Sample records for technological application interfacial

  1. Surface and interfacial tension measurement, theory, and applications

    Hartland, Stanley


    This edited volume offers complete coverage of the latest theoretical, experimental, and computer-based data as summarized by leading international researchers. It promotes full understanding of the physical phenomena and mechanisms at work in surface and interfacial tensions and gradients, their direct impact on interface shape and movement, and their significance to numerous applications. Assessing methods for the accurate measurement of surface tension, interfacial tension, and contact angles, Surface and Interfacial Tension presents modern simulations of complex interfacial motions, such a

  2. [Importance of interfacial characteristics in pharmaceutical technology].

    Dredán, Judit; Csóka, Gabriella; Marton, Sylvia; Antal, István


    Since drug release from the dosage forms has priority to absorption from the gastrointestinal system, physico-chemical characterisation of pharmaceutical systems is essential during the development of an optimal formulation with high efficacy and quality. Interfacial parameters of several pharmaceutical excipients were studied regarding their possible modifying effect on drug release from the dosage form. These inactive ingredients may influence the interfacial phenomena of the drug carrier system, which behaviour determines both the efficacy and the quality of the pharmaceutical preparation In this work authors deal mainly with the two introducing steps of the LADME model influenced by interfacial parameters on them, namely with the liberation of drug from the dosage form and with the characteristics influencing the absorption through biological membranes, respectively. The objective of the present work was to study modifying effects of excipients on drug liberation in connection with their physical and chemical characteristics such as interfacial tension of solid and liquid phases, wetting contact angle of solid phase and--a calculated quantity,--adhesion tension of the solid particles.

  3. FinalReport for completed IPP-0110 and 0110A Projects:"High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications"

    Brown, Ian


    The DOE-supported IPP (Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention) Project, IPP-0110, and its accompanying 'add-on project' IPP-0110A, entitled 'High Energy Ion Technology of Interfacial Thin Film Coatings for Electronic, Optical and Industrial Applications' was a collaborative project involving the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) as the U.S. DOE lab; the US surface modification company, Phygen, Inc., as the US private company involved; and the High Current Electronics Institute (HCEI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Siberia, Russia, as the NIS Institute involved. Regular scientific research progress meetings were held to which personnel came from all participating partners. The meetings were held mostly at the Phygen facilities in Minneapolis, Minnesota (with Phygen as host) with meetings also held at Tomsk, Russia (HCEI as host), and at Berkeley, California (LBNL as host) In this way, good exposure of all researchers to the various different laboratories involved was attained. This report contains the Final Reports (final deliverables) from the Russian Institute, HCEI. The first part is that for IPP-0110A (the 'main part' of the overall project) and the second part is that for the add-on project IPP-0110A. These reports are detailed, and contain all aspects of all the research carried out. The project was successful in that all deliverables as specified in the proposals were successfully developed, tested, and delivered to Phygen. All of the plasma hardware was designed, made and tested at HCEI, and the performance was excellent. Some of the machine and performance parameters were certainly of 'world class'. The goals and requirements of the IPP Project were well satisfied. I would like to express my gratitude to the DOE IPP program for support of this project throughout its entire duration, and for the unparalleled opportunity thereby provided for all of the diverse participants in the project to join

  4. Interfacial characterization and analytical applications of chemically-modified surfaces

    Wang, Jianhong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The goal of this work is to explore several new strategies and approaches to the surface modification and the microscopic characterization of interfaces in the areas mainly targeting sensor technologies that are of interest to environmental control or monitoring, and scanning probe microscopies techniques that can monitor interfacial chemical reactions in real time. Centered on the main theme, four specific topics are presented as four chapters in this dissertation following the general introduction. Chapter 1 describes the development of two immobilization schemes for covalently immobilizing fluoresceinamine at cellulose acetate and its application as a pH sensing film. Chapter 2 investigates the applicability of SFM to following the base-hydrolysis of a dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at gold in situ. Chapter 3 studies the mechanism for the accelerated rate of hydrolysis of the dithio-bis(succinimidylundecanoate) monolayer at Au(111) surface. Chapter 4 focuses on the development of an electrochemical approach to the elimination of chloride interference in Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis of waste water. The procedures, results and conclusions are described in each chapter. This report contains the introduction, references, and general conclusions. Chapters have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base. 95 refs.

  5. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    Xu, Hongwu (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Xomeritakis, George K. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Travesset, Alex (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Anderson, Joshua A. (Iowa State University, Ames, IA); Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); McGrath, Matthew J. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L. (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Zhu, Xiaoyang (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Dunphy, Darren Robert (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Gerung, Henry (University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM); Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson


    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  6. Fibers by interfacial polyelectrolyte complexation – processes, materials and applications

    Andrew C.A. Wan


    Full Text Available Interfacial polyelectrolyte (polyion complexation (IPC is a process whereby fibers and capsules are formed through interactions at the interface of oppositely charged polymers. Since its discovery in the late 1990s, the IPC fiber process, in particular, has been investigated for various applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, flexible electronics and biosensing. The advent of the IPC fiber and process has been supported by its unique mechanism of formation that makes it amenable to encapsulation and functionalization. In this first review on IPC fibers, we consolidate the current knowledge of the IPC process, mechanism of fiber formation and fiber physical properties, while documenting the various polycation–polyanion pairs and encapsulants that have been used to date. We review the rapidly accumulating literature on IPC fibers for tissue engineering, describing how they have been used to release protein factors in a sustained manner, made into random or spatially well-defined scaffolds and decorated with appropriate functionalities and extracellular matrices in order to tailor the microenvironment for cell growth and function.

  7. Fundamentals of Melt-Water Interfacial Transport Phenomena: Improved Understanding for Innovative Safety Technologies in ALWRs

    M. Anderson; M. Corradini; K.Y. Bank; R. Bonazza; D. Cho


    The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications.

  8. Study of interfacial phenomena for bio/chemical sensing applications

    Min, Hwall

    This work presents the fundamental study of biological and chemical interfacial phenomena and (bio)chemical sensing applications using high frequency resonator arrays. To realize a versatile (bio)chemical sensing system for the fundamental study as well as their practical applications, the following three distinct components were studied and developed: i) detection platforms with high sensitivity, ii) novel innovative sensing materials with high selectivity, iii) analytical model for data interpretation. 8-pixel micromachined quartz crystal resonator (muQCR) arrays with a fundamental resonance frequency of 60 ¡V 90 MHz have been used to provide a reliable detection platform with high sensitivity. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) has been explored and integrated into the sensing system as a smart chemical sensing material. The use of nanoporous gold (np-Au) enables the combination of the resonator and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for both quantitative and qualitative measurement. A statistical model for the characterization of resonator behavior to study the protein adsorption kinetics is developed by random sequential adsorption (RSA) approach with the integration of an effective surface depletion theory. The investigation of the adsorption kinetics of blood proteins is reported as the fundamental study of biological phenomena using the proposed sensing system. The aim of this work is to study different aspects of protein adsorption and kinetics of adsorption process with blood proteins on different surfaces. We specifically focus on surface depletion effect in conjunction with the RSA model to explain the observed adsorption isotherm characteristics. A number of case studies on protein adsorption conducted using the proposed sensing system has been discussed. Effort is specifically made to understand adsorption kinetics, and the effect of surface on the adsorption process as well as the properties of the adsorbed protein layer. The second half of the

  9. Electrical characterization of thulium silicate interfacial layers for integration in high-k/metal gate CMOS technology

    Dentoni Litta, Eugenio; Hellström, Per-Erik; Henkel, Christoph; Östling, Mikael


    This work presents a characterization of the electrical properties of thulium silicate thin films, within the scope of a possible application as IL (interfacial layer) in scaled high-k/metal gate CMOS technology. Silicate formation is investigated over a wide temperature range (500-900 °C) through integration in MOS capacitor structures and analysis of the resulting electrical properties. The results are compared to those obtained from equivalent devices integrating lanthanum silicate interfacial layers. The thulium silicate IL is formed through a gate-last CMOS-compatible process flow, providing IL EOT of 0.1-0.3 nm at low formation temperature and interface state density at flatband condition below 2 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1. The effects of a possible integration in a gate-first process flow with a maximum thermal budget of 1000 °C are also evaluated, achieving an IL EOT of 0.2-0.5 nm, an interface state density at flatband condition ∼1 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 and a reduction in gate leakage current density of one order of magnitude compared to the same stack without IL.

  10. Application Technology Research Unit

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To conduct fundamental and developmental research on new and improved application technologies to protect floricultural, nursery, landscape, turf, horticultural, and...

  11. Interfacially synthesized PAni–PMo12 hybrid material for supercapacitor applications

    Arumugam Manivel; Abdullah M Asiri; Khalid Ahmad Alamry; Teresa Lana-Villarreal; Sambandam Anandan


    The concept of interfacial polymerization is utilized for the synthesis of polyaniline–phosphomolybdate (PAni–PMo12) molecular hybrids and it is well characterized. The electrical conductivity of the synthesized hybrid materials increases with increase in PMo12 wt%. The synthesized hybrid materials are evaluated as the active electrode materials for supercapacitor application. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the hybrid-modified electrode shows broad parallelogram-shaped peak as an evidence for pseudo-capacitive behaviour. The galvanostatic charge–discharge studies enlighten that interfacially synthesized hybrid materials loaded with PMo12 show relatively enhanced specific capacitance values than PMo12 free samples.

  12. Emulsions for interfacial filtration.

    Grillet, Anne Mary; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Souza, Caroline Ann; Welk, Margaret Ellen; Hartenberger, Joel David; Brooks, Carlton, F.


    We have investigated a novel emulsion interfacial filter that is applicable for a wide range of materials, from nano-particles to cells and bacteria. This technology uses the interface between the two immiscible phases as the active surface area for adsorption of targeted materials. We showed that emulsion interfaces can effectively collect and trap materials from aqueous solution. We tested two aqueous systems, a bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and coal bed methane produced water (CBMPW). Using a pendant drop technique to monitor the interfacial tension, we demonstrated that materials in both samples were adsorbed to the liquid-liquid interface, and did not readily desorb. A prototype system was built to test the emulsion interfacial filter concept. For the BSA system, a protein assay showed a progressive decrease in the residual BSA concentration as the sample was processed. Based on the initial prototype operation, we propose an improved system design.

  13. Technology Applications Team: Applications of aerospace technology


    Highlights of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Applications Team activities over the past quarter are presented in Section 1.0. The Team's progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized in Section 2.0. In addition to our market-driven approach to applications project development, RTI has placed increased effort on activities to commercialize technologies developed at NASA Centers. These Technology Commercialization efforts are summarized in Section 3.0. New problem statements prepared by the Team in the reporting period are presented in Section 4.0. The Team's transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes the status of four add-on tasks. Travel for the reporting period is described in Section 7.0. The RTI Team staff and consultants and their project responsibilities are listed in Appendix A. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of many individuals to the RTI Technology Applications Team program. The time and effort contributed by managers, engineers, and scientists throughout NASA were essential to program success. Most important to the program has been a productive working relationship with the NASA Field Center Technology Utilization (TU) Offices. The RTI Team continues to strive for improved effectiveness as a resource to these offices. Industry managers, technical staff, medical researchers, and clinicians have been cooperative and open in their participation. The RTI Team looks forward to continuing expansion of its interaction with U.S. industry to facilitate the transfer of aerospace technology to the private sector.

  14. Advanced casting technologies for lightweight automotive applications

    Alan A. Luo


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of alloy and process developments in aluminum and magnesium castings for lightweight automotive applications. Wear-resistant aluminum alloys, creep-resistant and high strength/ductility magnesium alloys have been developed for automotive applications. On the process front, vacuum-assisted die casting and high vacuum die casting technologies have been developed for high-integrity body and chassis applications. Thin-wall and hollow casting components are being produced by low-pressure die casting processes for structural applications. Overcasting technology is gaining traction and has enabled mixed material designs for automotive sub-systems such as engine cradles and instrument panel beams. Simulation tools developed to predict the interfacial interactions of the dissimilar components and the structural integrity of the overcast systems are being validated in the casting trials.

  15. Interfacial pressure and shear sensor system for fingertip contact applications.

    Valero, Maria; Hale, Nick; Tang, Jing; Jiang, Liudi; McGrath, Mike; Gao, Jianliang; Laszczak, Piotr; Moser, David


    This Letter presents a capacitive-based sensor system for fingertip contact applications. It is capable of simultaneously measuring normal (pressure) and tangential (shear) stresses at the interface between a fingertip and external objects. This could be potentially exploitable for applications in the fields of upper limb prosthetics, robotics, hand rehabilitation and so on. The system was calibrated and its performance was tested using a test machine. To do so, specific test protocols reproducing typical stress profiles in fingertip contact interactions were designed. Results show the system's capability to measure the applied pressure and stresses, respectively, with high linearity between the measured and applied stresses. Subsequently, as a case study, a 'press-drag-lift' based fingertip contact test was conducted by using a finger of a healthy subject. This was to provide an initial evaluation for real-life applications. The case study results indicate that both interface pressure and shear were indeed measured simultaneously, which aligns well with the designed finger test protocols. The potential applications for the sensor system and corresponding future works are also discussed.

  16. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Yaw ChiaHwan


    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  17. Interfacial electron and phonon scattering processes in high-powered nanoscale applications.

    Hopkins, Patrick E.


    The overarching goal of this Truman LDRD project was to explore mechanisms of thermal transport at interfaces of nanomaterials, specifically linking the thermal conductivity and thermal boundary conductance to the structures and geometries of interfaces and boundaries. Deposition, fabrication, and post possessing procedures of nanocomposites and devices can give rise to interatomic mixing around interfaces of materials leading to stresses and imperfections that could affect heat transfer. An understanding of the physics of energy carrier scattering processes and their response to interfacial disorder will elucidate the potentials of applying these novel materials to next-generation high powered nanodevices and energy conversion applications. An additional goal of this project was to use the knowledge gained from linking interfacial structure to thermal transport in order to develop avenues to control, or 'tune' the thermal transport in nanosystems.

  18. Interfacial effects in oxide-polymer laminar composite thin film dielectrics for capacitor applications

    Tewari, Pratyush

    Continuous increase in the density of active components on microelectronic chip/circuit board requires development of new capacitors with smaller size, weight and cost. Miniaturization in the size of capacitors demands development of high energy density dielectric materials, which are the core of parallel plate capacitors. Nano composite dielectrics comprising high polarizibility oxide fillers randomly dispersed in high breakdown strength polymer matrix are considered as a potential high energy density materials for capacitor applications. Large interfacial volume, generated due to introduction of nano fillers in polymer matrix, might have significant positive contribution towards energy storage in nano composites. However, percolation issues associated with nano fillers and generation of large interfacial volume in nano composites, where complex electric field distribution overlaps with interfacialy modified polymer lead to unclear understanding of polymer-filler interfacial interactions in nano composites. Hence, in the current work laminar composite double layered dielectric structures, which provide relatively simple local field distribution at the interface and ideal series connectivity between oxide and polymer, are used as a model system to understand polymer-oxide interfacial interactions. Interfacial effects are reported for both low permittivity (SiO2-Parylene C) and medium permittivity (ZrO2-P(VDF-TrFE)) laminar composite dielectrics. Pyrolytic vapor decomposition polymerization process was used to grow Parylene C thin films on gold and thermally grown SiO2 surfaces. Enhancement in crystallite dimension with post deposition annealing treatments of Parylene C thin films was found to reduce dielectric loss tangent and hence enhance its dielectric properties. Electric field and temperature dependant leakage current analysis suggested hopping as dominant conduction mechanism in Parylene C thin films. Parylene C thin films in laminar composites showed

  19. Understanding the interfacial properties of nanostructured liquid crystalline materials for surface-specific delivery applications.

    Dong, Yao-Da; Larson, Ian; Barnes, Timothy J; Prestidge, Clive A; Allen, Stephanie; Chen, Xinyong; Roberts, Clive J; Boyd, Ben J


    Nonlamellar liquid crystalline dispersions such as cubosomes and hexosomes have great potential as novel surface-targeted active delivery systems. In this study, the influence of internal nanostructure, chemical composition, and the presence of Pluronic F127 as a stabilizer, on the surface and interfacial properties of different liquid crystalline particles and surfaces, was investigated. The interfacial properties of the bulk liquid crystalline systems with coexisting excess water were dependent on the internal liquid crystalline nanostructure. In particular, the surfaces of the inverse cubic systems were more hydrophilic than that of the inverse hexagonal phase. The interaction between F127 and the bulk liquid crystalline systems depended on the internal liquid crystalline structure and chemical composition. For example, F127 adsorbed to the surface of the bulk phytantriol cubic phase, while for monoolein cubic phase, F127 was integrated into the liquid crystalline structure. Last, the interfacial adsorption behavior of the dispersed liquid crystalline particles also depended on both the internal nanostructure and the chemical composition, despite the dispersions all being stabilized using F127. The findings highlight the need to understand the specific surface characteristics and the nature of the interaction with colloidal stabilizer for understanding and optimizing the behavior of nonlamellar liquid crystalline systems in surface delivery applications.

  20. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part A: effects of nanoparticles on interfacial tension

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky


    Chemical enhanced oil recovery is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While Substantial amount of crude oil remains in the reservoir after primary and secondary production, conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery. This paper, therefore, focuses on the reviews of the application of nano technology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the application nano in the polymer and surfactant flooding on the interfacial tension process.

  1. Finite Element Analysis of Interfacial Debonding in Copper/Diamond Composites for Thermal Management Applications.

    Zain-Ul-Abdein, Muhammad; Ijaz, Hassan; Saleem, Waqas; Raza, Kabeer; Mahfouz, Abdullah Salmeen Bin; Mabrouki, Tarek


    Copper/diamond (Cu/D) composites are famous in thermal management applications for their high thermal conductivity values. They, however, offer some interface related problems like high thermal boundary resistance and excessive debonding. This paper investigates interfacial debonding in Cu/D composites subjected to steady-state and transient thermal cyclic loading. A micro-scale finite element (FE) model was developed from a SEM image of the Cu/20 vol % D composite sample. Several test cases were assumed with respect to the direction of heat flow and the boundary interactions between Cu/uncoated diamonds and Cu/Cr-coated diamonds. It was observed that the debonding behavior varied as a result of the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansions (CTEs) among Cu, diamond, and Cr. Moreover, the separation of interfaces had a direct influence upon the equivalent stress state of the Cu-matrix, since diamond particles only deformed elastically. It was revealed through a fully coupled thermo-mechanical FE analysis that repeated heating and cooling cycles resulted in an extremely high stress state within the Cu-matrix along the diamond interface. Since these stresses lead to interfacial debonding, their computation through numerical means may help in determining the service life of heat sinks for a given application beforehand.

  2. Microencapsulation Technology and Applications

    Rama Dubey


    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology allows a compound to be encapsulated inside a tiny sphere known as microsphere/microcapsule, having an average diameter as small as 1 mm to several hundred micro meters. Many different active materials like drugs, enzymes, vitamins, pesticides, flavours and catalysts have been successfully encapsulated inside microballoons or microcapsules made from a variety of polymeric and non polymeric materials including poly(ethylene glycols, poly(methacrylates, poly(styrenes, cellulose, poly(lactides, poly(lactide-co-glycolides, gelatin and acacia, etc. These microcapsules release their contents at appropriate time by using different release mechanisms, depending on the end use of encapsulated products. This technology has been used in several fields including pharmaceutical, agriculture, food, printing, cosmetic, textile and defence. In defence sector this technology has introduced the concept of self-healing composites as well as chemical decontaminating fabrics. This review paper highlights the major reasons behind microencapsulation, important techniques of microencapsulation and application of microencapsulated products in different areas of science and technology.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(1, pp.82-95, DOI: 


    Kalina Georgieva


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this in vivo study is to register the forces necessary to displace maxillary complete dentures fabricated by compression molding and injection molding techniques on one and the same patient and to compare the interfacial surface tension and capillarity which are achieved by both techniques. Material/Methods: Two maxillary complete dentures are made for each patient (total number of patients is 30 using both technologies. The magnitude of dislodging force is measured by a dynamometer. Results: Mean ± standard deviation for conventional cuvette technique is 17,53N ± 12,11N. Mean ± standard deviation for injection molding technique is 20,73N ± 13,89N. Analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in results achieved by conventional cuvette technique and injection molding technology. The results of injection technique were higher than those of compression molding technique (F=123,676, p< 0,001. Conclusions: Based on the results we suggest a standard for dislodging force of maxillary complete dentures fabricated by conventional cuvette technique- 13N, and by injection molding technology-15,5N. These values would guarantee good interfacial surface tension and capillarity. The injection molding technique was found to produce better fitting maxillary complete dentures when compared to compression molding technique. This would ensure better retention, less traumatic manifestations after insertion and higher patient’s comfort and satisfaction.

  4. Determining Interfacial Adhesion Performance and Reliability for Microelectronics Applications Using a Wedge Test Method

    Singh, Hitendra Kumar


    Fracture mechanics is an effective approach for characterizing material resistance to interfacial failure and for making interface reliability predictions. Because interfacial bond integrity is a major concern for performance and reliability, the need to evaluate the fracture and delamination resistance of an interface under different environmental conditions is very important. This study investigates the effects of temperature, solution chemistry and environmental preconditioning, in several...

  5. Biochips: Technologies and applications

    Pasquarelli, Alberto [University of Ulm, Department of Electron Devices and Circuits / Center for DNA-Surface and Micro-Technology, Albert Einstein Allee 45, 89069 Ulm (Germany)], E-mail:


    Progresses in the life sciences during the last decades have been characterized by a continuous improvement in the resolution power of the investigation techniques, allowing a top-down approach, from whole organisms, far beyond the cellular size, down to the single molecule or even the single atom. This ability to characterize biological structures and dynamic processes in real-time at the nanometric level, offers an extremely powerful tool for the comprehension of the elementary phenomena occurring in the single cell. Genomics, Proteomics and Channelomics are young disciplines coping with DNA sequencing, gene expression, immunology, regulation of cell activity and intracellular communication. Although biochips are frequently associated only with DNA-chips, there is a variety of biological and biochemical elements that can be interfaced; as an example whole cells, cell populations or even tissue slices can be investigated on a microelectrodes array (MEA), making it possible, passing to a bottom-up method, to better understand the behaviour of cellular ensembles of increasing complexity. MEA technologies have also delivered fundamental contribution to the development of new implantable prosthetic devices. Thus biochips can be considered more in general as structured and functionalized bio/non-bio interfaces. Inside this scenario, the most relevant application is the screening of new drugs, which is required and regulated by law, to reliably evaluate benefits and risks of pharmaceutical compounds.

  6. Nanoporous SiO2/TiO2 coating with enhanced interfacial compatibility for orthopedic applications

    Zhao, Xiaobing; Cao, Hengchun; You, Jing; Cheng, Xingbao; Xie, Youtao; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Xuanyong


    Topographic modification in nanoscale is one of the most often used strategies to enhance the interfacial biocompatibility of implant materials. The aim of this work is to produce SiO2/TiO2 coatings with nanoporous structures and favorable biological properties by atmospheric plasma spraying technology and subsequently hydrothermal etching method in hydrogen fluoride solution. The effects of hydrothermal time and temperature on the microstructures and osteoblast behavior of the SiO2/TiO2 coatings were investigated. Results demonstrated that the as-sprayed SiO2/TiO2 coating was mainly composed of rutile and quartz phases. After etching, nanoporous topographies were formed on the surface of the coatings and the hydrothermal parameters had important influences on the size and shape of the pores. The interconnected network pores on the coating surface could only produce at the appropriate hydrothermal conditions (the hydrothermal time and temperature were 60 min and 100 °C, respectively). Compared to TiO2 and SiO2/TiO2 coatings, nanoporous SiO2/TiO2 coatings could enhance osteoblast adhesion and promote cell proliferation. The results suggested the potential application of the porous coatings for enhancing the biological performance of the currently used dental and orthopedic implant materials.

