was the first time they used an objective marker of ART response to guide clinical management. Providers' knowledge of a patient's virological status increased confidence in adherence counseling and clinical decision-making. Results from our study provide unique insight into provider

  17. Limited english proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Glenn; Abreu, Milagros; Tomany-Korman, Sandra C

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 3.5 million U.S. schoolchildren are limited in English proficiency (LEP). Disparities in children's health and health care are associated with both LEP and speaking a language other than English at home, but prior research has not examined which of these two measures of language barriers is most useful in examining health care disparities. Our objectives were to compare primary language spoken at home vs. parental LEP and their associations with health status, access to care, and use of health services in children. We surveyed parents at urban community sites in Boston, asking 74 questions on children's health status, access to health care, and use of health services. Some 98% of the 1,100 participating children and families were of non-white race/ethnicity, 72% of parents were LEP, and 13 different primary languages were spoken at home. "Dose-response" relationships were observed between parental English proficiency and several child and parental sociodemographic features, including children's insurance coverage, parental educational attainment, citizenship and employment, and family income. Similar "dose-response" relationships were noted between the primary language spoken at home and many but not all of the same sociodemographic features. In multivariate analyses, LEP parents were associated with triple the odds of a child having fair/poor health status, double the odds of the child spending at least one day in bed for illness in the past year, and significantly greater odds of children not being brought in for needed medical care for six of nine access barriers to care. None of these findings were observed in analyses of the primary language spoken at home. Individual parental LEP categories were associated with different risks of adverse health status and outcomes. Parental LEP is superior to the primary language spoken at home as a measure of the impact of language barriers on children's health and health care. Individual parental LEP

  18. Delivery of Biologics Across the Blood-Brain Barrier with Molecular Trojan Horse Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardridge, William M

    2017-12-01

    Biologics are potential new therapeutics for many diseases of the central nervous system. Biologics include recombinant lysosomal enzymes, neurotrophins, decoy receptors, and therapeutic antibodies. These are large molecule drugs that do not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). All classes of biologics have been tested, without success, in clinical trials of brain disease over the last 25 years. In none of these past clinical trials was the biologic re-engineered to enable transport across the BBB. If the biologic does not cross the BBB, the drug cannot reach the target site in brain, and success in a clinical trial is not expected. Biologics can be re-engineered for BBB transport with the use of molecular Trojan horse technology. A BBB molecular Trojan horse is a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against an endogenous BBB receptor transporter, such as the insulin receptor or transferrin receptor. The receptor-specific MAb penetrates the brain via transport on the endogenous BBB receptor. The MAb acts as a molecular Trojan horse to deliver across the BBB the biologic pharmaceutical that is genetically fused to the MAb. The lead Trojan horse is a MAb against the human insulin receptor (HIR), and HIRMAb-derived fusion proteins have entered clinical trials for the treatment of brain disease.

  19. Hafnia-Based Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings for Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramana, Chintalapalle; Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-01-31

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are critical technologies for future gas turbine engines of advanced coal based power generation systems. TBCs protect engine components and allow further increase in engine temperatures for higher efficiency. In this work, nanostructured HfO{sub 2}-based coatings, namely Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (YSH), Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized HfO{sub 2} (GSH) and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}-HfO{sub 2} (YSZH) were investigated for potential TBC applications in hydrogen turbines. Experimental efforts are aimed at creating a fundamental understanding of these TBC materials. Nanostructured ceramic coatings of YSH, GSH and YSZH were grown by physical vapor deposition methods. The effects of processing parameters and ceramic composition on the microstructural evolution of YSH, GSH and YSZH nanostructured coatings was studied using combined X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron microscopy analyses. Efforts were directed to derive a detailed understanding of crystal-structure, morphology, and stability of the coatings. In addition, thermal conductivity as a function of composition in YSH, YSZH and GSH coatings was determined. Laboratory experiments using accelerated test environments were used to investigate the relative importance of various thermo-mechanical and thermo-chemical failure modes of TBCs. Effects of thermal cycling, oxidation and their complex interactions were evaluated using a syngas combustor rig.

  20. OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY AND INTERNATIONAL, NATURAL BARRIERS THRUST OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. Bodvarsson; Y. Tsang

    2006-01-01

    The Natural Barriers Thrust supports scientific studies of the natural system at the proposed repository site of Yucca Mountain. It stresses the realistic representation of the natural system with respect to processes and parameters, by means of laboratory, field, and modeling studies. It has the objectives to demonstrate that the natural barriers can make large contributions to repository performance, supporting the multiple-barrier concept for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste; and to reduce the overall cost of repository development by elimination of unnecessary engineered components, given the demonstrated natural barriers performance. In this overview we enumerate the research projects within the Natural Barriers Thrust grouped under five elements: (1) Drift Seepage, (2) In-drift Environment, (3) Drift Shadow, (4) Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport, and (5) Saturated Zone Flow and Transport. The long-term strategic plan of the Natural Barriers Thrust and some key results are also briefly described

  1. Potential Pedagogical Benefits and Limitations of Multimedia Integrated Desktop Video Conferencing Technology for Synchronous Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs Maurice Schols

    2009-01-01

    As multimedia gradually becomes more and more an integrated part of video conferencing systems, the use of multimedia integrated desktop video conferencing technology (MIDVCT) will open up new educational possibilities for synchronous learning. However, the possibilities and limitations of this

  2. In vitro blood-brain barrier models: current and perspective technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pooja; Cucullo, Luca

    2012-04-01

    Even in the 21st century, studies aimed at characterizing the pathological paradigms associated with the development and progression of central nervous system diseases are primarily performed in laboratory animals. However, limited translational significance, high cost, and labor to develop the appropriate model (e.g., transgenic or inbred strains) have favored parallel in vitro approaches. In vitro models are of particular interest for cerebrovascular studies of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which plays a critical role in maintaining the brain homeostasis and neuronal functions. Because the BBB dynamically responds to many events associated with rheological and systemic impairments (e.g., hypoperfusion), including the exposure of potentially harmful xenobiotics, the development of more sophisticated artificial systems capable of replicating the vascular properties of the brain microcapillaries are becoming a major focus in basic, translational, and pharmaceutical research. In vitro BBB models are valuable and easy to use supporting tools that can precede and complement animal and human studies. In this article, we provide a detailed review and analysis of currently available in vitro BBB models ranging from static culture systems to the most advanced flow-based and three-dimensional coculture apparatus. We also discuss recent and perspective developments in this ever expanding research field. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Barriers to and strategies for promoting energy-efficient lift and escalator technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetschke, Elisabeth; Hirzel, Simon

    2010-02-25

    According to prior findings of the E4 project, considerable savings potential exists both for lifts and escalators that could be realized if appropriate technology is implemented. However, energy-efficient technology is slowly diffusing the market - a phenomenon that could be explained by barriers present in the market. A barrier is defined as a mechanism that inhibits a decision or behavior that appears to be both energy-efficient and economically efficient and thereby prevents investment in energy-efficient technologies. This document has two aims. First, it will identify influential barriers in the European lift and escalator market. This analysis is based on the literature as well as a study including interviews as well as group discussions with relevant stakeholders. Second, strategies and measures to overcome the barriers identified in the first step are outlined. Major barriers to the penetration of energy-efficient technologies identified in this paper include a lack of monitoring energy consumption of installations and a lack of awareness of as well as knowledge about energy-efficient technology. Thus, installations and components are usually chosen without a (comprehensive) assessment of their energy consumption and without considering life-cycle approaches. On top of this, split incentives are a regularly occurring barrier. Various stakeholders are influential in the decisionmaking process about an installation or its components. However, those who will later pay for the energy consumption often are not involved in this process. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that the number of new lifts and escalators installed each year is relatively low compared to the existing stock. Thus, it is very important to discuss enhancement of energy efficiency also for the existing stock. Based on our analyses, several recommendations are developed in this paper that could contribute to a market transformation in the lift and escalator market. First of all, a

  4. Students' Guided Reinvention of Definition of Limit of a Sequence with Interactive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alfinio; Park, Jungeun

    2016-01-01

    In a course emphasizing interactive technology, 19 students, including 18 mathematics education majors, mostly in their first year, reinvented the definition of limit of a sequence while working in small cooperative groups. The class spent four sessions of 75 minutes each on a cyclical process of guided reinvention of the definition of limit of a…

  5. Expertise, Time, Money, Mentoring, and Reward: Systemic Barriers That Limit Education Researcher Productivity-Proceedings From the AAMC GEA Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lalena M; Juve, Amy Miller; Artino, Anthony R; Sullivan, Gail M; Rougas, Steven; Joyce, Barbara; Eva, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    To further evolve in an evidence-based fashion, medical education needs to develop and evaluate new practices for teaching, learning, and assessment. However, educators face barriers in designing, conducting, and publishing education research. To explore the barriers medical educators face in formulating, conducting, and publishing high-quality medical education research, and to identify strategies for overcoming them. A consensus workshop was held November 5, 2013, at the Association of American Medical Colleges annual meeting. A working group of education research experts and educators completed a preconference literature review focusing on barriers to education research. During the workshop, consensus-based and small group techniques were used to refine the broad themes into content categories. Attendees then ranked the most important barriers and strategies for overcoming them with the highest potential impact. Barriers participants faced in conducting quality education research included lack of (1) expertise, (2) time, (3) funding, (4) mentorship, and (5) reward. The strategy considered most effective in overcoming these barriers involved building communities of education researchers for collaboration and networking, and advocating for education researchers' interests. Other suggestions included trying to secure increased funding opportunities, developing mentoring programs, and encouraging mechanisms to ensure protected time. Barriers to education research productivity clearly exist. Many appear to result from feelings of isolation that may be overcome with systemic efforts to develop and enable communities of practice across institutions. Finally, the theme of "reward" is novel and complex and may have implications for education research productivity.

  6. Facilitators and Barriers to Adopting Robotic-Assisted Surgery: Contextualizing the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenMessaoud, Christine; Kharrazi, Hadi; MacDorman, Karl F.

    2011-01-01

    Robotic-assisted surgical techniques are not yet well established among surgeon practice groups beyond a few surgical subspecialties. To help identify the facilitators and barriers to their adoption, this belief-elicitation study contextualized and supplemented constructs of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) in robotic-assisted surgery. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 21 surgeons comprising two groups: users and nonusers. The main facilitators to adoption were Perceived Usefulness and Facilitating Conditions among both users and nonusers, followed by Attitude Toward Using Technology among users and Extrinsic Motivation among nonusers. The three main barriers to adoption for both users and nonusers were Perceived Ease of Use and Complexity, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Behavioral Control. This study's findings can assist surgeons, hospital and medical school administrators, and other policy makers on the proper adoption of robotic-assisted surgery and can guide future research on the development of theories and framing of hypotheses. PMID:21283719

  7. Limits of Nature and Advances of Technology: What Does Biomimetics Have to Offer to Aquatic Robots?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. E. Fish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the biomimetic approach has been utilized as a mechanism for technological advancement in the field of robotics. However, there has not been a full appreciation of the success and limitations of biomimetics. Similarities between natural and engineered systems are exhibited by convergences, which define environmental factors, which impinge upon design, and direct copying that produces innovation through integration of natural and artificial technologies. Limitations of this integration depend on the structural and mechanical differences of the two technologies and on the process by which each technology arises. The diversity of organisms that arose through evolutionary descent does not necessarily provide all possible solutions of optimal functions. However, in instances where organisms exhibit superior performance to engineered systems, features of the organism can be targeted for technology transfer. In this regard, cooperation between biologists and engineers is paramount.

  8. Corrective measures technology for shallow land burial at arid sites: field studies of biointrusion barriers and erosion control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Lopez, E.A.

    1986-03-01

    The field research program involving corrective measures technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Results of field testing of a biointrusion barrier installed at a close-out waste disposal site (Area B) at Los Alamos are presented. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments were measured, and the interaction between erosion control and subsurface water dynamics is discussed relative to waste management

  9. Socio-technical barriers to the use of energy-efficient timber drying technology in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Martha; Carrington, Gerry; Lawson, Rob; Stephenson, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This study of industrial energy behaviours identifies barriers to the use of energy-efficient drying technology in the New Zealand timber industry, and explores these barriers through the “energy cultures” lens. Vented kiln dryers were preferred by larger firms and heat pump kiln dryers were used by smaller firms. Although few firms could specify all their costs, we found no significant differences in the average operating costs, drying costs or commercial success of the larger and smaller firms. We found that socio-technical barriers create “energy cultures” at the level of both the firm and the sector, supporting the dominance of vented kiln dryers. The prevailing technologies, practices and norms at the sector level strongly support vented kilns, the status quo being embedded in the socio-technical context, hindering technological learning, improved energy efficiency and innovation. Influential stakeholders in the industry were thus part of, and locked into, the industry-wide energy culture, and were not in a position to effect change. We conclude that actors external to the prevailing industry energy culture need to leverage change in the industry norms, practices and/or technologies in order to reap the advantages of energy-efficient drying technology, assist its continued evolution and avoid the risks of path-dependency. - Highlights: • Firms processing timber in New Zealand use two main drying technologies. • Relatively inefficient vented dryers dominate over energy-efficient heat pumps. • Operating costs are similar but the socio-technical regime supports vented dryers. • Stasis is created by fixed energy cultures both within firms and across the sector. • Stasis hampers technical development in heat pump drying and business innovation

  10. Status of HgCdTe Barrier Infrared Detectors Grown by MOCVD in Military University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytko, M.; Jóźwikowski, K.; Martyniuk, P.; Gawron, W.; Madejczyk, P.; Kowalewski, A.; Markowska, O.; Rogalski, A.; Rutkowski, J.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we present the status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with an emphasis on technological progress in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. It is shown that MOCVD technology is an excellent tool for HgCdTe barrier architecture growth with a wide range of composition, donor /acceptor doping, and without post-grown annealing. The device concept of a specific barrier bandgap architecture integrated with Auger-suppression is as a good solution for high-operating temperature infrared detectors. Analyzed devices show a high performance comparable with the state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. Dark current densities are close to the values given by "Rule 07" and detectivities of non-immersed detectors are close to the value marked for HgCdTe photodiodes. Experimental data of long-wavelength infrared detector structures were confirmed by numerical simulations obtained by a commercially available software APSYS platform. A detailed analysis applied to explain dark current plots was made, taking into account Shockley-Read-Hall, Auger, and tunneling currents.

  11. Using information and communication technology (ICT) to the maximum: learning and teaching biology with limited digital technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina S.

    2012-04-01

    Background: The ubiquity, availability and exponential growth of digital information and communication technology (ICT) creates unique opportunities for learning and teaching in the senior secondary school biology curriculum. Digital technologies make it possible for emerging disciplinary knowledge and understanding of biological processes previously too small, large, slow or fast to be taught. Indeed, much of bioscience can now be effectively taught via digital technology, since its representational and symbolic forms are in digital formats. Purpose: This paper is part of a larger Australian study dealing with the technologies and modalities of learning biology in secondary schools. Sample: The classroom practices of three experienced biology teachers, working in a range of NSW secondary schools, are compared and contrasted to illustrate how the challenges of limited technologies are confronted to seamlessly integrate what is available into a number of molecular genetics lessons to enhance student learning. Design and method: The data are qualitative and the analysis is based on video classroom observations and semi-structured teacher interviews. Results: Findings indicate that if professional development opportunities are provided where the pedagogy of learning and teaching of both the relevant biology and its digital representations are available, then teachers see the immediate pedagogic benefit to student learning. In particular, teachers use ICT for challenging genetic concepts despite limited computer hardware and software availability. Conclusion: Experienced teachers incorporate ICT, however limited, in order to improve the quality of student learning.

  12. Barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies in the building sector: A survey study of Jing-jin-tang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Ping; Zheng, Li-Qun; Xie, Bai-Chen; Mahalingam, Arjun

    2014-01-01

    The building sector of China currently consumes 20% of the total energy consumption. Studies on barriers to the adoption of building energy-saving technologies are of great significance on implementing policies related to achieving energy-saving goals. This paper studied 15 barriers with the aid of information collected through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The respondents were 135 employees working in the Jing-jin-tang area. Based on the results of the factor analysis, the barriers were categorized into five groups: attitudes of stakeholders, policies and regulations, auxiliary resources, profitability, and adaptability of the technologies. Analysis of the entire sample showed that the stakeholders’ reluctance to use was the largest barrier, followed by high initial investment and low profitability. Further analysis showed that the occupation and designation of the respondents and the size of the enterprises that they served influenced their perspectives on the barriers. It was found that architects attributed more importance to the adoption of energy-saving technologies than contractors; barriers confronted by employees of large enterprises and small enterprises were different; managers perceived weaker barriers than frontline employees and were more optimistic about the prospect of building energy-saving technologies. Finally, policy recommendations were proposed based on these in-depth and targeted analyses. - Highlights: • Fifteen barriers to the adoption of energy-saving technologies are discussed. • Surveys are conducted in one of China's most technologically developed area. • The barriers are divided into 5 groups according to the results of factor analysis. • Barriers related to profitability greatly hamper the adoption of the technologies. • Comparative analyses show the background of respondents influence their viewpoints

  13. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  14. Edible moisture barriers: how to assess of their potential and limits in food products shelf-life extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlieu, C; Guillard, V; Vallès-Pamiès, B; Guilbert, S; Gontard, N

    2009-05-01

    Control of moisture transfer inside composite food products or between food and its environment remains today a major challenge in food preservation. A wide rage of film-forming compounds is now available and facilitates tailoring moisture barriers with optimized functional properties. Despite these huge potentials, a realistic assessment of the film or coating efficacy is still critical. Due to nonlinear water sorption isotherms, water-dependent diffusivities, and variations of physical state, modelling transport phenomena through edible barriers is complex. Water vapor permeability can hardly be considered as an inherent property of films and only gives a relative indication of the barrier efficacy. The formal or mechanistic models reported in literature that describe the influence of testing conditions on the barrier properties of edible films are reviewed and discussed. Most of these models have been validated on a narrow range of conditions. Conversely, few original predictive models based on Fick's Second Law have been developed to assess shelf-life extension of food products including barriers. These models, assuming complex and realistic hypothesis, have been validated in various model foods. The development of nondestructive methods of moisture content measurement should speed up model validation and allow a better comprehension of moisture transfer through edible films.

  15. El problema de la barrera linguistica en el desarrollo cientifico y tecnologico (The Problem of the Language Barrier in Scientific and Technological Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Ernesto

    This monograph discusses the problem of the language barrier in scientific and technological development in terms of several parameters describing the flow of scientific information from one language to another. The numerical values of the language barrier parameters of the model are calculated in the field of information on second language…

  16. R and D limited partnerships (possible applications in advanced communications satellite technology experiment program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Typical R&D limited partnership arrangements, advantages and disadvantages of R&D limited partnership (RDLPs) and antitrust and tax implications are described. A number of typical forms of RDLPs are described that may be applicable for use in stimulating R&D and experimental programs using the advanced communications technology satellite. The ultimate goal is to increase the rate of market penetration of goods and/or services based upon advanced satellite communications technology. The conditions necessary for these RDLP forms to be advantageous are outlined.

  17. Bird's IP view of limits of conventional e+e- linear collider technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.

    1994-11-01

    Scaling laws appropriate to future e + e - linear colliders in the high upsilon regime are examined assuming that the luminosity must increase as the square of the energy. Limits on achievable energy for these colliders are identified under the assumption that no exotica such as energy recovery, superdisruption, or four-beam charge compensation are employed, and all technology is foreseeable and has an apparent cost within the bounds of a large international collaboration. Following these guidelines, an upper energy limit appears around 15 TeV in the center of mass as the normalized emittance required to produce ever smaller vertical spot sizes become unattainable with conventional damping ring technology

  18. Information barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense

  19. Facilitating out-of-home caregiving through health information technology: survey of informal caregivers' current practices, interests, and perceived barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulman, Donna M; Piette, John D; Jenchura, Emily C; Asch, Steven M; Rosland, Ann-Marie

    2013-07-10

    Many patients with chronic conditions are supported by out-of-home informal caregivers-family members, friends, and other individuals who provide care and support without pay-who, if armed with effective consumer health information technology, could inexpensively facilitate their care. We sought to understand caregivers' use of, interest in, and perceived barriers to health information technology for out-of-home caregiving. We conducted 2 sequential Web-based surveys with a national sample of individuals who provide out-of-home caregiving to an adult family member or friend with a chronic illness. We queried respondents about their use of health information technology for out-of-home caregiving and used multivariable regression to investigate caregiver and care-recipient characteristics associated with caregivers' technology use for caregiving. Among 316 out-of-home caregiver respondents, 34.5% (109/316) reported using health information technology for caregiving activities. The likelihood of a caregiver using technology increased significantly with intensity of caregiving (as measured by number of out-of-home caregiving activities). Compared with very low intensity caregivers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of technology use was 1.88 (95% CI 1.01-3.50) for low intensity caregivers, 2.39 (95% CI 1.11-5.15) for moderate intensity caregivers, and 3.70 (95% CI 1.62-8.45) for high intensity caregivers. Over 70% (149/207) of technology nonusers reported interest in using technology in the future to support caregiving. The most commonly cited barriers to technology use for caregiving were health system privacy rules that restrict access to care-recipients' health information and lack of familiarity with programs or websites that facilitate out-of-home caregiving. Health information technology use for out-of-home caregiving is common, especially among individuals who provide more intense caregiving. Health care systems can address the mismatch between caregivers' interest

  20. Future pathways for today's technologies. Limits and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niessen, Stefan [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany). Innovation- and Patent Management

    2015-06-01

    The majority of the feed-in tariffs as determined by the German Energy Feed-in Act (EEG) develop as follows: they decrease as the efficiency of technologies grows. However, there are some exceptions: offshore wind and geothermal energy feed-in tariffs have been rising, while storage technologies are not included at all although they are needed to make up for intermittent renewable generation. Furthermore, nuclear energy is burdened with the fuel tax, a kind of negative feed-in tariff. These technologies seem to be confronted with specific restrictions that yet prevent large-scale development. A thorough analysis of these limitations guides to the way to overcome them.

  1. Future pathways for today's technologies. Limits and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niessen, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the feed-in tariffs as determined by the German Energy Feed-in Act (EEG) develop as follows: they decrease as the efficiency of technologies grows. However, there are some exceptions: offshore wind and geothermal energy feed-in tariffs have been rising, while storage technologies are not included at all although they are needed to make up for intermittent renewable generation. Furthermore, nuclear energy is burdened with the fuel tax, a kind of negative feed-in tariff. These technologies seem to be confronted with specific restrictions that yet prevent large-scale development. A thorough analysis of these limitations guides to the way to overcome them.

  2. Dental practitioners and a digital future: an initial exploration of barriers and incentives to adopting digital technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, M M; Gorter, R C; Wismeijer, D

    2013-12-01

    Digital technologies are proliferating into dental practices. While their technical attributes have often been studied, it remains unclear why some dentists adopt and use these technologies more than others. AIM To explore the incentives for and barriers against accepting and using digital dental technologies. Eleven semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with experts in dentistry, dental technology and dental education in the Netherlands. Dentists' acceptance and use of digital technologies are to varying degrees driven by the perceived advantages over analogue methods, perceived influence on treatment quality, dentists' personal and professional orientation, and social influence from peers and external groups. These effects are complemented by personal and dental-practice characteristics. The findings suggest that there are large differences in motivation to adopt and use digital technologies between early adopters, late adopters and non-adopters, which should be examined in greater detail. We recommend that educators, dentists, and representatives of the dental industry who deal with the diffusion of these technologies take account of dentists' widely different attitudes to digitalisation.

  3. Summary of: dental practitioners and a digital future: an initial exploration of barriers and incentives to adopting digital technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Liam

    2013-12-01

    Digital technologies are proliferating into dental practices. While their technical attributes have often been studied, it remains unclear why some dentists adopt and use these technologies more than others. AIM To explore the incentives for and barriers against accepting and using digital dental technologies. Eleven semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with experts in dentistry, dental technology and dental education in the Netherlands. Dentists' acceptance and use of digital technologies are to varying degrees driven by the perceived advantages over analogue methods, perceived influence on treatment quality, dentists' personal and professional orientation, and social influence from peers and external groups. These effects are complemented by personal and dental-practice characteristics. The findings suggest that there are large differences in motivation to adopt and use digital technologies between early adopters, late adopters and non-adopters, which should be examined in greater detail. We recommend that educators, dentists, and representatives of the dental industry who deal with the diffusion of these technologies take account of dentists' widely different attitudes to digitalisation.

  4. Microfluidic organ-on-chip technology for blood-brain barrier research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, Marieke Willemijn; van der Meer, Andries Dirk; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2016-01-01

    Organs-on-chips are a new class of microengineered laboratory models that combine several of the advantages of current in vivo and in vitro models. In this review, we summarize the advances that have been made in the development of organ-on-chip models of the blood-brain barrier (BBBs-on-chips) and

  5. Barriers and Opportunities for the Use of Alternative Technologies to Reduce Nitrogen in Coastal Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    In coastal New England, many communities wrestling with nitrogen over-enrichment from insufficient wastewater management are considering alternative technologies to supplement traditional sewering technology. In particular, communities on Cape Cod, Massachusetts are actively comp...

  6. Device Innovation and Material Challenges at the Limits of CMOS Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P. M.

    2000-08-01

    Scaling of the predominant silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology is finally approaching an end after decades of exponential growth. This review explores the reasons for this limit and some of the strategies available to the semiconductor industry to continue the technology extension. Evolutionary change to the silicon transistor will be pursued as long as possible, with increasing demands being placed on materials. Eventually new materials such a silicon-germanium may be used, and new device topologies such as the double-gated transistor may be employed. These strategies are being pursued in research organizations today. It is likely that planar technology will reach its limit with devices on the 10-nm scale, and then the third dimension will have to be exploited more efficiently to achieve further performance and density improvements.

