WorldWideScience

Sample records for technological arms race

  1. The arms race between fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  2. Arms Race in Maghreb Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EL AMOURI ALLAL

    2016-01-01

    Maghreb countries competitive altitude towards each other’ s has reached a higher level by entering an arms race.Morocco and Al ̄geria have dominated more than 50 percent of the Africa’ s imported weapons,mainly because of inherited cold war mentality of competi ̄tion and hostility. Maghreb countries competition has drugged the re ̄gion into a chaos that threatens regional stability obviously which af ̄fect the domestic political stability,since military spending weakens the financial capacity of states.

  3. Interactive commputer graphics: the arms race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafemeister, D. W.

    1983-10-01

    By using interactive computer graphics (ICG) it is possible to discuss the numerical aspects of some arms race issues with more specificity and in a visual way. The number of variables involved in these issues can be quite large; computers operated in the interactive, graphical mode, can allow exploration of the variables, leading to a greater understanding of the issues. This paper will examine some examples of interactive computer grahics: (1) the relationship between silo hardening and the accuracy, yield, and reliability of ICBMs; (2) target vulnerability (Minuteman, Dense Pack); (3) counterforce vs. countervalue weapons; (4) civil defense; (5) gravitational bias error; (6) MIRV; (7) national vulnerability to a preemptive first strike; (8) radioactive fallout; (9) digital image processing with charge-coupled devices.

  4. Plants versus pathogens: an evolutionary arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan P; Gleason, Cynthia A; Foley, Rhonda C; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy B; Singh, Karam B

    2010-05-20

    The analysis of plant-pathogen interactions is a rapidly moving research field and one that is very important for productive agricultural systems. The focus of this review is on the evolution of plant defence responses and the coevolution of their pathogens, primarily from a molecular-genetic perspective. It explores the evolution of the major types of plant defence responses including pathogen associated molecular patterns and effector triggered immunity as well as the forces driving pathogen evolution, such as the mechanisms by which pathogen lineages and species evolve. Advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling, stomatal regulation, R gene-effector interactions and host specific toxins are used to highlight recent insights into the coevolutionary arms race between pathogens and plants. Finally, the review considers the intriguing question of how plants have evolved the ability to distinguish friends such as rhizobia and mycorrhiza from their many foes.

  5. Climatic gradients of arms race coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Abe, Harue; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Taniguchi, Fumiya; Sota, Teiji; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2011-05-01

    In nature, spatiotemporally dynamic coevolutionary processes play major roles in the foundation and maintenance of biodiversity. Here, we examined the arms race coevolution involving a seed-eating weevil with a long snout and its camellia plant host with a thick fruit coat (pericarp) throughout the marked climatic gradient observed across the Japanese islands. Results demonstrated that female weevils, which bored holes through camellia pericarps to lay eggs into seeds, had evolved much longer snouts than males, especially in areas in which Japanese camellia pericarps were very thick. The thickness of the plant pericarp was heritable, and the camellia plant evolved a significantly thicker pericarp on islands with the weevil than on islands without it. Across populations with weevils, resource allocation to plant defense increased with increasing annual mean temperature or annual precipitation, thereby geographically differentiating the evolutionary and ecological interactions between the two species. Given that the coevolutionary relationship exhibited appreciable variation across a relatively small range of annual mean temperatures, ongoing global climatic change can dramatically alter the coevolutionary process, thereby changing the ecological interaction between these species.

  6. SDI: Fallacy of last move in arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakoff, S. (Univ. of California, San Diego (United States))

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), sold to the American people by a persuasive president as the weapons system to end all weapons systems, turned out to be only another step in the continuing arms race, contends the author. It might already have been terminated if President Bush did not fear the conservatives who see SDI as the strategic centerpiece of the Reagan legacy. He says the project was ill-conceived from the start because it was grounded in the simple-minded faith that technology can provide the answer to the arms race. The reason it got as far as it did was because this simple-minded faith had an adherent in an exceptionally popular president who sensed correctly that the voters shared the same naive confidence. He lists several factors that contributed to the unraveling of SDI: technical opposition based upon growing evidence that the system would not work; loss of the 1986 congressional elections and a subsequent drop in appropriations; and the dramatic improvement of relations between the superpowers. He concludes that SDI is but the latest in a series of fundamentally misguided efforts by both superpowers to achieve advantage; if it proves to be the final instance of the fallacy of the last move in the annals of the Cold War, at least it will not have been altogether in vain.

  7. Effects of Classroom Instruction about Psychology and the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Linden

    The relationship between opinions toward arms control and certain related beliefs was examined in two studies involving interventions designed to change those beliefs. In study 1, 131 college students who attended a "Psychology of the Nuclear Arms Race" lecture and 98 students who did not attend the lecture completed a 20-item questionnaire…

  8. New weapons and the arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipis, K.

    1983-01-01

    In speaking about technologies that could further animate the weapons competition between the US and the USSR, it is useful to distinguish between technologies that have already been incorporated into specific weapons systems, and new technologies that are of a generic nature, can be used in a variety of applications, and can best be described by the tasks that they can perform rather than any specific weapons' application. The author discusses these in reverse order.

  9. DMPD: An arms race: innate antiviral responses and counteracting viral strategies. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18031256 An arms race: innate antiviral responses and counteracting viral strategie...s. Schroder M, Bowie AG. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Dec;35(Pt 6):1512-4. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show An arms race...: innate antiviral responses and counteracting viral strategies. PubmedID 18031256 Title An arms race

  10. Population mixing promotes arms race host–parasite coevolution

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Pedro; Ashby, Ben; Buckling, Angus

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of host–parasite coevolution are highly contingent on the qualitative coevolutionary dynamics: whether selection fluctuates (fluctuating selection dynamic; FSD), or is directional towards increasing infectivity/resistance (arms race dynamic; ARD). Both genetics and ecology can play an important role in determining whether coevolution follows FSD or ARD, but the ecological conditions under which FSD shifts to ARD, and vice versa, are not well understood. The degree of populati...

  11. Phenotypic mismatches reveal escape from arms-race coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifin, Charles T; Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D

    2008-03-11

    Because coevolution takes place across a broad scale of time and space, it is virtually impossible to understand its dynamics and trajectories by studying a single pair of interacting populations at one time. Comparing populations across a range of an interaction, especially for long-lived species, can provide insight into these features of coevolution by sampling across a diverse set of conditions and histories. We used measures of prey traits (tetrodotoxin toxicity in newts) and predator traits (tetrodotoxin resistance of snakes) to assess the degree of phenotypic mismatch across the range of their coevolutionary interaction. Geographic patterns of phenotypic exaggeration were similar in prey and predators, with most phenotypically elevated localities occurring along the central Oregon coast and central California. Contrary to expectations, however, these areas of elevated traits did not coincide with the most intense coevolutionary selection. Measures of functional trait mismatch revealed that over one-third of sampled localities were so mismatched that reciprocal selection could not occur given current trait distributions. Estimates of current locality-specific interaction selection gradients confirmed this interpretation. In every case of mismatch, predators were "ahead" of prey in the arms race; the converse escape of prey was never observed. The emergent pattern suggests a dynamic in which interacting species experience reciprocal selection that drives arms-race escalation of both prey and predator phenotypes at a subset of localities across the interaction. This coadaptation proceeds until the evolution of extreme phenotypes by predators, through genes of large effect, allows snakes to, at least temporarily, escape the arms race.

  12. Phenotypic mismatches reveal escape from arms-race coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T Hanifin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Because coevolution takes place across a broad scale of time and space, it is virtually impossible to understand its dynamics and trajectories by studying a single pair of interacting populations at one time. Comparing populations across a range of an interaction, especially for long-lived species, can provide insight into these features of coevolution by sampling across a diverse set of conditions and histories. We used measures of prey traits (tetrodotoxin toxicity in newts and predator traits (tetrodotoxin resistance of snakes to assess the degree of phenotypic mismatch across the range of their coevolutionary interaction. Geographic patterns of phenotypic exaggeration were similar in prey and predators, with most phenotypically elevated localities occurring along the central Oregon coast and central California. Contrary to expectations, however, these areas of elevated traits did not coincide with the most intense coevolutionary selection. Measures of functional trait mismatch revealed that over one-third of sampled localities were so mismatched that reciprocal selection could not occur given current trait distributions. Estimates of current locality-specific interaction selection gradients confirmed this interpretation. In every case of mismatch, predators were "ahead" of prey in the arms race; the converse escape of prey was never observed. The emergent pattern suggests a dynamic in which interacting species experience reciprocal selection that drives arms-race escalation of both prey and predator phenotypes at a subset of localities across the interaction. This coadaptation proceeds until the evolution of extreme phenotypes by predators, through genes of large effect, allows snakes to, at least temporarily, escape the arms race.

  13. March to Armageddon: The United States and the nuclear arms race, 1939 to the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powaski, R.

    1987-01-01

    This history of the events, forces, and factors that have brought the world to the brink of nuclear holocaust probes two basic questions: what factors perpetuate the nuclear arms race and why is it so difficult to end. Starting with the opening days of World War II, this study traces the escalating arms race up to the present and notes that, while nuclear arsenals continue to grow, nuclear arms treaties are on the verge of collapse.

  14. A coevolutionary arms race causes ecological speciation in crossbills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Julie W; Benkman, Craig W

    2007-04-01

    We examined three ecological factors potentially causing premating reproductive isolation to determine whether divergent selection as a result of coevolution between South Hills crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) and Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) promotes ecological speciation. One factor was habitat isolation arising because of enhanced seed defenses of lodgepole pine in the South Hills. This caused the crossbill call types (morphologically and vocally differentiated forms) adapted to alternative resources to be rare. Another occurred when crossbills of other call types moved into the South Hills late in the breeding season and feeding conditions were deteriorating so that relatively few non-South Hills crossbills bred ("immigrant infecundity"). Finally, among those crossbills that bred, pairing was strongly assortative by call type (behavioral isolation). Total reproductive isolation between South Hills crossbills and the two other crossbills most common in the South Hills (call types 2 and 5) summed to .9975 and .9998, respectively, on a scale of 0 (no reproductive isolation) to 1 (complete reproductive isolation). These extremely high levels of reproductive isolation indicate that the divergent selection resulting from the coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine is causing the South Hills crossbill to speciate.

  15. Population mixing promotes arms race host-parasite coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Pedro; Ashby, Ben; Buckling, Angus

    2015-01-07

    The consequences of host-parasite coevolution are highly contingent on the qualitative coevolutionary dynamics: whether selection fluctuates (fluctuating selection dynamic; FSD), or is directional towards increasing infectivity/resistance (arms race dynamic; ARD). Both genetics and ecology can play an important role in determining whether coevolution follows FSD or ARD, but the ecological conditions under which FSD shifts to ARD, and vice versa, are not well understood. The degree of population mixing is thought to increase host exposure to parasites, hence selecting for greater resistance and infectivity ranges, and we hypothesize this promotes ARD. We tested this by coevolving bacteria and viruses in soil microcosms and found that population mixing shifted bacteria-virus coevolution from FSD to ARD. A simple theoretical model produced qualitatively similar results, showing that mechanisms that increase host exposure to parasites tend to push dynamics towards ARD. The shift from FSD to ARD with increased population mixing may help to explain variation in coevolutionary dynamics between different host-parasite systems, and more specifically the observed discrepancies between laboratory and field bacteria-virus coevolutionary studies.

  16. Nuclear proliferation: Will the Soviet Union's collapse spawn a new arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, R.D.

    1992-06-05

    Almost 30 years ago, in the midst of the US-Soviet arms race, President John F. Kennedy warned of the danger of nuclear proliferation. Ironically, now that the Cold War is over, the prospect has become a reality. The collapse of the Soviet Union may have calmed fears of a nuclear Armageddon, but it has aroused new concerns about the spread of nuclear weapons. More than a dozen nations either have or are feverishly trying to develop nuclear arsenals, including Third World nations riven by religious and territorial disputes. If the world fails to contain the spread of nuclear-weapons technology, the balance of power that kept relative peace during the four decades of the Cold War may be displaced by a balance of terror.

  17. Type III Effector Diversification via Both Pathoadaptation and Horizontal Transfer in Response to a Coevolutionary Arms Race

    OpenAIRE

    Wenbo Ma; Dong, Frederick F. T; John Stavrinides; David S. Guttman

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the coevolutionary arms race holds a central position in our understanding of pathogen-host interactions. Here we identify the molecular mechanisms and follow the stepwise progression of an arms race in a natural system. We show how the evolution and function of the HopZ family of type III secreted effector proteins carried by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are influenced by a coevolutionary arms race between pathogen and host. We surveyed 96 isolates of P. syringae an...

  18. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  19. The Carrier Arms Race in East and South Asia: Responses to a Changing Strategic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    is indicative of the evolving naval strategic environment in the Western Pacific and Indian Ocean. Most Asian states have long refrained from...I NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited THE CARRIER ARMS...RACE IN EAST AND SOUTH ASIA: RESPONSES TO A CHANGING STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENT by Christian P. Richer September 2014 Thesis Advisor

  20. The butterfly plant arms-race escalated by gene and genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edger, Patrick P; Heidel-Fischer, Hanna M; Bekaert, Michaël; Rota, Jadranka; Glöckner, Gernot; Platts, Adrian E; Heckel, David G; Der, Joshua P; Wafula, Eric K; Tang, Michelle; Hofberger, Johannes A; Smithson, Ann; Hall, Jocelyn C; Blanchette, Matthieu; Bureau, Thomas E; Wright, Stephen I; dePamphilis, Claude W; Eric Schranz, M; Barker, Michael S; Conant, Gavin C; Wahlberg, Niklas; Vogel, Heiko; Pires, J Chris; Wheat, Christopher W

    2015-07-07

    Coevolutionary interactions are thought to have spurred the evolution of key innovations and driven the diversification of much of life on Earth. However, the genetic and evolutionary basis of the innovations that facilitate such interactions remains poorly understood. We examined the coevolutionary interactions between plants (Brassicales) and butterflies (Pieridae), and uncovered evidence for an escalating evolutionary arms-race. Although gradual changes in trait complexity appear to have been facilitated by allelic turnover, key innovations are associated with gene and genome duplications. Furthermore, we show that the origins of both chemical defenses and of molecular counter adaptations were associated with shifts in diversification rates during the arms-race. These findings provide an important connection between the origins of biodiversity, coevolution, and the role of gene and genome duplications as a substrate for novel traits.

  1. Host-parasite coevolutionary arms races give way to fluctuating selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alex R; Scanlan, Pauline D; Morgan, Andrew D; Buckling, Angus

    2011-07-01

    Host-parasite coevolution is a key driver of biological diversity and parasite virulence, but its effects depend on the nature of coevolutionary dynamics over time. We used phenotypic data from coevolving populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 and parasitic phage SBW25Φ2, and genetic data from the phage tail fibre gene (implicated in infectivity evolution) to show that arms race dynamics, typical of short-term studies, decelerate over time. We attribute this effect to increasing costs of generalism for phages and bacteria with increasing infectivity and resistance. By contrast, fluctuating selection on individual host and parasite genotypes was maintained over time, becoming increasingly important for the phenotypic properties of parasite and host populations. Given that costs of generalism are reported for many other systems, arms races may generally give way to fluctuating selection in antagonistically coevolving populations.

  2. Rapidly fluctuating environments constrain co-evolutionary arms races by impeding selective sweeps

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Ellie; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Hietala, Mikael; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Although pervasive, the impact of temporal environmental heterogeneity on coevolutionary processes is poorly understood. Productivity is a key temporally heterogeneous variable, and increasing productivity has been shown to increase rates of antagonistic arms race coevolution, and lead to the evolution of more broadly resistant hosts and more broadly infectious parasites. We investigated the effects of the grain of environmental heterogeneity, in terms of fluctuations in productivity, on bact...

  3. Ad-Blocking and Counter Blocking: A Slice of the Arms Race

    OpenAIRE

    Nithyanand, Rishab; Khattak, Sheharbano; Javed, Mobin; Vallina-Rodriguez, Narseo; Falahrastegar, Marjan; Powles, Julia E.; Cristofaro, Emiliano,; Haddadi, Hamed; Murdoch, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Adblocking tools like Adblock Plus continue to rise in popularity, potentially threatening the dynamics of advertising revenue streams. In response, a number of publishers have ramped up efforts to develop and deploy mechanisms for detecting and/or counter-blocking adblockers (which we refer to as anti-adblockers), effectively escalating the online advertising arms race. In this paper, we develop a scalable approach for identifying third-party services shared across multiple web-sites and use...

  4. Host-parasite arms races and rapid changes in bird egg appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stevens, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Coevolutionary arms races are a powerful force driving evolution, adaptation, and diversification. They can generate phenotypic polymorphisms that render it harder for a coevolving parasite or predator to exploit any one individual of a given species. In birds, egg polymorphisms should be an effective defense against mimetic brood parasites and are extreme in the African tawny-flanked prinia (Prinia subflava) and its parasite, the cuckoo finch (Anomalospiza imberbis). Here we use models of avian visual perception to analyze the appearance of prinia and cuckoo finch eggs from the same location over 40 years. We show that the two interacting populations have experienced rapid changes in egg traits. Egg colors of both species have diversified over time, expanding into avian color space as expected under negative frequency-dependent selection. Egg pattern showed signatures of both frequency-dependent and directional selection in different traits, which appeared to be evolving independently of one another. Host and parasite appear to be closely tracking one another's evolution, since parasites showed closer color mimicry of contemporaneous hosts. This correlational evidence suggests that hosts and parasites are locked in an ongoing arms race in egg appearance, driven by constant change in the selective advantage of different phenotypes, and that coevolutionary arms races can generate remarkably rapid phenotypic change.

  5. The USA Space Policy in the Context of the Termination of the Arms Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Zhuravlova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The USA Space Policy as one of the leading factors in the process of the arms race’ stop in late 80’s and early 90’s has been examined in the article. American Presidential Directives, international agreements and a wide range of research provided an opportunity to make informative conclusions about the positive role of space topics in the process of a detente and «Cold War» ending. It is important to note that the development of astronautics became one of the spin-offs from «Cold War» and the arms race, as it was the nuclear race logic that stimulated the development of weapons. At the same time, in the process of US-Soviet competition, space became a new sphere of international relations. Therefore, the cooperation in the space sphere became a symbol of the compromise and good will that were required during the most difficult negotiations about arms reduction. The warming and detente periods of international relations have been indicated. Furthermore, the majority of American and Russian researchers conclude that the Strategic Defense Initiative of Reagan became an important element of the USA strategy on the Soviet Union’s pressure, pushing it to more constructive position in negotiations on disarmament. Further results showed the effectiveness of the detente policies’ process of the USA government in this sphere. In addition, the uncertainty in the possibilities of the Soviet economy to respond to the challenge of a new stage of the space systems’ scientific and technological rivalry led to the reduction of armaments of the Soviet Union. At the same time, it was space topics discussion that provided the deepening of the detente process. It is worth to note, that space cooperation relations, which recovered during 80’s-early 90’s, have turned into an important political signal transmission channel between the two countries and caused the facilitating interaction between the parties on wider range of problems. And in the

  6. Rapidly fluctuating environments constrain coevolutionary arms races by impeding selective sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ellie; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Hietala, Mikael; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2013-08-07

    Although pervasive, the impact of temporal environmental heterogeneity on coevolutionary processes is poorly understood. Productivity is a key temporally heterogeneous variable, and increasing productivity has been shown to increase rates of antagonistic arms race coevolution, and lead to the evolution of more broadly resistant hosts and more broadly infectious parasites. We investigated the effects of the grain of environmental heterogeneity, in terms of fluctuations in productivity, on bacteria-phage coevolution. Our findings demonstrate that environmental heterogeneity could constrain antagonistic coevolution, but that its effect was dependent upon the grain of heterogeneity, such that both the rate and extent of coevolution were most strongly limited in fine-grained, rapidly fluctuating heterogeneous environments. We further demonstrate that rapid environmental fluctuations were likely to have impeded selective sweeps of resistance alleles, which occurred over longer durations than the fastest, but not the slowest, frequency of fluctuations used. Taken together our results suggest that fine-grained environmental heterogeneity constrained the coevolutionary arms race by impeding selective sweeps.

  7. Race, gender, and information technology use: the new digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A; Zhao, Yong; Kolenic, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Harold, Rena; Von Eye, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    This research examined race and gender differences in the intensity and nature of IT use and whether IT use predicted academic performance. A sample of 515 children (172 African Americans and 343 Caucasian Americans), average age 12 years old, completed surveys as part of their participation in the Children and Technology Project. Findings indicated race and gender differences in the intensity of IT use; African American males were the least intense users of computers and the Internet, and African American females were the most intense users of the Internet. Males, regardless of race, were the most intense videogame players, and females, regardless of race, were the most intense cell phone users. IT use predicted children's academic performance. Length of time using computers and the Internet was a positive predictor of academic performance, whereas amount of time spent playing videogames was a negative predictor. Implications of the findings for bringing IT to African American males and bringing African American males to IT are discussed.

  8. The phage-host arms race: Shaping the evolution of microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Adi [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Molecular Genetics; Sorek, Rotem [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Molecular Genetics

    2010-10-26

    Bacteria, the most abundant organisms on the planet, are outnumbered by a factor of 10 to 1 by phages that infect them. Faced with the rapid evolution and turnover of phage particles, bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to evade phage infection and killing, leading to an evolutionary arms race. The extensive co-evolution of both phage and host has resulted in considerable diversity on the part of both bacterial and phage defensive and offensive strategies. In this paper, we discuss the unique and common features of phage resistance mechanisms and their role in global biodiversity. Finally, the commonalities between defense mechanisms suggest avenues for the discovery of novel forms of these mechanisms based on their evolutionary traits.

  9. Mechanisms of adaptation in a predator-prey arms race: TTX-resistant sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffeney, Shana; Brodie, Edmund D; Ruben, Peter C; Brodie, Edmund D

    2002-08-23

    Populations of the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis have evolved geographically variable resistance to tetrodotoxin (TTX) in a coevolutionary arms race with their toxic prey, newts of the genus Taricha. Here, we identify a physiological mechanism, the expression of TTX-resistant sodium channels in skeletal muscle, responsible for adaptive diversification in whole-animal resistance. Both individual and population differences in the ability of skeletal muscle fibers to function in the presence of TTX correlate closely with whole-animal measures of TTX resistance. Demonstration of individual variation in an essential physiological function responsible for the adaptive differences among populations is a step toward linking the selective consequences of coevolutionary interactions to geographic and phylogenetic patterns of diversity.

  10. Race as technology: from posthuman cyborg to human industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholaos Jones

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n2p39 Cyborg and prosthetic technologies frame prominent posthumanist approaches to understanding the nature of race. But these frameworks struggle to accommodate the phenomena of racial passing and racial travel, and their posthumanist orientation blurs useful distinctions between racialized humans and their social contexts. We advocate, instead, a humanist approach to race, understanding racial hierarchy as an industrial technology. Our approach accommodates racial passing and travel. It integrates a wide array of research across disciplines. It also helpfully distinguishes among grounds of racialization and conditions facilitating impacts of such racialization.

  11. Adaptive divergence of scaling relationships mediates the arms race between a weevil and its host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2006-12-22

    Coevolution of exaggerated morphologies between insects and plants is a well-known but poorly understood phenomenon in evolutionary biology. In the antagonistic interaction between a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), and its host plant, Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica), we examined the evolutionary trajectory of an exaggerated offensive trait of the weevil (rostrum length) in terms of scaling relationship. Sampling throughout Japan revealed that the ratio of the rostrum length to overall body size was correlated with the ratio of the pericarp thickness to overall fruit size across the localities. We found a geographical interpopulation divergence in a parameter pertaining to the allometric equation of rostrum length (the coefficient a in y=axb, where y and x denote rostrum and body lengths, respectively), and the pattern of geographical differentiation in the allometric coefficient was closely correlated with the variation in the pericarp thickness of Japanese camellia. Our results provide a novel example of a geographically diverged scaling relationship in an insect morphology resulting from a coevolutionary arms race with its host plant.

  12. Metapopulation structure of a seed-predator weevil and its host plant in arms race coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Ueno, Saneyoshi; Taniguchi, Fumiya; Sota, Teiji

    2011-06-01

    Although the importance of gene flow in the geographic structuring of host-parasite interactions has been well discussed, little is known about how dispersal drives the spatial dynamics of other types of coevolutionary interactions in nature. We evaluated the roles of gene flow in the geographically structured processes of a predator-prey arms race involving a seed-predatory weevil with a long mouthpart and its host camellia plant with a thick fruit coat. Molecular genetic analyses showed that both weevil and camellia populations were structured at a spatial scale of several kilometers. Importantly, the spatial pattern of the migration of weevils, but not that of camellias, imposed significant effects on the geographic configuration of the levels of coevolutionary escalation. This result suggests that even if migration is limited in one species (camellia), local coevolution with the other species that migrates between neighboring localities (weevil) can reduce the interpopulation difference in the local adaptive optima of the former species. Thus, gene flow of a species potentially homogenizes the local biological environments provided by the species and thereby promotes the evolutionary convergence of its coevolving counterparts. Consequently, by focusing on coevolutionary interactions in natural communities, "indirect" effects of gene flow on the adaptive divergence of organisms could be identified.

  13. Reciprocal selection causes a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkman, Craig W; Parchman, Thomas L; Favis, Amanda; Siepielski, Adam M

    2003-08-01

    Few studies have shown both reciprocal selection and reciprocal adaptations for a coevolving system in the wild. The goal of our study was to determine whether the patterns of selection on Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta spp. latifolia) and red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) were concordant with earlier published evidence of reciprocal adaptations in lodgepole pine and crossbills on isolated mountain ranges in the absence of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). We found that selection (directional) by crossbills on lodgepole pine where Tamiasciurus are absent was divergent from the selection (directional) exerted by Tamiasciurus on lodgepole pine. This resulted in divergent selection between areas with and without Tamiasciurus that was congruent with the geographic patterns of cone variation. In the South Hills, Idaho, where Tamiasciurus are absent and red crossbills are thought to be coevolving with lodgepole pine, crossbills experienced stabilizing selection on bill size, with cone structure as the agent of selection. These results show that crossbills and lodgepole pine exhibit reciprocal adaptations in response to reciprocal selection, and they provide insight into the traits mediating and responding to selection in a coevolutionary arms race.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer events reshape the global landscape of arm race between viruses and homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong-Sheng; Wu, Yi-Quan; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, San-Jie; Chen, Shan-Ze

    2016-06-07

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) drives the evolution of recipient organism particularly if it provides a novel function which enhances the fitness or its adaption to the environment. Virus-host co-evolution is attractive for studying co-evolutionary processes, since viruses strictly replicate inside of the host cells and thus their evolution is inexorably tangled with host biology. HGT, as a mechanism of co-evolution between human and viruses, has been widely documented, however, the roles HGT play during the interaction between human and viruses are still in their infancy. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis on the genes horizontally transferred between viruses and their corresponding human hosts. Our study suggests that the HGT genes in human are predominantly enriched in immune related GO terms while viral HGT genes are tend to be encoded by viruses which promote the invasion of immune system of hosts. Based on our results, it gives us a hint about the evolution trajectory of HGT events. Overall, our study suggests that the HGT between human and viruses are highly relevant to immune interaction and probably reshaped the arm race between hosts and viruses.

  15. Speed of adaptation and genomic footprints of host-parasite coevolution under arms race and trench warfare dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, Aurélien; Moreno-Gámez, Stefany; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    Coevolution between hosts and their parasites is expected to follow a range of possible dynamics, the two extreme cases being called trench warfare (or Red Queen) and arms races. Long-term stable polymorphism at the host and parasite coevolving loci is characteristic of trench warfare, and is expected to promote molecular signatures of balancing selection, while the recurrent allele fixation in arms races should generate selective sweeps. We compare these two scenarios using a finite size haploid gene-for-gene model that includes both mutation and genetic drift. We first show that trench warfare do not necessarily display larger numbers of coevolutionary cycles per unit of time than arms races. We subsequently perform coalescent simulations under these dynamics to generate sequences at both host and parasite loci. Genomic footprints of recurrent selective sweeps are often found, whereas trench warfare yield signatures of balancing selection only in parasite sequences, and only in a limited parameter space. Our results suggest that deterministic models of coevolution with infinite population sizes do not predict reliably the observed genomic signatures, and it may be best to study parasite rather than host populations to find genomic signatures of coevolution, such as selective sweeps or balancing selection.

  16. Virions at the gates: receptors and the host-virus arms race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Coffin

    Full Text Available All viruses need to bind to specific receptor molecules on the surface of target cells to initiate infection. Virus-receptor binding is highly specific, and this specificity determines both the species and the cell type that can be infected by a given virus. In some well-studied cases, the virus-binding region on the receptor has been found to be unrelated to the receptor's normal cellular function. Resistance to virus infection can thus evolve by selection of mutations that alter amino acids in the binding region with minimal effect on normal function. This sort of positive selection can be used to infer the history of the host-virus "arms race" during their coevolution. In a new study, Demogines et al. use a combination of phylogenetic, structural, and virological analysis to infer the history and significance of positive selection on the transferrin receptor TfR1, a housekeeping protein required for iron uptake and the cell surface receptor for at least three different types of virus. The authors show that only two parts of the rodent TfR1 molecule have been subject to positive selection and that these correspond to the binding sites for two of these viruses-the mouse mammary tumor virus (a retrovirus and Machupo virus (an arenavirus. They confirmed this result by introducing the inferred binding site mutations into the wild-type protein and testing for receptor function. Related arenaviruses are beginning to spread in human populations in South America as the cause of often fatal hemorrhagic fevers, and, although Demogines et al. could find no evidence of TfR1 mutations in this region that might have been selected as a consequence of human infection, the authors identified one such mutation in Asian populations that affects infection with these viruses.

  17. The arms race between man and Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Time to regroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoal, Eileen G; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Kinnear, Craig; van Helden, Paul D; Möller, Marlo

    2017-08-23

    An arms race is an appropriate metaphor to use for the interaction of man and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) through the millennia. Estimates of the time of infection of modern humans with M.tb often pre-date the Out-of-Africa migration. Humans have adapted to the changing environment during the migration with respect to climate, food sources and encounters with local pathogens. More recently, there has been adaptation to the demographic changes brought about in the majority of the human population by the Neolithic revolution. By chance and/or selection, specific variants in immune defence have arisen in different population groups. These select for M.tb strains more fit to cause disease and be transmitted, sometimes by exploiting defence systems effective on other bacteria. The different selection pressures on the M.tb lineages carried by specific human groups have resulted in a worldwide M.tb population that is geographically structured according to the humans historically found there. A similar structure is seen with pathogens such as M. leprae and Helicobacter pylori. Modern M.tb strains have emerged which may be more fit, such as the Beijing lineage, leading to their rapid spread both in the areas where they arose, and into new areas after recent introduction. The speed at which this is occurring is outpacing coevolution for the time being. By using the results of genome wide and other association studies, as well as admixture mapping and 'natural experiments' in areas where both a number of populations, admixed populations, and a variety of M.tb strains occur, we can investigate the forces that have driven the coevolution of man and M.tb. The diversity of human and bacterial genetic background may be used in the future to discover and target the specific host-pathogen interactions leading to tuberculosis diseases, which suggests the potential for rational design of vaccines and host-directed therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Practical microcontroller engineering with ARM technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces the basic concepts and practical techniques in designing and building ARM® microcontrollers in industrial and commercial applications Practical Microcontroller Engineering with ARM® Technology provides the full scope of components and materials related to ARM® Cortex®–M4 microcontroller systems. Chapters 2 through 9 provide the fundamentals and detailed discussions about ARM® Cortex®-M4 MCU applications with the most widely used peripherals such as flash memory, EEPROM, ADC, DAC, PWM, UART, USB, I2C, SSI, LCD and GPTM. The remaining chapters cover advanced and optional peripherals such as Control Area Network (CAN), Quadrature Encoder Interface (QEI), Analog Comparators (ACMP) and detailed discussions of Floating Point Unit (FPU) and ARM® Cortex®-M4 Memory Protection Unit (MPU).

  19. Type III effector diversification via both pathoadaptation and horizontal transfer in response to a coevolutionary arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenbo; Dong, Frederick F T; Stavrinides, John; Guttman, David S

    2006-12-01

    The concept of the coevolutionary arms race holds a central position in our understanding of pathogen-host interactions. Here we identify the molecular mechanisms and follow the stepwise progression of an arms race in a natural system. We show how the evolution and function of the HopZ family of type III secreted effector proteins carried by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are influenced by a coevolutionary arms race between pathogen and host. We surveyed 96 isolates of P. syringae and identified three homologs (HopZ1, HopZ2, and HopZ3) distributed among approximately 45% of the strains. All alleles were sequenced and their expression was confirmed. Evolutionary analyses determined that the diverse HopZ1 homologs are ancestral to P. syringae, and have diverged via pathoadaptive mutational changes into three functional and two degenerate forms, while HopZ2 and HopZ3 have been brought into P. syringae via horizontal transfer from other ecologically similar bacteria. A PAML selection analysis revealed that the C terminus of HopZ1 is under strong positive selection. Despite the extensive genetic variation observed in this family, all three homologs have cysteine-protease activity, although their substrate specificity may vary. The introduction of the ancestral hopZ1 allele into strains harboring alternate alleles results in a resistance protein-mediated defense response in their respective hosts, which is not observed with the endogenous allele. These data indicate that the P. syringae HopZ family has undergone allelic diversification via both pathoadaptive mutational changes and horizontal transfer in response to selection imposed by the host defense system. This genetic diversity permits the pathogen to avoid host defenses while still maintaining a virulence-associated protease, thereby allowing it to thrive on its current host, while simultaneously impacting its host range.

  20. Type III effector diversification via both pathoadaptation and horizontal transfer in response to a coevolutionary arms race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Ma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the coevolutionary arms race holds a central position in our understanding of pathogen-host interactions. Here we identify the molecular mechanisms and follow the stepwise progression of an arms race in a natural system. We show how the evolution and function of the HopZ family of type III secreted effector proteins carried by the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are influenced by a coevolutionary arms race between pathogen and host. We surveyed 96 isolates of P. syringae and identified three homologs (HopZ1, HopZ2, and HopZ3 distributed among approximately 45% of the strains. All alleles were sequenced and their expression was confirmed. Evolutionary analyses determined that the diverse HopZ1 homologs are ancestral to P. syringae, and have diverged via pathoadaptive mutational changes into three functional and two degenerate forms, while HopZ2 and HopZ3 have been brought into P. syringae via horizontal transfer from other ecologically similar bacteria. A PAML selection analysis revealed that the C terminus of HopZ1 is under strong positive selection. Despite the extensive genetic variation observed in this family, all three homologs have cysteine-protease activity, although their substrate specificity may vary. The introduction of the ancestral hopZ1 allele into strains harboring alternate alleles results in a resistance protein-mediated defense response in their respective hosts, which is not observed with the endogenous allele. These data indicate that the P. syringae HopZ family has undergone allelic diversification via both pathoadaptive mutational changes and horizontal transfer in response to selection imposed by the host defense system. This genetic diversity permits the pathogen to avoid host defenses while still maintaining a virulence-associated protease, thereby allowing it to thrive on its current host, while simultaneously impacting its host range.