  7. Application of stability enhancing minimum interfacial pressure force model for MARS

    Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Ho Gon; Kim, Kyung Doo; Ha, Kwi Seok


    For thermal-hydraulic modeling of two-phase flow systems, two-fluid model, which assumes that the pressures of liquid, vapor and interface are identical, a so-called single-pressure model, is commonly used in codes for nuclear reactor safety analyses. Typical two-phase model with single pressure assumption possesses complex characteristics that result in system being ill-posed. As a result, typical single pressure model may cause the unbounded growth of instabilities. In order to overcome the ill-posedness of single-pressure two-fluid model, a hyperbolic equation system has been developed by introducing an interfacial pressure force into single pressure two-fluid model. The potential impact of the present model on the stability of finite difference solution has been examined by Von-Neumann stability analysis. The obvious improvement in numerical stability has been found when a semi-implicit time advancement scheme is used. Numerical experiments using the pilot code were also performed for the conceptual problems. It was found that the result was consistent with numerical stability test. The new model was implemented to MARS using Two-step approach. Through the conceptual stability test problems and benchmark problems, the applicability of the new model was verified.

  8. Experimental investigation of interfacial energy transport in an evaporating sessile droplet for evaporative cooling applications.

    Mahmud, Md Almostasim; MacDonald, Brendan D


    In this paper we experimentally examine evaporation flux distributions and modes of interfacial energy transport for continuously fed evaporating spherical sessile water droplets in a regime that is relevant for applications, particularly for evaporative cooling systems. The contribution of the thermal conduction through the vapor phase was found to be insignificant compared to the thermal conduction through the liquid phase for the conditions we investigated. The local evaporation flux distributions associated with thermal conduction were found to vary along the surface of the droplet. Thermal conduction provided a majority of the energy required for evaporation but did not account for all of the energy transport, contributing 64±3%, 77±3%, and 77±4% of the energy required for the three cases we examined. Based on the temperature profiles measured along the interface we found that thermocapillary flow was predicted to occur in our experiments, and two convection cells were consistent with the temperature distributions for higher substrate temperatures while a single convection cell was consistent with the temperature distributions for a lower substrate temperature.

  9. Extensions of the interfacial pinning method and application to hard core systems.

    Thapar, Vikram; Escobedo, Fernando A


    The precise estimation of the location of phase transitions is an essential task in the study of many condensed matter systems. A recently developed technique denoted interface pinning (IP) [U. R. Pedersen, F. Hummel, G. Kresse, G. Kahl, and C. Dellago, Phys. Rev. B. 88, 094101 (2013); U. R. Pedersen, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 104102 (2013)] can accurately estimate the location of fluid-solid transition using the NP(z)T ensemble for single-component systems by computing the free energy difference between a solid and a fluid. The IP method is extended here to be applicable to different ensembles for both single-component systems and binary mixtures. A more general scheme is also proposed for the extrapolation of properties targeting coexistence conditions. This framework is used to estimate the coexistence pressure for the isotropic-rotator phase transition for three single-component polyhedral systems and to estimate isotropic-crystal coexistence compositions for a binary mixture of hard cubes and spheres. In addition, by exploring various choices for the order parameter used to distinguish between the isotropic and ordered phases, it is found that volume provides a reasonable alternative to translational order parameters which can be either more expensive to calculate or unable to pin a two-phase interfacial state.

  10. Micro-Nanostructured Polyaniline Assembled in Cellulose Matrix via Interfacial Polymerization for Applications in Nerve Regeneration.

    Xu, Dingfeng; Fan, Lin; Gao, Lingfeng; Xiong, Yan; Wang, Yanfeng; Ye, Qifa; Yu, Aixi; Dai, Honglian; Yin, Yixia; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Lina


    Conducting polymers have emerged as frontrunners to be alternatives for nerve regeneration, showing a possibility of the application of polyaniline (PANI) as the nerve guidance conduit. In the present work, the cellulose hydrogel was used as template to in situ synthesize PANI via the limited interfacial polymerization method, leading to one conductive side in the polymer. PANI sub-micrometer dendritic particles with mean diameter of ∼300 nm consisting of the PANI nanofibers and nanoparticles were uniformly assembled into the cellulose matrix. The hydrophobic PANI nanoparticles were immobilized in the hydrophilic cellulose via the phytic acid as "bridge" at presence of water through hydrogen bonding interaction. The PANI/cellulose composite hydrogels exhibited good mechanical properties and biocompatibility as well as excellent guiding capacity for the sciatic nerve regeneration of adult Sprague-Dawley rats without any extra treatment. On the basis of the fact that the pure cellulose hydrogel was an inert material for the neural repair, PANI played an indispensable role on the peripheral nerve regeneration. The hierarchical micro-nanostructure and electrical conductivity of PANI could remarkably induce the adhesion and guiding extension of neurons, showing its great potential in biomedical materials.

  11. Interfacial Synthesis of Gold-Polyaniline Nanocomposite and Its Electrocatalytic Application.

    Bogdanović, Una; Pašti, Igor; Ćirić-Marjanović, Gordana; Mitrić, Miodrag; Ahrenkiel, Scott P; Vodnik, Vesna


    Gold-polyaniline (Au-PANI) nanocomposite was prepared using a simple interfacial polymerization method, performed in an immiscible water/toluene biphasic system using tetrachloroaurate, AuCl4(-) as an oxidant. The formation of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) or Au-PANI nanocomposite can be controlled to a certain degree by varying the ratio of initial Au(+) and aniline concentrations. Under optimal condition (HAuCl4/aniline ratio is 1:2), green dispersion of Au-PANI nanocomposite is produced in aqueous phase, whose morphology, structure and physicochemical properties are investigated in details. The nanocomposite shows granular morphology with mostly rodlike AuNPs embedded in polymer. It was found that polyaniline in the composite is in the conducting emeraldine salt form, containing high amount of Au (28.85 wt %). Furthermore, the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite was found to be four-fold higher than that of the polymer itself. In addition, the nanocomposite powder, isolated from the as-prepared aqueous dispersion, can later be easily redispersed in water and further used for various applications. Moreover, the obtained Au-PANI nanocomposite showed excellent electrocatalytic performance toward the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), with high ORR onset potential and good selectivity. This makes it a promising candidate for a new class of Pt-free ORR catalyst.

  12. Indium tin oxide with zwitterionic interfacial design for biosensing applications in complex matrices

    Darwish, Nadia T.; Alias, Yatimah; Khor, Sook Mei, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. • The resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of BSA–FITC and RBITC–Cyt c were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. • The antifouling interface allows detection of target analytes in highly complicated biological matrices. - Abstract: Biosensing interfaces consisting of linker molecules (COOH or NH{sub 2}) and charged, antifouling moieties ((-SO{sup 3−} and N{sup +}(Me){sub 3}) for biosensing applications were prepared for the first time by the in situ deposition of mixtures of aryl diazonium cations on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. A linker molecule is required for the attachment of biorecognition molecules (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, DNA chains, and aptamers) close to the transducer surface. The attached molecules improve the biosensing sensitivity and also provide a short response time for analyte detection. Thus, the incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. The reductive adsorption behavior and electrochemical measurement were studied for (1) an individual compound and (2) a mixture of antifouling zwitterionic molecules together with linker molecules [combination 1: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD); combination 2: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)] of aryl diazonium cations grafted onto an ITO electrode. The mixture ratios of SP:TMAP:PPD and SP:TMAP:PABA that provided the greatest resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of bovine serum albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA–FITC) and cytochrome c labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC–Cyt c) were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). For the surface antifouling study

  13. Application of MTC Technology


    @@ Following four years of development by the Petroleum Drilling Research Institute of the Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources, mud transformed to cement slurTy (MTC) well cementing technology has been successfully applied to six test wells located in the Chuanxi and Linpan Oilfields of Sichuan and the Huabei oilfield.

  14. Technology Applications Report


    Santa Barbara Research Center, or SBRC (Santa Barbara, CA), is selling an infrared (IR) remote sensing device called Smog Dog ™, which " sniffs out" the...MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIES X-Ray Detector For Cancer May Save Lives 66 Pattern Recognition Speeds Detection Of Breast Cancer 67 Lasers Target Blood Clots...For Cancer May Save Lives 66 Pattern Recognition Speeds Detection Of Breast Cancer 67 Lasers Target Blood Clots In New Method 68 Blood Glucose

  15. Microencapsulation Technology and Applications

    Rama Dubey


    Microencapsulation technology allows a compound to be encapsulated inside a tiny sphere known as microsphere/microcapsule, having an average diameter as small as 1 mm to several hundred micro meters. Many different active materials like drugs, enzymes, vitamins, pesticides, flavours and catalysts have been successfully encapsulated inside microballoons or microcapsules made from a variety of polymeric and non polymeric materials including poly(ethylene glycol)s, poly(methacrylate)s, poly(styr...

  16. Nanoporous SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coating with enhanced interfacial compatibility for orthopedic applications

    Zhao, Xiaobing, E-mail: [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Cao, Hengchun; You, Jing; Cheng, Xingbao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou 213164 (China); Xie, Youtao [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Cao, Huiliang [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Xuanyong, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings were fabricated on the cp-Ti substrates by plasma spraying. • Nanoporous topography was formed on SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coating by HF-hydrothermal etching. • The hydrothermal conditions had important effects on the nanoporous topographies. • Nanoporous SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coating exhibited enhanced cytocompatibility. - Abstract: Topographic modification in nanoscale is one of the most often used strategies to enhance the interfacial biocompatibility of implant materials. The aim of this work is to produce SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings with nanoporous structures and favorable biological properties by atmospheric plasma spraying technology and subsequently hydrothermal etching method in hydrogen fluoride solution. The effects of hydrothermal time and temperature on the microstructures and osteoblast behavior of the SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings were investigated. Results demonstrated that the as-sprayed SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coating was mainly composed of rutile and quartz phases. After etching, nanoporous topographies were formed on the surface of the coatings and the hydrothermal parameters had important influences on the size and shape of the pores. The interconnected network pores on the coating surface could only produce at the appropriate hydrothermal conditions (the hydrothermal time and temperature were 60 min and 100 °C, respectively). Compared to TiO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings, nanoporous SiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} coatings could enhance osteoblast adhesion and promote cell proliferation. The results suggested the potential application of the porous coatings for enhancing the biological performance of the currently used dental and orthopedic implant materials.

  17. Bioprinting technology and its applications.

    Seol, Young-Joon; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J


    Bioprinting technology has emerged as a powerful tool for building tissue and organ structures in the field of tissue engineering. This technology allows precise placement of cells, biomaterials and biomolecules in spatially predefined locations within confined three-dimensional (3D) structures. Various bioprinting technologies have been developed and utilized for applications in life sciences, ranging from studying cellular mechanisms to constructing tissues and organs for implantation, including heart valve, myocardial tissue, trachea and blood vessels. In this article, we introduce the general principles and limitations of the most widely used bioprinting technologies, including jetting- and extrusion-based systems. Application-based research focused on tissue regeneration is presented, as well as the current challenges that hamper clinical utility of bioprinting technology.

  18. Plasma applications for biochip technology

    Ichiki, T.; Sugiyama, Y.; Taura, R.; Koidesawa, T.; Horiike, Y


    Biochip technology has emerged from the fusion of biotechnology and micro/nanofabrication technology. Biochips enable us to realize revolutionary new bioanalysis systems that can directly manipulate and analyze the micro/nano-scale world of biomolecules, organelles and cells. This paper describes a few bioanalysis systems and the microfabrication technology being developed as examples of the application of plasma technologies for upcoming nanobiotechnology. Deep dry etching of glass plates has been developed and applied to fabricate microfluidic devices that can manipulate biological cells. Moreover, ultra-high-rate localized etching of silicon wafers has been developed using a microplasma jet apparatus for rapid micromachining.

  19. Ultrasonics: Fundamentals, Technologies, and Applications

    Ensminger, Dale; Bond, Leonard J.


    This is a new edition of a bestselling industry reference. Discusses the science, technology, and applications of low and high power ultrasonics, including industrial implementations and medical uses. Reviews the basic equations of acoustics, starting from basic wave equations and their applications. New material on property determination, inspection of metals (NDT) and non-metals, imaging, process monitoring and control. Expanded discussion of transducers, transducer wave-fields, scattering, attenuation and measurement systems and models. New material that discusses high power ultrasonics - in particular using mechanical effects and sonochemistry, including applications to nano-materials. Examines diagnosis, therapy, and surgery from a technology and medical physics perspective.

  20. Ultraviolet laser technology and applications

    Elliott, David L


    Ultraviolet Laser Technology and Applications is a hands-on reference text that identifies the main areas of UV laser technology; describes how each is applied; offers clearly illustrated examples of UV opticalsystems applications; and includes technical data on optics, lasers, materials, and systems. This book is unique for its comprehensive, in-depth coverage. Each chapter deals with a different aspect of the subject, beginning with UV light itself; moving through the optics, sources, and systems; and concluding with detailed descriptions of applications in various fields.The text enables pr

  1. Crystalline Molybdenum Oxide Thin-Films for Application as Interfacial Layers in Optoelectronic Devices

    Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; dos Reis, Roberto; Chen, Gong


    The ability to control the interfacial properties in metal-oxide thin films through surface defect engineering is vital to fine-tune their optoelectronic properties and thus their integration in novel optoelectronic devices. This is exemplified in photovoltaic devices based on organic, inorganic...

  2. Crystalline Molybdenum Oxide Thin-Films for Application as Interfacial Layers in Optoelectronic Devices

    Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; dos Reis, Roberto; Chen, Gong


    The ability to control the interfacial properties in metal-oxide thin films through surface defect engineering is vital to fine-tune their optoelectronic properties and thus their integration in novel optoelectronic devices. This is exemplified in photovoltaic devices based on organic, inorganic...

  3. Structure and orientation of interfacial proteins determined by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy: method and application.

    Ye, Shuji; Wei, Feng; Li, Hongchun; Tian, Kangzhen; Luo, Yi


    In situ and real-time characterization of molecular structures and orientation of proteins at interfaces is essential to understand the nature of interfacial protein interaction. Such work will undoubtedly provide important clues to control biointerface in a desired manner. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique to study the interfacial structures and interactions at the molecular level. This paper first systematically introduced the methods for the calculation of the Raman polarizability tensor, infrared transition dipole moment, and SFG molecular hyperpolarizability tensor elements of proteins/peptides with the secondary structures of α-helix, 310-helix, antiparallel β-sheet, and parallel β-sheet, as well as the methodology to determine the orientation of interfacial protein secondary structures using SFG amide I spectra. After that, recent progresses on the determination of protein structure and orientation at different interfaces by SFG-VS were then reviewed, which provides a molecular-level understanding of the structures and interactions of interfacial proteins, specially understanding the nature of driving force behind such interactions. Although this review has focused on analysis of amide I spectra, it will be expected to offer a basic idea for the spectral analysis of amide III SFG signals and other complicated molecular systems such as RNA and DNA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Technology applications bulletins: Number one

    Koncinski, W. Jr. (ed.)


    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), operates five facilities for the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is a large, multidisciplinary research and development (R and D) center whose primary mission is energy research; the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, which engages in defense research, development, and production; and the uranium-enrichment plants at Oak Ridge; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Much of the research carried out at these facilities is of interest to industry and to state or local governments. To make information about this research available, the Energy Systems Office of Technology Applications publishes brief descriptions of selected technologies and reports. These technology applications bulletins describe the new technology and inform the reader about how to obtain further information, gain access to technical resources, and initiate direct contact with Energy Systems researchers.

  5. SCADA Application for ACTS Technology

    Fairbanks, Barry


    The results of a system level study done by Hughes Network Systems for NASA are presented. For the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) application, use of Ka-band spot beam satellite technology associated with NASA's Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) offers a reduction in Earth station antenna size and transmitter power that may translate into lower system costs. The approaches taken to determine commercial potential of the system are described.

  6. Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography: Theoretical investigations and applications from the perspectives of chromatography and interfacial electrochemistry

    Keller, David W.


    Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) employs a conductive material as both a stationary phase for chromatographic separations and as a working electrode for performing electrochemistry experiments. This dual functionality gives EMLC the capacity to manipulate chromatographic separations by changing the potential applied (E{sub app}) to the stationary phase with respect to an external reference. The ability to monitor retention as a function of E{sub app} provides a means to chromatographically monitor electrosorption processes at solid-liquid interfaces. In this dissertation, the retention mechanism for EMLC is examined from the perspective of electrical double layer theory and interfacial thermodynamics. From the chromatographic data, it is possible to determine the interfacial excess ({Lambda}) of a solute and changes in interfacial tension (d{gamma}) as a function of both E{sub app} and the supporting electrolyte concentration. Taken together, these two experimentally manipulated parameters can be examined within the context of the Gibbs adsorption equation to delineate the contribution of a variety of interfacial properties, including the charge of solute on the stationary phase and the potential of zero charge (PZC), to the mechanism behind EMLC-based retention. The chromatographic probing of interfacial phenomena is complemented by electroanalytical experiments that exploit the ability to monitor the electronic current flowing through an EMLC column. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry of an EMLC column are used to determine the electronic performance characteristics of an EMLC column. An electrochemical flow injection analysis of a column is provided in which the current required to maintain a constant E{sub app} is monitored and provides a way to examine the influence that acetonitrile and supporting electrolyte composition, flow rate, column backpressure, and ionic strength have on the structure of electrified interfaces.

  7. Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography: Theoretical investigations and applications from the perspectives of chromatography and interfacial electrochemistry

    Keller, David W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) employs a conductive material as both a stationary phase for chromatographic separations and as a working electrode for performing electrochemistry experiments. This dual functionality gives EMLC the capacity to manipulate chromatographic separations by changing the potential applied (Eapp) to the stationary phase with respect to an external reference. The ability to monitor retention as a function of Eapp provides a means to chromatographically monitor electrosorption processes at solid-liquid interfaces. In this dissertation, the retention mechanism for EMLC is examined from the perspective of electrical double layer theory and interfacial thermodynamics. From the chromatographic data, it is possible to determine the interfacial excess (Λ) of a solute and changes in interfacial tension (dγ) as a function of both Eapp and the supporting electrolyte concentration. Taken together, these two experimentally manipulated parameters can be examined within the context of the Gibbs adsorption equation to delineate the contribution of a variety of interfacial properties, including the charge of solute on the stationary phase and the potential of zero charge (PZC), to the mechanism behind EMLC-based retention. The chromatographic probing of interfacial phenomena is complemented by electroanalytical experiments that exploit the ability to monitor the electronic current flowing through an EMLC column. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry of an EMLC column are used to determine the electronic performance characteristics of an EMLC column. An electrochemical flow injection analysis of a column is provided in which the current required to maintain a constant Eapp is monitored and provides a way to examine the influence that acetonitrile and supporting electrolyte composition, flow rate, column backpressure, and ionic strength have on the structure of electrified interfaces.

  8. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology


    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies, that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. The RTI Team has been successful in the development of NASA/industry partnerships and commercialization of NASA technologies. RTI ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed and implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs. (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology. And (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  9. NASA technology applications team: Applications of aerospace technology


    This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1992 through 30 September 1993. The work reported herein was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Contract No. NASW-4367. Highlights of the RTI Applications Team activities over the past year are presented in Section 1.0. The Team's progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized in Section 2.0. In addition to our market-driven approach to applications project development, RTI has placed increased effort on activities to commercialize technologies developed at NASA Centers. These Technology Commercialization efforts are summarized in Section 3.0. New problem statements prepared by the Team in the reporting period are presented in Section 4.0. The Team's transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes the status of four add-on tasks. Travel for the reporting period is described in Section 7.0. The RTI Team staff and consultants and their project responsibilities are listed in Appendix A. Appendix B includes Technology Opportunity Announcements and Spinoff! Sheets prepared by the Team while Appendix C contains a series of technology transfer articles prepared by the Team.

  10. Lattice engineering technology and applications

    Wang, Shumin


    This book contains comprehensive reviews of different technologies to harness lattice mismatch in semiconductor heterostructures and their applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. While the book is a bit focused on metamorphic epitaxial growth, it also includes other methods like compliant substrate, selective area growth, wafer bonding and heterostructure nanowires etc. Basic knowledge on dislocations in semiconductors and innovative methods to eliminate threading dislocations are provided, and successful device applications are reviewed. It covers a variety of important semicon

  11. Quantum technology and its applications

    Boshier, Malcolm [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Berkeland, Dana [USG; Govindan, Tr [ARO; Abo - Shaeer, Jamil [DARPA


    Quantum states of matter can be exploited as high performance sensors for measuring time, gravity, rotation, and electromagnetic fields, and quantum states of light provide powerful new tools for imaging and communication. Much attention is being paid to the ultimate limits of this quantum technology. For example, it has already been shown that exotic quantum states can be used to measure or image with higher precision or higher resolution or lower radiated power than any conventional technologies, and proof-of-principle experiments demonstrating measurement precision below the standard quantum limit (shot noise) are just starting to appear. However, quantum technologies have another powerful advantage beyond pure sensing performance that may turn out to be more important in practical applications: the potential for building devices with lower size/weight/power (SWaP) and cost requirements than existing instruments. The organizers of Quantum Technology Applications Workshop (QTAW) have several goals: (1) Bring together sponsors, researchers, engineers and end users to help build a stronger quantum technology community; (2) Identify how quantum systems might improve the performance of practical devices in the near- to mid-term; and (3) Identify applications for which more long term investment is necessary to realize improved performance for realistic applications. To realize these goals, the QTAW II workshop included fifty scientists, engineers, managers and sponsors from academia, national laboratories, government and the private-sector. The agenda included twelve presentations, a panel discussion, several breaks for informal exchanges, and a written survey of participants. Topics included photon sources, optics and detectors, squeezed light, matter waves, atomic clocks and atom magnetometry. Corresponding applications included communication, imaging, optical interferometry, navigation, gravimetry, geodesy, biomagnetism, and explosives detection. Participants

  12. The criterion of subscale sufficiency and its application to the relationship between static capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial areas

    Kurzeja, Patrick


    Modern imaging techniques, increased simulation capabilities and extended theoretical frameworks, naturally drive the development of multiscale modelling by the question: which new information should be considered? Given the need for concise constitutive relationships and efficient data evaluation; however, one important question is often neglected: which information is sufficient? For this reason, this work introduces the formalized criterion of subscale sufficiency. This criterion states whether a chosen constitutive relationship transfers all necessary information from micro to macroscale within a multiscale framework. It further provides a scheme to improve constitutive relationships. Direct application to static capillary pressure demonstrates usefulness and conditions for subscale sufficiency of saturation and interfacial areas.

  13. Microwave mixer technology and applications

    Henderson, Bert


    Although microwave mixers play a critical role in wireless communication and other microwave applications employing frequency conversion circuits, engineers find that most books on this subject emphasize theoretical aspects, rather than practical applications. That's about to change with the forthcoming release of Microwave Mixer Technology and Applications. Based on a review of over one thousand patents on mixers and frequency conversion, authors Bert Henderson and Edmar Camargo have written a comprehensive book for mixer designers who want solid ideas for solving their own design challenges.

  14. Industrial Applications of Accelerator Technologies

    Lee, Jaesang; Park, Jaewon; Lee, Chanyoung; and others


    PEFP(Proton Engineering Frontier Project) put its aim on development of high power linear proton accelerator and its beam applications. So, it has, since late 1990's, accumulated accelerator and ion source technologies, supplied beam utilization service to related industry. As of now, right after 10 year long project(PEFP), many of its low energy beam technologies seem to be successfully utilized for industrial purpose to meet the market needs, especially in improvement of production process and manufacturing performance, new substance development, etc. In this context, it is high time to carry out in-depth industrialization development on PEFP's retained ion beam technology prowess: To help them diffused profitable markets as soon as possible. So, in this work, through verification on the industrialization feasibility by experiments, it is going to get it started, with cooperation of participatory company, to enter into markets with developed technology and products.

  15. Advanced technologies, systems, and applications

    Avdaković, Samir


    This volume spans a wide range of technical disciplines and technologies, including complex systems, biomedical engineering, electrical engineering, energy, telecommunications, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, and computer science. The papers included in this volume were presented at the International Symposium on Innovative and Interdisciplinary Applications of Advanced Technologies (IAT), held in Neum, Bosnia and Herzegovina on June 26 and 27, 2016. This highly interdisciplinary volume is devoted to various aspects and types of systems. Systems thinking is crucial for successfully building and understanding man-made, natural, and social systems. .

  16. Medical imaging technology and applications

    Iniewski, Krzysztof


    The book has two intentions. First, it assembles the latest research in the field of medical imaging technology in one place. Detailed descriptions of current state-of-the-art medical imaging systems (comprised of x-ray CT, MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine) and data processing techniques are discussed. Information is provided that will give interested engineers and scientists a solid foundation from which to build with additional resources. Secondly, it exposes the reader to myriad applications that medical imaging technology has enabled.