  7. Teacher Views on Barriers to the Integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Turkish Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    Technology has taken place in all areas of life. Educational environment is equipped with the technology to educate individuals with the skills to meet the needs of the day. It is expected that teachers use information and communication technologies and transfer this skill to the educational environment in the information age. When the use of ICT…

  8. Barriers and Facilitators to Using Digital Technologies in the Cooperative Learning Model in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodsworth, Hannah; Goodyear, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The influence of technology on children's everyday lives is significant in today's society, with children described as digital natives and/or the iGeneration. There are also a range of digital technologies available for use in education and a number of pedagogical approaches reported to support technology integration and pupil learning…

  9. The Technology Acceptance Model for Resource-Limited Settings (TAM-RLS): A Novel Framework for Mobile Health Interventions Targeted to Low-Literacy End-Users in Resource-Limited Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeffrey I; Aturinda, Isaac; Mwesigwa, Evans; Burns, Bridget; Santorino, Data; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David R; Holden, Richard J; Ware, Norma C; Siedner, Mark J

    2017-11-01

    Although mobile health (mHealth) technologies have shown promise in improving clinical care in resource-limited settings (RLS), they are infrequently brought to scale. One limitation to the success of many mHealth interventions is inattention to end-user acceptability, which is an important predictor of technology adoption. We conducted in-depth interviews with 43 people living with HIV in rural Uganda who had participated in a clinical trial of a short messaging system (SMS)-based intervention designed to prompt return to clinic after an abnormal laboratory test. Interviews focused on established features of technology acceptance models, including perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, and included open-ended questions to gain insight into unexplored issues related to the intervention's acceptability. We used conventional (inductive) and direct content analysis to derive categories describing use behaviors and acceptability. Interviews guided development of a proposed conceptual framework, the technology acceptance model for resource-limited settings (TAM-RLS). This framework incorporates both classic technology acceptance model categories as well as novel factors affecting use in this setting. Participants described how SMS message language, phone characteristics, and experience with similar technologies contributed to the system's ease of use. Perceived usefulness was shaped by the perception that the system led to augmented HIV care services and improved access to social support from family and colleagues. Emergent themes specifically related to mHealth acceptance among PLWH in Uganda included (1) the importance of confidentiality, disclosure, and stigma, and (2) the barriers and facilitators downstream from the intervention that impacted achievement of the system's target outcome. The TAM-RLS is a proposed model of mHealth technology acceptance based upon end-user experiences in rural Uganda. Although the proposed model requires validation, the TAM

  10. Reinforcement of the Gas Barrier Properties of Polyethylene and Polyamide Through the Nanocomposite Approach: Key Factors and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picard E.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, polyamide 6 (PA6 and polyethylene (PE nanocomposites were prepared from melt blending and a detailed characterization of the nanocomposite morphology and gas barrier properties was performed. The choice of the organoclay was adapted to each polymer matrix. Exfoliated morphology and improved gas transport properties were obtained by melt mixing the polar PA6 matrix and the organoclay, whereas a microcomposite with poor barrier properties was formed from the binary PE/organomodified clay mixture. Different modified polyethylenes were examined as compatibilizers for the polyethylene/organoclay system. The effect of compatibilizer molar mass, polarity and content was investigated on the clay dispersion and on the gas barrier properties. The optimal compatibilizer to clay weight ratio was found to be equal to 4 whatever the compatibilizer. However, a high degree of clay delamination was obtained with the high molar mass compatibilizer whereas highly swollen clay aggregates resulted from the incorporation of the low molar mass interfacial agents. Contrary to the PA based system, the barrier properties of PE nanocomposites were not directly related to the clay dispersion state but resulted also from the matrix/clay interfacial interactions. Oxidized wax was identified as a very promising interfacial agent and a step by step study was performed to optimize the gas transport properties of the systems based on PE, oxidized wax and organoclay. In particular, an interesting combination of oxidized wax and high molar mass maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene allowing dividing the gas permeability by a factor 2 in comparison with neat PE was proposed.

  11. Expert system technology to support emergency response: its prospects and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belardo, S.; Wallace, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The capabilities for computer technologies to provide decision support in emergency response are now well recognized. The information flow prior to, during, and after potentially catastrophic events must be managed in order to have effective response. We feel strongly that computer technology can be a crucial component in this management process. We will first review a relatively new facet of computer technology - expert systems. We will then provide a conceptual framework for decision making under crisis, a situation typified by emergency response. We follow with a discussion of a prototype expert system for response to an accident at a nuclear power generation facility. Our final section discusses the potential advantages and limitations of expert system technology in emergency response. (author)

  12. Limitations of the hCMEC/D3 cell line as a model for Aβ clearance by the human blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemans, Elisanne A L M; Jäkel, Lieke; de Waal, Robert M W; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2017-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy are characterized by accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) at the cerebrovasculature due to decreased clearance at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, the exact mechanism of Aβ clearance across this barrier has not been fully elucidated. The hCMEC/D3 cell line has been characterized as a valid model for the BBB. In this study we evaluated the use of this model to study Aβ clearance across the BBB, with an emphasis on brain-to-blood directional permeability. Barrier integrity of hCMEC/D3 monolayers was confirmed for large molecules in both the apical to basolateral and the reverse direction. However, permeability for smaller molecules was substantially higher, especially in basolateral to apical direction, and barrier formation for Aβ was completely absent in this direction. In addition, hCMEC/D3 cells failed to develop a high TEER, possibly caused by incomplete formation of tight junctions. We conclude that the hCMEC/D3 model has several limitations to study the cerebral clearance of Aβ. Therefore, the model needs further characterization before this cell system can be generally applied as a model to study cerebral Aβ clearance. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Energy consumption and CO2 emissions of industrial process technologies. Saving potentials, barriers and instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleiter, Tobias; Schlomann, Barbara; Eichhammer, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Which contribution can the increase of energy efficiency achieve in the industry energy for the energy transition in Germany? To answer this question a model-based analysis of existing energy efficiency potentials of the energy-intensive industries is performed, which account for about 70% of the total energy demand of the industry. Based on this industry for each sector are instruments proposed for the implementation of the calculated potential and to overcome the existing barriers. [de

  14. Paving the Way to Successful Implementation: Identifying Key Barriers to Use of Technology-Based Therapeutic Tools for Behavioral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex; Lord, Sarah; Torrey, John; Marsch, Lisa; Lardiere, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers to use of technology for behavioral health care from the perspective of care decision makers at community behavioral health organizations. As part of a larger survey of technology readiness, 260 care decision makers completed an open-ended question about perceived barriers to use of technology. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), qualitative analyses yielded barrier themes related to characteristics of technology (e.g., cost and privacy), potential end users (e.g., technology literacy and attitudes about technology), organization structure and climate (e.g., budget and infrastructure), and factors external to organizations (e.g., broadband accessibility and reimbursement policies). Number of reported barriers was higher among respondents representing agencies with lower annual budgets and smaller client bases relative to higher budget, larger clientele organizations. Individual barriers were differentially associated with budget, size of client base, and geographic location. Results are discussed in light of implementation science frameworks and proactive strategies to address perceived obstacles to adoption and use of technology-based behavioral health tools.

  15. USE OF PERFLUOROCARBON TRACER (PFT) TECHNOLOGY FOR SUBSURFACE BARRIER INTEGRITY VERIFICATION AT THE WALDO TEST SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN,T.; HEISER,J.; SENUM,G.; MILLIAN,L.

    2000-02-27

    Researchers from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) tested perfluorocarbon (PFT) gas tracers on a subsurface barrier with known flaws at the Waldo test facility [operated by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc (SEA)]. The tests involved the use of five unique PFT tracers with a different tracer injected along the interior of each wall of the barrier. A fifth tracer was injected exterior to the barrier to examine the validity of diffusion controlled transport of the PFTs. The PFTs were injected for three days at a nominal flow rate of 15 cm{sup 3}/min and a concentrations in the range of a few hundred ppm. Approximately 65 liters of air laced with tracer was injected for each tracer. The tracers were able to accurately detect the presence of the engineered flaws. Two flaws were detected on the north and east walls and lane flaw was detected on the south and west walls. In addition, one non-engineered flaw at the seam between the north and east walls was also detected. The use of multiple tracers provided independent confirmation of the flaws and permitted a distinction between tracers arriving at a monitoring port after being released from a nearby flaw and non-engineered flaws. The PFTs detected the smallest flaw, 0.5 inches in diameter. Visual inspection of the data showed excellent agreement with the known flaw locations and the relative size of the flaws was accurately estimated.

  16. UK innovation systems for new and renewable energy technologies: drivers, barriers and systems failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, T.J.; Gross, R.; Chase, A.; Howes, J.; Arnall, A.; Anderson, D.

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the systemic processes by which innovation occurs is useful, both conceptually and to inform policy-making in support of innovation in more sustainable technologies. This paper analyses current innovation systems in the UK for a range of new and renewable energy technologies, and generates policy recommendations for improving the effectiveness of these innovation systems. Although incentives are in place in the UK to encourage innovation in these technologies, system failures - or 'gaps' - are identified in moving technologies along the innovation chain, preventing their successful commercialisation. Sustained investment will be needed for these technologies to achieve their potential. It is argued that a stable and consistent policy framework is required to help create the conditions for this. In particular, such a framework should be aimed at improving risk/reward ratios for demonstration and pre-commercial stage technologies. This would enhance positive expectations, stimulate learning effects leading to cost reductions, and increase the likelihood of successful commercialisation

  17. Breaking through barriers: using technology to address executive function weaknesses and improve student achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Assistive technologies provide significant capabilities for improving student achievement. Improved accessibility, cost, and diversity of applications make integration of technology a powerful tool to compensate for executive function weaknesses and deficits and their impact on student performance, learning, and achievement. These tools can be used to compensate for decreased working memory, poor time management, poor planning and organization, poor initiation, and decreased memory. Assistive technology provides mechanisms to assist students with diverse strengths and weaknesses in mastering core curricular concepts.

  18. Evaluation of the potential of PV noise barrier technology for electricity production and market share. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Kleiss, G.; Castello, S.; Hille, G.; Reise, C.; Wiemken, E.; Betcke, J.W.H.; Van Dijk, V.A.P.; Pearsall, N.; Hynes, K.; Gaidddon, B.; Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.

    1999-06-01

    The analysis of existing and planned noise barriers along rails and roads has been carried out by the national partners together with national authorities, which are experts and responsible for the required data. The methodical approach of this study includes the set-up of a grid along longitude and latitudes with 1 by 1 degrees for Germany, Italy, France, United Kingdom and 0.5 by 0.5 degrees for the Netherlands and Switzerland. For each degree the length and orientation of rails and roads, the existing and planned noise barriers are registered and grouped according to their orientations. The solar radiation is based on data of a METEONORM data set. This includes the solar radiation on horizontal orientation as well as various inclination angles for all possible orientations. Moreover, possible shading has been considered. The technical specifications of noise barriers (PVNB) are based on the comprehensive knowledge of TNC GmbH and TNC AG with various plants realised. Technologies have been considered for both state-of-the-art and innovative concepts such as bifacial PVNB. In bifacial PVNB the PV-module is mounted vertically on both sides and is used at the same time as noise reflecting material. Installed PV power and produced electricity have been calculated for: 1. theoretical potential 2. technical potential 3. short-term resp. European extrapolated potential 4. anticipated potential 5. EU-member assessment The result of this study confirms the current activities to implement PV on noise barriers as an important share in the PV market.The report is subdivided into two volumes: Volume 1 contains the main topics and results, and Volume 2 contains additional information on the solar radiation, typical concepts as an excerpt of the various potentials and all country maps with the required explanations. 95 refs

  19. Microwave Technology for Brain Imaging and Monitoring: Physical Foundations, Potential and Limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scapaticci, Rosa; Bjelogrlic, Mina; Tobon Vasquez, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    This chapter provides an introduction to the physical principles underlying the adoption of microwave technology as a biomedical imaging modality for diagnosis and follow-up of neurological diseases and injuries (e.g., stroke, haematoma). In particular, a theoretical analysis, supported...... by numerical simulations and experiments, will be given to describe the physical constraints that arise in this kind of application and the relevant limitations. In addition, we discuss the main aspects to be faced when implementing microwave imaging technology in a clinical scenario, by exploiting a design...

  20. An exploratory investigation of barriers and enablers affecting investment in renewable companies and technologies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria; Greenwell, Felicity; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Adcock, Mike; Gregory-Smith, Diana

    2013-02-06

    The last few years have seen considerable research expenditure on renewable fuel technologies. However, in many cases, the necessary sustained and long-term funding from the investment community has not been realized at a level needed to allow technologies to become reality. According to global consulting firm Deloitte's recent renewable energy report (http://www.deloitte.com/energypredictions2012), many renewable energy projects stalled or were not completed because of issues including the global economy, the state of government finances, difficulties in funding and regulatory uncertainty. This investigation concentrates on the funding aspect and explores the perceived barriers and enablers to renewable technologies within the investment and renewables community. Thematic analysis of 14 in-depth interviews with representatives from renewable energy producers, banks and investment companies identified key factors affecting the psychology of investor behaviour in renewables. Eight key issues are highlighted, including a range of barriers and enablers, the role of the government, balance between cost/risk, value/return on investment, investment time scales, personality/individual differences of investors and the level of innovation in the renewable technology. It was particularly notable that in the findings the role of the government was discussed more than other themes and generally in quite critical terms, highlighting the need to ensure consistency in government funding and policy and a greater understanding of how government decision-making happens. Specific findings such as these illustrate the value of crossing disciplinary boundaries and highlight potential further research. Behavioural science and economic psychology in particular have much to offer at the interface of other disciplines such as political science and financial economics.

  1. An exploratory investigation of barriers and enablers affecting investment in renewable companies and technologies in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Victoria; Greenwell, Felicity; Covey, Judith; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Adcock, Mike; Gregory-Smith, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The last few years have seen considerable research expenditure on renewable fuel technologies. However, in many cases, the necessary sustained and long-term funding from the investment community has not been realized at a level needed to allow technologies to become reality. According to global consulting firm Deloitte's recent renewable energy report (http://www.deloitte.com/energypredictions2012), many renewable energy projects stalled or were not completed because of issues including the global economy, the state of government finances, difficulties in funding and regulatory uncertainty. This investigation concentrates on the funding aspect and explores the perceived barriers and enablers to renewable technologies within the investment and renewables community. Thematic analysis of 14 in-depth interviews with representatives from renewable energy producers, banks and investment companies identified key factors affecting the psychology of investor behaviour in renewables. Eight key issues are highlighted, including a range of barriers and enablers, the role of the government, balance between cost/risk, value/return on investment, investment time scales, personality/individual differences of investors and the level of innovation in the renewable technology. It was particularly notable that in the findings the role of the government was discussed more than other themes and generally in quite critical terms, highlighting the need to ensure consistency in government funding and policy and a greater understanding of how government decision-making happens. Specific findings such as these illustrate the value of crossing disciplinary boundaries and highlight potential further research. Behavioural science and economic psychology in particular have much to offer at the interface of other disciplines such as political science and financial economics. PMID:24427512

  2. Facilitators and barriers to adopting robotic-assisted surgery: contextualizing the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Benmessaoud

    Full Text Available Robotic-assisted surgical techniques are not yet well established among surgeon practice groups beyond a few surgical subspecialties. To help identify the facilitators and barriers to their adoption, this belief-elicitation study contextualized and supplemented constructs of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT in robotic-assisted surgery. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 21 surgeons comprising two groups: users and nonusers. The main facilitators to adoption were Perceived Usefulness and Facilitating Conditions among both users and nonusers, followed by Attitude Toward Using Technology among users and Extrinsic Motivation among nonusers. The three main barriers to adoption for both users and nonusers were Perceived Ease of Use and Complexity, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Behavioral Control. This study's findings can assist surgeons, hospital and medical school administrators, and other policy makers on the proper adoption of robotic-assisted surgery and can guide future research on the development of theories and framing of hypotheses.

  3. Reverse knowledge and technology transfer: imbalances caused by cognitive barriers in asymmetric relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.; Choi, Chong-Ju

    2009-01-01

    An imbalance exists in almost any type of knowledge and technology transfer due to the information asymmetry of the relationship. However, this is especially the case for reverse technology and knowledge transfer which is epitomised for us by "transfers from an MNC's subsidiary to its headquarters".

  4. Teaching with Technology: North Carolina Agriculture Teachers' Knowledge Acquisition, Attitudes, and Identified Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maegen R.; Warner, Wendy J.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2014-01-01

    In order for agricultural education teachers to adapt to an ever-changing educational environment, they must possess the skills necessary to integrate technology into their classrooms. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that influence North Carolina agriculture teachers' ability to integrate educational technology. This study…

  5. Moving beyond Cultural Barriers: Successful Strategies of Female Technology Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Raymond R.; Berger, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields of study and careers with a subset of STEM--Technology Education--possibly one of the least integrated fields for women as students and as professionals. What accounts for this situation and what are potential remedies? The purpose of this study was to learn…

  6. The New Digital [St]age: Barriers to the Adoption and Adaptation of New Technologies to Deliver Extension Programming and How to Address Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of social media and the need for statewide program cohesiveness, The Ohio State University Extension has the opportunity to position itself as a catalyst for technology adoption and adaptation nationwide. Unfortunately, many barriers exist to the successful use and implementation of technology, including an organizational structure…

  7. Advantages and disadvantages of interdisciplinary consultation in the prescription of assistive technologies for mobility limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Fred A; van Heerebeek, Bart; van Netten, Jaap J

    2018-03-28

    To explore the advantages and disadvantages experienced by professionals in interdisciplinary consultation involving the user, prescriber and technician in the prescription of assistive technologies for mobility limitations. Cross-sectional study. Prescribers (N = 39) and orthopaedic technicians (N = 50), who were regularly involved in an interdisciplinary consultation completed a questionnaire about advantages and disadvantages of the interdisciplinary consultation. Advantages of the interdisciplinary consultation were mentioned within all CanMEDS areas of medical practice, including better and quicker prescription of the assistive technology, shared knowledge of medical diagnosis and device possibilities, shared decision making of the device prescription and clear communication rules. Disadvantages were mentioned in the CanMEDS areas management and collaboration, including planning problems (financial) reimbursement of this type of consultation, and time efficiency. On a 10-point scale, mean (standard deviation) rates of interdisciplinary consultations were 7.9 (0.6) according to prescribers, and 7.8 (0.9) by technicians. All participants wanted to continue the interdisciplinary consultation. Prescribers and technicians in the field of assistive technologies for walking mobility limitations appreciate an interdisciplinary consultation. Advantages are found in all CanMEDS areas, whereas disadvantages only concern coordination. It should be encouraged to realize this kind of consultation in all situations where such technologies are prescribed. Implications for rehabilitation Interdisciplinary consultation involving the user, prescriber and technician to prescribe assistive technologies for mobility limitations has many advantages in all CanMEDS areas of medical practice, and few disadvantages, related to management and collaboration only. The disadvantages of interdisciplinary consultation, such as (financial) reimbursement by health insurance companies

  8. Breastfeeding in the first hour of life and modern technology: prevalence and limiting factors

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Pillegi; Adriana Policastro; Sulim Abramovici; Eduardo Cordioli; Alice D’Agostini Deutsch

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify the prevalence and limiting factors ofbreastfeeding in the first hour of life at the Maternity Center of HospitalIsraelita Albert Einstein, where the predominant model of childbirthcare is largely based on the use of modern technology. Methods: Aretrospective study with quantitative analysis in a middle and upperclass population of different cultural backgrounds. Data were obtainedfrom the delivery record book in a total of 12,350 births from January2004 to December 200...

  9. Mobile Data Technologies and SME Adoption and Diffusion: an empirical study of barriers and facillitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Van Akkeren

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The technological environment in which Australian SMEs operate can be best described as dynamic and vital. The rate of technological change provides the SME owner/manger a complex and challenging operational context. Wireless applications are being developed that provide mobile devices with Internet content and E-business services. In Australia, the adoption of ecommerce by large organisations has been relatively high, however, the same cannot be said for SMEs, where adoption has been slower than other developed countries. In contrast, however, mobile telephone adoption and diffusion is relatively high by SMEs. Will SMEs who have been reluctant to adopt commerce technologies in the past be more ready to go on-line with the merging of the Internet and mobile data technologies? This exploratory study identifies attitudes, perceptions and issues for mobile data technologies by regional SME owner/managers across a range of industry sectors. The major issues include the sector the firm belongs to, the current adoption status of the firm, the level of mistrust of the IT industry, the cost of the technologies, and the applications and attributes of the technologies.

  10. A field test of a waste containment technology using a new generation of injectable barrier liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.; Apps, J.; Persoff, P.; Myer, L.; Muller, S.; Pruess, K.; Yen, P.

    1996-08-01

    A first stage field injection of a new generation of barrier liquids was successfully completed. Two types of barrier liquids, colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX), were injected into heterogeneous unsaturated deposits of sand, silt, and gravel typical of many of the arid DOE cleanup sites and particularly analogous to the conditions of the Hanford Site. Successful injection by commercially available chemical grouting equipment and the tube-a-manchette technique was demonstrated. Excavation of the grout bulbs permitted visual evaluation of the soil permeation by the grout, as well as sample collection. Both grouts effectively permeated all of the formation. The PSX visually appeared to perform better, producing a more uniform and symmetric permeation regardless of heterogeneity, filling large as well as small pores and providing more structural strength than the CS. Numerical simulation of the injection tests incorporated a stochastic field to represent site heterogeneity and was able to replicate the general test behavior. Tiltmeters were used successfully to monitor surface displacements during grout injection

  11. Navigating the limitations of energy poverty: Lessons from the promotion of improved cooking technologies in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesan, Temilade

    2012-01-01

    Energy poverty has been defined as the lack of access of households in developing countries to modern energy sources, and their consequent reliance on solid biomass fuels for cooking. Improved stoves have been promoted by development actors since the 1970s to alleviate various environmental and health problems associated with biomass use, with largely disappointing outcomes. Against this background, this paper examines the intervention of an international development organisation – Practical Action – in West Kochieng, Kenya, where the organisation's energy poverty alleviation efforts are aimed at addressing the health hazards of biomass smoke with six ‘low-cost’ improved cooking technologies. The study reveals that the cooking technology most valued by poor West Kochieng households is the one which most reflects their priorities, rather than those expressed by Practical Action. The findings point to three aspects of appropriateness of energy poverty alleviation interventions – technological, economic and cultural – which combine to influence acceptance and uptake of such interventions. The evidence highlights some of the limitations inherent in the generic policy recommendation to ‘leapfrog’ towards the resolution of energy poverty-related problems, and suggests that more measured steps which respond to the socio-economic realities of poor households are likely to engender more appropriate solutions. - Highlights: ► The technological, economic, and cultural appropriateness of stoves influence uptake. ► Appropriate energy technologies take cognisance of the limitations of poverty. ► Such technologies are more likely to be adopted by biomass-reliant poor households. ► Energy poverty cannot be isolated from the broader context of poverty. ► Eliminating poverty is a prerequisite to alleviating energy poverty.

  12. Knowledge from Research and Practice on the Barriers and Carriers to Successful Technology Transfer for Assistive Technology Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, James A.; Lane, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the assistive technology (AT) industry is made up of small to medium size companies serving relatively small markets with products characterized as "niche" or "orphan" products. Presenting opportunities to AT companies that are created by outside sources is difficult. Presenting such opportunities to companies serving larger markets…

  13. Barriers and solutions for the application and development of renewable energy technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.

    1999-01-01

    Renewable electricity technologies have overwhelmingly higher advantages over conventional fuel-systems. Nevertheless, after more than three decades since their conceptualization their presence in electricity systems is hardly visible, except for few success stories in the US and several European

  14. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY IN RUSSIA: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS

    OpenAIRE

    L. A. Tsvetkova

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of prospects of introduction of the developments related to blokcheyn in the world and in Russia has been made. Key investors and beneficiaries in the development of blockchain technologies were identified. High competitiveness of Russian developments, unique staffing, and favorable climatic conditions for the development of blockade technologies in the Russian Federation were noted. The patent activity in the world has been analyzed and the place of Russia on the patent landscap...

  15. Baby Boomers’ Adoption of Consumer Health Technologies: Survey on Readiness and Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    LeRouge, Cynthia; Van Slyke, Craig; Seale, Deborah; Wright, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Background As they age, baby boomers (born 1946-1964) will have increasing medical needs and are likely to place large demand on health care resources. Consumer health technologies may help stem rising health care needs and costs by improving provider-to-patient communication, health monitoring, and information access and enabling self-care. Research has not explored the degree to which baby boomers are ready for, or are currently embracing, specific consumer health technologies This study ex...

  16. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bauer et al.

    2002-12-05

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].

  17. Overcoming organizational, cultural and technological barriers in a cluster of European Research Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, Ari; Brus, Magdalena; Laj, Paolo; Kutsch, Werner

    2017-04-01

    European Research Infrastructures (RIs) in the ESFRI roadmap are major international organizations, with established user bases and highly developed products. However, particularly in the environmental sciences, there are many global challenges which individual disciplinary RIs are not suited to answer by themselves. This need of interoperability, together with the requirements for e.g. better cost efficiency, better data management and societal impact, have created a need for common cluster projects to help the RIs develop together. This paper is based on experiences from working in the FP7 ENVRI cluster project and on managing the ongoing H2020 ENVRIplus (www.envriplus.eu) project. The cluster project, even seen as useful for many aspects by the RIs, is still challenging to manage. Many cultural, organizational and technological challenges persist and need to be addressed. In the ENVRI community, there are more than 20 RIs, representing wide variety of geosciences, from solid earth and deep sea observatories to high atmosphere radars. This variety in the disciplines covered is also represented in the different scientific practices and cultures in the Consortium. Even more challenging is the difference in working culture between the Technical expert work packages (often mainly driven by IT specialists) and the RI operatives with science background. The ENVRI and ENVRIplus projects have brought many experiences worth sharing to the project management community, particularly in very heterogeneous and multidisciplinary communities. Some of the key lessons learned can be summarized: 1) Engagement from the beginning is crucial, taking the user communities (in this case, the RIs inside the Consortium) into the planning process and all the way to the product updates reduces the risk of misfit products and failure in implementation, however, there must be... 2) ... follow through in engagement, building agile teams if needed. Even if the RIs (clients) are a part of the

  18. What are the barriers to entrepreneurship for science and technology students?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warhuus, Jan P.

    For decades, entrepreneurship research and education has focused on understanding why people become entrepreneurs and how we entice students to entrepreneurship. Yet, we cannot seem to shake off the “can-entrepreneurship-be-taught” question. Rather than continuing to be stuck in this question......, perhaps we should ask ourselves how we got into this fruitless discussion in the first place, and whether we can make progress with a how-to-become-an-entrepreneur orientation. Without it, we can begin to ask ourselves: why do some people not become entrepreneurs? And how can education and training help...... lower barriers to entrepreneurship? In the very least, we will not get trapped in discussions of whether certain skill- or mindsets that make someone less likely to remain a non-entrepreneur are teachable....

  19. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY IN RUSSIA: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Tsvetkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of prospects of introduction of the developments related to blokcheyn in the world and in Russia has been made. Key investors and beneficiaries in the development of blockchain technologies were identified. High competitiveness of Russian developments, unique staffing, and favorable climatic conditions for the development of blockade technologies in the Russian Federation were noted. The patent activity in the world has been analyzed and the place of Russia on the patent landscape in the field of blockchain technologies has been determined. It is shown that, to date, the weak position of Russian developers in the global patent landscape in the field of blockchain is not critical due to the high level of uncertainty in matters of protectability of the proposed blockchain algorithms. Special attention was paid to the delayed, perhaps shortterm, readiness of residents of industrially developed countries to expand in the global space of intellectual property associated with the blockchain as soon as the patentability of the proposed solutions is proved. It is concluded that the next 2–3 years should be considered as a “window of opportunity” to form the prerequisites for Russia’s technological leadership in the cluster of block-technologies.

  20. Carbon Lock-In: Barriers to the Deployment of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Brown, Marilyn A. [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The United States shares with many other countries the objective of stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the climate system. Many believe that accelerating the pace of technology improvement and deployment could significantly reduce the cost of achieving this goal. The critical role of new technologies is underscored by the fact that most anthropogenic greenhouse gases emitted over the next century will come from equipment and infrastructure built in the future. As a result, new technologies and fuels have the potential to transform the nation's energy system while meeting climate change as well as energy security and other goals.