  1. Curbing international transfers of arms and military technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayrynen, R.

    1978-07-01

    The magnitude of the value and quantity of transfers of arms and military technology, the internationalization and commercialization of armaments industry (through vastly increased direct investments, through co-production, licensing and sub-contracting arrangements), the supply of training and technical services as adjuncts of arms supply, the blurring of the dividing line between military and civilian technology--all have made control measures infinitely more complicated and difficult. What compounds the difficulty is the fact that, since an overwhelmingly preponderant portion of arms transfers is made up of government-to-government transactions, control measures must emanate from supplying and/or receiving governments. But even if by some miracle these measures were forthcoming and proved effective, they will have touched only a small part of the problem of disarmament, because the share of international transfers of arms and military technology amounts to only 5 to 6% of the total world military expenditure. The other, far larger and more intractable, part relates to the staggering stockpiles of both conventional and nuclear weapon systems, almost wholly concentrated in the hands of the two superpowers. Both transfers and stockpiles of armaments are inextricably enmeshed in the existing international structure, epitomized in a dominance-dependency relationship. This paper examines the measures that the supplier nations and recipient nations can take unilaterally, bilaterally, and multilaterally to curb arms transfers, and comes to the conclusion that unilateral initiatives, especially on the part of receiving nations, are more feasible. Not to take such initiatives on the ground that they cannot succeed unless taken in concert is only an excuse for doing nothing.

  2. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P [eds.

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  3. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the pelvic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Rhodes, L; Andrews, J; Payne, R C

    2008-10-01

    We provide quantitative anatomical data on the muscle-tendon architecture and geometry of the pelvic limb of an elite sprint athlete, the racing greyhound. Specifically, muscle masses, muscle lengths, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and muscle moment arms were measured. Maximum isometric force and power of muscles, the maximum muscle torque at joints and tendon stress and strain were estimated. We compare data with that published for a generalized breed of canid, and other cursorial mammals such as the horse and hare. The pelvic limb of the racing greyhound had a relatively large volume of hip extensor muscle, which is likely to be required for power production. Per unit body mass, some pelvic limb muscles were relatively larger than those in less specialized canines, and many hip extensor muscles had longer fascicle lengths. It was estimated that substantial extensor moments could be created about the tarsus and hip of the greyhound allowing high power output and potential for rapid acceleration. The racing greyhound hence possesses substantial specializations for enhanced sprint performance.

  4. The Race Idea in Reproductive Technologies: Beyond Epistemic Scientism and Technological Mastery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Camisha

    2015-12-01

    This paper explores the limitations of epistemic scientism for understanding the role the concept of race plays in assisted reproductive technology (ART) practices. Two major limitations centre around the desire to use scientific knowledge to bring about social improvement. In the first case, undue focus is placed on debunking the scientific reality of racial categories and characteristics. The alternative to this approach is to focus instead on the way the race idea functions in ART practices. Doing so reveals how the race idea (1) helps to define the reproductive "problems" different groups of women are experiencing and to dictate when and how they should be "helped"; (2) helps to resolve tensions about who should be considered the real parents of children produced by reproductive technologies; and (3) is used to limit ART use where that use threatens to denaturalize the very sociopolitical landscape the race idea has created. In the second case, scientific knowledge regarding reproduction is thought to call for technological control over that reproduction. This leads to an overemphasis on personal responsibility and a depoliticization of racialized social inequalities.

  5. Next step in the ongoing arms race between myxoma virus and wild rabbits in Australia is a novel disease phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Dodds, Jeff W.; Brooks, Jason W.; Kennett, Mary J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    In host–pathogen arms races, increases in host resistance prompt counteradaptation by pathogens, but the nature of that counteradaptation is seldom directly observed outside of laboratory models. The best-documented field example is the coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) in European rabbits. To understand how MYXV in Australia has continued to evolve in wild rabbits under intense selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis, we compared the phenotypes of the progenitor MYXV and viral isolates from the 1950s and the 1990s in laboratory rabbits with no resistance. Strikingly, and unlike their 1950s counterparts, most virus isolates from the 1990s induced a highly lethal immune collapse syndrome similar to septic shock. Thus, the next step in this canonical case of coevolution after a species jump has been further escalation by the virus in the face of widespread host resistance. PMID:28808019

  6. Next step in the ongoing arms race between myxoma virus and wild rabbits in Australia is a novel disease phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G; Dodds, Jeff W; Brooks, Jason W; Kennett, Mary J; Holmes, Edward C; Read, Andrew F

    2017-08-29

    In host-pathogen arms races, increases in host resistance prompt counteradaptation by pathogens, but the nature of that counteradaptation is seldom directly observed outside of laboratory models. The best-documented field example is the coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) in European rabbits. To understand how MYXV in Australia has continued to evolve in wild rabbits under intense selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis, we compared the phenotypes of the progenitor MYXV and viral isolates from the 1950s and the 1990s in laboratory rabbits with no resistance. Strikingly, and unlike their 1950s counterparts, most virus isolates from the 1990s induced a highly lethal immune collapse syndrome similar to septic shock. Thus, the next step in this canonical case of coevolution after a species jump has been further escalation by the virus in the face of widespread host resistance.

  7. Assessing the potential for an ongoing arms race within and between the sexes: selection and heritable variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Urban; Lew, Timothy A; Byrne, Phillip G; Rice, William R

    2005-07-01

    In promiscuous species, sexual selection generates two opposing male traits: offense (acquiring new mates and supplanting stored sperm) and defense (enforcing fidelity on one's mates and preventing sperm displacement when this fails). Coevolution between these traits requires both additive genetic variation and associated natural selection. Previous work with Drosophila melanogaster found autosomal genetic variation for these traits among inbred lines from a mixture of populations, but only nonheritable genetic variation was found within a single outbred population. These results do not support ongoing antagonistic coevolution between offense and defense, nor between either of these male traits and female reproductive characters. Here we use a new method (hemiclonal analysis) to study genomewide genetic variation in a large outbred laboratory population of D. melanogaster. Hemiclonal analysis estimates the additive genetic variation among random, genomewide haplotypes taken from a large, outbred, locally adapted laboratory population and determines the direction of the selection gradient on this variation. In contrast to earlier studies, we found low but biologically significant heritable variation for defensive and offensive offspring production as well as all their components (P1, fidelity, P2, and remating). Genetic correlations between these traits were substantially different from those reported for inbred lines. A positive genetic correlation was found between defense and offense, demonstrating that some shared genes influence both traits. In addition to this common variation, evidence for unique genetic variation for each trait was also found, supporting an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between defense and offense. Reproductive conflict between males can strongly influence female fitness. Correspondingly, we found genetic variation in both defense and offense that affected female fitness. No evidence was found for intersexual conflict in the context of

  8. Technologies of belonging: the absent presence of race in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. M'charek; K. Schramm; D. Skinner

    2014-01-01

    In many European countries, the explicit discussion of race as a biological phenomenon has long been avoided. This has not meant that race has become obsolete or irrelevant all together. Rather, it is a slippery object that keeps shifting and changing. To understand its slippery nature, we suggest t

  9. Technologies of belonging: the absent presence of race in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'charek, A.; Schramm, K.; Skinner, D.

    2014-01-01

    In many European countries, the explicit discussion of race as a biological phenomenon has long been avoided. This has not meant that race has become obsolete or irrelevant all together. Rather, it is a slippery object that keeps shifting and changing. To understand its slippery nature, we suggest

  10. Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzman, E.A.; Haffenden, R.

    1992-09-01

    United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.

  11. Design and development of a new right arm prosthetic kit for a racing cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Louis-Philippe; Adam-Côté, Jérôme; Daviault, Stéphane; Salois, Christophe; Laplante-Laberge, Julien; Plante, Jean-Sébastien

    2009-09-01

    This case report describes a newly developed prosthetic arm for a world class trans-humeral amputee cyclist. The proposed solution consists of a new prosthetic kit that was designed to meet requirements of weight, freedom of movement and precise positioning for the disciplines of time-trial, pursuit, road and team sprint. The kit is made of different attachments that can be changed depending on the event the athlete is competing in. The prosthesis is composed of an extended socket made of composite materials, an arm made of aluminum tubes, a universal joint for the junction with the handlebars and different attachments for each bicycle. The system's weight is kept to a minimum using finite element analysis and careful material selection. The universal joint provides the angular degrees of freedom required to allow the athlete to stand up while pedaling, a freedom of movement lost since amputation. In this case report, the athlete's needs are presented and followed by the design of the product using Finite Element modeling. Results are then presented and discussed. This prosthetic kit was used by the athlete for the 2008 Paralympics games in Beijing.

  12. Conventional armed forces in Europe: Technology scenario development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, G.M.

    1990-07-01

    In January 1986, the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev proposed elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000. In April of that year, Mr. Gorbachev proposed substantial reductions of conventional weapons in Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, including reductions in operational-tactical nuclear weapons. In May 1986, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) responded with the Brussels Declaration on Conventional Arms Control,'' which indicated readiness to open East/West discussions on establishing a mandate for negotiating conventional arms control throughout Europe. The Group of 23,'' which met in Vienna beginning in February 1987, concluded the meeting in January 1989 with a mandate for the Conventional Armed Forced in Europe (CFE) negotiations. On 6 March 1989, CFE talks began, and these talks have continued through six rounds (as of April 1990). Although US President George Bush, on 30 May 1989, called for agreement within six months to a year, and the Malta meeting of December 1989 called for completion of a CFE agreement by the end of 1990, much remains to be negotiated. This report provides three types of information. First, treaty provisions brought to the table by both sides are compared. Second, on the basis of these provisions, problem areas for each of the provision elements are postulated and possible scenarios for resolving these problem areas are developed. Third, the scenarios are used as requirements for tasks assigned program elements for possible US implementation of a CFE treaty. As progress is achieved during the negotiations, this report could be updated, as necessary, in each of the areas to provide a continuing systematic basis for program implementation and technology development. 8 refs.

  13. Advantage Management Strategy in Competition via Technological Race Perspective: Empirical Evidence from the Taiwanese Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yi Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs tend to adopt the “catch-up” strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race.

  14. Advantage management strategy in competition via technological race perspective: empirical evidence from the Taiwanese manufacturing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Tsu-Yi; Hsiao, Yu-Ju; Wu, Shih-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the advantage management strategies of a firm regarding the technological race in the manufacturing sector. This is to reveal whether firms adopt a catch-up or leapfrogging strategy in the competition for innovation. The results show that competition is fierce in the Taiwanese manufacturing industry. Taiwanese manufacturing firms (mostly SMEs) tend to adopt the "catch-up" strategy to keep up with their competitors in order to remain in the technological race. The result indicates that, under financial constraints, Taiwanese manufacturing firms attempt to invest in R&D to catch up with their rivals or to avoid being eliminated from the race.

  15. Arms race between selfishness and policing: two-trait quantitative genetic model for caste fate conflict in eusocial Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobata, Shigeto

    2012-12-01

    Policing against selfishness is now regarded as the main force maintaining cooperation, by reducing costly conflict in complex social systems. Although policing has been studied extensively in social insect colonies, its coevolution against selfishness has not been fully captured by previous theories. In this study, I developed a two-trait quantitative genetic model of the conflict between selfish immature females (usually larvae) and policing workers in eusocial Hymenoptera over the immatures' propensity to develop into new queens. This model allows for the analysis of coevolution between genomes expressed in immatures and workers that collectively determine the immatures' queen caste fate. The main prediction of the model is that a higher level of polyandry leads to a smaller fraction of queens produced among new females through caste fate policing. The other main prediction of the present model is that, as a result of arms race, caste fate policing by workers coevolves with exaggerated selfishness of the immatures achieving maximum potential to develop into queens. Moreover, the model can incorporate genetic correlation between traits, which has been largely unexplored in social evolution theory. This study highlights the importance of understanding social traits as influenced by the coevolution of conflicting genomes. © 2012 The Author. Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Habitat area and structure affect the impact of seed predators and the potential for coevolutionary arms races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquida, Eduardo T; Benkman, Craig W

    2010-03-01

    Both habitat patch size and structure affect the abundance and occurrence of species and thereby can affect the ecology and evolution of species interactions. Here we contrast the level of seed predation and selection exerted by Common Crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the extensive mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) forests in the Pyrenees with their level of seed predation in two small, isolated forests. Crossbills consumed 5.1 times more seeds in the Pyrenees than in the isolated forests, and six of seven cone traits under selection by crossbills were enhanced in the Pyrenees. In contrast, red squirrels tend to be uncommon in the open mountain pine forests, consuming relatively few seeds in both regions and having limited impact on both mountain pine and the interaction between crossbills and mountain pine. Resident crossbills in mountain pine forests in the Pyrenees have larger bills than in nearby forests, consistent with local adaptation by crossbills and a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and mountain pine. The mechanisms leading to variation in the interaction between crossbills and mountain pine should be general to many systems because habitat patch size and structure often vary across the range of a species.

  17. RNA interference: a new strategy in the evolutionary arms race between human control strategies and insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vilmar; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Galan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between humans and the insect pests of cultivated plants may be considered to be an indirect coevolutionary process, i.e., an arms race. Over time, humans have developed several strategies to minimize the negative impacts of insects on agricultural production. However, insects have made adaptive responses via the evolution of resistance to insecticides, and more recently against Bacillus thuriengiensis. Thus, we need to continuously invest resources in the development of new strategies for crop protection. Recent advances in genomics have demonstrated the possibility of a new weapon or strategy in this war, i.e., gene silencing, which involves blocking the expression of specific genes via mRNA inactivation. In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this strategy in the control of different species of insects. However, several technical difficulties need to be overcome to transform this potential into reality, such as the selection of target genes, the concentration of dsRNA, the nucleotide sequence of the dsRNA, the length of dsRNA, persistence in the insect body, and the life stage of the target species where gene silencing is most efficient. This study analyzes several aspects related to the use of gene silencing in pest control and it includes an overview of the inactivation process, as well as the problems that need to be resolved to transform gene silencing into an effective pest control method.

  18. Functional anatomy and muscle moment arms of the thoracic limb of an elite sprinting athlete: the racing greyhound (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S B; Wilson, A M; Daynes, J; Peckham, K; Payne, R C

    2008-10-01

    We provide quantitative muscle-tendon architecture and geometry data for the racing greyhound thoracic limb. Muscle mass, belly length, fascicle lengths, pennation angles and moment arms were measured, as were tendon masses and lengths. Maximum isometric force and maximum power were estimated for muscles, and maximum stress and strain were estimated for tendons. Results are compared with other fast quadrupedal runners, and to previously published data in mixed-breed dogs. The implications of the functional adaptations of the greyhound thoracic limb for sprinting performance are discussed. The thoracic limb was found to benefit from a similar proportion of locomotor muscle mass to the pelvic limb, suggesting that it may be used to some extent in propulsion, or alternatively that stabilisation is very important in this animal. Extrinsic muscles, especially latissimus dorsi and pectoralis profundus, were predicted to be powerful and important for generating net positive work during accelerations. Proximal biarticular muscles show specialisation toward preventing collapse of the shoulder and elbow joints to enable strut-like limb function, or some form of dynamic control. Distal muscles did not appear specialised for elastic energy storage, a functional difference to pelvic limb muscles, and the equivalents in horse thoracic limbs. The greyhound thoracic limb appears to possess substantial differences from both that of more 'sub-maximal specialist' quadrupeds, and from the greyhound pelvic limb.

  19. Computational analyses of an evolutionary arms race between mammalian immunity mediated by immunoglobulin A and its subversion by bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pinheiro

    Full Text Available IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin isotype in mucosal tissues and external secretions, playing important roles both in defense against pathogens and in maintenance of commensal microbiota. Considering the complexity of its interactions with the surrounding environment, IgA is a likely target for diversifying or positive selection. To investigate this possibility, the action of natural selection on IgA was examined in depth with six different methods: CODEML from the PAML package and the SLAC, FEL, REL, MEME and FUBAR methods implemented in the Datamonkey webserver. In considering just primate IgA, these analyses show that diversifying selection targeted five positions of the Cα1 and Cα2 domains of IgA. Extending the analysis to include other mammals identified 18 positively selected sites: ten in Cα1, five in Cα2 and three in Cα3. All but one of these positions display variation in polarity and charge. Their structural locations suggest they indirectly influence the conformation of sites on IgA that are critical for interaction with host IgA receptors and also with proteins produced by mucosal pathogens that prevent their elimination by IgA-mediated effector mechanisms. Demonstrating the plasticity of IgA in the evolution of different groups of mammals, only two of the eighteen selected positions in all mammals are included in the five selected positions in primates. That IgA residues subject to positive selection impact sites targeted both by host receptors and subversive pathogen ligands highlights the evolutionary arms race playing out between mammals and pathogens, and further emphasizes the importance of IgA in protection against mucosal pathogens.

  20. Computational Analyses of an Evolutionary Arms Race between Mammalian Immunity Mediated by Immunoglobulin A and Its Subversion by Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana; Woof, Jenny M.; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Parham, Peter; Esteves, Pedro J.

    2013-01-01

    IgA is the predominant immunoglobulin isotype in mucosal tissues and external secretions, playing important roles both in defense against pathogens and in maintenance of commensal microbiota. Considering the complexity of its interactions with the surrounding environment, IgA is a likely target for diversifying or positive selection. To investigate this possibility, the action of natural selection on IgA was examined in depth with six different methods: CODEML from the PAML package and the SLAC, FEL, REL, MEME and FUBAR methods implemented in the Datamonkey webserver. In considering just primate IgA, these analyses show that diversifying selection targeted five positions of the Cα1 and Cα2 domains of IgA. Extending the analysis to include other mammals identified 18 positively selected sites: ten in Cα1, five in Cα2 and three in Cα3. All but one of these positions display variation in polarity and charge. Their structural locations suggest they indirectly influence the conformation of sites on IgA that are critical for interaction with host IgA receptors and also with proteins produced by mucosal pathogens that prevent their elimination by IgA-mediated effector mechanisms. Demonstrating the plasticity of IgA in the evolution of different groups of mammals, only two of the eighteen selected positions in all mammals are included in the five selected positions in primates. That IgA residues subject to positive selection impact sites targeted both by host receptors and subversive pathogen ligands highlights the evolutionary arms race playing out between mammals and pathogens, and further emphasizes the importance of IgA in protection against mucosal pathogens. PMID:24019941

  1. Structural basis for the recognition-evasion arms race between Tomato mosaic virus and the resistance gene Tm-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Kezuka, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Chihoko; Kato, Masahiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Nonaka, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Masayuki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Katoh, Etsuko

    2014-08-19

    The tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance gene Tm-1 encodes a protein that shows no sequence homology to functionally characterized proteins. Tm-1 binds ToMV replication proteins and thereby inhibits replication complex formation. ToMV mutants that overcome this resistance have amino acid substitutions in the helicase domain of the replication proteins (ToMV-Hel). A small region of Tm-1 in the genome of the wild tomato Solanum habrochaites has been under positive selection during its antagonistic coevolution with ToMV. Here we report crystal structures for the N-terminal inhibitory domains of Tm-1 and a natural Tm-1 variant with an I91-to-T substitution that has a greater ability to inhibit ToMV RNA replication and their complexes with ToMV-Hel. Each complex contains a Tm-1 dimer and two ToMV-Hel monomers with the interfaces between Tm-1 and ToMV-Hel bridged by ATP. Residues in ToMV-Hel and Tm-1 involved in antagonistic coevolution are found at the interface. The structural differences between ToMV-Hel in its free form and in complex with Tm-1 suggest that Tm-1 affects nucleoside triphosphatase activity of ToMV-Hel, and this effect was confirmed experimentally. Molecular dynamics simulations of complexes formed by Tm-1 with ToMV-Hel variants showed how the amino acid changes in ToMV-Hel impair the interaction with Tm-1 to overcome the resistance. With these findings, together with the biochemical properties of the interactions between ToMV-Hel and Tm-1 variants and effects of the mutations in the polymorphic residues of Tm-1, an atomic view of a step-by-step coevolutionary arms race between a plant resistance protein and a viral protein emerges.

  2. Tenebrionid secretions and a fungal benzoquinone oxidoreductase form competing components of an arms race between a host and pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Nicolás; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Fan, Yanhua; Juárez, M Patricia; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2015-07-14

    Entomopathogenic fungi and their insect hosts represent a model system for examining invertebrate-pathogen coevolutionary selection processes. Here we report the characterization of competing components of an arms race consisting of insect protective antimicrobial compounds and evolving fungal mechanisms of detoxification. The insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has a remarkably wide host range; however, some insects are resistant to fungal infection. Among resistant insects is the tenebrionid beetle Tribolium castaneum that produces benzoquinone-containing defensive secretions. Reduced fungal germination and growth was seen in media containing T. castaneum dichloromethane extracts or synthetic benzoquinone. In response to benzoquinone exposure, the fungus expresses a 1,4-benzoquinone oxidoreductase, BbbqrA, induced >40-fold. Gene knockout mutants (ΔBbbqrA) showed increased growth inhibition, whereas B. bassiana overexpressing BbbqrA (Bb::BbbqrA(O)) displayed increased resistance to benzoquinone compared with wild type. Increased benzoquinone reductase activity was detected in wild-type cells exposed to benzoquinone and in the overexpression strain. Heterologous expression and purification of BbBqrA in Escherichia coli confirmed NAD(P)H-dependent benzoquinone reductase activity. The ΔBbbqrA strain showed decreased virulence toward T. castaneum, whereas overexpression of BbbqrA increased mortality versus T. castaneum. No change in virulence was seen for the ΔBbbqrA or Bb::BbbqrA(O) strains when tested against the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella or the beetle Sitophilus oryzae, neither of which produce significant amounts of cuticular quinones. The observation that artificial overexpression of BbbqrA results in increased virulence only toward quinone-secreting insects implies the lack of strong selection or current failure of B. bassiana to counteradapt to this particular host defense throughout evolution.

  3. The Next Arms Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    by bentonite clay em- placed in granite along tunnels spaced equal distances apart. Pre- serving the radioisotope retardation properties of the...On the facilities in these two okrugs, see the two chapters by Christina Chuen and Dmitry Kovchegin in James Clay Moltz, Vladimir A. Orlov, and...Issues in the Far Eastern Federal Okrug,” in 80 James Clay Molts, Vladimir A. Olav, and Adam M. Stolberg, eds., Preventing Nuclear Meltdown

  4. Body Mass and Circumference of Upper Arm Are Associated with Race Performance in Ultraendurance Runners in a Multistage Race--The Isarrun 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Duff, Brida; Welzel, Ulrich; Kohler, Gotz

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the association of anthropometric parameters with race performance in ultraendurance runners in a multistage ultraendurance run, in which athletes had to run 338 km within 5 consecutive days. In 17 male successful finishers, calculations of body mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses, extremity circumference,…

  5. The Atomic Papers: A citizen's guide to selected books and articles on the bomb, the arms race, nuclear power, the peace movement, and related issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, G.

    1984-01-01

    The Atomic Papers annotates over 800 books published since 1945 and approximately 300 periodical articles since 1980 on every facet of the nuclear dilemma: the development and effects of the bomb, the arms race, nuclear proliferation, and the peace movement. Work on both sides of the nuclear power controversy also receives substantial attention. All references are to English-language material, and nearly half are to work published since 1980. The concluding chapter, ''The Art of Fission,'' describes over one hundred novels and stories with nuclear themes published since 1945--and, in a few cases, before that date.

  6. Arms control verification: The technologies that make it possible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipis, K.; Hafemeister, D.W.; Janeway, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on arms control verification. Topics considered include the politics of treaty verification and compliance, national security, remote sensing, image processing, image enhancement by digital computer, charge-coupled device image sensors, radar imaging, infrared surveillance, monitoring, seismological aspects, satellite verifications, seismic verification, and verifying a fissile material production freeze.

  7. Will Rogers's Radio: Race and Technology in the Cherokee Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    While radio personality Will Rogers's pioneering role in radio is obvious (he worked in the medium during its earliest years), its connections to Cherokee and other tribal technologies have been neglected. This failure to recognize Rogers's part in this particular strain of Cherokee history is a symptom of a larger cultural illness in the United…

  8. Self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Linda A; Zhao, Yong; Witt, Edward A; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; von Eye, Alexander; Harold, Rena

    2009-08-01

    This research addressed two fundamental questions regarding self-concept, self-esteem, gender, race, and information technology use. First, is technology use related to dimensions of self-concept and/or to self-esteem? Second, are there gender and/or race differences in self-concept, self-esteem, and technology use? Five hundred youth, average age 12 years old, one third African American and two thirds Caucasian American, completed multidimensional measures of self-concept, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and measures of frequency of Internet use, Internet use for communication (e-mail and instant messaging), video game playing, and cell phone use. Findings indicated that technology use predicted dimensions of self-concept and self-esteem, with video game playing having a negative influence and Internet use having a positive influence on self-concept dimensions. Gender differences were observed on several self-concept dimensions, but contrary to expectations, girls did not score higher than boys in social self-concept. Only one race difference was observed: African Americans had lower behavioral self-concept than did Caucasian Americans. Implications of the benefits and liabilities of youth's current and projected technology use are discussed.

  9. Rethinking Race and Racism as "Technologies of Affect": Theorizing the Implications for Anti-Racist Politics and Practice in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on the concept of race and racism as "technologies of affect" to think with some of the interventions and arguments of critical affect studies. The author suggests that critical affect theories enable the theorization of race and racism as affective modes of being that recognize the historically specific assemblages…

  10. Arm Robot Surveillance Using Dual Tone Multiple Frequency Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrutha.V

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance place a pivotal role in addressing a wide range of security challenges .In the present paper we propose a Dual Tone Multiple Frequency ( DTMF based Robot with video surveillance. In the proposed model a DTMF based Robot with video surveillance with multiple key functions, Arm picker and security system was implemented. Master and slave concept using 3 Microcontroller and motor driver IC to drive motors was implemented and belt wheel platform was used to move the robot from one place to another. Multiple key functions were used to perform more functions and a camera for surveillance .The robot can navigate with the help of the user.

  11. [Application of robotic technology to the needs in the medical service of the Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudin, A B; Chepur, S V; shestakov, S V

    2013-06-01

    Application of robotic technology to the needs in the medical service of the Armed Forces. Further development of the medical service is inseparably associated with the implementation of robot technology into the practice of medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian federation. For this purpose it is necessary to create a clinical scientific research centre of robot technology and interdepartmental scientific research simulation training center on the basis of the Kirov Military Medical Academy. It is also necessary to provide development of medical robotic complexes of tactical level of the medical service.

  12. Close to Kill: Vestigial Technologies and Combat Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    impediments to the ram. With advancements in sailing technology, modern sailing vessels depended on lengthy pole -like extensions that stuck out well...waters. At home, the South was able to produce a series of ram-equipped vessels that would galvanize a close-to-kill mentality. The ram’s...Fortunately for them, the knife- like edges of their steel vessels often cut easily into their prey. While ramming may appear to have been

  13. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane; Donovan, William H.; Novy, Mara; Abramczyk, Robert

    1997-01-01

    numerical coefficients or weights. Although the function development may require much computational time and many training cases, the resulting discrimination functions can run in realtime on modest computers. These results suggest that myoelectric signals might be a feasible teleoperation medium, allowing an operator to use his or her own hand and arm as a master to intuitively control an anthropomorphic robot in a remote location such as outer space.

  14. BP Neural Network of Continuous Casting Technological Parameters and Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing of Spring Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANG Li-hong; WANG Ai-guo; TIAN Nai-yuan; ZHANG Wei-cun; FAN Qiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The continuous casting technological parameters have a great influence on the secondary dendrite arm spacing of the slab, which determines the segregation behavior of materials. Therefore, the identification of technological parameters of continuous casting process directly impacts the property of slab. The relationships between continuous casting technological parameters and cooling rate of slab for spring steel were built using BP neural network model, based on which, the relevant secondary dendrite arm spacing was calculated. The simulation calculation was also carried out using the industrial data. The simulation results show that compared with that of the traditional method, the absolute error of calculation result obtained with BP neural network model reduced from 0. 015 to 0. 0005, and the relative error reduced from 6, 76 % to 0.22 %. BP neural network model had a more precise accuracy in the optimization of continuous casting technological parameters.

  15. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. First quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G; Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This first quarter issue for 1995 highlights the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The SBIR program is managed by the DOE`s Basic Energy Sciences program within the Office of Energy Research. Each year, the SBIR program solicits research ideas of interest to the DOE. Articles contained in this issue include: The Small Business Innovation Research Program supported by the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security; Automated cueing to man-made objects via multispectral image; Security systems get smart with advanced processing and thermal imaging; A breakthrough in cooling system technology; The APSTNG neutron probe; Lithium-doped fullerene neutron detector; Miniature GC-MS for on-site chemical analysis; and Winner of Sandia President`s Quality Award.

  16. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  17. The Race towards the Future: Geopolitics versus Technology. Implications for Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Bonciu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies two broad and unrelated processes that take place in contemporary world economy, the historical process of redefinition of the balance of power and spheres of influence which is characterized by the geopolitical dimension and the process of profound technological change determined by the forth industrial revolution which is characterized by the technological dimension. The research identifies a race not between the two processes per se, but between the implications of their outcomes. Depending on which of the two processes will succeed in redefining the architecture and predominant type of relations in the world economy the reality of the period from 2020 to 2030 - 2050 might be very different. Based on the conclusions of this research, the final part of the paper analyses the implications of these possible outcomes for Romania, given its current characteristics which resulted after 27 years of transition.

  18. Exploring Large Scale Data Analysis and Visualization for ARM Data Discovery Using NoSQL Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, B.; Gustafson, W. I., Jr.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.; Devarakonda, R.; Palanisamy, G.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a new way of providing ARM data discovery through data analysis and visualization services. ARM stands for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement. This Program was created to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer and also include additional measurements of aerosol and precipitation at various highly instrumented ground and mobile stations. The total volume of ARM data is roughly 900TB. The current search for ARM data is performed by using its metadata, such as the site name, instrument name, date, etc. NoSQL technologies were explored to improve the capabilities of data searching, not only by their metadata, but also by using the measurement values. Two technologies that are currently being implemented for testing are Apache Cassandra (noSQL database) and Apache Spark (noSQL based analytics framework). Both of these technologies were developed to work in a distributed environment and hence can handle large data for storing and analytics. D3.js is a JavaScript library that can generate interactive data visualizations in web browsers by making use of commonly used SVG, HTML5, and CSS standards. To test the performance of NoSQL for ARM data, we will be using ARM's popular measurements to locate the data based on its value. Recently noSQL technology has been applied to a pilot project called LASSO, which stands for LES ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation Workflow. LASSO will be packaging LES output and observations in "data bundles" and analyses will require the ability for users to analyze both observations and LES model output either individually or together across multiple time periods. The LASSO implementation strategy suggests that enormous data storage is required to store the above mentioned quantities. Thus noSQL was used to provide a powerful means to store portions of the data that provided users with search capabilities on each simulation's traits through a web application. Based on the user selection

  19. The UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) superfamily expressed in humans, insects and plants: Animal-plant arms-race and co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Karl Walter

    2016-01-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II enzymes of a detoxification system evolved in all kingdoms of life. Lipophilic endobiotics such as hormones and xenobiotics including phytoalexins and drugs are conjugated by vertebrates mainly with glucuronic acid, by invertebrates and plants mainly with glucose. Plant-herbivore arms-race has been the major driving force for evolution of large UGT and other enzyme superfamilies. The UGT superfamily is defined by a common protein structure and signature sequence of 44 amino acids responsible for binding the UDP moiety of the sugar donor. Plants developed toxic phytoalexins stored as glucosides. Upon herbivore attack these conjugates are converted to highly reactive compounds. In turn, animals developed large families of UGTs in their intestine and liver to detoxify these phytoalexins. Interestingly, phytoalexins, exemplified by quercetin glucuronides and glucosinolate-derived isocyanates, are known insect attractant pigments in plants, and antioxidants, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive compounds of humans. It is to be anticipated that phytochemicals may provide a rich source in beneficial drugs.

  20. Innovation and stasis: technology and race in Mark Twain's Pudd'nhead Wilson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current, Cynthia A

    2009-01-01

    Mark Twain's Pudd'nhead Wilson demonstrates how technologies of identification attempt to counter how bodies evolve beyond previous constraints—in particular, the constraints of racial classification. Twain develops accounts of subjectivity and racial classification that cover an extraordinary breadth of genealogy, biology, and law, while still invoking elements of randomness and chance. The key to such combinations of fixity and emergence in human identity is the technology of fingerprinting. Twain's speculative engagement with fingerprinting creates a system and medium to classify and secure particular forms of identity, leading to the reassertion of racial values already inherent in science and technology, law, and commerce. Fingerprinting represents the direction that technologies of identity would seek to employ: a movement away from direct visual observation of bodies, whose emergence and change over time make them difficult to categorize, to reliance on archives of information that are increasingly removed from the contexts of meaning and emergence those bodies inhabit; this reflects "one drop" politics, as race becomes increasingly difficult to define visually. The archive itself, then, becomes infected with the spectacular vitality of, and the speculation and risk within, nineteenth-century biological and cultural determinism.

  1. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  2. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue : verification of arms control treaties.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  3. Race to the Top

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The global race in developing and deploying green energy technology can be a win-win game "Clean energy race" has become a catchphrase for journalists and bloggers to attract reader eyes. Googling that, one will be

  4. A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE STATE SYSTEM: NETWORKS, ARMS RACES AND MORAL HAZARDS Un sistema adaptativo complejo: Redes, carreras armamentistas y peligros morales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO POLICZER

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the debate over stateness in Latin America assumes that states should sustain basic levels of stability, and if they cannot, the question is why not. This article departs from the assumption of stability, by asking how the relationship between states and other actors has evolved over time. This departure requires a shift in focus: from stateness as referring to states and how they should operate, to stateness as referring to the relationships between states and other actors, and how they change over time. The article argues that such relationships can be understood as emergent complex adaptive systems (CAS, and considers three specific CAS mechanisms: networks, arms races, and moral hazards. This conceptual shift in how to think about states is especially challenging in a region historically accustomed to hierarchical governance.Buena parte del debate sobre la estatalidad en América Latina presupone que los estados deben mantener niveles básicos de estabilidad, y que si no pueden hacerlo, la pregunta es por qué no. Este artículo se aleja del supuesto de la estabilidad, al preguntar cómo la relación entre los estados y otros actores ha evolucionado con el tiempo. Esto requiere un cambio de enfoque: de estatalidad que se refiere a los estados y cómo debieran funcionar, a la estatalidad en referencia a las relaciones entre los estados y otros actores, y cómo éstas cambian con el tiempo. El artículo sostiene que este tipo de relaciones se puede entender como sistemas complejos adaptativos (SCA emergentes, y considera tres mecanismos específicos de SCA: redes, carreras armamentistas y peligros morales (moral hazards. Este cambio conceptual en laforma de pensar acerca de los estados es especialmente difícil en una región históricamente acostumbrada a la gobernanza jerárquica.