  17. Modelling flow and heat transfer in two-fluid interfacial flows, with applications to drops and jets

    Mehdi-Nejad, Vala


    A two-dimensional, axi-symmetric model is developed to calculate flow and heat transfer in a two-fluid system. The model uses one set of the governing equations combined with a volume tracking method on a fixed structured mesh to model the simultaneous movement of mass, momentum and energy across cell boundaries. Both first and second-order methods are used to approximate temperature fields with sharp gradients that exist near a fluid-fluid interface. The model is first used to simulate the effect of surrounding air during a droplet impact. Bubble entrapment is observed in both numerical simulation and experimental photographs. The impact of water, n-heptane and molten nickel droplets on a solid surface is simulated. When a droplet approaches another surface, air in the gap between them was forced out. Increased air pressure below the droplet creates a depression in its surface, in which air is trapped. Different behaviors observed for water and n-heptane simulations are attributed to differences in wetting behavior. Next, to demonstrate the capabilities of the model, the interfacial heat transfer from molten tin droplets falling in an oil bath is modelled. The development of vortices behind droplets is simulated and the effect of fluid recirculation and oil thermal conductivity on heat dissipation is studied. The thesis concludes with application of the model to a study of interfacial heat transfer during jet break up. It is demonstrated that the change of fluid properties associated with interfacial heat transfer affects the jet break up and the resulting droplet size. It is also shown that obtaining a desirable droplet size during jet break up not only depends on hydrodynamic conditions such as nozzle diameter, jet initial velocity, and pressure, but also on thermal conditions such as the initial jet temperature and the surrounding fluid thermal properties.

  18. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    Gösele, Ulrich


    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  19. Application of optical 3D measurement on thin film buckling to estimate interfacial toughness

    Jia, H. K.; Wang, S. B.; Li, L. A.; Wang, Z. Y.; Goudeau, P.


    The shape-from-focus (SFF) method has been widely studied as a passive depth recovery and 3D reconstruction method for digital images. An important step in SFF is the calculation of the focus level for different points in an image by using a focus measure. In this work, an image entropy-based focus measure is introduced into the SFF method to measure the 3D buckling morphology of an aluminum film on a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate at a micro scale. Spontaneous film wrinkles and telephone-cord wrinkles are investigated after the deposition of a 300 nm thick aluminum film onto the PMMA substrate. Spontaneous buckling is driven by the highly compressive stress generated in the Al film during the deposition process. The interfacial toughness between metal films and substrates is an important parameter for the reliability of the film/substrate system. The height profiles of different sections across the telephone-cord wrinkle can be considered a straight-sided model with uniform width and height or a pinned circular model that has a delamination region characterized by a sequence of connected sectors. Furthermore, the telephone-cord geometry of the thin film can be used to calculate interfacial toughness. The instability of the finite element model is introduced to fit the buckling morphology obtained by SFF. The interfacial toughness is determined to be 0.203 J/m2 at a 70.4° phase angle from the straight-sided model and 0.105 J/m2 at 76.9° from the pinned circular model.

  20. Proteomics: technology development and applications.

    Walton, S Patrick; Jayaraman, Arul


    Technology development in, and the application of, proteomics are emerging areas among chemical engineers and others who presented at the 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting. Overall, the centennial meeting offered a broad current perspective on the discipline of chemical engineering as it enters its second century. Biomedical and biochemical engineering continue to grow as important facets of the discipline. Within these, the value and applicability of proteomics were demonstrated in a number of interesting presentations. This year, as in the recent past, the AIChE Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the American Electrophoresis Society Annual Meeting. American Electrophoresis Society presenters offered further academic and industrial viewpoints on the still-developing role of proteomics and proteomic technologies in biological and clinical analyses.

  1. Clinical applications of wearable technology.

    Bonato, Paolo


    An important factor contributing to the process involved in choosing a rehabilitation intervention is the assessment of its impact on the real life of patients. Therapists and physicians have to infer the effectiveness of rehabilitation approaches from observations performed in the clinical setting and from patients' feedback. Recent advances in wearable technology have provided means to supplement the information gathered using tools based on patient's direct observation as well as interviews and questionnaires. A new generation of wearable sensors and systems has recently become available thus providing clinical personnel with a "window of observation" in the home and community settings. These tools allow one to capture patients' activity level and exercise compliance, facilitate titration of medications in chronic patients, and provide means to assess the ability of patients to perform specific motor activities. In this paper, we review recent advances in the field of wearable technology and provide examples of application of this technology in rehabilitation.

  2. Topical report to Morgantown Energy Technology Center for the interfacial coatings for ceramic-matrix composites



    This report summarizes the task conducted to examine various activities on interface development for ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) intended for high-temperature applications. While several articles have been published on the subject of CMC interfaces, the purpose of this report is to describe the various ongoing efforts on interface concepts, material selection, and issues related to processing methods employed for developing interface coatings. The most exciting and new development in the field is the discovery of monazite as a potential interface material for mullite- and alumina-based composites. Monazite offers two critical properties to the CMC system; a weakly bonded layer due to its non-wetting behavior and chemical compatibility with both alumina and mullite up to very high temperatures (> 1,600 C). A description of the Department of Energy-related activities and some thoughts on processing issues, interface testing, and effects of processing on fiber strength are given.

  3. BMDO Technologies for Biomedical Applications.


    biofilm . Even bacteria that are normally eradicable by antibiotics can avoid harm by col- onizing implants in this manner. In addition, rough surfaces on... dental applications 86, 87 Users, carbon dioxide 86, 87 Users, radiofrcquency-direct current 86, 87 Lens implant , photochemical treatment 82, 83...Nanophosphors 56 Optical Biopsy 58 Sagebrush Gimbal for Needle Biopsy 60 CHAPTER 3 - INTERVENTION TECHNOLOGIES Section A - Implants MEMS Sensor for

  4. Multimedia database retrieval technology and applications

    Muneesawang, Paisarn; Guan, Ling


    This book explores multimedia applications that emerged from computer vision and machine learning technologies. These state-of-the-art applications include MPEG-7, interactive multimedia retrieval, multimodal fusion, annotation, and database re-ranking. The application-oriented approach maximizes reader understanding of this complex field. Established researchers explain the latest developments in multimedia database technology and offer a glimpse of future technologies. The authors emphasize the crucial role of innovation, inspiring users to develop new applications in multimedia technologies

  5. Virtual reality technology and applications

    Mihelj, Matjaž; Beguš, Samo


    As virtual reality expands from the imaginary worlds of science fiction and pervades every corner of everyday life, it is becoming increasingly important for students and professionals alike to understand the diverse aspects of this technology. This book aims to provide a comprehensive guide to the theoretical and practical elements of virtual reality, from the mathematical and technological foundations of virtual worlds to the human factors and the applications that enrich our lives: in the fields of medicine, entertainment, education and others. After providing a brief introduction to the topic, the book describes the kinematic and dynamic mathematical models of virtual worlds. It explores the many ways a computer can track and interpret human movement, then progresses through the modalities that make up a virtual world: visual, acoustic and haptic. It explores the interaction between the actual and virtual environments, as well as design principles of the latter. The book closes with an examination of diff...

  6. MEMS for medical technology applications

    Frisk, Thomas; Roxhed, Niclas; Stemme, Göran


    This paper gives an in-depth description of two recent projects at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) which utilize MEMS and microsystem technology for realization of components intended for specific applications in medical technology and diagnostic instrumentation. By novel use of the DRIE fabrication technology we have developed side-opened out-of-plane silicon microneedles intended for use in transdermal drug delivery applications. The side opening reduces clogging probability during penetration into the skin and increases the up-take area of the liquid in the tissue. These microneedles offer about 200µm deep and pain-free skin penetration. We have been able to combine the microneedle chip with an electrically and heat controlled liquid actuator device where expandable microspheres are used to push doses of drug liquids into the skin. The entire unit is made of low cost materials in the form of a square one cm-sized patch. Finally, the design, fabrication and evaluation of an integrated miniaturized Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) based "electronic nose" microsystem for detection of narcotics is described. The work integrates a novel environment-to-chip sample interface with the sensor element. The choice of multifunctional materials and the geometric features of a four-component microsystem allow a functional integration of a QCM crystal, electrical contacts, fluidic contacts and a sample interface in a single system with minimal assembly effort, a potential for low-cost manufacturing, and a few orders of magnitude reduced in system size (12*12*4 mm 3) and weight compared to commercially available instruments. The sensor chip was successfully used it for the detection of 200 ng of narcotics sample.

  7. Cryptographic Applications using FPGA Technology

    Alexandru Coman


    Full Text Available Cryptographic systems have become a part of our daily life through the need of security of many common activities such as communication, payments, data transfers etc. The best support in design and implementation of cryptographic applications is offered by embedded systems such as ASICs and FPGAs. In the past few years, the increase in performance of FPGAs has made them key components in implementing cryptographic systems. One of the most important parts of the cryptographic systems is the random number generator used. Combinations of PRNG and TRNG are commonly used. A good and efficient TRNG implementation is very important and can be achieved through FPGA technology.

  8. Sinusoids theory and technological applications

    Kythe, Prem K


    A Complete Treatment of Current Research Topics in Fourier Transforms and Sinusoids Sinusoids: Theory and Technological Applications explains how sinusoids and Fourier transforms are used in a variety of application areas, including signal processing, GPS, optics, x-ray crystallography, radioastronomy, poetry and music as sound waves, and the medical sciences. With more than 200 illustrations, the book discusses electromagnetic force and sychrotron radiation comprising all kinds of waves, including gamma rays, x-rays, UV rays, visible light rays, infrared, microwaves, and radio waves. It also covers topics of common interest, such as quasars, pulsars, the Big Bang theory, Olbers' paradox, black holes, Mars mission, and SETI.The book begins by describing sinusoids-which are periodic sine or cosine functions-using well-known examples from wave theory, including traveling and standing waves, continuous musical rhythms, and the human liver. It next discusses the Fourier series and transform in both continuous and...

  9. Development and validation of a 3D-printed interfacial stress sensor for prosthetic applications.

    Laszczak, P; Jiang, L; Bader, D L; Moser, D; Zahedi, S


    A novel capacitance-based sensor designed for monitoring mechanical stresses at the stump-socket interface of lower-limb amputees is described. It provides practical means of measuring pressure and shear stresses simultaneously. In particular, it comprises of a flexible frame (20 mm × 20 mm), with thickness of 4mm. By employing rapid prototyping technology in its fabrication, it offers a low-cost and versatile solution, with capability of adopting bespoke shapes of lower-limb residua. The sensor was first analysed using finite element analysis (FEA) and then evaluated using lab-based electromechanical tests. The results validate that the sensor is capable of monitoring both pressure and shear at stresses up to 350 kPa and 80 kPa, respectively. A post-signal processing model is developed to induce pressure and shear stresses, respectively. The effective separation of pressure and shear signals can be potentially advantageous for sensor calibration in clinical applications. The sensor also demonstrates high linearity (approx. 5-8%) and high pressure (approx. 1.3 kPa) and shear (approx. 0.6 kPa) stress resolution performance. Accordingly, the sensor offers the potential for exploitation as an assistive tool to both evaluate prosthetic socket fitting in clinical settings and alert amputees in home settings of excessive loading at the stump-socket interface, effectively preventing stump tissue breakdown at an early stage.

  10. Telemedical applications and grid technology

    Graschew, Georgi; Roelofs, Theo A.; Rakowsky, Stefan; Schlag, Peter M.; Kaiser, Silvan; Albayrak, Sahin


    Due to the experience in the exploitation of previous European telemedicine projects an open Euro-Mediterranean consortium proposes the Virtual Euro-Mediterranean Hospital (VEMH) initiative. The provision of the same advanced technologies to the European and Mediterranean Countries should contribute to their better dialogue for integration. VEMH aims to facilitate the interconnection of various services through real integration which must take into account the social, human and cultural dimensions. VEMH will provide a platform consisting of a satellite and terrestrial link for the application of medical e-learning, real-time telemedicine and medical assistance. The methodologies for the VEMH are medical-needs-driven instead of technology-driven. They supply new management tools for virtual medical communities and allow management of clinical outcomes for implementation of evidence-based medicine. Due to the distributed character of the VEMH Grid technology becomes inevitable for successful deployment of the services. Existing Grid Engines provide basic computing power needed by today's medical analysis tasks but lack other capabilities needed for communication and knowledge sharing services envisioned. When it comes to heterogeneous systems to be shared by different institutions especially the high level system management areas are still unsupported. Therefore a Metagrid Engine is needed that provides a superset of functionalities across different Grid Engines and manages strong privacy and Quality of Service constraints at this comprehensive level.

  11. Applications of solar reforming technology

    Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)


    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  12. COTS technologies for telemedicine applications.

    Triunfo, Riccardo; Tumbarello, Roberto; Sulis, Alessandro; Zanetti, Gianluigi; Lianas, Luca; Meloni, Vittorio; Frexia, Francesca


    To demonstrate a simple low-cost system for tele-echocardiology, focused on paediatric cardiology applications. The system was realized using open-source software and COTS technologies. It is based on the transmission of two simultaneous video streams, obtained by direct digitization of the output of an ultrasound machine and by a netcam showing the examination that is taking place. These streams are then embedded into a web page so they are accessible, together with basic video controls, via a standard web browser. The system can also record video streams on a server for further use. The system was tested on a small group of neonatal cases with suspected cardiopathies for a preliminary assessment of its features and diagnostic capabilities. Both the clinical and technological results were encouraging and are leading the way for further experimentation. The presented system can transfer clinical images and videos in an efficient way and in real time. It can be used in the same hospital to support internal consultancy requests, in remote areas using Internet connections and for didactic purposes using low cost COTS appliances and simple interfaces for end users. The solution proposed can be extended to control different medical appliances in those remote hospitals.

  13. Application of comptuter technology in fruit science

    Pang Xiaoming; Wan Shuyuan; Hu Chungen


    This paper summarized the application of computer technology in fruit science, including crop modelling,expert system, decision support system (DSS), computer vision (CV), the Internet, 3 "S" technology, etc. The existingproblems and prospects are also discussed in the paper.

  14. Development of superconductor application technology

    Hong, G. W.; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H. G.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Won, D. Y.; Jang, K. I.; Kwon, S. C.; Kim, W. J.; Ji, Y. A.; Yang, S. W.; Kim, W. K.; Park, S. D.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, D. M.; Park, H. W.; Yu, J. K.; Lee, I. S.; Kim, J. J.; Choi, H. S.; Chu, Y.; Kim, Y. S.; Kim, D. H.


    Fabrication of high Tc bulk superconductor and its application, fabrication of superconducting wire for electric power device and analysis for cryogenic system were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies for electric power system. High quality YBaCuO bulk superconductor was fabricated by controlling initial powder preparation process and prototype flywheel energy storage device was designed basically. The superconducting levitation force measuring device was made to examine the property of prepared superconductor specimen. Systematic studies onthe method of starting powder preparation, mechanical fabrication process, heat treatment condition and analysis of plastic deformation were carried out to increase the stability and reproducibility of superconducting wire. A starting power with good reactivity and fine particle size was obtained by mechanical grinding, control of phase assemblage, and emulsion drying method. Ag/BSCCO tape with good cross sectional shape and Jc of 20,000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by applying CIP packing procedure. Multifilamentary wire with Jc of 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} was fabricated by rolling method using square billet as starting shape. The joining of the multifilamentary wire was done by etching and pressing process and showed 50% of joining efficiency. Analysis on the heat loss in cryostat for high Tc superconducting device was carried out for optimum design of the future cryogenic system. (author). 66 refs., 104 figs.

  15. Internetworking technological foundations and applications

    Meinel, Christoph


    This book is supposed to serve as a comprehensive and instructive guide through the new world of digital communication. On the physical layer optical and electrical cabling technology are described as well as wireless communication technologies. On the data link layer local area networks (LANs) are introduced together with the most popular LAN technologies such as Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, and ATM as well as wireless LAN technologies including IEEE 802.x, Bluetooth, or ZigBee. A wide range of WAN technologies are covered including contemporary high speed technologies like PDH and SDH up to h

  16. Imaging technologies in oilfield applications



    In this paper, we describe some recent imaging technologies developed by Schlumberger for oilfield downhole multiphase flow production logging (PL) and cross-well electromagnetic (EM) survey applications. FloScan Imager (FSITM) has been introduced as a 3-phase oil/gas/water flow PL tool for deviated and horizontal wells. FSI sensors can map fluid velocity and holdup profiles along a vertical diameter of the wellbore at every survey depth, enabling a robust estimate of the individual phase flow rates in complex flow regimes. The cross-well EM survey is based on cross-borehole induction logging technique and provides resistivity distribution at a reservoir scale. It is a useful tool for reservoir management and is most effective in dynamic fields where fluid saturations are variable in time and space. The tool can be used to identify (water or steam) flooded and bypassed regions. By monitoring changes in the resistivity spatial distribution with time, cross-well EM survey is very effective at mapping inter-well temperature and structure. Some field examples are shown for both FloScan Imager PL tool and cross-well resistivity imaging survey.

  17. Smart Technology Applications in Business Environments

    Issa, Tomayess; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Issa, Theodora; Isaías, Pedro; Issa, Touma B.


    Technology continues to make great strides in society by providing opportunities for advancement, inclusion, and global competency. As new systems and tools arise, novel applications are created as well. Smart Technology Applications in Business Environments is an essential reference source for the

  18. Development and Applications of Simulation Technology



    The developing process of simulation technology is discussed in view of its development, maturation and further development.The applications of simulation technology in the fields of national economy are introduced. Finally, the level and status quo of simulation technology home and overseas are analyzed, and its future trend in the new century is presented.

  19. Advances on Aryldiazonium Salt Chemistry Based Interfacial Fabrication for Sensing Applications.

    Cao, Chaomin; Zhang, Yin; Jiang, Cheng; Qi, Meng; Liu, Guozhen


    Aryldiazonium salts as coupling agents for surface chemistry have evidenced their wide applications for the development of sensors. Combined with advances in nanomaterials, current trends in sensor science and a variety of particular advantages of aryldiazonium salt chemistry in sensing have driven the aryldiazonium salt-based sensing strategies to grow at an astonishing pace. This review focuses on the advances in the use of aryldiazonium salts for modifying interfaces in sensors and biosensors during the past decade. It will first summarize the current methods for modification of interfaces with aryldiazonium salts, and then discuss the sensing applications of aryldiazonium salts modified on different transducers (bulky solid electrodes, nanomaterials modified bulky solid electrodes, and nanoparticles). Finally, the challenges and perspectives that aryldiazonium salt chemistry is facing in sensing applications are critically discussed.

  20. Discovery of secondary metabolites in an extractive liquid-surface immobilization system and its application to high-throughput interfacial screening of antibiotic-producing fungi.

    Oda, Shinobu; Kameda, Arisa; Okanan, Masanori; Sakakibara, Yusuke; Ohashi, Shinichi


    An extractive liquid-surface immobilization (Ext-LSI) system, which consists of a hydrophobic organic solvent (an upper phase), a fungal cell-ballooned microsphere layer (a middle phase) and a liquid medium (a lower phase), is a unique interfacial cultivation system for fungi. The fungal cells growing at the interface between the organic and aqueous phases efficiently produce hydrophobic metabolites, which are continuously extracted into the organic phase, and/or hydrophilic metabolites that migrate into the aqueous phase without carbon catabolite repression and product and/or feed-back inhibitions. Application of the system to fermentation of Penicillium multicolor IAM 7153 and Trichoderma atroviride AG2755-5NM398 afforded remarkably different profiles of secondary metabolites in the organic phase compared with those in an aqueous phase in traditional submerged cultivation (SmC). Various hydrophobic metabolites exhibiting unique UV-visible spectra were accumulated into the organic phase. The system was applied to a novel interfacial screening system of antibiotic-producing fungi. Compared with the SmC, the interfacial cultivation system exhibited some interesting and important advantages, such as the higher accumulation of hydrophobic secondary metabolites, the lack of requirement for shaking and troublesome solvent extraction, and the small scale of the vessels (medium, 5 ml; dimethylsilicone oil, 1 ml), as well as the significantly different metabolite profiles. The interfacial screening system yielded a high incidence of antimicrobial activity, with 21.9% of the fungi tested exhibiting antifungal activity against Pichia anomala NBRC 10213. This novel interfacial high-throughput screening approach has the potential to discover new biologically active secondary metabolites even from strains previously found to be unproductive.

  1. Digital Watermarking Technology with Practical Applications

    Norishige Morimoto


    Full Text Available Digital watermarking technology has been actively studied and developed by a number of institutions and companies since mid ‘90s. This area draws more and more attention as one of the key technology elements for content management, copyright protection and copy control of digital contents. This article discusses several different types of digital watermark application, particularly the application of digital watermarks for DVD copy control. This would be the first digital watermark application requiring worldwide standardization.

  2. BMDO Technology Applications in Biomedicine


    feeling human brain, helping to unlock the mysteries of mental illness. Laser technologies that today are used in health centers to treat vascular and...Grande Medical Technologies, Inc. (page 53) Mr. Tom Fortin 915 Camino de Salud Box 603 Albuquerque, NM 87131-5271 Telephone (505) 277-9145

  3. Application of multivariate statistical analysis to STEM X-ray spectral images: interfacial analysis in microelectronics.

    Kotula, Paul G; Keenan, Michael R


    Multivariate statistical analysis methods have been applied to scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) energy-dispersive X-ray spectral images. The particular application of the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) technique provides a high spectral contrast view of the raw spectral image. The power of this approach is demonstrated with a microelectronics failure analysis. Specifically, an unexpected component describing a chemical contaminant was found, as well as a component consistent with a foil thickness change associated with the focused ion beam specimen preparation process. The MCR solution is compared with a conventional analysis of the same spectral image data set.

  4. The Application of RFID Technologies in Construction

    LIAN Meng


    RFID technologies have advanced greatly and deployed successfully in many industry sectors in recent years. Construction industry could benefit from the applications of RFID technologies but as yet has not found sufficient application areas. This project gives a comprehensive awareness of the RFID technologies, which focus on the investigation on the UK construction industry. The current status of RFID in construction and its potentials are specified in the analysis of questionnaires and case studies. Finally, basing on the investigations, some further tasks in developing RFID technologies are carried, including some recommendations, for the construction industry.

  5. Survey of Technologies for Web Application Development

    Doyle, Barry


    Web-based application developers face a dizzying array of platforms, languages, frameworks and technical artifacts to choose from. We survey, classify, and compare technologies supporting Web application development. The classification is based on (1) foundational technologies; (2)integration with other information sources; and (3) dynamic content generation. We further survey and classify software engineering techniques and tools that have been adopted from traditional programming into Web programming. We conclude that, although the infrastructure problems of the Web have largely been solved, the cacophony of technologies for Web-based applications reflects the lack of a solid model tailored for this domain.

  6. Nanopositioning technologies fundamentals and applications

    Liu, Xinyu; Sun, Yu


    This book covers the state-of-the-art technologies for positioning with nanometer resolutions and accuracies, particularly those based on piezoelectric actuators and MEMS actuators. The latest advances are described, including the design of nanopositioning devices, sensing and actuation technologies, and control methods for nanopositioning. This is an ideal book for mechanical and electrical engineering students and researchers; micro and nanotechnology researchers and graduate students; as well as those working in the precision instrumentation or semiconductor industries.

  7. Bioinspired Functional Surfaces for Technological Applications

    Sharma, Vipul; Kumar, Suneel; Reddy, Kumbam Lingeshwar; Bahuguna, Ashish; Krishnan, Venkata


    Biological matters have been in continuous encounter with extreme environmental conditions leading to their evolution over millions of years. The fittest have survived through continuous evolution, an ongoing process. Biological surfaces are the important active interfaces between biological matters and the environment, and have been evolving over time to a higher state of intelligent functionality. Bioinspired surfaces with special functionalities have grabbed attention in materials research in the recent times. The microstructures and mechanisms behind these functional biological surfaces with interesting properties have inspired scientists to create artificial materials and surfaces which possess the properties equivalent to their counterparts. In this review, we have described the interplay between unique multiscale (micro- and nano-scale) structures of biological surfaces with intrinsic material properties which have inspired researchers to achieve the desired wettability and functionalities. Inspired by naturally occurring surfaces, researchers have designed and fabricated novel interfacial materials with versatile functionalities and wettability, such as superantiwetting surfaces (superhydrophobic and superoleophobic), omniphobic, switching wettability and water collecting surfaces. These strategies collectively enable functional surfaces to be utilized in different applications such as fog harvesting, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), catalysis, sensing and biological applications. This paper delivers a critical review of such inspiring biological surfaces and artificial bioinspired surfaces utilized in different applications, where material science and engineering have merged by taking inspiration from the natural systems.