  1. Institutional and technological barriers to the use of open educational resources (OERs) in physiology and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, Christopher; Lewis, David I

    2017-03-01

    Open educational resources (OERs) are becoming increasingly common as a tool in education, particularly in medical and biomedical education. However, three key barriers have been identified to their use: 1) lack of awareness of OERs, 2) lack of motivation to use OERs, and 3) lack of training in the use of OERs. Here, we explore these three barriers with teachers of medical and biomedical science to establish how best to enhance the use of OERs to improve pedagogical outcomes. An online survey was completed by 209 educators, many of whom (68.4%) reported using OERs in their teaching and almost all (99.5%) showing awareness of at least one OER. The results suggest that key problems that prevent educators from adopting OERs in their teaching include suitability for particular classes, time, and copyright. Most (81.8%) educators were somewhat, very, or extremely comfortable with OERs so there is no innate motivational barrier to adoption. A lack of training was reported by 13.9% of respondents, and 40% of respondents stated that there was little or no support from their institutions. OER users were no more comfortable with technology or better supported by departments but tended to be aware of a greater number of sources of OERs. Our study illustrates key opportunities for the expansion of OER use in physiology and medical teaching: increased breadth of awareness, increased institutional support (including time, training, and copyright support), and greater sharing of diverse OERs to suit the range of teaching challenges faced by staff in different subdisciplines. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Introduction to audiology: Some basics about hearing loss, hearing technologies and barriers to hearing aid use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtou, Eleni; Meis, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides background information for researchers who wish to become familiar with some basic medical and audiological aspects of hearing loss and the technology of hearing aids. It introduces (1) the disciplines involved in research on hearing loss, (2) the medical categories of hearing...... loss and their various effects on communication, (3) the different degrees of hearing loss as defined by different national and international organizations, (4) statistics on the preva- lence of hearing loss worldwide, (5) some technological aspects of hearing instruments, (6) sta- tistics on non...

  3. A Classical Delphi Study to Identify the Barriers of Pursuing Green Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotay, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, classical Delphi study served to explore the apparent lack of corporate commitment to prioritized Green Information Communication Technologies (ICTs), which could delay the economic and social benefits for maximizing the use of natural energy resources in a weak economy. The purpose of this study was to examine the leadership…

  4. Market adoption barriers of multi-stakeholder technology: smart homes for the aging population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrenhard, Michel Léon; Kijl, Björn; Nieuwenhuis, Lambertus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Smart Home has promised to offer a better quality of life by connecting in-house devices and monitoring their usage. Such platform-based configurational technology has demonstrated the potential to improve comfort, healthcare, safety and security, and energy conservation

  5. Women's Leadership in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics: Barriers to Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Despite gains overall, women are still under-represented in leadership positions in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Data in the US suggest around one-quarter of deans and department heads are women; in science this drops to nearly 1 in 20. Part of this problem of under-representation stems from the population pool:…

  6. Usage, Barriers, and Training of Web 2.0 Technology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Christopher G.; Pritchett, Christal C.; Wohleb, Elisha C.

    2013-01-01

    This research study was designed to determine the degree of use of Web 2.0 technology applications by certified education professionals and examine differences among various groups as well as reasons for these differences. A quantitative survey instrument was developed to gather demographic information and data. Participants reported they would be…

  7. Barriers and requirements for achieving interoperable eHealth technology in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Nijeweme-d'Hollosy, Wendeline; van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its great promises, eHealth is not yet structurally embedded within the IT infrastructure of primary care. This is mainly due to the fact that healthcare technologies have been developed without coordination and a centralized approach [1], which in turn has led to a lack of shared standards

  8. Barriers to Women Leaders in Academia: Tales from Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe-Walsh, Liza; Turnbull, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the lack of women in senior positions in science and technology (ST) in United Kingdom (UK) universities. Previous research has enhanced our understanding of the challenges women in academia face to progress their careers. In contrast, relatively little is known as to why so few women reach leadership positions…

  9. Superconducting technology for overcurrent limiting in a 25 kA current injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydari, Hossein; Faghihi, Faramarz; Sharifi, Reza; Poursoltanmohammadi, Amir Hossein [Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation, Electrical Engineering Department, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: heydari@iust.ac.ir, E-mail: faramarz_faghihi@ee.iust.ac.ir, E-mail: reza_sharifi@ee.iust.ac.ir, E-mail: amirhosseinp@ee.iust.ac.ir

    2008-09-15

    Current injection transformer (CIT) systems are within the major group of the standard type test of high current equipment in the electrical industry, so their performance becomes very important. When designing high current systems, there are many factors to be considered from which their overcurrent protection must be ensured. The output of a CIT is wholly dependent on the impedance of the equipment under test (EUT). Therefore current flow beyond the allowable limit can occur. The present state of the art provides an important guide to developing current limiters not only for the grid application but also in industrial equipment. This paper reports the state of the art in the technology available that could be developed into an application of superconductivity for high current equipment (CIT) protection with no test disruption. This will result in a greater market choice and lower costs for equipment protection solutions, reduced costs and improved system reliability. The paper will also push the state of the art by using two distinctive circuits, closed-core and open-core, for overcurrent protection of a 25 kA CIT system, based on a flux-lock-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) and magnetic properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS) elements. An appropriate location of the HTS element will enhance the rate of limitation with the help of the magnetic field generated by the CIT output busbars. The calculation of the HTS parameters for overcurrent limiting is also performed to suit the required current levels of the CIT.

  10. Superconducting technology for overcurrent limiting in a 25 kA current injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Hossein; Faghihi, Faramarz; Sharifi, Reza; Poursoltanmohammadi, Amir Hossein

    2008-09-01

    Current injection transformer (CIT) systems are within the major group of the standard type test of high current equipment in the electrical industry, so their performance becomes very important. When designing high current systems, there are many factors to be considered from which their overcurrent protection must be ensured. The output of a CIT is wholly dependent on the impedance of the equipment under test (EUT). Therefore current flow beyond the allowable limit can occur. The present state of the art provides an important guide to developing current limiters not only for the grid application but also in industrial equipment. This paper reports the state of the art in the technology available that could be developed into an application of superconductivity for high current equipment (CIT) protection with no test disruption. This will result in a greater market choice and lower costs for equipment protection solutions, reduced costs and improved system reliability. The paper will also push the state of the art by using two distinctive circuits, closed-core and open-core, for overcurrent protection of a 25 kA CIT system, based on a flux-lock-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) and magnetic properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS) elements. An appropriate location of the HTS element will enhance the rate of limitation with the help of the magnetic field generated by the CIT output busbars. The calculation of the HTS parameters for overcurrent limiting is also performed to suit the required current levels of the CIT.

  11. Superconducting technology for overcurrent limiting in a 25 kA current injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hossein; Faghihi, Faramarz; Sharifi, Reza; Poursoltanmohammadi, Amir Hossein

    2008-01-01

    Current injection transformer (CIT) systems are within the major group of the standard type test of high current equipment in the electrical industry, so their performance becomes very important. When designing high current systems, there are many factors to be considered from which their overcurrent protection must be ensured. The output of a CIT is wholly dependent on the impedance of the equipment under test (EUT). Therefore current flow beyond the allowable limit can occur. The present state of the art provides an important guide to developing current limiters not only for the grid application but also in industrial equipment. This paper reports the state of the art in the technology available that could be developed into an application of superconductivity for high current equipment (CIT) protection with no test disruption. This will result in a greater market choice and lower costs for equipment protection solutions, reduced costs and improved system reliability. The paper will also push the state of the art by using two distinctive circuits, closed-core and open-core, for overcurrent protection of a 25 kA CIT system, based on a flux-lock-type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) and magnetic properties of high temperature superconducting (HTS) elements. An appropriate location of the HTS element will enhance the rate of limitation with the help of the magnetic field generated by the CIT output busbars. The calculation of the HTS parameters for overcurrent limiting is also performed to suit the required current levels of the CIT

  12. Breastfeeding in the first hour of life and modern technology: prevalence and limiting factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pillegi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence and limiting factors ofbreastfeeding in the first hour of life at the Maternity Center of HospitalIsraelita Albert Einstein, where the predominant model of childbirthcare is largely based on the use of modern technology. Methods: Aretrospective study with quantitative analysis in a middle and upperclass population of different cultural backgrounds. Data were obtainedfrom the delivery record book in a total of 12,350 births from January2004 to December 2007. Results: Of 12,350 births, 3,277 (26.9%were excluded because of contraindications to breastfeeding in thefirst hour of life such as: prematurity, respiratory distress, adverseeffects of anesthesia, obstetric conditions, congenital malformation,and others. Other 180 cases were excluded due to missing data.Of the remaining 8,893 cases, 2,279 (18.7% were not breastfedbecause of limiting factors that require improvement actions: highdelivery turnover, patient refusal, medical refusal, tiredness due toprolonged labor, loss of data recording. Cesarean delivery and the useof anesthesia did neither prevent breastfeeding in the first hour of lifenor skin-to-skin contact. The prevalence was 74.3%. Conclusions:The use of technology and the hospital practices interfere inbreastfeeding, but are not factors that prevent it. The identificationof the prevalence and limiting factors contributes to the evaluationof the care provided and elaboration of nursing interventions forcontinuous improvement of the care practice. Improvement actionsshould include prenatal care and delivery itself.

  13. Impact on Social Change: Benefits and Barriers to School Culture and the Integration of M-Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines benefits and barriers of mtechnologyin its growing use in education through a surveyconducted at a Canadian teacher education institution(n=350. Topics included are the types of mobile technologydevices and how their uses have been rejected and acceptedas a socially-situated construct for learning in schools. Issuesfor new teachers range from the dollar cost of using thedevices to the cost of time in learning about these devices.The paper concludes with a central issue of why somedevices do not remain in the social construct but areadopted for short periods of time and do not last becausebarriers prevent their sustainability. The research for thispaper was supported in part by a grant from the ImperialOil Academy for the Learning of Mathematics, Science andTechnology.

  14. Factors Limiting Adoption of Technologies by Farmers in Catabola Municipality, Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rušarová K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to define the factors influencing the adoption of animal traction and/or mechanical-power technology in the conditions of Catabola municipality where hand-tool technology is being used on 99.7% of the area cultivated by small farmers. Primary data collection was conducted in the period July–August 2011; semi-structured questionnaires and focus group discussions were the most frequent methods used. In total, 151 small-scale farmers from 9 villages participated in the survey. Ten factors influencing the dependent variable – level of technology used by farmers in combination with hiring of labour – were defined. The factors were statistically analyzed by ANOVA. The area of cultivated land and the educational level of both parents and children were found to be the factors limiting the process of animal traction or mechanical power adoption by small farmers in the Catabola municipality. In addition, a relatively high rate of child labour was observed. With the exclusion of childless families, 62.7% of small farmer families regularly use children aged 0–14 years for field operations. The results confirm that the factor of hiring extra labour is irrelevant in determining the development in technology use by small farmers in the Catabola municipality.

  15. A design study for the isolation of the 281-3H retention basin at the Savannah River Site using the viscous liquid barrier technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moridis, G.J.; Persoff, P.; Apps, J.; James, A.; Oldenburg, C.; McGrath, A.; Myer, L.; Pellerin, L.; Pruess, K.

    1996-11-01

    This report is a description of the design study for a pilot-scale field demonstration of the Viscous Liquid Barrier (VLB) technology, a new subsurface containment technology for waste isolation using a new generation of barrier liquids. The demonstration site was Retention Basin 281-3H, a shallow catchment basin at the Savannah River Site, which is contaminated mainly by radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and 238 Pu). The goals of the field demonstration were (a) to demonstrate the ability to create a continuous subsurface barrier in order to isolate the contaminants, and (b) to demonstrate the continuity, performance, and integrity of the barrier. The site was characterized, and preliminary hydraulic conductivity data were obtained from core samples. Based on the site characteristics and the functional requirements, a conceptual model was developed, the barrier specifications were defined, and lance injection was selected as the emplacement method. The injection strategy for the subsurface conditions at the site was determined using numerical simulations. An appropriate variant of Colloidal Silica (CS) was selected as the barrier liquid based on its relative insensitivity to interactions with the site soils, and the formulation for optimum site performance was determined. A barrier verification strategy, including hydraulic, pneumatic, tracer, and geophysical methods, was developed. A lance water injection test was conducted in order to obtain representative estimates of the hydraulic conductivity and its distribution for the design of the barrier emplacement. The water injection test demonstrated the lack of permeable zones for CS injection, and a decision not to proceed with the barrier emplacement was reached

  16. Health technology assessment using biostatistics to break the barriers of adopting new medicines

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, MA, MBA, PhD, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Regulation, Reimbursement and Health Technology Assessment Introduction      Regulatory Approval           Regulatory Approval for Prescription Drugs           Regulatory Approval for Devices           Regulatory Approval for Public Health and Other Non- Drug Non-Device Approvals      Reimbursement Approval for Drugs           Initiation of Drug Review for Reimbursement          Further Clinical Evidence for Drug Reimbursement           Consideration of Cost in Drug Reimbursement Decisions           Drug Price Negotiations      Reimbursement Approval for Devices      Health Technology Assessme

  17. Technological Innovation of Small and Medium Enterprises in Kosovo: Challenges and Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Valon Kastrati

    2015-01-01

    The ability to innovate, is the main challenge in the fast changing global markets, to maintain a stable economic development in the long term. The ICT can carry strategic incentives to adjust the economic structure and to modify the economic model of a country. This process can build a resource-saving and a environmentally friendly society. The technological innovation can improve the international competitiveness of the economy and the overall employment rate of young generations. The rapid...

  18. Internal photoemission for photovoltaic using p-type Schottky barrier: Band structure dependence and theoretical efficiency limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ko-Han; Chang, Yin-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Solar energy conversion via internal photoemission (IPE) across a planar p-type Schottky junction is quantified for aluminum (Al) and copper (Cu) in the framework of direct transitions with non-constant matrix elements. Transition probabilities and k-resolved group velocities are obtained based on pseudo-wavefunction expansions and realistic band structures using the pseudopotential method. The k-resolved number of direct transitions, hole photocurrent density, quantum yield (QY), and the power conversion efficiency (PCE) under AM1.5G solar irradiance are subsequently calculated and analyzed. For Al, the parabolic and "parallel-band" effect along the U-W-K path significantly enhances the transition rate with final energies of holes mainly within 1.41 eV below the Fermi energy. For Cu, d-state hot holes mostly generated near the upper edge of 3d bands dominate the hole photocurrent and are weekly (strongly) dependent on the barrier height (metal film thickness). Hot holes produced in the 4s band behave just oppositely to their d-state counterparts. Non-constant matrix elements are shown to be necessary for calculations of transitions due to time-harmonic perturbation in Cu. Compared with Cu, Al-based IPE in p-type Schottky shows the highest PCE (QY) up to about 0.2673% (5.2410%) at ΦB = 0.95 eV (0.5 eV) and a film thickness of 11 nm (20 nm). It is predicted that metals with relatively dispersionless d bands (such as Cu) in most cases do not outperform metals with photon-accessible parallel bands (such as Al) in photon energy conversion using a planar p-type Schottky junction.

  19. The bungling giant : Atomic Energy Canada Limited and next-generation nuclear technology, 1980-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, I.J.

    2003-01-01

    From 1980-1994 Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), the Crown Corporation responsible for the development of nuclear technology in Canada, ventured into the market for small-scale, decentralized power systems with the Slowpoke Energy System (SES), a 10MW nuclear reactor for space heating in urban and remote areas. The SES was designed to be 'passively' or 'inherently' safe, such that even the most catastrophic failure of the system would not result in a serious accident (e.g. a meltdown or an explosion). This Canadian initiative, a beneficiary of the National Energy Program, was the first and by far the most successful attempt at a passively safe, decentralized nuclear power system anywhere in the world. Part one uses archival documentation and interviews with project leaders to reconstruct the history of the SES. The standard explanations for the failure of the project, cheap oil, public resistance to the technology, and lack of commercial expertise, are rejected. Part two presents an alternative explanation for the failure of AECL to commercialize the SES. In short, technological momentum towards large-scale nuclear designs led to structural restrictions for the SES project. These restrictions manifested themselves internally to the company (e.g., marginalization of the SES) and externally to the company (e.g., licensing). In part three, the historical lessons of the SES are used to refine one of the central tenets of Popper's political philosophy, 'piecemeal social engineering.' Popper's presentation of the idea is lacking in detail; the analysis of the SES provides some empirical grounding for the concept. I argue that the institutions surrounding traditional nuclear power represent a form utopian social engineering, leading to consequences such as the suspension of civil liberties to guarantee security of the technology. The SES project was an example of a move from the utopian social engineering of large-scale centralized nuclear technology to the piecemeal

  20. The bungling giant: Atomic Energy Canada Limited and next-generation nuclear technology, 1980--1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Ian James

    From 1980--1994 Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), the Crown Corporation responsible for the development of nuclear technology in Canada, ventured into the market for small-scale, decentralized power systems with the Slowpoke Energy System (SES), a 10MW nuclear reactor for space heating in urban and remote areas. The SES was designed to be "passively" or "inherently" safe, such that even the most catastrophic failure of the system would not result in a serious accident (e.g. a meltdown or an explosion). This Canadian initiative, a beneficiary of the National Energy Program, was the first and by far the most successful attempt at a passively safe, decentralized nuclear power system anywhere in the world. Part one uses archival documentation and interviews with project leaders to reconstruct the history of the SES. The standard explanations for the failure of the project, cheap oil, public resistance to the technology, and lack of commercial expertise, are rejected. Part two presents an alternative explanation for the failure of AECL to commercialize the SES. In short, technological momentum towards large-scale nuclear designs led to structural restrictions for the SES project. These restrictions manifested themselves internally to the company (e.g., marginalization of the SES) and externally to the company (e.g., licensing). In part three, the historical lessons of the SES are used to refine one of the central tenets of Popper's political philosophy, "piecemeal social engineering." Popper's presentation of the idea is lacking in detail; the analysis of the SES provides some empirical grounding for the concept. I argue that the institutions surrounding traditional nuclear power represent a form utopian social engineering, leading to consequences such as the suspension of civil liberties to guarantee security of the technology. The SES project was an example of a move from the utopian social engineering of large-scale centralized nuclear technology to the piecemeal

  1. Data analytics for continuous renal replacement therapy: historical limitations and recent technology advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William R; Garzotto, Francesco; Neri, Mauro; Lorenzin, Anna; Zaccaria, Marta; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-10-10

    Dialysis is a highly quantitative therapy involving large volumes of both clinical and technical data. While automated data collection has been implemented for chronic dialysis, this has not been done for acute kidney injury patients treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). After a brief review of the fundamental aspects of electronic medical records (EMRs), a new tool designed to provide clinicians with individualized CRRT treatment data is analyzed, with emphasis on its quality assurance capabilities. The first platform addressing the problem of data collection and management with current CRRT machines (Sharesource system; Baxter Healthcare) is described. The system provides connectivity for the Prismaflex CRRT machine and enables both EMR connectivity and therapy analytics with 2 basic components: the connect module and the report module. The enormous amount of data in CRRT should be collected and analyzed to enable adequate clinical decisions. Current CRRT technology presents significant limitations with consequent lack of rigorous analysis of technical data and relevant feedback. From a quality assurance perspective, these limitations preclude any systematic assessment of prescription and delivery trends that may be adversely affecting clinical outcomes. A detailed assessment of current practice limitations is provided together with several possible ways to address such limitations by a new technical tool.

  2. Man as a protective barrier in nuclear power technology: the requirements, viewed by the Federal Minister for Home Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fechner, J.B.

    1981-06-01

    Evaluation of nuclear power plant incidents frequently reveals man as a major element of risk. Yet, in a nuclear power plant man has the function of an important protective barrier, either by maintaining the plant, by detecting and limiting faults or incidents, or by taking proper measures in accidents. This is true despite, or perhaps because of, the high degree of plant automation. For this reason, it is indispensable that a high level of engineered plant safeguards be accompanied by a minimum of faults contributed by human action. This implies that the staff and their working conditions must meet the same stringent safety requirements as the nuclear power plant proper. Reactor manufacturers, nuclear power plant operators and the responsible authorities try to optimize this human contribution. The Federal Ministry of the Interior, through its Special Technical Guidelines and its continuation training measures, occupies an important position in this respect. Further measures and ordinances are being prepared by that Ministry

  3. A review of mild traumatic brain injury diagnostics: current perspectives, limitations, and emerging technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Glen A; Hawley, Jason S

    2014-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a common battlefield and in-garrison injury caused by transmission of mechanical forces to the head. The energy transferred in such events can cause structural and/or functional changes in the brain that manifest as focal neurological, cognitive, or behavioral dysfunction. Current diagnostic criteria for mTBI are highly limited, variable, and based on subjective self-report. The subjective nature of the symptoms, both in quantity and quality, together with their large overlap in other physical and behavioral maladies, limit the clinician's ability to accurately diagnose, treat, and make prognostic decisions after such injuries. These diagnostic challenges are magnified in an operational environment as well. The Department of Defense has invested significant resources into improving the diagnostic tools and accuracy for mTBI. This focus has been to supplement the clinician's examination with technology that is better able to objectify brain dysfunction after mTBI. Through this review, we discuss the current state of three promising technologies--soluble protein biomarkers, advanced neuroimaging, and quantitative electroencephalography--that are of particular interest within military medicine. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Prospects and performance limitations for Cu-Zn-Sn-S-Se photovoltaic technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B; Gunawan, Oki; Todorov, Teodor K; Barkhouse, D Aaron R

    2013-08-13

    While cadmium telluride and copper-indium-gallium-sulfide-selenide (CIGSSe) solar cells have either already surpassed (for CdTe) or reached (for CIGSSe) the 1 GW yr⁻¹ production level, highlighting the promise of these rapidly growing thin-film technologies, reliance on the heavy metal cadmium and scarce elements indium and tellurium has prompted concern about scalability towards the terawatt level. Despite recent advances in structurally related copper-zinc-tin-sulfide-selenide (CZTSSe) absorbers, in which indium from CIGSSe is replaced with more plentiful and lower cost zinc and tin, there is still a sizeable performance gap between the kesterite CZTSSe and the more mature CdTe and CIGSSe technologies. This review will discuss recent progress in the CZTSSe field, especially focusing on a direct comparison with analogous higher performing CIGSSe to probe the performance bottlenecks in Earth-abundant kesterite devices. Key limitations in the current generation of CZTSSe devices include a shortfall in open circuit voltage relative to the absorber band gap and secondarily a high series resistance, which contributes to a lower device fill factor. Understanding and addressing these performance issues should yield closer performance parity between CZTSSe and CdTe/CIGSSe absorbers and hopefully facilitate a successful launch of commercialization for the kesterite-based technology.

  5. Can Pollution Problems Be Effectively Solved by Environmental Science and Technology? An Analysis of Critical Limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesemann, Michael H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2000-12-01

    It is currently believed that science and technology can provide effective solutions to most, if not all, environmental problems facing western industrial societies. The validity of this optimistic assumption is highly questionable for at least three reasons: First, current mechanistic, reductionist science is inherently incapable of providing the complete and accurate information which is required to successfully address environmental problems. Second, both the conservation of mass principle and the second law of thermodynamics dictate that most remediation technologies - while successful in solving specific pollution problems - cause unavoidable negative environmental impacts elsewhere or in the future. Third, it is intrinsically impossible to design industrial processes that have no negative environmental impacts. This follows not only from the entropy law but also from the fact that any generation of energy is impossible without negative environmental consequences. It can therefore be concluded that science and technology have only very limited potential in solving current and future environmental problems. Consequently, it will be necessary to address the root cause of environmental deterioration, namely the prevailing materialistic values that are the main driving force for both overpopulation and overconsumption. The long-term protection of the environment is therefore not primarily a technical problem but rather a social and moral problem that can only be solved by drastically reducing the strong influence of materialistic values.

  6. Drivers, barriers, and strategies for implementation of renewable energy technologies in rural areas in Bangladesh-An innovation system analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam Hossain Mondal, Md.; Kamp, Linda M.; Pachova, Nevelina I.

    2010-01-01

    Bangladesh has good potential for harnessing renewable energy sources such as solar, biomass, wind, and mini-hydropower. The country has been experiencing a gradual shift towards exploring renewable energy resources as a driving force for rural development. A few public sector and non-government organizations have started to develop renewable energy technology (RET) projects in rural areas. The lessons learnt from different demonstrations of RET projects reveal that with careful forward planning renewable energy can provide far-reaching economic, environmental, and social benefits to people living in remote rural areas in Bangladesh. This paper identifies some of the barriers that need to be overcome for the successful development of renewable energy technology sector and betterment of rural livelihoods. It does so through a critical review of policy and institutional settings, as well as present status and lessons learnt from pilot demonstration of a number of RET projects undertaken by different organizations. The study highlights policy implications of the review with the aim of supporting decision makers in formulating renewable energy policies and future plans for Bangladesh.

  7. Drivers, barriers, and strategies for implementation of renewable energy technologies in rural areas in Bangladesh. An innovation system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam Hossain Mondal, Md. [Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Kamp, Linda M. [Delft University of Technology, TPM Faculty, Section Technology Dynamics and Sustainable Development, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft (Netherlands); Pachova, Nevelina I. [Institute for Environment and Human Security, United Nations University, UNU-EHS, Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Bangladesh has good potential for harnessing renewable energy sources such as solar, biomass, wind, and mini-hydropower. The country has been experiencing a gradual shift towards exploring renewable energy resources as a driving force for rural development. A few public sector and non-government organizations have started to develop renewable energy technology (RET) projects in rural areas. The lessons learnt from different demonstrations of RET projects reveal that with careful forward planning renewable energy can provide far-reaching economic, environmental, and social benefits to people living in remote rural areas in Bangladesh. This paper identifies some of the barriers that need to be overcome for the successful development of renewable energy technology sector and betterment of rural livelihoods. It does so through a critical review of policy and institutional settings, as well as present status and lessons learnt from pilot demonstration of a number of RET projects undertaken by different organizations. The study highlights policy implications of the review with the aim of supporting decision makers in formulating renewable energy policies and future plans for Bangladesh. (author)

  8. Drivers, barriers, and strategies for implementation of renewable energy technologies in rural areas in Bangladesh-An innovation system analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam Hossain Mondal, Md., E-mail: alam-hossain@uni-bonn.d [Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, 53113 Bonn (Germany); Kamp, Linda M. [Delft University of Technology, TPM Faculty, Section Technology Dynamics and Sustainable Development, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX Delft (Netherlands); Pachova, Nevelina I. [Institute for Environment and Human Security, United Nations University, UNU-EHS, Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10, 53113 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Bangladesh has good potential for harnessing renewable energy sources such as solar, biomass, wind, and mini-hydropower. The country has been experiencing a gradual shift towards exploring renewable energy resources as a driving force for rural development. A few public sector and non-government organizations have started to develop renewable energy technology (RET) projects in rural areas. The lessons learnt from different demonstrations of RET projects reveal that with careful forward planning renewable energy can provide far-reaching economic, environmental, and social benefits to people living in remote rural areas in Bangladesh. This paper identifies some of the barriers that need to be overcome for the successful development of renewable energy technology sector and betterment of rural livelihoods. It does so through a critical review of policy and institutional settings, as well as present status and lessons learnt from pilot demonstration of a number of RET projects undertaken by different organizations. The study highlights policy implications of the review with the aim of supporting decision makers in formulating renewable energy policies and future plans for Bangladesh.

  9. Blood–brain barrier and laser technology for drug brain delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana V. Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya

    2017-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT is usual clinical method of surgical navigation for the resection of brain tumor and anti-cancer therapy. Nowadays, the application of PDT is considered as a potential promising tool for brain drug delivery via opening of BBB. Here, we show the first successful experimental results in this field discussing the adventures and disadvantages of PDT-related BBB disruption as well as alternatives to overcome these limitations and possible mechanisms with new pathways for brain clearance via glymphatic and lymphatic systems.

  10. Barriers and drivers in creating greener plastic toys: A technology management methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk Jensen, Maibritt; Liltorp, Helle; Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    , and environmental concerns all meet at designer’s desk. Idealistic eco-oriented frameworks such as cradle-to-cradle (C2C) and design-for-disassembly (D4D) suggest inspiration for technical developers and material specialists. This study employs a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to analyze the adequacy...... to potential shortcomings in reverse logistics, a tendency to down-cycle valuable products more than necessary, and a risk of loss of control of reclaimed products in the downstream supply chain. The study suggests an eco-design-inspired framework for improving the marketers understanding and planning...... of greening of the product portfolio based on management of the individual technologies of creative design, mold design, polymers, and supply chain. The study is conducted within plastic toys, but results are applicable to a wide range of durable consumer products....