  5. Soft-robotic arm inspired by the octopus: II. From artificial requirements to innovative technological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolai, B; Margheri, L; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P; Laschi, C

    2012-06-01

    Soft robotics is a current focus in robotics research because of the expected capability of soft robots to better interact with real-world environments. As a point of inspiration in the development of innovative technologies in soft robotics, octopuses are particularly interesting 'animal models'. Octopus arms have unique biomechanical capabilities that combine significant pliability with the ability to exert a great deal of force, because they lack rigid structures but can change and control their degree of stiffness. The octopus arm motor capability is a result of the peculiar arrangement of its muscles and the properties of its tissues. These special abilities have been investigated by the authors in a specific study dedicated to identifying the key principles underlying these biological functions and deriving engineering requirements for robotics solutions. This paper, which is the second in a two-part series, presents how the identified requirements can be used to create innovative technological solutions, such as soft materials, mechanisms and actuators. Experiments indicate the ability of these proposed solutions to ensure the same performance as in the biological model in terms of compliance, elongation and force. These results represent useful and relevant components of innovative soft-robotic systems and suggest their potential use to create a new generation of highly dexterous, soft-bodied robots.

  6. DESIGN OF ARM BASED REAL TIME PERSONNEL MONITORING SYSTEM USING WI-FI TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha George

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we constantly come across the need to transfer remote data to monitor center which will be far away from the place of data acquisition. Traditional data acquisition system using wires cannot satisfy these requirements due to its heavy cost and impracticability. Embedded devices with network communication which makes it more powerful and easier to monitor and control remote data, is one of the major outcomes of the developments in the field of communication and networking technologies. This study presents the design of a real time personnel monitoring system based on wireless technology. ARM embedded processor and Wi-Fi module are used as hardware platform in this project. Data transfer over the wireless network is based on the TCP/IP protocol which is a part of the Wi-Fi module. Using this designed system an officer can monitor the personnel in the organization by opening a web page from a place that is geographically far. This system is based on the conversion of serial to wireless data which could be transferred over the wireless network to the server and also over the internet. At the completion of the design, the result shows that data is transferred between the ARM processor and the host system using the wireless network.

  7. The arms race between fishers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Poos, J.J.; Quirijns, F.J.; Hille Ris Lambers, R.; Wilde, de J.W.; Heijer, den W.M.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing flee

  8. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    world war, a nuclear inferno , for over 40 years. A sober assessment of the situation in world politics was conducted at the meet- ing of the...there is success in stopping the arms race, or those forces accelerating the arms race and driving humanity to the edge of a nuclear inferno will gain...dialogue with all forces fighting against a nuclear inferno , affirmed by the Warsaw Pact countries, is being seen more and more as the only practicable

  9. Dual Arm Work Platform teleoperated robotics system. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) has developed a Large Scale Demonstration Project (LSDP) at the Chicago Pile-5 Research Reactor (CP-5) at Argonne National Laboratory-East (ANL). The objective of the LSDP is to demonstrate potentially beneficial Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) technologies in comparison with current baseline technologies. The Dual Arm Work Platform (DAWP) demonstration focused on the use of the DAWP to segment and dismantle the CP-5 reactor tank and surrounding bio-shield components (including the graphite block reflector, lead and boral sheeting) and performing some minor tasks best suited for the use of teleoperated robotics that were not evaluated in this demonstration. The DAWP system is not a commercially available product at this time. The CP-5 implementation was its first D and D application. The demonstration of the DAWP was to determine the areas on which improvements must be made to make this technology commercially viable. The results of the demonstration are included in this greenbook. It is the intention of the developers to incorporate lessons learned at this demonstration and current technological advancements in robotics into the next generation of the DAWP.

  10. Developing Effluent Analysis Technologies to Support Nonproliferation Initiatives, Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies, Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, S A; Staehle, G; Alonzo, G M [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This issue provides an overview of the Effluent Research Program of the DOE Office of Research and Development, highlighting a number of representative projects within this program in support of nonproliferation initiatives. Technologies reported include portable instruments for on-site inspections, standoff detectors, fieldable, real-time instruments, field collection techniques, and ultrasensitive laboratory techniques.

  11. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C. [eds.

    1994-05-01

    In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

  12. African American Women Making Race Work in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    2012-01-01

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks,…

  13. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults With Amputations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Diane J.

    1998-01-01

    The first single function myoelectric prosthetic hand was introduced in the 1960's. This hand was controlled by the electric fields generated by muscle contractions in the residual limb of the amputee user. Electrodes and amplifiers, embedded in the prosthetic socket, measured these electric fields across the skin, which increase in amplitude as the individual contracts their muscle. When the myoelectric signal reached a certain threshold amplitude, the control unit activated a motor which opened or closed a hand-like prosthetic terminal device with a pincher grip. Late in the 1990's, little has changed. Most current myoelectric prostheses still operate in this same, single-function way. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function myoelectric hand and the needs of those who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NUH), surveyed approximately 2,500 individuals with upper limb loss [1]. When asked to identify specific features of their current myoelectric prostheses that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement, as well as poor control capability. However, simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. In the 1960's and 1970's, engineers built a number of more dexterous prosthetic hands. Unfortunately, these were rejected during clinical trials due to a difficult and distracting control interface. The goal of this project, "Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults with Amputations," was to lay the foundation for a multi-function, intuitive myoelectric control system which requires no conscious thought to move the hand. We built an extensive myoelectric signal database for six motions from ten amputee volunteers, We also tested a control system based on new artificial intelligence techniques on the data from two of these

  14. The Race towards the Future: Geopolitics versus Technology. Implications for Romania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Florin Bonciu

    2017-01-01

    ... is characterized by the geopolitical dimension and the process of profound technological change determined by the 4th industrial revolution which is characterized by the technological dimension...

  15. Emerging Technologies and Ethics: A Race-to-the-Bottom or the Top?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouvea, R.; Linton, J.D.; Montoya, M.; Walsh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Does national success with an emerging technology require ethical sacrifices? This question is considered through the simultaneous consideration of ethics, investment, and outcomes in the nine jurisdictions that are making the largest investments in nanotechnologies—an important emerging technology.

  16. African American women making race work in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with

  17. Cooperative Remote Monitoring, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Fourth quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, G M [ed.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE`s Cooperative Remote Monitoring programs integrate elements from research and development and implementation to achieve DOE`s objectives in arms control and nonproliferation. The contents of this issue are: cooperative remote monitoring--trends in arms control and nonproliferation; Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS); Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring Systems (ATMS); Tracking and Nuclear Materials by Wide-Area Nuclear Detection (WAND); Cooperative Monitoring Center; the International Remote Monitoring Project; international US and IAEA remote monitoring field trials; Project Dustcloud: monitoring the test stands in Iraq; bilateral remote monitoring: Kurchatov-Argonne-West Demonstration; INSENS Sensor System Project.

  18. What Does Human Capital Do? A Review of Goldin and Katz's "The Race between Education and Technology". NBER Working Paper No. 17820

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron; Autor, David

    2012-01-01

    Goldin and Katz's "The Race between Education and Technology" is a monumental achievement that supplies a unified framework for interpreting how the demand and supply of human capital have shaped the distribution of earnings in the U.S. labor market over the 20th century. This essay reviews the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of this work…

  19. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    like tired runners exposed to the sights of millions of viewers. The fear of oxygen starvation was handled by the U.S. President on several levels...and to present the U.S. attitudes as the only way out of the maze of the arms race. It is an attempt to push through the old principles of U.S

  20. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  1. Technology-assisted training of arm-hand skills in stroke: concepts on reacquisition of motor control and therapist guidelines for rehabilitation technology design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willmann Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is the purpose of this article to identify and review criteria that rehabilitation technology should meet in order to offer arm-hand training to stroke patients, based on recent principles of motor learning. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE (1997–2007. Results One hundred and eighty seven scientific papers/book references were identified as being relevant. Rehabilitation approaches for upper limb training after stroke show to have shifted in the last decade from being analytical towards being focussed on environmentally contextual skill training (task-oriented training. Training programmes for enhancing motor skills use patient and goal-tailored exercise schedules and individual feedback on exercise performance. Therapist criteria for upper limb rehabilitation technology are suggested which are used to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a number of current technological systems. Conclusion This review shows that technology for supporting upper limb training after stroke needs to align with the evolution in rehabilitation training approaches of the last decade. A major challenge for related technological developments is to provide engaging patient-tailored task oriented arm-hand training in natural environments with patient-tailored feedback to support (re learning of motor skills.

  2. Post-marathon wearing of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes facilitates recovery from race-induced fatigue: an evaluation utilizing a visual analog scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kento Nakagawa, Takashi Obu, Kazuyuki KanosueFaculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan Purpose: To investigate the potential benefit of post-race wearing of unstable shoes (Masai Barefoot Technology [MBT] on recovery from marathon race–induced fatigue.Patients and methods: Forty-five runners who participated in a full marathon race were divided into three groups: 1 MBT shoes, 2 trail running shoes, and 3 control (CON. Participants ran a full marathon with their own running shoes, and then put on the assigned shoes immediately after the race. They continued to wear the assigned shoes for the ensuing 3 days. The CON group wore their usual shoes. Estimates of post-race fatigue were made by the participants on questionnaires that utilized a visual analog scale. Estimates were made just after the race, as well as for the next 3 days.Results: The subjective fatigue of the MBT group was lower than that of the CON (P<0.05 or trail running shoe groups (P<0.05 on day 3.Conclusion: MBT shoe intervention can promote recovery from the fatigue induced by running a full marathon.Keywords: footwear, VAS, full marathon

  3. Imaging Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have recently begun to use the tools of neuroscience to examine the social psychological responses associated with race. This article serves as a review of the developing literature in this area. It advances the argument that neuroscience studies of race have the potential to shape fundamental assumptions about race, and the interplay…

  4. Racing against Time: Using Technology To Explore Distance, Rate, and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, N. Kathryn; Lambdin, Diana V.; McGraw, Rebecca H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates ways to analyze change in various contexts. Focuses on computer technology providing contexts for children's investigations of patterns of change and helping to develop foundational ideas of algebra and calculus. Discusses relationships between patterns of change, fundamental algebraic notions as linear and nonlinear functions, and…

  5. Clean Economy, Living Planet. The Race to the Top of Global Clean Energy Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Slot, A.; Van den Berg, W. [Roland Berger Strategy Consultants RBSC, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-05-15

    For four years, WWF and Roland Berger have tracked developments in the global clean energy technology (cleantech) sector and ranked countries according to their cleantech sales. The 3rd annual 'Clean Economy, Living Planet' report ranks 40 countries based on the 2011 sales value of the clean energy technology products they manufacture. The report shows that the EU has lost its position to China as the leader in the fast growing global cleantech energy manufacturing sector. However, when cleantech sales are weighted as a percentage of GDP, Denmark and Germany occupied the first and third position globally. Last year the sector's global sales value rose by 10% to almost 200 billion euros, close to the scale of consumer electronics manufacturing. It is projected to overtake oil and gas equipment in the next three years.

  6. FAST and the arms race: the interaction of group aggression and the families and schools together program in the aggressive and delinquent behaviors of inner-city elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Keith; Moberg, D Paul; McDonald, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    This study applies a multi-player arms race model to peer contagion in the aggressive and delinquent behaviors of inner-city elementary school students. Because this model of peer contagion differs from the usual model based on positive reinforcement of delinquent behavior, it raises the possibility that the persistent finding of iatrogenic effects of group treatment might not apply to group treatment of elementary school children if the possibility of aggressive behavior in the group is limited. One way of limiting aggressive behavior is to include parents in the groups. The study therefore applies the model to groups of elementary school students assigned to Families and Schools Together (FAST; a group treatment that includes parental participation) or to an intervention focused on individual families. The model effectively describes the relationship between group averages of aggressive behavior in the classroom and aggressive and delinquent behavior outside the classroom for those students assigned to the individual intervention. The model fits those children assigned to FAST less well, suggesting that FAST may make it less likely that aggressive and delinquent behavior is generalized outside of aggressive classroom settings. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors draw on evolutionary biology, developmental psychology, sociology, and learning theory to present an innovative prevention model and test the promising FAST program. Using longitudinal data from 403 children, their parents, and their teachers, the authors describe how FAST may interfere with the process of escalating aggression.

  7. Authentication System for Smart Homes Based on ARM7TDMI-S and IRIS-Fingerprint Recognition Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick R. Ishengoma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in technology, smart homes have become applicable and so the need arise to solve the security challenges that are accompanied with its operation. Passwords and identity cards have been used as traditional authentication mechanisms in home environments, however, the rise of misuse of these mechanisms are proving them to be less reliable. For instance, ID cards can be misplaced, copied or counterfeited and being misused. Conversely, studies have shown that biometrics authentication systems particularly Iris Recognition Technology (IRT and Fingerprint Recognition Technology (FRT have the most reliable mechanisms to date providing tremendous accuracy and speed. As the technology becomes less expensive, application of IRT& FRT in smart-homes becomes more reliable and appropriate solution for security challenges. In this paper, we present our approach to design an authentication system for smart homes based on IRT, FRT and ARM7TDMI-S.The system employs two biometrics mechanisms for high reliability whereby initially, system users must enroll their fingerprints and eyes into the camera. Iris and fingerprint biometrics are scanned and the images are stored in the database. In the stage of authentication, FRT and IRT fingerprint scan and analyze points of the user's current input iris and fingerprint and match with the database contents. If one or more captured images do not match with the one in the database, then the system will not give authorization.

  8. Sensor-based whole-arm obstacle avoidance utilizing ASIC technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintenberg, A. L.; Ericson, M. N.; Babcock, S. M.; Armstrong, G. A.; Britton, C. L., Jr.; Butler, P. L.; Hamel, W. R.; Newport, D. F.

    Operation of manipulator systems in poorly defined work environments often presents a significant hazard to both the robotic assembly and the environment. In applications relating to the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Program, many of the environments are considered hazardous, both, in the structure and composition of the environment. Use of a sensing system that provides information to the manipulator control unit regarding obstacles in close proximity will provide protection against collisions. A hierarchical design and implementation of a whole-arm obstacle avoidance system is presented. The system is based on capacitive sensors configured as bracelets for proximity sensing. Each bracelet contains a number of sensor nodes and a processor for sensor node control and readout, and communications with a higher level host, common to all bracelets. The host controls the entire sensing network and communicates proximity information to the manipulator controller. The overall architecture of this system is discussed with detail on the individual system modules. Details of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designed to implement the sensor node electronics are presented. Justifications for the general measurement methods and associated implementation are discussed. Additionally, the current state of development including measured data is presented.

  9. ARMS CONTROL: U.S. Efforts to Control the Transfer of Nuclear-Capable Missile Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-11

    risk of diversion is an important part of its analysis, Commerce focuses its reviews on certain countries that are developing nuclear-capable missiles...ogy to countries developing nuclear-capable missile systems. Our work was conducted in the United States at the Departments of State, Commerce , and...the MTCR in halting the transfer of MTCR-related systems and technology to countries developing nuclear-capable missile systems. The objectives, scope

  10. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology - Kinematic analysis of bilateral arms for abnormal spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyu Won; Yoo, Ju Sang; Kim, Jong Yoon [Chungbuk National University, Chongju (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    In the project of 'Development of Spent Fuel Remote Handling Technology', Preprocessing technique, mechanism and teleoperation technique are being developed. One of the mechanisms is a device for disassembling of the spent fuel bundle. However, there may be abnormal fuel bar among the fuel bundle, In this case the unpacking task will be difficult and dangerous. So, in that case, a force reflected teleoperation manipulator is desirable. The system is composed of a anthropomorphic input device at control site, power manipulator at remote site and control system. In this research, the forward and inverse kinematic equations of input device and manipulators has been solved, respectively. In addition, the mapping algorithm is proposed and shown using computer simulation. The reaction force of the telemanipulator with the environmental object is reflected through control system. The reaction force is decomposed into joint torque of the input device based on the jacobian equation. The obtained theoretical relations are verified through computer simulation and they will be used effectively in the spent fuel remote handling technology. 6 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  11. Airborne Multisensor Pod System, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Second quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This issue focuses on the Airborne Multisensor Pod System (AMPS) which is a collaboration of many of the DOE national laboratories to provide a scientific environment to research multiple sensors and the new information that can be derived from them. The bulk of the research has been directed at nonproliferation applications, but it has also proven useful in environmental monitoring and assessment, and land/water management. The contents of this issue are: using AMPS technology to detect proliferation and monitor resources; combining multisensor data to monitor facilities and natural resources; planning a AMPS mission; SAR pod produces images day or night, rain or shine; MSI pod combines data from multiple sensors; ESI pod will analyze emissions and effluents; and accessing AMPS information on the Internet.

  12. 2005 CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.

  13. The influence of sex, race, and age on pain assessment and treatment decisions using virtual human technology: a cross-national comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres CA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calia A Torres,1 Emily J Bartley,1 Laura D Wandner,1 Ashraf F Alqudah,2 Adam T Hirsh,3 Michael E Robinson11Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Psychology, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; 3Department of Psychology, Indiana University–Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USAPurpose: Studies in the United States have found that patients' sex, race, and age influence the pain assessment and treatment decisions of laypeople and medical professionals. However, there is limited research as to whether people of other nationalities make pain management decisions differently based on demographic characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the following study was to compare pain assessment and treatment decisions of undergraduate students in Jordan and the United States as a preliminary examination of nationality as a potential proxy for cultural differences in pain decisions.Methods: Virtual human (VH technology was used to examine the influences of patients' sex (male or female, race (light-skinned or dark-skinned, and age (younger or older on students' pain management decisions. Seventy-five American and 104 Jordanian undergraduate students participated in this web-based study.Results: American and Jordanian students rated pain intensity higher in females and older adults and were more likely to recommend medical help to these groups, relative to males and younger adults. Furthermore, Jordanian participants rated pain intensity higher and were more likely to recommend medical help for all patient demographic groups (ie, sex, race, age than American participants.Conclusion: This is the first cross-national study that compares pain decisions between undergraduate students. The results suggest that sex, race, and age cues are used in pain assessment and treatment by both Americans and Jordanians, with Jordanians more likely to rate pain higher and recommend medical help to

  14. Research and Utilization of NEON Technology Based on ARM Cortex-A9%ARM Cortex-A9的NEON技术研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新泽; 杨斌

    2013-01-01

    ARM Cortex-A系列处理器首次集成了NEON技术,可以有效加速多媒体应用.本文基于Cortex-A9处理器,对NEON技术进行研究,并对JM解码器进行NEON优化,提供实际优化效果.在PandaBoard开发板上对不同分辨率的多个测试序列进行了解码测试,测试结果显示,优化后的解码速率提高了,而且提高分辨率并不影响优化效果.

  15. The spectre of race in American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofana, Mariam O

    2013-12-01

    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race-the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful-has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalisation of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient's risk of certain conditions (eg, sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful, and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today's physicians will be better armed to discern-and correct-the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices.

  16. Chinese and Foreign Elite Male 10 km Race Walking Athletes Race Walking Technology Comparative Analysis%中外优秀男子10公里竞走运动员竞走技术对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小芳; 游永豪; 张阳; 周浩祥

    2015-01-01

    Research purposes:the analysis of Chinese and foreign elite male 10 km race walking athletes race walking technology characteristics and differences of from the perspective of technical movement analysis for the 2014 World Cup in the iaaf race walk-ing man 10 kilometers of Chinese and foreign excellent athletes in the match technique for diagnosis and analysis, and compari-son, to find the advantages and disadvantages of walkers walking technology in China, to provide the accurate movement technical reference for the coaches and athletes and suggestion. The main research method is motion technology film and image analytical method. Results:1) the Chinese athletes Gao Wen-kui gradually changed the traditional technology and characteristics of high frequency "small step", but the step increase led to a lower frequency. About basic step amplitude balance and center of gravity is moving fast. Leng Xiao but remains the technical features of high frequency"small step", and around the step amplitude unbal-ance, center of gravity move slower. 2) Gao Wenkui and foul Leng Xiao long hang time and close to the critical value. 3) on the top of the head fluctuation, Chinese athletes is better than foreign athletes. 4) compared with the foreign excellent athletes, the ankle of the walker stretching amplitude is smaller. 5) Gao Wenkui right leg touchdown instant knee Angle is not in conformity with the naked eye can be observed. 6) when the Chinese athletes in the vertical support the technical features of the knee joint Angle "the bow". Suggested our country athletes pay attention to the optimized combination of step length and step frequency, strictly control the hang time, to strengthen the ankle exercises.%研究目的:分析中外优秀男子10公里竞走运动员竞走技术的特点和差异.主要研究方法:运动技术拍摄和图像解析法.研究结果:1)中国运动员高文魁左右迈步幅度基本平衡,重心移动速度较快.冷晓左右迈步幅度不

  17. Comparing young people's experience of technology-delivered v. face-to-face mindfulness and relaxation: two-armed qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, Conall; Cooney, Patricia; Coyle, David; O'Reilly, Gary

    2017-04-01

    BackgroundThe current popularity of mindfulness-based practices has coincided with the increase in access to mobile technology. This has led to many mindfulness apps and programs becoming available, some specifically for children. However, little is known about the experience of engaging with mindfulness through these mediums.AimsTo explore children's experience of mindfulness delivered both face-to-face and through a computer game to highlight any differences or similarities.MethodA two-armed qualitative focus groups design was used to explore children's experiences. The first arm offered mindfulness exercises in a traditional face-to-face setting with guided meditations. The second arm offered mindfulness exercises through a computer game avatar.ResultsThemes of relaxation, engagement, awareness, thinking, practice and directing attention emerged from both arms of focus groups. Subthematic codes highlight key differences as well as similarities in the experience of mindfulness.ConclusionsThese results indicate that mindfulness delivered via technology can offer a rich experience. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  18. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  19. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay/RelayPagePictures/MedicalServiceAnnoncement.pdf

  20. RELAY RACE

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  1. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist insurge...

  2. Downhill Races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Cruse

    2002-04-01

    Discussions of downhill races have been evolving in introductory texts. This article presents a logical sequence to guide students through the essential factors in this multifaceted topic. Comparative examples and a technical supplement are provided to reinforce the logic. Slipping, surface compressions, bounces, wobble, and internal material shifts are considered adverse effects.

  3. Racing Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jim; Gavin, Carl; Owen, Martin

    2004-09-01

    This paper outlines an innovative education project that, by using a cutting-edge racing car physics simulation, will help create the next generation of engineers. The article gives an overview of this genre of games to give a background to the non-games expert. It also identifies key educational methodologies that have helped to form the goals of the project.

  4. RACE技术研究进展与展望%Research Progress and Prospects on RACE Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈元月

    2008-01-01

    近年来,RACE(rapid amplification of cDNA ends)技术,即cDNA末端快速扩增技术,是一种快速扩增cDNA的5'和3'末端的有效方法,在扩增全长cDNA方面得到了广泛的应用.综述了RACE技术的研究进展,总结了优化RACE技术几个关键环节.最后展望了RACE技术的发展.

  5. Application of ARM NEON technology in parking-place recognition algorithm%ARM NEON技术在车位识别算法中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 蒋大林; 董珂

    2013-01-01

    为了在车位检测系统中不使用DSP的情况下,达到实时处理和节约成本的目的,在嵌入式Linux系统中使用了CORTEX-A系列的NEON协处理器技术来优化一种车位图像检测算法的代码。在CORTEX-A8平台上使用该图像处理算法进行了大量的处理测试,图像算法处理速度得到很大提升。最后在多个平台下使用该图像处理算法进行测试对比,使用了NEON技术后其算法处理速度提升明显,能够满足实时要求。%In order to achieve the purposes of real-time processing and cost-saving without using DSP in the parking detec-tion system,NEON coprocessor technology of the Cortex-A series is used in the embedded Linux system to optimize the code of a parking-place image detection algorithm. A large number of processing test is made for the image processing algorithm in Cortex-A8 platform. The speed of the image processing algorithm is greatly improved. The image processing algorithm is used on multi-ple platforms for test and contrast. The processing speed of the algorithm which has used NEON technology was improved signifi-cantly and met the real-time requirements.

  6. RACE pulls for shared control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, M. B., Jr.; Cassiday, B. K.

    1993-02-01

    Maintaining and supporting an aircraft fleet, in a climate of reduced manpower and financial resources, dictates effective utilization of robotics and automation technologies. To help develop a winning robotics and automation program the Air Force Logistics Command created the Robotics and Automation Center of Excellence (RACE). RACE is a command wide focal point. Race is an organic source of expertise to assist the Air Logistic Center (ALC) product directorates in improving process productivity through the judicious insertion of robotics and automation technologies. RACE is a champion for pulling emerging technologies into the aircraft logistic centers. One of those technology pulls is shared control. Small batch sizes, feature uncertainty, and varying work load conspire to make classic industrial robotic solutions impractical. One can view ALC process problems in the context of space robotics without the time delay. The ALC's will benefit greatly from the implementation of a common architecture that supports a range of control actions from fully autonomous to teleoperated. Working with national laboratories and private industry, we hope to transition shared control technology to the depot floor. This paper provides an overview of the RACE internal initiatives and customer support, with particular emphasis on production processes that will benefit from shared control technology.

  7. multi-protocol dimming System Based on ARM Technology%基于ARM技术的多协议调光系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李南安; 梁芳芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the dimming system networked and multi-protocol trends,and some suggestions of multi-protocol dimming System based on the ARM technology were put forward.Used the embedded Linux operating system and industrial ARM9 development platform,through designing the realized system,the equipment demand of dimming market was realized effectively,it enriched the corporate products and the product adaptability was enhanced.%为了满足调光系统的网络化和多协议趋势,提出了一种基于ARM技术的多协议调光系统。采用嵌入式linux操作系统和工业化的工业级ARM9开发平台。所设计实现的系统有效的实现了调光市场的设备需求,丰富了公司的产品和增强了产品适应性。

  8. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  9. An assessment of Turkish Defense Industry and Turkey's efforts to transfer military technology: strategies for arming the future

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    The end of the cold war has created a safer environment for most nations and reduced the need for fielding huge armed forces and vast investments for defense. However, due to her very special strategic position and historical responsibilities, Turkey still faces a range of substantial threats to its national interests, physical security, economic well being. These threats require the maintenance of a broad set of military capabilities in order to deter, and if necessary, to fight and win any ...

  10. 基于ARM平台的ROP攻击及防御技术%ROP Attack and Defense Technology based on ARM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱逸; 王轶骏; 薛质

    2012-01-01

    With the development of mobile-phone field, ARM architecture is usually used in the mobile-phone and tablet computer, and the security issues on ARM platform always attract much attention from the researchers. ROP, a popular attack method on X86 is planted into ARM. This paper analyzes the different ROP defense methods on X86, presents the technical details of ROP attack, including specific implementation and gadgets search algorithm on ARM. Finally, a library sandbox technology is suggested to defense this kind of attack and secure the system.%随着智能手机领域的发展,几乎所有智能手机及平板电脑都采用了ARM架构,在此平台上的安全问题也越来越受到研究者的关注。X86平台上流行的返回导向编程被引入到了ARM平台上。通过研究总结X86平台上返回导向编程的攻击和防御机制,给出了该攻击移植到ARM平台上的技术细节,包括具体实现方式和gadget搜索算法的差异性,通过自动构建gadgets链加速Exploit开发,最后提出了一种系统库沙盒技术来防御此攻击。

  11. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  12. Hello to Arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red. As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light. The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far. Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own. The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  13. Information and Communication Technology Use Among Low-Income Pregnant and Postpartum Women by Race and Ethnicity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice Lynn; Lawson, Shari; Ehsanipoor, Robert; Costigan, Kathleen; Polk, Sarah; Bennett, Wendy

    2015-07-03

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period provide windows of opportunity to impact perinatal and lifelong preventive health behavior for women and their families, but these opportunities are often missed. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in information and communication technology (ICT) use could inform technology-based interventions in diverse populations. The objective of the study was to evaluate differences in the use of ICT between racial and ethnic groups as well as by English language proficiency. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 246 women who were aged 18 years or older and pregnant or within 1 year of delivery. They were recruited from 4 hospital-based outpatient clinics and completed a self-administered survey. We used multivariate regression analysis to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and ICT (mobile phone/short message service [SMS] text message, Internet, and social network) usage by race/ethnicity and perceived English language proficiency after adjusting for age, income, marital status, and insurance status. In all, 28% (69/246) of participants were Latina, 40% (98/246) were African American, 23% (56/246) were white, and 9% (23/246) from other racial/ethnic groups. Of the Latinas, 84% (58/69) reported limited English language proficiency and 59% (41/69) were uninsured. More than 90% of all participants reported mobile phone use, but more than 25% (65/246) had changed phone numbers 2 or more times in the past year. Compared to white women, African American women were less likely to SMS text message (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01-0.63) and Latinas were less likely to use the Internet to find others with similar concerns (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.73). Women with limited English language proficiency were less likely to use the Internet overall (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09-0.99) or use email (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.63) compared to women with adequate English language proficiency. Mobile phones are widely available for the delivery of health

  14. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  15. A control system of mobile navigation robot for precise spraying based ultrasonic detecting and ARM embedded technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiuying; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Yue, Xinpeng; Peng, Yankun

    2011-06-01

    This paper described a control system of mobile navigation robot for precision spraying in greenhouse environment, which were composed of main control module, motor driving module, ultrasonic detecting module and wirless remote control module. The hard circuits of control system were built. The main control module used ARM7TDMI-S-based LPC2210 micro-processing controller. The motor driving module consisted of voltage amplifier circuit based SN74LS245N and DM74LS244N chips, RC filter circuit, and HM-YZ-30 DC brush motor driver. The ultrasonic detecting module consisted of four standard ultrasonic ranging modules which were arranged on the four sides around the mobile navigation robot, and used GM8125 chip to expand serial communication interfaces. An obstacle-avoiding strategy and its algorithm were proposed and the control programs of mobile navigation robot were programmed. The mobile navigation robot for spraying can realize the actions such as starting and stopping, forward and backward moving, accelerate and decelerate motion, and right and left turn. Finally, the functional experiments of the mobile navigation robot were conducted in the laboratory environment. The results showed that the ultrasonic detecting distance of the robot was 50.5mm-1832.0mm and detecting blind zone was less than 50mm, the ultrasonic detecting angle of individual ultrasonic detecting module of robot was similar to U-shaped and its vaule was about 45.66°, and the moving path of navigation robot was approximately linear.

  16. Just-in-Time Research: A Call to Arms for Research into Mobile Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Dexter, Hilary; Hart, Jo; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne, Ged; Sampson, Ian; Mooney, Jane; Lumsden, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n = 443) who received…

  17. Motor (re) learning concepts used in technology assisted training of arm hand function in stroke: a review article.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.; Seelen, H.A.M.; Willmann, R.; Kingma, H.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: It is the purpose of this article to review, which are possible criteria that rehabilitation technology should meet in order to offer upper limb training after stroke that is based on principles of motor learning. Methods: A computerised literature search was conducted in P

  18. Forze hydrogen racing team Delft; TU Delft students develop hydrogen race-car

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartvelt, M.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Working towards a sustainable, yet exciting future’ is one of the big challenges in engineering nowadays. A group of students from the TU Delft accepted this challenge and designed a zero-emission hydrogen powered race-car. Combining green technology with racing, Forze wants to show the potential

  19. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  20. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  1. [Problematic issues and prospects of development of information and telecommunication technologies in the medical service of the Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachev, O V; Pershin, I V; Borisov, D N; Korneenkov, A A

    2014-12-01

    Medical information systems composed of many specialized modules help in synchronous solving of diagnostic, therapeutic, administrative, financial, statistical, and other tasks. According to the authors, the creation of a single information space of the medical service, integrating it into a single information space of the Defense Ministry of the Russian Fedaration, development and widespread use of telemedicine technology will significantly accelerate the integration in the daily activities of military hospitals of the latest achievements in medical science and practices consistent with the objectives of improving the military health care and improvement of the quality and accessibility of health care.

  2. Just-in-time research: a call to arms for research into mobile technologies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Byrne-Davis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n=443 who received tablet computers (iPads from their medical school during their 4th year of study. Students were surveyed prior to receiving the iPads and again regarding their usage and experiences at 2, 6 and 12 months post receipt of tablets. Findings indicate that students differed in their use of iPads but that the majority felt that tablets had impacted on their learning and the majority were using them frequently (at least once a day during learning. Almost half of the students reported that clinical supervisors had raised the possibility of tablets changing patient care. These results, although only descriptive, raise important questions about the impact of mobile technologies on learning.

  3. Democratizing Neurorehabilitation: How Accessible are Low-Cost Mobile-Gaming Technologies for Self-Rehabilitation of Arm Disability in Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Paul; Mace, Michael; Nakornchai, Tagore; Zimmerman, Karl; Fayer, Susannah; Sharma, Pankaj; Liardon, Jean-Luc; Burdet, Etienne; Bentley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Motor-training software on tablets or smartphones (Apps) offer a low-cost, widely-available solution to supplement arm physiotherapy after stroke. We assessed the proportions of hemiplegic stroke patients who, with their plegic hand, could meaningfully engage with mobile-gaming devices using a range of standard control-methods, as well as by using a novel wireless grip-controller, adapted for neurodisability. We screened all newly-diagnosed hemiplegic stroke patients presenting to a stroke centre over 6 months. Subjects were compared on their ability to control a tablet or smartphone cursor using: finger-swipe, tap, joystick, screen-tilt, and an adapted handgrip. Cursor control was graded as: no movement (0); less than full-range movement (1); full-range movement (2); directed movement (3). In total, we screened 345 patients, of which 87 satisfied recruitment criteria and completed testing. The commonest reason for exclusion was cognitive impairment. Using conventional controls, the proportion of patients able to direct cursor movement was 38–48%; and to move it full-range was 55–67% (controller comparison: p>0.1). By comparison, handgrip enabled directed control in 75%, and full-range movement in 93% (controller comparison: ppatients. Technological adaptations such as grip-control can enable more severely affected subjects to engage with self-training software. PMID:27706248

  4. Democratizing Neurorehabilitation: How Accessible are Low-Cost Mobile-Gaming Technologies for Self-Rehabilitation of Arm Disability in Stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Paul; Mace, Michael; Nakornchai, Tagore; Zimmerman, Karl; Fayer, Susannah; Sharma, Pankaj; Liardon, Jean-Luc; Burdet, Etienne; Bentley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Motor-training software on tablets or smartphones (Apps) offer a low-cost, widely-available solution to supplement arm physiotherapy after stroke. We assessed the proportions of hemiplegic stroke patients who, with their plegic hand, could meaningfully engage with mobile-gaming devices using a range of standard control-methods, as well as by using a novel wireless grip-controller, adapted for neurodisability. We screened all newly-diagnosed hemiplegic stroke patients presenting to a stroke centre over 6 months. Subjects were compared on their ability to control a tablet or smartphone cursor using: finger-swipe, tap, joystick, screen-tilt, and an adapted handgrip. Cursor control was graded as: no movement (0); less than full-range movement (1); full-range movement (2); directed movement (3). In total, we screened 345 patients, of which 87 satisfied recruitment criteria and completed testing. The commonest reason for exclusion was cognitive impairment. Using conventional controls, the proportion of patients able to direct cursor movement was 38-48%; and to move it full-range was 55-67% (controller comparison: p>0.1). By comparison, handgrip enabled directed control in 75%, and full-range movement in 93% (controller comparison: pmobile devices are likely to be accessible only to mildly-disabled stroke patients. Technological adaptations such as grip-control can enable more severely affected subjects to engage with self-training software.