  8. Wireless power transmission - Applications and technology status

    Schupp, Bradford W.; Brown, Alan M.

    The history of wireless power transmission systems is reviewed and current and future applications and technology are discussed. Design constraints for terrestrial systems, airborne platforms, and space systems are presented.

  9. Information and Communication Technology Application in ...

    Information and Communication Technology Application in Collection Development ... The library is the heart and life-line of any citadel of learning. ... promotes quick delivery of information materials, enhances communication with publishers ...

  10. Advances in Infrared Technology and Applications: introduction.

    Strojnik, Marija; D'Acunto, Mario; Rogalski, Antoni


    The special issue of Applied Optics on Advanced Infrared Technology and Applications(AITA) arose out of the biannual conference of the same name, most recently held in Pisa, Italy, 29 September to 2 October, 2015.

  11. [Plasma technology for biomedical material applications].

    Liu, Z; Li, X


    In this paper is introduced the plasma technology for the applications of several species biomaterial such as ophthalmological material, drug delivery system, tissue culture material, blood anticoagulant material as well as plasma surface clearing and plasma sterilization, and so on.

  12. Emerging memory technologies design, architecture, and applications


    This book explores the design implications of emerging, non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies on future computer memory hierarchy architecture designs. Since NVM technologies combine the speed of SRAM, the density of DRAM, and the non-volatility of Flash memory, they are very attractive as the basis for future universal memories. This book provides a holistic perspective on the topic, covering modeling, design, architecture and applications. The practical information included in this book will enable designers to exploit emerging memory technologies to improve significantly the performance/power/reliability of future, mainstream integrated circuits. • Provides a comprehensive reference on designing modern circuits with emerging, non-volatile memory technologies, such as MRAM and PCRAM; • Explores new design opportunities offered by emerging memory technologies, from a holistic perspective; • Describes topics in technology, modeling, architecture and applications; • Enables circuit designers to ex...

  13. Magnetic levitation Maglev technology and applications

    Han, Hyung-Suk


    This book provides a comprehensive overview of magnetic levitation (Maglev) technologies, from fundamental principles through to the state-of-the-art, and describes applications both realised and under development. It includes a history of Maglev science and technology showing the various milestones in its advancement. The core concepts, operating principles and main challenges of Maglev applications attempted across various fields are introduced and discussed. The principle difficulties encountered when applying Maglev technology to different systems, namely air gap control and stabilization, are addressed in detail. The book describes how major advancements in linear motor and magnet technologies have enabled the development of the linear-motor-powered Maglev train, which has a high speed advantage over conventional wheeled trains and has the potential to reach speed levels achieved by aircraft. However, many expect that Maglev technology to be a green technology that is applied not only in rail transportat...

  14. Printing Technologies for Medical Applications.

    Shafiee, Ashkan; Atala, Anthony


    Over the past 15 years, printers have been increasingly utilized for biomedical applications in various areas of medicine and tissue engineering. This review discusses the current and future applications of 3D bioprinting. Several 3D printing tools with broad applications from surgical planning to 3D models are being created, such as liver replicas and intermediate splints. Numerous researchers are exploring this technique to pattern cells or fabricate several different tissues and organs, such as blood vessels or cardiac patches. Current investigations in bioprinting applications are yielding further advances. As one of the fastest areas of industry expansion, 3D additive manufacturing will change techniques across biomedical applications, from research and testing models to surgical planning, device manufacturing, and tissue or organ replacement.

  15. Determining alpha-tocopherol distributions between the oil, water, and interfacial regions of macroemulsions: novel applications of electroanalytical chemistry and the pseudophase kinetic model.

    Gunaseelan, K; Romsted, Laurence S; Gallego, Maria-Jose Pastoriza; González-Romero, Elisa; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos


    The assumptions of the pseudophase model for chemical reactivity in homogeneous microemulsions are used to determine the distribution of alpha-tocopherol (TOC) in macroemulsions from changes in the observed rate constant (k(obs)) for reaction between 4-hexadecylarenediazonium ion (16-ArN2+) probe and TOC with increasing surfactant concentration. Two partition constants are needed to describe the distribution of TOC or other antioxidant (AO) or polar uncharged molecule between the oil and interfacial (P(O)(I)) and the water and interfacial (P(W)(I)) regions of stirred fluid emulsions. The observed rate constants are measured electrochemically. Here we report values of P(O)(I) and P(W)(I) for the distribution of TOC in octane/acidic water/C12E6 (hexaethylene glycol monododecyl ether) and octane/acidic water/C12E4 (Brij 30, tetraethylene glycol dodecyl ether) emulsions obtained by fitting two kinetic data sets with an equation based on the pseudophase model and solving two equations in two unknowns. The partition constants were used to estimate the %TOC in each region of the emulsions. In 1:1 oil:water C12E6 emulsions, at 2% volume fraction of C12E6, 73% of TOC is in the interfacial region, 26% in the octane and about 1% in the water. The distributions of TOC in C12E4 emulsions are similar. The combined electrochemical-pseudophase model approach is applicable to any AO or other compound that reacts with 16-ArN2+. The second-order rate constant, k(I), for reaction in the interfacial region of the emulsions is also estimated from the kinetic data and is about the same for both surfactants (k(I) approximately 0.1-0.2 M(-1)s(-1)) showing that the medium properties of the interfacial regions of C12E6 and C12E4 emulsions are similar. Comparison of these rate constants for a variety of AOs may provide a scale of AO efficiency that is independent of AO distribution between the oil, interfacial and aqueous regions of emulsions.



    The application of microbial technology to mineral processing has been reviewed with respect to the bioleaching of metals from minerals, the influence of biotreatment on flotation, the biobene ficiation of nonmetallic minerals, and the biotreatment for mine waste reclamation.The application of microbial technology to mineral processing has shown the advantages of high efficiency, low energy and reagent consumption, low capital and operating costs, and low pollution of the environment.

  17. Low temperature plasma technology methods and applications

    Chu, Paul K


    Written by a team of pioneering scientists from around the world, Low Temperature Plasma Technology: Methods and Applications brings together recent technological advances and research in the rapidly growing field of low temperature plasmas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of related phenomena such as plasma bullets, plasma penetration into biofilms, discharge-mode transition of atmospheric pressure plasmas, and self-organization of microdischarges. It describes relevant technology and diagnostics, including nanosecond pulsed discharge, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, and laser-induce

  18. Application of SDI technology in space propulsion

    Klein, A.J.


    Numerous technologies developed by the DOD within the SDI program are now available for adaptation to the requirements of commercial spacecraft; SDI has accordingly organized the Technology Applications Information System data base, which contains nearly 2000 nonproprietary abstracts on SDI technology. Attention is here given to such illustrative systems as hydrogen arcjets, ammonia arcjets, ion engines, SSTO launch vehicles, gel propellants, lateral thrusters, pulsed electrothermal thrusters, laser-powered rockets, and nuclear propulsion.


    S. V. Korneev


    Full Text Available Analysis of injection technologies shows that the largest prevalence they got d at application on powerful electric arc furnaces and at out-of-furnace processing of big volumes of metal. at the same time theoretical and experimental basis of using of injection technologies is constantly being replenished with new investigations.

  20. JPL Robotics Technology Applicable to Agriculture

    Udomkesmalee, Suraphol Gabriel; Kyte, L.


    This slide presentation describes several technologies that are developed for robotics that are applicable for agriculture. The technologies discussed are detection of humans to allow safe operations of autonomous vehicles, and vision guided robotic techniques for shoot selection, separation and transfer to growth media,

  1. Wireless location technology and its application

    Zhao Junhui; Wang Dongming


    Wireless location technology is used to locate, track and monitor the location of given target using devices such as the radio frequency identification (RFID) based on WiFi technology and the sensors. And such applications as long term evolution (LTE), wireless local area networks (WLAN), RFID and location based service (LBS) are essential in today' s wireless communications industry. In this paper, both wireless location technology and its application are proposed, where our experimental research results and theoretical innovation are included.

  2. Information Technology Applications to Maintenance Management

    Abdul Raouf S.I.


    Application of IT (Information Technology) to equipment management have not been ade-quately made. A system using Benefit Evaluation Ladder is described for evaluating the need for IT ap-plications to maintenance management. A systematic evaluation scheme for Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is presented.

  3. Ultra-thin chip technology and applications


    Ultra-thin chips are the "smart skin" of a conventional silicon chip. This book shows how very thin and flexible chips can be fabricated and used in many new applications in microelectronics, microsystems, biomedical and other fields. It provides a comprehensive reference to the fabrication technology, post processing, characterization and the applications of ultra-thin chips.

  4. OLED microdisplays technology and applications

    Templier, François


    Microdisplays are displays requiring optical magnification and OLEDs (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) are self-emitting displays where each pixel includes a LED made of organic material, in general composed of small-molecule organic material. This title reviews in detail how OLED microdisplays are made as well as how they are used. All aspects from theory to application will be addressed: basic principles, display design, display fabrication, operation and performances, present and future applications. The book will be useful to anyone interested in this rapidly developing field, such as studen

  5. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications


    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  6. Handbook of social network technologies and applications

    Furht, Borko


    Social networking is a concept that has existed for a long time; however, with the explosion of the Internet, social networking has become a tool for people to connect and communicate in ways that were impossible in the past. The recent development of Web 2.0 has provided many new applications, such as Myspace, Facebook, and LinkedIn. The purpose of ""Handbook of Social Networks: Technologies and Applications"" is to provide comprehensive guidelines on the current and future trends in social network technologies and applications in the field of Web-based Social Networks. This handbook includes

  7. Ubiquitous Information Technologies and Applications

    Park, Young-Ho; Hsu, Ching-Hsien; Park, James


    The theme of CUTE is focused on the various aspects of ubiquitous computing for advances in ubiquitous computing and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of ubiquitous computing. Therefore this book will be include the various theories and practical applications in ubiquitous computing

  8. MEMS fundamental technology and applications

    Choudhary, Vikas


    ""The book editors have managed to assemble a group of extraordinary authors to provide their expertise to this book. While giving an excellent overview of the history and the state of the art of MEMS technology, this book also focuses on current trends and topics such as gyroscopes that currently experience significant and increasing popularity in research and in industry. It is well written and the material is presented in a well-structured way making it easily accessible to any reader with a technical background.""-Boris Stoeber, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada<

  9. Light Sources Technologies and Applications

    Kitsinelis, Spyridon


    From the dialogues of the ancient Greek philosophers right up through the physical laws of Newton, the experiments of Thomas Young and the quantum physics pioneers, the study of light was all about observing its characteristics and defining its behavior. At the end of the 19th century, wicks, wax, and oil gave way to electricity, filaments, and gases, and scientific minds began to focus on the technological creation of light, as well as its control and diverse uses. Yet, despite more than a century of profound research and development, until now, the most complete resources on lighting technol

  10. Application Layer Multicast Technology of Streaming Media

    Jiansheng Liu


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of network technology, Internet business has been transferred from a simple text into a host text, audio, video and other streaming services. Application layer multicast is one of the key technologies to protect the large-scale service quality of streaming media system, which has become an important part of study. Based on the application layer multicast technology, it focused on analyzing the effects of application layer multicast to the  large-scale of media streaming system, and summarized the typical characteristics of the system. It takes efficiency of multicast robustness, scalability, and the continuity as evaluation indexes, and summarized the typical multicast. In the end,the drawbacks and develop directions of application layer multicast were discussed.

  11. Modern Display Technologies and Applications


    conventional tubes, LSI circuitry offers the possibility of correcting some of the deficiencies in electron-optic perform- ance and may lead to acceptable...certain ceramic materials such as PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) can be utilized for display applications. PLZT is transparent in the visible...consuming power (3.8.12). State of development, Magnetic particles have been made of polyethylene with powdered Strontium ferrite as a filler

  12. Medical application of PET technology

    Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, C. W.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jun, G. S. and others


    We performed following studies using PET technology: 1. Clinical usefulness of [{sup 18}F]FDG whole body PET in malignant disease 2. Clinical usefulness of quantitative evaluation of F-18-FDG 3. Pilot study of C-11 methionine PET in brain tumor 4. PET study in patients with Parkinson's disease 5. A study on the clinical myocardial PET image. PET gives various metabolic information for the living human body, and is very important, new diagnostic modality. The PET study will give us the information of cancer patients such as early detection of cancer, staging, recurrence detection and characterization of cancer. The quantitative analysis using PET could be applied to evaluate the pathophysiology of various diseases and develop new drugs and develop new radiopharmaceuticals.

  13. Integrated Applications with Laser Technology

    Octavian DOSPINESCU


    Full Text Available The introduction of new materials as Power Point presentations are the most convenient way of teaching a course or to display a scientific paper. In order to support this function, most schools, universities, institutions, are equipped with projectors and computers. For controlling the presentation of the materials, the persons that are in charge with the presentation use, in most cases, both the keyboard of the computer as well as the mouse for the slides, thing that burdens, in a way, the direct communication (face to face with the audience. Of course, the invention of the wireless mouse allowed a sort of freedom in controlling from the distance the digital materials. Although there seems to appear a certain impediment: in order to be used, the mouse requires to be placed on a flat surface. This article aims at creating a new application prototype that will manipulate, only through the means of a light-beam instrument (laser fascicle, both the actions of the mouse as well as some of the elements offered by the keyboard on a certain application or presentation. The light fascicle will be „connected” to a calculus system only through the images that were captured by a simple webcam.

  14. Technological Microbiology: Development and Applications

    Vitorino, Luciana C.; Bessa, Layara A.


    Over thousands of years, modernization could be predicted for the use of microorganisms in the production of foods and beverages. However, the current accelerated pace of new food production is due to the rapid incorporation of biotechnological techniques that allow the rapid identification of new molecules and microorganisms or even the genetic improvement of known species. At no other time in history have microorganisms been so present in areas such as agriculture and medicine, except as recognized villains. Currently, however, beneficial microorganisms such as plant growth promoters and phytopathogen controllers are required by various agricultural crops, and many species are being used as biofactories of important pharmacological molecules. The use of biofactories does not end there: microorganisms have been explored for the synthesis of diverse chemicals, fuel molecules, and industrial polymers, and strains environmentally important due to their biodecomposing or biosorption capacity have gained interest in research laboratories and in industrial activities. We call this new microbiology Technological Microbiology, and we believe that complex techniques, such as heterologous expression and metabolic engineering, can be increasingly incorporated into this applied science, allowing the generation of new and improved products and services. PMID:28539920

  15. Interfacial electron transfer of P3HT/PDI/ZnO nanocomposite and its application in visible-light detection

    Zhang, Lina; Lin, Hongtao; Wu, Yishi; Zhuo, Shuping


    Photoinduced interfacial electron transfer plays a key role in photoactive organic/inorganic hybrid nanomaterials and remains elusive with regard to interfacial energy level alignment. In this study, n-type organic semiconductor 1,6,7,12-tetrachloro-3,4,9,10-Perylenetetracarboxylicdiimide (PDI) molecules bearing carboxylic acid groups at nitrogen positions were grafted onto the surface of the Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, and then blended with p-type poly (3-hexylthiophene) P3HT. The addition of PDI facilitates the charge transfer process from P3HT to ZnO, which was characterized by steady-state spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. High performance visible-light detector based on P3HT/PDI/ZnO has been fabricated. This provides guidelines for the construction of optoelectronic devices.

  16. Evaluation of interfacial strength by an instrumented indentation method and its application to an actual TBC vane

    Yasuhiro YAMAZAKI; Shin-ichiro KUGA; Toshihiko YOSHIDA


    The thermal fatigue behaviour of an air plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating wasinvestigated. And also the interfacial strengths of thermal barrier coated specimens subjected to thermal fatigue, as well as a retired TBC vane were also evaluated bymeans of an instrumented indentation machine. The results indicated that, (1) theTGO grew at the interface during thermal fatigue cycle as a function of the exposure time at elevated temperature; (2) the microcracks were initiated in the top coating and at the interface after thermal cycle tests; (3) the interfacial strength of TBC,which was evaluated by the indentation method, increased with the thermal cycles;(4) the interfaciai strength of the retired TBC vane was almost equal with that of theas-sprayed TBC specimen.

  17. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.


    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  18. Adsorption refrigeration technology theory and application

    Wang, Ruzhu; Wu, Jingyi


    Gives readers a detailed understanding of adsorption refrigeration technology, with a focus on practical applications and environmental concerns Systematically covering the technology of adsorption refrigeration, this book provides readers with a technical understanding of the topic as well as detailed information on the state-of-the-art from leading researchers in the field. Introducing readers to background on the development of adsorption refrigeration, the authors also cover the development of adsorbents, various thermodynamic theories, the design of adsorption systems and adsorption refri

  19. Semantic-Web Technology: Applications at NASA

    Ashish, Naveen


    We provide a description of work at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on building system based on semantic-web concepts and technologies. NASA has been one of the early adopters of semantic-web technologies for practical applications. Indeed there are several ongoing 0 endeavors on building semantics based systems for use in diverse NASA domains ranging from collaborative scientific activity to accident and mishap investigation to enterprise search to scientific information gathering and integration to aviation safety decision support We provide a brief overview of many applications and ongoing work with the goal of informing the external community of these NASA endeavors.

  20. Knowledge Technology Applications for Knowledge Management

    Andersson, Kent


    We investigate how the knowledge in knowledge technology applications for knowledge management can be represented to let the user directly manage the knowledge content of the applications. In paper I we design a representation of diagnosis knowledge that allows the user to add new components and inspect the function of the device. The representation allows an integration of model based knowledge with compiled and heuristic knowledge so that the device and its function can be represented a sui...

  1. Exhaust Gas Energy Recovery Technology Applications

    Wagner, Robert M [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL


    Exhaust waste heat recovery systems have the potential to significantly improve vehicle fuel economy for conventional and hybrid electric powertrains spanning passenger to heavy truck applications. This chapter discusses thermodynamic considerations and three classes of energy recovery technologies which are under development for vehicle applications. More specifically, this chapter describes the state-of-the-art in exhaust WHR as well as challenges and opportunities for thermodynamic power cycles, thermoelectric devices, and turbo-compounding systems.

  2. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.


    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  3. Technology Applications that Support Space Exploration

    Henderson, Edward M.; Holderman, Mark L.


    Several enabling technologies have been identified that would provide significant benefits for future space exploration. In-Space demonstrations should be chosen so that these technologies will have a timely opportunity to improve efficiencies and reduce risks for future spaceflight. An early window exists to conduct ground and flight demonstrations that make use of existing assets that were developed for the Space Shuttle and the Constellation programs. The work could be mostly performed using residual program civil servants, existing facilities and current commercial launch capabilities. Partnering these abilities with the emerging commercial sector, along with other government agencies, academia and with international partners would provide an affordable and timely approach to get the launch costs down for these payloads, while increasing the derived benefits to a larger community. There is a wide scope of varied technologies that are being considered to help future space exploration. However, the cost and schedule would be prohibitive to demonstrate all these in the near term. Determining which technologies would yield the best return in meeting our future space needs is critical to building an achievable Space Architecture that allows exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit. The best mix of technologies is clearly to be based on our future needs, but also must take into account the availability of existing assets and supporting partners. Selecting those technologies that have complimentary applications will provide the most knowledge, with reasonable cost, for future use The plan is to develop those applications that not only mature the technology but actually perform a useful task or mission. These might include such functions as satellite servicing, a propulsion stage, processing lunar regolith, generating and transmitting solar power, cryogenic fluid transfer and storage and artificial gravity. Applications have been selected for assessment for future

  4. Applications of Optical Technology: Information Retrieval.

    O'Connor, Mary Ann


    Discusses applications of optical technology, especially CD-ROMs, to information management needs. Information retrieval problems are discussed; design questions that concern the format of the data, indexing methods, and retrieval capabilities are presented; the need for updates is considered; access requirements are discussed; and the importance…

  5. Current applications of molecular cytogenetic technologies.

    Mark, H F; Jenkins, R; Miller, W A


    This review discusses select current applications of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) which may be of utility for the average clinical cytogenetic laboratory. Owing to the large number of men and women affected, the applications chosen to illustrate the use of FISH technology in cancer focus on two diseases: breast cancer and prostate cancer. The applicability of FISH to detect common aneuploidies, such as trisomy 21, trisomy 18, trisomy 13 and the sex chromosome aneuploidies in prenatal diagnosis, is discussed, as well as FISH for the detection of microdeletions and microduplications. Quality assurance/quality control issues and standards and guidelines relating to laboratory practices in molecular cytogenetic testing are reviewed.

  6. High Power Diode Lasers Technology and Applications

    Bachmann, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart


    In a very comprehensive way this book covers all aspects of high power diode laser technology for materials processing. Basics as well as new application oriented results obtained in a government funded national German research project are described in detail. Along the technological chain after a short introduction in the second chapter diode laser bar technology is discussed regarding structure, manufacturing technology and metrology. The third chapter illuminates all aspects of mounting and cooling, whereas chapter four gives wide spanning details on beam forming, beam guiding and beam combination, which are essential topics for incoherently coupled multi-emitter based high power diode lasers. Metrology, standards and safety aspects are the theme of chapter five. As an outcome of all the knowledge from chapter two to four various system configurations of high power diode lasers are described in chapter six; not only systems focussed on best available beam quality but especially also so called "modular" set...

  7. Terahertz antenna technology for space applications

    Choudhury, Balamati; Jha, Rakesh Mohan


    This book explores the terahertz antenna technology towards implementation of compact, consistent and cheap terahertz sources, as well as the high sensitivity terahertz detectors. The terahertz EM band provides a transition between the electronic and the photonic regions thus adopting important characteristics from these regimes. These characteristics, along with the progress in semiconductor technology, have enabled researchers to exploit hitherto unexplored domains including satellite communication, bio-medical imaging, and security systems. The advances in new materials and nanostructures such as graphene will be helpful in miniaturization of antenna technology while simultaneously maintaining the desired output levels. Terahertz antenna characterization of bandwidth, impedance, polarization, etc. has not yet been methodically structured and it continues to be a major research challenge. This book addresses these issues besides including the advances of terahertz technology in space applications worldwide,...

  8. Solar Energy: Its Technologies and Applications

    Auh, P. C.


    Solar heat, as a potential source of clean energy, is available to all of us. Extensive R and D efforts are being made to effectively utilize this renewable energy source. A variety of different technologies for utilizing solar energy have been proven to be technically feasible. Here, some of the most promising technologies and their applications are briefly described. These are: Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings (SHACOB), Solar Thermal Energy Conversion (STC), Wind Energy Conversion (WECS), Bioconversion to Fuels (BCF), Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), and Photovoltaic Electric Power Systems (PEPS). Special emphasis is placed on the discussion of the SHACOB technologies, since the technologies are being expeditiously developed for the near commercialization.

  9. Applications of computational intelligence in biomedical technology

    Majernik, Jaroslav; Pancerz, Krzysztof; Zaitseva, Elena


    This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics  This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.  .

  10. Application of biophysical technologies in dental research

    Higham, Susan M.; Pender, Neil; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Smith, Philip W.


    There is a wealth of evidence to indicate that if dental caries can be recognized at an early stage, it is possible to halt its progression or even reverse it. This has led to an increased interest in the development of diagnostic techniques capable of visualizing caries at an early stage in addition to providing clinicians with an aid to diagnosis. Several techniques are available for research and clinical applications for detecting early demineralization. This manuscript has reviewed some of the techniques currently available to determine their advantages, whether they have any limitations and their applicability to dental research and clinical dentistry. Not one method is the perfect choice in all situations, but what is clear is that the development and application of biophysical technologies have allowed major advances to be made in dental research as well as in clinical dentistry. With continued developments these technologies will play an important role in the future management of dental disease.

  11. Laser technology in biomimetics basics and applications

    Belegratis, Maria


    Lasers are progressively more used as versatile tools for fabrication purposes. The wide range of available powers, wavelengths, operation modes, repetition rates etc. facilitate the processing of a large spectrum of materials at exceptional precision and quality. Hence, manifold methods were established in the past and novel methods are continuously under development. Biomimetics, the translation from nature-inspired principles to technical applications, is strongly multidisciplinary. This field offers intrinsically a wide scope of applications for laser based methods regarding structuring and modification of materials. This book is dedicated to laser fabrication methods in biomimetics. It introduces both, a laser technology as well as an application focused approach.  The book covers the most important laser lithographic methods and various biomimetics application scenarios ranging from coatings and biotechnology to construction, medical applications and photonics.