  11. Barriers and possibilities for the emerging alternative lighting technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Andersen, Jan; Kjær, Tyge

    2009-01-01

    20% of the total electricity produced in the world today is used for illumination. Though the use of energy in Europe almost stagnated during the 1990ies, studies reveal that for the next 30 years the consumption of electricity will again increase making the 20% reduction of CO2 goal almost...... impossible to achieve and this will even only represent 2-3% of the world's total CO2 emissions. Despite the appearance of many energy-saving devises in the 1990ies, the Living Planet Report of 2006 highlighted that humanity´s Ecological Footprint, our impact over the planet, has more than tripled since 1961...... with a strong experience on photonic technologies, could contribute in reducing the lighting ecological footprint due to its human, and physical capitals related to this industry. Still Europe struggles with the paradox of losing productive jobs in this sector. This study will explore the question: What...

  12. Barriers to the Use of Computer Assistive Technology among Students with Visual Impairment in Ghana: The Case of Akropong School for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampratwum, Joseph; Offei, Yaw Nyadu; Ntoaduro, Afua

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at exploring barriers to the use of computer assistive technology among students with visual impairment at Akropong School for the Blind. A case study design was adopted and the purposive sampling technique used to select 35 participants for the study. The researchers gathered qualitative data using an in-depth interview guide to…

  13. Regulatory and cost barriers are likely to limit biosimilar development and expected savings in the near future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Henry G; Guha, Rahul; Salgado, Maria

    2014-06-01

    In March 2010 Congress established an abbreviated Food and Drug Administration approval pathway for biosimilars-drugs that are very similar but not identical to a reference biological product and cost less. Because bringing biosimilars to the market currently requires large investments of money, fewer biosimilars are expected to enter the biologics market than has been the case with generic drugs entering the small-molecule drug market. Additionally, given the high regulatory hurdles to obtaining interchangeability-which would allow pharmacists to substitute a biosimilar for its reference product, subject to evolving state substitution laws-most biosimilars will likely compete as therapeutic alternatives instead of as therapeutic equivalents. In other words, biosimilars will need to compete with their reference product on the basis of quality; price; and manufacturer's reputation with physicians, insurers, and patient groups. Biosimilars also will face dynamic competition from new biologics in the same therapeutic class-including "biobetters," which offer incremental improvements on reference products, such as extended duration of action. The prospects for significant cost savings from the use of biosimilars appear to be limited for the next several years, but their use should increase over time because of both demand- and supply-side factors. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  14. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    district heating enables the use of combined heat and power production (CPH) and other renewable resources than biomass such as large-scale solar thermal, large-heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat etc. which is important for reducing the biomass consumption. Where the energy density......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting...... the dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources as it enables fuel efficient and lower cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. And also...

  15. Limits to biogas technology: prospective for the R and D. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffiere, P.; Bayard, R.; Germain, P.

    2009-12-01

    Perspectives of Research and Development on biogas have been identified based on an analysis of the scientific and technological limits. This study is based on two pillars: bibliography analysis and enquiry among experts and actors of the biogas world. The most urgent research orientations that have been identified can be distributed in three categories: - Research topics well covered by the R and D: organic matter characterization, fundamentals of anaerobic digestion mechanisms. - Research topics that could receive more attention by a better coordination between the research centers: process instrumentation, solid waste pretreatments. - Research topics that are poorly studied: energy from biogas (analytical problems, biogas purification, fuel cells), mechanical problems, mixing and rheology (especially for waste digestion), hydraulic and mass transfer (especially for landfilling and dry digestion). Other requirements have been identified: social aspects and process safety. The need for full size experimental investigations is also clearly expressed. (authors)

  16. 78 FR 22911 - HCL America, Inc., a Subsidiary of HCL Technologies Limited, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... America Inc., a subsidiary of HCL Technologies Limited, Webster, New York (subject firm). Workers are... infrastructure services (hardware/software testing) for clients. The Department's Notice of determination was... subject firm whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are reported through Segula Technologies The intent...

  17. 40 CFR 432.73 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). 432.73 Section 432.73 Protection... POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sausage and Luncheon Meats Processors § 432.73 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as...

  18. 40 CFR 432.77 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 432.77 Section 432.77 Protection... POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sausage and Luncheon Meats Processors § 432.77 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as...

  19. 40 CFR 432.72 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). 432.72 Section 432.72... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sausage and Luncheon Meats Processors § 432.72 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT...

  20. 40 CFR 451.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). 451.13 Section 451.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL... limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40...

  1. 40 CFR 432.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). 432.22 Section 432.22... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as... limitations: (1) In the case of process wastewater associated with the slaughtering of animals on-site or the...

  2. Linking field and laboratory studies to investigate nitrate removal using permeable reactive barrier technology during managed recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, G.; Beganskas, S.; Weir, W. B.; Redford, K.; Saltikov, C.; Fisher, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    We present data from a series of field and laboratory studies investigating mechanisms for the enhanced removal of nitrate during infiltration as a part of managed recharge. These studies combine physical, geochemical, and microbiological data collected during controlled infiltration experiments at both a plot and a laboratory scale using permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology. The presence of a PRB, made of wood chips or biochar, enhances nitrate removal by stimulating the growth and productivity of native soil microbes to process nitrate via denitrification. Earlier work has shown that unamended soil can remove up to 50% of nitrate during infiltration at rates microbiological data show significant population changes below the PRB where most of the cycling occurs. Coupled with isotopic analyses, these results suggest that a PRB expands the range of infiltration rates at which significant nitrate can be removed by microbial activity. Further, nitrate removal occurs at different depths below the biochar and redwood chips, suggesting different mechanisms of nitrate removal in the presence of different PRB materials. In laboratory studies we flowed artificial groundwater through intact sediment cores collected at the same field site where we also ran infiltration tests. These experiments show that the fluid flow rate and the presence of a PRB exhibit primary control on nitrate removal during infiltration, and that the relationship between flow rate and nitrate removal is fundamentally different in the presence of a PRB. These data from multiple scales and flow regimes are combined to offer a deeper understanding how the use of PRB technology during infiltration can help address a significant non-point source issue at the surface-subsurface interface.

  3. Confidence in the use of information management and technology (IM and T) in radiography: Is age a barrier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Hywel, E-mail: rogershj1@cf.ac.u [Department of Radiography, School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN (United Kingdom); Pratt, Shaaron; Brown, Paul; Gambling, Tina [Department of Radiography, School of Healthcare Studies, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, CF14 4XN (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Introduction: Age has been reported as a barrier to the use of Information Management and Technology (IM and T). Radiographers' confidence and ability in IM and T may be related to age and it is the aim of this research to investigate this relationship. Method: An online survey method gathered views from the radiographic population, between 31st August 2008 and 10th October 2008. The questionnaire encompassed IM and T ability, work based IM and T usage, personal IM and T usage, security and governance issues, education and training experience, the future and demographic details. For the purpose of this paper the first three sections and demographic section were considered. Results: Radiographers showed a good level of ability and confidence in the use of IM and T. Some general applications such as word processing showed a decreased confidence with age. Confidence in all radiography specific applications was scored highly although confidence in the use of Hospital Information Systems (HIS) and radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) showed the least confidence. Statistical analysis did not reveal a strong link between age and confidence in all applications. Discussion: While a link between age and confidence was not found in this study, frequency of use and training in IM and T require further investigation in relation to specific roles.

  4. Confidence in the use of information management and technology (IM and T) in radiography: Is age a barrier?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Hywel; Pratt, Shaaron; Brown, Paul; Gambling, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Age has been reported as a barrier to the use of Information Management and Technology (IM and T). Radiographers' confidence and ability in IM and T may be related to age and it is the aim of this research to investigate this relationship. Method: An online survey method gathered views from the radiographic population, between 31st August 2008 and 10th October 2008. The questionnaire encompassed IM and T ability, work based IM and T usage, personal IM and T usage, security and governance issues, education and training experience, the future and demographic details. For the purpose of this paper the first three sections and demographic section were considered. Results: Radiographers showed a good level of ability and confidence in the use of IM and T. Some general applications such as word processing showed a decreased confidence with age. Confidence in all radiography specific applications was scored highly although confidence in the use of Hospital Information Systems (HIS) and radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) showed the least confidence. Statistical analysis did not reveal a strong link between age and confidence in all applications. Discussion: While a link between age and confidence was not found in this study, frequency of use and training in IM and T require further investigation in relation to specific roles.

  5. An Assessment of the Drivers and Barriers for the Deployment of Urban Phosphorus Recovery Technologies: A Case Study of The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa A. de Boer

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P, being one of the building blocks of life, is essential for a multitude of applications, primarily for fertilizer usage. Sustainable management of phosphorus is becoming increasingly important in light of adverse environmental effects, ambiguous reserves, increasing global demand and unilateral dependence. Recovery of phosphorus from the biggest loss stream, communal wastewater, has the potential to tackle each of these problems. The implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies at wastewater treatment plants is not widespread, despite prolonged efforts primarily done by researchers over the past decade. This study aimed to assess the drivers and barriers of a phosphorus recovery transition. Several key stakeholders involved in this transition in The Netherlands were interviewed. The Netherlands was taken as a case study, since it serves as a frontrunner in the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies. This study shows that the main barriers from the point of view of fertilizer companies are the different and unclear characteristics of the phosphorus recovery product struvite compared to common fertilizers. Moreover, the end-of-waste status of struvite is mentioned as a prominent barrier for a phosphorus transition, since it hinders free market trade. Many water boards indicate that the main barrier is the high investment cost with an uncertain return on investment for onsite struvite recovery processes. The specified main driver for water boards for onsite struvite phosphorus recovery technology is the reduction of maintenance costs, and for phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge ash, the low organic pollutant in the P recovery product.

  6. Ultrahigh flux reactor design probing the limits of plate fuel technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, J.A.; Parsons, D.K.; Liebenthal, J.L.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Fillmore, G.N.; Deboisblanc, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The need for a new steady-state thermal neutron source of unprecedented intensity has been the subject of numerous national meetings and discussions. The National Research Council Committee on Major Facilities for Materials Research recently issued a high priority recommendation that site-independent design studies for such a facility begin immediately. The high intensity neutron source is projected to open new frontiers in the use of neutrons as a probe in various aspects of materials and biological research and fundamental physics. The challenge put forth by the research community is to produce a source with a tenfold increase in intensity over any currently operating or planned facility and, therefore, to thrust the thermal neutron flux intensity into the 10 16 n/(cm 2 s) range. The purpose of the recent Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) activities in this area has been to identify and examine the limitations and the capabilities of the historically well-characterized plate-fuel technology to achieve the required performance levels in a user-friendly environment. Workbench design concepts were identified, upon which constraints and performance limitations could be evaluated and parametric trade-off analyses and preliminary design optimization studies could be performed. Although considerable optimization remains to be performed and a large number of cost/benefit trade-offs exist, it appears that a reactor core with innovative geometry, constructed of plate-type fuel elements, can achieve the 10 16 n/(cm 2 s) goal thermal flux level in a large external volume which has the quality and accessibility for beam research. (orig.)

  7. Using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to the Maximum: Learning and Teaching Biology with Limited Digital Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ubiquity, availability and exponential growth of digital information and communication technology (ICT) creates unique opportunities for learning and teaching in the senior secondary school biology curriculum. Digital technologies make it possible for emerging disciplinary knowledge and understanding of biological processes…

  8. Best-worst scaling to assess the most important barriers and facilitators for the use of health technology assessment in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Chiara; Cheung, Kei Long; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia M A A; Simon, Judit; Mayer, Susanne

    2018-04-01

    Although Health Technology Assessment (HTA) is increasingly used to support evidence-based decision-making in health care, several barriers and facilitators for the use of HTA have been identified. This best-worst scaling (BWS) study aims to assess the relative importance of selected barriers and facilitators of the uptake of HTA studies in Austria. A BWS object case survey was conducted among 37 experts in Austria to assess the relative importance of HTA barriers and facilitators. Hierarchical Bayes estimation was applied, with the best-worst count analysis as sensitivity analysis. Subgroup analyses were also performed on professional role and HTA experience. The most important barriers were 'lack of transparency in the decision-making process', 'fragmentation', 'absence of appropriate incentives', 'no explicit framework for decision-making process', and 'insufficient legal support'. The most important facilitators were 'transparency in the decision-making process', 'availability of relevant HTA research for policy makers', 'availability of explicit framework for decision-making process', 'sufficient legal support', and 'appropriate incentives'. This study suggests that HTA barriers and facilitators related to the context of decision makers, especially 'policy characteristics' and 'organization and resources' are the most important in Austria. A transparent and participatory decision-making process could improve the adoption of HTA evidence.

  9. Toxicophore exploration as a screening technology for drug design and discovery: techniques, scope and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Negi, Arvind; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Chauhan, Monika; Kumar, Raj

    2016-08-01

    Toxicity is a common drawback of newly designed chemotherapeutic agents. With the exception of pharmacophore-induced toxicity (lack of selectivity at higher concentrations of a drug), the toxicity due to chemotherapeutic agents is based on the toxicophore moiety present in the drug. To date, methodologies implemented to determine toxicophores may be broadly classified into biological, bioanalytical and computational approaches. The biological approach involves analysis of bioactivated metabolites, whereas the computational approach involves a QSAR-based method, mapping techniques, an inverse docking technique and a few toxicophore identification/estimation tools. Being one of the major steps in drug discovery process, toxicophore identification has proven to be an essential screening step in drug design and development. The paper is first of its kind, attempting to cover and compare different methodologies employed in predicting and determining toxicophores with an emphasis on their scope and limitations. Such information may prove vital in the appropriate selection of methodology and can be used as screening technology by researchers to discover the toxicophoric potentials of their designed and synthesized moieties. Additionally, it can be utilized in the manipulation of molecules containing toxicophores in such a manner that their toxicities might be eliminated or removed.

  10. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DIFFUSION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: LIMITATIONS OF PREVAILING INNOVATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia van Egmond-deWilde de Ligny

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of innovative technologies in the market is usually a complex and difficult process with a varying degree of success and the effects of the diffused innovative technologies are very un-balanced. The objective of our research is to gain insight into the reasons why the diffusion of innovative technology fails, even though they promise a superior performance compared to incumbent technologies. Drawing on innovation systems theories, we have identified and used the concepts of technological regime, actor network and technology sets to analyze technology diffusion in a case study in the dwelling construction industry in Costa Rica. The results showed bottlenecks in the prevailing innovation system that curtailed the diffusion of an innovative construction technology.

  11. Locked in or true love: Branding among banks : A qualitative study of technologies, brand equity, switching barriers, choice criteria and future strategies in the context of retail banking

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsson, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to increase the knowledge about technology based services affection of the ability of retail banks to build customer based brand equity among students. Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual model has been developed from theories regarding customer based brand equity, switching barriers and choice criteria. Based on this conceptual model, seven in depth interviews including several brand elicitation techniques were conducted. Findings – The findings ...

  12. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  13. Extremal surface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy

  14. Devices for overcoming biological barriers: the use of physical forces to disrupt the barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitragotri, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming biological barriers including skin, mucosal membranes, blood brain barrier as well as cell and nuclear membrane constitutes a key hurdle in the field of drug delivery. While these barriers serve the natural protective function in the body, they limit delivery of drugs into the body. A variety of methods have been developed to overcome these barriers including formulations, targeting peptides and device-based technologies. This review focuses on the use of physical methods including acoustic devices, electric devices, high-pressure devices, microneedles and optical devices for disrupting various barriers in the body including skin and other membranes. A summary of the working principles of these devices and their ability to enhance drug delivery is presented. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Information Technology, Type II Classroom Integration, and the Limited Infrastructure in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Cleborne D.; Johnson D. Lamont

    2006-01-01

    In this second special issue on Type II applications of information technology in education, the focus is on classroom integration. This editorial explores some possible explanations for the fact that information technology in schools has not fulfilled its considerable potential. One reason may be that individualized instruction is not part of the…

  16. Use and limitations of learning curves for energy technology policy: A component-learning hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferioli, F.; Schoots, K.; Zwaan, B.C.C. van der

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of learning curves for the description of observed cost reductions for a variety of energy technologies. Starting point of our analysis is the representation of energy processes and technologies as the sum of different components. While we recognize that in many cases 'learning-by-doing' may improve the overall costs or efficiency of a technology, we argue that so far insufficient attention has been devoted to study the effects of single component improvements that together may explain an aggregated form of learning. Indeed, for an entire technology the phenomenon of learning-by-doing may well result from learning of one or a few individual components only. We analyze under what conditions it is possible to combine learning curves for single components to derive one comprehensive learning curve for the total product. The possibility that for certain technologies some components (e.g., the primary natural resources that serve as essential input) do not exhibit cost improvements might account for the apparent time dependence of learning rates reported in several studies (the learning rate might also change considerably over time depending on the data set considered, a crucial issue to be aware of when one uses the learning curve methodology). Such an explanation may have important consequences for the extent to which learning curves can be extrapolated into the future. This argumentation suggests that cost reductions may not continue indefinitely and that well-behaved learning curves do not necessarily exist for every product or technology. In addition, even for diffusing and maturing technologies that display clear learning effects, market and resource constraints can eventually significantly reduce the scope for further improvements in their fabrication or use. It appears likely that some technologies, such as wind turbines and photovoltaic cells, are significantly more amenable than others to industry-wide learning. For such

  17. Exploration of new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer technology. Progress report, [June 1, 1992-- May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marton, L.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes progress aimed at constructing gene-transfer technology for Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Most actual effort as described herein has so far been directed at exploring new perspectives and limitations in Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer. Accomplishments are described using a core homologous gene targeting vector.

  18. Valid Issues but Limited Scope: A Response to Kitchen and Berk's Research Commentary on Educational Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2017-01-01

    In their Research Commentary, Kitchen and Berk (2016) argue that educational technology may focus only on skills for low-income students and students of color, further limiting their opportunities to learn mathematical reasoning, and thus pose a challenge to realizing standards-based reforms. Although we share the concern about equity and about…

  19. The Limits of Decentralized Execution: The Effects of Technology on a Central Airpower Tenet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koprucu, Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    .... In each case the command-and-control structure for air operations is analyzed, the command-and-control systems are described, the technologies enabling the air commanders headquarters to maintain...

  20. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of electricity generation technologies: Overview, comparability and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    , nuclear, biomass, hydroelectric, solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind was carried out to identify ranges of emission data for GHG, NOx and SO2 related to individual technologies. It was shown that GHG emissions could not be used as a single indicator to represent the environmental performance of a system...... identified as follows: the energy recovery efficiency and the flue gas cleaning system for fossil fuel technologies; the electricity mix used during both the manufacturing and the construction phases for nuclear and renewable technologies; and the type, quality and origin of feedstock, as well as the amount....... The most critical methodological aspects in relation to LCA studies were identified as follows: definition of the functional unit, the LCA method employed (e.g., IOA, PCA and hybrid), the emission allocation principle and/or system boundary expansion. The most important technological aspects were...

  1. Identifying barriers to Science, Technology, Society and environment (STSE) educational goals and pedagogy in science education: A case study of UMASS Lowell undergraduate engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phaneuf, Tiffany

    The implementation of sustainable development in higher education is a global trend. Engineers, as gatekeepers of technological innovation, confront increasingly complex world issues ranging from economic and social to political and environmental. Recently, a multitude of government reports have argued that solving such complex problems requires changes in the pedagogy of engineering education, such as that prescribed by the Science, Technology, Society, and education (STS) movement that grew out of the environmental movement in the 70s. In STS students are engaged in the community by understanding that scientific progress is innately a sociopolitical process that involves dimensions of power, wealth and responsibility. United States accreditation criteria now demand "the broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context" (ABET Engineering Accreditation Commission 2005). With such emphasis on STS education as necessary to address complex world issues, it is vital to assess the barriers in the traditional engineering curriculum that may inhibit the success of such educational reform. This study identifies barriers to STS goals and pedagogy in post secondary science education by using the Francis College of Engineering at UMASS Lowell as a single case study. The study draws on existing literature to develop a theoretical framework for assessing four hypothesized barriers to STS education in undergraduate engineering. Identification of barriers to STS education in engineering generates a critical reflection of post secondary science education and its role in preparing engineers to be active citizens in shaping a rapidly globalizing world. The study offers policy recommendations for enabling post secondary science education to incorporate STS education into its curriculum.

  2. Multilayer moisture barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy

    2015-04-21

    A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.

  3. Barriers for the introduction of bioenergy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlagh, T.; Groenendaal, B.; Van Ree, R.; Dinkelbach, L.; Van Doorn, J.; Hemmes, K.

    2000-01-01

    The use of biomass for energy in the Netherlands is still limited despite the political incentives to make bio-energy a major source of renewable energy. The hesitation of many stake-holders is due to the limited insight into the potential of biomass in the Netherlands and the presence of numerous other barriers. Availability of biomass, emission regulation and waste treatment regulations are considered important barriers. Analyses of their current state show that these barriers are broadly recognised and possibilities to decrease their impact are present. Some barriers with a minor influence so far will be of increasing importance and could be a threat to the development of bio-energy in future. These are the fast liberalising of the energy market and sustainable energy market, the competition with other renewables and the unclear status of the current technology available. Future research should focus on the possibilities to overcome these new barriers. 5 refs

  4. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no open-quotes provenclose quotes long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems

  5. Permanent isolation surface barrier development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wing, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The exhumation and treatment of wastes may not always be the preferred alternative in the remediation of a waste site. In-place disposal alternatives, under certain circumstances, may be the most desirable alternatives to use in the protection of human health and the environment. The implementation of an in-place disposal alternative will likely require some type of protective covering that will provide long-term isolation of the wastes from the accessible environment. Even if the wastes are exhumed and treated, a long-term barrier may still be needed to adequately dispose of the treated wastes or any remaining waste residuals. Currently, no {open_quotes}proven{close_quotes} long-term barrier is available. The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site. The permanent isolation barrier technology also could be used at other sites. Permanent isolation barriers use engineered layers of natural materials to create an integrated structure with redundant protective features. Drawings of conceptual permanent isolation surface barriers are shown. The natural construction materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity. The objective of current designs is to use natural materials to develop a maintenance-free permanent isolation surface barrier that isolates wastes for a minimum of 1,000 years by limiting water drainage to near-zero amounts; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling the exhalation of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion-related problems.

  6. Barriers and Benefits in Telemedicine Arising Between a High-Technology Hospital Service Provider and Remote Public Healthcare Units: A Qualitative Study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Carlos Henrique Amaral; Morbeck, Renata Albaladejo; Steinman, Milton; Hors, Cora Pereira; Bracco, Mario Maia; Kozasa, Elisa H; Leão, Eliseth Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    In Brazil, the Program for Institutional Development of the Unified Healthcare System (PROADI-SUS) has implemented a telemedicine service for urgent situations and emergencies. It is delivered by a high-technology (HT) hospital to 15 remote healthcare units (RUs) in 11 different Brazilian states. The aim of this study was to investigate possible barriers and benefits in telemedicine service among these units. We performed a qualitative study on the perceptions of physicians involved in telemedicine service in their role as providers and consultants. An individual, semistructured recorded interview was conducted with 28 physicians (17 HT; 11 RU) encompassing telemedicine resources and interaction among HT and RU physicians. Data analysis was performed by Discourse of Collective Subject. We identified the following barriers in the telemedicine service: (1) lack of experience in the use of technology or the quality of the internet signal; (2) the multiplicity of different telemedicine platforms; (3) the quality of the image sent to the HT hospital; (4) the misunderstanding that telemedicine is a time-consuming technology instead of a resource that may help to save lives; (5) not feeling comfortable exposing doubts to other HT colleagues; (6) problems in the management of telemedicine use in the RUs; and (7) political and legal issues. However, important benefits in telemedicine service were also described. The structural barriers should be the target of hospital managers. Development of standard remote care protocols may increase the use of telemedicine and create new work routines. Given the relationship difficulties among the RU and HT doctors during telemedicine consultations, other meetings should be organized to allow more interpersonal interactions. These meetings may also have the goal of sharing outcome indicators of their joint activity in telemedicine to stimulate and make them aware of the benefits of their interaction.

  7. Assessment of the Adoption of Agroforestry Technologies by Limited-Resource Farmers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Paula E.; Owooh, Bismark; Idassi, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Agroforestry is a natural resource management system that integrates trees, forages, and livestock. The study reported here was conducted to determine farmers' knowledge about and willingness to adopt agroforestry technologies in North Carolina. The study reported participants were primarily older, male farmers, suggesting the need to attract more…

  8. The Limits of Programmed Professional Development on Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeraer, Jef; Van Petegem, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of a development cooperation program on quality of education in Vietnam, a professional development trajectory for teacher educators on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in education was developed and implemented over the course of a three-year program. We describe how the framework on "Technological…

  9. The 'crisis of noosphere' as a limiting factor to achieve the point of technological singularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lahoz-Beltra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant developments in the history of human being is the invention of a way of keeping records of human knowledge, thoughts and ideas. In 1926, the work of several thinkers such as Edouard Le Roy, Vladimir Vernadsky and Teilhard de Chardin led to the concept of noosphere, the idea that human cognition and knowledge transforms the biosphere into something like a thinking layer of the planet. At present, it is commonly accepted by some thinkers that the Internet is the medium that will give life to noosphere. According to Vinge and Kurzweil's technological singularity hypothesis, noosphere would in a future be the natural environment in which a 'human machine superintelligence' would emerge to reach the point of technological singularity. In this article we show by means of numerical models that it is impossible for our civilization to reach the point of technological singularity in a near future. We propose that this point could be reached only if Internet data centers were based on "computer machines" that are more effective in terms of hardware and power consumption than the current ones. Finally, we speculate about 'Nooscomputers' or N computers, as hypothetical machines oriented not only to the management of information, but also knowledge, and much more efficient in terms of electricity consumption than current computers. Possibly a civilization based on N-computers would allow us to successfully reach the point of technological singularity.

  10. Should We Limit "Screen Time" In School?: Debating the Wisest Use of Technology in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoggin, Daniel; Vander Ark, Tom

    2018-01-01

    A truism of school reform has long been the promise that technology, properly applied, will fuel dramatic improvement in teaching and learning. When tech-enabled schools or online learning programs haven't delivered the hoped-for results, some have dismissed these shortcomings as implementation problems--or evidence that we haven't yet deployed…

  11. The individualization of the employment relations on-line: the benefits and limitations of information technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    One of the latest tendencies in the organisational change theory and practice is implementing e- ideas: e-business, e-commerce, e-library, e-learning, and since not long ago – e-HRM. Software engineers design information technologies (IT) to support HR processes, marketing specialists insist that

  12. The Limitations of Access Alone: Moving Towards Open Processes in Education Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    "Openness" has emerged as one of the foremost themes in education, within which an open education movement has enthusiastically embraced digital technologies as the central means of participation and inclusion. Open Educational Resources (OERs) and Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have surfaced at the forefront of this development,…

  13. Limitations to postfire seedling establishment: The role of seeding technology, water availability, and invasive plant abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. James; Tony Svejcar

    2010-01-01

    Seeding rangeland following wildfire is a central tool managers use to stabilize soils and inhibit the spread of invasive plants. Rates of successful seeding on arid rangeland, however, are low. The objective of this study was to determine the degree to which water availability, invasive plant abundance, and seeding technology influence postfire seedling establishment...