  5. Plasma cortisol and testosterone following 19-km and 42-km kayak races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutoslawska, G; Obminski, Z; Krogulski, A; Sendecki, W

    1991-12-01

    Plasma cortisol and testosterone levels were examined in five, elite, male kayakers before and after 19-km and 42-km kayak races. Both races resulted in significant elevation in plasma cortisol and observed increase is likely to depend on race duration, being much more pronounced after 42-km race compared to 19-km. It should be stressed that observed elevation in cortisol level after 42-km race was higher than reported previously after a marathon run. This finding is in line with reports on hormonal changes in response to arms exercise. Both contests caused a decrease in plasma testosterone level, but the difference between races was not significant. Testosterone/cortisol ratio dropped significantly immediately after the races and the observed decrease was more dominant after the 42-km distance. On the next day, 18 h after the races plasma cortisol, testosterone levels and T/C ratio returned to basal level indicating recuperation from post exercise changes.

  6. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...... into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...

  7. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission. Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil. The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Prejudice and Race Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Raymond W., Ed.

    Contents of this book comprises: Introduction--A decade of change; (1) Race and its consequences: Beliefs and acts; (2) Race relations in different societies: A comparative perspective; (3) Implementing discrimination: the institutional impact of prejudice; (4) Leaders in change: A set of profiles; and (5) Options facing Americans: Pathos to…

  9. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...

  10. The Amazing Mathematical Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Bethany A.; Buckley, Brooke E.

    2011-01-01

    Teams, pit stops, clues, time limits, fast forwards, challenges, and prizes are all components of the CBS hit show "The Amazing Race." They were also elements of the Amazing Mathematical Race sponsored by the Math and Stats Club at Northern Kentucky University in April 2009. Held in recognition of Math Awareness Month, which is advocated…

  11. The Kinesiology of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Myosha

    2014-01-01

    In this research article, Myosha McAfee presents findings from her grounded theory and microethnographical study of math instruction in a racially and socioeconomically diverse public school. Her analysis puts forth a new theory-the kinesiology of race-which conceptualizes race as a verb rather than a noun. It centrally considers how racial…

  12. Forze hydrogen racing team Delft; TU Delft students develop hydrogen race-car

    OpenAIRE

    Hartvelt, M.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Working towards a sustainable, yet exciting future’ is one of the big challenges in engineering nowadays. A group of students from the TU Delft accepted this challenge and designed a zero-emission hydrogen powered race-car. Combining green technology with racing, Forze wants to show the potential of hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Find out how Forze has been developing hydrogen powered racecars since 2007.

  13. Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale - Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Della Rocca, Gianni; Llusià, Joan; Danti, Roberto; Barberini, Sara; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Simoni, Sauro; Michelozzi, Marco; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-22

    The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle.

  14. Fathering the unthinkable: Masculinity, scientists and the nuclear arms race

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslea, B.

    1985-01-01

    The author argues about the claim that nuclear weapons are necessary in order to defend Western civilization against the aggressive intentions of the Soviet Union. He believes that while the Soviet Union is extremely unpleasant to its own citizens, the United States is by far the more aggressive internationally. In studying the many cruel persecutions of people by people, the author also came to feed that economic causes are not sufficient to explain their intensity and brutality. His study of the relation between witch-hunting and the rise of science led him to think that such non-economic factors as gender identity and sexual attitudes are also very relevant.

  15. Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Weapons Proliferation, and the Arms Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Jack, Ed.

    A symposium was organized to reexamine the realities of vertical proliferation between the United States and the Soviet Union and to place into perspective the horizontal proliferation of nuclear weapons throughout the world, including the possible role of commercial nuclear power in facilitating proliferation. The four invited symposium…

  16. Cladosporium fulvum Effectors: Weapons in the Arms Race with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2016-08-04

    In this review, I recount my personal history. My drive to study host-pathogen interactions was to find alternatives for agrochemicals, which was triggered after reading the book "Silent Spring" by Rachel Carson. I reflect on my research at the Laboratory of Phytopathology at Wageningen University, where I have worked for my entire career on the interaction between Cladosporium fulvum and tomato, and related gene-for-gene pathosystems. I describe different methods used to identify and sequence avirulence (Avr) genes from the pathogen and resistance (R) genes from the host. The major genes involved in classical gene-for-gene interactions have now been identified, and breeders can produce plants with multiple R genes providing durable and environmentally safe protection against pathogens. In some cases, this might require the use of genetically modified plants when R genes cannot be introduced by classical breeding.

  17. Predators Make (Temporary) Escape from Coevolutionary Arms Race

    OpenAIRE

    Hanifin, Charles T; Brodie, Edmund D

    2008-01-01

    Because coevolution takes place across a broad scale of time and space, it is virtually impossible to understand its dynamics and trajectories by studying a single pair of interacting populations at one time. Comparing populations across a range of an interaction, especially for long-lived species, can provide insight into these features of coevolution by sampling across a diverse set of conditions and histories. We used measures of prey traits (tetrodotoxin toxicity in newts) and predator tr...

  18. A Coevolutionary Arms Race: Understanding Plant-Herbivore Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants and insects share a long evolutionary history characterized by relationships that affect individual, population, and community dynamics. Plant-herbivore interactions are a prominent feature of this evolutionary history; it is by plant-herbivore interactions that energy is transferred from primary producers to the rest of the food web. Not…

  19. A Coevolutionary Arms Race: Understanding Plant-Herbivore Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Katie M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants and insects share a long evolutionary history characterized by relationships that affect individual, population, and community dynamics. Plant-herbivore interactions are a prominent feature of this evolutionary history; it is by plant-herbivore interactions that energy is transferred from primary producers to the rest of the food web. Not…

  20. Autophagy and bacterial infection: an evolving arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Augustine; Roy, Craig R

    2013-09-01

    Autophagy is an important membrane transport pathway that is conserved among eukaryotic cells. Although first described as an intracellular catabolic pathway used to break down self-components, autophagy has been found to play an important role in the elimination of intracellular pathogens. A variety of host mechanisms exist for recognizing and targeting intracellular bacteria to autophagosomes. Several intracellular bacteria have evolved ways to manipulate, inhibit, or avoid autophagy in order to survive in the cell. Thus, the autophagy pathway can be viewed as an evolutionarily conserved host response to infection.

  1. Defense Spending in Latin America: Arms Race or Commodity Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    volatile price oil. Chávez’s changes have not come without criticisms. The government has been cutting the PDVSA development and sustainment budget and...was criticizing the dominant elite class and the poor management of Petroleos de Venezuela ( PDVSA ).85 When Chávez took office, he had dramatically... PDVSA ) administration. Such an act by the government has paved the way to an immediate conflict with the bureaucracy of the oil conglomerates.99

  2. TT race data logger

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This report is made to accomplish the demand from TriCAT Racing motor race team. They suggest if it was possible to create a device capable to log data from a motorbike during a race or testing seasons, mentioning some other similar systems out on the market, but is really expensive. Taking an initial idea, we thought about one way to design a system capable of satisfy the demand of our contractor, trying to reduce costs on the design. At this point we accept the project offered by TriCAT ...

  3. TT race data logger

    OpenAIRE

    Auñon Plandolit, David; Gallardo Robles, Jose Maria

    2010-01-01

    This report is made to accomplish the demand from TriCAT Racing motor race team. They suggest if it was possible to create a device capable to log data from a motorbike during a race or testing seasons, mentioning some other similar systems out on the market, but is really expensive. Taking an initial idea, we thought about one way to design a system capable of satisfy the demand of our contractor, trying to reduce costs on the design. At this point we accept the project offered by TriCAT ...

  4. The Old Jalopy Races into the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Discusses alternative transportation technological advances in speed, range, battery strategies, and safety facilitated by motor car racing. Presents a historical perspective of the development of steam, electric and gas-powered vehicles and modern versions of electric, and mixed power source cars being tested today. (MCO)

  5. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Running Club

    2010-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20 May, starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the route, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay

  6. CERN Relay Race 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 14th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. More details on how to register your team for the relay race

  7. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  8. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons, and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall, or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  9. Evolution of robotic arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  10. Arm Lift (Brachioplasty)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sagging. An arm lift might also boost your body image. As you get older, the skin on your upper arms changes — sagging and becoming loose. Significant weight loss also can cause the undersides of your upper arms to droop. While exercise can strengthen and improve muscle tone in the ...

  11. Hot Galactic Arms Point To Vicious Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has revealed the aftermath of a titanic explosion that wracked the elliptical galaxy known as NGC 4636. This eruption could be the latest episode in a cycle of violence that is triggered by gas falling into a central massive black hole. Chandra's images of NGC 4636 show spectacular symmetric arms, or arcs, of hot gas extending 25,000 light years into a huge cloud of multimillion-degree-Celsius gas that envelopes the galaxy. At a temperature of 10 million degrees, the arms are 30 percent hotter than the surrounding gas cloud. "The temperature jump, together with the symmetry and scale of the arms, suggests that we are observing the effects of a tremendous outburst that occurred in the center of the galaxy," said Christine Jones of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., lead author of a paper on these observations scheduled for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters. "The energy of this explosion would be the equivalent of several hundred thousand supernovas." The arms appear to be the leading edges of a galaxy-sized shock wave that is racing outward at 700 kilometers per second, or 1.6 million miles per hour. At this speed, it would take 3 million years for the structures to attain their present size. Cavities detected in the hot gas cloud to the east and west of the center of the galaxy support the shockwave explanation. The authors suggest that the explosion is part of a majestic cosmic feedback process that keeps the galaxy in a state of turmoil. Over a period of a few million years, a hot gas cloud that envelops the stars in the galaxy cools and falls inward toward a central, massive black hole. The feeding of the black hole by the infalling material leads to an explosion that heats the hot gaseous envelope, starting the cycle anew. NGC 4636 NGC 4636 Background Subtracted This feedback cycle may explain one puzzling feature of the galaxy - the lack of a strong radio source of the type that is

  12. Biogeographical ancestry and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannett, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    The use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research is controversial-for example, in the comparison of disease risk in different groups or as a means of making use of or controlling for population structure in the mapping of genes to chromosomes. Biogeographical ancestry (BGA) has been recommended as a more accurate and appropriate category. BGA is a product of the collaboration between biological anthropologist Mark Shriver from Pennsylvania State University and molecular biologist Tony Frudakis from the now-defunct biotechnology start-up company DNAPrint genomics, Inc. Shriver and Frudakis portray BGA as a measure of the 'biological', 'genetic', 'natural', and 'objective' components of race and ethnicity, what philosophers of science would call a natural kind. This paper argues that BGA is not a natural kind that escapes social and political connotations of race and ethnicity, as Shriver and Frudakis and other proponents believe, but a construction that is built upon race-as race has been socially constructed in the European scientific and philosophical traditions. More specifically, BGA is not a global category of biological and anthropological classification but a local category shaped by the U.S. context of its production, especially the forensic aim of being able to predict the race or ethnicity of an unknown suspect based on DNA found at the crime scene. Therefore, caution needs to be exercised in the embrace of BGA as an alternative to the use of racial and ethnic categories in biological and biomedical research.

  13. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.

    2008-01-01

    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...... responses for the single stimuli. It has been pointed out that fast guesses (e.g. anticipatory responses) interfere with this test, and a correction procedure ('kill-the-twin' procedure) has been suggested. In this note we formally derive this procedure and extend it to the case in which redundant stimuli...... are presented with onset asynchrony. We demonstrate how the kill-the-twin procedure is used in a statistical test of the race model prediction....

  14. Design And Implementation Of Anthropomorphic Robotic Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The report focuses on the design and demonstration of an anthropomorphic robotic arm with seven degrees of freedom using readily available low-cost components to perform different real time human hand applications. The robotic arm consists of a shoulder, elbow, wrist and a five-finger gripper. It can perform different gripping actions, such as lateral, spherical, cylindrical and tip-holding gripping actions; each finger has three movable links. The actuator used for the robotic arm is a high torque dc servo motor and the five-finger gripper consists of five cables placed like tendons in the human arm. Implementation is done using a human hand glove which senses the motion from sensor technology to produce a proportional analog voltage, digitized via the microcontroller Atmel ATmega32. The microcontroller then through the processed signal controls the mechanical structure that is the robotic arm. Keywords –

  15. Research and Implementation on ARM Software Trace Debugging Technology in LTE System%LTE系统中软件跟踪调试技术的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申敏; 彭涛; 周勃

    2012-01-01

    The embedded tracking debuging technology based on ARM11 core in LTE system is discussed. In order to meet the needs of high-speed data services in LTE system and facilitate process controlling and the location of abnormal situation analysis in the operation of ARM subsystem during the product development period, a solution of trace debuging technology is put forward, which has high reliability, strong performance and real-time property. The difficulty is how to manage on-chip cache of trace information and how to process cache of trace information when the high priority task interrupt low priority task in the embedded operating systems, in order to ensure the efficient operation of system and the timing of the trace information.%论述了在LTE系统中基于ARM11内核的嵌入式跟踪调试技术.为了满足LTE系统中高速数据业务的需求,方便产品开发期间ARM子系统的运行流程控制和异常情况的定位分析,提出了一种可靠性高、性能强的实时跟踪调试技术方案.该方案的难点在于跟踪信息片内缓存的管理和嵌入式操作系统中高低优先级任务切换时跟踪信息的缓存处理方法,保证LTE系统的高速率运行和跟踪信息的时序性.

  16. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 5 June starting at 12:15 p.m. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at: http://cern.ch/club-running-relay/form.html

  17. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  18. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 23 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at: http://cern.ch/club-running-relay/form.html

  19. Race to catch up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, Johannes

    2011-07-01

    In summer 2010, Manz AG presented a turnkey concept for producing thin-film modules made of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide. Faced with a massive drop in prices, the equipment manufacturer has now made improvements. Thin-film modules made of micromorphous silicon, on the other hand, are increasingly struggling to keep up in this race. (orig.)

  20. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  1. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  2. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  3. Academicians and Race Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the activities and attitudes of a group of academicians active in one area of current social change--race relations--in a mideastern urban area, with respect to their roles and their institutions' roles in the current social change. (Author/JM)

  4. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  5. Race and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Ernest R.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the connection between race and education policy in the United States, focusing on the interplay between the U.S. population's belief in democracy, national racist beliefs, and the inability of many white citizens to comprehend the depth of racism in the United States. (SLD)

  6. Race, Racism, and Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  7. 47th Relay Race!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On Thursday June 1st at 12.15, Fabiola Gianotti, our Director-General, will fire the starting shot for the 47th Relay Race. This Race is above all a festive CERN event, open for runners and walkers, as well as the people cheering them on throughout the race, and those who wish to participate in the various activities organised between 11.30 and 14.30 out on the lawn in front of Restaurant 1. In order to make this sports event accessible for everyone, our Director-General will allow for flexible lunch hours on the day, applicable for all the members of personnel. An alert for the closure of roads will be send out on the day of the event. The Staff Association and the CERN Running Club thank you in advance for your participation and your continued support throughout the years. This year the CERN Running Club has announced the participation of locally and internationally renowned runners, no less! A bit over a week from the Relay Race of 1st June, the number of teams is going up nicely (already almost 40). Am...

  8. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  9. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  10. 基于ARM的ModBus第三方接口协议模块%Third Party Protocol Transfer of ModBus Based on ARM Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申万义; 黄玉宝; 谷一

    2013-01-01

      为满足工业现场各种不同类型模块现场总线之间的数据相互传输的要求,设计了基于ARM硬件和软件体系的第三方接口协议模块。该模块由电源电路,CPU电路,逻辑控制电路和电平转换电路构成,并且基于ARM内核构成各个接口数据采集的驱动程序,实现了不同模块和不同协议之间的信息与数据的传输。测试和实际应用表明,该模块具有较高的实用性和可靠性等优点,达到了预期目的。%Design a third-party protocol module based on ARM hardware and software system to meet the requirement of data transfer and store between some different kinds of modules in industry field. The module consists of power circuit,CPU circuit, logic control circuit and voltage transfer circuit. Driver programs of data collection interface are designed based on ARM core and it realize the data and information transfer in different modules and different protocols. Practicability and reliability are proved in test and practical application.

  11. Science and technology in the global Cold War

    CERN Document Server

    Krige, John

    2014-01-01

    The Cold War period saw a dramatic expansion of state-funded science and technology research. Government and military patronage shaped Cold War technoscientific practices, imposing methods that were project oriented, team based, and subject to national-security restrictions. These changes affected not just the arms race and the space race but also research in agriculture, biomedicine, computer science, ecology, meteorology, and other fields. This volume examines science and technology in the context of the Cold War, considering whether the new institutions and institutional arrangements that emerged globally constrained technoscientific inquiry or offered greater opportunities for it. The contributors find that whatever the particular science, and whatever the political system in which that science was operating, the knowledge that was produced bore some relation to the goals of the nation-state. These goals varied from nation to nation; weapons research was emphasized in the United States and the Soviet Unio...

  12. Race, Beyond Fact and Fiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M'charek, A.

    2011-01-01

    What is biological race and how is it made relevant in specific practices? How to address the materiality of biological race without fixing it? And how to write about it without reifying race as a singular object? These are the central questions in this short essay. Instead of debunking or

  13. Evolution of robotic arms

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond th...

  14. Bird system based on ARM and ZigBee technology airport intelligent%基于ARM、ZigBee技术的机场智能化驱鸟系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵超; 陈寿元; 邵增珍

    2013-01-01

    介绍了一种基于ARM、ZigBee技术的机场智能化防鸟撞驱鸟系统.该系统采用无线监测网络结合上位机监控管理中心框架,采用低功耗控制芯片STM32Fl03RBT、Maxstream公司的XBee模块、短波数传电台TDX-868A,融合无线传感器网络、GPS技术、电子罗盘和ARM等工控领域的技术,采用星型网络的拓扑结构,实现了对机场区域的鸟情监测,利用数据挖掘技术,对鸟情信息进行数据分析,预报鸟情,从根本上防止鸟撞事故的发生.%A ARM ZigBee technology airport intelligent anti-bird strike bird is introduced. The system uses a wireless monitoring network combined with the the PC monitoring center framework, the use of low-power control chip STM32F103RBT, the Maxstream company XBee module, shortwave data transmission radio TDX-868A, the integration of wireless sensor networks, GPS technology, electronic compass and ARM IPC the field of technology, using a star network topology, bird Surveillance in the airport area, using data mining techniques of bird intelligence information, data analysis, forecasting birds love, fundamentally prevent bird strike accidents.

  15. ARM Soc Based Enotebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranita C Bawankar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic media has grown very fast replacing papers, tape devices, books, etc. The new technologies provide large number of data into single device, fast searching options and more readability than ever. As eBooks are replacing books; we are proposing ENotebook system in which user can write as he did in notebook, save, searches and then reread content. This paper presents design and development of ENotebook using ARM7. The system uses touch screen to get input data and operations like save, delete, open & close of data file. All data sensed by touch screen is digitized by internal ADCs of LPC2148 microcontroller which gives low power platform with fast execution. The output is shown on graphical LCD. Whatever user writes on screen it may need to save for future use. The content of such hand written data will be in graphical/pictorial form hence required large of memory for storage. We can provide external memory using pen drive, memory card, EEPROM etc. in this system we are using SD card interfacing through SPI port.

  16. Nutrition for adventure racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2012-11-01

    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750 kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18 000-80 000 kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12 g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7 g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance.

  17. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record.

  18. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, D. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  19. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club

    2010-01-01

    This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15.   For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: https://espace.cern.ch/Running-Club/CERN-Relay The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.  

  20. The racing dragon

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...

  1. Space race functional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Åke; Englund, Göran

    2015-02-22

    We derive functional responses under the assumption that predators and prey are engaged in a space race in which prey avoid patches with many predators and predators avoid patches with few or no prey. The resulting functional response models have a simple structure and include functions describing how the emigration of prey and predators depend on interspecific densities. As such, they provide a link between dispersal behaviours and community dynamics. The derived functional response is general but is here modelled in accordance with empirically documented emigration responses. We find that the prey emigration response to predators has stabilizing effects similar to that of the DeAngelis-Beddington functional response, and that the predator emigration response to prey has destabilizing effects similar to that of the Holling type II response. A stability criterion describing the net effect of the two emigration responses on a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system is presented. The winner of the space race (i.e. whether predators or prey are favoured) is determined by the relationship between the slopes of the species' emigration responses. It is predicted that predators win the space race in poor habitats, where predator and prey densities are low, and that prey are more successful in richer habitats.

  2. 垂直搜索引擎技术在武警部队心理数据库建设中的应用%The Application of Vertical Search Engine Technology On Construction of the Armed Police Psychological Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙纳新; 赖江轶; 王玉萍

    2013-01-01

    The development of vertical search engine technology makes acquisition of specific professional information possible in the big data era,we greatly improve the data collection performance with asynchro-nous non-blocking focused crawler strategy in construction of the armed police psychological database.%垂直搜索引擎技术的发展使得大数据时代特定专业的信息获取成为可能,通过对武警部队心理数据库数据采集过程中使用异步非阻塞聚焦爬虫策略,大大提高了数据采集性能。

  3. MiniSAR composite gimbal arm development.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klarer, Paul Richard; Winscott, Mark (Orion International, Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-01-01

    An exploratory effort in the application of carbon epoxy composite structural materials to a multi-axis gimbal arm design is described. An existing design in aluminum was used as a baseline for a functionally equivalent redesigned outer gimbal arm using a carbon epoxy composite material. The existing arm was analyzed using finite element techniques to characterize performance in terms of strength, stiffness, and weight. A new design was virtually prototyped. using the same tools to produce a design with similar stiffness and strength, but reduced overall weight, than the original arm. The new design was prototyped using Rapid Prototyping technology, which was subsequently used to produce molds for fabricating the carbon epoxy composite parts. The design tools, process, and results are discussed.

  4. 基于ARM技术的服装舒适性检测系统的设计%ARM Technology Designed of Clothing Comfort Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏娟

    2014-01-01

    设计一种适用于服装的嵌入式ARM处理器的便携式压力、温度、湿度的检测系统.这个系统采用ARM9处理器S3C2410A作为其主控芯片,使用Flexiforce压力传感器、DHT90温湿度传感器作为分布式测试元件,将采集的数据离线保存在储存介质里,一般是SD卡,并且使用LabVIEW开发的设备,将测量结果进行直观的呈现.通过本系统的设计应用,有效地保证了测试结果的准确性,并且工作可靠,可以作为对服装舒适性进行客观评定的科学标准.

  5. Design of a novel 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YanBiao; JIN ZhenLin; JI ShiMing

    2009-01-01

    Parameter optimization for a novel 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm was presented by using a statistics method called the statistics parameters optimization method based on index atlases.Several kinematics and mechanics performance evaluation indices were proposed and discussed,according to the kinematics and mechanics analyses of the mechanical arm.Considering the assembly technique,a prototype of the 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm was developed,which provided a basis for applications of the 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm.The novel 3-DOF hybrid mechanical arm can be applied to the modern industrial fields requiring high stiffness,lower inertia and good technological efficiency.A novel 6-DOF hybrid humanoid mechanical arm was built,in which the present mechanical arm was connected with a spherical 3-DOF parallel manipulator.

  6. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  7. MVACS Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; hide

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  8. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness.

  9. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  10. Racing for the Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    No one knows when the people ofMacheng City began to employthe marriage custom of racingfor the bed, once a custom unique to theTujia ethnic minority. It is said that at the end of awedding, bride and bridegroom enter thebridal chamber together and race for thebed. The one who is the first to sit on thebed will be the master of the new familyIt sounds unreasonable, but quite anumber of people believe in it.Therefore, on the wedding night, manybrides and bridegrooms try their best to

  11. Race By Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...... on heart rate data sharing between users in real-time. Through an empirical study conducted in the gym, we show that sharing biometric data in real-time can strengthen so- cial relations between participants, increase motivation, and improve the en- joyment of the fitness activity. Nevertheless, we found...

  12. Logical empiricists on race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Liam Kofi

    2017-07-10

    The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Prediction of Swedish Harness Racing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Jonas; Hellander, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Harness racing is a sport where betting most often is done based on historical performances and known conditions from each horse. With up to 12-15 horses in each race and with a quite large set of data for each horse, harness racing seemed to be very suitable for some statistical modeling and regression analysis. The main goal of this project was to construct a model that predicts the outcome of a race better than the odds. To achieve this, many dierent covariates, and combinations of them, h...

  14. An Elastica Arm Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Bosi, F; Corso, F Dal; Bigoni, D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for the equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free of sliding in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes realized to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measure of load within a certain range of use. It is finally shown that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications on locomotion of serpents, plumbing, and smart oil drilling.

  15. Dynamics of Robotic Arm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abhishek Chavan; Abhishek Bhuskute; Anmol Jain; Neha Shinde; M B Salunke

    2014-01-01

    ...'. Autonomous Systems are self-governed and does not require any manual interventions. This paper presents an overview of previous developments and the working of Robotic arms along with its mathematical aspects...

  16. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  17. Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfeld, A. W.

    2001-05-01

    The new book "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" chronicles the centuries-long struggle to secure the first distance to a star through detection of stellar parallax. Beginning with the naked-eye attempts of Tycho Brahe and proceeding through the telescopic studies of Robert Hooke, James Bradley, and William Herschel, all three of whom employed observational strategies suggested by Galileo, the effort to measure stellar parallax gained momentum in the early 19th century with dramatic improvements in telescope technology by German craftsmen such as Joseph Fraunhofer. Three near-contemporaneous announcements of stellar parallaxes were made in the late 1830s by Thomas Henderson (Alpha Centauri), Wilhelm Struve (Vega), and Friedrich Bessel (61 Cygni). By consensus of the astronomical community, Bessel was credited with the first successful measurement of a star's distance. With its biographical focus, "Parallax: The Race to Measure the Cosmos" highlights the human dimensions of scientific achievement.

  18. Proceedings of the Defense Nuclear Agency Conference on Arms Control and Verification Technology (ACT) Held in Williamsburg, Virginia on 1-4 June 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    response (IPR) methodology is a measure of the width of the magnitude intensity of the SAR image of a trihedral corner reflector made of radar -reflecting...nature of imaging radars , where there is not an easy way of assuring that the trihedral corner reflector will always be located exactly in the middle...sufficient nuclear expertise remain to inform and staff the IAEA process?17 - If cruise missiles, technologies to reduce radar cross sections , ad

  19. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  20. Embracing Race: Why We Need Race-Conscious Education Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Michele S.

    This book examines unsolved issues of race and education, emphasizing four major race-conscious education policies: bilingual education, multicultural curricula, affirmative action, and remedial education. It suggests that such policies are critical to fostering self-determination and personal autonomy in students who would otherwise receive a…

  1. Genes, race, and psychology in the genome era: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Norman B; Nickerson, Kim J

    2005-01-01

    The mapping of the human genome has reawakened interest in the topic of race and genetics, especially the use of genetic technology to examine racial differences in complex outcomes such as health and intelligence. Advances in genomic research challenge psychology to address the myriad conceptual, methodological, and analytical issues associated with research on genetics and race. In addition, the field needs to understand the numerous social, ethical, legal, clinical, and policy implications of research in this arena. Addressing these issues should not only benefit psychology but could also serve to guide such thought in other fields, including molecular biology. The purpose of this special issue is to begin a discussion of this issue of race and genetics within the field of psychology. Several scholars who work in the fields of genetics, race, or related areas were invited to write (or had previously submitted) articles sharing their perspectives.

  2. 基于TD-LTE的通信技术在武警行业的应用研究%A Research of Application of the TD-LTE Communication Technology in the Armed Police Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢彪; 周玮

    2015-01-01

    Informatization is the essence and core of the country's new military revolution, and communication is one of the forces the concentrated reflection of modern high technology. It is the basic platform for establishing informatization troops and an important part of the battle effectiveness. This article is based on the fourth generation mobile communication technology, using 4G broadband multimedia cluster communication system as an example, discusses a new generation of cluster system architecture of communication system , network mode and business applications. It gives the direction of the informatization construction of armed police forces.%信息化是我国新军事变革的本质和核心,通信是部队现代高新技术的集中体现之一,是建立信息化部队的基本平台,是部队战斗力的重要组成部分。本文基于第四代移动通信技术TD-LTE,以4G宽带多媒体集群通信系统为例,讨论了武警部队新一代集群通信系统的系统架构、组网方式和业务应用,给出了武警部队信息化建设的方向。

  3. When is 'race' a race? 1946-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissis, Snait B

    2008-12-01

    There has been a widely perceived sense of a contemporary resurgence of the category of race in western genetics, epidemiology and medicine. In what follows, some important American and British journals in these fields are surveyed for their content from 1946-2003, with the aim of comparatively tracing the use of the race category among American, British and Israeli authors. Three crucial stages are delineated along this time line, and the correlations between the use of the race category and developments in genetics, as well as the changing guidelines for researchers in the USA, are examined. Concepts of individuality and collectivity in the three fields are analysed in relation to the use of 'race' in the surveyed journals; there follows also a discussion of some recent critical reflections on that use. It is concluded that there has been both continuity in, and reconstruction of, the roles of 'race' within the genetic/medical discourse.

  4. 基于ARM和WI-FI技术的大麦田间监控系统设计%Barley field monitoring system based on the ARM and WI-FI technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛红玉; 高晓阳; 李红岭; 张明艳; 杨占峰; 孔彦龙; 杨倩

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented a monitoring system which carried out barley images acquisition and wireless transmission based on ARM and WI-FI technology.The system used the wireless monitoring net-work coupled with PC under the control of monitoring software designed,employed WI-FI wireless commu-nication and adopted wireless sensor network and ARM precessor which had realized barely video acquisi-tion and automatic wireless transmission.The build client system displayed 25 frames per second to meet the requirement.%试验介绍了一种基于 ARM和 WI-FI 技术的大麦图像采集与无线传输系统的设计。系统构建了基于Linux的嵌入式系统的无线监控网络,采用 WI-FI 无线通信技术,将大麦田间图像信息经由无线传感器网络和ARM控制器处理,在设计的视频采集软硬件控制下,实现了大麦生长视频信息的自动采集和无线传输,结果表明:搭建系统的客户端能满足25帧/s显示的视频流要求。该研究对发展现代农业生产和实现大麦栽培决策信息化具有重要意义。

  5. Arm and hand skills: Training preferences after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.A.A.; Seelen, H.A.M.; Willmann, R.D.; Bakx, W.; Ruyter, B.E.R. de; Lanfermann, G.; Kingma, H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. An increasing demand for training after stroke has brought about the need to develop rehabilitation technology. This article reports an inquiry into skill preferences of persons after stroke regarding arm-hand training and examines the relationship between the use of the affected arm and th

  6. Teacher Race and School Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Constance A.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Does having a teacher of the same race make it more or less likely that students are subject to exclusionary school discipline? In this study, the authors analyze a unique set of student and teacher demographic and discipline data from North Carolina elementary schools to examine whether being matched to a same-race teacher affects the rate at…

  7. Two Patterns of Race Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Eduardo Seda

    What North Americans term "race" is not structurally isomorphic to and, thus, not synonymous with what Latin Americans apply the term to. The social identities determined by "race", and consequently the expected behavior ascribed to these identities, are so dissimilar that meetings between persons of both cultures produce uncertainty and discord.…

  8. HORSE RACE IN NORTH TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This annual horse race takes place in every township of the north Tibetan grassland,one by one,starting from August 1st. The principal activities are usually a horse race and a blessing by touching the foreheads of people by a Rinpoche.

  9. Modelling the evolution of common cuckoo host-races: speciation or genetic swamping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, O; Kolss, M

    2013-11-01

    Co-evolutionary arms races have provided clear evidence for evolutionary change, especially in host-parasite systems. The evolution of host-specific races in the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), however, is also an example where sexual conflict influences the outcome. Cuckoo females benefit from better adaptation to overcome host defences, whereas cuckoo males face a trade-off between the benefits of better adaptation to a host and the benefits of multiple mating with females from other host-races. The outcome of this trade-off might be genetic differentiation or prevention of it by genetic swamping. We use a simulation model to test which outcome is more likely with three sympatric cuckoo host-races. We assume a cost for cuckoo chicks that express a host adaptation allele not suited to their foster host species and that cuckoo males that switch to another host-race experience either a fitness benefit or cost. Over most of the parameter space, cuckoo male host-race fidelity increases significantly with time, and gene flow between host-races ceases within a few thousand to a hundred thousand generations. Our results hence support the idea that common cuckoo host-races might be in the incipient stages of speciation.

  10. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  11. 2008 annual CERN Road Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Dear runners, The 2008 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 24 September at 6.00 p.m. This 5.4 km race consists of 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. Past races have attracted runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, with starting times staggered to ensure that (in theory) all runners finish together. However, if the popularity of the race continues to grow (95 runners took part last year), its format may be modified to a classic single start. For more information and to complete the online entry form, go to http://club-running.web.cern.ch

  12. 基于ARM和ZigBee技术的楼宇安防系统的设计%The Design of Building Security System Based on ARM and ZigBee Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正明; 于海峰; 吴波

    2012-01-01

    在分析国内外智能楼宇现状及不足的基础上,本文设计了一种基于ARM和ZigBee技术的楼宇安防系统。给出系统结构及工作原理,着重阐述主要硬件及软件的设计。该系统以嵌入式操作系统为核心,采用ZigBee无线通信技术实现信号传输,GPRS通信技术实现系统远程监控。测试结果表明该系统运行稳定、可靠性高、报警迅速、误报率低。将该系统应用于智能楼宇中,能够提高智能楼宇的自动化水平,有助于智能楼宇未来的发展,具有实际应用价值。%With the analysis of the current research on Intelligent Building Management System, this paper puts forward a building security system based on ARM and ZigBee technology and explains the structure and operating principle, especially the design of hardware and software. With embedded operating system as core, the building security system realized signal transmission through ZigBee wireless communication technology and remote control through GPRS communication technology. The test result showed that the system runs stably and is of high reliability, fast alarm response and low false alarm rate. The system will be applied in intelligent building to improve the automatic level and help it's develop in future, which has practical value.

  13. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  14. Arm To Arm Interface Using Embedded C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanraj.C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems are the most emerging field in these recent years. In this paper a different number of ARM processors (LPC2148 and LPC2378 are interconnected using C for distributed services. N numbers of processors are connected as the network and each processing devices are interlinked with each other, so that the each data that is processed by the devices and it can be used by the other device to activate their entire process. All the processed data’s are communicated to other device through Xbee interface card. LPC2148 and LPC2378 ARM processors are used in this prototype and winXtalk is used as a software terminal window. In this paper, the ultimate benefits of multiple processor interactions related to the embedded applications and design issues of processor interconnection are discussed. The features of multiple processor interaction in inter process communication and executions of embedded multitasking are also discussed. In modern embedded computing platform, embedded processor used in various applications like home automation, industrial control, medical system, access control, etc. In this paper, using embedded processor interactions, the several data communication is established.

  15. Armed conflict and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented.

  16. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm. The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars. Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm. After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully. The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Electromyographic investigation of hypnotic arm levitation: differences between voluntary arm elevation and involuntary arm levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Burkhard; Schiebler, Philipp; Piesbergen, Christoph; Hagl, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-three volunteers were randomly exposed to 3 conditions: hypnotic arm levitation, holding up the arm voluntarily without hypnosis, and imagined arm lifting without hypnosis. Trapezius, deltoid, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum profundus, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles were measured. Strain and muscle activity during lifting and holding up the right arm for 3 minutes were used as dependent variables. During hypnotic arm levitation, the total muscle activity was lower than during holding it up voluntarily (p levitation.