  12. Interfacial and near interfacial crack growth phenomena in metal bonded alumina

    Kruzic, Jamie Joseph [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Metal/ceramic interfaces can be found in many engineering applications including microelectronic packaging, multi-layered films, coatings, joints, and composite materials. In order to design reliable engineering systems that contain metal/ceramic interfaces, a comprehensive understanding of interfacial and near interfacial failure mechanisms is necessary.

  13. Interfacial and near interfacial crack growth phenomena in metal bonded alumina

    Kruzic, Jamie Joseph


    Metal/ceramic interfaces can be found in many engineering applications including microelectronic packaging, multi-layered films, coatings, joints, and composite materials. In order to design reliable engineering systems that contain metal/ceramic interfaces, a comprehensive understanding of interfacial and near interfacial failure mechanisms is necessary.

  14. Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590

    Rostmark, Susanne C.; Knutsson, Sven [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden); Lindberg, Maria [Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)


    Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwater applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)

  15. Further applications for mosaic pixel FPA technology

    Liddiard, Kevin C.


    In previous papers to this SPIE forum the development of novel technology for next generation PIR security sensors has been described. This technology combines the mosaic pixel FPA concept with low cost optics and purpose-designed readout electronics to provide a higher performance and affordable alternative to current PIR sensor technology, including an imaging capability. Progressive development has resulted in increased performance and transition from conventional microbolometer fabrication to manufacture on 8 or 12 inch CMOS/MEMS fabrication lines. A number of spin-off applications have been identified. In this paper two specific applications are highlighted: high performance imaging IRFPA design and forest fire detection. The former involves optional design for small pixel high performance imaging. The latter involves cheap expendable sensors which can detect approaching fire fronts and send alarms with positional data via mobile phone or satellite link. We also introduce to this SPIE forum the application of microbolometer IR sensor technology to IoT, the Internet of Things.

  16. Transitioning Unmanned Technologies for Earth Science Applications

    Wardell, L. J.; Douglas, J.


    Development of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has progressed dramatically in recent years along with miniaturization of sensor technology. This confluence of development paths has resulted in greater capability in smaller, less expensive platforms allowing research to be performed where manned airborne platforms are impractical or dangerous. Recent applications include small UAS for studies involving hurricanes, volcanic activity, sea ice changes, glacier melt, biological monitoring of land and sea species, wildfire monitoring, and others. However, the majority of UAS employed in these investigations were originally developed for non-civilian applications and many of the required interfaces are locked behind proprietary specifications, requiring expensive customization by the manufacturer to transform a military UAS into one suitable for civilian work. A small UAS for scientific research should be standards-based, low-cost, user friendly, field serviceable, and be designed to accept a range of payloads. The AV8R UAS is one example of an unmanned system that has been developed for specific application to earth observation missions. This system is designed to be operated by the user with difficult environmental conditions and field logistics in mind. Numerous features and innovations that advance this technology as a research tool as well as its planned science missions will be presented. Most importantly, all interfaces to the system required for successful design and integration of various payloads will be openly available. The environment of open, standards based development allow the small technologies companies that serve as the backbone for much of the technology development to participate in the rapid development of industry capabilities. This is particularly true with UAS technologies. Programs within the USA such as the STTR foster collaborations with small businesses and university researchers. Other innovations related to autonomous unmanned systems

  17. Interfacial microstructures and hardness distributions of vacuum plasma spraying W-coated ODS ferritic steels for fusion plasma facing applications

    Noh, Sanghoon, E-mail: [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kasada, Ryuta; Kimura, Akihiko [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Nagasaka, Takuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Sokolov, Mikhail A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Tae Kyu [Nuclear Materials Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    In the present study, interfacial microstructures and hardness distributions of W-coated ODS steels as plasma facing structural materials were investigated. A vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) technique was employed to fabricate a W layer on the surface of the ODS ferritic steel substrates. The microstructural observations revealed that the VPS-W has very fine grains aligned toward the spraying direction, and a favorable interface between W and ODS ferritic steels by a mechanical inter-locking without an intermetallic layer. However, crack-type defects were found in VPS-W. Because a brittle inter-diffused layer does not exist at the joint interface, the hardness was gradually distributed in the joint region. After neutron irradiation, irradiation hardening significantly occurred in the VPS-W. However, the hardening of VPS-W was less than that of bulk W irradiated at 773 K. Thus, the VPS is considered to be one of the promising ways to join dissimilar materials between W and ODS steels, which can avoid the formation of an interfacial intermetallic layer and create favorable irradiation hardening resistance on the W coated layer.

  18. Mobility management principle, technology and applications

    Chen, Shanzhi; Hu, Bo; Ai, Ming


    This is the first book devoted to mobility management, covering the important principles, technologies and applications of mobility management based on years of academic research and industry experiences. The content is organized according to the reference models proposed by the authors, and emphasizes on technical principles rather than protocol details; a systematic and comprehensive introduction is presented yet without losing focuses; the existing technologies in cellular system, mobile Internet and IMS/SIP are also extensively compared. This book can be an indispensable reference for mobile communication engineers, computer network engineers, researchers and anyone else involved in academic, industrial and standardization activities on mobility management.

  19. Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications

    Filipe, Joaquim; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Pina, Nuno


    This book includes extended and revised versions of a set of selected papers from the 2012 International Conference on Simulation and Modeling Methodologies, Technologies and Applications (SIMULTECH 2012) which was sponsored by the Institute for Systems and Technologies of Information, Control and Communication (INSTICC) and held in Rome, Italy. SIMULTECH 2012 was technically co-sponsored by the Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS), GDR I3, Lionphant Simulation, Simulation Team and IFIP and held in cooperation with AIS Special Interest Group of Modeling and Simulation (AIS SIGMAS) and the Movimento Italiano Modellazione e Simulazione (MIMOS).

  20. Developments in transgenic technology: applications for medicine.

    Hunter, Cheryl V; Tiley, Laurence S; Sang, Helen M


    Recent advances in the efficiency of transgenic technology have important implications for medicine. The production of therapeutic proteins from animal bioreactors is well established and the first products are close to market. The genetic modification of pigs to improve their suitability as organ donors for xenotransplantation has been initiated, but many challenges remain. The use of transgenesis, in combination with the method of RNA interference to knock down gene expression, has been proposed as a method for making animals resistant to viral diseases, which could reduce the likelihood of transmission to humans. Here, the latest developments in transgenic technology and their applications relevant to medicine and human health will be discussed.

  1. Hydrogen storage technology materials and applications

    Klebanoff, Lennie


    Zero-carbon, hydrogen-based power technology offers the most promising long-term solution for a secure and sustainable energy infrastructure. With contributions from the world's leading technical experts in the field, Hydrogen Storage Technology: Materials and Applications presents a broad yet unified account of the various materials science, physics, and engineering aspects involved in storing hydrogen gas so that it can be used to provide power. The book helps you understand advanced hydrogen storage materials and how to build systems around them. Accessible to nonscientists, the first chapt

  2. Quantum Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications to Technology

    Singh, Jasprit


    Explore the relationship between quantum mechanics and information-age applications. This volume takes an altogether unique approach to quantum mechanics. Providing an in-depth exposition of quantum mechanics fundamentals, it shows how these concepts are applied to most of today's information technologies, whether they are electronic devices or materials. No other text makes this critical, essential leap from theory to real-world applications. The book's lively discussion of the mathematics involved fits right in with contemporary multidisciplinary trends in education: Once the basic formulati

  3. Technology and applications of advanced accelerator concepts

    Chou, Weiren


    Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the ...

  4. Industrial applications of ion track technology

    Hanot, H. [it4ip sa (Ion Track Technology for Innovative Products), Activalis (Z.I. C), rue Jules Bordet, 7180 Seneffe (Belgium)], E-mail:; Ferain, E. [it4ip sa (Ion Track Technology for Innovative Products), Activalis (Z.I. C), rue Jules Bordet, 7180 Seneffe (Belgium); Unite de Physique et de Chimie des Hauts Polymeres, Universite catholique de Louvain Croix du Sud, 1, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)


    It4ip sa is a spin out from the Universite Catholique de Louvain (Belgium) dedicated to the development and production of unique templates and membranes based on the combination of ion track technology of polymers. It supplies customers with hi-tech products, state-of-the-art research and product development services with template capability to make high value added membranes. Notably based on results coming from several collaborative R and D projects supported by European and Regional funding, recent improvements of ion track technology open new doors for fast growing applications in niche markets. This paper reviews some of these Hi-Tec applications in different fields such as in healthcare (oncology, drug control release combined to implant and artificial organs etc.), energy (fuel cells and batteries etc.), water de-contamination and electronics (OLED etc.)

  5. Industrial applications of ion track technology

    Hanot, H.; Ferain, E.


    It4ip sa is a spin out from the Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium) dedicated to the development and production of unique templates and membranes based on the combination of ion track technology of polymers. It supplies customers with hi-tech products, state-of-the-art research and product development services with template capability to make high value added membranes. Notably based on results coming from several collaborative R&D projects supported by European and Regional funding, recent improvements of ion track technology open new doors for fast growing applications in niche markets. This paper reviews some of these Hi-Tec applications in different fields such as in healthcare (oncology, drug control release combined to implant and artificial organs etc.), energy (fuel cells and batteries etc.), water de-contamination and electronics (OLED etc.).

  6. ERAST: Scientific Applications and Technology Commercialization

    Hunley, John D. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Compiler)


    This is a conference publication for an event designed to inform potential contractors and appropriate personnel in various scientific disciplines that the ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) vehicles have reached a certain level of maturity and are available to perform a variety of missions ranging from data gathering to telecommunications. There are multiple applications of the technology and a great many potential commercial and governmental markets. As high altitude platforms, the ERAST vehicles can gather data at higher resolution than satellites and can do so continuously, whereas satellites pass over a particular area only once each orbit. Formal addresses are given by Rich Christiansen, (Director of Programs, NASA Aerospace Technology Ent.), Larry Roeder, (Senior Policy Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State), and Dr. Marianne McCarthy, (DFRC Education Dept.). The Commercialization Workshop is chaired by Dale Tietz (President, New Vista International) and the Science Workshop is chaired by Steve Wegener, (Deputy Manager of NASA ERAST, NASA Ames Research Center.

  7. Medical imaging technology reviews and computational applications

    Dewi, Dyah


    This book presents the latest research findings and reviews in the field of medical imaging technology, covering ultrasound diagnostics approaches for detecting osteoarthritis, breast carcinoma and cardiovascular conditions, image guided biopsy and segmentation techniques for detecting lung cancer, image fusion, and simulating fluid flows for cardiovascular applications. It offers a useful guide for students, lecturers and professional researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering and image processing.

  8. Non-contact atomic-level interfacial force microscopy

    Houston, J.E.; Fleming, J.G.


    The scanning force microscopies (notably the Atomic Force Microscope--AFM), because of their applicability to nearly all materials, are presently the most widely used of the scanning-probe techniques. However, the AFM uses a deflection sensor to measure sample/probe forces which suffers from an inherent mechanical instability that occurs when the rate of change of the force with respect to the interfacial separation becomes equal to the spring constant of the deflecting member. This instability dramatically limits the breadth of applicability of AFM-type techniques to materials problems. In the course of implementing a DOE sponsored basic research program in interfacial adhesion, a self-balancing force sensor concept has been developed and incorporated into an Interfacial Force Microscopy (IFM) system by Sandia scientists. This sensor eliminates the instability problem and greatly enhances the applicability of the scanning force-probe technique to a broader range of materials and materials parameters. The impact of this Sandia development was recognized in 1993 by a Department of Energy award for potential impact on DOE programs and by an R and D 100 award for one of the most important new products of 1994. However, in its present stage of development, the IFM is strictly a research-level tool and a CRADA was initiated in order to bring this sensor technology into wide-spread availability by making it accessible in the form of a commercial instrument. The present report described the goals, approach and results of this CRADA effort.

  9. Interfacial effects in multilayers

    Barbee, T.W. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.


    Interfacial structure and the atomic interactions between atoms at interfaces in multilayers or nano-laminates have significant impact on the physical properties of these materials. A technique for the experimental evaluation of interfacial structure and interfacial structure effects is presented and compared to experiment. In this paper the impact of interfacial structure on the performance of x-ray, soft x-ray and extreme ultra-violet multilayer optic structures is emphasized. The paper is concluded with summary of these results and an assessment of their implications relative to multilayer development and the study of buried interfaces in solids in general.

  10. Military applications for heterostructure microelectronics technology

    Greiling, Paul; Kirkpatrick, Conilee; Valentine, Gary


    Military systems, whether radar, communications, electronic warfare (EW) or smart munitions, require superior device and IC performance. The performance advantages of heterostructure devices over standard Si CMOS, Si bipolar transistors or GaAs MESFETs has motivated major aerospace firms in the United States to develop Si, GaAs and InP-based heterojunction bipolar (HBT) and high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) technologies. In response to advanced system performance requirements, technology efforts are being pushed toward devices which can yield {T}/{R} modules with octave bandwidths, noise figures under 3 dB, output power of 20 W and power greater than 30%. Device technology development for satellite communications is being driven in part by the need for ultra low noise high output power with high power added efficiency with high MMTF. For these systems as well as EW applications, designers want to digitize the signal as close to the front end as possible. This is driving the development of a 100 GHz IC technology for A/D converters, synthesizers, MUX/DEMUXs, DDSs. and PRNs. Requirements for A/D converters with 16 bits @ 100-200 MHz up to 8-10 bits @ 10 GHz are appearing for advanced radars and EW systems. The military system requirements continue to drive the development of the newer, better and higher performance heterostructure device technologies.

  11. Application of Smart Solid State Sensor Technology in Aerospace Applications

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Dungan, L.K.; Makel, D.; Ward, B.; Androjna, D.


    Aerospace applications require a range of chemical sensing technologies to monitor conditions in both space vehicles and aircraft operations. One example is the monitoring of oxygen. For example, monitoring of ambient oxygen (O2) levels is critical to ensuring the health, safety, and performance of humans living and working in space. Oxygen sensors can also be incorporated in detection systems to determine if hazardous leaks are occurring in space propulsion systems and storage facilities. In aeronautic applications, O2 detection has been investigated for fuel tank monitoring. However, as noted elsewhere, O2 is not the only species of interest in aerospace applications with a wide range of species of interest being relevant to understand an environmental or vehicle condition. These include combustion products such as CO, HF, HCN, and HCl, which are related to both the presence of a fire and monitoring of post-fire clean-up operations. This paper discusses the development of an electrochemical cell platform based on a polymer electrolyte, NAFION, and a three-electrode configuration. The approach has been to mature this basic platform for a range of applications and to test this system, combined with "Lick and Stick" electronics, for its viability to monitor an environment related to astronaut crew health and safety applications with an understanding that a broad range of applications can be addressed with a core technology.

  12. Tailoring liquid/solid interfacial energy transfer: fabrication and application of multiscale metallic surfaces with engineered heat transfer and electrolysis properties via femtosecond laser surface processing techniques

    Anderson, Troy P.; Wilson, Chris; Zuhlke, Craig A.; Kruse, Corey; Hassebrook, Anton; Somanas, Isra; Ndao, Sidy; Gogos, George; Alexander, Dennis


    Femtosecond Laser Surface Processing (FLSP) is a powerful technique for the fabrication of self-organized multiscale surface structures on metals that are critical for advanced control over energy transfer at a liquid/solid interface in applications such as electrolysis. The efficiency of the hydrogen evolution reaction on stainless steel 316 electrodes in a 1 molar potassium hydroxide solution is used to analyze the role of surface geometry to facilitate the phase conversion of the liquid to a gaseous state in the vicinity of the interface. It is found that the efficiency of the electrolysis process is directly related to the separation of micro-scale features on an electrode surface. The enhancement is attributed to the size of the valleys between microstructures controlling the contact between an evolving vapor bubble and the electrode surface. The results suggest an alternative pathway for the tailoring of interfacial energy transfer on structured surfaces separate from traditional benchmarks such as surface area and contact angle.

  13. Emerging synthetic strategies for core cross-linked star (CCS) polymers and applications as interfacial stabilizers: bridging linear polymers and nanoparticles.

    Chen, Qijing; Cao, Xueteng; Xu, Yuanyuan; An, Zesheng


    Core cross-linked star (CCS) polymers become increasingly important in polymer science and are evaluated in many value-added applications. However, limitations exist to varied degrees for different synthetic methods. It is clear that improvement in synthetic efficiency is fundamental in driving this field moving even further. Here, the most recent advances are highlighted in synthetic strategies, including cross-linking with cross-linkers of low solubility, polymerization-induced self-assembly in aqueous-based heterogeneous media, and cross-linking via dynamic covalent bonds. The understanding of CCS polymers is also further refined to advocate their role as an intermediate between linear polymers and polymeric nanoparticles, and their use as interfacial stabilizers is rationalized within this context.

  14. Practical applications of interactive voice technologies: Some accomplishments and prospects

    Grady, Michael W.; Hicklin, M. B.; Porter, J. E.


    A technology assessment of the application of computers and electronics to complex systems is presented. Three existing systems which utilize voice technology (speech recognition and speech generation) are described. Future directions in voice technology are also described.

  15. Interfacial transport processes and rheology

    Brenner, Howard


    This textbook is designed to provide the theory, methods of measurement, and principal applications of the expanding field of interfacial hydrodynamics. It is intended to serve the research needs of both academic and industrial scientists, including chemical or mechanical engineers, material and surface scientists, physical chemists, chemical and biophysicists, rheologists, physiochemical hydrodynamicists, and applied mathematicians (especially those with interests in viscous fluid mechanics and continuum mechanics).As a textbook it provides materials for a one- or two-semester graduate-level

  16. Biomedical technology transfer: Applications of NASA science and technology


    The major efforts of the Stanford Biomedical Applications Team Program at the Stanford University School of Medicine for the period from October 1, 1975 to September 31, 1976 are covered. A completed EMG biotelemetry system which monitors the physiological signals of man and animals in space related research is discussed. The results of a pilot study involving lower body negative pressure testing in cardiac patients has been completed as well as the design and construction of a new leg negative pressure unit for evaluating heart patients. This technology utilizes vacuum chambers to stress the cardiovascular system during space flight. Laboratory tests of an intracranial pressure transducer, have been conducted. Extremely stable long term data using capacative pressure sensors has lead to the order of commercially manufactured monitoring systems base. Projects involving commercialization are: flexible medical electrodes, an echocardioscope, a miniature biotelemetry system, and an on-line ventricular contour detector.

  17. 30 CFR 402.11 - Technology-development project applications.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technology-development project applications... RESEARCH PROGRAM AND THE WATER-RESOURCES TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Application, Evaluation, and Management Procedures § 402.11 Technology-development project applications. (a) Grant awards will be used...

  18. HAMLET: HPCN Technology for Real-Time, Embedded Applications

    Mager, J.W.L.J.; Dam, A. ten


    Building an application by using HPCN technology makes the solution scalable and therefore more flexible. The uptake of HPCN technology for real-time, embedded applications, however, is severely hampered by the lack of real application development support. Within the Esprit project HAMLET, technolog

  19. Solar technology application to enhanced oil recovery

    de Leon, P.; Brown, K.C.; Margolis, J.W.; Nasr, L.H.


    One proposed near-term commercial application for solar energy technology is the use of solar energy systems to generate steam for thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This report examines four aspects of solar energy employed for steam EOR. First, six solar technologies are evaluated and two - parabolic troughs and central receivers - are selected for closer study; typical systems that would meet current production requirements are proposed and costed. Second, the legal and environmental issues attending solar EOR are analyzed. Third, the petroleum producing companies' preferences and requirements are discussed. Finally, alternative means of financing solar EOR are addressed. The study concludes that within the next four to five years, conventional (fossil-fueled) thermal EOR means are much less expensive and more available than solar EOR systems, even given environmental requirements. Within 10 to 15 years, assuming specified advances in solar technologies, central receiver EOR systems will be significantly more cost-effective than parabolic trough EOR systems and will be price competitive with conventional thermal EOR systems. Important uncertainties remain (both in solar energy technologies and in how they affect the operating characteristics of petroleum reservoirs) that need resolution before definitive projections can be made.

  20. Optical coherence tomography technology and applications

    Fujimoto, James


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is the optical analog of ultrasound imaging and is a powerful imaging technique that enables non-invasive, in vivo, high resolution, cross-sectional imaging in biological tissue.  Between 30 to 40 Million OCT imaging procedures are performed per year in ophthalmology.  The overall market is estimated at more than 0.5 Billion USD.  A new generation OCT technology was developed, dramatically increasing resolution and speed, achieving in vivo optical biopsy, i.e. the visualization of tissue architectural morphology in situ and in real time.  Functional extensions of OCT technology enable non-invasive, depth resolved functional assessment and imaging of tissue.  The book introduces OCT technology and applications not only from an optical and technological viewpoint, but also from the biomedical and clinical perspective. This second edition is widely extended and covers significantly more topics then the first edition of this book. The chapters are written leading intern...

  1. Viscoelastic coagulation testing: technology, applications, and limitations.

    McMichael, Maureen A; Smith, Stephanie A


    Use of viscoelastic point-of-care (POC) coagulation instrumentation is relatively new to veterinary medicine. In human medicine, this technology has recently undergone resurgence owing to its capacity to detect hypercoagulability. The lack of sensitive tests for detecting hypercoagulable states, along with our current understanding of in vivo coagulation, highlights the deficiencies of standard coagulation tests, such as prothrombin and partial thromboplastin times, which are performed on platelet-poor plasma. Viscoelastic coagulation analyzers can provide an assessment of global coagulation, from the beginning of clot formation to fibrinolysis, utilizing whole blood. In people, use of this technology has been reported to improve management of hemostasis during surgery and decrease usage of blood products and is being used as a rapid screen for hypercoagulability. In veterinary medicine, clinical use of viscoelastic technology has been reported in dogs, cats, foals, and adult horses. This article will provide an overview of the technology, reagents and assays, applications in human and veterinary medicine, and limitations of the 3 viscoelastic POC analyzers in clinical use.


    Péter Korzenszky


    Full Text Available The economy of food technologies is greatly influenced by their energy consumption. Almost no operation or procedure exists that could be executed without the need for electricity. At the same time, several technologies require direct or indirect input of thermal energy as well. An example to quote is the heating of the raw materials of food industry or the pasteurisation or sterilisation of finished products, but heating the production rooms or cleaning or washing the machinery also require energy. Needless to say food industry plants constantly seek ways to improve their energy efficiency such as the reintroduction of waste heat into the technology and the use of renewables. Heat recovering heat exchangers are used in the pasteurisation technology of milk. In case of lower temperatures, however, simple heat exchangers are of no use. Few practical examples of heat recovery obtained upon cooling products or raw materials exist in the food industry even though the possibility of this is available using heat pumps. Heat pumps have been successfully applied to heat apartments with thermal energy recovered from the cooling of soils, water or air or to utilise the excess heat of thermal spring waters. Our present article introduces the application possibility in a soda water plant, fundamentally determining the quality of soda water and showing an example of rational utilisation.

  3. Technological applications of robotics in mining

    Konyukh, V. [Institute of Coal, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)


    There are the objective preconditions for use of automated multifunctional machines in mining. Some methods for evaluation of mining robotisability are offered. Functional modeling and Petri nets were used for synthesis and dynamic simulation of mining robotics systems. It enables to construct some robotics-based technologies for underground mining. The trial of rail robocar and teleloader in the Siberian ore-mines showed it is necessary to have a post-learning of control system. The created database about 90 applications of robotics in coal and other mining is used for choice and synthesis of robotized technologies. There are 6 direct and 8 indirect sources of robotics efficiency in mining, that are evaluated total by correlation between materialized and present labor expenses. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Ubiquitous Commerce: Theories, Technologies, and Applications

    Liyi Zhang


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of ubiquitous computing and mobile communication technologies, the traditional business model will change drastically. As a logical extension of e-commerce and m-commerce, ubiquitous commerce (u-commerce research and application are currently under transition with a history of numerous tried and failed solutions, and a future of promising but yet uncertain possibilities with potential new technology innovations. At this point of the development, we propose a suitable framework and organize the u-commerce research under the proposed classification scheme. The current situation outlined by the scheme has been addressed by exploratory and early phase studies. We hope the findings of this research will provide useful insights for anyone who is interested in u-commerce. The paper also provides some future directions for research.