  14. Barriers to Systemic, Effective, and Sustainable Technology Use in High School Classrooms / Obstacles à l’utilisation systémique, efficace et durable de la technologie dans les salles de classe des écoles secondaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Scott Daniels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Technology and High School Success (THSS initiative was to encourage innovative strategies focused on improving provincial high school completion rates, using technology and student-centered learning to engage student interest. The primary purpose of this paper is to report on barriers that impede systemic, effective and sustainable technology integration within schools. Even with teacher and administrative support and commitment for THSS, evaluative research indicated minimal change in system capacity as a result of the initiative. Three primary barriers to program sustainability were: 1 schools and school districts did not leverage the opportunity to revisit their existing vision(s, 2 schools and school districts did not use data to make changes, and 3 limited access to technology. Le but de l’initiative « Technology and High School Success (THSS » était d'encourager des stratégies novatrices visant à améliorer le taux d’achèvement des études secondaires dans la province de l’Alberta en utilisant la technologie et un apprentissage centré sur l'élève afin de susciter l'intérêt des élèves. L'objectif principal de cet article est de rendre compte des obstacles entravant l'intégration systémique, efficace et durable de la technologie dans les écoles. La recherche évaluative a révélé des changements minimes dans la capacité systémique à la suite de l'initiative, et ce, malgré l’appui et l’engagement des enseignants et des administrateurs envers le THSS. Les trois obstacles principaux à la viabilité du programme sont les suivants: 1 les écoles et les districts scolaires n'ont pas profité de l’occasion pour revoir leur(s vision(s, 2 les écoles et les districts scolaires n'ont pas utilisé les données pour effectuer des changements, et 3 l'accès limité à la technologie.

  15. Fifty Years of Technological Innovation: Potential and Limitations of Current Technologies in Abdominal Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attenberger, Ulrike I; Morelli, John; Budjan, Johannes; Henzler, Thomas; Sourbron, Steven; Bock, Michael; Riffel, Philipp; Hernando, Diego; Ong, Melissa M; Schoenberg, Stefan O

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important modality for the diagnosis of intra-abdominal pathology. Hardware and pulse sequence developments have made it possible to derive not only morphologic but also functional information related to organ perfusion (dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI), oxygen saturation (blood oxygen level dependent), tissue cellularity (diffusion-weighted imaging), and tissue composition (spectroscopy). These techniques enable a more specific assessment of pathologic lesions and organ functionality. Magnetic resonance imaging has thus transitioned from a purely morphologic examination to a modality from which image-based disease biomarkers can be derived. This fits well with several emerging trends in radiology, such as the need to accurately assess response to costly treatment strategies and the need to improve lesion characterization to potentially avoid biopsy. Meanwhile, the cost-effectiveness, availability, and robustness of computed tomography (CT) ensure its place as the current workhorse for clinical imaging. Although the lower soft tissue contrast of CT relative to MRI is a long-standing limitation, other disadvantages such as ionizing radiation exposure have become a matter of public concern. Nevertheless, recent technical developments such as dual-energy CT or dynamic volume perfusion CT also provide more functional imaging beyond morphology.The aim of this article was to review and discuss the most important recent technical developments in abdominal MRI and state-of-the-art CT, with an eye toward the future, providing examples of their clinical utility for the evaluation of hepatic and renal pathologies.

  16. Investigating the Challenges for Adopting and Implementing of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT by Isfahan High Schools Teachers: Based On the Model of Barriers in ICT Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Eshrat Zaman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Relevance and usefulness of information and communication technologies (ICT have been investigated in many researches. There are many challenges for ICT users, especially for teachers that act as inhibitor factors for using ICT in their jobs. The main purpose of this paper was to investigate these challenges in the view point of high school teachers in Isfahan city based on ICT use barriers model. In the model, barriers have divided into four groups: organizational, managerial, educational, and financial-instrumental. The research was based on qualitative method. For analyzing data descriptive-analysis method was used. For gathering data, researcher made questionnaire including 5 open ended had been used. Survey population included teachers of all high schools in Isfahan city in 1387-88 academic years. 110 teachers were selected by using cluster random sampling method. For data analysis, content analysis method was used to calculate the mean and frequencies. Findings indicated that most teachers have explained the lack of proper in-service training programs for their use of ICT as the most important obstacles for using ICT in teaching. Lack of suitable managerial strategies for implementing ICT in curriculum, lack of organizational support and lack of financial resources and equipments in schools, respectively, were other barriers in using ICT in Iranian high schools.

  17. Current status and technology development of Reprocessing Plant in Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    It is a problem that the vitrified waste could not be produced at the down nozzle in glass furnace by accumulation of platinum group metals contented in high-level radioactive waste. This article describes our efforts to solve the problem. The glass furnace, glassification process, development of glassification technology in Japan, structure of glass furnace, improvement of glass furnace now in use, improvement of glassification technology, and development of new glass furnace and new glass materials are explained. Configuration drawing of glass furnace, heating method, glass flow from the down nozzle, existing state of platinum group metals in glass, comparison between the current glass furnace and advance furnace, analysis result of inner part of furnace, and measurement result of density, viscosity and heat capacity of molten glass are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  18. HEATING OF BLANK IN FORM OF PRISM IN ACCORDANCE WITH TECHNOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kovalevsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on optimum heating control of a blank in the form of prism under complicated conditions of heat-transfer in accordance with criteria of gas consumption minimization, decarburized layer and scaling. Numerical algorithm of the problem solution and examples are given in the paper. A new technology of the flame furnace operation has been developed in the paper. 

  19. Critical assessment of the available technologies for sanitation of contaminated soil and their limits of application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, M.; Glaeser, E.

    1993-01-01

    Sanitation of polluted land comprises safety measures and soil purification measures. Soil purification can take place either in situ, or on-site or off-site after digging up the contaminated soil. In-situ processes are soil deaeration, groundwater purification and biological methods. Soil deaeration is suited for volatile pollutants in the unsaturated zone of loose soils, while groundwater purification is commonly applied for water-soluble pollutants in the saturated zone of soils with a high k f value. On-site or off-site purification of contaminated soils can take place by thermal processes, by soil washing, by microorganisms, or by physical processes. Thermal processes have the widest range of applications; they are suited for most soils polluted with mostly organic pollutants, and the residual contamination is lowest. Soil washing is limited to sandy and noncohesive soils and for emulsifiable or elutable pollutants. Biological on-site and off-line methods are limited to biodegradable pollutants which are not in phase. Loosening agents may be added in order to overcome geotechnical limitations. Physical purification of soils is limited to specific applications e.g. removal of volatile hydrocarbons. (orig.) [de

  20. Identifying Barriers, Perceptions and Motivations Related to Healthy Eating and Physical Activity among 6th to 8th Grade, Rural, Limited-Resource Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Janavi; Adhikari, Koushik; Li, Yijing; Lindshield, Erika; Muturi, Nancy; Kidd, Tandalayo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to enable community members to discuss their perceptions of eating habits and physical activity in relation to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders, and reveal facilitators and barriers to healthy eating behavior and physical activity engagement. Design/methodology/approach: Nine focus groups, which included six…

  1. Assistive technology access and service delivery in resource-limited environments: introduction to a special issue of Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harniss, Mark; Samant Raja, Deepti; Matter, Rebecca

    2015-07-01

    This special issue addresses access to and service delivery of assistive technology (AT) in resource-limited environments (RLEs). Access to AT is complicated not simply by limited funds to purchase AT, but by larger ecosystem weaknesses in RLEs related to legislation and policy, supply, distribution, human resources, consumer demand and accessible design. We present eight diverse articles that address various aspects of the AT ecosystem. These articles represent a wide range of AT, many different countries and different research methods. Our goal is to highlight a topic that has received scant research investigation and limited investment in international development efforts, and offer an insight into how different countries and programs are promoting access to AT. We encourage researchers, funders and non-profit organizations to invest additional effort and resources in this area.

  2. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers: Using Student Response System Technology to Collect Quality Program Evaluation Data from Immigrant Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan K.; Mao, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Student response system technology was employed for parenting education program evaluation data collection with Karen adults. The technology, with translation and use of an interpreter, provided an efficient and secure method that respected oral language and collective learning preferences and accommodated literacy needs. The method was popular…

  3. Differences in technology transfer between science-based and development-based industries : transfer mechanisms and barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilsing, V.A.; Bekkers, R.N.A.; Bodas Freitas, I.M.; Steen, van der M.

    2011-01-01

    Although several studies in the wide body of literature on technology transfer have hinted at differences across industries, this still remains an understudied issue. Our study addresses this topic and considers to what degree technology transfer processes differ across different industrial sectors.

  4. Can you hear me now? Limited use of technology among an urban HIV-infected cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, E; Stamm, K; Overton, E T

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies support technology-based behavioral interventions for individuals with HIV. This study focused on the use of cell phone and internet technologies among a cohort of 515 HIV-infected individuals. Socio-demographic and clinic data were collected among individuals presenting at an urban Midwestern university HIV clinic in 2007. Regular internet usage occurred more often with males, Caucasians, those who were employed, had higher income, and were more educated. Higher levels of education and income >$10,000 predicted regular usage when controlling for race, employment, and gender. Cell phone ownership was associated with being Caucasian, employed, more educated, and salary >$10,000. Employment was the only predictor of owning a cell phone when controlling for income, race, and education. Individuals who were educated were more likely to know how to text message. Employment and post-high school education predicted knowledge of text messaging, when controlling for age. Disparities among internet, cell phone, and text messaging usage exist among HIV-infected individuals.

  5. Marine chemical technology and sensors for marine waters: potentials and limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tommy S; Mullaugh, Katherine M; Holyoke, Rebecca R; Madison, Andrew S; Yücel, Mustafa; Luther, George W

    2009-01-01

    A significant need exists for in situ sensors that can measure chemical species involved in the major processes of primary production (photosynthesis and chemosynthesis) and respiration. Some key chemical species are O2, nutrients (N and P), micronutrients (metals), pCO2, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and sulfide. Sensors need to have excellent detection limits, precision, selectivity, response time, a large dynamic concentration range, low power consumption, robustness, and less variation of instrument response with temperature and pressure, as well as be free from fouling problems (biological, physical, and chemical). Here we review the principles of operation of most sensors used in marine waters. We also show that some sensors can be used in several different oceanic environments to detect the target chemical species, whereas others are useful in only one environment because of various limitations. Several sensors can be used truly in situ, whereas many others involve water brought into a flow cell via tubing to the analyzer in the environment or aboard ship. Multi-element sensors that measure many chemical species in the same water mass should be targeted for further development.

  6. Kidney transplant and the digital divide: is information and communication technology a barrier or a bridge to transplant for African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Mark B; Saunders, Milda R; Lee, Christopher S; Becker, Yolanda T; Josephson, Michelle A; Chon, W James

    2013-12-01

    Barriers to kidney transplant for African Americans are well documented in the literature. Little information on ownership of information and communication technology and use of such technology in transplant populations has been published. To characterize racial differences related to ownership and use of information and communication technology in kidney transplant patients. A single-center, cross-sectional survey study. An urban Midwestern transplant center. 78 pretransplant patients and 177 transplant recipients. The survey consisted of 6 demographic questions, 3 disease-related questions, and 9 technology-related questions. Dichotomous (yes/no) and Likert-scale items were the basis for the survey. Cell phone use was high and comparable between groups (94% in African Americans, 90% in whites, P= .22). A vast majority (75% of African Americans and 74% of whites) reported being "comfortable" sending and receiving text messages. Computer ownership (94.3% vs 79.3%) and Internet access (97.7% vs 80.7%) were greater among whites than African Americans (both PInternet (27.1% vs 56.3%) and e-mail (61.6% vs 79.3%) than whites (both Ptechnology and text messaging was ubiquitous and comparable between groups, but computer and Internet access and frequency of use were not. Reaching out to the African American community may best be accomplished by using cell phone/text messaging as opposed to Internet-based platforms.

  7. Discuss the technology for decrease the detection limit of NaI(Tl) gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaobin; Qu Guopu; Liu Zhiying; Wang Hongyan; Wang Lieming

    2011-01-01

    The radioelement species is complex and quantity is few after nuclear explosion, thus it is hard to tell the difference when using the Nal (TI) Gamma spectrometer detection due to several kinds of the peak of nuclide overlapped in the scattering region. So there is a high demand for spectrometer stability, energy resolution, solution spectrum and minimum detective activity. The paper analysed the influenced factors to Nal (TI) Gamma spectrometer and the measures of detection limit decrease by experiments and MCNP simulation, which proposed the methods to reduce background through shielding in order to improve minimum detective activity. The experiment shows that choosing reasonable shielding can reduce the background effectively and improve the spectrometer low level radioactive detect ability. (authors)

  8. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement.

  9. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement

  10. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Strachan, Alejandro, E-mail: strachan@purdue.edu [School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement.

  11. BARRIERS AND MOTIVATORS IN ENGAGING WITH TECHNOLOGY-ENABLED CARDIAC REHABILITATION: A PATIENT AND HEALTH PROFESSIONAL PERSPECTIVE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Walsh

    2015-10-01

    This formative work has outlined key patient and stakeholder concerns regarding engagement with a technology enabled behavior change intervention in CR. Factors that inhibit and promote engagement have been explored using the COM-B framework. Motivational factors related to social interaction were deemed one of the integral aspects for engagement and adherence to PATHway. In terms of capability factors, technology ease- of-use was highlighted among patient and stakeholders as important for uptake and continued use. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Action under Grant Agreement no. 643491. PATHway: Technology enabled behavioural change as a pathway towards better self-management of CVD (www.pathway2health.eu

  12. Driving forces and barriers in the development and implementation of coal-to-liquids (CtL) technologies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Because of a growing global energy demand and rising oil prices coal-abundant nations, such as China and the United States, are pursuing the application of technologies which could replace crude oil imports by converting coal to synthetic hydrocarbon fuels-so-called coal-to-liquids (CtL) technologies. The case of CtL is well suited to analyse techno-economic, resources-related, policy-driven and actor-related parameters, which are affecting the market prospects of a technology that eases energy security constraints but is hardly compatible with a progressive climate policy. This paper concentrates on Germany as an example-the European Union (EU)'s largest member state with considerable coal reserves. It shows that in Germany and the EU, CtL is facing rather unfavourable market conditions as high costs and ambitious climate targets offset its energy security advantage

  13. Barriers to Investment in Energy-Saving Technologies in Small Firms: The Energy-Efficiency Paradox Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; de Groot, H.L.F.; Nijkamp, P.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that energy-saving technologies are considered profitable using standard net-present-value calculations, their adoption rates have been low, particularly in small firms. This study reviews the theoretical and empirical literature that explains this phenomenon, generally known as the

  14. Overcoming the Barriers of Distance: Using Mobile Technology to Facilitate Moderation and Best Practice in Initial Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggatt, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the development process of a model using readily-available technology to facilitate collaboration, moderation and the dissemination of best practice in initial teacher training in the UK. Students, mentors, tutors and external examiners from a number of educational institutions in a UK, higher education-led Lifelong…

  15. Overcoming Barriers To IVHS -- Lessons From Other Technologies, Final Task F Report, Model Advanced Traffic Management System Franchise Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-25

    VIABLE ADVANCED TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS WILL BE CENTRAL TO THE : DEVELOPMENT OF ITS TECHNOLOGIES, AND CRITICAL TO THE DELIVERY OF MANY PRIVATE SECTOR ITS SERVICES TO THE PUBLIC. BY ITS VERY NATURE, HOWEVER, ATMS RELIES HEAVILY ON ACCESS TO THE PUB...

  16. Benefits and Barriers of Information and Communication Technologies Adoption in Facilities Management Services Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada

      This paper presents the results of a study of factors impacting information and communication technology (ICT) adoption in the supply chain of facilities management services. The research questions addressed in this study are: What are the key factors that influence adoption and assimilation of...

  17. Fish oil improves motor function, limits blood-brain barrier disruption, and reduces Mmp9 gene expression in a rat model of juvenile traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K L; Berman, N E J; Gregg, P R A; Levant, B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of an oral fish oil treatment regimen on sensorimotor, blood-brain barrier, and biochemical outcomes of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were investigated in a juvenile rat model. Seventeen-day old Long-Evans rats were given a 15mL/kg fish oil (2.01g/kg EPA, 1.34g/kg DHA) or soybean oil dose via oral gavage 30min prior to being subjected to a controlled cortical impact injury or sham surgery, followed by daily doses for seven days. Fish oil treatment resulted in less severe hindlimb deficits after TBI as assessed with the beam walk test, decreased cerebral IgG infiltration, and decreased TBI-induced expression of the Mmp9 gene one day after injury. These results indicate that fish oil improved functional outcome after TBI resulting, at least in part from decreased disruption of the blood-brain barrier through a mechanism that includes attenuation of TBI-induced expression of Mmp9. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensititive Nuclear Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire

    2009-09-01

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state’s perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with “symbiotic” links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the “Nuclear Materials Exchange” for identifying these opportunities.

  19. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth while Limiting the Spread of Sensitive Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, David

    2009-01-01

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21st century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Nuclear states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non-Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions not to develop indigenous fuel cycle capabilities have been driven primarily by economics. However, additional incentives may be required to offset a nuclear state's perceived loss of energy independence. This paper proposes alternative economic development incentives that could help countries decide to forgo development of sensitive nuclear technologies. The incentives are created through a nuclear-centered industrial complex with 'symbiotic' links to indigenous economic opportunities. This paper also describes a practical tool called the 'Nuclear Materials Exchange' for identifying these opportunities.

  20. Non proliferation regimes undertakings: Benefits and limits of synergies in verification technologies and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, M.

    2001-01-01

    possibility of non-compliance will always remain, but at a higher cost for the proliferator. Implementation of sophisticated verification techniques which improve the effectiveness of the monitoring will be limited by what the States consider to be an attempt to their sovereignty and by what they recognise as their national security interest. To improve the overall effectiveness in cost and in kind of monitoring regimes, benefits can be drawn from a careful examination of the common ground they share and how one regime may benefit from lessons drawn by the others, taking their scope into account. But, though synergies between verification regimes would be logical and productive like between the CWC and the IAEA safeguards or the future protocol of the Bio Convention or like between some aspects of the CTBT and the IAEA safeguards, it is not politically and technically desirable to go too far in the merging of verification regimes. Treaties and Agreements must keep their own specificity, and confidentiality of collected information should remain as a rule. The dream for a global and universal verification system to deal with. all the aspects of Weapons of Mass Destruction, a kind of 'big brother', is both unrealistic and dangerous States Parties have always the possibility to merge and cue information from various monitoring systems, from outside and from their national technical means to form their own judgement. Then, elements of this analysis can be forwarded to international organisation, in a manner consistent with agreed rules in order to help them to carry out their responsibilities. (author)

  1. Using Technology to Break Gender Barriers: Gender Differences in Teachers' Information and Communication Technology Use in Saudi Arabian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Al-bakr, Fawziah; Davidson, Petrina M.; Bruce, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    How does teachers' gender influence their information and communication technology-based instruction in Saudi Arabian government schools? Using unique data collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2014, the analyses presented here show that male and female teachers in intermediate school classrooms differently use information and communication…

  2. Protective barrier development: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed

  3. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier

  4. Much technology, but limited impact: what progress has been made with Learning Technology in the Post Compulsory Education and Training (PCET sector?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawley, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the progress which has been made in the uses of Learning Technology (LT to support teaching and learning in the Post Compulsory Education and Training (PCET sector. It argues that progress in terms of the depth and breadth of overall impact is limited and disappointing, despite significant investment from government and others. Across the PCET sector as a whole, despite progress in a number of areas, the use of technology is far from embedded in teaching and learning, and little real ‘transformation’ on any major scale has taken place. The possible reasons for this situation are discussed, as is the particular situation of teachers in PCET. The lack of progress is not, it is argued, due to any lack of willingness by staff to experiment and innovate, but to a range of other sector wide issues. The article concludes with some recommendations relating to how this important sector of UK education could move forward to a more positive future in relation to LT.

  5. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-08-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper will cover the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  6. Design of engineered sorbent barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper covers the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier

  7. Investigation into Composites Property Effect on the Forming Limits of Multi-Layer Hybrid Sheets Using Hydroforming Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shichen; Lang, Lihui; Guan, Shiwei; Alexandrov, Seigei; Zeng, Yipan

    2018-04-01

    Fiber-metal laminates (FMLs) such as Kevlar reinforced aluminum laminate (ARALL), Carbon reinforced aluminum laminate (CARALL), and Glass reinforced aluminum laminate (GLARE) offer great potential for weight reduction applications in automobile and aerospace construction. In order to investigate the feasibility for utilizing such materials in the form of laminates, sheet hydroforming technology are studied under the condition of uniform blank holder force for three-layered aluminum and aluminum-composite laminates using orthogonal carbon and Kevlar as well as glass fiber in the middle. The experimental results validate the finite element results and they exhibited that the forming limit of glass fiber in the middle is the highest among the studied materials, while carbon fiber material performs the worst. Furthermore, the crack modes are different for the three kinds of fiber materials investigated in the research. This study provides fundamental guidance for the selection of multi-layer sheet materials in the future manufacturing field.

  8. Shelf life extension of litchi (Litchi chinensis) and overcoming quarantine barriers to international trade using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Kumar, Sanjeev; Hajare, Sachin N.; Wadhawan, Surbhi; Mishra, B.B.; More, Varsha S.; Sharma, Arun

    2010-01-01

    Litchi (Litchi chinensis) has a very short shelf life of 2-3 days at ambient temperature limiting its marketability. Gamma radiation processing in combination with low temperature storage was explored as a method to achieve shelf life extension and fulfill quarantine requirement for export during storage physics, biochemical, microbiological, organoleptic, antioxidant and radioprotective properties of two major commercially grown Indian cultivars of litchi, 'Shahi' and 'China', were analysed. Radiation treatment reduced microbial load in a dose dependent manner. Radiation (0.5kGy) treated and low temperature stored fruits retained the 'good' organoleptic rating till 28 days of storage while maintaining other quality attributes. (author)

  9. Research and innovation to overcome the 'barriers'. The technological and industrial challenges of carbon-free energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therme, Jean

    2011-01-01

    The world energy scene has undergone a thoroughgoing change in less than twenty years. It is ready for a new revolution based on the massive introduction of renewable energy sources along with the associated technology and, also, on ever smarter energy networks for managing supply and demand. As industrial and economic competition intensifies, innovation will be a key factor for winning this battle. Given its worldwide industries and topnotch research centers, France has a few aces up its sleeve. The country has to focus on industrial chains of production, research and innovation; and choose to back those of excellent quality that will help make it a world leader. The examples of photovoltaic conversion and batteries are cited, two fields that France must continue supporting and developing

  10. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  11. Studies of the disruption prevention by ECRH at plasma current rise stage in limiter discharges/Possibility of an internal transport barrier producing under dominating electron transport in the T-10 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikaev, V.V.; Borshegovskij, A.A.; Chistyakov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    'Studies of the Disruption Prevention by ECRH at Plasma Current Rise Stage in Limiter Discharges' - Studies of disruption prevention by means of ECRH in T-10 at the plasma current rise phase in limiter discharges with circular plasma cross-section were performed. Reliable disruption prevention by ECRH at HF power (P HF ) min level equal to 20% of ohmic heating power P OH was demonstrated. m/n=2/1 mode MHD-activity developed before disruption (with characteristic time ∼ 120 ms) can be considered as disruption precursor and can be used in a feedback system. 'Possibility of an Internal Transport Barrier Producing under Dominating Electron Transport in the T-10 Tokamak' - The reversed shear experiments were carried out on T-10 at the HF power up to 1MW. The reversed shear in the core was produced by on-axis ECCD in direction opposite to the plasma current. There are no obvious signs of Internal Transport Barriers formation under condition when high-k turbulence determines the electron transport. (author)

  12. A rare good thing: the Hopi Solar Project and barriers to the use of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, D.

    1995-01-01

    One example of a non-profit renewable energy technology (RET) is the Hopi Solar Program (HSP) in Second Mesa, Arizona. Since 1990 the HSP has provided or upgraded solar systems for 50 homes. Most of the systems are owned by Hopis. It was suggested that although non-profit RETs would be in public interest, market-oriented governments and corporation have avoided development of an international network of RETs because they would upset the existing social order and affect short-term profits. Several benefits of RETs were described. It was noted that development of RETs was modular, i.e. manufacturing and distribution could be undertaken on a small scale. Solar panel plants could be operated with a minimum of personnel and capital. Programs such as HSP also would provide power to homes not on the electric utility grid. HSP does not have to contend with pricing policies and monopoly bargaining power of electric utilities. Power generated by RETs could also be transferred to the electric grid. The need for, and the feasibility of an international network of RETs was also addressed

  13. Global programme to demonstrate the viability and removal of barriers that impede adoption and successful implementation of available, non-combustion technologies for destroying persistent organic pollutants (POPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the Global Programme, in line with the strategic priorities of GEF Business Plan FY04-06, is to demonstrate the viability and removal of barriers that impede adoption and successful implementation of available non-combustion technologies for use in the destruction of obsolete Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) stockpiles and wastes, more specifically PCBs wastes in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. This specific Project (Slovakia Project), part of the Global Programme, will introduce and apply such technologies to destroy significant obsolete PCBs wastes in Slovakia, and will help remove barriers to the further adoption and effective implementation of available non-combustion technologies and meet the Stockholm Convention requirement to ensure the use of Best Available Techniques (BAT) and Best Environmental Practices (BEP). The [final draft of the] National Implementation Plan (NIP) in Slovakia favors the application of non-combustion technologies to destroy POPs. The Project will make available all technical, economic and financial parameters of the selected technology in a comparative, open and transparent way that would facilitate and provide further incentive to the global diffusion of innovative alternative non-combustion technologies. The GEF Council has approved (May 2004) a Project Brief for a similar activity in the Philippines. The GEF Slovakia Project will last 70 months. The first twenty-four months will be committed to parallel activities of a tendering process, obtaining necessary operating permits, including conducting necessary environmental impact analyses; designing, constructing and testing of the non-combustion technology to be deployed; and generally planning and organizing, among other things, such activities as a comprehensive public participation and involvement plan, and a comprehensive, participatory monitoring and evaluation plan. The next eighteen months of Project time would involve the

  14. Which indicators for measuring the daily physical activity? An overview on the challenges and technology limits for Telehealth applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliente, Irene; Solvoll, Terje; Trieste, Leopoldo; De Cecco, Carlo N; Murgia, Fabrizio; Bella, Sergio

    2016-09-14

    Obesity is one of the biggest drivers of preventable chronic diseases and healthcare costs in Worldwide. Different prevention activities are suggested. By monitoring daily energy expenditure (EE) could be possible make personalized diets and programming physical activity. In this, physical inactivity is one of the most important public health problems. Some studies refer the effort of the international community in promoting physical activities. Physical activity can be promoted only by increasing citizens' empowerment on taking care of their health, and it passes from the improving of individual information. Technology can offer solutions and metrics for monitoring and measuring daily activity by interacting with individuals, sharing information and feedbacks. In this study we review indicators of total energy expenditure and weaknesses of available devices in assessing these parameters. Literature review and technology testing EuNetHta core model. For the clinical aspects, it is fundamental to take into account all the factor that can influence the personal energy expenditure as: heart rate, blood pressure and thermoregulation (influenced by the body temperature). In this study we focused the attention on the importance of tools to encourage the physical activity. We made an analysis of the factor that can influence the right analysis of energy expenditure and at the same time the energy regime. A punctual monitoring of the exercise regime could be helpful in Telemedicine application as Telemonitorig. More study are needed to value the impact of physical activity tracker in Telemonitorig protocols. On the assessment of the energy expenditure, critical issues are related to the physiological data acquisition. Sensors connected with mobile devices could be important tools for disease prevention and interventions affecting health behaviors. New devices applications are potential useful for telemedicine assistance, but security of data and the related communication

  15. Identifying technology barriers in adapting a state-of-the-art gas turbine for IGCC applications and an experimental investigation of air extraction schemes for IGCC operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tah-teh; Agrawal, A.K.; Kapat, J.S.