  18. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACE Groundfish Survey Photo Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Groundfish Assessment Program (GAP) is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and...

  19. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  20. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A

    2015-03-01

    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other.

  1. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  2. ARM : abstract rewriting machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F.T. Kamperman; H.R. Walters (Pum)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTerm rewriting is frequently used as implementation technique for algebraic specifications. In this paper we present the abstract term rewriting machine (ARM), which has an extremely compact instruction set and imposes no restrictions on the implemented TRSs. Apart from standard

  3. Robotic Arm End Effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-31

    Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT, 12 Oct 85) . 14 GDR Commentary on Geneva Talks (Various sources,various dates) 19 Military...USSR GENEVA TALKS FRG DEFENSE UNDERSECRETARY SUPPORTS U.S. VIEW ON ARMS CONTROL Bonn RHEINISCHER MERKUR /CHRIST UND WELT in German 12 Oct 85 p 3

  5. Arms Trafficking and Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    chronology of the intensification of violence in the area, see Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá...Arms, London, UK: Zed Books, 2000, pp. 155–178. Noche Y Niebla: Panorama De Derechos Humanos Y Violencia Politica En Colombia, Bogotá: Cinep & Justicia

  6. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  7. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Soviet Laser Expert (N. G. Bazov Interview; CAMBIO 16, 11-18 Feb 85) 86 Unnamed General Urges French ’Star Wars’ Effort (Hoplites; LE MONDE, 6...1024 85 JPRS-TAC-85-002 1 April 1985 SPACE ARMS SPANISH MAGAZINE CITES SOVIET LASER EXPERT PM211619 [Editorial Report] Madrid CAMBIO 16 in Spanish

  8. Research on the swing arm technology in the Long Jump effect%关于摆臂技术对跳远起跳效果影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭瑞

    2012-01-01

    With the world's major sporting events on the track and field events more and more attention, and the long jump as Athletics important skills, the Long Jump quality and athletes continuously improve the quality of off Movement in the long jump techniques, the growing research takeoff techniques to improvetheir athletic performance, the saying goes: the details determine success or failure, not only requires the the athletes overall quality of higher long jump, but also pay attention to the details in the course of the campaign to the long jump, in college teaching and training, many teachers value approach and lower limbstechnology, in order to more directly improve the long jump results faster, to the neglect of the teaching and training of the upper limb swing arm technology. The text for this teaching misunderstanding, analysis of the right upper extremity arm impact on take-off speed, strength and technical play a very important role in the run-up and take-off.%随着世界各大体育赛事对田径项目越来越重视,而跳远作为田径重要技巧性项目,跳远质量和运动受素质不断提高,起跳动作是跳远技术的主要环节,人们还渐研究起跳技巧来提高自己的运动成绩,俗话说:细节决定成败,跳远不但要求运动员综合素质要高,更讲究运动过程中的细节给跳远带来的作用,目前,在高校教学和训练中,很多老师重视助跑和下肢的技术,以便更直接更快速的提高跳远成绩,而忽视对上肢摆臂技术的教学和训练。该文针对目前这种教学误区,分析了正确的上肢摆臂对起跳的速度、力量以震技术带来的影响,对助跑和起跳起到非常重要作用。

  9. The 2009 Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 CERN Relay Race was as popular as ever, with a record number of 88 teams competing. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-480x360.wmv', 'false', 288, 216, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-posterframe-480x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1178303', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Even the rain didn’t dampen the spirits, and it still managed to capture the ‘festival feeling’ with live music, beer and stalls from various CERN clubs set up outside Restaurant 1. The Powercuts on the podium after win...

  10. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  11. Adventure Racing for the Rest of Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…

  12. Adventure Racing for the Rest of Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Marta K.; English, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Adventure racing got started in the 1990s. The Eco-Challenge and Primal Quest races were multi-day events that included challenging physical activities and extreme conditions. Today, highly publicized adventure races like the Eco-Challenge and Amazing Race usually feature elite athletes or celebrities completing exotic tasks or globe-hopping to…

  13. Do theories of crime or violence explain race differences in delinquency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Deane, Glenn; Armstrong, David P

    2008-06-01

    We examine race differences in delinquency using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. We use a new method that permits an examination of offense specialization. We argue that an examination of offense patterns provides an opportunity for testing theoretical explanations of race effects. If race differences in violent crime reflect race differences in serious crime, then theories of crime can explain race effects. Otherwise, theories of violence are needed to explain the phenomenon. Our results suggest that black adolescents have higher rates of violence, particularly armed violence, but they do not have higher rates of serious (or minor) property or drug crime. Race differences in violence are generally stronger for adolescents who would otherwise be at lower risk: girls and adolescents from educated and intact families. Puerto Rican adolescents also have higher rates of violence than Anglos, but other Hispanic groups do not. We conclude with a discussion of the implication of the empirical literature (including our results) for various theoretical explanations of race differences in violence.

  14. The quantum space race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennewein, Thomas; Higgins, Brendon

    2013-03-01

    Sending satellites equipped with quantum technologies into space will be the first step towards a global quantum-communication network. As Thomas Jennewein and Brendon Higgins explain, these systems will also enable physicists to test fundamental physics in new regimes.

  15. COMPARING PUMA ROBOT ARM WITH THE HUMAN ARM MOVEMENTS; AN ALTERNATIVE ROBOTIC ARM SHOULDER DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa BOZDEMİR; ADIGÜZEL, Esat

    1999-01-01

    Using the robotic arms instead of human power becomes increasingly widespread nowadays. Widening of the robotic arms usage field is parallel to improvement of movement capability of it. In this study PUMA Robotic Arm System that is a developed system of the robotic arms was compared with a human arm due to movement. A new joint was added to PUMA Robotic Arm System to have the movements similar to the human shoulder joint. Thus, a shoulder was designed that can make movements through the sides...

  16. Modernization of African Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa.......Concept paper framing the debate at the Dakar Forum Workshop on Modernization of Armed forces in Africa....

  17. Star Formation in Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G

    2011-01-01

    The origin and types of spiral arms are reviewed with an emphasis on the connections between these arms and star formation. Flocculent spiral arms are most likely the result of transient instabilities in the gas that promote dense cloud formation, star formation, and generate turbulence. Long irregular spiral arms are usually initiated by gravitational instabilities in the stars, with the gas contributing to and following these instabilities, and star formation in the gas. Global spiral arms triggered by global perturbations, such as a galaxy interaction, can be wavemodes with wave reflection in the inner regions. They might grow and dominate the disk for several rotations before degenerating into higher-order modes by non-linear effects. Interstellar gas flows through these global arms, and through the more transient stellar spiral arms as well, where it can reach a high density and low shear, thereby promoting self-gravitational instabilities. The result is the formation of giant spiral arm cloud complexes,...

  18. Embedded ARM Control Robotic Arm using BoaWeb server – a Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Sirisha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In today’s market, the competing microprocessors are ARM (Advanced Risc Microprocessor, Intel, AMD. ARM is preferred since it has been powering portable devices for decades and has simple architecture to keep the energy waste to be minimum. The electronics advancements and embedded technology advancements have become a challenging field in today’s techno world. In paper, the diligent features of embedded systems are introduced. It deals about how a robot is controlled using embedded operating system and ARM. Based on the combination of ARM, DSP and ARM Linux, the robot is controlled. The paper introduces development of embedded robot control system using Wi-Fi and also IOT. The embedded control system design includes four aspects. i.e., system structure, functions, hardware design and software design. By using these aspects (hardware and software adjustments, many robotic applications can be developed. Due to the fast execution speed and reasonable Ethernet speed in ARM processor, this system can be used in industrial oriented applications where there is very much necessity of safety and security.

  19. Breaking the race barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minrath, M

    1985-08-01

    Through the reflective process of analyzing one's own feelings and reactions to the ethnic minority patient, the white therapist develops an inner clarity that serves as a resource to cope with the unique conflicts one must confront in interracial practice. Only when the therapist has come to some resolution of his or her own feelings about the plight of ethnic minorities in this country can this acumen develop. Although the therapeutic skills applied in psychotherapy with ethnic minorities are in no way different from overall therapeutic skills, certain techniques may be especially useful in interracial practice. For instance, a discussion of the meaning of race and ethnicity in the relationship may curtail racial distortion, prevent stereotyping, and lead to the creation of a therapeutic alliance. When dealing with transference and countertransference issues, the therapist must be particularly attentive to the representation of these same distortions and stereotypes. Formulating clinical problems from dual perspectives, theoretical and sociocultural, is an arduous, but necessary task. Finally, the white therapist must be able to view ethnic minority patients as individuals. Although these patients cope with special problems which must be acknowledged and dealt with in therapy, the therapist must realize there is a common ground on which to communicate. On this common ground, therapists discover the foundation of interracial clinical practice is the ability to accept and respect their patients and themselves as individuals who may have similar anxieties, problems, experiences, and goals. It is through the recognition and sharing of the fundamental human bond that ethnic and racial differences, which may have detrimental effects on interpersonal relationships, are transcended.

  20. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  1. ARM User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  2. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-12

    Paris AFP 29 Jan] 40 FRANCE Potential of Iraqi CBW, Nuclear Arms Evaluated [E. Marcuse ; L’EXPRESS INTERNATIONAL 18 Jan] 40 Firm Denies...18 Jan 91 p 13 [Article by Elie Marcuse : "Iraq’s Dirty Weapons"] [Excerpts] [passage omitted] There are three possible actions in Iraq’s battle...example, culture media for breeding plague, cholera, and anthrax. Even minor quan- tities of mycotoxins, which can cause cancer even when strongly

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. In order- ing, it is recommended that the JPRS number, title, date and author, if applicable, of publication be...Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-025 14 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS U.S.-USSR GENEVA TALKS, USSR: Possibility for...34Vreyma" newscast] [Excerpts] A Moscow premiere. Our correspondent reports: The audience is hurrying to a premiere at the Moscow Satire Theater. What

  4. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  5. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    SINMUN in Korean 19 Jan 90 p 2 [ Editorial : "Arms Reduction Amid East-West Reconcil- iation"] [Text] It appears that with the end of cold-war, the...Navigation Radar Deployment PY1701143090 La Paz La Red Panamericana in Spanish 1130 GMT 17 Jan 90 [Text] Aeronautics Minister Luis Gonzales...airspace and that it can guarantee our sovereignty. Aeronautics Military Under Secretary Installed PY1701125290 La Paz La Red Panamericana in

  6. Kiikuv maja / Anu Arm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arm, Anu

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia esimese kursuse arhitektuuriüliõpilaste II semestri töö. Juhendaja arhitekt Andres Alver, ehitamise Pedaspeale organiseeris suvepraktika juhendaja arhitekt Jaan Tiidemann. Autor Anu Arm, kaasa töötasid ja valmis ehitasid: Ott Alver, Maarja Elm, Mari Hunt, Alvin Järving, Marten Kaevats, Riho Kerge, Reedik Poopuu, Anu Põime, Helen Rebane, Kaisa Saarva, Martin Tago, Reet Volt. Valmis: 19. VIII 2006

  7. Next Space Race is in IT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, George; Santiago, S. Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The next Space Race will be in the economic applications from space and science technology. As NASA science and technology has global application; IT is global, economics is global; surely there are great untapped potentials in finding the IT links of commonality among these three. The Economics of IT will continue to depend upon solution providers creating new methods that capitalize on linking information and information centers with the applications community for business and economic functions.. New and innovative IT vendors whose increased efforts to apply evolving technologies and principles that power the e-business revolution are now seeing the business of government being transformed in a similar fashion. NASA will be a prime example of IT transformation. Potential benefits of e-government are identical to the benefits of e-commerce, which start from value derived from capabilities and assets. The capability and asset wealth of NASA technology and data mass scattered through hundreds of archives will one day provide incredible economic benefit across international and corporate boundaries. Yet the ability to economically benefit from bridging the gap between capability to billable service has yet to find it's first major market. Ultimately the role of government, science, and technology linking to the business world will find greater dependence from this increasingly common ground of IT solutions and technologies. Therefore the future role of the IT industry may be as much administrative as technical, ultimately of critical importance furthering the role of science into application.

  8. An unequable race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günzel, Franziska; Holm, Anna B.

    In this paper we review how openness towards technological innovation and opening of the traditional business model in the newspaper industry has led to an undermining of the industry’s dominant business model and to a dismantling of the extended business model configuration. More specifically, we...... discuss how changes introduced during the on-going development of digital platforms of news production and delivery has affected key components of these business models, namely value creation, proposition, delivery and capture. By using a multiple case study approach we have examined the development...... of the three leading Danish newspaper titles business models. The findings suggest that openness towards new technology needs to be coupled with openness towards business model experimentation to secure that new technologies do not solely dictate company’s future path. Instead learning experiences through...

  9. Embedded Ethernet Controller using ARM LPC2138

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P.Magadum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available — With the development of network technology and communication technology needs that industrial control can be completed via network has become a trend. Here the proposed system consists of an ARM processor LPC2148 with an external Ethernet interface controller WIZ810MJ and the whole system can function as a web server. In the system the data can be transmitted transparently between host and serial device. The host can communicate with any serial device connected Ethernet without knowing each other’s physical location. Since ARM processor has fast execution capability and Ethernet standard can provide internet access with reasonable speed, this system is suitable for enhancing security in industrial conditions by remotely monitoring various industrial appliances where high safety and care is a necessity. There is no doubt that this system will be useful for a wide variety of industrial applications.

  10. Technology R&D for Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    at two sites in the U.S. ( Hanford , Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina). Currently in the second year of monitoring, the monitoring mea...surrogates.” First, there were the test ban treaties verified with satellite imagery and seismic monitoring. Newer treaties, such as START I, focused on

  11. Armed conflict and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Armed conflict has a major impact on child health\\ud throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives\\ud in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely\\ud to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark\\ud contrast to the effect on children, the international arms\\ud trade results in huge profits for the large corporations\\ud involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions.\\ud Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important\\ud health issue that should be...

  12. Guest Editorial: Research update: VA study to optimize DEKA Arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Resnik, PT, PhD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA announced its Revolutionizing Prosthetics program and funded the development of the DEKA prosthetic arm. The DEKA Arm System incorporates major technological advances such as flexible socket design, innovative control features, software, and hardware that together enable enhanced functionality that promises to surpass any currently available prosthetic device. In 2008, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA entered into an agreement with DARPA to conduct clinical evaluations of the prototype DEKA Arm System, a prosthetic device system still under development and not yet available commercially. Studies of the DEKA Arm System have been underway at VA sites since late 2008, with the first subject fitted with a DEKA Arm in early 2009.

  13. AES i ARM procesori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Potreba za zaštitom informacija dovodi do velikih problema u izradi prenosivih uređaja kojima su limitirani snaga, memorija i energija. Ukoliko se takvim uređajima dodaju koprocesori, koji treba da obavljaju funkcije kriptozaštite, njihove se dimenzije povećavaju, pojavljuje se nefleksibilnost pa cena uređaja raste i do nekoliko puta. Na drugoj strani, algoritmi za zaštitu podataka su često memorijski zahtevni, a zbog velikog broja operacija koje je potrebno izvršavati u procesima šifrovanja i dešifrovanja, koprocesori često uspore rad osnovnog procesora. Za jedan od standarda za kriptozaštitu, AES, NIST je prihvatio Rijndaelov blokovski algoritam sa dužinom ulaznog i izlaznog bloka od 128 b, i dužinama šifarskog ključa od 128 b, 192 b i 256 b. Zbog karakteristika male potrošnje, 32-bitske arhitekture i brzog izvršavanja instrukcija, ARM procesori mogu da realizuju kriptozaštitu podataka, između ostalog i AES-om, a da ne opterete glavne procese u sistemima u kojima se koriste. Tehnologija ARM-a zaštićena je kao intelektualna svojina, pa je veliki broj proizvođača koristi za razvoj sopstvenih proizvoda, što je rezultovalo činjenicom da je u svetu proizvedeno preko 2 milijarde čipova koji su bazirani na ovoj tehnologiji. U radu su prikazane mogućnosti za poboljšanja u izvršenju algoritma AES primenom najnovijih verzija ARM procesora.

  14. Why bioethics cannot figure out what to do with race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Olivette R

    2007-02-01

    Race and religion are integral parts of bioethics. Harm and oppression, with the aim of social and political control, have been wrought in the name of religion against Blacks and people of color as embodied in the Ten Commandments, the Inquisition, and in the history of the Holy Crusades. Missionaries came armed with Judeo/Christian beliefs went to nations of people of color who had their own belief systems and forced change and caused untold harms because the indigenous belief systems were incompatible with their own. The indigenous people were denounced as ungodly, pagan, uncivilized, and savage. Hence, laws were enacted because of their perceived need to structure a sense of morality and to create and build a culture for these indigenous people of color. To date bioethics continues to be informed by a Western worldview that is Judeo/Christian in belief and orientation. However, missing from bioethical discourse in America is the historical influence of the Black Church as a cultural repository, which continues to influence the culture of Africans and Blacks. Cultural aspects of peoples of color are still largely ignored today. In attempting to deal with issues of race while steering clear of the religious and cultural impact of the Black Church, bioethics finds itself in the middle of a distressing situation: it simply cannot figure out what to do with race.

  15. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    put their feet on the table.... But that Is not the USSR’s problem. It is not for the USSR to teach the rules of etiquette vh~nh are broken in the...34 /12858 CSO: 5200/2634 • 138 - RELATED ISSUES LABOR PARTY DISTRICT CONGRESS: BAN NUCLEAR ARMED SHIPS Oslo AFTENPOSTEN in Norwegian 27 Jan 86 p 3 [Article...that countries which send warships into Norwegian ports should guarantee that these ships are not carry- ing nuclear weapons. The requirement would

  16. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson. This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Record Participation in the Relay Race!

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN has a more sporting spirit than ever before. This is not the result of any survey, but the impression you got as soon as you saw the 62 teams of six runners each speeding around the laboratory in the 32nd annual relay race. This year 11 more teams competed than in 2001.   First changeover: Hervé Cornet takes over from Camille Ruiz Llamas for The Shabbys, and Sebastian Dorthe from Daniel Matteazzi for Charmilles Technologies. Jérôme Bendotti (EP/TA1) just holding off the team from the WHO at the finish. A total of 372 people ran together last Wednesday in this year's relay race, making for a record participation. It also seems that women are becoming more and more attracted by this competition, since this year there were eight ladies teams, also a new record. The first team were The Shabbys in a time of 10 minutes 45 seconds, finishing almost before the second team had started its last 300 metre leg. The 6 runners in each team cover distances of 1000, 800, 800,...

  18. Marked assisted selection for horses racing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although equines have participated in the forming and development of several civilizations around the world since their domestication 6,000 years ago in comparison to other species that have zootechnical interest, few researches have been done related to animal breeding area, especially in Brazil. Some reasons for that are difficulties associated with the species as well as operational aspects. However, developments in genetics in the last decades contributed to a better understanding of the traits related to reproduction, heath, behavior and performance of domestic animals, including equines. Recent technologies as next generation sequencing methods and the high density chips of SNPs for genotyping allowed some advances in the researches already done. These researches used basically the candidate gene strategy, and identified genomic regions related to diseases and syndromes and, more recently, the performance in sport competition and specific abilities. Using these genomic analysis tools, some regions related to race performance have been identified and based on this information; genetic tests to select superior animals for racing performance have started to be available in the market.

  19. Whip Rule Breaches in a Major Australian Racing Jurisdiction: Welfare and Regulatory Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Jennifer; McDonald, Carolyn; Wilson, Bethany; McManus, Phil; McGreevy, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary An evidence-based analysis of whip rule breaches in horse racing is needed to address community expectations that racehorses are treated humanely. The study provides the first peer-reviewed characterisation of whip rule breaches and their regulatory outcomes in horseracing, and considers the relationship between rules affecting racing integrity and the welfare of racehorses in a major Australian racing jurisdiction. Abstract Whip use in horseracing is increasingly being questioned on ethical, animal welfare, social sustainability, and legal grounds. Despite this, there is weak evidence for whip use and its regulation by Stewards in Australia. To help address this, we characterised whip rule breaches recorded by Stewards using Stewards Reports and Race Diaries from 2013 and 2016 in New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). There were more recorded breaches at Metropolitan (M) than Country (C) or Provincial (P) locations, and by riders of horses that finished first, second, or third than by riders of horses that finished in other positions. The most commonly recorded breaches were forehand whip use on more than five occasions before the 100-metre (m) mark (44%), and whip use that raises the jockey’s arm above shoulder height (24%). It is recommended that racing compliance data be analysed annually to inform the evidence-base for policy, education, and regulatory change, and ensure the welfare of racehorses and racing integrity.

  20. X-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Stoltz, Gilles; Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    We consider a generalization of stochastic bandits where the set of arms, $\\cX$, is allowed to be a generic measurable space and the mean-payoff function is "locally Lipschitz" with respect to a dissimilarity function that is known to the decision maker. Under this condition we construct an arm selection policy, called HOO hierarchical optimistic optimization), with improved regret bounds compared to previous results for a large class of problems. In particular, our results imply that if $\\cX$ is the unit hypercube in a Euclidean space and the mean-payoff function has a finite number of global maxima around which the behavior of the function is locally H\\"older continuous with a known exponent, then the expected of HOO regret is bounded up to a logarithmic factor by $\\sqrt{n}$, i.e., the rate of growth of the regret is independent of the dimension of the space. We also prove the minimax optimality of our algorithm when the dissimilarity is a metric.

  1. The Cybathlon promotes the development of assistive technology for people with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, Robert

    2016-05-31

    The Cybathlon is a new kind of championship, where people with physical disabilities compete against each other at tasks of daily life, with the aid of advanced assistive devices including robotic technologies. The first championship will take place at the Swiss Arena Kloten, Zurich, on 8 October 2016. Six disciplines are part of the competition comprising races with powered leg prostheses, powered arm prostheses, functional electrical stimulation driven bikes, powered wheelchairs, powered exoskeletons and brain-computer interfaces. This commentary describes the six disciplines and explains the current technological deficiencies that have to be addressed by the competing teams. These deficiencies at present often lead to disappointment or even rejection of some of the related technologies in daily applications. The Cybathlon aims to promote the development of useful technologies that facilitate the lives of people with disabilities. In the long run, the developed devices should become affordable and functional for all relevant activities in daily life.

  2. China's Shineray Racing Team Hits International Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China Shineray International Motocross Racing Team is Chongqing Shineray Group's international racing team, established in March 2004. in less than two years, this team has developed into the representative of numerous Chinese enterprises.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  4. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting lung cancer or dying from lung cancer varies by race ...

  5. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  6. Two-Dice Horse Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  7. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  8. Race, Culture and Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummett, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…

  9. Race Relations in Sociological Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, John

    This book seeks to develop sociological theory adequate to deal with the various uses to which racism has been put. How particular political orders apply "scientific" rationalizations, including race, to disguise their true origins in force, violence, and usurpation is demonstrated. Analysis of exploitative conditions starts with an objective…

  10. A Developmental Investigation of Other-Race Contact and the Own-Race Face Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Pamela M.; Hewstone, Miles

    2006-01-01

    Research over the past two decades has demonstrated that individuals are better at recognizing and discriminating faces of their own race versus other races. The own-race effect has typically been investigated in relation to recognition memory; however, some evidence supports an own-race effect at the level of perceptual encoding in adults. The…

  11. Predictors of race-day jockey falls in jumps racing in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, P; Blizzard, L; Jones, G; Day, L; Fell, J

    2011-05-01

    Thoroughbred jumps racing jockeys have a fall rate greater than their flat racing counterparts. Previous studies have focused on factors that contribute to falls by horses but, to date, there has not been a study of risk factors for falls to jockeys in jumps races. Data on race-day falls were extracted from stipendiary stewards reports lodged with Principal Racing Authorities following each race meeting. Denominator data were provided by Racing Information Services Australia on races conducted from August 2002 until July 2009. Univariable and multivariable analyses, estimating incidence rate ratios, were conducted using Poisson regression. In multivariable analysis in hurdle racing, important predictors of falls were higher club level, larger field size, greater prize money, provisionally licensed jockeys and older jockeys. There were significant interactions between jockey licence and prize money; jockey age and previous rides this meeting; race grade and race distance; horse age and field size; and club level and field size. In steeplechase racing, important predictors were type of jump with lowest fall rates in races over Mark III jumps compared to standard fences, provisionally licensed jockeys, jockeys having had previous rides at a meeting, and larger field size. There were significant interactions between the number of previous starts by the horse and field size; race distance and prize money; and race distance and previous rides this meeting. This study has identified factors for falls in jumps racing that could form the basis for targeted strategies to improve occupational health and safety standards. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  13. Children's Attitudes toward Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Juliet L.

    An implicit assumption in the majority of literature looking at development of prejudice in children is that race prejudice and sex prejudice are equivalent across groups; that is, sex bias is not conditional on race, and likewise race bias is not conditional on sex bias of the child. However, Warner, Fishbein, Ritchey and Case (2001) found strong…

  14. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  15. Dual arm robotic system with sensory input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguner, U.

    1987-01-01

    The need for dual arm robots in space station assembly and satellite maintainance is of increasing significance. Such robots will be in greater demand in the future when numerous tasks will be assigned to them to relieve the direct intervention of humans in space. Technological demands from these robots will be high. They will be expected to perform high speed tasks with a certain degree of autonomy. Various levels of sensing will have to be used in a sophisticated control scheme. Ongoing research in control, sensing and real-time software to produce a two-arm robotic system than can accomplish generic assembly tasks is discussed. The control hierarchy and the specific control approach are discussed. A decentralized implementation of model-reference adaptive control using Variable Structure controllers and the incorporation of tactile feedback is considered.

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    awareness of the technological gap it has to bridge if it is to catch up with the United States and Japan. It was the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative...declining influence on the world economy is a result of this technological gap . The success of Eureka would restore Western Europe’s decisive influence on

  17. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing. To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids.

  20. Single-arm, observational study of the ease of use of a redesigned pen device to deliver recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin alfa for assisted reproductive technology treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Illingworth PJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peter J Illingworth,1 Robert Lahoud,1 Frank Quinn,1 Kendal Chidwick,2 Claire Wilkinson,2 Gavin Sacks1 1IVFAustralia, Greenwich, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Scientific Affairs, Merck Serono Australia Pty Ltd, Frenchs Forest, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Evaluation of patients’ ease of use of the redesigned, disposable, ready-to-use ­follitropin alfa pen during controlled ovarian stimulation for assisted reproductive technology. Methods: This single-center, observational, open-label, single-arm study recruited infertile normo-ovulatory women (aged 18–45 years. Nurses trained patients to self-administer recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone daily using the follitropin alfa pen (300 IU, 450 IU, and 900 IU. Before treatment, patients completed Questionnaire A. Following self-administered treatment, on stimulation days 5–6 and 7–8 (within a day of receiving recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, patients completed Questionnaire B. Nurses completed an ease-of-learning/teaching questionnaire. The primary endpoint was proportion of patients rating the pen as “easy/very easy” to use (Questionnaire B on the final visit before recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin. Secondary endpoints included: proportion of patients rating the follitropin alfa pen as easy to learn, use, prepare, deliver, and dispose of (Questionnaires A and B. Proportions (95% confidence intervals [CIs] were provided for primary and secondary endpoints. Adverse events were reported descriptively. Results: Eighty-six patients received recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone. Of the 72 patients who had completed the overall assessment questions, 66 (91.7%; 95% CI =82.7%–96.9% found the pen “easy” to use. Also, 70/86 (81.4% patients “strongly agreed/agreed” that, overall, it was easy to learn how to use the pen; 72/86 (83.7% “strongly agreed/agreed” that easily understandable, verbal information was provided; and 70/86

  1. Layers of Experience Using "Arms"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurinda; Coles, Alf; Ball, Derek; Morton, Pat; Coles, Matt; Ordman, Louise; Orr, Barry; Lam, Tung Ken

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' personal accounts and their experiences in working on mathematics using "arms." "Arms" is an idea that first appeared as a program written by John Warwick and David Wooldridge in an ATM publication "Some Lessons in Mathematics with a Microcomputer," 1983. The introduction to…

  2. Arm-based Wireless Alarm Technology Application in the Electrical Test%基于ARM的无线报警技术在电气试验中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉前; 于跃

    2014-01-01

    对基于 ARM 处理器的无线报警器进行了研究。该报警器可以在无线传感模式下工作,工作人员可以将报警器携带在身上,以便在处理其他意外情况时可以接收到预警信号。与此同时,该报警器以ARM Cortex-M3为处理器,还可以外扩人机交互模块和液晶显示模块,以便工作人员随时读取数据或进行远程操作。阐述了该报警器的工作原理,设计了控制器电路,无线传感模块,报警模块和电流、电压采集模块的硬件电路图,构建了基于ARM处理器的整套系统工作电路。%The wireless alarm system based on ARM processors was studied. The alarm can work in wireless sensor mode;the staff can carry the alarm in the body, so that when dealing with other unforeseen circumstances can receive the warning signal. At the same time, the alarm with ARM Cortex-M3 processor, but also extend beyond HCI module and LCD module, so that staff ready to read data or for remote operation. Describes the working principle of the alarm, the controller circuit design, wireless sensor module, the alarm module and current hardware circuit voltage acquisition module, the whole system working circuit constructed based on the ARM processor.

  3. Arménie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Verdier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available L’Arménie est une petite république du Caucase, à la limite sud–est de l’Europe, qui a gagné son autonomie en 1990 après l’ouverture du bloc soviétique. Le nouveau Ministère du Patrimoine a sollicité la coopération de la France pour mettre en place une nouvelle politique culturelle. Tout d’abord, une évaluation sur place de la situation dans les domaines des monuments historiques, de l’archéologie et de l’Inventaire a permis d’envisager les réponses à proposer. Pour la demande d’informatisation des dossiers d’inventaire déjà réalisés sous l’autorité de l’Académie de Saint–Petersbourg, nous avons proposé de former des chercheurs arméniens aux méthodes et techniques de l’Inventaire général. L’accueil d’une stagiaire pendant trois mois au service régional de l’Inventaire de Haute–Normandie a été suivi par la mise en place d’un équipement informatique à Yérévan, puis par l’accueil et la formation de techniciens informaticiens et photographes arméniens. De retour dans leur pays ils ont commencé à remettre en place un service d’inventaire dont le programme comprend la création d’une base de données patrimoniales, le recensement de la ville de Yérévan, la numérisation d’images pour la publication d’un indicateur du patrimoine et la préparation de dossiers de protection au titre du patrimoine mondial.The Armenian heritage comprises both archaeological remains of towns destroyed by never–ending wars and a number of old churches from the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, was founded three thousand years ago and is one of Europe’s oldest capitals. From 1925 it has developed according to an ambitious urban planning project. After the major political upheavals of 1991, a special ministry was created to look after the architectural and movable heritage of the country and to promote the Armenian national identity. A mission in Yerevan was

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Koivisto Advocates Nordic Nuclear-Free Zone (Helsinki Domestic Service, 20 Apr 85) 98 Norwegian MP’s: Change Government To Set Up Zone (BJorn Talen ...new way the need, for the United States to create a large- scale ABM system with elements of space basing, to work out the technology of "star wars...cienPce8and technology , and so on and so forth, but in general the FRG Government 31 attracted much attention during the visit of the USSR Supreme

  5. A wide hybrid zone of chromosome races of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758 (Mammalia, between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers (Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Borisov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Karyological study of 75 specimens of the common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, from 8 localities in the Berezina River basin (eastern Belarus was carried out. A wide hybrid zone (not less than 100 km between the northern West Dvina chromosome race (XX / XYY, af, bc, gm, hk, ip, jl, no, qr, tu and the southern Turov race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g, h/k, i, jl, m, n, o, p, q, r, tu was revealed in this region. Frequencies of fused-unfused arms comprising four diagnostic metacentrics of the West Dvina race (g/m, h/k, n/o, q/r were calculated in all capture sites. Taking into consideration the absence of metacentric ip in specimens from six northern localities, the Borisov (Bs race (XX / XYY, af, bc, g/m, h/k, i, jl, n/o, p, q/r, tu (Orlov, Borisov, 2009 was distinguished in these sites. Common shrews from two southern localities on the right and left banks of the Berezina River (Berezino vicinity were referred to the Turov race. The presence of four metacentrics descended from the West Dvina race in the Bs race testifies to the hypothesis expressed earlier that the polymorphic populations of the S. araneus between the Dnieper and Berezina Rivers originated as a result of the West Dvina race spreading from the north and of hybridization between this race and local populations with acrocentric chromosomes.

  6. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  7. Research on CNC System Based on ARM Embedded Technology%基于ARM嵌入式技术的数控机床控制系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋洪; 雷运理

    2012-01-01

    针对目前工业控制系统体积大、成本高等缺点,开发设计一款基于ARM处理器的低成本嵌入式数控机床控制系统。该系统以ARM9高性能嵌入式处理器为控制核心,嵌入武Linux系统作为软件开发平台,采用MiniGUI实现图形用户界面操作并对整机进行控制,并建立了数控系统的调试环境,对开发的系统软硬件进行联机调试、软件测试和实例加工。测试和实例加工结果表明,基于ARM和嵌入式Linux的数控机床控制系统技术方案是可行的,实现了预期的功能。%The big size and high cost of industrial control system,low cost embedded CNC system is developed based on ARM processor.The Control core for the system is based on ARM9,a high performance embedded processor.With embedded Linux system as a software development platform,MiniGUI is used to realize the graphical user interface operation and control of the whole machine.The debugging environment for the numerical control system is developed to carry out on-line debugging of the system hardware and software,software testing and machining,which shows that technical scheme of ARM and embedded Linux-based CNC system is workable,and achieves expected functions and performances.

  8. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  9. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    rackets, to the material reciprocation of the recognition of rights. Focusing on the taxation practices of armed groups, the article argues that taxation is at the core of armed groups’ production of public authority and citizenship, and that their modes of taxation are based on long-standing registers...... of authority and practices of rule that originate in the colonial era. In particular, the article shows that by appealing to both local customary and national forms of political community and citizenship, armed groups are able to assume public authority to tax civilians. However, their public authority may...

  10. Motivating arm-hand use for stroke patients by serious games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbressine, Frank; Timmermans, Annick; Beursgens, Luuk; de Jong, Maaike; van Dam, Alexander; Verweij, David; Janssen, Maikel; Markopoulos, Panos

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technology to support playful rehabilitation of arm-hand performance for stroke survivors. The system combines tangible tabletop interaction with wearable technology, to encourage stroke patients to train their arm-hand skills in a task-oriented manner, while a jacket supporting tilt-sensing and vibrotactile feedback guides patients regarding the correct execution of exercises and specifically to avoid compensatory movements. We present the iterative client centered development of this technology and its on going development.