  5. Wind turbines fundamentals, technologies, application, economics

    Hau, Erich


    "Wind Turbines" addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields.  In its revised third edition, special emphasis has been given to the latest trends in wind turbine technology and design, such as gearless drive train concepts, as well as on new fields of application, in particular the offshore utilisation of wind energy. The author has gained experience over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics.

  6. Ubiquitous Information Technologies and Applications CUTE 2012

    Park, Doo-Soon; Jia, Weijia; Yeo, Sang-Soo


    This book is for The 7th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Technologies and Applications (CUTE 2012). Ubiquitous computing will require a new approach to fitting technology to our lives. The advent of new computing devices, and the seamless connectivity between these devices, thanks to diverse wired and wireless networks, are enabling new opportunities for a user to perform his/her operation all the time and everywhere. These seamlessly connected devices are ranging from mobile handset to wearable computers. Also, it is expected that these devices will become so pervasive that they will be embedded in the surrounding physical environment, and transparent and invisible to a user. Such devices, whether carried on by people or embedded into other systems, will constitute a global internetworking infrastructure and likely to provide a new level of openness and dynamics. Ubiquitous computing has as its goal the enhancing computer use by pushing computational services out of conventional desktop in...

  7. Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP)


    This report is the fifth in a series of Annual Technical Summary Reports for the Advanced Turbine Technology Applications Project (ATTAP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report was prepared by Garrett Auxiliary Power Division (GAPD), a unit of Allied-Signal Aerospace Company, a unit of Allied Signal, Inc. The report includes information provided by Garrett Ceramic Components, and the Norton Advanced Ceramics Company, (formerly Norton/TRW Ceramics), subcontractors to GAPD on the ATTAP. This report covers plans and progress on ceramics development for commercial automotive applications over the period 1 Jan. through 31 Dec. 1992. Project effort conducted under this contract is part of the DOE Gas Turbine Highway Vehicle System program. This program is directed to provide the U.S. automotive industry the high-risk, long-range technology necessary to produce gas turbine engines for automobiles with reduced fuel consumption, reduced environmental impact, and a decreased reliance on scarce materials and resources. The program is oriented toward developing the high-risk technology of ceramic structural component design and fabrication, such that industry can carry this technology forward to production in the 1990's. The ATTAP test bed engine, carried over from the previous AGT101 project, is being used for verification testing of the durability of next generation ceramic components, and their suitability for service at Reference Powertrain Design conditions. This document reports the technical effort conducted by GAPD and the ATTAP subcontractors during the fifth year of the project. Topics covered include ceramic processing definition and refinement, design improvements to the ATTAP test bed engine and test rigs, and the methodology development of ceramic impact and fracture mechanisms. Appendices include reports by ATTAP subcontractors in the development of silicon nitride materials and processes.

  8. 用于电子皮肤的界面应力传感器的研究%Interfacial Stress Sensor for Artificial Skin Application

    吕晓洲; 卢文科


    截肢表面和假肢接口之间的应力分布以及人体足底应力分布对医学研究有着极为重要的意义.为了测量截肢和足底界面应力,本文提出了用平板电容和PDMS超弹塑性材料制作用于电子皮肤的界面应力传感器的方法.对该传感器的测量范围、器件大小、材料选择、机械部分设计、电极耦合和器件制作等问题提出了解决方法.最后,制作出了能够测量0~ 220kPa正压力和0~70kPa剪切力的用于电子皮肤的界面应力传感器.从实验得到传感器在不同正压力和剪切力下输出电容的实验数据,利用实验数据给出了传感器对正压力和剪切力的响应函数和响应曲线.%The interfacial stress distribution between residual limb and prosthetic socket is very important for medical research. To measure the interfacial stress distribution, this paper presents an interfacial stress sensor for artificial skin application based on plate capacitance and PDMS hyper elastic solves the problems of determining measurement range, sensor size,materials selection,mechanical design, electrode coupling and fabrication. The sensor is capable of measuring 0 ~ 220kPa compressive pressure and 0 ~ 70kPa shear stress simultaneously. An experiment is conducted to obtain the response data of the sensor to compressive pressure and shear stress. The transfer function and fitting curve of the sensor to compressive pressure and shear stress are giving according to the experiment data.

  9. Micropower impulse radar technology and applications

    Mast, J., LLNL


    The LLNL-developed Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR) technology has quickly gone from laboratory concept to embedded circuitry in numerous government and commercial systems in the last few years[l]. The main ideas behind MIR, invented by T. McEwan in the Laser Program, are the generation and detection systems for extremely low- power ultra-wideband pulses in the gigaHertz regime using low-cost components. These ideas, coupled with new antenna systems, timing and radio-frequency (RF) circuitry, computer interfaces, and signal processing, have provided the catalyst for a new generation of compact radar systems. Over the past several years we have concentrated on a number of applications of MIR which address a number of remote-sensing applications relevant to emerging programs in defense, transportation, medical, and environmental research. Some of the past commercial successes have been widely publicized [2] and are only now starting to become available for market. Over 30 patents have been filed and over 15 licenses have been signed on various aspects of the MIR technology. In addition, higher performance systems are under development for specific laboratory programs and government reimbursables. The MIR is an ultra- wideband, range-gated radar system that provides the enabling hardware technology used in the research areas mentioned above. It has numerous performance parameters that can be Selected by careful design to fit the requirements. We have improved the baseline, short- range, MIR system to demonstrate its effectiveness. The radar operates over the hand from approximately I to 4 GHz with pulse repetition frequencies up to 10 MHz. It provides a potential range resolution of I cm at ranges of greater than 20 m. We have developed a suite of algorithms for using MIR for image formation. These algorithms currently support Synthetic aperture and multistate array geometries. This baseline MIR radar imaging system has been used for several programmatic applications.

  10. Nonvolatile Memory Technology for Space Applications

    Oldham, Timothy R.; Irom, Farokh; Friendlich, Mark; Nguyen, Duc; Kim, Hak; Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.


    This slide presentation reviews several forms of nonvolatile memory for use in space applications. The intent is to: (1) Determine inherent radiation tolerance and sensitivities, (2) Identify challenges for future radiation hardening efforts, (3) Investigate new failure modes and effects, and technology modeling programs. Testing includes total dose, single event (proton, laser, heavy ion), and proton damage (where appropriate). Test vehicles are expected to be a variety of non-volatile memory devices as available including Flash (NAND and NOR), Charge Trap, Nanocrystal Flash, Magnetic Memory (MRAM), Phase Change--Chalcogenide, (CRAM), Ferroelectric (FRAM), CNT, and Resistive RAM.


    Reviewed by Yavuz AKBULUT


    Full Text Available The book is edited by Mahbubur Rahman Syed from Minnesota State University in Mankato, USA. It is published by Information Science Reference, which is an imprint of IGI Global, an international publishing company specialized in research publications inthe fields of technology, management and information science.The book is consisted of 354 pages covering 18 chapters. Topics covered can be listed as adaptive QOS, agent-based architecture, algorithm education, asynchronous learning environments, collaborative education model, distance learning, e-Learning, hypermedia,lecture video contents, lecture video player, multicast applications and SEAMAN .

  12. Aerospace Technologies and Applications for Dual Use

     the Planet safety and security. In this frame, the concept of dual use - the set of technologies and applications that can be exploied for both civil and military purposes - becomes a key-topic. In addition, the aerospace is a strategic building block in the deployment of a network centric environment......Events which occurred over the past years have shown how the threat related to both intentional and natural disasters could bring the civil and the miliary worlds closer in the conception and deployment of countermeasures, as well as in the identification of effective strategies for enhancing...

  13. Technology thrusts for future Earth science applications

    Habib, Shahid


    This paper presents NASA's recent direction to invest in the critical science instrument and platform technologies in order to realize more reliable, frequent and versatile missions for future Earth Science measurements. Historically, NASA's Earth Science Enterprise has developed and flown science missions that have been large in size, mass and volume. These missions have taken much longer to implement due to technology development time, and have carried a large suite of instruments on a large spacecraft. NASA is now facing an era where the budget for the future years is more or less flat and the possibility for any major new start does not vividly appear on the horizon. Unfortunately, the scientific measurement needs for remote sensing have not shrunk to commensurate with the budget constraints. In fact, the challenges and scientific appetite in search of answers to a score of outstanding questions have been gradually expanding. With these factors in mind, for the last three years NASA has been changing its focus to concentrate on how to take advantage of smaller missions by relying on industry, and minimizing the overall mission life cycle by developing technologies that are independent of the mission implementation cycle. The major redirection of early investment in the critical technologies should eventually have its rewards and significantly reduce the mission development period. Needless to say, in the long run this approach should save money, minimize risk, promote or encourage partnering, allow for a rapid response to measurement needs, and enable frequent missions making a wider variety of earth science measurements. This paper gives an overview of some of the identified crucial technologies and their intended applications for meeting the future Earth Science challenges.

  14. Reservoir Protection Technology in China: Research & Application

    Li Qiangui; Wu Juan; Kang Yili


    @@ Great development of reservoir protection technology (RPT) has been achieved since 1996, including oil and gas reservoir protection for exploration wells, reservoir protection during underbalanced drilling, protection of fractured tight sandstone gas reservoir, and reservoir protection while increase production and reconstructing, development and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) etc. It has stepped into a new situation with special features and advantage. These technical advancements marked that China's RTP have realized leaps from porous reservoirs to fractured reservoirs,from conventional medium-to-low permeability reservoirs to unconventional reservoirs, from oil and gas producers to exploration wells, and from application mainly in drilling and completion processes to application in stimulation,development, production and EOR processes.

  15. Digital signature technology for health care applications.

    Wang, H A; Wang, Y Z; Wang, S


    The personal computer and the Internet have provided many useful services to both health care professionals and the general public. However, security remains a key factor that could limit their further growth potential. We reviewed and assessed the potential use of the cryptographic technique to resolve security issues. We also analyzed services available in the current market environment and determined their viability in supporting health care applications. While the cryptographic application has a great potential in protecting security of health care information transmitted over the Internet, a nationwide security infrastructure is needed to support deployment of the technology. Although desirable, it could be cost prohibitive to build a national system to be dedicated for the health care purpose. A hybrid approach that involves the government's development of a dedicated security infrastructure for health care providers and the use of commercial off-the-shelf products and services by the general public offers the most cost-effective and viable approach.

  16. CMOS digital pixel sensors: technology and applications

    Skorka, Orit; Joseph, Dileepan


    CMOS active pixel sensor technology, which is widely used these days for digital imaging, is based on analog pixels. Transition to digital pixel sensors can boost signal-to-noise ratios and enhance image quality, but can increase pixel area to dimensions that are impractical for the high-volume market of consumer electronic devices. There are two main approaches to digital pixel design. The first uses digitization methods that largely rely on photodetector properties and so are unique to imaging. The second is based on adaptation of a classical analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for in-pixel data conversion. Imaging systems for medical, industrial, and security applications are emerging lower-volume markets that can benefit from these in-pixel ADCs. With these applications, larger pixels are typically acceptable, and imaging may be done in invisible spectral bands.

  17. Applications of GPS technologies to field sports.

    Aughey, Robert J


    Global positioning system (GPS) technology was made possible after the invention of the atomic clock. The first suggestion that GPS could be used to assess the physical activity of humans followed some 40 y later. There was a rapid uptake of GPS technology, with the literature concentrating on validation studies and the measurement of steady-state movement. The first attempts were made to validate GPS for field sport applications in 2006. While GPS has been validated for applications for team sports, some doubts continue to exist on the appropriateness of GPS for measuring short high-velocity movements. Thus, GPS has been applied extensively in Australian football, cricket, hockey, rugby union and league, and soccer. There is extensive information on the activity profile of athletes from field sports in the literature stemming from GPS, and this includes total distance covered by players and distance in velocity bands. Global positioning systems have also been applied to detect fatigue in matches, identify periods of most intense play, different activity profiles by position, competition level, and sport. More recent research has integrated GPS data with the physical capacity or fitness test score of athletes, game-specific tasks, or tactical or strategic information. The future of GPS analysis will involve further miniaturization of devices, longer battery life, and integration of other inertial sensor data to more effectively quantify the effort of athletes.

  18. Polymer recycling: potential application of radiation technology

    Burillo, Guillermina; Clough, Roger L. E-mail:; Czvikovszky, Tibor; Guven, Olgun; Le Moel, Alain; Liu Weiwei; Singh, Ajit; Yang Jingtian; Zaharescu, Traian


    Management of solid waste is an important problem, which is becoming progressively worse as a byproduct of continuing economic growth and development. Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) comprise a steadily increasing proportion of the municipal and industrial waste going into landfill. Development of technologies for reducing polymeric waste, which are acceptable from the environmental standpoint, and which are cost-effective, has proven to be a difficult challenge due to complexities inherent in the reuse of polymers. Establishing optimal processes for the reuse/recycling of polymeric materials thus remains a worldwide challenge as we enter the new century. Due to the ability of ionizing radiation to alter the structure and properties of bulk polymeric materials, and the fact that it is applicable to essentially all polymer types, irradiation holds promise for impacting the polymer waste problem. The three main possibilities for use of radiation in this application are: (1) enhancing the mechanical properties and performance of recovered materials or material blends, principally through crosslinking, or through surface modification of different phases being combined; (2) treatment causing or enhancing the decomposition of polymers, particularly through chain scission, leading to recovery of either low molecular weight mixtures, or powders, for use as chemical feedstocks or additives; (3) production of advanced polymeric materials designed for environmental compatibility. This paper provides an overview of the polymer recycling problem, describes the major technological obstacles to the implementation of recycling technologies, and outlines some of the approaches being taken. A review of radiation-based recycling research is then provided, followed by a discussion of future directions where irradiation may be relevant to the problems currently inhibiting the widespread recycling of polymeric materials.

  19. A molecular dynamics study of polymer/graphene interfacial systems

    Rissanou, Anastassia N.; Harmandaris, Vagelis [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, GR-71409, Heraklion, Crete, Greece and Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (IACM), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), GR-71110, Heraklion, Cret (Greece)


    Graphene based polymer nanocomposites are hybrid materials with a very broad range of technological applications. In this work, we study three hybrid polymer/graphene interfacial systems (polystyrene/graphene, poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene and polyethylene/graphene) through detailed atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Density profiles, structural characteristics and mobility aspects are being examined at the molecular level for all model systems. In addition, we compare the properties of the hybrid systems to the properties of the corresponding bulk ones, as well as to theoretical predictions.

  20. Research of application mode for FTTX technology

    Wang, Zhong; Yun, Xiang; Huang, Wei


    With rapid development of Internet and broadband access network, the technologies of xDSL, FTTx+LAN, WLAN have more applications, new network service emerges in endless stream, especially the increase of network game, meeting TV, video on demand, etc. FTTH supports all present and future service with enormous bandwidth, including traditional telecommunication service, traditional data service and traditional TV service, and the future digital TV and VOD. With huge bandwidth of FTTH, it wins the final solution of broadband network, becomes the final goal of development of optical access network. In this paper, technique theory of EPON is introduced at first. At the same time, MAC frame structure, automatic detection and ranging of MPCP, DBA,and multi-LLID of EPON is analyzed. Then, service development ability, cost advantage and maintenance superiority based on EPON technology are carried out. At last,with Cost comparison between FTTH / FTTB building model and the traditional model, FTTB + LAN mode which is suitable for the newadding residential users in general areas and FTTN + DSL mode which is suitable for the old city and rural access network transformation are built up in detail. And FTTN + DSL project of rural information in rural areas and FTTH broadband HOUSE project on service solutions program are analyzed. comparing to the traditional access technologies, EPON technology has the obvious advantages, such as distance transmission, high or wide band, saving line resources, service abilities, etc. These are the qualities which not only be served for home users, but solve more access problems for us effectively.

  1. Recombinant CBM-fusion technology - Applications overview.

    Oliveira, Carla; Carvalho, Vera; Domingues, Lucília; Gama, Francisco M


    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are small components of several enzymes, which present an independent fold and function, and specific carbohydrate-binding activity. Their major function is to bind the enzyme to the substrate enhancing its catalytic activity, especially in the case of insoluble substrates. The immense diversity of CBMs, together with their unique properties, has long raised their attention for many biotechnological applications. Recombinant DNA technology has been used for cloning and characterizing new CBMs. In addition, it has been employed to improve the purity and availability of many CBMs, but mainly, to construct bi-functional CBM-fused proteins for specific applications. This review presents a comprehensive summary of the uses of CBMs recombinantly produced from heterologous organisms, or by the original host, along with the latest advances. Emphasis is given particularly to the applications of recombinant CBM-fusions in: (a) modification of fibers, (b) production, purification and immobilization of recombinant proteins, (c) functionalization of biomaterials and (d) development of microarrays and probes.

  2. Development and application prospects of piezoelectric precision driving technology


    With the rapid development of science and technology,microelectronics manufacturing,photonics technology,space technology,ultra-precision machining,micro-robotics,biomedical engineering and other fields urgently need the support of modern precision driving theory and technology.Modern precision driving technology can be generally divided into two parts:electromagnetic and non-electromagnetic driving technology.Electromagnetic driving technology is based on traditional technology,has a low thrust-weight ratio,and needs deceleration devices with a cumbrous system or a complex structure.Moreover,it is difficult to improve positioning accuracy with this technology type.Thus,electromagnetic driving technology is still unable to meet the requirements for the above applications.Non-electromagnetic driving technology is a new choice.As a category of non-electromagnetic driving technology,piezoelectric driving technology becomes an important branch of modern precision driving technology.High holding torque and acute response make it suitable as an accurate positioning actuator.This paper presents the development of piezoelectric precision driving technology at home and abroad and gives an in-depth analysis.Future perspectives on the technology's applications in the following fields are described:1) integrated circuit manufacturing technology;2) fiber optic component manufacturing technology;3) micro parts manipulation and assembly technology;4) biomedical engineering;5)aerospace technology;and 6) ultra-precision processing technology.

  3. Towards the Application of Agent Technology in Information Systems


    The integration of agent technology with Information Systems (ISs) to assist in dealing with information overload and complex problems has received increasing attention over recent years. This paper studies the necessity for the application of agent technology in today's ISs, and discusses some kinds of applications of agent technology in ISs.

  4. Release of surfactant cargo from interfacially-active halloysite clay nanotubes for oil spill remediation.

    Owoseni, Olasehinde; Nyankson, Emmanuel; Zhang, Yueheng; Adams, Samantha J; He, Jibao; McPherson, Gary L; Bose, Arijit; Gupta, Ram B; John, Vijay T


    Naturally occurring halloysite clay nanotubes are effective in stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions and can serve as interfacially-active vehicles for delivering oil spill treating agents. Halloysite nanotubes adsorb at the oil-water interface and stabilize oil-in-water emulsions that are stable for months. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (Cryo-SEM) imaging of the oil-in-water emulsions shows that these nanotubes assemble in a side-on orientation at the oil-water interface and form networks on the interface through end-to-end linkages. For application in the treatment of marine oil spills, halloysite nanotubes were successfully loaded with surfactants and utilized as an interfacially-active vehicle for the delivery of surfactant cargo. The adsorption of surfactant molecules at the interface serves to lower the interfacial tension while the adsorption of particles provides a steric barrier to drop coalescence. Pendant drop tensiometry was used to characterize the dynamic reduction in interfacial tension resulting from the release of dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DOSS) from halloysite nanotubes. At appropriate surfactant compositions and loadings in halloysite nanotubes, the crude oil-saline water interfacial tension is effectively lowered to levels appropriate for the dispersion of oil. This work indicates a novel concept of integrating particle stabilization of emulsions together with the release of chemical surfactants from the particles for the development of an alternative, cheaper, and environmentally-benign technology for oil spill remediation.

  5. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    Bozovic, Ivan [Mount Sinai, NY; Logvenov, Gennady [Port Jefferson Station, NY; Gozar, Adrian Mihai [Port Jefferson, NY


    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  6. Scanning probe microscopies for the creation and characterization of interfacial architectures: Studies of alkyl thiolate monolayers at gold

    Green, John -Bruce [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) offers access to the structural and material properties of interfaces, and when combined with macroscopic characterization techniques results in a powerful interfacial development tool. However, the relative infancy of SPM techniques has dictated that initial investigations concentrate on model interfacial systems as benchmarks for testing the control and characterization capabilities of SPM. One such family of model interfacial systems results from the spontaneous adsorption of alkyl thiols to gold. This dissertation examines the application of SPM to the investigation of the interfacial properties of these alkyl thiolate monolayers. Structural investigations result in a proposed explanation for counterintuitive correlations between substrate roughness and heterogeneous electron transfer barrier properties. Frictional measurements are used for characterization of the surface free energy of a series of end-group functionalized monolayers, as well as for the material properties of monolayers composed of varying chain length alkyl thiols. Additional investigations used these characterization techniques to monitor the real-time evolution of chemical and electrochemical surface reactions. The results of these investigations demonstrates the value of SPM technology to the compositional mapping of surfaces, elucidation of interfacial defects, creation of molecularly sized chemically heterogeneous architectures, as well as to the monitoring of surface reactions. However, it is the future which will demonstrate the usefulness of SPM technology to the advancement of science and technology.

  7. Scanning probe microscopies for the creation and characterization of interfacial architectures: Studies of alkyl thiolate monolayers at gold

    Green, J.


    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) offers access to the structural and material properties of interfaces, and when combined with macroscopic characterization techniques results in a powerful interfacial development tool. However, the relative infancy of SPM techniques has dictated that initial investigations concentrate on model interfacial systems as benchmarks for testing the control and characterization capabilities of SPM. One such family of model interfacial systems results from the spontaneous adsorption of alkyl thiols to gold. This dissertation examines the application of SPM to the investigation of the interfacial properties of these alkyl thiolate monolayers. Structural investigations result in a proposed explanation for counterintuitive correlations between substrate roughness and heterogeneous electron transfer barrier properties. Frictional measurements are used for characterization of the surface free energy of a series of end-group functionalized monolayers, as well as for the material properties of monolayers composed of varying chain length alkyl thiols. Additional investigations used these characterization techniques to monitor the real-time evolution of chemical and electrochemical surface reactions. The results of these investigations demonstrates the value of SPM technology to the compositional mapping of surfaces, elucidation of interfacial defects, creation of molecularly sized chemically heterogeneous architectures, as well as to the monitoring of surface reactions. However, it is the future which will demonstrate the usefulness of SPM technology to the advancement of science and technology.

  8. NCBO Technology: Powering semantically aware applications.

    Whetzel, Patricia L


    As new biomedical technologies are developed, the amount of publically available biomedical data continues to increase. To help manage these vast and disparate data sources, researchers have turned to the Semantic Web. Specifically, ontologies are used in data annotation, natural language processing, information retrieval, clinical decision support, and data integration tasks. The development of software applications to perform these tasks requires the integration of Web services to incorporate the wide variety of ontologies used in the health care and life sciences. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology, a National Center for Biomedical Computing created under the NIH Roadmap, developed BioPortal, which provides access to one of the largest repositories of biomedical ontologies. The NCBO Web services provide programmtic access to these ontologies and can be grouped into four categories; Ontology, Mapping, Annotation, and Data Access. The Ontology Web services provide access to ontologies, their metadata, ontology versions, downloads, navigation of the class hierarchy (parents, children, siblings) and details of each term. The Mapping Web services provide access to the millions of ontology mappings published in BioPortal. The NCBO Annotator Web service "tags" text automatically with terms from ontologies in BioPortal, and the NCBO Resource Index Web services provides access to an ontology-based index of public, online data resources. The NCBO Widgets package the Ontology Web services for use directly in Web sites. The functionality of the NCBO Web services and widgets are incorporated into semantically aware applications for ontology development and visualization, data annotation, and data integration. This overview will describe these classes of applications, discuss a few examples of each type, and which NCBO Web services are used by these applications.

  9. Microencapsulation Technologies for Corrosion Protective Coating Applications

    Li, Wenyan; Buhrow, Jerry; Jolley, Scott; Calle, Luz; Pearman, Benjamin; Zhang, Xuejun


    Microencapsulation technologies for functional smart Coatings for autonomous corrosion control have been a research area of strong emphasis during the last decade. This work concerns the development of pH sensitive micro-containers (microparticles and microcapsules) for autonomous corrosion control. This paper presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in the field of microencapsulation for corrosion control applications, as well as the technical details of the pH sensitive microcontainer approach, such as selection criteria for corrosion indicators and corrosion inhibitors; the development and optimization of encapsulation methods; function evaluation before and after incorporation of the microcontainers into coatings; and further optimization to improve coating compatibility and performance.