    1993-06-01

    Under contracted work with Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Clemson University, the prime contractor, and General Electric (GE) and CRSS, the subcontractors, made a comprehensive study in the first phase of research to investigate the technology barriers of integrating a coal gasification process with a hot gas cleanup scheme and the state-of-the-art industrial gas turbine, the GE MS-7001F. This effort focused on (1) establishing analytical tools necessary for modeling combustion phenomenon and emissions in gas turbine combustors operating on multiple species coal gas, (2) estimates the overall performance of the GE MS-7001F combined cycle plant, (3) evaluating material issues in the hot gas path, (4) examining the flow and temperature fields when air extraction takes place at both the compressor exit and at the manhole adjacent to the combustor, and (5) examining the combustion/cooling limitations of such a gas turbine by using 3-D numerical simulation of a MS-7001F combustor operated with gasified coal. In the second phase of this contract, a 35% cool flow model was built similar to GE`s MS-7001F gas turbine for mapping the flow region between the compressor exit and the expander inlet. The model included sufficient details, such as the combustor`s transition pieces, the fuel nozzles, and the supporting struts. Four cases were studied: the first with a base line flow field of a GE 7001F without air extraction; the second with a GE 7001F with air extraction; and the third and fourth with a GE 7001F using a Griffith diffuser to replace the straight wall diffuser and operating without air extraction and with extraction, respectively.

  16. Underground openings in clay formations - Technical requirements on drifting technology and support systems for underground openings and their impact on retreat systems for the installation of engineered barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mischo, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Several countries are currently investigating the possibility of long-term storage of nuclear waste in clay formations, with a special focus on mud-stone formations. During the last decades extensive research has been conducted on the suitability of mud-stone as repository and the related special requirements of the clay matrix - with significant success. The knowledge base on the behaviour of the host formations during the mining phase of the excavations on the other hand is relatively limited compared to that of other investigated host rock formations, e.g. salt. With the low value of mud-stone and its relatively limited industrial application range, there have not been any large scale commercial underground mining activities in recent years to provide a significant and independent database on the behaviour of the selected mud-stone formations or their geological analogue during mining activities. Most information currently used for the assessment of this type of sediment and the planning of the mining activities has been gathered either during the execution of logistics and tunneling projects or during the excavation of today's underground laboratories. There is, however, a database on a vast variety of clay deposit types and morphologies available from commercial underground clay mining activities worldwide. The data available on commercial clay mining shows significant differences for each and every technological stage of clay mining as compared to the stages of any other mining operation. This is, amongst other things, due to the high and partly extreme ductility and creeping properties of typical clay formations, especially when considering their sensitiveness to a changing water content. In general the technical and technological differences include the applicable mining technology for the excavation of underground openings, the need for an advancement of any available technology to waterless variants as

  17. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF`s) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV`S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available ``practical``. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  18. Crossing the Resolution Limit in Near-Infrared Imaging of Silicon Chips: Targeting 10-nm Node Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Agarwal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The best reported resolution in optical failure analysis of silicon chips is 120-nm half pitch demonstrated by Semicaps Private Limited, whereas the current and future industry requirement for 10-nm node technology is 100-nm half pitch. We show the first experimental evidence for resolution of features with 100-nm half pitch buried in silicon (λ/10.6, thus fulfilling the industry requirement. These results are obtained using near-infrared reflection-mode imaging using a solid immersion lens. The key novel feature of our approach is the choice of an appropriately sized collection pinhole. Although it is usually understood that, in general, resolution is improved by using the smallest pinhole consistent with an adequate signal level, it is found that in practice for silicon chips there is an optimum pinhole size, determined by the generation of induced currents in the sample. In failure analysis of silicon chips, nondestructive imaging is important to avoid disturbing the functionality of integrated circuits. High-resolution imaging techniques like SEM or TEM require the transistors to be exposed destructively. Optical microscopy techniques may be used, but silicon is opaque in the visible spectrum, mandating the use of near-infrared light and thus poor resolution in conventional optical microscopy. We expect our result to change the way semiconductor failure analysis is performed.

  19. Characteristics of right-sided colonic neoplasia and colonoscopy barriers limiting their early detection and prognosis: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Wolfgang; Elsome, Rory; Amlani, Bharat

    2018-06-05

    Colonoscopy provides less protection from colorectal cancer in the right colon than the left. Areas covered: This review examines patient outcomes and colonoscopy success rates to identify factors that limit the protective effect of colonoscopy in the right colon. The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for literature from 2000 onwards, on the long-term outcomes and differences in screening practice between the right and left colon. In total, 12 systematic reviews (including nine meta-analyses) and 44 primary data records were included. Differences in patient outcomes and colonoscopy practice were identified between the right and left colon, suggesting that several factors, many of which disproportionally affect the right colon, impact lesion detection rates. Shorter withdrawal times reduce detection rates, while longer times significantly increase detection; mostly of adenomas in the right colon. Colonoscope attachments often only show a significant improvement in detection rates in the right colon, suggesting detection is more challenging due to visibility of the right colonic mucosa. Higher bowel cleansing grades significantly improve detection rates in the right colon compared to the left. Expert commentary: These findings confirm the need for continued improvement of colonoscopy effectiveness, and obligatory quality assessment, overall and especially in the right colon.

  20. Nuclear Symbiosis - A Means to Achieve Sustainable Nuclear Growth While Limiting the Spread of Sensitive Nuclear Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, David

    2009-01-01

    Global growth of nuclear energy in the 21. century is creating new challenges to limit the spread of nuclear technology without hindering adoption in countries now considering nuclear power. Independent nuclear states desire autonomy over energy choices and seek energy independence. However, this independence comes with high costs for development of new indigenous fuel cycle capabilities. Nuclear supplier states and expert groups have proposed fuel supply assurance mechanisms such as fuel take-back services, international enrichment services and fuel banks in exchange for recipient state concessions on the development of sensitive technologies. Recipient states are slow to accept any concessions to their rights under the Non Proliferation Treaty. To date, decisions to not develop indigenous fuel enrichment capabilities have been driven by economics. However, additional incentives may be required in the future to offset the user state's perceived loss of energy independence. In order for a country to forgo development of sensitive nuclear capabilities, the basis for an equitable economic tradeoff must be established. This paper proposes that the nuclear trade-off can be made through a combination of fuel supply assurances, leveraging work by the United Nations and International Atomic Energy Agency on sustainable nuclear development, and use of 'nuclear symbiosis'. The primary focus of this paper is on how nuclear symbiosis could be used to achieve a user-state's desired economic, energy, and infrastructure development end states. The desired result from this 'symbiosis' is a nuclear-centered industrial complex that creates new economic opportunities through infrastructure improvements, human resource skills development and the development of new sustainable industries. This paper also describes the Nuclear Materials Exchange (NME) as a practical tool for performing nuclear symbiosis. The NME can be used to define existing and new international nuclear resources and

  1. Permeable Reactive Barrier: Technology Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Vukovic 1998; Taylor et al. 2002; Waybrant, Blowes, and Ptacek 1998; Robertson, Vogan, and Lombardo 2008; Hulshof et al. 2003). Solid substrates used...Reductive Dechlorination of Tetrachloroethene to Growth,” Applied Environmental Microbiology 59: 2991–97. Hulshof , A. M. H., D. W. Blowes, C. J

  2. Hanford prototype-barrier status report: FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Gilmore, B.G.; Ligotke, M.W.; Link, S.O.

    1995-11-01

    Surface barriers (or covers) have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site as a means to isolate certain waste sites that, for reasons of cost or worker safety or both, may not be exhumed. Surface barriers are intende to isolated the wastes from the accessible environment and to provide long-term protection to future populations that might use the Hanford Site. Currently, no ''proven'' long-term barrier system is available. For this reason, the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Surface-Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized to develop the technology needed to provide long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Designs have been proposed to meet the most stringent needs for long-term waste disposal. The objective of the current barrier design is to use natural materials to develop a protective barrier system that isolates wastes for at least 1000 years by limiting water, plant, animal, and human intrusion; and minimizing erosion. The design criteria for water drainage has been set at 0.5 mm/yr. While other design criteria are more qualitative, it is clear that waste isolation for an extended time is the prime objective of the design. Constructibility and performance. are issues that can be tested and dealt with by evaluating prototype designs prior to extensive construction and deployment of covers for waste sites at Hanford

  3. Limites politiques et barrières sociales dans le monde maya classique Political Limits and Social Barriers in the Classic Maya World: Reflections Based on a Few Archaeological Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Michelet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L’archéologie des Basses Terres mayas à l’époque classique est riche de données susceptibles de nous renseigner sur plusieurs types de « frontières » sociopolitiques. Si la question des limites territoriales des entités politiques du monde classique constitue, depuis les années 1970, un objectif tout à fait conscient de la recherche, bien d’autres éléments des partitionnements sociopolitiques existent, mais ils n’ont pas reçu, le plus souvent, l’attention qu’ils méritent. L’examen de quelques informations, empruntées aux résultats de projets de recherche collective récents, indique que les démarcations formelles plus ou moins minces durent être rares, qu’il y aurait même eu peu de bornages explicites et que les seuils étaient dotés d’une épaisseur certaine, leur franchissement obéissant à des codes précis et/ou impliquant des comportements ritualisés.The archaeology of the Maya Lowlands of the classical era is rich in data that are likely to have something to teach us about several types of sociopolitical “boundary”. Although research since the 1970s has consciously aimed to address the question of the territorial limits of classical-world political entities, many other elements of sociopolitical partitioning exist, but they have tended not to receive the attention they deserve. The examination of a few pieces of information, borrowed from the results of recent collective research projects, indicates that more-or-less thin formal demarcations must have been rare, that there would even have been few explicit boundary markings, and that the thresholds were endowed with a certain thickness, their crossing obeying precise codes and/or involving ritualised behaviours.

  4. Tunnel superpenetrability of potential barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhariev, B N.

    1982-01-01

    The transmission of two particles through the same barrier is considered. The limiting cases are compared when the particles are joined together in a single particle with double mass-energy and potential and when they pass the barrier independently. As an intermediate case a pair of particles bound in a quasideuteron of a finite size is considered. It is shown that long-range collective correlations of particles (of the superfluidity type and others) simplify very much for them passing through high potential barriers. This happens due to the transfer of the additional energy from the particles outside the barriers to those inside it

  5. Design of 340 GHz 2× and 4× Sub-Harmonic Mixers Using Schottky Barrier Diodes in Silicon-Based Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of terahertz 2× and 4× sub-harmonic down-mixers using Schottky Barrier Diodes fabricated in standard 0.13 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The 340 GHz sub-harmonic mixers (SHMs are designed based on anti-parallel-diode-pairs (APDPs. With the 2nd and 4th harmonic, local oscillator (LO frequencies of 170 GHz and 85 GHz are used to pump the two 340 GHz SHMs. With LO power of 7 dBm, the 2× SHM exhibits a conversion loss of 34.5–37 dB in the lower band (320–340 GHz and 35.5–41 dB in the upper band (340–360 GHz; with LO power of 9 dBm, the 4× SHM exhibits a conversion loss of 39–43 dB in the lower band (320–340 GHz and 40–48 dB in the upper band (340–360 GHz. The measured input 1-dB conversion gain compression point for the 2× and 4× SHMs are −8 dBm and −10 dBm at 325 GHz, respectively. The simulated LO-IF (intermediate frequency isolation of the 2× SHM is 21.5 dB, and the measured LO-IF isolation of the 4× SHM is 32 dB. The chip areas of the 2× and 4× SHMs are 330 μm × 580 μm and 550 μm × 610 μm, respectively, including the testing pads.

  6. Revisiting nanoparticle technology for blood-brain barrier transport: Unfolding at the endothelial gate improves the fate of transferrin receptor-targeted liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Kasper Bendix; Moos, Torben

    2016-01-28

    An unmet need exists for therapeutic compounds to traverse the brain capillary endothelial cells that denote the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to deliver effective treatment to the diseased brain. The use of nanoparticle technology for targeted delivery to the brain implies that targeted liposomes encapsulating a drug of interest will undergo receptor-mediated uptake and transport through the BBB with a subsequent unfolding of the liposomal content inside the brain, hence revealing drug release to adjacent drug-demanding neurons. As transferrin receptors (TfRs) are present on brain capillary endothelial, but not on endothelial cells elsewhere in the body, the use of TfR-targeted liposomes - colloidal particulates with a phospholipid bilayer membrane - remains the most relevant strategy to obtain efficient drug delivery to the brain. However, many studies have failed to provide sufficient quantitative data to proof passage of the BBB and significant appearance of drugs inside the brain parenchyma. Here, we critically evaluate the current evidence on the use of TfR-targeted liposomes for brain drug delivery based on a thorough investigation of all available studies within this research field. We focus on issues with respect to experimental design and data analysis that may provide an explanation to conflicting reports, and we discuss possible explanations for the current lack of sufficient transcytosis across the BBB for implementation in the design of TfR-targeted liposomes. We finally provide a list of suggestions for strategies to obtain substantial uptake and transport of drug carriers at the BBB with a concomitant transport of therapeutics into the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E.; Link, Steven O.

    2017-02-01

    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was designed as a 1000-year barrier with pre-determined design and performance objectives and demonstrated in field from 1994 to present. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barrier satisfied nearly all key objectives. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford’s semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr-1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of all the processes and mechanisms that could degrade the stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the base for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste.

  8. 手机技术现状及发展局限性%Mobile Phone Technology Status and Development Limitations Sexual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁丽华

    2013-01-01

    Guangzhou new communications equipment limited company The technology continues to update promoted constantly update and progress of the mobile phone, mobile phone technology have gradually been widespread concern, At the same time, the development of mobile phone technology provides strong support for the progress of society. This article the author analyzes the current situation of the development of mobile phone technology, and then explore the limitations of the development of mobile phone technology, and the healthy development of the mobile phone technology strategy put forward some proposals, in order to provide guidance and reference for the development of mobile phone technology%  技术的不断更新促进了手机的不断更新和进步,手机技术逐渐受到人们的普遍关注,同时,手机技术的发展为社会的进步提供了有力的支持。对手机技术的发展现状进行了分析,探讨了手机技术发展的局限性,并对手机技术的健康发展策略提出了一些建议,以便为手机技术的发展提供指导和借鉴。

  9. The use of mobile devices as assistive technology in resource-limited environments: access for learners with visual impairments in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Alan R; Masingila, Joanna O

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the authors explore the use of mobile devices as assistive technology for students with visual impairments in resource-limited environments. This paper provides initial data and analysis from an ongoing project in Kenya using tablet devices to provide access to education and independence for university students with visual impairments in Kenya. The project is a design-based research project in which we have developed and are refining a theoretically grounded intervention--a model for developing communities of practice to support the use of mobile technology as an assistive technology. We are collecting data to assess the efficacy and improve the model as well as inform the literature that has guided the design of the intervention. In examining the impact of the use of mobile devices for the students with visual impairments, we found that the devices provide the students with (a) access to education, (b) the means to participate in everyday life and (c) the opportunity to create a community of practice. Findings from this project suggest that communities of practice are both a viable and a valuable approach for facilitating the diffusion and support of mobile devices as assistive technology for students with visual impairments in resource-limited environments. Implications for Rehabilitation The use of mobile devices as assistive technology in resource-limited environments provides students with visual impairments access to education and enhanced means to participate in everyday life. Communities of practice are both a viable and a valuable approach for facilitating the diffusion and support of mobile devices as assistive technology for students with visual impairments in resource-limited environments. Providing access to assistive technology early and consistently throughout students' schooling builds both their skill and confidence and also demonstrates the capabilities of people with visual impairments to the larger society.

  10. 40 CFR 451.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional technology (BCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). 451.23 Section 451.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL... application of the best conventional technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any...

  11. 40 CFR 432.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). 432.12 Section 432.12... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as...) In the case of process wastewater associated with the slaughtering of animals on-site or the...

  12. 40 CFR 432.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). 432.42 Section 432.42... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as...) In the case of process wastewater associated with the slaughtering of animals on-site or the...

  13. 40 CFR 432.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). 432.32 Section 432.32... attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as...) In the case of process wastewater associated with slaughtering of animals on-site or the processing...

  14. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  15. Institutional distributed energy interconnection barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided an introduction to Encorp Inc., a leading provider of network technology and infrastructure management solutions for the distributed energy market. Encorp develops and markets software and hardware technology solutions for communications, control and networking of distributed energy. It is developing and implementing real-time, distributed energy-focused solutions for a wide variety of applications through new products and services which are technology neutral, and easily networked. Encorp controls more than 500 MW of distributed power with a total of 127 customers. This paper reviewed 3 barriers (regulatory, contractual/tariffs, and business practices) based on US experience. The challenge remaining is to determine if microgrids can be used effectively, and to determine the limitations of bi-directional power flows. The key issues regarding how end-users can share the costs and maximize on the benefits of distributed energy resources include: standby service charges, departing load charges, regulatory uncertainty, rate class degradation, lack of incentives for utility cost reduction, and lack of ability to create experimental tariffs. tabs., figs

  16. Enershield : energy saving air barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallihan, D. [Enershield Industries Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Enershield Industries is a leader in air barrier technology and provides solution for the Canadian climate. This presentation described the advantages of air barriers and the impact of rising energy costs. An air barrier is used to separate areas of differing environments and makes existing building systems more efficient. This presentation discussed how an air barrier works. It also identified how Enershield Industries calculates energy savings. It described air barrier applications and those who use barrier technology. These include the commercial and industrial sector as well as the personnel and retail sector. Barrier technology can be used for cold storage; vehicle and equipment washes; food processing; and environmental separation. Features and benefits such as the ability to create seal, acoustic insulation, and long term durability were also discussed. Last, the presentation addressed model selection and design criteria issues. Design criteria that were presented included a discussion of acoustic installation, articulating nozzles, scroll cased fans, and structural frame. Other design criteria presented were galvanized frames, telescopic sliders, and off the shelf parts. It was concluded that the ability to reduce energy consumption and enhance employee/client comfort is beneficial to the employer as well as to the employee. figs.

  17. Robust TaNx diffusion barrier for Cu-interconnect technology with subnanometer thickness by metal-organic plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Detavenier, C.; Straten, O. van der; Rossnagel, S.M.; Kellock, A.J.; Park, D.-G.

    2005-01-01

    TaN x diffusion barriers with good barrier properties at subnanometer thickness were deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) from pentakis(dimethylamino)Ta. Hydrogen and/or nitrogen plasma was used as reactants to produce TaN x thin films with a different nitrogen content. The film properties including the carbon and oxygen impurity content were affected by the nitrogen flow during the process. The deposited film has nanocrystalline grains with hydrogen-only plasma, while the amorphous structure was obtained for nitrogen plasma. The diffusion barrier properties of deposited TaN films for Cu interconnects have been studied by thermal stress test based on synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the PE-ALD TaN films are good diffusion barriers even at a small thickness as 0.6 nm. Better diffusion barrier properties were obtained for higher nitrogen content. Based on a diffusion kinetics analysis, the nanocrystalline microstructure of the films was responsible for the better diffusion barrier properties compared to polycrystalline PE-ALD TaN films deposited from TaCl 5

  18. Development of basic technology for instrumentation and control - Development of digital automatic supervisory limitation system and its design= validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung In; Chung, Sung Wook; Koh, Won Seok [Kyungwon University, Sungman (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Duk Young; Cheon, Sei Young [Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Kyung; Kim, Sung Hun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    A major objective of the project is to develop a digital automatic supervisory limitation system and validate its design for the next generation= nuclear power plant. The limitation system assures that the plant does not exceed the operating limits by regulation the plant operations through on-line monitoring the operating margins of the critical parameters. A new conceptual model of power maneuverability has been proposed for the design of the limitation system and for its validation. Also, the limitation system monitors overall operation processes throughout a nuclear power plant by implementing hierarchical communication networks. Based on the conceptual design in software of the 1 st year results, the detailed design of the limitation system has been performed during the 2 nd year with constructing a prototype digital system. The system consists of the software module for plant simulation and the hardware module for implementation of limitation system and the associated interfaces in hardware. The limitation algorithm were implemented into the microprocessor and the interfaces were realized through the I/O modules. Also, these modules are incorporated into the communication networks. The products of the project could be directly applicable to the following nuclear unit adopting the limitation system, providing the bumpless transition to the commercial design phase. And the prototype evaluation scheme will be very useful for the succeeding studies related to the digital nuclear I and C fields, such as fault-tolerance design methods, software verification and validation and response time execution of digital systems. 69 refs., 3 tabs., 44 figs. (author)

  19. High Performance Multi Barrier Thermionic Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2003-01-01

    Thermoelectric transport perpendicular to layers in multiple barrier superlattice structures is investigated theoretically in two limiting cases of no lateral momentum scattering and strong scattering...

  20. Rawls's Wide Reflective Equilibrium as a Method for Engaged Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Potentials and Limitations for the Context of Technological Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Neelke; Taebi, Behnam

    2018-05-01

    The introduction of new technologies in society is sometimes met with public resistance. Supported by public policy calls for "upstream engagement" and "responsible innovation," recent years have seen a notable rise in attempts to attune research and innovation processes to societal needs, so that stakeholders' concerns are taken into account in the design phase of technology. Both within the social sciences and in the ethics of technology, we see many interdisciplinary collaborations being initiated that aim to address tensions between various normative expectations about science and engineering and the actual outcomes. However, despite pleas to integrate social science research into the ethics of technology, effective normative models for assessing technologies are still scarce. Rawls's wide reflective equilibrium (WRE) is often mentioned as a promising approach to integrate insights from the social sciences in the normative analysis of concrete cases, but an in-depth discussion of how this would work in practice is still lacking. In this article, we explore to what extent the WRE method can be used in the context of technology development. Using cases in engineering and technology development, we discuss three issues that are currently neglected in the applied ethics literature on WRE. The first issue concerns the operationalization of abstract background theories to moral principles. The second issue concerns the inclusiveness of the method and the demand for openness. The third issue is how to establish whether or not an equilibrium has been reached. These issues should be taken into account when applying the methods to real-world cases involving technological risks. Applying the WRE method in the context of engaged interdisciplinary collaboration requires sensitivity for issues of power and representativeness to properly deal with the dynamics between the technical and normative researchers involved as well as society at large.

  1. Floating barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-05-06

    This floating barrier consists of relatively long elements which can be connected to form a practically continuous assembly. Each element consists of an inflatable tube with an apron of certain height, made of impregnated fabric which is resistant to ocean water and also to hydrocarbons. Means for connecting one element to the following one, and means for attaching ballast to the apron are also provided.

  2. Ethylene vinyl alcohol: a review of barrier properties for packaging shelf stable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, K Khanah; Tang, Juming

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) is one of the best known flexible thermoplastic oxygen barrier materials in use today. It is especially important for refrigerated and shelf-stable foods where oxygen deteriorates the quality of packaged products and reduces their shelf life. EVOH accounts for a majority of thermoplastic barrier materials used for rigid or semi-rigid retortable food containers. However. it is of limited use in flexible packages or lid films for rigid trays used for packaging thermally processed shelf-stable low acid foods due to its moisture sensitivity. Nevertheless, current use of other oxygen barrier materials such as polyvinylidene chloride and aluminum foil creates environmental concerns. Innovations in food processing technologies provide opportunities for increased use of EVOH in food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of research on the oxygen barrier properties of EVOH from the perspective of structure-barrier property relationships and the consequences of food processing conditions.

  3. Passive Barriers to Inadvertent Human Intrusion for Use at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-01-01

    In July1996, BN transmitted Passive Barriers to Inadvertent Human Intrusion for Use at the Nevada Test Site to the United States Department of Energy, under Contract DE-AC08-91NV10833. The 1996 paper had a limited distribution and was not reviewed for public release. In 2007, National Security Technologies LLC (NSTec) made minor revisions to conform to current editorial standards of the NNSA/NSO and to meet current security requirements for public release. The primary purpose of this study was to identify types of engineered passive barriers that could deter future intrusion into buried low-level radioactive waste, particularly intrusion by drilling water wells. The study considered drilling technology, many natural and man-made materials, and both underground and above-ground barriers. Based on cost and effectiveness, the report recommended underground barriers consisting of a layer of rubble or tires. An aboveground barrier mound might also prove effective, but would cost more, and may become an attractive nuisance (e.g., might, after their purpose has been forgotten, encourage exploration for the sake of satisfying curiosity). Advances in drilling technology could render any engineered barriers ineffective if there is motivation to penetrate the barriers

  4. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawl, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method's with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations

  5. Barriers and opportunities: A review of selected successful energy-efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    In industry, barriers may exist at various points in the decision making process, and in the implementation and management of measures to improve energy efficiency. Barriers may take many forms, and are determined by the business environment and include decision-making processes, energy prices, lack of information, a lack of confidence in the information, or high transaction costs for obtaining reliable information, as well as limited capital availability. Other barriers are the ''invisibility'' of energy efficiency measures and the difficulty of quantifying the impacts, and slow diffusion of innovative technology into markets while firms typically under-invest in R and D, despite the high pay-backs. Various programs try to reduce the barriers to improve the uptake of innovative technologies. A wide array of policies has been used and tested in the industrial sector in industrialized countries, with varying success rates. We review some new approaches to industrial energy efficiency improvement in industrialized countries, focusing on voluntary agreements

  6. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Anoja

    2011-01-01

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  7. Big Data as Information Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article covers analysis of ‘Big Data’ which has been discussed over last 10 years. The reasons and factors for the issue are revealed. It has proved that the factors creating ‘Big Data’ issue has existed for quite a long time, and from time to time, would cause the informational barriers. Such barriers were successfully overcome through the science and technologies. The conducted analysis refers the “Big Data” issue to a form of informative barrier. This issue may be solved correctly and encourages development of scientific and calculating methods.

  8. 40 CFR 434.72 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Coal Remining... conditions of soil, climate, topography, steep slopes, or other baseline conditions provided that the...

  9. 40 CFR 439.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Extraction Products § 439.22 Effluent limitations attainable... wastes in raw waste loads in fact, nor does it mandate any specific practice, but rather describes the...

  10. 40 CFR 439.52 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Research § 439.52 Effluent limitations attainable by the... inclusion of such wastes in raw waste loads in fact, nor does it mandate any specific practice, but rather...