  11. Joint Small Arms Technology Development Strategy for Joint Service Small Arms Science and Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-26

    various control methodologies to compensate for movement and firing shock, impulsive motion signals, vibrations , and automated system drift. 5...Life 38 Corrosion Prevention and Control 14 Signature Reduction System that does Not Degrade Current Level of Weapon Performance 39 System...accuracy and controllability , effects of recoil on accuracy and controllability , effects of rate of fire on system accuracy, and reduction of operator

  12. Serious Play: Race, Game, Asian American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fickle, Tara

    2014-01-01

    "Serious Play: Race, Game, Asian American Literature," argues that games are narrative fantasies of perfectly equal opportunity that can help us reconceive of what it means to be a minority in contemporary America. Race's idiomatic evolution into a "race card" points not just to identity's growing immateriality and "virtualization" but to its increasingly intimate relationship with the ludic. Asian American authors in particular have seized upon the possibilities of transforming identity into...

  13. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Manufacturing Engineers at the Disneyland Hotel in Anaheim, California in January, as well as meetings on ceramic materials and high technology last year...development of political relations, to economic and cultural cooperation, and to the solution of humanitarian problems. The two German states have...Japanese Government officials said Tokyo will choose a representative in the near future. During Wednesday morning discussions which focused on cultural

  14. Critical Race Theory, race equity, and public health: toward antiracism praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Chandra L; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O

    2010-04-01

    Racial scholars argue that racism produces rates of morbidity, mortality, and overall well-being that vary depending on socially assigned race. Eliminating racism is therefore central to achieving health equity, but this requires new paradigms that are responsive to structural racism's contemporary influence on health, health inequities, and research. Critical Race Theory is an emerging transdisciplinary, race-equity methodology that originated in legal studies and is grounded in social justice. Critical Race Theory's tools for conducting research and practice are intended to elucidate contemporary racial phenomena, expand the vocabulary with which to discuss complex racial concepts, and challenge racial hierarchies. We introduce Critical Race Theory to the public health community, highlight key Critical Race Theory characteristics (race consciousness, emphases on contemporary societal dynamics and socially marginalized groups, and praxis between research and practice) and describe Critical Race Theory's contribution to a study on racism and HIV testing among African Americans.

  15. Race and Gender Pay Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we review research findings from the 1980s and early 1990s on race and gender pay gaps. In addition. we present some evidence from the Current Population Surveys (1972, 1982 and 1989) regarding the impact of shifts in the industrial composition of employment and in interindustry wage differentials on these gaps. The gender gap in pay was stable in the 1970s but fell steadily in the 1980s; the opposite patterns were observed for black-white wage differentials--a trend towards con...

  16. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  17. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  18. A method to qualitatively assess arm use in stroke survivors in the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Kaspar; Gonzenbach, Roman; Wachter, Susanne; Luft, Andreas; Gassert, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Wearable sensor technology has enabled unobtrusive monitoring of arm movements of stroke survivors in the home environment. However, the most widely established method, based on activity counts, provides quantitative rather than qualitative information on arm without functional insights, and is sensitive to passive arm movements during ambulatory activities. We propose a method to quantify functionally relevant arm use in stroke survivors relying on a single wrist-worn inertial measurement unit. Orientation of the forearm during movements is measured in order identify gross arm movements. The method is validated in 10 subacute/chronic stroke survivors wearing inertial sensors at 5 anatomical locations for 48 h. Measurements are compared to conventional activity counts and to a test for gross manual dexterity. Duration of gross arm movements of the paretic arm correlated significantly better with the Box and Block Test ([Formula: see text]) than conventional activity counts when walking phases were included ([Formula: see text]), and similar results were found when comparing ratios of paretic and non-paretic arms for gross movements and activity counts. The proposed gross arm movement metric is robust against passive arm movements during ambulatory activities and requires only a single-sensor module placed at the paretic wrist for the assessment of functionally relevant arm use.

  19. Book review: Land of the cosmic race: race mixture, racism and blackness in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Feghali, Zalfa

    2013-01-01

    "Land of the Cosmic Race: Race Mixture, Racism, and Blackness in Mexico." Christina A. Sue. Oxford University Press. March 2013. --- Land of the Cosmic Race is a richly-detailed ethnographic account of the powerful role that race and colour play in organizing the lives and thoughts of ordinary Mexicans. It presents a previously untold story of how individuals in contemporary urban Mexico construct their identities, attitudes, and practices in the context of a dominant national belief system. ...

  20. Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional answer card reading method using OMR (Optical Mark Reader, most commonly, OMR special card special use, less versatile, high cost, aiming at the existing problems proposed a method based on pattern recognition of the answer card identification method. Using the method based on Line Segment Detector to detect the tilt of the image, the existence of tilt image rotation correction, and eventually achieve positioning and detection of answers to the answer sheet .Pattern recognition technology for automatic reading, high accuracy, detect faster

  1. 78 FR 50047 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... for Purchase: 19 Mobile Troposcatter Radio Systems, 10 Mobile Microwave Radio Systems, spare and... Technology Contained in the Defense Article or Defense Services Proposed to be Sold: None (viii) Date...

  2. 78 FR 15004 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... Representatives, Transmittals 12-60 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of Technology... RAPISCAN Mobile Eagle High Energy Mobile System Vehicles, 40 M60 RAPISCAN Mobile Eagle High Energy...

  3. 76 FR 66048 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Technology: 1. The AVENGER system is a lightweight, highly mobile, and transportable surface-to-air missile... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... Representatives, Transmittals 11-38 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of...

  4. 78 FR 50043 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Defense Security Cooperation Agency... Representatives, Transmittals 12-67 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of Technology... Illuminator Radars, 216 MIM-23P HAWK Tactical Missiles, 2 Mobile Battalion Operation Centers (BOC), 3 HAWK...

  5. 78 FR 41036 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... of the Secretary 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification AGENCY: Department of Defense, Defense Security... Representatives, Transmittal 13-40 with attached transmittal, policy justification, and Sensitivity of Technology... Reaper Remotely Piloted Aircraft 8 Mobile Ground Control Stations 48 Honeywell TPE331-10T...

  6. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Vainionpää

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  7. The Mars Surveyor '01 Rover and Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert G.; Nguyen, Tam T.; Kim, Won S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander will carry with it both a Robotic Arm and Rover to support various science and technology experiments. The Marie Curie Rover, the twin sister to Sojourner Truth, is expected to explore the surface of Mars in early 2002. Scientific investigations to determine the elemental composition of surface rocks and soil using the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) will be conducted along with several technology experiments including the Mars Experiment on Electrostatic Charging (MEEC) and the Wheel Abrasion Experiment (WAE). The Rover will follow uplinked operational sequences each day, but will be capable of autonomous reactions to the unpredictable features of the Martian environment. The Mars Surveyor 2001 Robotic Arm will perform rover deployment, and support various positioning, digging, and sample acquiring functions for MECA (Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment) and Mossbauer Spectrometer experiments. The Robotic Arm will also collect its own sensor data for engineering data analysis. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) mounted on the forearm of the Robotic Arm will capture various images with a wide range of focal length adjustment during scientific experiments and rover deployment

  8. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  9. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  10. Race- en toerfietsen : mogelijkheden voor meer veiligheid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. & Gent, P. van

    2015-01-01

    Racing and touring bicycles: opportunities for greater safety; Questionnaire study and expert assessment. Racing and touring cyclists often practise their sport on public roads in the presence of other road users. For this reason, hazardous situations may occur that increasingly result in crashes in

  11. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  12. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  13. Kinematics of cross-country ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, B; Rundell, K W; Roy, B; Boulay, M R

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the evolution of skiing velocity, cycle length, and cycle rate in elite and subelite skiers during cross-country ski races. Senior male cross-country skiers engaged respectively in a 30-km skating race (N = 34) or a 50-km classical race (N = 27) were videotaped as they skied two different sections of 30 m, a 7 degrees uphill, and a flat section. In the skating race, most skiers used the offset technique on uphill and the 2-skate on flat, while the preferred techniques during the classical race were the diagonal stride for uphill and double-poling on flat. Results demonstrated that faster skiers had longer cycle lengths than slower skiers except for the flat sections of the classical race. Cycle rate was not different between skiers of different performance levels in any circumstances or races. Decreased velocity observed during the second half of the skating race was almost entirely due to a decrease in cycle length. We conclude that slower athletes should emphasize extending cycle length during their technical training. Therefore, skiers should place an emphasis on strength and power training to increase their kick and pole pushes and enhance cycle length.

  14. Fast and effective embedded systems design applying the ARM mbed

    CERN Document Server

    Toulson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the field of embedded systems; A focus on fast prototyping of embedded systems; All key embedded system concepts covered through simple and effective experimentation; An understanding of ARM technology, one of the world's leaders; A practical introduction to embedded C; Applies possibly the most accessible set of tools available in the embedded world.  This book is an introduction to embedded systems design, using the ARM mbed and C programming language as development tools. The mbed provides a compact, self-contained and low-cost hardware core, and the

  15. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Kigawa

    Full Text Available Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  16. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  17. Armament Technology Facility (ATF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Armament Technology Facility is a 52,000 square foot, secure and environmentally-safe, integrated small arms and cannon caliber design and evaluation facility....

  18. Heritability of racing durability traits in the Australian and Hong Kong Thoroughbred racing populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Hamilton, N A; Wade, C M

    2016-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to improve the well-being of racing Thoroughbreds through improvements in management and veterinary care. However, these attempts are often limited by the industry's ability to regulate a large number of environmental variables and as a result have arguably had limited success in providing long-lasting change for the breed. To identify heritable durability traits for Thoroughbred horses racing in Australia and Hong Kong. Heritability analysis of a longitudinal dataset. Performance data on the Thoroughbred populations racing in Australia and Hong Kong between 2000 and 2011 (n = 168,993) were used to estimate the heritabilities and probability values of fixed effects and covariates for a range of racing durability traits. Heritabilities for all durability traits were estimated using a single trait animal model. Each model included, as a minimum, the effects of sex and trainer. Racing longevity (0.12 ± 0.01), racing persistence (0.10 ± 0.01), racing frequency (0.03 ± 0.01), spells (a time period between consecutive races, official trials and/or jump-outs greater than 90 days in length) per year (0.05 ± 0.01), spells per 10 starts (0.03 ± 0.01) and variation of days between races (0.08 ± 0.03) were all significantly heritable for horses racing in Australia. Racing longevity (0.08 ± 0.02), racing persistence (0.04 ± 0.02), spells per year (0.06 ± 0.02) and spells per 10 starts (0.11 ± 0.04) were significantly heritable for horses racing in Hong Kong. The heritabilities estimated for durability traits in this study provide support for the successful and practical application of genetic selection methodologies to improving the well-being of racing Thoroughbreds. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  19. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011, but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac biomarkers: creatin kinase (CK, creating kinase midbrain (CK-MB, myoglobin (MYO, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. The population studied was a group of young trained cyclists participating in a 177-km cycling race. The group of individuals was selected for maximal homogeneity. Their annual training volume was between 10,000 and 16,000 kilometers. The rhythm of races is comparable and averages 35 km/h, depending on the race’s difficulty. The cardiac frequency was recorded via a heart rate monitor. Three blood tests were taken. The first blood test, T0, was taken approximately 2 hours before the start of the race and was intended to gather values which would act as references for the following tests. The second blood test, T1, was realized within 5 minutes of their arrival. The third and final blood test, T3, was taken 3 hours following their arrival. The CK, CK-MB, MYO, hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were measured on the Roche Diagnostic modular E (Manhein, Germany. For the statistical analysis, an ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffé were calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1. We noticed an important significant variation in the cardiac frequency between T0 and T1 (p < 0.0001, T0 and T3 (p < 0.0001, and T1 and T3 (p < 0.01. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different biomarkers. CK and CK-MB showed significant variation between T0-T1 and T0-T3 (p < 0.0001. Myoglobin increased significantly

  20. A Path Where No Man Thought; Nuclear Winter and the End of the Arms Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, Guy

    In 1982, Paul Crutzen, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany, and John Birks, University of Colorado, Boulder, published a provocative paper suggesting that the smoke from the fires triggered by potential massive nuclear explosions would generate profound changes in the chemical composition and physical state of the Earth's atmosphere. A year later, a group of five scientists, Richard Turco, Brian Toon, Tom Ackerman, Jim Pollack, and Carl Sagan, showed, on the basis of model calculations, that the Earth would cool significantly following nuclear explosions and that the climatic impacts of a nuclear war would affect not only the country attacked but also the aggressor. This group, which received the acronym of TTAPS, showed that the number of fatalities resulting from the indirect climatic perturbations could be at least as large as the number of humans directly killed by the explosions. Two of the authors of the TTAPS theory, Carl Sagan and Richard Turco, have summarized 10 years of extensive research and public controversy following the publication of the nuclear winter hypothesis. In their fascinating book they try to analyze how the concept of nuclear winter has changed the attitude of the political world, has contributed to the improvement of political relations between the two superpowers, and has initiated a revision of geopolitical and military theories.

  1. Arms races, ornaments and fragrant genes: the dilemma of mate choice in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred

    2014-10-01

    Female preference for secondary sexual male ornaments that are handicapping survival has been an evolutionary puzzle since Darwin. The Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis assumes that costly ornaments can be produced only by those males that carry the genes for resistance against the current infectious disease. I review studies in fishes that indeed bright colors can only be displayed by males in good health and females prefer healthy males by choosing the brighter ones. On the other hand, female vertebrates from fish to humans smell out partners that provide the complementary genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to help them producing offspring with the optimal number of different MHC alleles. In sticklebacks females have a two-step choice. Using smell they approach a male that offers the optimally complementary number of MHC alleles. When they can see the male, they accept it only when it is bright and thus offers in its complementary set of alleles the specific MHC allele providing resistance against the current disease as revealed by the male's sexual ornamentation.

  2. Intergenomic arms races: detection of a nuclear rescue gene of male-killing in a ladybird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsin M O Majerus

    Full Text Available Many species of arthropod are infected by deleterious inherited micro-organisms. Typically these micro-organisms are inherited maternally. Consequently, some, particularly bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, employ a variety of strategies that favour female over male hosts. These strategies include feminisation, induction of parthenogenesis and male-killing. These strategies result in female biased sex ratios in host populations, which lead to selection for host factors that promote male production. In addition, the intra-genomic conflict produced by the difference in transmission of these cytoplasmic endosymbionts and nuclear factors will impose a pressure favouring nuclear factors that suppress the effects of the symbiont. During investigations of the diversity of male-killing bacteria in ladybirds (Coccinellidae, unexpected patterns of vertical transmission of a newly discovered male-killing taxon were observed in the ladybird Cheilomenes sexmaculata. Initial analysis suggested that the expression of the bacterial male-killing trait varies according to the male(s a female has mated with. By swapping males between females, a male influence on the expression of the male-killing trait was confirmed. Experiments were then performed to determine the nature of the interaction. These studies showed that a single dominant allele, which rescues male progeny of infected females from the pathological effect of the male-killer, exists in this species. The gene shows typical Mendelian autosomal inheritance and is expressed irrespective of the parent from which it is inherited. Presence of the rescue gene in either parent does not significantly affect the inheritance of the symbiont. We conclude that C. sexmaculata is host to a male-killing gamma-proteobacterium. Further, this beetle is polymorphic for a nuclear gene, the dominant allele of which rescues infected males from the pathogenic effects of the male-killing agent. These findings represent the first reported case of a nuclear suppressor of male-killing in a ladybird. They are considered in regard to sex ratio and intra-genomic conflict theories, and models of the evolutionary dynamics and distribution of inherited symbionts.

  3. Predictably Convergent Evolution of Sodium Channels in the Arms Race between Predators and Prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Edmund D; Brodie, Edmund D

    2015-09-01

    Evolution typically arrives at convergent phenotypic solutions to common challenges of natural selection. However, diverse molecular and physiological mechanisms may generate phenotypes that appear similar at the organismal level. How predictable are the molecular mechanisms of adaptation that underlie adaptive convergence? Interactions between toxic prey and their predators provide an excellent avenue to investigate the question of predictability because both taxa must adapt to the presence of defensive poisons. The evolution of resistance to tetrodotoxin (TTX), which binds to and blocks voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1) in nerves and muscle, has been remarkably parallel across deep phylogenetic divides. In both predators and prey, representing three major vertebrate groups, TTX resistance has arisen through structural changes in NaV1 proteins. Fish, amphibians and reptiles, though they differ in the total number of NaV1 paralogs in their genomes, have each evolved common amino acid substitutions in the orthologous skeletal muscle NaV1.4. Many of these substitutions involve not only the same positions in the protein, but also the identical amino acid residues. Similarly, predictable convergence is observed across the family of sodium channel genes expressed in different tissues in puffer fish and in garter snakes. Trade-offs between the fundamental role of NaV1 proteins in selective permeability of Na+ and their ability to resist binding by TTX generate a highly constrained adaptive landscape at the level of the protein. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Toxicity of angular furanocoumarins to swallowtail butterflies: escalation in a coevolutionary arms race?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenbaum, M; Feeny, P

    1981-05-22

    Xanthotoxin, a linear furanocoumarin occurring in many plants of the family Umbelliferae, is not appreciably toxic to the umbellifer-feeding larvae of Papilio polyxenes (Lepidoptera; Papilionidae), whereas angelicin, an angular furanocoumarin found only in a few relatively advanced tribes of the Umbelliferae, reduces growth rate and fecundity. The biosynthetic pathway leading to angular attachment of the furan ring may thus have been a response within the Umbelliferae to selective pressures exerted by specialized herbivores that had adapted to feeding on linear furanocoumarins.

  5. A co-evolutionary arms race: trypanosomes shaping the human genome, humans shaping the trypanosome genome

    OpenAIRE

    Capewell, Paul; Cooper, Anneli; Clucas, Caroline; Weir, William; MacLeod, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African sleeping sickness in humans and one of several pathogens that cause the related veterinary disease Nagana. A complex co-evolution has occurred between these parasites and primates that led to the emergence of trypanosome-specific defences and counter-measures. The first line of defence in humans and several other catarrhine primates is the trypanolytic protein apolipoprotein-L1 (APOL1) found within two serum protein complexes, trypanosome l...

  6. A Coevolutionary Arms Race between Hosts and Viruses Drives Polymorphism and Polygenicity of NK Cell Receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Kesmir, C.; de Boer, Rob J

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer cell receptors (NKRs) monitor the expression of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) and stress molecules to detect unhealthy tissue, such as infected or tumor cells. The NKR gene family shows a remarkable genetic diversity, containing several genes encoding receptors with activat

  7. Escalation of a coevolutionary arms race through host rejection of brood parasitic young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmore, Naomi E; Hunt, Sarah; Kilner, Rebecca M

    2003-03-13

    Cuckoo nestlings that evict all other young from the nest soon after hatching impose a high reproductive cost on their hosts. In defence, hosts have coevolved strategies to prevent brood parasitism. Puzzlingly, they do not extend beyond the egg stage. Thus, hosts adept at recognizing foreign eggs remain vulnerable to exploitation by cuckoo nestlings. Here we show that the breach of host egg defences by cuckoos creates a new stage in the coevolutionary cycle. We found that defences used during the egg-laying period by host superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) are easily evaded by the Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo (Chrysococcyx basalis), a specialist fairy-wren brood parasite. However, although hosts never deserted their own broods, they later abandoned 40% of nests containing a lone Horsfield's bronze-cuckoo nestling, and 100% of nests with a lone shining bronze-cuckoo nestling (Chrysococcyx lucidus), an occasional fairy-wren brood parasite. Our experiments demonstrate that host discrimination against evictor-cuckoo nestlings is possible, and suggest that it has selected for the evolution of nestling mimicry in bronze-cuckoos.

  8. A Coevolutionary Arms Race between Hosts and Viruses Drives Polymorphism and Polygenicity of NK Cell Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Kesmir, C; Rob J. de Boer

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer cell receptors (NKRs) monitor the expression of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) and stress molecules to detect unhealthy tissue, such as infected or tumor cells. The NKR gene family shows a remarkable genetic diversity, containing several genes encoding receptors with activating and inhibiting signaling, and varying in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The expansion of the NKR genes is species-specific, with different species evolving alternative expanded NKR gene...

  9. A Coevolutionary Arms Race between Hosts and Viruses Drives Polymorphism and Polygenicity of NK Cell Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Bustamante, Paola; Keşmir, Can; de Boer, Rob J

    2015-08-01

    Natural killer cell receptors (NKRs) monitor the expression of major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) and stress molecules to detect unhealthy tissue, such as infected or tumor cells. The NKR gene family shows a remarkable genetic diversity, containing several genes encoding receptors with activating and inhibiting signaling, and varying in gene content and allelic polymorphism. The expansion of the NKR genes is species-specific, with different species evolving alternative expanded NKR genes, which encode structurally different proteins, yet perform comparable functions. So far, the biological function of this expansion within the NKR cluster has remained poorly understood. To study the evolution of NKRs, we have developed an agent-based model implementing a coevolutionary scenario between hosts and herpes-like viruses that are able to evade the immune response by downregulating the expression of MHC-I on the cell surface. We show that hosts evolve specific inhibitory NKRs, specialized to particular MHC-I alleles in the population. Viruses in our simulations readily evolve proteins mimicking the MHC molecules of their host, even in the absence of MHC-I downregulation. As a result, the NKR locus becomes polygenic and polymorphic, encoding both specific inhibiting and activating receptors to optimally protect the hosts from coevolving viruses.

  10. The butterfly plant arms-race escalated by gene and genome duplications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edger, P.P.; Heidel-Fischer, H.M.; Bekaert, K.M.; Rota, J.; Glockner, G.; Platts, A.E.; Heckel, D.G.; Der, J.P.; Wafula, E.K.; Tang, M.; Hofberger, J.A.; Smithson, A.; Hall, J.C.; Blanchette, M.; Bureau, T.E.; Wright, S.I.; dePamphilis, C.W.; Schranz, M.E.; Conant, G.C.; Barker, M.S.; Wahlberg, N.; Vogel, H.; Pires, J.C.; Wheat, C.W.

    2015-01-01

    Coevolutionary interactions are thought to have spurred the evolution of key innovations and driven the diversification of much of life on Earth. However, the genetic and evolutionary basis of the innovations that facilitate such interactions remains poorly understood. We examined the coevolutionary

  11. A chemical level in the coevolutionary arms race between an ant social parasite and its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, M; Heinze, J; Schmitt, T; Foitzik, S

    2005-05-01

    Here we investigate the coevolutionary interactions between the slavemaking ant Protomognathus americanus and its Temnothorax hosts on a chemical level. We show that, although this social parasite is principally well-adapted to its hosts' cuticular hydrocarbon profile, there are pronounced differences in the fine-tuning of this adaptation. Between populations, chemical adaptation varies with host community composition, as the parasite faces a trade-off when confronted with more than one host species. In addition to adaptation of its own chemical signature, the slavemaker causes a reciprocal adjustment in its slaves' cuticular profile, the degree of which depends on the slave species. On the host side, successful parasite defence requires efficient enemy recognition, and in behavioural aggression trials, host colonies could indeed discriminate between invading slaves, which commonly accompany slavemakers on raids, and free-living conspecifics. Furthermore, hosts shifted their acceptance threshold over the seasons, presumably to reduce the costs of defence.

  12. Host-parasite arms race in mutation modifications: indefinite escalation despite a heavy load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Y; Sasaki, A

    1996-11-21

    If constantly changing genotypes are favorable in host and parasite coevolution, an indefinite escalation of mutation rates would result despite heavy mutational loads. We theoretically study this possibility by examining the mutation modifier dynamics of host and parasite that engage in genotype-specific epidemiological interaction. In the first model, we study the evolutionarily stable (ESS) mutation rate or switching rate if two alleles in a single locus are subjected to frequency-dependent selection favoring the rarer of the two. Mutation modifier locus is either tightly linked or unlinked to the selected locus. Sufficiently strong frequency-dependent selection may cause cycles in allele frequencies and a modifier with higher mutation rate enjoys the long-term advantage by randomizing the genotype of their offspring. Through the repeated events of invasion and replacement of mutation modifiers, the mutation rate continues to increase until the allele frequencies are stabilized. If some fraction of mutations are deleterious, there is no longer a pure ESS mutation rate: the evolutionarily stable population then consists of multiple strains concerning mutation modifier, typically one with a very high mutation rate and the other with a very low rate, stably coexisting and fighting off invasion by any other modifiers. These results are almost independent of the linkage between the selected and the modifier loci. In the second model, we consider the joint evolution of host and parasite mutation modifiers, assuming that a specific pair of host and parasite genotype densities change following the Nicholson-Bailey type model. If there is no cost of deleterious mutations, mutation rates of both species are escalated indefinitely by modifier evolution until they completely suppress the fluctuation of genotype densities. However, a small cost of deleterious mutation is enough to collapse this coevolutionary equilibrium of inflated mutations. Typical coevolutionary outcome is that the parasite mutation rate is accelerated to a high level; whereas the host mutation rate is driven to zero. Extension of our results to host-parasite coevolution of recombination modifier evolution is discussed.

  13. Next Generations, Catwalks, Random Walks and Arms Races: conceptualising the development of quality assurance schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Don F.; Stensaker, Bjorn; Rosa, Maria J.; Corbett, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The emergence and development of quality assurance schemes in European countries over the last 15–20 years has inspired many national case studies of the systems and procedures adopted. The methods, contexts, and procedures associated with this policy change are diverse. But although individual coun

  14. Terpene arms race in the Seiridium cardinale – Cupressus sempervirens pathosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achotegui-Castells, Ander; Della Rocca, Gianni; Llusià, Joan; Danti, Roberto; Barberini, Sara; Bouneb, Mabrouk; Simoni, Sauro; Michelozzi, Marco; Peñuelas, Josep

    2016-01-01

    The canker-causing fungus Seiridium cardinale is the major threat to Cupressus sempervirens worldwide. We investigated the production of terpenes by canker-resistant and susceptible cypresses inoculated with S. cardinale, the effect of these terpenes on fungal growth, and the defensive biotransformation of the terpenes conducted by the fungus. All infected trees produced de novo terpenes and strongly induced terpenic responses, but the responses were stronger in the canker-resistant than the susceptible trees. In vitro tests for the inhibition of fungal growth indicated that the terpene concentrations of resistant trees were more inhibitory than those of susceptible trees. The highly induced and de novo terpenes exhibited substantial inhibition (more than a fungicide reference) and had a high concentration-dependent inhibition, whereas the most abundant terpenes had a low concentration-dependent inhibition. S. cardinale biotransformed three terpenes and was capable of detoxifying them even outside the fungal mycelium, in its immediate surrounding environment. Our results thus indicated that terpenes were key defences efficiently used by C. sempervirens, but also that S. cardinale is ready for the battle.

  15. Racing speeds of quarter horses, thoroughbreds and Arabians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, B D; Turner, K K; Ventura, B A; Woodward, A D; O'Connor, C I

    2006-08-01

    While Quarter Horses are recognised as the fastest breed of horse, direct comparisons to race times with other breeds can be misleading. Quarter Horse races begin when the starting gates open. Thoroughbred and Arabian races begin a short distance from the gates after horses have started running. This study compared speeds of these breeds as they accelerate from the starting gates and during the middle and end of races. To compare racing speeds of the 3 breeds, and to compare speeds during various segments of the races. Video tapes of races were obtained from a local track. The various race segments were viewed and the winning horse timed by 5 individuals. Fastest and slowest times were removed and the 3 remaining times averaged. Quarter Horses averaged faster speeds than Thoroughbreds even when Thoroughbreds were raced at a distance (402 m) similar to Quarter Horse races. Both breeds were substantially faster than Arabians. Quarter Horses racing 336 m or less gained speed in each segment of the race while Arabians and Thoroughbreds racing 1006 m ran fastest during the middle of the race and had decreased their speed in the final segment of the race. Despite similar race times reported for 402 m, Quarter Horses averaged faster speeds than Thoroughbreds when timed from a standing start. In short races, both breeds accelerate throughout the race. Arabians, despite being known for endurance, had slowed by the end of the race. This study demonstrates that Quarter Horses achieve faster racing speeds than do other breeds. It also reveals a potential flaw in race-riding strategy as a more consistent pace throughout the Arabian and longer Thoroughbred races may be more efficient and result in a faster overall race time.

  16. Hand Gesture Based Wireless Robotic Arm Control for Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Bandhyopadhyay, Shiva; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela; Juned Rahi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges in agriculture is harvesting. It is very hard and sometimes even unsafe for workers to go to each plant and pluck fruits. Robotic systems are increasingly combined with new technologies to automate or semi automate labour intensive work, such as e.g. grape harvesting. In this work we propose a semi-automatic method for aid in harvesting fruits and hence increase productivity per man hour. A robotic arm fixed to a rover roams in the in orchard and the user can control it remotely using the hand glove fixed with various sensors. These sensors can position the robotic arm remotely to harvest the fruits. In this paper we discuss the design of hand glove fixed with various sensors, design of 4 DoF robotic arm and the wireless control interface. In addition the setup of the system and the testing and evaluation under lab conditions are also presented in this paper.

  17. ARM 7 BASED MP3 PLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq V Mehta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available MP3 is a patented encoding format for digital audio which uses a form of lossy data compression. It is a common audio format for consumer audio streaming or storage, as well as a de facto standard of digital audio compression for the transfer and playback of music on most digital audio players. Since the MPEG-1 Layer III encoding technology is nowadays widely used it might be interesting to gain knowledge of how this powerful compression/decompression scheme actually functions. The MPEG-1 Layer III is capable of reducing the bit rate with a factor of 12 without almost any audible degradation. Arm7 lpc2148 is arm7tdmi-s core board microcontroller that uses 16/32-bit 64 pin (lqfp microcontroller no.lpc2148 from Philips (nxp.The hardware system of lpc2148 includes the necessary devices within only one mcu has such as usb, adc, dac, timer/counter, pwm, capture, i2c, spi, uart, and etc.

  18. An investigation of racing performance and whip use by jockeys in thoroughbred races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Evans

    Full Text Available Concerns have been expressed concerning animal-welfare issues associated with whip use during Thoroughbred races. However, there have been no studies of relationships between performance and use of whips in Thoroughbred racing. Our aim was to describe whip use and the horses' performance during races, and to investigate associations between whip use and racing performance. Under the Australian Racing Board (ARB rules, only horses that are in contention can be whipped, so we expected that whippings would be associated with superior performance, and those superior performances would be explained by an effect of whipping on horse velocities in the final 400 m of the race. We were also interested to determine whether performance in the latter sections of a race was associated with performance in the earlier sections of a race. Measurements of whip strikes and sectional times during each of the final three 200 metre (m sections of five races were analysed. Jockeys in more advanced placings at the final 400 and 200 m positions in the races whipped their horses more frequently. Horses, on average, achieved highest speeds in the 600 to 400 m section when there was no whip use, and the increased whip use was most frequent in the final two 200 m sections when horses were fatigued. This increased whip use was not associated with significant variation in velocity as a predictor of superior placing at the finish.

  19. Face-blind for other-race faces: Individual differences in other-race recognition impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Dawel, Amy; Pidcock, Madeleine; Hall, Ashleigh; McKone, Elinor

    2017-01-01

    We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i.e., even for own-race faces); but not applying less individuating effort to other-race than own-race faces. Findings provide a potential resolution of contradictory evidence concerning the importance of the other-race effect (ORE), by explaining how it is possible for the mean ORE to be modest in size (suggesting a genuine but minor problem), and simultaneously for individuals to suffer major functional consequences in the real world (e.g., eyewitness misidentification of other-race offenders leading to wrongful imprisonment). Findings imply that, in legal settings, evaluating an eyewitness's chance of having made an other-race misidentification requires information about the underlying face recognition abilities of the individual witness. Additionally, analogy with prosopagnosia (inability to recognize even own-race faces) suggests everyday social interactions with other-race people, such as those between colleagues in the workplace, will be seriously impacted by the ORE in some people. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Nuclear physicist, arms control advocate

    CERN Multimedia

    Chang, K

    2002-01-01

    Victor F. Weisskopf, a nuclear physicist who worked on the Manhattan Project to build the first atomic bomb in World War II and later became an ardent advocate of arms control, died Monday at his home in Newton, MA, USA. He was 93 (1 page).

  1. Arms control and international security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolkowicz, R. (ed.); Joeck, N.

    1984-01-01

    This book compiles the papers delivered at a symposium held at the University of California, in 1983. It provides the discussions upon the value and importance of arms debate. The paper presents an expression of personal views rather than an analysis of the arguments of the primary presentations.

  2. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have TENDINITIS, inflammation of a tendon.Self CareUse an over- ... OverDiagnosisYour may have TENNIS ELBOW, a type of TENDINITIS.Self CareRest the arm, apply ice packs to ...

  3. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D

    2015-11-01

    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing.

  4. Researcher Interjecting in Qualitative Race Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Mizock

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In qualitative interviews, moments when the researcher departs from the research script can highlight how researcher-participant race interactions may differentially affect results. In the present study, 40 qualitative interviews between Black- and White-identified researchers and participants were analyzed to assess the influence of researcher race in deviations from the interview script. Excerpts from these mono-racial and cross-racial research dyads are presented to highlight the function and value of researcher interjecting in multicultural research. Suggestions and implications for future qualitative research on issues of race, ethnicity, and culture are delineated. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1102134

  5. Toward a Social Psychology of Race and Race Relations for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richeson, Jennifer A; Sommers, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    The United States, like many nations, continues to experience rapid growth in its racial minority population and is projected to attain so-called majority-minority status by 2050. Along with these demographic changes, staggering racial disparities persist in health, wealth, and overall well-being. In this article, we review the social psychological literature on race and race relations, beginning with the seemingly simple question: What is race? Drawing on research from different fields, we forward a model of race as dynamic, malleable, and socially constructed, shifting across time, place, perceiver, and target. We then use classic theoretical perspectives on intergroup relations to frame and then consider new questions regarding contemporary racial dynamics. We next consider research on racial diversity, focusing on its effects during interpersonal encounters and for groups. We close by highlighting emerging topics that should top the research agenda for the social psychology of race and race relations in the twenty-first century.

  6. Overview and Updated Status of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, David M.; Chodas, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley N.; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder and regolith samples from its surface, demonstrate a planetary defense technique known as the enhanced gravity tractor, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s and other destinations, as well as provide other broader benefits. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. Current plans are for the robotic mission to be launched in late 2021 with the crewed mission segment conducted using an Orion capsule via a Space Launch System rocket in 2026. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is providing accommodations for payloads to be carried on the robotic segment of the mission and also organizing an ARM Investigation Team. The Investigation Team will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals from US industry, government, academia, and international institutions to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. The presentation will provide a mission overview and the most recent update concerning the robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, and potential

  7. Employing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework to capture user feedback in the design and testing stage of development of home-based arm rehabilitation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Manoj; Gallagher, Justin; Holt, Ray; Weightman, Andrew; O'Connor, Rory; Levesley, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework to ensure that key aspects of user feedback are identified in the design and testing stages of development of a home-based upper limb rehabilitation system. Seventeen stroke survivors with residual upper limb weakness, and seven healthcare professionals with expertise in stroke rehabilitation, were enrolled in the user-centered design process. Through semi-structured interviews, they provided feedback on the hardware, software and impact of a home-based rehabilitation device to facilitate self-managed arm exercise. Members of the multidisciplinary clinical and engineering research team, based on previous experience and existing literature in user-centred design, developed the topic list for the interviews. Meaningful concepts were extracted from participants' interviews based on existing ICF linking rules and matched to categories within the ICF Comprehensive Core Set for stroke. Most of the interview concepts (except personal factors) matched the existing ICF Comprehensive Core Set categories. Personal factors that emerged from interviews e.g. gender, age, interest, compliance, motivation, choice and convenience that might determine device usability are yet to be categorised within the ICF framework and hence could not be matched to a specific Core Set category.