  10. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing


    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  11. Synthetic biology platform technologies for antimicrobial applications.

    Braff, Dana; Shis, David; Collins, James J


    The growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance calls for new approaches in the development of antimicrobial therapeutics. Likewise, improved diagnostic measures are essential in guiding the application of targeted therapies and preventing the evolution of therapeutic resistance. Discovery platforms are also needed to form new treatment strategies and identify novel antimicrobial agents. By applying engineering principles to molecular biology, synthetic biologists have developed platforms that improve upon, supplement, and will perhaps supplant traditional broad-spectrum antibiotics. Efforts in engineering bacteriophages and synthetic probiotics demonstrate targeted antimicrobial approaches that can be fine-tuned using synthetic biology-derived principles. Further, the development of paper-based, cell-free expression systems holds promise in promoting the clinical translation of molecular biology tools for diagnostic purposes. In this review, we highlight emerging synthetic biology platform technologies that are geared toward the generation of new antimicrobial therapies, diagnostics, and discovery channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Future information communication technology and applications

    Kim, Jung; Sahama, Tony; Yang, Chung-Huang; 2013 International Conference on Future Information & Communication Engineering (ICFICE 2013)


    These proceedings are based on the 2013 International Conference on Future Information & Communication Engineering (ICFICE 2013), which will be held at Shenyang in China from June 24-26, 2013. The conference is open to all over the world, and participation from Asia-Pacific region is particularly encouraged. The focus of this conference is on all technical aspects of electronics, information, and communications ICFICE-13 will provide an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of FICE. In addition, the conference will publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories and practical applications in FICE. Furthermore, we expect that the conference and its publications will be a trigger for further related research and technology improvements in this important subject.  "This work was supported by the NIPA (National IT Industry Promotion Agency) of Korea Grant funded by the Korean Government (Ministry of Science, ICT...

  13. Phase shifter technology assessment - Prospects and applications

    Sokolov, Vladimir


    Capabilities and limitations of MMIC phase shifter technology at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies are reviewed. MMIC-based phase arrays make it possible to integrate active elements at the array face, i.e., to incorporate transmit power amplifiers and/or low noise amplifiers at each antenna element. Active elements make it possible to increase power efficiency and reliability and provide graceful degradation. Monolithic integration of the various transmit/receive functions including phase shifting is considered to be feasible through at least the lower millimeter-wave frequency range (about 30-100 GHz). MMIC integration also allows more flexibility in array design including those that are intended for airborne conformal applications.

  14. Prospect of nuclear application in food technology

    Maha, M. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)


    Irradiation changes the normal living process of cells and the structure of molecules. It is good for food preservation because it kills off many of the microorganisms in the product and makes the remainder more sensitive to antimicrobial factors prevailing after the radiation treatment. It offers more benefits than conventional preservation in that it increases storage stability and quality of foodstuffs with the minimum use of energy. Good storage quality gives way to wider distribution of food, alleviates the world's food shortage, and improves food supplies. Research proved that irradiation increased the quality of subtropical fruits, spices, fish, and meat. No refrigeration is needed to store meat, poultry and fish preserved by the combination of irradiation and mild heat treatment. Nuclear technology can also be applied to destroy harmful insects, to sterilize food, to inhibit the sprouting of root crops, and to control ripening in stored fruits and vegetables. Based on the above potentials of irradiation, the prospect of nuclear application in food technology is promising.

  15. HAMLET: HPCN Technology for Real-Time, Embedded Applications

    Mager, J.W.L.J.; Dam, A. ten


    Building an application by using HPCN technology makes the solution scalable and therefore more flexible. The uptake of HPCN technology for real-time, embedded applications, however, is severely hampered by the lack of real application development support. Within the Esprit project HAMLET,

  16. Survey on Multimedia Technologies for Mobile Learning Applications



    Full Text Available Mobile technologies are developing very fast. This paper presents a survey on multimedia technologies for mobile learning applications, focusing on multimedia programming techniques for Windows Mobile, Symbian, and Java ME.

  17. Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in ...

    Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Teaching ... was developed by the researcher, validated by experts and used for data collection. ... assistive technologies, skilled teachers of ICT, computer illiteracy, fear of the ...

  18. Flexible electrochromic foils: science, technology, and application

    Azens, Andris; Avendano, Esteban; Backholm, Jonas; Berggren, Lars; Gustavsson, Greger; Karmhag, Richard; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Roos, Arne; Granqvist, Claes-Göran


    We discuss a number of aspects of a novel flexible electrochromic foil capable of varying its optical transmittance. The foil includes thin films of tungsten oxide and nickel oxide laminated together by a polymer electrolyte. Starting with scientific issues, we discuss the dominating defects in amorphous tungsten oxide and how they may yield a consistent picture of the optical properties of tungsten oxide films versus nonstoichiometry and ion intercalation. We also present a detailed model for the colorationhleaching due to proton extractiodinsertion in thin surface sheaths of nanocrystallites of nickel oxide. Next we consider aspects of technology and treat options to enhance the bleached-state transmittance by mixing the nickel oxide with another oxide having a wide band gap. We also cover pre-assembly charge insertion/ extraction by facile gas treatments of the films as well as practical device manufacturing. The final part of the paper deals with a number of applications, with emphasis on architectural "smart windows" which can improve indoor comfort at the same time as they accomplish significant energy savings due to lowered requirements for air cooling. Applications concerning electrochromics-based eyewear are introduced; these may be approaching market introduction.

  19. Biometric Systems: Evolution, Applications and Technology



    Full Text Available Biometrics is a futuristic and yet a current technology, with an ever bigger role in the future. Biometrics will not be able to replace passwords, swipe cards, or pin numbers etc., rather work with them in enhancing security in a simple, reliable, and cost effective way. Biometrics revolution has led to over 1 billion people being already covered by biometric identification programs in the lower middle income countries. Biometric system covers application pertaining to Authentication, Transaction, Access Privilege and it relies on Credentials, Demographics and Sensor data to get a match score with certain degree of confidence using biometric recognition tools. Biometrics systems are extremely useful due to its traits such as security (stop unauthorised person from getting access, convenience (No need to carry credentials like Identity proofs etc., Audit trail (creates an audit trail for say bank vault access etc., Fraud prevention (verifying if credit card holder is rightful owner at PoS, and de-duplication (One person, one documentation. India’s well known and ambitious pan-India project of Adhaar Card is one good example relying on biometric application for generating unique identification and de-duplication for wide ranging government schemes


    Deepti Kumar


    Full Text Available Biometrics is a futuristic and yet a current technology, with an ever bigger role in the future. Biometrics will not be able to replace passwords, swipe cards, or pin numbers etc., rather work with them in enhancing security in a simple, reliable, and cost effective way. Biometrics revolution has led to over 1 billion people being already covered by biometric identification programs in the lower middle income countries. Biometric system covers application pertaining to Authentication, Transaction, Access Privilege and it relies on Credentials, Demographics and Sensor data to get a match score with certain degree of confidence using biometric recognition tools. Biometrics systems are extremely useful due to its traits such as security (stop unauthorised person from getting access, convenience (No need to carry credentials like Identity proofs etc., Audit trail (creates an audit trail for say bank vault access etc., Fraud prevention (verifying if credit card holder is rightful owner at PoS, and de-duplication (One person, one documentation. India’s well known and ambitious pan-India project of Adhaar Card is one good example relying on biometric application for generating unique identification and de-duplication for wide ranging government schemes.

  1. Development of beam utilization/application technology

    Choi, B. H.; Kim, Y.K.; Song, T.Y. [and others


    High power proton accelerator is considered as one of national fundamental research facilities and a key to advanced nuclear technology development, having been widely used in an un detachable relationship with nuclear research in advanced countries. The high power proton accelerator will be installed in several phases as an up front facility of the nuclear waste transmutation system. It is expected that a common understanding and a general agreement over proper utilization of the accelerator should be deduced and that a user program for beam utilization and application should be firmly established in time for the completion of each phase of the accelerator. This high power proton accelerator will consist of several component accelerators and, from up front, accelerators such as injector, RFQ, CCDTL, etc. will be installed in sequence and deliver respectively at each stage beams of 3MeV, 20MeV, 100Mev, etc. to be variously utilized forindustries, defence industry, medical treatment, environmental protection and basic science research. In order for the accelerator to be fully utilized as a national fundamental research facility beyond nuclear field, it is necessary to formulate a proceeding plan of the user program for the accelerator and to cultivate industrial utilization/application studies of proton beams accelerated by injector or RFQ of the accelerator. (author). 38 refs., 84 tabs., 39 figs.

  2. 9 Waste Rubber Technologies Passed the Review on Advanced Applicable Technologies by MIIT

    Qiart Bozhang


    To promote the development of integrative utilization technologies of industrial solid wastes and to enhance the level of integrative utilization, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) held Reviewing Meeting of Advanced Applicable Technologies for the Integrative Utilization of Industrial Solid Wastes on April 27. 9 integrative utilization technologies of waste rubber passed this review.

  3. Sub-micronic capsules based on gelatin and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate) obtained by interfacial condensation with potential biomedical applications.

    Iurea, Delia Mihaela; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Chailan, Jean-François; Carriere, Pascal; Popa, Marcel


    New sub-micronic capsules based on a copolymer of maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate and a natural polymer (gelatin) using an interfacial condensation method were obtained. Sub-micronic capsules were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, zeta-potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to some parameters of the synthesis reaction (polymer weight ratio, acetone/water ratio, surfactant concentration), the mean diameter of the sub-micronic capsules can be tuned from 200 to 760 nm. The sub-micronic capsules show a higher agglomeration tendency as the amount of gelatin in their composition increases. The swelling capacity in aqueous solutions is dependent on the composition and size of the sub-micronic capsules, decreasing with their diameter and gelatin composition. The drug loading and release capacity was studied using Penicillin G (sodium salt) (PG), and it has been proved that it is influenced by the sub-micronic capsules morphology induced by preparation parameters. Encapsulation and controlled release of small molecule were successfully carried out, demonstrating the potential biomedical applications of these new easily obtained sub-micronic capsules.

  4. Measuring and Assessing Application-Specific Technology Readiness

    Antonino Ardilio


    Full Text Available Technology readiness is a crucial issue for decision-makers in technology-driven enterprises, determining whether the technology will or won’t be adopted for use in products or as a process technology. We know that, in some cases, lower technology readiness will be accepted by the users; these could be end-users, but, more often, it will be used in companies. The impact of a too early or too late adopted technology can be huge for companies and can even threaten market position or the existence of the company itself. Research institutes and technology developers, in particular application-oriented research organizations, might be also interested in which parameters or technology attributes should be improved or extended, according to the addressed application field, so that the technology fulfils the market-requested functions and a fast diffusion in the market can be achieved. Existing technology readiness models cover the various usages of the technology. In many cases, they assess the technology’s use in across different industries and application fields. However, the requirements in many fields are mostly different and very specific; thus, evaluation at such a high level can’t conclude whether the technology should be considered and adopted in the applications involved. This paper introduces an approach on how to determine and map the application-specific readiness of technology by decomposing both the application and the technology into its requested functions, as well as dynamically mapping the individual technology performance criteria. The applicability of this model will be demonstrated and discussed by a use case in the area of OLED-technology.

  5. Interfacial re-arrangement in initial microbial adhesion to surfaces

    Busscher, Henk J.; Norde, Willem; Sharma, Prashant K.; van der Mei, Henny C.


    Upon initial microbial adhesion to a surface multiple events occur that include interfacial re-arrangements in the region between an adhering organism and a surface Application of physico-chemical mechanisms to explain microbial adhesion to surfaces requires better knowledge of the interfacial re ar

  6. iBeacon technology in the development of mobile applications


    iBeacon technology, made possible by BLE, enables mobile application developers to base their applications on proximity. We would like to know how proximity can be integrated in the development of mobile applications. In the thesis we take a deeper look at iBeacon technology where monitoring and ranging are examined and the differences between location and proximity explained. Available options used for the configuration of iBeacons are also presented. Then two existing iBeacon applications a...

  7. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    Wooten, F. T.


    The results are presented of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute. The accomplishments of the Research Triangle Institute Application Team during the reporting period are as follows: The team has identified 44 new problems for investigation, has accomplished 8 technology applications and 8 potential technology applications, has closed 88 old problems, and reactivated 3 old problems, and on August 31, 1972, has a total of 57 problems under active investigation.

  8. Technology and applications of ultrafast fiber lasers

    Lang, Marion; Hellerer, Thomas; Stuhler, Juergen


    We briefly review the key technology of modern fiber based femtosecond laser sources summarizing advantages and disadvantages of different mode-locking solutions. A description of possible extensions of a FemtoFiber-type modelocked Er-doped fiber laser oscillator (1560 nm) reveals the flexibility with respect to wavelength coverage (488 nm .. 2200 nm) and pulse duration (10 fs .. 10 ps). The resulting FemtoFiber family and its versions for instrument integration allow one to use these state-of-the-art light sources in many important applications, e.g. THz spectroscopy and microscopy. We show that, depending on the fiber laser model and the THz emitter, THz radiation can be produced with 4-10 THz bandwidth and detected with up to 60 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Electronically controlled optical scanning (ECOPS) - a unique method for fast, precise and comfortable sampling of the THz pulse or other pump-probe experiments - is described and recommended for efficient data acquisition. As examples for modern microscopy with ultrafast fiber lasers we present results of two-photon fluorescence, coherent microscopy techniques (SHG/THG/CARS) and fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM).

  9. Bibliography: injection technology applicable to geothermal utilization

    Darnell, A.J.; Eichelberger, R.L.


    This bibliography cites 500 documents that may be helpful in planning, analysis, research, and development of the various aspects of injection technology in geothermal applications. These documents include results from government research; development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected references from the literature; symposia; references from various technical societies and installations; reference books; reviews; and other selected material. The cited references are from (1) subject searching, using indexing, storage, and retrieval information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center's on-line retrieval system, RECON; (2) searches of references from the RECON data base, of work by authors known to be active in the field of geothermal energy research and development; (3) subject and author searches by the computerized data storage and retrieval system of Chemical Abstracts, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC; and (4) selected references from texts and reviews on this subject. Each citation includes title, author, author affiliation, date of publication, and source. The citations are listed in chronological order (most recent first) in each of the subject categories for which this search was made. The RECON accession number is also given.

  10. Ethical Applications of Technology in HRD

    Lin, Hong


    Human resource development (HRD) professionals are increasingly incorporating technology into their work activities. However, research that examines the ethics in the use of technology by HRD professionals is still underrepresented in the literature. This article first conducts a PEST (political, economic, social-cultural, and technological)…

  11. Expanding the applicability of Heallth Technology Assessments

    Draborg, Eva; Hansen, Helle Ploug


    external validity and the effectiveness of a technology in normal daily practice. SR and HTAs favors internal valid trials and thereby proofs of possible cause-effect relationship between a technology and outcomes but at the expense of the wider perspectives of a technology. HTA have a policy...

  12. NASA Application Team Program: Application of aerospace technology in biology and medicine


    The results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program in technology application for the reporting period September 1, 1972, to August 31, 1973 are reported. The accomplishments of the application team during the reporting period are as follows: The team has identified 39 new problems for investigation, has accomplished 7 technology applications, 4 potential technology applications, 2 impacts, has closed 38 old problems, and has a total of 59 problems under active investigation.

  13. Structural and electrical characteristics of ALD-HfO2/n-Si gate stack with SiON interfacial layer for advanced CMOS technology

    Gupta, Richa; Rajput, Renu; Prasher, Rakesh; Vaid, Rakesh


    We report the fabrication of an ultra-thin silicon oxynitride (SiON) as an interfacial layer (IL) for n-Si/ALD-HfO2 gate stack with reduced leakage current. The XRD, AFM, FTIR, FESEM and EDAX characterizations have been performed for structural and morphological studies. Electrical parameters such as dielectric constant (K), interface trap density (Dit), leakage current density (J), effective oxide charge (Qeff), barrier height (Φbo), ideality factor (ƞ), breakdown-voltage (Vbr) and series resistance (Rs) were extracted through C-V, G-V and I-V measurements. The determined values of K, Dit, J, Qeff, Φbo, ƞ, Vbr and Rs are 14.4, 0.5 × 10 11 eV-1 cm-2, 2.2 × 10-9 A/cm2, 0.3 × 1013 cm-2, 0.42, 2.1, -0.33 and 14.5 MΩ respectively. SiON growth prior to HfO2 deposition has curtailed the problem of high leakage current density and interfacial traps due to sufficient amount of N2 incorporated at the interface.

  14. Quantum technology: from research to application

    Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Ranade, Kedar S.; Anton, Christian; Arndt, Markus; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Bayer, Manfred; Berg, Gunnar; Calarco, Tommaso; Fuchs, Harald; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Grassl, Markus; Hänggi, Peter; Heckl, Wolfgang M.; Hertel, Ingolf-Volker; Huelga, Susana; Jelezko, Fedor; Keimer, Bernhard; Kotthaus, Jörg P.; Leuchs, Gerd; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Maurer, Ueli; Pfau, Tilman; Plenio, Martin B.; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Renn, Ortwin; Silberhorn, Christine; Schiedmayer, Jörg; Schmitt-Landsiedel, Doris; Schönhammer, Kurt; Ustinov, Alexey; Walther, Philip; Weinfurter, Harald; Welzl, Emo; Wiesendanger, Roland; Wolf, Stefan; Zeilinger, Anton; Zoller, Peter


    The term quantum physics refers to the phenomena and characteristics of atomic and subatomic systems which cannot be explained by classical physics. Quantum physics has had a long tradition in Germany, going back nearly 100 years. Quantum physics is the foundation of many modern technologies. The first generation of quantum technology provides the basis for key areas such as semiconductor and laser technology. The "new" quantum technology, based on influencing individual quantum systems, has been the subject of research for about the last 20 years. Quantum technology has great economic potential due to its extensive research programs conducted in specialized quantum technology centres throughout the world. To be a viable and active participant in the economic potential of this field, the research infrastructure in Germany should be improved to facilitate more investigations in quantum technology research.

  15. Educators' Perceived Importance of Web 2.0 Technology Applications

    Pritchett, Christal C.; Wohleb, Elisha C.; Pritchett, Christopher G.


    This research study was designed to examine the degree of perceived importance of interactive technology applications among various groups of certified educators; the degree to which education professionals utilized interactive online technology applications and to determine if there was a significant difference between the different groups based…

  16. Educators' Perceived Importance of Web 2.0 Technology Applications

    Pritchett, Christal C.; Wohleb, Elisha C.; Pritchett, Christopher G.


    This research study was designed to examine the degree of perceived importance of interactive technology applications among various groups of certified educators; the degree to which education professionals utilized interactive online technology applications and to determine if there was a significant difference between the different groups based…

  17. Computed Tomography Technology: Development and Applications for Defence

    Baheti, G. L.; Saxena, Nisheet; Tripathi, D. K.; Songara, K. C.; Meghwal, L. R.; Meena, V. L.


    Computed Tomography(CT) has revolutionized the field of Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation (NDT&E). Tomography for industrial applications warrants design and development of customized solutions catering to specific visualization requirements. Present paper highlights Tomography Technology Solutions implemented at Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur (DLJ). Details on the technological developments carried out and their utilization for various Defence applications has been covered.

  18. The Application of Augmented Reality Technology in Food Professional Education

    Wei Shan


    This study presents the application of augmented reality technology in food professional education, combining with the current situation of applying virtual reality education, analyzes the problems existing in the virtual reality application in food professional education, puts forward some suggestions and finally prospects the developing trend of the technology of virtual reality now.

  19. Development and application of titanium alloy casting technology in China

    NAN Hai; XIE Cheng-mu; ZHAO Jia-qi


    The development and research of titanium cast alloy and its casting technology, especially its application inaeronautical industry in China are presented. The technology of molding, melting and casting of titanium alloy, casting quality control are introduced. The existing problems and development trend in titanium alloy casting technology are also discussed.

  20. Application of advanced technologies to future military transports

    Clark, Rodney L.; Lange, Roy H.; Wagner, Richard D.


    Long range military transport technologies are addressed with emphasis of defining the potential benefits of the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) concept currently being flight tested. Results of a 1990's global range transport study are presented showing the expected payoff from application of advanced technologies. Technology forecast for military transports is also presented.

  1. Applications of earth resources technology to human needs

    Weinberger, C.


    The application of remote sensing technology in the fields of health and education is examined. The technology and accomplishments of ATS 6 and the development of a nationwide telecommunications system to meet the varied needs of the health and education communities are among the topics discussed. The economic and social aspects of utilizing and benefiting from remote sensing technology are stressed.

  2. Applications of earth resources technology to human needs

    Weinberger, C.


    The application of remote sensing technology in the fields of health and education is examined. The technology and accomplishments of ATS 6 and the development of a nationwide telecommunications system to meet the varied needs of the health and education communities are among the topics discussed. The economic and social aspects of utilizing and benefiting from remote sensing technology are stressed.

  3. Advanced Power Technology Development Activities for Small Satellite Applications

    Piszczor, Michael F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Miller, Thomas B.; Taylor, Linda M.; Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne; Raffaelle, Ryne; Landi, Brian; Hubbard, Seth; Schauerman, Christopher; Ganter, Mathew; hide


    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has a long history related to the development of advanced power technology for space applications. This expertise covers the breadth of energy generation (photovoltaics, thermal energy conversion, etc.), energy storage (batteries, fuel cell technology, etc.), power management and distribution, and power systems architecture and analysis. Such advanced technology is now being developed for small satellite and cubesat applications and could have a significant impact on the longevity and capabilities of these missions. A presentation during the Pre-Conference Workshop will focus on various advanced power technologies being developed and demonstrated by NASA, and their possible application within the small satellite community.

  4. NASA technology utilization applications. [transfer of medical sciences


    The work is reported from September 1972 through August 1973 by the Technology Applications Group of the Science Communication Division (SCD), formerly the Biological Sciences Communication Project (BSCP) in the Department of Medical and Public Affairs of the George Washington University. The work was supportive of many aspects of the NASA Technology Utilization program but in particular those dealing with Biomedical and Technology Application Teams, Applications Engineering projects, new technology reporting and documentation and transfer activities. Of particular interest are detailed reports on the progress of various hardware projects, and suggestions and criteria for the evaluation of candidate hardware projects. Finally some observations about the future expansion of the TU program are offered.

  5. 75 FR 11153 - Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On November 6, 2009, Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC (Hydro Energy Technologies) filed an application...-hours. Hydro Energy Technologies: Anthony J. Marra Jr., President, Hydro Energy Technologies, LLC.,...

  6. Technology-based suicide prevention: current applications and future directions.

    Luxton, David D; June, Jennifer D; Kinn, Julie T


    This review reports on current and emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Technology-based programs discussed include interactive educational and social networking Web sites, e-mail outreach, and programs that use mobile devices and texting. We describe innovative applications such as virtual worlds, gaming, and text analysis that are currently being developed and applied to suicide prevention and outreach programs. We also discuss the benefits and limitations of technology-based applications and discuss future directions for their use.

  7. On the development trend of computer application technology

    Zhang Zhi


    The development of computer application technology for people living and working has a very important significance. Dependent on computers are increasingly high. It put forward the development of computer application technology higher requirements. Only constant reform and renewal can meet the needs of social development. It is the only way to meet the development of the concept of sustainable development, and provide ongoing tech driving force for China's development. Based on this, the development trend of computer technology is discused.

  8. Role of interfacial protein membrane in oxidative stability of vegetable oil substitution emulsions applicable to nutritionally modified sausage.

    Jiang, Jiang; Xiong, Youling L


    The potential health risk associated with excessive dietary intake of fat and cholesterol has led to a renewed interest in replacing animal fat with nutritionally-balanced unsaturated oil in processed meats. However, as oils are more fluid and unsaturated than fats, one must overcome the challenge of maintaining both physical and chemical (oxidative) stabilities of prepared emulsions. Apart from physical entrapments, an emulsion droplet to be incorporated into a meat protein gel matrix (batter) should be equipped with an interactive protein membrane rather than a small surfactant, and the classical DLVO stabilization theory becomes less applicable. This review paper describes the steric effects along with chemical roles (radical scavenging and metal ion chelation) of proteins and their structurally modified derivatives as potential interface-building materials for oxidatively stable meat emulsions.