  11. A Framework for Learning about Big Data with Mobile Technologies for Democratic Participation: Possibilities, Limitations, and Unanticipated Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Thomas M.; Schuler-Brown, Sarah; Way, Winmar

    2013-01-01

    As Big Data becomes increasingly important in policy-making, research, marketing, and commercial applications, we argue that literacy in this domain is critical for engaged democratic participation and that peer-generated data from mobile technologies offer rich possibilities for students to learn about this new genre of data. Through the lens of…

  12. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  13. Prototype Hanford Surface Barrier: Design basis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.; Duranceau, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program (BDP) was organized in 1985 to develop the technology needed to provide a long-term surface barrier capability for the Hanford Site and other arid sites. This document provides the basis of the prototype barrier. Engineers and scientists have momentarily frozen evolving barrier designs and incorporated the latest findings from BDP tasks. The design and construction of the prototype barrier has required that all of the various components of the barrier be brought together into an integrated system. This integration is particularly important because some of the components of the protective barreir have been developed independently of other barreir components. This document serves as the baseline by which future modifications or other barrier designs can be compared. Also, this document contains the minutes of meeting convened during the definitive design process in which critical decisions affecting the prototype barrier's design were made and the construction drawings

  14. [Barriers for introducing a health technology assessment organization to inform health care decision-making in the Spanish National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artells, Juan José; Peiró, Salvador; Meneu, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    To identify difficulties, obstacles and limitations to establish an organizational structure devoted to the evaluation of healthcare technologies for incorporation, maintenance or removal from the services portfolio of the Spanish National Health System (sNHS). Panel of 14 experts, structured according to processes adapted from brainstorming, nominal group, and Rand consensus method techniques. The panel proposed 77 items as potential obstacles to the establishment of an official and independent "agency" able to inform on sNHS healthcare benefits funding or selective disinvestment. These items were focused on: 1) lack of political motivation to introduce the cost-effectiveness analysis from the state and regional governments and lack of independence and transparency of the evaluation processes, 2) the tension between a decentralized health system and evaluation activities with significant scale economies, 3) technical difficulties of the evaluation processes, including their ability to influence decision making and 4) social and professional refusal to the exclusion of healthcare benefits when it is perceived as indiscriminate. Although there is a different number and type of obstacles for developing the capacity of the sNHS to include or exclude healthcare benefits based on the evaluation of their effectiveness and efficiency, experts place in the political arena (political motivation, transparency, governance) the main difficulties to advance in this field.

  15. Analysis of Federal Stimuli to Development of New Technology by Suppliers to Automobile Manufacturers : an Exploratory Study of Barriers and Facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    The role of suppliers to the auto industry in promoting innovation is explored. Thirty-two innovations are investigated, and information on their success/failure, area of impact, and key decision points is generated. Based on this data base, barriers...

  16. The Analysis of the Relationship between Organizational Structure and Information Technology (IT): And the Barriers to Its Establishment at the University of Isfahan from the Faculty Member's Viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyman, Yarmohammadzadeh; Mohsen, Allammeh Sayyed; Hassan, Ghalavandi; Aboulghassim, Farhang; Zaman, Ajdari

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between organizational structure between IT and the barriers to its establishment in University of Isfahan from faculty member's viewpoints in 2007-2008. The questionnaires were prepared and examined based on the organization dimensions of organizational structures (formality,…

  17. Exploring Communication Technology Behaviour of Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    rasid, Nadia natasha binte mohamed; Nonis, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    Communication among adolescents with cerebral palsy can be restricted with traditional Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) device coupled with environmental and social barriers. The advance of communication technology offer solutions to reduce such barriers. Given that there is limited research in communication behaviours of…

  18. Cryogenic Barrier Demonstration Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.A.; Yarmak, E.; Long, E.L.

    2000-03-01

    A long-term frozen soil barrier was implemented at the HRE (Homogeneous Reactor Experiment) Pond facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1997. This was performed to verify the technical feasibility and costs of deploying a frozen barrier at a radiologically contaminated site. Work began in September 1996 and progressed through to December 1999. The frozen barrier has been operational since November 1997. Verification of the barrier integrity was performed independently by the EPA's SITE Program. This project showed frozen barriers offer a proven technology to retain below grade hazardous substances at relatively low costs with minimal effect on the environment.

  19. Probabilistic safety and risk assessments in the field of nuclear technology - Mode of operation, possibilities and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.

    1993-01-01

    In this study probabilistic safety and risk assessments in the field of nuclear energy are explained. Mainly qualitative results and conclusions are presented. Explanations for often discussed aspects of such analysis reveal the procedure and reasonable limits of application. The mentioned literature contains detailed results. (orig./DG) [de

  20. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  1. 40 CFR 451.21 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... aquatic animals including blood, viscera, aquatic animal carcasses, or transport water containing blood. (d) Carcass removal. Remove and dispose of aquatic animal mortalities properly on a regular basis to... CONCENTRATED AQUATIC ANIMAL PRODUCTION POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Net Pen Subcategory § 451.21 Effluent limitations...

  2. 40 CFR 437.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best available technology economically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Lead Mercury Nickel Silver Tin Titanium Vanadium Zinc (2) The in-plant limitations that apply to metal... Pyridine 2,4,6-trichlorophenol Metal parameters Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Cobalt Copper Lead Mercury Tin...-Cresol p-Cresol n-Decane Fluoranthene n-Octadecane Phenol Pyridine 2,4,6-trichlorophenol Metal parameters...

  3. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanecka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated with the little and poor communication processes they are participating in. This seems to be a result of impetuses of poor quality sent to seniors by their communication partners. Not only face to face communication but also mass communication is very important for the elderly population. Therefore limitations in using new technologies and new communication channels as well as a limited presence in the mass media of content created by seniors and for seniors have an impact on their life, their well-being, and their interpersonal relationships. These problems are especially important when we faced with the ever growing population of elderly people.

  4. Educating Health Professionals about the Electronic Health Record (EHR: Removing the Barriers to Adoption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paule Bellwood

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the healthcare industry we have had a significant rise in the use of electronic health records (EHRs in health care settings (e.g. hospital, clinic, physician office and home. There are three main barriers that have arisen to the adoption of these technologies: (1 a shortage of health professional faculty who are familiar with EHRs and related technologies, (2 a shortage of health informatics specialists who can implement these technologies, and (3 poor access to differing types of EHR software. In this paper we outline a novel solution to these barriers: the development of a web portal that provides facility and health professional students with access to multiple differing types of EHRs over the WWW. The authors describe how the EHR is currently being used in educational curricula and how it has overcome many of these barriers. The authors also briefly describe the strengths and limitations of the approach.

  5. Self-defense or undermining the self? Exploring the possibilities and limitations of a novel anti-rape technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Deborah; Rees, Gethin

    2014-03-01

    Despite decades of feminist-inspired law reforms, rape remains highly prevalent. While many continue to fight for broad cultural and institutional changes, some argue that more immediate interventions are required. Self-defense techniques represent a key strategy of resistance to rape, and empirical evidence suggests that women's active resistance may hold a number of positive benefits. In this essay, we compare the aims and objectives of a novel anti-rape technology, known as the Rape-aXe, with traditional self-defense techniques, focusing upon the potential for both to resist individual acts of sexual aggression and, more broadly, end gendered sexual violence.

  6. Pushing the limits : from better bits to faster coil, companies leverage technology to ramp up onshore drilling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.

    2009-06-15

    Horizontal drilling and drilling with coiled tubing are two well drilling techniques that have steadily gained ground in the drilling industry. Most of the techniques evolved in western Canada and Alaska, but are now being successfully used south of the border. This article discussed the leveraging of technology by drilling companies in order to ramp up onshore drilling performance. Calgary-based Xtreme Coil Drilling Corp. leveraged its unique coil over top drive rigs in order to score more speed records and set new marks in both the United States Rockies and Mexico. This article also referred to other companies and their wells that have set records, including CNX Gas Corporation and the Marcellus Shale prospect; Smith International and its horizontal turbodrilling of a Pennsylvanian reservoir; and Baker Oil Tools' new rotating, self-aligning multilateral (RAM) system. For each of these examples, the article described the technology and the challenges encountered by the companies as well as the objectives of the project, and results of the drilling efforts. 2 figs.

  7. 40 CFR 437.11 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CENTRALIZED WASTE TREATMENT POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Metals Treatment and Recovery § 437.11 Effluent limitations... (2) (2) TSS 60.0 31.0 Metal Parameters Antimony 0.249 0.206 Arsenic 0.162 0.104 Cadmium 0.474 0.0962 Chromium 15.5 3.07 Cobalt 0.192 0.124 Copper 4.14 1.06 Lead 1.32 0.283 Mercury 0.00234 0.000739 Nickel 3.95...

  8. 40 CFR 437.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Conventional Parameters BOD5 163 53.0 O&G 127 38.0 pH (2) (2) TSS 74.1 30.6 Metal Parameters Antimony 0.249 0....242 Lead 0.350 0.160 Mercury 0.00234 0.000739 Nickel 3.95 1.45 Silver 0.120 0.0351 Tin 0.409 0.120... apply to metal-bearing wastewater containing cyanide: In-Plant Limitations Regulatedparameter Maximum...

  9. Parametric dependence of density limits in the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research (TEXTOR): Comparison of thermal instability theory with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, F.A.; Stacey, W.M.; Rapp, J.

    2001-01-01

    The observed dependence of the TEXTOR [Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research: E. Hintz, P. Bogen, H. A. Claassen et al., Contributions to High Temperature Plasma Physics, edited by K. H. Spatschek and J. Uhlenbusch (Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 373] density limit on global parameters (I, B, P, etc.) and wall conditioning is compared with the predicted density limit parametric scaling of thermal instability theory. It is necessary first to relate the edge parameters of the thermal instability theory to n(bar sign) and the other global parameters. The observed parametric dependence of the density limit in TEXTOR is generally consistent with the predicted density limit scaling of thermal instability theory. The observed wall conditioning dependence of the density limit can be reconciled with the theory in terms of the radiative emissivity temperature dependence of different impurities in the plasma edge. The thermal instability theory also provides an explanation of why symmetric detachment precedes radiative collapse for most low power shots, while a multifaceted asymmetric radiation from the edge MARFE precedes detachment for most high power shots

  10. Design and performance evaluation of a 1000-year evapotranspiration-capillary surface barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuanfang Fred; Strickland, Christopher E; Link, Steven O

    2017-02-01

    Surface barrier technology is used to isolate radioactive waste and to reduce or eliminate recharge water to the waste zone for 1000 years or longer. However, the design and evaluation of such a barrier is challenging because of the extremely long design life. After establishing a set of design and performance objectives, a package of design solutions was developed for 1000-year surface barriers over nuclear waste sites. The Prototype Hanford Barrier (PHB) was then constructed in 1994 in the field over an existing waste site as a demonstration. The barrier was tested to evaluate surface-barrier design and performance at the field scale under conditions of enhanced and natural precipitation and of no vegetation. The monitoring data demonstrate that the barrier satisfied nearly all objectives in the past two decades. The PHB far exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act criteria, functioned in Hanford's semiarid climate, limited drainage to well below the 0.5 mm yr -1 performance criterion, limited runoff, and minimized erosion and bio-intrusion. Given the two-decade record of successful performance and consideration of the processes and mechanisms that could affect barrier stability and hydrology in the future, the results suggest the PHB is very likely to perform for its 1000-year design life. This conclusion is based on two assumptions: (1) the exposed subgrade receives protection against erosion and (2) institutional controls prevent inadvertent human activity at the barrier. The PHB design can serve as the basis for site-specific barriers over waste sites containing underground nuclear waste, uranium mine tailings, and hazardous mine waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying Efficacy and Limits of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Technology for Weed Seedling Detection as Affected by Sensor Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Peña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the application of herbicides in weed-crop systems, accurate and timely weed maps of the crop-field are required. In this context, this investigation quantified the efficacy and limitations of remote images collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV for early detection of weed seedlings. The ability to discriminate weeds was significantly affected by the imagery spectral (type of camera, spatial (flight altitude and temporal (the date of the study resolutions. The colour-infrared images captured at 40 m and 50 days after sowing (date 2, when plants had 5–6 true leaves, had the highest weed detection accuracy (up to 91%. At this flight altitude, the images captured before date 2 had slightly better results than the images captured later. However, this trend changed in the visible-light images captured at 60 m and higher, which had notably better results on date 3 (57 days after sowing because of the larger size of the weed plants. Our results showed the requirements on spectral and spatial resolutions needed to generate a suitable weed map early in the growing season, as well as the best moment for the UAV image acquisition, with the ultimate objective of applying site-specific weed management operations.

  12. Quantifying efficacy and limits of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology for weed seedling detection as affected by sensor resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, José M; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Serrano-Pérez, Angélica; de Castro, Ana I; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-03-06

    In order to optimize the application of herbicides in weed-crop systems, accurate and timely weed maps of the crop-field are required. In this context, this investigation quantified the efficacy and limitations of remote images collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for early detection of weed seedlings. The ability to discriminate weeds was significantly affected by the imagery spectral (type of camera), spatial (flight altitude) and temporal (the date of the study) resolutions. The colour-infrared images captured at 40 m and 50 days after sowing (date 2), when plants had 5-6 true leaves, had the highest weed detection accuracy (up to 91%). At this flight altitude, the images captured before date 2 had slightly better results than the images captured later. However, this trend changed in the visible-light images captured at 60 m and higher, which had notably better results on date 3 (57 days after sowing) because of the larger size of the weed plants. Our results showed the requirements on spectral and spatial resolutions needed to generate a suitable weed map early in the growing season, as well as the best moment for the UAV image acquisition, with the ultimate objective of applying site-specific weed management operations.

  13. The barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... than for other diseases, which results in chronic underinvestment; reduced investment in TB drug R&D,. Pfizer withdrawal from TB R&D; AstraZeneca abandon TB R&D & close site; Novartis pull out; 4/22 Big Pharma producing antibacterials. Limited financial support to progress preclinical drug candidates from public sector.

  14. Capacities and limits of three different technologies for biological treatment of leachate from solid waste landfill sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martienssen, M. [Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/Saale (Germany). Bereich Umweltschutztechnik; Schulze, R. [Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/Saale (Germany). Bereich Umweltschutztechnik; Simon, J. [Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/Saale (Germany). Bereich Umweltschutztechnik

    1995-12-31

    Leachate from a municipal waste landfill site was treated using an activated sludge bioreactor, a fluidized bed biofilm reactor and a packed-bed column reactor (trickling filter). The leachate contained high organic matter (2.0-2.6 g/l of COD), high ammonium (300-700 mg/l) and sulphide (200-800 mg/l) concentrations, as well as low metal concentrations. The continuously operating reactors were employed to study the effects of TOC loading on the removal of TOC as well as on the nitrification and denitrification processes. Among the three biological treatment technologies investigated, the fluidized bed biofilm reactor was best with respect to removing ammonia and TOC. More than 90% of TOC and 99% of ammonia were removed when TOC loading was less than 0.5 kg/m{sup 3} x d. At a TOC loading of 4 kg/m{sup 3} x d, the removal of TOC and ammonia was 80% and 99%, respectively. In contrast, the treatment of leachate with the packed-bed reactor was successful in TOC removing only at TOC loadings less than 0.3 kg/m{sup 3} x d (TOC elimination decreased from 86% at 0.06 kg/m{sup 3} x d to 60% at 0.3 kg/m{sup 3} x d). However, the reactor was active in nitrification even at a higher TOC loading (more than a 98% ammonia elimination at a TOC loading of 0.5 kg/m{sup 3} x d). Leachate was processed in the activated sludge reactor when TOC loading was less than 0.5 kg/m{sup 3} x d (with a removal of TOC and ammonia up to 83% and 99%, respectively). The activated sludge reactor was also effective in TOC removal at a higher TOC loading (e.g. a 74% TOC removal at a TOC loading of 1 kg/m{sup 3} x d), but for ammonia elimination, the activity continuously decreased (less than 60% ammonia removal at a TOC loading of 1 kg/m{sup 3} x d). Overloading in the activated sludge system was indicated by a high concentration of ammonia and nitrite in the effluent. In the packed bed reactor, overloading was characterized by a progressively incomplete TOC removal. (orig./EF)

  15. Barriers to cross--institutional health information exchange: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ashley; Hollin, Ilene; Barry, Jeffrey; Kachnowski, Stan

    2010-01-01

    While the development of health information technology, particularly electronic health records (EHR), is a triumph for the advancement of healthcare, non-interoperable clinical data systems lead to fragmented communication and incomplete records. If interoperable HIT systems could be achieved integrated HIT could be leveraged to lessen medical errors, improve patient care and optimize epidemiological research. To understand the barriers to interoperability or health information exchange (HIE), we reviewed the literature on HIT and barriers to HIE. Our search yielded 492 articles, 25 meeting our inclusion criteria. In general, we found that the predominant barriers to HIE are need for standards, security concerns, economic loss to competitors, and federated systems. Research on interoperability is limited because most HIE programs are still in formative stages. More research is needed to fully understand interoperability of HIT, how to overcome the barriers to interoperability, and how to design HIT to better facilitate HIE.

  16. Sprache als Barriere (Language as a Barrier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheier, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    The concept of language barrier has its derivations in the fields of dialectology, sociology and psychology. In contemporary usage however, the concept has two meanings i.e. regional-cultural barrier and socio-cultural barrier. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  17. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  18. Economic alternatives for containment barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, P.J.; Jasperse, B.H.; Fisher, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Fixation, barriers, and containment of existing landfills and other disposal areas are often performed by insitu auger type soil mixing and jet grouting. Cement or other chemical reagents are mixed with soil to form both vertical and horizontal barriers. Immobilization of contaminants can be economically achieved by mixing soil and the contaminants with reagents that solidify or stabilize the contaminated area. Developed in Japan, and relatively new to the United States, the first large scale application was for a vertical barrier at the Jackson Lake Dam project in 1986. This technology has grown in both the civil and environmental field since. The paper describes current United States practice for Deep Soil Mixing (over 12 meters in depth), and Shallow Soil Mixing for vertical barriers and stabilization/solidification, and Jet Grouting for horizontal and vertical barriers. Creating very low permeability barriers at depth with minimal surface return often makes these techniques economical when compared to slurry trenches. The paper will discuss equipment, materials, soil and strength parameters, and quality control

  19. Robotics in rehabilitation: technology as destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Joel

    2012-11-01

    Robotic aids for rehabilitation hold considerable promise but have not yet achieved widespread clinical adoption. Barriers to adoption include the limited data on efficacy, the single-purpose design of existing robots, financial considerations, and clinician lack of familiarity with this technology. Although the path forward to clinical adoption may be slow and have several false starts, the labor-saving aspect of robotic technology will ultimately ensure its adoption.

  20. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Barriers and facilitators to Electronic Medical Records usage in the Emergency Centre at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi-Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adwoa Gyamfi

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: The EMR has been a partial success. The facilitators identified in this study, namely training, provision of logistics, and staff commitment represent foundations to work from. The barriers identified could be addressed with additional funding, provision of information technology expertise, and data and power back up. It is acknowledged that lack of funding could substantially limit EMR implementation.

  2. Market Barriers to Increased Efficiency in the European On-road Freight Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarnink, S.; Faber, J.; Den Boer, E.

    2012-10-15

    There are numerous technical and operational measures available to improve the fuel efficiency of truck fleets, but many of these measures are currently not universally implemented. Even cost-effective measures (i.e., measures which can be implemented with net fuel savings that outweigh the initial technology costs and potentially at a net profit) are often not adopted. The main barrier is the lack of information on the fuel savings of individual technical measures for trucks and especially trailers. While many transport companies and all original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are aware that certain technologies exist, few respondents believe that these technologies are cost-effective. As a result of this belief, the supply of fuel-saving technologies from OEMs is limited. This report aims to better understand the reasons for the limited adoption of cost-effective fuel-saving technologies and to inform the policy-making process in the European Union and abroad, and specifically to provide input to the European Commission's strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HDVs. The primary goal of the study is to identify the barriers to the implementation of technologies that improve fuel efficiency in the European road freight transport sector. For this report, the existence and importance of barriers were analyzed through surveys of and interviews with transport companies, OEMs, shippers and logistics service providers.

  3. Transforming environmental permitting and compliance policies to promote pollution prevention: Removing barriers and providing incentives to foster technology innovation, economic productivity, and environmental protection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, D.R.; Kerr, R.L.; Fleischer, S.; Gorsen, M.; Harris, E.

    1993-04-01

    The Technology Innovation and Economics (TIE) Committee, a standing committee of EPA's National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT), has concluded that major changes are needed in federal and state permitting and compliance programs to encourage adoption of practical pollution prevention approaches to environmental protection. The Committee recommends seven major areas for improvement, including: (1) Redesigning permit procedures to encourage regulated facilities to expand multi-media and pollution prevention environmental improvement efforts; (2) Accelerating development and use of innovative pollution prevention technologies and techniques through special permitting and review procedures during RD ampersand D and commercialization phases; (3) Developing and expanding federal and state pollution prevention enforcement initiative; (4) Supporting state initiatives in pollution prevention facility planning; (5) Expanding pollution prevention-related training, educational and technology diffusion efforts to better reach managers in all sectors of the economy; (6) Altering personnel reward systems to encourage EPA staff to champion pollution prevention; (7) Expanding and publicizing the system of national awards honoring outstanding pollution prevention research, training and technology implementation

  4. Barriers for realisation of energy savings in buildings; Barrierer for realisering af energibesparelser i bygninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O.M.

    2004-07-01

    Many years' efforts within the energy labelling area have shown large saving potentials in heating and use of electricity in buildings. At the same time it has been proved that these saving potentials, even when economically advantageous, only are cashed to a limited extent. The reason to this is ascribed to barriers that meet the individual building owner who wants to start saving energy. Most barriers are known and a lot of these have been sought overcome for some time. The questions are how many barriers still exist, have new barriers arisen and the character of these barriers. On this background the objective of this survey has been to concretize and study the barriers, which are blocking reasonable energy savings. Focus has especially been on barriers for realisation of heating savings, but through a general evaluation of energy savings of barriers other forms of energy saving methods have been taken into consideration. Special interest has been directed towards houses, typically one family houses, which are affected by the Energy Labelling Scheme. The concept barriers include all kinds of barriers, also barriers that not are acknowledged as barriers by the individual house owner, or that on closer inspection turn out to be something else than actual barriers. This note suggests an alternative inertia model, in order to create an idea of the inertness characteristic of the many house owners who understand the message but fail to act on it. (BA)

  5. Radiation technology enabled market access to Indian mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    International trade in agricultural produce is subject to quarantine barriers imposed by importing countries to limit the entry of exotic pests and pathogens. Radiation technology provides an effective alternative to fumigants which are being gradually phased out. The technology has enabled market access to Indian mangoes in the US market after a gap of 18 years. The technology provides opportunity for export of other fruits and vegetables as well to countries like US, Australia and New Zealand. (author)

  6. Designing an Iterative Learning Control Algorithm Based on Process History using limited post process geometrical information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endelt, Benny Ørtoft; Volk, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    , there is a number of obstacles which need to be addressed before an industrial implementation is possible, e.g. the proposed control algorithms are often limited by the ability to sample process data with both sufficient accuracy and robustness - this lack of robust sampling technologies is one of the main barriers...

  7. Barriers Associated with the Use of English in the Teaching of Technology in Grade 9 at Some Schools in Eastern Cape Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makgato, Moses

    2015-01-01

    English is the language of learning and teaching in most schools in South Africa. The ability of teachers and students to understand and communicate with each other in English contributes to better performance in Science and Technology subjects. This article explores the challenges posed by the use of English in the teaching and learning of…

  8. Review and analysis of potential safety impacts of and regulatory barriers to fuel efficiency technologies and alternative fuels in medium- and heavy-duty vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes a safety analysis of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles (MD/HDVs) equipped with fuel efficiency (FE) technologies and/or using alternative fuels (natural gas-CNG and LNG, propane, biodiesel and power train electrification). The st...

  9. The Perceptions of the Automotive Supply Industry Related to Information Technology Utilization and Creating Barriers to Competitive Market Entry: A Case Study of the Implications for Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargal, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine information technology/systems strategy related factors in the automotive supply industry based on responses to the Strategic Planning and Business Performance Survey provided to automotive suppliers. This population produces supplies to the automotive industry with products valued at hundreds of billions…

  10. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  11. Cloud computing challenges, limitations and R&D solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmood, Zaigham

    2014-01-01

    This important text/reference reviews the challenging issues that present barriers to greater implementation of the cloud computing paradigm, together with the latest research into developing potential solutions. Exploring the strengths and vulnerabilities of cloud provision and cloud environments, Cloud Computing: Challenges, Limitations and R&D Solutions provides case studies from a diverse selection of researchers and practitioners of international repute. The implications of emerging cloud technologies are also analyzed from the perspective of consumers. Topics and features: presents

  12. Facilitators of and Barriers to mHealth Adoption in Older Adults With Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajita, Maan Isabella; Hodgson, Nancy A; Lam, Katherine Wai; Yoo, Sera; Han, Hae-Ra

    2018-05-04

    The purpose of this descriptive, exploratory study was to assess the perceptions of older adults with heart failure regarding the use of mobile technology and to identify potential facilitators of and barriers to mHealth adoption. Semistructured interviews were used to collect data. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The findings indicated that older adults do not base their intention to use mHealth solely on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness, as outlined in the Technology Acceptance Model. The following themes emerged from the content analysis: facilitators included previous experience with mobile technology, willingness to learn mHealth, ease of use, presence of useful features, adequate training, free equipment, and doctor's recommendation; barriers included lack of knowledge regarding how to use mHealth, decreased sensory perception, lack of need for technology, poorly designed interface, cost of technology, and limited/fixed income. Overall, the findings suggest that older adults are willing to use mobile health technology, albeit with reservations. Future researchers who seek to implement mHealth-based interventions should address person-related, technology-related, and contextual barriers, and simultaneously capitalize on the influence of potential facilitators, such as a physician's recommendation, to promote mHealth adoption.

  13. Limits on safety in technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1984-01-01

    Owing to the difficulty of establishing a clear and generally binding definition of the term ''safety'', an explanation has been given of the five typical and/or most frequently encountered categories of accident causes. Following quantification of the hazards with the aid of safety factors and reliability parameters, examples of component and system failures are discussed from the nuclear engineering sector, together with the results of risk studies. In conclusion the relationship between man and machine is outlined, taking due account of malfunctions and the prevention of hazards and the superordinate problem of technical safety and ethics is also mentioned. (orig.) [de

  14. Long-Term Climate Change Assessment Task for the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program: Status through FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, K.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US); Chatters, J.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-07-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized (Adams and Wing 1986) to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The goals of the Barrier Development Program are to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 years; to isolate wastes from the accessible environment; and to use markers to warn inadvertent human intruders. Evidence for barrier performance will be obtained by conducting laboratory experiments, field tests, computer modeling, and other studies that establish confidence in the barrier`s ability to meet its 1,000-year design life. The performance and stability of natural barrier analogs that have existed for several millennia and the reconstruction of climate changes during the past 10,000 to 125,000 years also will provide insight into bounding conditions of possible future changes and increase confidence in the barriers design. In the following discussion the term {open_quotes}long-term{close_quotes} references periods of time up to 1000`s of years, distinguishing it from {open_quotes}short-term{close_quotes} weather patterns covering a decade or less. Specific activities focus on planning and conducting a series of studies and tests required to confirm key aspects of the barrier design. The effort is a collaborative one between scientists and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to design barriers to limit movement of radionuclides and other contaminants to the accessible environment for at least 1,000 years. These activities have been divided into 14 groups of tasks that aid in the complete development of protective barrier and warning marker system.

  15. Psychometric properties of the 25-item Work Limitations Questionnaire in Japan: factor structure, validity, and reliability in information and communication technology company employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yuko; Matsushima, Eisuke; Uji, Masayo

    2014-02-01

    The 25-item Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ-25) measures presenteeism but has not been sufficiently validated in a Japanese population. A total of 451 employees from four information technology companies in Tokyo completed the WLQ-25 and questionnaires of other variables on two occasions, 2 weeks apart. The WLQ-25 yielded a two-factor structure: Cognitive Demand and Physical Demand. These subscales showed good internal consistency, and both were associated with adverse working conditions, greater perceived job strain, lower skill use, poorer workplace social support, and less satisfactory psychological adjustment. Intraclass correlation coefficients of the two WLQ-25 subscales between time 1 and time 2 were 0.78 and 0.55, respectively. This study suggests acceptable psychometric properties of the WLQ-25 in Japan.