  8. 基于ARM技术的服装舒适性检测系统的设计%Design of Test System for Clothing Comfortableness Based on ARM Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春丽; 高晓丁; 梁建锋; 唐明飞

    2010-01-01

    设计一种基于嵌入式ARM处理嚣的便携式服装压力、温湿度检测系统.系统采用ARM9处理器S3C2410A为主控芯片,利用FlexiForce压力传感器、DHT90温湿度传感器为分布式测试元件,以SD卡作为存储介质对采集的数据进行离线保存,并借助LabVIEW开发的仪器面板将测量结果保存并以直观的形式显示出来.测试实验结果表明服装舒适性检测系统测试准确,工作可靠,可以为服装舒适性的客观评定提供科学依据.

  9. Poverty, education, race, and pregnancy outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savitz, David A; Kaufman, Jay S; Dole, Nancy; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Thorp, Jr, John M; Kaczor, Diane T

    2004-01-01

    .... We assessed pregnancy outcome by race, education, and income (poverty index), using data from the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina, using binomial regression...

  10. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACEBASE Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Division is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and related ecological and...

  11. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Partners for Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions References Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A ...

  12. Race as a Variable in Agenda Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randy E.; Wanta, Wayne

    1996-01-01

    Examines, based on a survey, potential differences between races in the agenda-setting process. Finds that whites and minorities do not have different issue agendas and do not differ on the magnitude of agenda-setting effects. (TB)

  13. Human nomenclature: from race to racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Throughout time, evolutionary biologists have attempted to classify human beings according to a nomenclature based on supposed patterns of biological differences that have been used to suggest hierarchical categories. Recent genetic evidence disproves the assumption that races are genetically distinct human populations. Several studies refute human categorization as a severely flawed yardstick. For many, race is a construct that must be overcome in order to eradicate racism. Personal experiences of racism, harassment and discrimination are associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and mental health status. Additionally, socio-economic differentials are likely to be a fundamental explanation for the observed inequalities in health status among minority groups. This commentary examines the discrepancies that race, ethnicity and similar human nomenclatures present. Furthermore, the potentially harmful consequences of the "scientific" use of race, in the form of stereotyping and racism, are discussed.

  14. Racing to be an indispensable utility

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Every major IT supplier is rushing to be involved in the global computing grid, eager to take advantage of the developments and experience they will gain. Why? Because the race is on to become an IT utility" (1 page).

  15. Bouncing Balls and Hot Rod Races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbs, Peggy; Sherrill, Donna

    This paper presents the Bouncing Ball Experiment which models quadratic and exponential functions, and the Hot Rod Races activity that explores velocity and acceleration. Activities include directions for the use of TI-82 and TI-83 calculators. (YDS)

  16. Controlling robot arm with the mind

    National Science Foundation

    2017-05-31

    Full Text Available Research test subjects at the University of Minnesota who were fitted with a specialized noninvasive brain cap were able to move a robotic arm just by imagining moving their own arms.

  17. Multiple race reporting for children in a national health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J D; Lucas, J B

    2000-01-01

    The 1997 standard for race and ethnicity data from the Office of Management and Budget requires the collection of data for multiple race groups. The aims of this study were to compare characteristics of multiple race children and describe race reporting for children within interracial and multiple race families. Descriptive statistics were estimated using the 1993-1995 National Health Interview Surveys. In this time period, 2.6% of children had more than one race reported. Multiple race children were a diverse group who differed from each other and their single race counterparts. For example, the percent of children reported as both Black and White who lived in a two-parent household (58.9%), was significantly less than the corresponding percents for other multiple race children (65.8%-79.6%), and between the corresponding percents for single race Black (42.7%) and single race White children (83.2%). The relationships between parental race and child's race varied. Although 3.1% of children in two-parent households lived with interracial parents, fewer than half of these children had more than one race reported. Sociodemographic variables were not associated with child's reported race among interracial families. These findings indicate that generalizations about multiple race children for research or policy purposes will be problematic.

  18. High-throughput verification of transcriptional starting sites by Deep-RACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Signe; Plessy, Charles; Carninci, Piero

    2009-01-01

    We present a high-throughput method for investigating the transcriptional starting sites of genes of interest, which we named Deep-RACE (Deep–rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Taking advantage of the latest sequencing technology, it allows the parallel analysis of multiple genes and is free of t...

  19. The effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Ran

    Full Text Available Human beings do not passively perceive important social features about others such as race and age in social interactions. Instead, it is proposed that humans might continuously generate predictions about these social features based on prior similar experiences. Pre-awareness of racial information conveyed by others' faces enables individuals to act in "culturally appropriate" ways, which is useful for interpersonal relations in different ethnicity groups. However, little is known about the effects of prediction on the perception for own-race and other-race faces. Here, we addressed this issue using high temporal resolution event-related potential techniques. In total, data from 24 participants (13 women and 11 men were analyzed. It was found that the N170 amplitudes elicited by other-race faces, but not own-race faces, were significantly smaller in the predictable condition compared to the unpredictable condition, reflecting a switch to holistic processing of other-race faces when those faces were predictable. In this respect, top-down prediction about face race might contribute to the elimination of the other-race effect (one face recognition impairment. Furthermore, smaller P300 amplitudes were observed for the predictable than for unpredictable conditions, which suggested that the prediction of race reduced the neural responses of human brains.

  20. Race Has Always Mattered: An Intergeneration Look at Race, Space, Place, and Educational Experiences of Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise G. Yull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within school settings race continues to be one of the most formidable obstacles for Black children in the United States (US school system. This paper expands the discussions of race in education by exploring how the social links among race, space, and place provide a lens for understanding the persistence of racism in the educational experiences of Black children. This paper examines how differences in a rural versus urban geographical location influence a student’s experience with race, racism, and racial identity across four generations of Black people in the context of school and community. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  1. Electro-cortical implicit race bias does not vary with participants' race or sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Mallan, Kimberley M; Martin, Frances H; Terry, Deborah J; Smith, Joanne R

    2011-10-01

    Earlier research found evidence for electro-cortical race bias towards black target faces in white American participants irrespective of the task relevance of race. The present study investigated whether an implicit race bias generalizes across cultural contexts and racial in- and out-groups. An Australian sample of 56 Chinese and Caucasian males and females completed four oddball tasks that required sex judgements for pictures of male and female Chinese and Caucasian posers. The nature of the background (across task) and of the deviant stimuli (within task) was fully counterbalanced. Event-related potentials (ERPs) to deviant stimuli recorded from three midline sites were quantified in terms of mean amplitude for four components: N1, P2, N2 and a late positive complex (LPC; 350-700 ms). Deviants that differed from the backgrounds in sex or race elicited enhanced LPC activity. These differences were not modulated by participant race or sex. The current results replicate earlier reports of effects of poser race relative to background race on the LPC component of the ERP waveform. In addition, they indicate that an implicit race bias occurs regardless of participant's or poser's race and is not confined to a particular cultural context.

  2. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meek, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    across the near-term (1-4) years and longer-term (5-10) years planning horizons. Some final observations include acknowledging the enduring nature of several key objectives on the Obama Administration's arms control and nonproliferation agenda. The CTBT, FMCT, bilateral nuclear arms reductions and strengthening the NPT have been sought by successive U.S. Administrations for nearly thirty years. Efforts towards negotiated arms control, although de-emphasized by the G.W. Bush Administration, have remained a pillar of U.S. national security strategy for decades and are likely to be of enduring if not increasing importance for decades to come. Therefore revitalization and expansion of USG capabilities in this area can be a positive legacy no matter what near-term arms control goals are achieved over the next four years. This is why it is important to reconstruct integrated bureaucratic, legislative, budgetary and diplomatic strategies to sustain the arms control and nonproliferation agenda. In this endeavor some past lessons must be taken to heart to avoid bureaucratic overkill and keep interagency policy-making and implementation structures lean and effective. On the Technical side a serious, sustained multilateral program to develop, down select and performance test nuclear weapons dismantlement verification technologies and procedures should be immediately initiated. In order to make this happen the United States and Russia should join with the UK and other interested states in creating a sustained, full-scale research and development program for verification at their respective nuc1ear weapons and defense establishments. The goals include development of effective technologies and procedures for: (1) Attribute measurement systems to certify nuclear warheads and military fissile materials; (2) Chain-of-custody methods to track items after they are authenticated and enter accountability; (3) Transportation monitoring; (4) Storage monitoring; (5) Fissile materials

  3. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals’ behavior. Harsh and unpredictable (“desperate”) ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable (“hopeful”) ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2–4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person’s race (but not ecology), individuals’ inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals’ inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals’ inferences reflect the targets’ ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one’s ecology influences behavior. PMID:26712013

  4. Multiple Identifications in Multi-Armed Bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Viswanathan, Nitin

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of identifying the top $m$ arms in a multi-armed bandit game. Our proposed solution relies on a new algorithm based on successive rejects of the seemingly bad arms, and successive accepts of the good ones. This algorithmic contribution allows to tackle other multiple identifications settings that were previously out of reach. In particular we show that this idea of successive accepts and rejects applies to the multi-bandit best arm identification problem.

  5. Nutrition assessment of horse-racing athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Snider, O Sue; Windish, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Athletes involved in horse racing face weight restrictions like wrestlers and dancers; however, the literature is sparse pertaining to nutritional habits of jockeys. The practice of "making weight" causes these athletes to engage in potentially unhealthy practices. A gap in nutritionally sound practices and methods used by jockeys was identified and a desire for nutrition education was expressed to Cooperative Extension of Delaware by representatives of the riders at Delaware Park Race Track. Nutrition assessment was done using the Nutrition Care Process. Twenty jockeys were interviewed using an assessment form developed to target areas of disordered eating. Body mass index (BMI), mean weight loss on race day, methods of weight loss and ease of weight maintenance were examined. The jockeys were also asked for areas they wished to receive nutrition education on in the future. The BMI of the 20 jockeys ranged from 17.0 to 21.4 during racing season, with only one jockey in the "underweight" category. This range increased to 19.1-24.0 when the riders were not riding. The most common method of weight loss was the use of steam rooms, to lose an average 2.5 lb in 1 day. Eight of 20, the most common response, reported it very easy to maintain their racing weight. The jockeys reported interest in future education sessions on meal planning and healthy food ideas. The assessment was used as the basis to develop nutrition education materials and presentations for the riders at the race track.

  6. Learning Race from Face: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Hou, Zeng-Guang

    2014-12-01

    Faces convey a wealth of social signals, including race, expression, identity, age and gender, all of which have attracted increasing attention from multi-disciplinary research, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science, to name a few. Gleaned from recent advances in computer vision, computer graphics, and machine learning, computational intelligence based racial face analysis has been particularly popular due to its significant potential and broader impacts in extensive real-world applications, such as security and defense, surveillance, human computer interface (HCI), biometric-based identification, among others. These studies raise an important question: How implicit, non-declarative racial category can be conceptually modeled and quantitatively inferred from the face? Nevertheless, race classification is challenging due to its ambiguity and complexity depending on context and criteria. To address this challenge, recently, significant efforts have been reported toward race detection and categorization in the community. This survey provides a comprehensive and critical review of the state-of-the-art advances in face-race perception, principles, algorithms, and applications. We first discuss race perception problem formulation and motivation, while highlighting the conceptual potentials of racial face processing. Next, taxonomy of feature representational models, algorithms, performance and racial databases are presented with systematic discussions within the unified learning scenario. Finally, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potentially important cross-cutting themes and research directions for the issue of learning race from face.

  7. Children's essentialist reasoning about language and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Katherine D; Dautel, Jocelyn B

    2012-01-01

    Across four studies, we directly compared children's essentialist reasoning about the stability of race and language throughout an individual's lifespan. Monolingual English-speaking children were presented with a series of images of children who were either White or Black; each face was paired with a voice clip in either English or French. Participants were asked which of two adults each target child would grow up to be - one who was a 'match' to the target child in race but not language, and the other a 'match' in language but not race. Nine- to 10-year-old European American children chose the race-match, rather than the language-match. In contrast, 5-6-year-old European American children in both urban, racially diverse, and rural, racially homogeneous environments chose the language-match, even though this necessarily meant that the target child would transform racial categories. Although surprising in light of adult reasoning, these young children demonstrated an intuition about the relative stability of an individual's language compared to her racial group membership. Yet, 5-6-year-old African American children, similar to the older European American children, chose the race-match, suggesting that membership in a racial minority group may highlight children's reasoning about race as a stable category. Theoretical implications for our understanding of children's categorization of human kinds are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Gender Integration and the Swedish Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Daniel Marcus Sunil

    This paper discusses different gender aspects of the Swedish Armed Forces with specific references to sexual harassment and prostitution. By using the concept of Hegemonic Masculinity, sexual harassment of the women in the Swedish Armed Forces is explained in terms of a need of the men within......-social bonding. The paper ends by discussing the gender integration strategy of the Swedish Armed Forces....

  9. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  10. Law of Armed Conflict Deskbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    or hygienic reasons). c. Honorable burial. Individual burial is strongly preferred; however, there is a military necessity exception which permits...members of military aircraft crews;31 d. Merchant marine and civil aviation crews;32 e. Persons accompanying armed forces (dependents);33 and, f...99 - 108) 10. Hygiene (GC III, art. 29); separate baths, showers and toilets must be provided for female POWs. D. POW Accountability.63 (GC III

  11. Dual arm master controller concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  12. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  13. Replantation (Finger, Hand, or Arm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... per month. The number of inches from the injury to the tip of a finger gives the minimum number of months after which ... Replantation refers to the surgical reattachment of a finger, hand, or arm that has been completely cut from a person’s ... 2017 by American Society for Surgery of the Hand × Search Tips Tip 1: Start with the basics like "carpal ...

  14. Ignoring a Revolution in Military Affairs: The Need to Create a Separate Branch of the Armed Forces for Cyber Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    military and the gap in compensation provided by the private sector. The DoD published a comprehensive breakdown of the personnel make-up of...militarization of cyberspace or cyber arms race . The Chinese government staunchly upholds cybersecurity, firmly opposes and combats all forms of...operations saying, “Russia has never waged cyberwarfare against anyone. Russia believes that the cybersphere should be used exclusively for peaceful

  15. Personal best time, not anthropometry or training volume, is associated with total race time in a triple iron triathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Senn, Oliver

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in 81 male recreational ultratriathletes (64 finishers and 17 nonfinishers) the relationship of anthropometry, prerace experience, and training with race outcome in a Triple Iron triathlon, using bi and multivariate analyses. In the bivariate analysis, the sum of 8 skinfolds (r = 0.38) and the sum of upper body skinfolds (r = 0.37) were positively related to total race time. None of the anthropometric variables was related to the swim or bike split. Circumference of upper arm (r = 0.42), percent body fat (r = 0.43), the sum of 8 skinfolds (r = 0.47), and the sum of upper body skinfolds (r = 0.45) were positively associated with the time in the run split. None of the training variables was related to total race time or split times. Personal best time in an Ironman triathlon (r = 0.59) and a Triple Iron triathlon (r = 0.82) were positively and highly significantly related to total race time. When all significant variables after bivariate analysis were included in a regression model, personal best time in a Triple Iron triathlon (p athletes with a background as an ultrarunner might have an advantage in successfully finishing a Triple Iron triathlon. However, ultrarunners should also have enough prerace experience in competing in Ironman and Triple Iron triathlons to successfully finish such a race.

  16. Macrobend optical sensing for pose measurement in soft robot arms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareh, Sina; Noh, Yohan; Li, Min; Ranzani, Tommaso; Liu, Hongbin; Althoefer, Kaspar

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a pose-sensing system for soft robot arms integrating a set of macrobend stretch sensors. The macrobend sensory design in this study consists of optical fibres and is based on the notion that bending an optical fibre modulates the intensity of the light transmitted through the fibre. This sensing method is capable of measuring bending, elongation and compression in soft continuum robots and is also applicable to wearable sensing technologies, e.g. pose sensing in the wrist joint of a human hand. In our arrangement, applied to a cylindrical soft robot arm, the optical fibres for macrobend sensing originate from the base, extend to the tip of the arm, and then loop back to the base. The connectors that link the fibres to the necessary opto-electronics are all placed at the base of the arm, resulting in a simplified overall design. The ability of this custom macrobend stretch sensor to flexibly adapt its configuration allows preserving the inherent softness and compliance of the robot which it is installed on. The macrobend sensing system is immune to electrical noise and magnetic fields, is safe (because no electricity is needed at the sensing site), and is suitable for modular implementation in multi-link soft continuum robotic arms. The measurable light outputs of the proposed stretch sensor vary due to bend-induced light attenuation (macrobend loss), which is a function of the fibre bend radius as well as the number of repeated turns. The experimental study conducted as part of this research revealed that the chosen bend radius has a far greater impact on the measured light intensity values than the number of turns (if greater than five). Taking into account that the bend radius is the only significantly influencing design parameter, the macrobend stretch sensors were developed to create a practical solution to the pose sensing in soft continuum robot arms. Henceforward, the proposed sensing design was benchmarked against an electromagnetic

  17. Genotyping the future: scientists' expectations about race/ ethnicity after BiDil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, Richard; Smart, Andrew; Martin, Paul A; Ashcroft, Richard; Ellison, George T H

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing debate about the FDA approval of BiDil in 2005 demonstrates how the first racially/ethnically licensed drug is entangled in both Utopian and dystopian future visions about the continued saliency of race/ethnicity in science and medicine. Drawing on the sociology of expectations, this paper analyzes how scientists in the field of pharmacogenetics are constructing certain visions of the future with respect to the use of social categories of race/ethnicity and the impact of high-throughput genotyping technologies that promise to transform scientific practices.

  18. [Development of combat medical robots in the US Armed Forces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golota, A S; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Kuvakin, V I; Soldatov, E A

    2014-04-01

    The current article is dedicated to the problem of scientific research organization in the field of combat medical robots development in the US Armed Forces. The role of the Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center is singled out. The project A Robotic System for Wounded Patient Extraction and Evacuation from Hostile Environments is described in more detail. It is noted the high cost of such technical systems development and operation.

  19. High precision detector robot arm system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  20. High precision detector robot arm system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  1. Catching Our Breath: Critical Race STS and the Carceral Imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruha Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article draws together science and technology studies and critical race theory to examine the proliferation and intensification of carceral approaches to governing human life. It argues for an expansive understanding of “the carceral” that extends well beyond the domain of policing, to include forms of containment that make innovation possible in the contexts of health and medicine, education and employment, border policies and virtual realities. In interrogating the relationship between innovation and containment, it urges scholars to consider, who and what are fixed in place––classified, corralled, and/or coerced—to enable technoscientific development? Finally, it proposes the cultivation of an abolitionist consciousness that fosters human agency and freedom with and against sciences and technologies.

  2. Wheelchair-mounted robotic arm to hold and move a communication device - final design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Graham; Kurley, Kyle; Brauchie, Casey; Morton, Scott; Barrett, Steven

    2015-01-01

    At the 51st Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium we presented a preliminary design for a robotic arm to assist an individual living within an assistive technology smart home. The individual controls much of their environment with a Dynavox Maestro communication device. However, the device obstructs the individual’s line of site when navigating about the smart home. A robotic arm was developed to move the communication device in and out of the user’s field of view as desired. The robotic arm is controlled by a conveniently mounted jelly switch. The jelly switch sends control signals to a four state (up, off, down, off) single-axis robotic arm interfaced to a DC motor by high power electronic relays. This paper describes the system, control circuitry, and multiple safety features. The arm will be delivered for use later in 2015.

  3. Reasoning about Race and Pedagogy in Two Preservice Science Teachers: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Douglas B.; Maloney, Tanya; Perry-Ryder, Gail M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of two preservice science teachers as they progress through their respective teacher education programs and uses critical race theory to examine the manner in which conceptions about race and its pedagogical implications change over time. Using a longitudinal case study method, participants' conceptual…

  4. Discovering Race in a "Post-Racial" World: Teaching Race through Primetime Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nikki; Harris, Cherise A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching students about race remains a challenging task for instructors, made even more difficult in the context of a growing "post-racial" discourse. Given this challenge, it is important for instructors to find engaging ways to help students understand the continuing significance of race and racial/ethnic inequality. In this article,…

  5. Reasoning about Race and Pedagogy in Two Preservice Science Teachers: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Douglas B.; Maloney, Tanya; Perry-Ryder, Gail M.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of two preservice science teachers as they progress through their respective teacher education programs and uses critical race theory to examine the manner in which conceptions about race and its pedagogical implications change over time. Using a longitudinal case study method, participants' conceptual…

  6. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  7. The Racing-Game Effect : Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmueller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Joerg; Odenwaelder, Joerg; Kastenmüller, A.; Odenwälder, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation

  8. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Renita

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  9. Can Within-Race Achievement Comparisons Help Narrow Between-Race Achievement Gaps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Reports on the low achievement of African American students tend to focus on Black-White achievement gaps. This study draws from official reports that also consider within-race achievement differences. An argument is presented that within-race comparisons are likely to reveal important causal factors that may go unnoticed when between-race…

  10. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Renita

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  11. Race, Economics, and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Vivian W.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that the black person's fundamental problem in 1976 and for the future is a hard-core economic class problem generated by rapid advances in technology, changes in the industrial and employment structure, escalation of occupational requirements, and increasingly regressive tax structures on all levels of government. (Author/AM)

  12. CERN Relay Race: a great success!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Thursday 1st June marked the traditional Relay Race at CERN, organised jointly by the Running Club and the CERN Staff Association. Once again, the Race lived up to the expectations and the number of participants came close to last year’s all-time high with no less than 715 entries across different categories! In total 116 teams of 6 runners and 19 walkers completed the course at the Meyrin site in bright sunshine. Congratulations to all of them! Our Director-General gave the starting signal for the Race, demonstrating the interest in this event at the highest level of the Organization. Thank you for this much appreciated commitment! Moreover, a number of very high-level runners came to spice up this 2017 edition. The 1000-meter race was a tight one between Alexandre Roche (top 5 in the “Tour du canton”) and Baptiste Fieux who tore up the race at 2’36 and 2’42 respectively. Baptiste passed the baton to Pierre Baqué, the winner of the 2015 Saint&a...

  13. Race, punishment, and the Michael Vick experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R; Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Gertz, Marc; Baker, Thomas; Batton, Jason; Barnes, J C

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The relationship between race and crime has been contentious, focusing primarily on offending and incarceration patterns among minorities. There has been some limited work on public perceptions of criminal punishment, and findings show that while minorities believe in the role and rule of law, they simultaneously perceive the justice system as acting in a biased and/or unfair manner. Two limitations have stalled this literature. First, research has focused mainly on criminal punishments to the neglect of noncriminal punishments. Second, most studies have not examined whether race remains salient after considering other demographic variables or discrimination and legitimacy attitudes.Methods. Using data from 400 adults, we examine how race affects perceptions of criminal punishment and subsequent reinstatement into the National Football League in the case of Michael Vick, a star professional quarterback who pled guilty to charges of operating an illegal dog-fighting ring.Results. Findings show that whites are more likely to view Vick's punishment as too soft and that he should not be reinstated, while nonwhites had the opposite views. Race remained significant after controlling for other variables believed to be related to punishment perceptions.Conclusion. Attitudes toward both criminal punishment and NFL reinstatement vary across race such that there exists important divides in how individuals perceive the system meting out punishment and subsequently reintegrating offenders back into society. These results underscore that white and nonwhites perceive the law and its administration differently.

  14. Clinical evaluation of a new, above-elbow, body-powered prosthetic arm: a final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupo, M E; Sheredos, S J

    1998-10-01

    The AdVAntage Arm is an above-elbow (AE) body-powered arm designed to improve upon, and overcome, some of the major limitations of conventional prostheses. It is the result of research and development (R&D) accomplished at the Center for Engineering Design (CED), University of Utah and Sarcos Research Corporation (SRC), Salt Lake City, UT. The AdVAntage Arm was developed to provide the following main features: lightweight, independent elbow and terminal device (TD) control, and a cable recovery system for full TD actuation at any elbow position. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Rehab R&D Service's Technology Transfer Section (TTS), with collaboration from the VA National Prosthetic and Sensory Aids Service (PSAS), managed a multi-center clinical evaluation of the precommercial AdVAntage Arm (the Arm). The purpose was to objectively assess and affirm the Arm's functional advantages, reliability, clinical application, and commercial readiness. Eleven VA prosthetic services served as evaluation sites with a total of 16 subjects with amputation (14 unilateral and 2 bilateral). Fifteen prosthetists provided their comments. Overall, the results demonstrated that the Arm could be fit for use by persons with transhumeral, and even with forequarter, amputation. Once the learning curve was overcome, the majority of subjects reported that the Arm offered several functional advantages over their conventional prosthesis. Its overall light weight, separation of elbow and TD function, and cable recovery system allowed opening and closure of the TD at any elbow position; resulting in a more fluid manner of use and allowing subjects to perform more activities from waist level and above (especially in the outstretched and overhead positions). At the conclusion of clinical trials, 10 subjects elected to keep the Arm for continued use. The manufacturer is committed to the commercial marketing and technical support of the arm. Based upon the clinical findings, the AdVAntage Arm

  15. A car theft deterrent system research based on ARM9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaisheng; Liu, Jinhao; Fan, Lijun

    2009-07-01

    The traditional automotive burglarproof systems commonly only rely on the simple remote control to security which measures are not perfect and functions are too single. With the development of society, people tend to concern on the fingerprint recognition technology, GSM /GPRS wireless transmission technology, the idea of ARM9-based design of automobile burglarproof system is dependent on both of them. The S3C2410 microprocessor embedded system is used in this system, which is illuminated the idea of the control system design through the hardware and software. The spot use indicates that the high control precision, steady performance and the humanistic rational design of automotive burglarproof system.

  16. Dual arm master controller development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  17. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  18. Anthropometric considerations for a 4-axis side-arm flight controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debellis, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A data base on multiaxis side-arm flight controls was generated. The rapid advances in fly-by-light technology, automatic stability systems, and onboard computers have combined to create flexible flight control systems which could reduce the workload imposed on the operator by complex new equipment. This side-arm flight controller combines four controls into one unit and should simplify the pilot's task. However, the use of a multiaxis side-arm flight controller without complete cockpit integration may tend to increase the pilot's workload.

  19. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    important being race models and coactivation models. Redundancy gains consistent with the race model have an upper limit, however, which is given by the well-known race model inequality (Miller, 1982). A number of statistical tests have been proposed for testing the race model inequality in single...... participants and groups of participants. All of these tests use the race model as the null hypothesis, and rejection of the null hypothesis is considered evidence in favor of coactivation. We introduce a statistical test in which the race model prediction is the alternative hypothesis. This test controls...

  20. A comprehensive review of fundamental theory and methodology for tremor suppression of human arm based on robotic exoskeleton technology%基于外骨骼机器人技术的人体手臂震颤抑制的理论和方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建; 向馗; 高理富; 李涛; 葛运建

    2012-01-01

    介绍国内外利用康复医疗机器人技术和信号处理技术对人体手臂震颤进行抑制的主要研究成果,重点阐述基于“非药物”途径抑制人体手臂震颤的几个关键研究问题:1)震颤现象及其发生机制;2)常见震颤疾病的治疗现状;3)震颤信号的检测、分析、处理以及工程建模方法;4)基于康复机器人技术的手臂震颤抑制策略;5)震颤抑制效果的评估研究.并且重点介绍利用基于傅里叶变换的信号处理技术对震颤信号进行采集、处理与分析的研究现状,以及利用康复医疗机器人技术对震颤信号进行补偿与抑制的相关策略的研究现状分析,探讨“非药物”途径抑制人体手臂震颤的若干难点,为今后的研究工作奠定了基础.%The paper introduces a comprehensive review of research work about tremor suppression of human arm based on the theory and methods of " Non-Medication" Methodology (robotic exoskeleton technology and signal processing tech-nology) as the following aspects; 1) tremor and tremor mechanisms; 2) treatment of common tremor disorders; 3) trem-or signal extraction and processing; 4) control strategies for tremor suppression based on rehabilitation robotic exoskele-ton technologies; 5) study on the evaluation of tremor suppression strategies. In particular, special focus has been put on the current research on the tremor signal extraction and processing based on the Fourier technology and the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and the ambulatory and non-ambulatory tremor reduction and suppression technologies based on the rehabilitation robotic exoskeleton technologies. The paper introduces a comprehensive investigation of the key issues of the theory and methods of "non-medication" tremor treatment, which lays the foundation for subsequent research.

  1. Race, emotion and trust: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortosa, María I; Lupiáñez, Juan; Ruz, María

    2013-02-04

    Faces contain certain cues that can be used to infer the intentions of other people and to formulate beliefs about them. The present study explored the extent to which the race of the partners and their emotional facial expressions influenced participants' decision-making in a Trust Game where race and emotional expression had no actual predictive value regarding the partners' reciprocation rate. Behaviourally, participants shared more money with happy than with angry partners. In two separate experiments, electrophysiological results showed an early interaction between race and emotion in the N170 potential and also in the subsequent P200, which suggests inter-dependent processing of those cues in a social context. Overall, our results indicate that racial and emotional cues exert both independent and also interacting effects in the processing of faces in an interpersonal context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic scarcity alters the perception of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krosch, Amy R; Amodio, David M

    2014-06-24

    When the economy declines, racial minorities are hit the hardest. Although existing explanations for this effect focus on institutional causes, recent psychological findings suggest that scarcity may also alter perceptions of race in ways that exacerbate discrimination. We tested the hypothesis that economic resource scarcity causes decision makers to perceive African Americans as "Blacker" and that this visual distortion elicits disparities in the allocation of resources. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that scarcity altered perceptions of race, lowering subjects' psychophysical threshold for seeing a mixed-race face as "Black" as opposed to "White." In studies 3 and 4, scarcity led subjects to visualize African American faces as darker and more "stereotypically Black," compared with a control condition. When presented to naïve subjects, face representations produced under scarcity elicited smaller allocations than control-condition representations. Together, these findings introduce a novel perceptual account for the proliferation of racial disparities under economic scarcity.

  3. Application of C-arm computed tomography in cardiology; Kardiale Anwendung der C-Arm-Computertomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieber, J. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Campus Innenstadt, Abteilung fuer Kardiologie, Medizinische Poliklinik, Muenchen (Germany); Rohkohl, C. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Lehrstuhl fuer Mustererkennung, Department Informatik, Erlangen (Germany); Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Forchheim (Germany); Lauritsch, G. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Forchheim (Germany); Rittger, H. [Krankenhaus Coburg, Abteilung fuer Kardiologie, Coburg (Germany); Meissner, O. [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Forchheim (Germany); Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    C-arm computed tomography is currently being introduced into cardiac imaging and offers the potential for three-dimensional imaging of the cardiac anatomy within the interventional environment. This detailed view is necessary to support complex interventional strategies, such as transcutaneous valve replacement, interventional therapy of atrial fibrillation, implantation of biventricular pacemakers and assessment of myocardial perfusion. Currently, the major limitation of this technology is its insufficient temporal resolution which limits the visualization of fast moving parts of the heart. (orig.) [German] Durch die Entwicklung der C-Arm-Computertomographie- (CACT-)Angiographie ist es erstmals moeglich, waehrend einer Herzkatheteruntersuchung eine detaillierte dreidimensionale Darstellung der kardialen Anatomie zu erhalten. Derartige zusaetzliche Informationen koennten die Durchfuehrung der immer komplexer werdenden Strategien der interventionellen Kardiologie wirkungsvoll unterstuetzen. Hierzu zaehlen u. a. der transkutane Klappenersatz, die interventionelle Behandlung von Vorhofflimmern, die Implantation biventrikulaerer Schrittmacher sowie die Beurteilung der Myokardperfusion. Die derzeit groesste Limitation dieser Methode ist die relativ geringe zeitliche Aufloesung, die aufgrund der Bewegung des Herzens die Anwendung dieser Technologie einschraenkt. (orig.)

  4. Whip Rule Breaches in a Major Australian Racing Jurisdiction: Welfare and Regulatory Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Jennifer; McDonald, Carolyn; Wilson, Bethany; McManus, Phil; McGreevy, Paul

    2017-01-16

    Whip use in horseracing is increasingly being questioned on ethical, animal welfare, social sustainability, and legal grounds. Despite this, there is weak evidence for whip use and its regulation by Stewards in Australia. To help address this, we characterised whip rule breaches recorded by Stewards using Stewards Reports and Race Diaries from 2013 and 2016 in New SouthWales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). There were more recorded breaches at Metropolitan (M) than Country (C) or Provincial (P) locations, and by riders of horses that finished first, second, or third than by riders of horses that finished in other positions. The most commonly recorded breaches were forehand whip use on more than five occasions before the 100-metre (m) mark (44%), and whip use that raises the jockey's arm above shoulder height (24%). It is recommended that racing compliance data be analysed annually to inform the evidence-base for policy, education, and regulatory change, and ensure the welfare of racehorses and racing integrity.

  5. Rapid exploiter-victim coevolution: the race is not always to the swift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Vincent; Dubosclard, Marion; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2010-08-01

    The modeling of coevolutionary races has traditionally been dominated by methods invoking a timescale separation between ecological and evolutionary dynamics, the latter assumed to be much slower than the former. Yet it is becoming increasingly clear that in many cases the two processes occur on similar timescales and that such "rapid" evolution can have profound implications for the dynamics of communities and ecosystems. After briefly reviewing the timescale separations most common in coevolution theory, we use a general model of exploiter-victim coevolution to confront predictions from slow-evolution analysis with Monte Carlo simulations. We show how rapid evolution radically alters the dynamics and outcome of coevolutionary arms races. In particular, a fast-evolving exploiter can enable victim diversification and thereby lose a race it is expected to win. We explain simulation results, using mathematical analysis with relaxed timescale separations. Unusual mutation parameters are not required, since rapid evolution naturally emerges from slow competitive exclusion. Our results point to interesting consequences of exploiter rapid evolution and experimentally testable patterns, while indicating that more attention should be paid to rapid evolution in evolutionary theory.

  6. CERN Relay Race: information for drivers

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday, 24 May starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. In addition, there will be a Nordic Walking event which will finish around 12.50. This should not block the roads, but please drive carefully during this time. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race can be found here.

  7. The 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium....... The organizers provide short summaries of the other competitors. Finally, we summarize the championship results, followed by a discussion about what the organizers learned about 1) the development of high-performing car racing controllers and 2) the organization of scientific competitions....

  8. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-04-13

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  9. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  10. Latent herpesvirus infection arms NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Douglas W; Keppel, Catherine R; Schneider, Stephanie E; Reese, Tiffany A; Coder, James; Payton, Jacqueline E; Ley, Timothy J; Virgin, Herbert W; Fehniger, Todd A

    2010-06-03

    Natural killer (NK) cells were identified by their ability to kill target cells without previous sensitization. However, without an antecedent "arming" event, NK cells can recognize, but are not equipped to kill, target cells. How NK cells become armed in vivo in healthy hosts is unclear. Because latent herpesviruses are highly prevalent and alter multiple aspects of host immunity, we hypothesized that latent herpesvirus infection would arm NK cells. Here we show that NK cells from mice latently infected with Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) were armed as evidenced by increased granzyme B protein expression, cytotoxicity, and interferon-gamma production. NK-cell arming occurred rapidly in the latently infected host and did not require acute viral infection. Furthermore, NK cells armed by latent infection protected the host against a lethal lymphoma challenge. Thus, the immune environment created by latent herpesvirus infection provides a mechanism whereby host NK-cell function is enhanced in vivo.