  16. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications : production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, David; Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep; Vuille, François

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study...

  17. Permeation Barrier Coatings for the Helical Heat Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinko, P.S.

    1999-01-01

    A permeation barrier coating was specified for the Helical Heat Exchanger (HHE) to minimize contamination through emissions and/or permeation into the nitrogen system for ALARA reasons. Due to the geometry of the HHE, a special coating practice was needed since the conventional method of high temperature pack aluminization was intractable. A survey of many coating companies was undertaken; their coating capabilities and technologies were assessed and compared to WSRC needs. The processes and limitations to coating the HHE are described. Slurry coating appears to be the most technically sound approach for coating the HHE

  18. FY 2000 research and development of fundamental technologies for AC superconducting power devices. R and D of fundamental technologies for superconducting power cables and faults current limiters, R and D of superconducting magnets for power applications, and study on the total systems and related subjects; 2000 nendo koryu chodendo denryoku kiki kiban gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chodendo soden cable kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chodendo genryuki kiban gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, denryokuyo chodendo magnet no kenkyu kaihatsu, total system nado no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The project for research and development of fundamental technologies for AC superconducting power devices has been started, and the FY 2000 results are reported. The R and D of fundamental technologies for superconducting power cables include grasping the mechanical characteristics associated with integration necessary for fabrication of large current capacity and long cables; development of barrier cable materials by various methods; and development of short insulated tubes as cooling technology for long superconducting cables, and grasping its thermal/mechanical characteristics. The R and D of faults current limiters include introduction of the unit for superconducting film fabrication, determination of the structures and layouts for large currents, and improvement of performance of each device for high voltages. R and D of superconducting magnets for power applications include grasping the fundamental characteristics of insulation at cryogenic temperature, completion of the insulation designs for high voltage/current lead bushing, and development of prototype sub-cooled nitrogen cooling unit for cooling each AC power device. Study on the total systems and related subjects include analysis for stabilization of the group model systems, to confirm improved voltage stability when the superconducting cable is in service. (NEDO)

  19. A quasi-Delphi study on technological barriers to the uptake of hydrogen as a fuel for transport applications-Production, storage and fuel cell drivetrain considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, David; Anghel, Alexandra T.; Huijsmans, Joep; Vuille, François

    The introduction of hydrogen in transport, particularly using fuel cell vehicles, faces a number of technical and non-technical hurdles. However, their relative importance is unclear, as are the levels of concern accorded them within the expert community conducting research and development within this area. To understand what issues are considered by experts working in the field to have significant potential to slow down or prevent the introduction of hydrogen technology in transport, a study was undertaken, primarily during 2007. Three key technology areas within hydrogen transport were selected - hydrogen storage, fuel cell drivetrains, and small-scale hydrogen production - and interviews with selected experts conducted. Forty-nine experts from 34 organisations within the fuel cell, automotive, industrial gas and other related industries participated, in addition to some key academic and government figures. The survey was conducted in China, Japan, North America and Europe, and analysed using conventional mathematical techniques to provide weighted and averaged rankings of issues viewed as important by the experts. It became clear both from the interviews and the subsequent analysis that while a primary concern in China was fundamental technical performance, in the other regions cost and policy were rated more highly. Although a few individual experts identified possible technical showstoppers, the overall message was that pre-commercial hydrogen fuel cell vehicles could realistically be on the road in tens of thousands within 5 years, and that full commercialisation could take place within 10-15 years, without the need for radical technical breakthroughs. Perhaps surprisingly, the performance of hydrogen storage technologies was not viewed as a showstopper, though cost was seen as a significant challenge. Overall, however, coherent policy development was more frequently identified as a major issue to address.

  20. Opening up Global Value Chains : Web 2.0 Technologies and SME ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Opening up Global Value Chains : Web 2.0 Technologies and SME Productivity ... Researchers will examine how leading SMEs are currently using Web 2.0 technologies to increase exports, improve productivity and/or increase competitiveness; and the barriers and limitations to achieving greater ICT adoption by SMEs.

  1. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  2. Clinical Application of Picodroplet Digital PCR Technology for Rapid Detection of EGFR T790M in Next-Generation Sequencing Libraries and DNA from Limited Tumor Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsu, Laetitia; Intrieri, Julie; Thampi, Linta; Yu, Helena; Riely, Gregory; Nafa, Khedoudja; Chandramohan, Raghu; Ladanyi, Marc; Arcila, Maria E

    2016-11-01

    Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a robust technology for comprehensive assessment of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas with acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, it may not provide sufficiently rapid and sensitive detection of the EGFR T790M mutation, the most clinically relevant resistance biomarker. Here, we describe a digital PCR (dPCR) assay for rapid T790M detection on aliquots of NGS libraries prepared for comprehensive profiling, fully maximizing broad genomic analysis on limited samples. Tumor DNAs from patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas and acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors were prepared for Memorial Sloan-Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets sequencing, a hybrid capture-based assay interrogating 410 cancer-related genes. Precapture library aliquots were used for rapid EGFR T790M testing by dPCR, and results were compared with NGS and locked nucleic acid-PCR Sanger sequencing (reference high sensitivity method). Seventy resistance samples showed 99% concordance with the reference high sensitivity method in accuracy studies. Input as low as 2.5 ng provided a sensitivity of 1% and improved further with increasing DNA input. dPCR on libraries required less DNA and showed better performance than direct genomic DNA. dPCR on NGS libraries is a robust and rapid approach to EGFR T790M testing, allowing most economical utilization of limited material for comprehensive assessment. The same assay can also be performed directly on any limited DNA source and cell-free DNA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacogenetics in Europe: barriers and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwitz, D; Zika, E; Hopkins, M M; Gaisser, S; Ibarreta, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation in the field of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics (PGx) in Europe. High expectations surrounding the clinical application of PGx remain largely unmet, as only a limited number of such applications have actually reached the market and clinical practice. Thus, the potential impact of PGx-based diagnostics on healthcare and its socio-economic implications are still unclear. With the aim of shedding some light on these uncertainties, the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) has conducted a review of the 'state of the art' and a further analysis on the use of pharmacogenetics diagnostics for preventing toxic drug reactions and improving drug efficacy in Europe. The paper presents highlights from the JRC-IPTS studies and discusses possibilities for improving translation of PGx research in Europe by comparing some experiences in the USA. We also illustrate the related barriers for the clinical uptake of PGx in Europe with specific case-studies. Most of the barriers identified extend beyond the European context. This reflects the global problems of scarcity of data demonstrating proven clinical validity or utility and favorable cost-effectiveness studies to support the clinical application of PGx diagnostic tests in the clinical setting. Another key barrier is the lack of incentives for the private sector to invest in the development and licensing of PGx diagnostic tests for improving the safety and efficacy of out-of-patent drugs. It therefore seems that one key aspect where policy can affect the clinical uptake of PGx is via sustaining large-scale industry-academia collaborations for developing and proving the utility of PGx diagnostics. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Linguistic Barriers and Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    The influence of language on social capital in low-skill and ethnically diverse workplaces has thus far received very limited attention within the sociology of work. As the ethnically diverse workplace is an important social space for the construction of social relations bridging different social...... groups, the sociology of work needs to develop a better understanding of the way in which linguistic diversity influences the formation of social capital, i.e. resources such as the trust and reciprocity inherent in social relations in such workplaces. Drawing on theories about intergroup contact...... and intercultural communication, this article analyses interviews with 31 employees from two highly ethnically diverse Danish workplaces. The article shows how linguistic barriers such as different levels of majority language competence and their consequent misunderstandings breed mistrust and hostility, whilst...

  5. Telehomecare in The Netherlands: Barriers to implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HSM Kort; Joost van Hoof

    2012-01-01

    Telehomecare is one of the technological solutions used by older persons to remain living at home in their own community. A selection of 85 Dutch telehomecare projects was examined in terms of the barriers to their implementation. Three categories of telehomecare technologies were distinguished: (i)

  6. Telehomecare in the Netherlands : barriers to implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, H.S.M.; Hoof, van J.

    2012-01-01

    Telehomecare is one of the technological solutions used by older persons to remain living at home in their own community. A selection of 85 Dutch telehomecare projects was examined in terms of the barriers to their implementation. Three categories of telehomecare technologies were distinguished: (i)

  7. Long-Term Climate Change Assessment Task for the Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program: Status through FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.L.; Chatters, J.C.

    1993-07-01

    The Hanford Site Permanent Isolation Barrier Development Program (Barrier Development Program) was organized (Adams and Wing 1986) to develop the technology needed to provide an in-place disposal capability for the US Department of Energy at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. The goals of the Barrier Development Program are to provide defensible evidence that final barrier design(s) will adequately control water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion for a minimum of 1,000 years; to isolate wastes from the accessible environment; and to use markers to warn inadvertent human intruders. Evidence for barrier performance will be obtained by conducting laboratory experiments, field tests, computer modeling, and other studies that establish confidence in the barrier's ability to meet its 1,000-year design life. The performance and stability of natural barrier analogs that have existed for several millennia and the reconstruction of climate changes during the past 10,000 to 125,000 years also will provide insight into bounding conditions of possible future changes and increase confidence in the barriers design. In the following discussion the term open-quotes long-termclose quotes references periods of time up to 1000's of years, distinguishing it from open-quotes short-termclose quotes weather patterns covering a decade or less. Specific activities focus on planning and conducting a series of studies and tests required to confirm key aspects of the barrier design. The effort is a collaborative one between scientists and engineers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to design barriers to limit movement of radionuclides and other contaminants to the accessible environment for at least 1,000 years. These activities have been divided into 14 groups of tasks that aid in the complete development of protective barrier and warning marker system

  8. Chitosan-Sodium Phytate Films with a Strong Water Barrier and Antimicrobial Properties Produced via One-Step-Consecutive-Stripping and Layer-by-Layer-Casting Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Xiong, Liu; Li, Man; Sun, Qingjie

    2018-06-20

    The pursuit of sustainable functional materials requires the development of materials based on renewable resources and efficient fabrication methods. Here, we first fabricated chitosan-sodium phytate films via one-step-stripping and layer-by-layer-casting technologies. The proposed film-fabrication methods are general, facile, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and easy to scale up. The resultant one-step-stripped film was thin (9 ± 1 μm), soft, transparent, and strong, whereas the thickness of the layer-by-layer-cast film was 70 ± 3 μm. FTIR analysis of the films indicated the formation of interactions between the phosphoric groups in sodium phytate and the amino groups in chitosan. More importantly, the water-vapor-permeability values of the one-step-stripped and cast films were 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than chitosan films reported before. Layer-by-layer-cast films in particular exhibited high tensile strength (49.21 ± 1.12 MPa) and were more than three times stronger than other polyelectrolyte multilayer films. Both types of films remained stable in an acidic environment. Furthermore, the layer-by-layer-assembled films presented greater antimicrobial activity than the stripped films. The developed chitosan-sodium phytate films can enhance several biomedical and environmental applications, such as packaging, drug delivery, diagnostics, microfluidics, and biosensing.

  9. Barrier cell sheath formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.

    1980-04-01

    The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate

  10. Richards Barrier LA Reference Design Feature Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.E. Kramer

    1999-01-01

    The Richards Barrier is one of the design features of the repository to be considered for the License Application (LA), Richards was a soil scientist who first described the diversion of moisture between two materials with different hydrologic properties. In this report, a Richards Barrier is a special type of backfill with a fine-grained material (such as sand) overlaying a coarse-grained material (such as gravel). Water that enters an emplacement drift will first encounter the fine-grained material and be transported around the coarse-grained material covering the waste package, thus protecting the waste package from contact with most of the groundwater. The objective of this report is to discuss the benefits and liabilities to the repository by the inclusion of a Richards Barrier type backfill in emplacement drifts. The Richards Barrier can act as a barrier to water flow, can reduce the waste package material dissolution rate, limit mobilization of the radionuclides, and can provide structural protection for the waste package. The scope of this report is to: (1) Analyze the behavior of barrier materials following the intrusion of groundwater for influxes of 1 to 300 mm per year. The report will demonstrate diversion of groundwater intrusions into the barrier over an extended time period when seismic activity and consolidation may cause the potential for liquefaction and settlement of the Richards Barrier. (2) Review the thermal effects of the Richards Barrier on material behavior. (3) Analyze the effect of rockfall on the performance of the Richards Barrier and the depth of the barrier required to protect waste packages under the barrier. (4) Review radiological and heating conditions on placement of multiple layers of the barrier. Subsurface Nuclear Safety personnel will perform calculations to determine the radiation reduction-time relationship and shielding capacity of the barrier. (5) Evaluate the effects of ventilation on cooling of emplacement drifts and

  11. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sanecka

    2014-01-01

    Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated ...

  12. Impact, meaning and need for help and support: The experience of parents caring for children with disabilities, life-limiting/life-threatening illness or technology dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Mark

    2013-03-01

    Parenting a child with complex needs or disabilities is a challenging proposition. This study, which drew upon of the experiences of the parents of 34 children (in 33 families), set out to explore the themes of impact, need for help and support and meaning/sense-making as they were related by parents. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, and an emerging theoretical framework was validated through the use of a series of mind-maps(®) which were presented to individual parents as the basis for a second round (verificational) interview. Parents were nominated into the study by health care professions who were asked to identify the subject children to one of three separate sub-groups: children with a disability; children with a life-limiting/life-threatening illness or children with a technology dependence. Comparisons were made between the three study sub-groups in order to identify areas of consistency and of inconsistency. A fourth study theme - 'battleground' emerged from entirely within the data set. Sense-making occupied a central position within the overall theoretical framework for the study and parental perception of 'battleground' presented as significant element of parental sense-making, particularly in the context of their relationships with professional staff. © The Author(s) 2012.

  13. Analysis of operational, institutional and international limitations for alternative fuel vehicles and technologies: Means/methods for implementing changes. [Public fleet groups--information needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This project focused upon the development of an approach to assist public fleet managers in evaluating the characteristics and availability of alternative fuels (AF's) and alternative fuel vehicles (AFV's) that will serve as possible replacements for vehicles currently serving the needs of various public entities. Also of concern were the institutional/international limitations for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. The City of Detroit and other public agencies in the Detroit area were the particular focus for the activities. As the development and initial stages of use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles proceeds, there will be an increasing need to provide information and guidance to decision-makers regarding differences in requirements and features of these fuels and vehicles. There wig be true differences in requirements for servicing, managing, and regulating. There will also be misunderstanding and misperception. There have been volumes of data collected on AFV'S, and as technology is improved, new data is constantly added. There are not, however, condensed and effective sources of information for public vehicle fleet managers on vehicle and equipment sources, characteristics, performance, costs, and environmental benefits. While theoretical modeling of public fleet requirements has been done, there do not seem to be readily available practical''. There is a need to provide the best possible information and means to minimize the problems for introducing the effective use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles.

  14. Frozen soil barriers for hazardous waste confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, J.G.; Leger, R.; Fu, H.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory and full field measurements have demonstrated the effectiveness of artificial ground freezing for the containment of subsurface hazardous and radioactive wastes. Bench tests and a field demonstration have shown that cryogenic barriers are impenetrable to aqueous and non aqueous liquids. As a result of the successful tests the US Department of Energy has designated frozen ground barriers as one of its top ten remediation technologies

  15. Breaching barriers to collaboration in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    Technology provoking disparate individuals to collaborate or share experiences in the public space faces a difficult barrier, namely the ordinary social order of urban places. We employed the notion of the breaching experiment to explore how this barrier might be overcome. We analyse responses...... of life in public spaces. Arising from this, we argue for the importance of qualities such as availability, facilitation, perspicuous settings, and perspicuous participants to encourage and support co-located strangers to collaborate and share experiences....

  16. Barriers to fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process

  17. Safety- barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2008-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....

  18. Safety-barrier diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan

    2007-01-01

    Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...... analysis with operational safety management....

  19. Radiant Barriers Save Energy in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Langley Research Center needed to coat the Echo 1 satellite with a fine mist of vaporized metal, and collaborated with industry to create "radiant barrier technology." In 2010, Ryan Garrett learned about a new version of the technology resistant to oxidation and founded RadiaSource in Ogden, Utah, to provide the NASA-derived technology for applications in homes, warehouses, gymnasiums, and agricultural settings.

  20. Barriers to Participation in Learning Management Systems in Saudi Arabian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alenezi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify various barriers that have hindered the adoption of LMSs in Saudi Arabian universities. Learning management systems (LMSs have been adopted in many learning institutions because of their functionalities and applications to improve pedagogy. Universities have been encouraged to use LMSs to enhance the collaborative working environment among students and between the students and their instructors. This study was done by administering 150 questionnaires to students in three universities in Saudi Arabia. Findings from the study revealed that the main barriers to the use of LMSs were inadequate technical support by the universities, negative attitude toward technology, and inadequate training on the LMS platforms. Minor barriers identified include poor Internet access and networking, limited infrastructure to support the LMS, lack of hardware and software to run the LMS, and challenges in English language proficiency.

  1. CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS MODELING FOR PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS OF SHALLOW LAND BURIAL OF LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE - 9243

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) was created to develop predictive capabilities for the aging of cementitious barriers over long timeframes. The CBP is a multi-agency, multi-national consortium working under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM-21) funded Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as the lead laboratory. Members of the CBP are SRNL, Vanderbilt University, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), SIMCO Technologies, Inc. (Canada), and the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). A first step in developing advanced tools is to determine the current state-of-the-art. A review has been undertaken to assess the treatment of cementitious barriers in Performance Assessments (PA). Representatives of US DOE sites which have PAs for their low level waste disposal facilities were contacted. These sites are the Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nevada Test Site, and Hanford. Several of the more arid sites did not employ cementitious barriers. Of those sites which do employ cementitious barriers, a wide range of treatment of the barriers in a PA was present. Some sites used conservative, simplistic models that even though conservative still showed compliance with disposal limits. Other sites used much more detailed models to demonstrate compliance. These more detailed models tend to be correlation-based rather than mechanistically-based. With the US DOE's Low Level Waste Disposal Federal Review Group (LFRG) moving towards embracing a risk-based, best estimate with an uncertainties type of analysis, the conservative treatment of the cementitious barriers seems to be obviated. The CBP is creating a tool that adheres to the LFRG chairman's paradigm of continuous improvement

  2. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain......, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well...... known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction...

  3. Unified Model of Dynamic Forced Barrier Crossing in Single Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friddle, R W

    2007-06-21

    Thermally activated barrier crossing in the presence of an increasing load can reveal kinetic rate constants and energy barrier parameters when repeated over a range of loading rates. Here we derive a model of the mean escape force for all relevant loading rates--the complete force spectrum. Two well-known approximations emerge as limiting cases; one of which confirms predictions that single-barrier spectra should converge to a phenomenological description in the slow loading limit.

  4. Mobile health (mHealth) for mental health in Asia: objectives, strategies, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian, Rachel M; Ben-Zeev, Dror

    2014-08-01

    Mobile technologies are transforming the way in which we interact with one another, access resources, find information, and conduct business around the world. Harnessing the capabilities of mobile technologies to support health care initiatives worldwide has developed into a new interdisciplinary field called mobile health (mHealth). In the current paper, we review the penetration of mobile technology in Asia, and consider the integration of mobile technologies into the study, diagnoses, and treatment of mental disorders in the region. We outline how mHealth programs could improve mental health literacy, provide greater access to mental health services, extend community-based outreach and engagement, support self-management of illness, and regulate medication distribution. We end with a consideration of the potential barriers and limitations of mHealth for mental health, including funding, language and literacy barriers, power supply considerations, data security, and privacy issues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Barrier penetration database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described

  6. Limitantes en la cirugía de catarata desde una perspectiva científico- tecnológica Limiting factors in the surgery of cataracts from a scientific-technological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet González Sotero

    2011-09-01

    constitute an example of the interaction science-technology-society and Ophthalmology has always been aware of current problems, among them the prevalence of blindness due to cataracts, which treatment is surgical, where technical and scientific developments are observed. Despite; there are millions of blind people, the majority of them from the underdeveloped countries capriciously. Conclusion: the main social limiting factors to perform the cataract surgeries are: lack of trained human resources and medical supplies, the high cost of the surgery, lack of quality in health services, remoteness of hospital facilities, social and cultural barriers, ignorance about health services, fears to negative surgery outcomes and lack of political will of the governments. Cuba has designed a national program to prevent blindness and constitutes a worldwide paradigm in Ophthalmology.

  7. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  8. Use of information barriers to protect classified information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.; Johnson, M.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Whiteson, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses the detailed requirements for an information barrier (IB) for use with verification systems that employ intrusive measurement technologies. The IB would protect classified information in a bilateral or multilateral inspection of classified fissile material. Such a barrier must strike a balance between providing the inspecting party the confidence necessary to accept the measurement while protecting the inspected party's classified information. The authors discuss the structure required of an IB as well as the implications of the IB on detector system maintenance. A defense-in-depth approach is proposed which would provide assurance to the inspected party that all sensitive information is protected and to the inspecting party that the measurements are being performed as expected. The barrier could include elements of physical protection (such as locks, surveillance systems, and tamper indicators), hardening of key hardware components, assurance of capabilities and limitations of hardware and software systems, administrative controls, validation and verification of the systems, and error detection and resolution. Finally, an unclassified interface could be used to display and, possibly, record measurement results. The introduction of an IB into an analysis system may result in many otherwise innocuous components (detectors, analyzers, etc.) becoming classified and unavailable for routine maintenance by uncleared personnel. System maintenance and updating will be significantly simplified if the classification status of as many components as possible can be made reversible (i.e. the component can become unclassified following the removal of classified objects)

  9. Learning Technology Adoption: Navy Barriers And Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    it’s slow, like the internet doesn’t work...a lot of people would fall delinquent in.” As seen in Table 2 one interviewee summed the effect of the... statistics showed this and this. You are not just going to get it to happen by word of mouth.” This suggests that demonstrating through a test or concept...more statistically rigorous study, to provide elaboration on perceptions across all communities and ranks. Ideally, we would prefer to be able to

  10. Girls and Computer Technology: Barrier or Key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the disparity in numbers of girls and boys taking math, science, and computer classes in elementary and secondary schools, and examines steps being taken to better prepare girls, especially minority girls, for an increasingly technical society. A program in Michigan is described that involved a school and business partnership. (LRW)

  11. Omnidirectional ventilated acoustic barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-long; Zhu, Yi-fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2017-11-01

    As an important problem in acoustics, sound insulation finds applications in a great variety of situations. In the existing schemes, however, there has always been a trade-off between the thinness of sound-insulating devices and their ventilating capabilities, limiting their potentials in the control of low-frequency sound in high ventilation environments. Here, we design and experimentally implement an omnidirectional acoustic barrier with a planar profile, subwavelength thickness ( 0.18 λ ), yet high ventilation. The proposed mechanism is based on the interference between the resonant scattering of discrete states and the background scattering of continuous states which induces a Fano-like asymmetric transmission profile. Benefitting from the binary-structured design of the coiled unit and hollow pipe, it maximally simplifies the design and fabrication while ensuring the ventilation for all the non-resonant units with open tubes. The simulated and measured results agree well, showing the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism to block low frequency sound coming from various directions while allowing 63% of the air flow to pass. We anticipate our design to open routes to design sound insulators and to enable applications in traditionally unattainable cases such as those calling for noise reduction and cooling simultaneously.

  12. Limits on fundamental limits to computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Igor L

    2014-08-14

    An indispensable part of our personal and working lives, computing has also become essential to industries and governments. Steady improvements in computer hardware have been supported by periodic doubling of transistor densities in integrated circuits over the past fifty years. Such Moore scaling now requires ever-increasing efforts, stimulating research in alternative hardware and stirring controversy. To help evaluate emerging technologies and increase our understanding of integrated-circuit scaling, here I review fundamental limits to computation in the areas of manufacturing, energy, physical space, design and verification effort, and algorithms. To outline what is achievable in principle and in practice, I recapitulate how some limits were circumvented, and compare loose and tight limits. Engineering difficulties encountered by emerging technologies may indicate yet unknown limits.

  13. Power, Ideology, and Technological Determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Hess

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A Commentary on Taylor Dotson’s “Technological Determinism and Permissionless Innovation as Technocratic Governing Mentalities: Psychocultural Barriers to the Democratization of Technology”

  14. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  15. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  16. Barriers to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, C T

    1986-09-01

    Opportunities for the British coal industry seem vast yet there are still barriers to progress. Seven areas are identified and discussed: mining mobility (for example, longwall mining systems are rigid and inflexible compared with American stall and pillar working); mine structure (many mines are more suitable to pit ponies than to large pieces of equipment); financial barriers (Government requires the industry to break even in 1987/88); personnel barriers (less specialization, better use of skills); safety barriers (increased use of remote control, ergonomics and robotics to protect workers); microelectronic management (nationalization has cushioned management from the market place; there is a need for a more multidisciplinary approach to the industry); and legal barriers (most legislation in the past has been in response to accidents; legislation external to the industry but affecting it is more fundamental).

  17. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H.

    1997-01-01

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10 -7 cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories

  18. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: NASA's Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    This presentation reviews NASA environmental barrier coating (EBC) system development programs and the coating materials evolutions for protecting the SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites in order to meet the next generation engine performance requirements. The presentation focuses on several generations of NASA EBC systems, EBC-CMC component system technologies for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite combustors and turbine airfoils, highlighting the temperature capability and durability improvements in simulated engine high heat flux, high pressure, high velocity, and with mechanical creep and fatigue loading conditions. The current EBC development emphasis is placed on advanced NASA 2700F candidate environmental barrier coating systems for SiC/SiC CMCs, their performance benefits and design limitations in long-term operation and combustion environments. Major technical barriers in developing environmental barrier coating systems, the coating integrations with next generation CMCs having the improved environmental stability, erosion-impact resistance, and long-term fatigue-environment system durability performance are described. The research and development opportunities for advanced turbine airfoil environmental barrier coating systems by utilizing improved compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and simulated environment testing and durability modeling are discussed.

  19. Deployment Efficiency and Barrier Effectiveness Testing of a Temporary Anti-Personnel (TAP) Barrier System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, David James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hedrick, Charles D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Ruben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This report documents tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on behalf of the U.S. Department of State to evaluate a temporary anti-personnel (TAP) barrier system developed by Mitigation Technologies. For this, the SNL Denial and Structural Assessment department developed a test protocol for the evaluation of the TAP barrier system on the basis of deployment efficiency and barrier effectiveness against a riotous/mob attack threat. The test protocol was then executed by SNL personnel and the results of the testing are documented.

  20. The synthesis of bottom-up and top-down approaches to climate policy modeling: Electric power technologies and the cost of limiting US CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, Ian Sue

    2006-01-01

    In the US, the bulk of CO 2 abatement induced by carbon taxes comes from electric power. This paper incorporates technology detail into the electricity sector of a computable general equilibrium model of the US economy to characterize electric power's technological margins of adjustment to carbon taxes and to elucidate their general equilibrium effects. Compared to the top-down production function representation of the electricity sector, the technology-rich hybrid specification produces less abatement at a higher welfare cost, suggesting that bottom-up models do not necessarily generate lower costs of abatement than top-down models. This result is shown to be sensitive to the elasticity with which technologies' generating capacities adjust to relative prices