  11. Introduction to Reading and Visualizing ARM Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2014-02-18

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program standard data format is NetCDF 3 (Network Common Data Form). The object of this tutorial is to provide a basic introduction to NetCDF with an emphasis on aspects of the ARM application of NetCDF. The goal is to provide basic instructions for reading and visualizing ARM NetCDF data with the expectation that these examples can then be applied to more complex applications.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research (ARM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — With heavily instrumented field sites around the globe, the ARM Climate Research Facility provides the world's most comprehensive outdoor laboratory and data archive...

  14. Autonomous sensor-based dual-arm satellite grappling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian; Tso, Kam; Litwin, Todd; Hayati, Samad; Bon, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    Dual-arm satellite grappling involves the integration of technologies developed in the Sensing and Perception (S&P) Subsystem for object acquisition and tracking, and the Manipulator Control and Mechanization (MCM) Subsystem for dual-arm control. S&P acquires and tracks the position, orientation, velocity, and angular velocity of a slowly spinning satellite, and sends tracking data to the MCM subsystem. MCM grapples the satellite and brings it to rest, controlling the arms so that no excessive forces or torques are exerted on the satellite or arms. A 350-pound satellite mockup which can spin freely on a gimbal for several minutes, closely simulating the dynamics of a real satellite is demonstrated. The satellite mockup is fitted with a panel under which may be mounted various elements such as line replacement modules and electrical connectors that will be used to demonstrate servicing tasks once the satellite is docked. The subsystems are housed in three MicroVAX II microcomputers. The hardware of the S&P Subsystem includes CCD cameras, video digitizers, frame buffers, IMFEX (a custom pipelined video processor), a time-code generator with millisecond precision, and a MicroVAX II computer. Its software is written in Pascal and is based on a locally written vision software library. The hardware of the MCM Subsystem includes PUMA 560 robot arms, Lord force/torque sensors, two MicroVAX II computers, and unimation pneumatic parallel grippers. Its software is written in C, and is based on a robot language called RCCL. The two subsystems are described and test results on the grappling of the satellite mockup with rotational rates of up to 2 rpm are provided.

  15. Whip use by jockeys in a sample of Australian Thoroughbred races--an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D McGreevy

    Full Text Available The use of whips by jockeys is an issue. The current study viewed opportunistic high-speed footage of 15 race finishes frame-by-frame to examine the outcomes of arm and wrist actions (n = 350 on 40 horses viewed from the left of the field. Any actions fully or partially obscured by infrastructure or other horses were removed from the database, leaving a total of 104 non-contact sweeps and 134 strikes. For all instances of arm actions that resulted in fully visible whip strikes behind the saddle (n = 109, the outcomes noted were area struck, percentage of unpadded section making contact, whether the seam made contact and whether a visible indentation was evident on impact. We also recorded use of clockwise or counter-clockwise arm action from each jockey's whip, whether the whip was held like a tennis racquet or a ski pole, whether the hind leg on the side of the impact was in stance or swing phase and whether the jockey's arm was seen traveling above shoulder height. The goal of the study was to characterize the area struck and the visual impact of whip use at the level of the horse. We measured the ways in which both padded and unpadded sections of the whip made impact. There was evidence of at least 28 examples, in 9 horses, of breaches of the whip rules (one seam contact, 13 contacts with the head, and 14 arm actions that rose above the height of the shoulder. The whip caused a visible indentation on 83% of impacts. The unpadded section of the whip made contact on 64% of impacts. The results call into question the ability of Stewards to effectively police the rules concerning whip use and, more importantly, challenge the notion that padding the distal section of whips completely safeguards horses from any possible whip-related pain.

  16. CDC WONDER: Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates online databases report bridged-race population estimates of the July 1st resident population of the United States,...

  17. Food Allergies Among Kids Vary by Race: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162165.html Food Allergies Among Kids Vary by Race: Study Researchers find ... study of 817 children who were diagnosed with food allergies from birth to age 18, show that race ...

  18. Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese

    2015-01-01

    Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.

  19. Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese

    2015-01-01

    Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.

  20. The Effects of Race on Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Andrea; Stephan, Walter

    1978-01-01

    Examines the effects of the race of a model and the consequences of his behavior on children's imitation. White and Black first, third, and fifth grade boys and girls were exposed to filmed tasks performed by both White and Black peer models. (BD)

  1. Race, ethnicity and the sport media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its multi-ethnic character and popularity, television coverage of sport can contribute to people’s beliefs and ideas about race and ethnicity. This role of the sport media is however, often overlooked or downplayed by the general public, by policy makers and by many scholars. This research pr

  2. CERN Relay Race: a great success!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    On Thursday May 19, the traditional relay race was held at CERN, organised jointly by the Running Club and the CERN Staff Association. In spite of the less than optimal weather, the 127 registered teams were not discouraged. Warmed by their efforts on the roads of CERN, the participants were able to withstand the chilly May weather. The start signal for the race was given by our Director General, demonstrating the interest in this event at the highest level of the Organization. Thank you for this much appreciated commitment! Can we hope for next year to see a team from the Directorate in the race? The many spectators who had come to cheer on the runners could also visit the stalls staffed by a few clubs and some of Interfon’s commercial partners. Refreshment and food stands contributed to the friendly atmosphere. The organisation of such an event requires however a substantial investment in order to cover all aspects of logistics, from preparation before the race, to the actual establishment ...

  3. Catch shares slow the race to fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenbach, Anna M.; Kaczan, David J.; Smith, Martin D.

    2017-04-01

    In fisheries, the tragedy of the commons manifests as a competitive race to fish that compresses fishing seasons, resulting in ecological damage, economic waste, and occupational hazards. Catch shares are hypothesized to halt the race by securing each individual’s right to a portion of the total catch, but there is evidence for this from selected examples only. Here we systematically analyse natural experiments to test whether catch shares reduce racing in 39 US fisheries. We compare each fishery treated with catch shares to an individually matched control before and after the policy change. We estimate an average policy treatment effect in a pooled model and in a meta-analysis that combines separate estimates for each treatment-control pair. Consistent with the theory that market-based management ends the race to fish, we find strong evidence that catch shares extend fishing seasons. This evidence informs the current debate over expanding the use of market-based regulation to other fisheries.

  4. Ideological Repositioning: Race, Social Justice, and Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I engage in discourse centrally located in the ideology of race in the United States of America juxtaposed to social justice with promise for tomorrow in higher education and beyond. I assert that social justice in kinesiology requires that once hired, retaining, securing tenured status, and promoting faculty of color means having…

  5. Race Discourse and the US Confederate Flag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyfield, Lori; Moltz, Matthew Ryan; Bradley, Mindy S.

    2009-01-01

    Research reveals that racial hierarchies and "color-blind" racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from…

  6. Race, class, gender, and American environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorceta E. Taylor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people's...

  7. Race and Ethnicity in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Robert A.; Hamilton, Erin R.

    2010-01-01

    Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born…

  8. Class, Race, and Higher Education in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trow, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that U.S. higher education reinforces the nation's individualistic values, including rejection of socialism's group orientation. Explains that the university promoted social mobility in the postwar era. Suggests that U.S. guilt about race relations gave rise to affirmative action. Argues that the policy ironically has heightened awareness…

  9. Race to Top Round Two Heating Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    With the second-round deadline for federal Race to the Top Fund grants less than six weeks away, states are rushing to raise the stakes on their education reform plans as they fight over the remaining $3.4 billion in prize money. But in doing so, states from Massachusetts to Colorado are tangling with their teachers' unions as they test how far…

  10. Race: The Challenge of the 90s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Jerry M.

    1989-01-01

    Although there have been improvements for Black Americans in civil rights, economic opportunity, and political influence over the past 30 years, serious social inequities remain, and race relations have in many ways worsened. Chronicles numerous instances of violence, discrimination, inequality, political underrepresentation, and socioeconomic…

  11. Rankings and the Global Reputation Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    This chapter delves into the growing influence and impact of rankings on higher education, as a lens through which to view how the race for reputation and status is changing the higher education landscape, both globally and nationally. The author considers the extent to which rankings are driving policy choices and institutional decisions and the…

  12. Teaching Cultural Geography with "The Amazing Race"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Sarah L.

    2017-01-01

    The reality show "The Amazing Race" serves as a useful text for the cultural geography classroom. As competitors travel the world, they complete challenging tasks designed to be both educational and entertaining. Audiences see actual images from destinations around the world and learn about the unique cultures of these places. They also…

  13. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  14. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  15. Arms Control and Strategic Stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu; Yumin

    2014-01-01

    This essay intends to offer a comment on concepts, trends and attitudes concerning arms control and strategic stability with reference to the current international security situation. It also offers observations from two different perspectives about strategic stability: one proceeds from the concept of universal security and aims to prevent conflicts and instability from disrupting regional and international security environment on which nation states depend so much for their peaceful development; the other starts from maintaining the global leadership by a super power and aiming to contain any challenge that sways or is likely to sway its dominating status. If China and the United States commit themselves to the undertaking of a new type of major powers relationship that stresses win-win cooperation, they will be able to contribute greatly to a stable international security architecture that is good for world peaceful development.

  16. ICRESH-ARMS 2015 Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Alireza; Verma, Ajit; Varde, Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    Containing selected papers from the ICRESH-ARMS 2015 conference in Lulea, Sweden, collected by editors with years of experiences in Reliability and maintenance modeling, risk assessment, and asset management, this work maximizes reader insights into the current trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (RAMS) and Risk Management. Featuring a comprehensive analysis of the significance of the role of RAMS and Risk Management in the decision making process during the various phases of design, operation, maintenance, asset management and productivity in Industrial domains, these proceedings discuss key issues and challenges in the operation, maintenance and risk management of complex engineering systems and will serve as a valuable resource for those in the field.

  17. Nurses' Use of Race in Clinical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L; Moss, Melissa E; Calzone, Kathleen; Abdallah, Khadijah E; Jenkins, Jean F; Bonham, Vence L

    2016-11-01

    To examine nurses' self-reported use of race in clinical evaluation. This cross-sectional study analyzed data collected from three separate studies using the Genetics and Genomics in Nursing Practice Survey, which includes items about use of race and genomic information in nursing practice. The Racial Attributes in Clinical Evaluation (RACE) scale was used to measure explicit clinical use of race among nurses from across the United States. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine associations between RACE score and individual-level characteristics and beliefs in 5,733 registered nurses. Analysis revealed significant relationships between RACE score and nurses' race and ethnicity, educational level, and views on the clinical importance of patient demographic characteristics. Asian nurses reported RACE scores 1.41 points higher than White nurses (p nurses reported RACE scores 0.55 points higher than White nurses (p nurses, the baccalaureate-level nurses reported 0.69 points higher RACE scores (p nurses reported 1.63 points higher RACE scores (p nurses reported 1.77 points higher RACE scores (p nurses may be due, in part, to differential levels of racial self-awareness. A relatively linear positive relationship between level of nursing degree nursing education and use of race suggests that a stronger foundation of knowledge about genetic ancestry, population genetics and the concept "race" and genetic ancestry may increase in clinical decision making could allow nurses to more appropriately use of race in clinical care. Integrating patient demographic characteristics into clinical decisions is an important component of nursing practice. Registered nurses provide care for diverse racial and ethnic patient populations and stand on the front line of clinical care, making them essential for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare delivery. Exploring registered nurses' individual-level characteristics and clinical use of race may provide a more

  18. Cortical spiking network interfaced with virtual musculoskeletal arm and robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador eDura-Bernal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm.This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuro-prosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility

  19. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  20. The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…

  1. Confronting the Categories: Equitable Admissions without Apartheid Race Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Z.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education admissions. I argue that (1) jettisoning apartheid race categories now in favour of either class or "merit" would set back the few…

  2. Confronting the Categories: Equitable Admissions without Apartheid Race Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Z.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education admissions. I argue that (1) jettisoning apartheid race categories now in favour of either class or "merit" would set…

  3. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on..., employees engaged in the racing, training, and care of horses and other activities performed off the farm...

  4. The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liggett, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…

  5. The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…

  6. The Use of Social Media in Teaching Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kathy; Arzubiaga, Angela E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores ways in which race pedagogy interrogates social media as a significant influence on racism and source for race understandings. Social media serves as a context in which to learn about, challenge, and address issues of race. We discuss how social media may be used to promote racial literacy and question and resist racism,…

  7. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  8. New developments in prosthetic arm systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujaklija I

    2016-07-01

    functionality. This article is aimed at reviewing the latest state of the upper limb prosthetic market, offering insights on the accompanying technologies and techniques. We also examine the capabilities and features of some of academia’s flagship solutions and methods. Keywords: prosthetic, amputations, rehabilitation, hand, arm

  9. Horse-, training- and race-level risk factors for palmar/plantar osteochondral disease in the racing Thoroughbred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchbeck, G L; Clegg, P D; Boyde, A; Barr, E D; Riggs, C M

    2013-09-01

    Palmar/plantar osteochondral disease (POD) is a common, debilitating condition in Thoroughbred racehorses; however, training- and racing-related factors associated with this disease are unknown. To determine horse-, racing- and training-related risk factors for POD. The general hypotheses were that early training and racing, and increased intensity of racing and training, lead to increased severity of POD. The metacarpo/metatarsophalangeal joints of 164 Thoroughbred racehorses were examined at post mortem and graded for third metacarpal and metatarsal POD. The relationships between training- and racing-related factors and grade of POD in each condyle were determined using multilevel, multivariable, ordinal logistic regression models. A total of 1288 condyles were graded. Factors associated with higher grades of POD were the total lifetime number of races, an increase in gallop sessions in the previous season, racing before import to Hong Kong and an increase in the number of short (8-16 weeks) between-race intervals per season. Horses in their first racing season were more likely to have lower POD grades, while horses that had a long between-race interval (greater than 16 weeks) in the season prior to euthanasia were also more likely to have lower POD grades. Lower POD grades were significantly more likely as days since last race increased up to 400 days. Age at first race was not significantly associated with grade of POD. Cumulative racing exposure and training intensity in the previous season were associated with higher grades of POD, supporting the hypothesis that the disease is due to repetitive loading. Longer between-race intervals and increased time since racing were associated with lower POD grades, which may indicate that lesions heal. Further work is required to enable optimisation of racing and training programmes to reduce the frequency and severity of this disease. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Why we cannot grow a human arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, John L

    2013-11-01

    There are several significant issues that prevent us from growing a human arm now, or within the next 10-20 years. From a tissue engineering perspective, while we can grow many of the components necessary for construction of a human arm, we can only grow them in relatively small volumes, and when scaled up to large volumes we lack the ability to develop adequate blood/nerve supply. From a genetic engineering perspective, we will probably never be able to turn on the specific genes necessary to "grow an arm" unless it is attached to a fetus and this presents enormous ethical issues related to farming of human organs and structures. Perhaps the most daunting problem facing the transplantation of a tissue engineered or transplanted arm is that of re-innervation of the structure. Since the sensory and motor nerve cells of the arm are located outside of the structure, re-innervation requires those nerves to regenerate over relatively large distances to repopulate the nervous system of the arm. This is something with which we have had little success. We can grow repair parts, but "growing an arm" presents too many insurmountable problems. The best we could possibly do with tissue engineering or genetic engineering would be the equivalent of a fetal arm and the technical problems, costs, and ethical hurdles are enormous. A more likely solution is a functional, permanent, neuroelectronically-controlled prosthesis. These are nearly a reality today.

  11. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  12. Books in Action: The Armed Services Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, John Y., Ed.

    In an effort to reach a wide audience, the Center for the Book in the Library of Congress presents this book in honor of the 40th anniversary celebration of the Armed Services Editions (ASE), the paperback books distributed during World War II. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: "The Armed Services Editions: An…

  13. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and making a turn or coming to a stop shall signal the turn or stop in accordance with this section. (b) A...

  14. Homosexuality in the Dutch Armed Forces 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anna Adolfsen; Saskia Keuzenkamp; m.m.v. Linda Mans

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Uniform uit de kast. This study looks at the attitudes of defence personnel to homosexuality. How do members of the military view homosexual colleagues? Can gays and lesbians working in the armed forces be open about their sexual preferences? Do they regard the armed forces as a gay

  15. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laschi, C; Cianchetti, M [Advanced Robotics Technology and Systems Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy); Mazzolai, B; Dario, P [Italian Institute of Technology, Genova (Italy); Mattoli, V [Centre of Research in Microengineering Laboratory, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: cecilia.laschi@sssup.it

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  16. Nurses’ Use of Race in Clinical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L.; Moss, Melissa E.; Calzone, Kathleen; Abdallah, Khadijah E.; Jenkins, Jean F.; Bonham, Vence L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine nurses’ self-reported use of race in clinical evaluation. Design This cross-sectional study analyzed data collected from three separate studies using the Genetics and Genomics in Nursing Practice Survey, which includes items about use of race and genomic information in nursing practice. The Racial Attributes in Clinical Evaluation (RACE) scale was used to measure explicit clinical use of race among nurses from across the United States. Methods Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine associations between RACE score and individual-level characteristics and beliefs in 5,733 registered nurses. Findings Analysis revealed significant relationships between RACE score and nurses’ race and ethnicity, educational level, and views on the clinical importance of patient demographic characteristics. Asian nurses reported RACE scores 1.41 points higher than White nurses (p nurses reported RACE scores 0.55 points higher than White nurses (p nurses, the baccalaureate-level nurses reported 0.69 points higher RACE scores (p nurses reported 1.63 points higher RACE scores (p nurses reported 1.77 points higher RACE scores (p nurses may be due, in part, to differential levels of racial self-awareness. A relatively linear positive relationship between level of nursing degree nursing education and use of race suggests that a stronger foundation of knowledge about genetic ancestry, population genetics and the concept “race” and genetic ancestry may increase in clinical decision making could allow nurses to more appropriately use of race in clinical care. Integrating patient demographic characteristics into clinical decisions is an important component of nursing practice. Clinical Relevance Registered nurses provide care for diverse racial and ethnic patient populations and stand on the front line of clinical care, making them essential for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare delivery. Exploring registered nurses’ individual

  17. Contributions of Racial and Sociobehavioral Homophily to Friendship Stability and Quality among Same-Race and Cross-Race Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Dashiell-Aje, Ebony; Menzer, Melissa M.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Oh, Wonjung; Bowker, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined how racial and sociobehavioral similarities were associated with friendship stability and friendship quality. Cross-race friends were not significantly similar to each other in peer-nominated shyness/withdrawal, victimization, exclusion, and popularity/sociability. Relative to same-race friends, cross-race friends were…

  18. A cross-race effect in metamemory: Predictions of face recognition are more accurate for members of our own race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Benjamin, Aaron S; Liu, Xiping

    2012-09-01

    The Cross-Race Effect (CRE) in face recognition is the well-replicated finding that people are better at recognizing faces from their own race, relative to other races. The CRE reveals systematic limitations on eyewitness identification accuracy and suggests that some caution is warranted in evaluating cross-race identification. The CRE is a problem because jurors value eyewitness identification highly in verdict decisions. In the present paper, we explore how accurate people are in predicting their ability to recognize own-race and other-race faces. Caucasian and Asian participants viewed photographs of Caucasian and Asian faces, and made immediate judgments of learning during study. An old/new recognition test replicated the CRE: both groups displayed superior discriminability of own-race faces, relative to other-race faces. Importantly, relative metamnemonic accuracy was also greater for own-race faces, indicating that the accuracy of predictions about face recognition is influenced by race. This result indicates another source of concern when eliciting or evaluating eyewitness identification: people are less accurate in judging whether they will or will not recognize a face when that face is of a different race than they are. This new result suggests that a witness's claim of being likely to recognize a suspect from a lineup should be interpreted with caution when the suspect is of a different race than the witness.

  19. 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) walking for rapid structural analysis of large transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Kondo, Masato; Isobe, Masaharu

    2004-01-01

    The 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (3' RACE) is widely used to isolate the cDNA of unknown 3' flanking sequences. However, the conventional 3' RACE often fails to amplify cDNA from a large transcript if there is a long distance between the 5' gene-specific primer and poly(A) stretch, since the conventional 3' RACE utilizes 3' oligo-dT-containing primer complementary to the poly(A) tail of mRNA at the first strand cDNA synthesis. To overcome this problem, we have developed an improved 3' RACE method suitable for the isolation of cDNA derived from very large transcripts. By using the oligonucleotide-containing random 9mer together with the GC-rich sequence for the suppression PCR technology at the first strand of cDNA synthesis, we have been able to amplify the cDNA from a very large transcript, such as the microtubule-actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) gene, which codes a transcript of 20 kb in size. When there is no splicing variant, our highly specific amplification allows us to perform the direct sequencing of 3' RACE products without requiring cloning in bacterial hosts. Thus, this stepwise 3' RACE walking will help rapid characterization of the 3' structure of a gene, even when it encodes a very large transcript.

  20. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  1. 结核杆菌耐链霉素Rrs基因点突变单侧延长臂发夹探针设计与检测研究%The study on detecting mutation site in Rrs gene of streptomycin resistant MTB by fair clamp probes with single extending arm technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆海; 府伟灵; 边志衡; 匡红; 姚捷

    2008-01-01

    Objective To design fair clamp probe and the probes with single extending arm of Rrs gene with main mutation site of streptomycin(SM)resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB)and its amplification system,meanwhile,to find the detection way by fair clamp probes chip.Methods The software,Beacon designer,was used to design the fair clamp probe and the probes with single extending arm of Rrs gene with main mutation site and the amplification system,and the fluorescence microscope and image analysis software were used to detect the fluorescent signals and make a qualitatire judgment.Results The difference between PCR products from standard strain and SM resistant one was obvious in detecting the fluorescent signals by use of fluorescence microscope.The detection rate of resistant SM was about 29%(P<0.05 and P<0.01).The fluorescent signal from the 51 SM resistant strains was much stronger than that in 10 H37RV standard strains.Conclusion The fairclamp probe technology is a sensitive assay in detecting nucleic acid point mutation.It is an effective way to solve the problem of modifying the fair clamp probe on the surface of chip by the probes with single extending arm,It has many advantages such as stronger fluorescent signal recognition and amplification and is more accurate in signal detection.%目的 选择结核杆菌耐链霉素(Sm)Rrs基因包含主要突变位点的序列设计发夹探针及其单侧延长臂发夹探针,建立扩增体系及发夹探针芯片检测方法.方法 运用Beacon designer软件设计Rrs基因包含主要突变位点的发夹探针及其单侧延长臂发夹探针,建立其扩增体系及发夹探针芯片检测方法,应用荧光显微镜检测荧光信号.结果 通过荧光显微镜检测到标准株及耐SM株PCR产物与发夹探针杂交后荧光信号区别明显;51株耐链霉素(SM)与10株H37RV标准株对照组荧光信号强度比较,耐SM组Rrs基因突变检出率为29%(P<0.05、P<0.01).结论 发夹探针技术是一种

  2. CyARM: Haptic Sensing Device for Spatial Localization on Basis of Exploration by Arms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Akita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new type of perception aid device based on user's exploration action, which is named as CyARM (acronym of “Cyber Arm”. The user holds this device in her/his arm, the extension of the arm is controlled by tension in wires, which are attached to her/his body according to the distance to the object. This user interface has unique characteristics that give users the illusion of an imaginary arm that extends to existing objects. The implementations of CyARM and our two experiments to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of CyARM are described. The results show that we could confirm that CyARM can be used to recognize the presence of an object in front of the user and to measure the relative distance to the object.

  3. Catastrophic biaxial proximal sesamoid bone fractures in UK Thoroughbred races (1999-2004): horse characteristics and racing history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, M; Parkin, T D H; Singer, E R

    2010-07-01

    Catastrophic biaxial proximal sesamoid bone fractures (PSBF) have not yet been described in detail in the UK racing population. To determine the incidence and relative risk (RR) of PSBF in different types of racing in the UK; and to describe horse-level characteristics and racing histories of horses sustaining these injuries. Distal limbs were collected from all racehorses suffering catastrophic fractures during racing at all 59 racecourses in the UK, in a prospective study from February 1999 to December 2004. Post mortem investigation identified the anatomical location and type of fracture. Horse, racing history, race and racecourse details were obtained. Characteristics of the horses that sustained PSBF were described. The incidence and RR of PSBF in the different types of racing in the UK were calculated. Thirty-one horses suffered PSBF during the study period. The incidence of PSBF in all types of race was 0.63 per 10,000 starts (31/494,744). The incidence was highest in flat races on all weather surfaces (1.63 per 10,000 starts: 12/73,467; RR = 4.4 when compared to turf flat racing). Affected horses had an average age of 5.6 years and had started a mean of 28 races at the time of fracture. There is a strong association between type of racing surface and PSBF. Horses competing in flat races on all weather surfaces have an increased risk of PSBF. These fractures appear to happen in experienced horses with several starts, with few fractures occurring within the first season of racing. Further research should focus on identification of underlying pathology of these fractures. Epidemiological studies aimed at the identification of risk factors for PSBF in the UK racing population would require a large number of cases acquired over many years given the relatively low incidence of PSBF.

  4. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    important being race models and coactivation models. Redundancy gains consistent with the race model have an upper limit, however, which is given by the well-known race model inequality (Miller, 1982). A number of statistical tests have been proposed for testing the race model inequality in single...... participants and groups of participants. All of these tests use the race model as the null hypothesis, and rejection of the null hypothesis is considered evidence in favor of coactivation. We introduce a statistical test in which the race model prediction is the alternative hypothesis. This test controls...... the Type I error if a theory predicts that the race model prediction holds in a given experimental condition. © 2011 Psychonomic Society, Inc....

  5. Showing that the race model inequality is not violated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Riehl, Verena; Blurton, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    important being race models and coactivation models. Redundancy gains consistent with the race model have an upper limit, however, which is given by the well-known race model inequality (Miller, 1982). A number of statistical tests have been proposed for testing the race model inequality in single...... participants and groups of participants. All of these tests use the race model as the null hypothesis, and rejection of the null hypothesis is considered evidence in favor of coactivation. We introduce a statistical test in which the race model prediction is the alternative hypothesis. This test controls...... the Type I error if a theory predicts that the race model prediction holds in a given experimental condition. © 2011 Psychonomic Society, Inc....

  6. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  7. Youth Armed Groups in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For the many years of Colombia’s civil war, youth have been trying to find their way in complicated and dangerous situations. A central component of this is their relationship with armed groups, something that has evolved considerably over the past ten years. This practice note examines the context within which these connections are formed and the implications this has for self/social identity and meaningful resistance. The ideas in this practice note are based on consultations with young Colombians, particularly those displaced from 2000-2013. These sessions included art activities, focus groups and individual interviews. Art activities involved descriptive and expressive projects so that participants could explore their feelings and memories of situations and experiences. This provided a base for group discussions where youth exchanged information and debated issues. A total of 34 workshops were held over a twelve year period. These consultations revealed how war flows all over young people, touching every aspect of their identity. The boundaries between the personal and political no longer exist in today’s civil wars, if indeed they every truly did. Young people growing up inside Colombia’s war understand this at a deep level. An acknowledgement of this pain – showing the connections between the personal and political dimensions of war – is, they would maintain, the basis for their personal healing as well as an important tool for the building of sustainable peace.

  8. Introduction: Globalization and Race in World Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Robinson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars of world-systems and global political economy have wrestled for decades with the genesis of 'race' as a social construct and its historical significance for the system of world capitalism.  Transformations in the world capitalist system pose a new challenge to Western theories of race.  Older colonial structures may be giving way in the face of capitalist globalization.  Racial or ethnic dimensions of the relations of exploitation in the capitalist world-system need to be reconceptualized.  This symposium aims to generated debate and interchange among scholars on such a reconceptualization and to contribute to real world struggles against racial inequities.

  9. Sciences and races in Brazil ca. 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Arteaga, Juan Manuel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a general overview about the way in which Brazilian medicine and physical anthropology gave a naturalistic approach to the idea of race and to the «problem» posed by the mixture of races in the country during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, coinciding with the introduction of evolutionism in Brazil.

    El presente artículo trata de mostrar una visión panorámica sobre el modo en que la medicina y la antropología física brasileñas trataron la cuestión de las «razas» y el mestizaje durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y principios del siglo XX, a la vez que los principios evolucionistas pasaban a ser aceptados por la ciencia nacional.

  10. Injuries in elite motorcycle racing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomida, Y; Hirata, H; Fukuda, A; Tsujii, M; Kato, K; Fujisawa, K; Uchida, A

    2005-08-01

    To investigate the incidence and pattern of injuries, relative risks, and factors affecting incidence among elite motorcycle competitors in Japan. A total of 117 elite motorcycle competitors including 36 road racers, 60 motocross racers, and 21 trial bike riders completed a questionnaire about injuries. Sixty major injuries (25 in road racing, 32 in motocross, and three in trial bike riding) were reported. The most common injuries were fractures (45), followed by ligament injuries (8), dislocations (5), and soft tissue injuries (2). The overall injury rate was 22.4 per 1000 hours, and the death rate was zero. There was no significant correlation between risk of injury and age, experience, or accumulated competition points. Injury rates in competitions such as road racing and motocross are high, and therefore additional safety measures are needed to protect competitors from injury.

  11. CERN Relay Race | 5 June | Get ready!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    In anticipation of the CERN relay race, the Medical Service would like to remind all participants that preparing for this sporting activity is essential - even though it is a short event.   Progressive and regular training. Adequate nutrition and hydration. Advice and information is available at the infirmary in Building 57. Everyone should adapt their physical activity to match their fitness levels, bearing in mind that the aim of this race is not necessarily to achieve great success but to participate in a collective sporting event. In the framework of the "Move! Eat better" campaign and for the third successive year, a 2.4 km route is open to walkers, both beginners and experts. Before, during and after this event, test yourself with a pedometer, available from the CERN infirmary! 

  12. Philosophy of race meets population genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Quayshawn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, I respond to four common semantic and metaphysical objections that philosophers of race have launched at scholars who interpret recent human genetic clustering results in population genetics as evidence for biological racial realism. I call these objections 'the discreteness objection', 'the visibility objection', 'the very important objection', and 'the objectively real objection.' After motivating each objection, I show that each one stems from implausible philosophical assumptions about the relevant meaning of 'race' or the nature of biological racial realism. In order to be constructive, I end by offering some advice for how we can productively critique attempts to defend biological racial realism based on recent human genetic clustering results. I also offer a clarification of the relevant human-population genetic research.

  13. The militarisation of English schools: Troops to Teaching and the implications for Initial Teacher Education and race equality

    OpenAIRE

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the implications of the Troops to Teaching (TtT) programme, to be introduced in England in autumn 2013, for Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and race equality. TtT will fast-track ex-armed service members to teach in schools, without necessarily the requirement of a university degree. Employing theories of white supremacy, and Althusser’s (1971) concept of Ideological and Repressive State Apparatus, I argue that this initiative both stems from, and contributes to, a syst...

  14. Camera Inspection Arm for Boiling Water Reactors - 13330

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Scott; Rood, Marc [S.A. Technology, 3985 S. Lincoln Ave, Loveland, CO 80537 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) outage maintenance tasks can be time-consuming and hazardous. Reactor facilities are continuously looking for quicker, safer, and more effective methods of performing routine inspection during these outages. In 2011, S.A. Technology (SAT) was approached by Energy Northwest to provide a remote system capable of increasing efficiencies related to Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) internal inspection activities. The specific intent of the system discussed was to inspect recirculation jet pumps in a manner that did not require manual tooling, and could be performed independently of other ongoing inspection activities. In 2012, SAT developed a compact, remote, camera inspection arm to create a safer, more efficient outage environment. This arm incorporates a compact and lightweight design along with the innovative use of bi-stable composite tubes to provide a six-degree of freedom inspection tool capable of reducing dose uptake, reducing crew size, and reducing the overall critical path for jet pump inspections. The prototype camera inspection arm unit is scheduled for final testing in early 2013 in preparation for the Columbia Generating Station refueling outage in the spring of 2013. (authors)

  15. Simple Arm Muscle Model for Oil Palm Harvesting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Aliff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arm are essential in order to perform manual material handling work that normally involves lifting, handling, placing, push and pull, carrying and moving heavy loads. When these work elements are performed over prolonged periods repeatedly, it will expose workers arm to awkward posture and possible ergonomic risk factor. For example, work element that requires repetitions frequently may lead the arm to face physical stress and mental fatigue. The situation can be extremely risky if the worker task requires higher focus or time consumable. These issues are unavoidable in palm oil harvesting process since the workers are still using manual handling when harvesting the fresh fruit bunch (FFB. The worker using a chisel to harvest the young palms and a sickle mounted on a bamboo or aluminum pole to harvest taller palms. When perform this work element combining with heavy physical workload, it may lead to work-related muscle disorders (WSMDs. This study was conducted to identify the force reaction and inverse dynamic analysis during oil palm harvesting process using ergonomics software called Anybody Technology. Inverse dynamic analysis is a technique for figuring strengths and/or moments of power (torques taking into account the kinematics (movement of a body and the body’s inertial properties.

  16. Race, ethnicity and the sport media

    OpenAIRE

    van Sterkenburg, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its multi-ethnic character and popularity, television coverage of sport can contribute to people’s beliefs and ideas about race and ethnicity. This role of the sport media is however, often overlooked or downplayed by the general public, by policy makers and by many scholars. This research project addresses this neglect and discusses the often taken-for-granted assumptions that are embedded in the use of racial/ethnic meanings and categorizations by soccer commentators on television an...

  17. Districts Dumping At-Large Races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Luis Carlos Ayala treks up and down hilly driveways in a local neighborhood on a recent weeknight, going door to door to deliver his short campaign spiel and a flier. Even though the 18,650-student Pasadena Unified district serves a locale of more than 202,300 residents, Mr. Ayala aims to reach voters in an area of only 28,900 for this race, as a…

  18. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Keelah E. G.; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological features shape people’s goals, strategies, and behaviors. Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology’s influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Moreover, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, Americans’ stereotypes about racial groups may actually reflect their stereotypes about these groups’ presumed home ecologies. In a series of studies, we demonstrate that (i) individuals possess ecology-dri...

  19. Urethral strictures incident to bicycle motocross racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Daniel P; Carr, Michael C

    2005-04-01

    A dramatic shift from traditional team to alternative or "extreme" sports has given rise to a new generation of nontraditional athletes and sports-related injuries in the pediatric population. We present a case of 2 brothers who developed urethral strictures believed incident to BMX racing. We address current demographics and the general presentation and course of treatment to aid both the pediatric urologist and the general practitioner in prompt and proper diagnosis.

  20. Poverty experience, race, and child health.

    OpenAIRE

    Malat, Jennifer; Oh, Hyun Joo; Hamilton, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies that examine children's poverty and health at one point in time do not account for some children experiencing poverty briefly and others living in poverty for much of their lives. The objective of this study was to determine how duration of poverty and child race are related to child health. METHODS: To assess these relationships, we analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. Ordinary least squares regression was used to est...