  9. Electron-enhanced Raman scattering: a history of its discovery and spectroscopic applications to solution and interfacial chemistry.

    Yui, Hiroharu


    Raman scattering spectroscopy can be used to distinguish highly similar molecules and obtain useful information on local physical and chemical environments at their functional group levels. However, obtaining a high-quality Raman spectrum requires high-power excitation and a long acquisition time owing to the inherently small Raman scattering cross section, which is problematic in the analyses of living cells and real-time environmental monitoring. Herein, a new Raman enhancement technique, electron-enhanced Raman scattering (EERS), is described in which artificially generated electrons affect the polarizability of target molecular systems and enhance their inherent Raman cross sections. The EERS technique stands in contrast to the well-known SERS technique, which requires roughened metal surfaces. The history of EERS and its spectroscopic applications to aqueous solutions are presented.

  10. The Low-temperature Ion Sulfurizing Technology and its Applications

    Ma, G. Z.; Xu, B. S.; Wang, H. D.; Li, G. L.; Zhang, S.

    A solid lubrication film mainly consists of FeS, which has excellent tribology properties, can be formed on the sulfurized iron or steel surface. The sulfurizing technology has aroused intense attention from the day it appeared. However, the widespread industrial application of sulfurizing technology was promoted by the low-temperature ion sulfurizing (LTIS) process. This paper summarized the phylogeny and sorts of sulfurizing technology firstly; then, the process flow of LTIS technology, the forming mechanism, microstructure and tribological properties of ion sulfurized layer were introduced detailedly; and then, the technological, economic and environmental merits of LTIS technology were generalized; finally, the industrial applications of LTIS technology in various typical rolling, sliding and heavy duty parts were reviewed briefly. LTIS technology, with the advantages of high sulfurizing speed, good performance of sulfurized layer and without sideeffect, has played an important role in the tribology modification of ferrous parts, and the LTIS process will become more green, simple and efficient in the future.

  11. Cryogenic MEMS Technology for Sensing Applications Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of cryogenic microwave components, such as focal plane polarization modulators, first requires an RF MEMS switching technology that operates...

  12. Application of Component Technology to E-commerce System

    ZHU Jianfeng


    At present E-commerce system tends to become more complex, and traditional system designing methods can not fufil the need of E-commerce system, thus requiring an effective methodas solution. With this concern, this paper introduces some concepts of component technology, then brings forward the new connotation and basic features of component technology through the analysis of its technological character. This paper finally discusses the application of component technology to E-commerce system.

  13. Research on Key Technology and Applications for Internet of Things

    Chen, Xian-Yi; Jin, Zhi-Gang

    The Internet of Things (IOT) has been paid more and more attention by the academe, industry, and government all over the world. The concept of IOT and the architecture of IOT are discussed. The key technologies of IOT, including Radio Frequency Identification technology, Electronic Product Code technology, and ZigBee technology are analyzed. The framework of digital agriculture application based on IOT is proposed.

  14. Controllable Synthesis of Formaldehyde Modified Manganese Oxide Based on Gas-Liquid Interfacial Reaction and Its Application of Electrochemical Sensing.

    Bai, Wushuang; Sheng, Qinglin; Nie, Fei; Zheng, Jianbin


    Controllable synthesis of manganese oxides was performed via a simple one-step synthetic method. Then obtained manganese oxides which exhibit flower-like, cloud-like, hexagon-like, and rod-like morphologies were modified by formaldehyde based on a simple self-made gas-liquid reaction device respectively and the modified manganese oxides with coral-like, scallop-like and rod-like morphology were synthesized accordingly. The obtained materials were characterized and the formation mechanism was also researched. Then the modified manganese oxides were used to fabricate electrochemical sensors to detect H2O2. Comparison of electrochemical properties between three kinds of modified manganese oxides was investigated and the best one has been successfully employed as H2O2 sensor which shows a low detection limit of 0.01 μM, high sensitivity of 162.69 μA mM(-1) cm(-2), and wide linear range of 0.05 μM-12.78 mM. The study provides a new method for controllable synthesis of metal oxides, and electrochemical application of formaldehyde modified manganese oxides will provides a new strategy for electrochemical sensing with high performance, low cost, and simple fabrication.

  15. Role of interfacial rheological properties in oil field chemistry

    Lakatos-Szabo, J.; Lakatos, I.; Kosztin, B.


    Interfacial rheological properties of different Hungarian crude oil/water systems were determined in wide temperature and shear rate range and in presence of inorganic electrolytes, tensides, alkaline materials and polymers. The detailed laboratory study definitely proved that the interfacial rheological properties are extremely sensitive parameters towards the chemical composition of inmiscible formation liquids. Comparison and interpretation of the interfacial rheological properties may contribute significantly to extension of the weaponry of the reservoir characterization, better understanding of the displacement mechanism, development of the more profitable EOR/IOR methods, intensification of the surface technologies, optimization of the pipeline transportation and improvement of the refinery operations. It was evidenced that the interfacial rheology is an efficient and powerful detection technique, which may enhance the knowledge on formation, structure, properties and behaviour of interfacial layers. 17 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Application of spatial technologies in wildlife biology.

    Thomas A. O' Neil; Pete Bettinger; Bruce G. Marcot; B. Wayne Luscombe; Gregory T. Koeln; Howard J. Bruner; Charley Barrett; Jennifer A. Pollock; Susan. Bernatas


    The Information Age is here, and technology has a large and important role in gathering, compiling, and synthesizing data. The old adage of analyzing wildlife data over "time and space" today entails using technologies to help gather, compile, and synthesize remotely sensed information, and to integrate results into research, monitoring and evaluation. Thus,...

  17. Application of new technology to SMART instrumentation and control systems

    Park, Heui Youn; Lee, C. K.; Kim, D. H.; Suh, Y. S.; Hur, S.; Seong, S. H.; Jang, G. S.; Koo, I. S.; Chang, M. H


    It is very important to examine the conformance with licensing requirements and standards when new digital technology and equipment apply to nuclear plants. Key requirements of licensing on digitalisation using new technologies are software and hardware V and V, reliability of communication network, and diversity and defence-in-depth concept against common mode failures of hardware and software. And it should be also evaluated whether the selection and application of new technology comply with the design concept and requirements of SMART MMIS or not. In this report, we reviewed digitalisation materials such as EPRI`s ALWR utility requirements document, I and C upgrade plan, guideline on licensing digital upgrades, and IAEA`s issues and approaches to plant modernization to explore application method on new I and C technologies, and evaluated the state of applicable new technologies for SMART MMIS which are selected from the technologies, methods, and manuals of the industrial area. (author). 36 refs., 15 tabs.

  18. Ultrashort pulse laser technology laser sources and applications

    Schrempel, Frank; Dausinger, Friedrich


    Ultrashort laser pulses with durations in the femtosecond range up to a few picoseconds provide a unique method for precise materials processing or medical applications. Paired with the recent developments in ultrashort pulse lasers, this technology is finding its way into various application fields. The book gives a comprehensive overview of the principles and applications of ultrashort pulse lasers, especially applied to medicine and production technology. Recent advances in laser technology are discussed in detail. This covers the development of reliable and cheap low power laser sources as well as high average power ultrashort pulse lasers for large scale manufacturing. The fundamentals of laser-matter-interaction as well as processing strategies and the required system technology are discussed for these laser sources with respect to precise materials processing. Finally, different applications within medicine, measurement technology or materials processing are highlighted.

  19. Enterprise Application Integration Using Java Technologies

    Alexandru BARBULESCU


    Full Text Available The current article points out some of the tasks and challenges companies must face in order to integrate their computerized systems and applications and then to place them on the Web. Also, the article shows how the Java 2 Enterprise Edition Platform and architecture helps the Web integration of applications. By offering standardized integration contracts, J2EE Platform allows application servers to play a key role in the process of Web integration of the applications.

  20. Biomedical technology transfer. Applications of NASA science and technology

    Harrison, D. C.


    Ongoing projects described address: (1) intracranial pressure monitoring; (2) versatile portable speech prosthesis; (3) cardiovascular magnetic measurements; (4) improved EMG biotelemetry for pediatrics; (5) ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration; (6) pediatric roentgen densitometry; (7) X-ray spatial frequency multiplexing; (8) mechanical impedance determination of bone strength; (9) visual-to-tactile mobility aid for the blind; (10) Purkinje image eyetracker and stabilized photocoalqulator; (11) neurological applications of NASA-SRI eyetracker; (12) ICU synthesized speech alarm; (13) NANOPHOR: microelectrophoresis instrument; (14) WRISTCOM: tactile communication system for the deaf-blind; (15) medical applications of NASA liquid-circulating garments; and (16) hip prosthesis with biotelemetry. Potential transfer projects include a person-portable versatile speech prosthesis, a critical care transport sytem, a clinical information system for cardiology, a programmable biofeedback orthosis for scoliosis a pediatric long-bone reconstruction, and spinal immobilization apparatus.

  1. VLSI micro- and nanophotonics science, technology, and applications

    Lee, El-Hang; Razeghi, Manijeh; Jagadish, Chennupati


    Addressing the growing demand for larger capacity in information technology, VLSI Micro- and Nanophotonics: Science, Technology, and Applications explores issues of science and technology of micro/nano-scale photonics and integration for broad-scale and chip-scale Very Large Scale Integration photonics. This book is a game-changer in the sense that it is quite possibly the first to focus on ""VLSI Photonics"". Very little effort has been made to develop integration technologies for micro/nanoscale photonic devices and applications, so this reference is an important and necessary early-stage pe

  2. Database security and encryption technology research and application

    Zhu, Li-juan


    The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the current database information leakage problem, and discuss the important role played by the message encryption techniques in database security, As well as MD5 encryption technology principle and the use in the field of website or application. This article is divided into introduction, the overview of the MD5 encryption technology, the use of MD5 encryption technology and the final summary. In the field of requirements and application, this paper makes readers more detailed and clearly understood the principle, the importance in database security, and the use of MD5 encryption technology.

  3. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    Brown, J. N.


    The results of the medically related activities of the NASA Application Team Program at the Research Triangle Institute are presented. The RTI team, a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers, acted as an information and technology interface between NASA and individuals, institutions, and agencies involved in biomedical research and clinical medicine. The Team has identified 40 new problems for investigation, has accomplished 7 technology applications, 6 potential technology application, 4 impacts, has closed 54 old problems, and has a total of 47 problems under active investigation.

  4. New Technology Applications for Military Logistics


    This paper is a preliminary examination of the relationship between various new technologies and modern military logistics . A brief overview of...Canadian military logistics is given together with a list of important factors such as defence policy and geography that play a significant role in...number of leading-edge technologies are listed and their potential relationships with military logistics are highlighted. Finally, a short discussion of the opportunities and risks contained in these relationships is presented.

  5. Development and Application of Universal Formability Technology


    Using mathematical plasticity theories, universal formability (UF) technology has been developed and applied in the automotive stamping engineering and production. As a formability analysis tool, this technology is the major methodology for the development of stamping expert system (solution provider) for (a) product design and feasibility analysis, (b) material automatic selection using nomograms, (c) draw die design using pre-models, and (d) UF and robustness analysis of die performance in finite element analysis (FEA) environment.

  6. Medical Wearable Technologies: Applications, Problems and Solutions

    Bostanci, Erkan


    The focus of this paper is on wearable technologies which are increasingly being employed in the medical field. From smart watches to smart glasses, from electronic textile to data gloves; several gadgets are playing important roles in diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. The threats posed by these technologies are another matter of concern that must be seriously taken into account. Numerous threats ranging from data privacy to big data problems are facing us as adverse effe...

  7. Cutting Edge RFID Technologies for NASA Applications

    Fink, Patrick W.


    This viewgraph document reviews the use of Radio-frequency identification (RFID) for NASA applications. Some of the uses reviewed are: inventory management in space; potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost; Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking; Passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications such as Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities; E-textiles for wireless and RFID.

  8. Advances in Information Technology and Industry Applications


    With success of ICEEE 2010 in Wuhan, China, and December 4 to 5, 2010, the second International Conference of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (ICEEE 2011) will be held in Macau, China, and December 1 to 2, 2011. ICEEE is an annual conference to call together researchers, engineers, academicians as well as industrial professionals from all over the world to present their research results and development activities in Electrical and Electronics Engineering along with Computer Science and Technology, Communication Technology, Artificial Intelligence, Information Technology, etc.   This year ICEEE is sponsored by International Industrial Electronics Center, Hong Kong. And based on the deserved reputation, more than 750 papers have been submitted to ICEEE 2011, from which about 94 high quality original papers have been selected for the conference presentation and inclusion in the “Advanced Computer, Communication, and Control” book based on the referees’ comments from peer-refereed. All the papers wi...

  9. Integrative production technology theory and applications

    Özdemir, Denis


    This contributed volume contains the research results of the Cluster of Excellence “Integrative Production Technology for High-Wage Countries”, funded by the German Research Society (DFG). The approach to the topic is genuinely interdisciplinary, covering insights from fields such as engineering, material sciences, economics and social sciences. The book contains coherent deterministic models for integrative product creation chains as well as harmonized cybernetic models of production systems. The content is structured into five sections: Integrative Production Technology, Individualized Production, Virtual Production Systems, Integrated Technologies, Self-Optimizing Production Systems and Collaboration Productivity.The target audience primarily comprises research experts and practitioners in the field of production engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  10. Microencapsulation and its Applications in Food Technology

    Mehmet Koç


    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a technology used to cover an active core with one or few capsulating materials. This technology is used in different industries such as pharmacology, chemistry, cosmetics, food and dye. Microencapsulation thecnique in food industry, generally, is utilised to improve the functional properties and to increase the shelf life of foods by capsulating the liquid droplets, solid particles and gas components with food grade coating materials. Mostly microencapsulated foods or food contstituents are solid and liquid fats, aroma components, vitamins, minerals, coloring compounds and enzymes. Capsulating materials mostly used are starch, maltodextrin, pullulan, sucrose, maltose in carbohydrate structure; gelatin, whey proteins, casein and caseinates in protein structure and some gams like gam arabic. This review cover the subjects about microencapsulation technology, the capsulating materials and their use in food industry.

  11. Application of SharePoint Portal Technologies in Public Enterprises

    Dragan Đokić


    Full Text Available Nowadays, systematic reforms are realized acrossmany countries. One of the characteristics of these reforms is necessity for rationalization of expenses in governmental and public enterprises. Rationalization of expenses can be achieved by more extensive application of information and communication technologies based on internet technologies and cloud computing. These systems include huge number of services, applications, resources, users and roles. At the same time, concepts of scalability, availability, ubiquity and pervasiveness need to be applied. This paper deals with application of portal technologies for enhanced content management, document management, and collaboration within public enterprises. The goal is to achieve efficient exchange of information on all hierarchical levels, as well as mechanisms of reporting and performance measurements, such as business intelligence and key performance indicators. The model is based on SharePoint portal technologies. A case study of application within the public enterprise Post of Serbia is described.

  12. Submillimeter-Wave Radiometer Technology for Earth Remote Sensing Applications

    Siegel, P.


    Recent innovations in ultra-high frequency, semiconductor device/component technology have enabled both traditional and new applications for space-borne millimeter- and submillimeter-wave heterodyne radiometer instruments.

  13. The principles of ultra high pressure technology and its application ...

    The principles of ultra high pressure technology and its application in food processing/preservation: A review of ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... along the entire food chain, food preservation remains as necessary today as in the past.

  14. Power from Pellets Technology and Applications

    Döring, Stefan


    This book provides a practical description of the technology of pellet production on the basis of renewable sources as well as the utilization of pellets. The author explains what kinds of biomass are usable in addition to wood, how to produce pellets and how to use pellets to produce energy. Starting with the basics of combustion, gasification and the pelletizing process, several different technologies are described. The design, planning, construction and economic efficiency are discussed as well. The appendix gives useful advice about plant concepts, calculations, addresses, conversion tables and formulas.

  15. Handbook of terahertz technologies devices and applications

    Song, Ho-Jin


    Terahertz waves, which lie in the frequency range of 0.1-10 THz, have long been investigated in a few limited fields, such as astronomy, because of a lack of devices for their generation and detection. Several technical breakthroughs made over the last couple of decades now allow us to radiate and detect terahertz waves more easily, which has triggered the search for new uses of terahertz waves in many fields, such as bioscience, security, and information and communications technology. The book covers some of the technical breakthroughs in terms of device technologies. It discusses not only th

  16. Computer technology -- 1996: Applications and methodology. PVP-Volume 326

    Hulbert, G.M. [ed.] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hsu, K.H. [ed.] [Babcock and Wilcox, Barberton, OH (United States); Lee, T.W. [ed.] [FMC Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Nicholas, T. [ed.] [USAF Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)


    The primary objective of the Computer Technology Committee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division is to promote interest and technical exchange in the field of computer technology, related to the design and analysis of pressure vessels and piping. The topics included in this volume are: analysis of bolted joints; nonlinear analysis, applications and methodology; finite element analysis and applications; and behavior of materials. Separate abstracts were prepared for 23 of the papers in this volume.

  17. Future Trends of Software Technology and Applications: Software Architecture


    Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Defense © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University 1 Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 Future Trends of Software Technology ...COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Future Trends of Software Technology and Applications: Software Architecture 5a. CONTRACT...and Applications: Software Architecture Paul Clements Software Engineering Institute Carnegie Mellon University Report Documentation Page Form

  18. Restricted access processor - An application of computer security technology

    Mcmahon, E. M.


    This paper describes a security guard device that is currently being developed by Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The methods used to provide assurance that the system meets its security requirements include the system architecture, a system security evaluation, and the application of formal and informal verification techniques. The combination of state-of-the-art technology and the incorporation of new verification procedures results in a demonstration of the feasibility of computer security technology for operational applications.

  19. The research progress of tiling array technology and applications

    LANG XianYu; WANG Jun; CHI XueBin


    Tiling array technology was improved from microarray technology. Over the past five years, tiling array has become an important tool for gathering genome information. Its features of high density and high throughput allow people to probe into life from the whole-genome level. This paper is a survey of tiling array technology and its applications. In addition, some typical algorithms for identifying expressed probe signals are described and compared.


    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the EPOC Water, Inc. Microfiltration Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for water contaminated with metals. oth the technical aspects arid the economics of this technology were examined. Operational data ...


    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the EPOC Water, Inc. Microfiltration Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for water contaminated with metals. oth the technical aspects arid the economics of this technology were examined. Operational data ...

  2. Seismic Physical Modeling Technology and Its Applications


    This paper introduces the seismic physical modeling technology in the CNPC Key Lab of Geophysical Exploration. It includes the seismic physical model positioning system, the data acquisition system, sources, transducers,model materials, model building techniques, precision measurements of model geometry, the basic principles of the seismic physical modeling and experimental methods, and two physical model examples.

  3. Application of smart submunition technology to agribusiness

    Wangler, Richard J.; McConnell, Robert E., III; Fowler, Keith L.


    A range-image sensor for controlling an agricultural spraying system and the military range- image technology upon which the sensor is based are discussed. Initial testing in an orange grove in Orlando, Florida indicates that sensor control optimizes the chemical spraying process and reduces environmental pollution.

  4. Typology of ICT Implementation and Technology Applications

    Tubin, Dorit


    This paper presents a typology of information and communication technology (ICT) integration into schools, demonstrates the typology by three case studies, and provides a discussion related to each. Based on the organizational learning approach, the typology will show that ICT use depends more on organizational arrangement than on ICT itself. The…

  5. Application of Statistics in Engineering Technology Programs

    Zhan, Wei; Fink, Rainer; Fang, Alex


    Statistics is a critical tool for robustness analysis, measurement system error analysis, test data analysis, probabilistic risk assessment, and many other fields in the engineering world. Traditionally, however, statistics is not extensively used in undergraduate engineering technology (ET) programs, resulting in a major disconnect from industry…

  6. Plasma Cathode Electron Sources Physics, Technology, Applications

    Oks, Efim


    This book fills the gap for a textbook describing this kind of electron beam source in a systematic and thorough manner: from physical processes of electron emission to examples of real plasma electron sources and their applications.

  7. IGBT modules technologies, driver and application

    Volke, Andreas; Wendt, Jost


    The aim of this book is to give the reader an understanding of the specific fundamentals of IGBT in conjunction with their application. This book will provide students of power electronics with valuable information about the main contemporary power semiconductors and the applications in which they are used, while development engineers targeting power electronic converters will find all the essentials of selecting, dimensioning and applying IGBT modules laid out clearly and comprehensively.

  8. Road lighting fundamentals, technology and application

    van Bommel, Wout


    This book outlines the underlying principles on which modern road lighting is based, and provides the reader with knowledge of how these principles should be applied in practice. It offers a completely fresh approach to the subject, reflecting how the technology of road lighting has progressed to keep up with the changes in lamp technology, especially in solid state light sources, and the increasing awareness of energy use and environmental issues. The book is divided into three parts. Part One describes lighting of open roads, with chapters discussing visual performance and comfort (including the effects of mesopic vision and age), and international standards and recommendations for road lighting. Lighting equipment is introduced; specifically lamps and luminaires in terms of their practical properties and features, but also the road surface and its characteristics. A chapter on Lighting Design makes the link between theory and practice, providing the reader with the knowledge needed for effective lighting d...

  9. Genome-Editing Technologies: Principles and Applications.

    Gaj, Thomas; Sirk, Shannon J; Shui, Sai-Lan; Liu, Jia


    Targeted nucleases have provided researchers with the ability to manipulate virtually any genomic sequence, enabling the facile creation of isogenic cell lines and animal models for the study of human disease, and promoting exciting new possibilities for human gene therapy. Here we review three foundational technologies-clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs). We discuss the engineering advances that facilitated their development and highlight several achievements in genome engineering that were made possible by these tools. We also consider artificial transcription factors, illustrating how this technology can complement targeted nucleases for synthetic biology and gene therapy.

  10. Video on phone lines: technology and applications

    Hsing, T. Russell


    Recent advances in communications signal processing and VLSI technology are fostering tremendous interest in transmitting high-speed digital data over ordinary telephone lines at bit rates substantially above the ISDN Basic Access rate (144 Kbit/s). Two new technologies, high-bit-rate digital subscriber lines and asymmetric digital subscriber lines promise transmission over most of the embedded loop plant at 1.544 Mbit/s and beyond. Stimulated by these research promises and rapid advances on video coding techniques and the standards activity, information networks around the globe are now exploring possible business opportunities of offering quality video services (such as distant learning, telemedicine, and telecommuting etc.) through this high-speed digital transport capability in the copper loop plant. Visual communications for residential customers have become more feasible than ever both technically and economically.

  11. The MIP Technology and Its Commercial Application

    Cheng Congli; Xu Youhao


    This article introduces the specifics of the MIP technology involving respectively the case for production of clean gasoline, the case for producing clean gasoline coupled with production of diesel and the case for producing gasoline with increased output of propylene. The performance of the MIP units that were in operation was wrapped up. Test results have shown that the MIP technology is characterized by improved product distribution as evidenced by the reduced yields of dry gas and slurry and the increased total liquid yield; the upgraded product quality as evidenced by the reduced olefin and sulphur contents in gasoline; and the more ideal techno-economic indicators as evidenced by the reduced unit consumption of catalyst and the reduced energy consumption of the process unit.

  12. Advanced technologies for remote sensing imaging applications

    Wood, L.L.


    Generating and returning imagery from great distances has been generally associated with national security activities, with emphasis on reliability of system operation. (While the introduction of such capabilities was usually characterized by high levels of innovation, the evolution of such systems has followed the classical track of proliferation of ``standardized items`` expressing ever more incremental technological advances.) Recent focusing of interest on the use of remote imaging systems for commercial and scientific purposes can be expected to induce comparatively rapid advances along the axes of efficiency and technological sophistication, respectively. This paper reviews the most basic reasons for expecting the next decade of advances to dwarf the impressive accomplishments of the past ten years. The impact of these advances clearly will be felt in all major areas of large-scale human endeavor, commercial, military and scientific.

  13. Implementation of NFC technology for industrial applications: case flexible production

    Sallinen, Mikko; Strömmer, Esko; Ylisaukko-oja, Arto


    Near Field communication (NFC) technology enables a flexible short range communication. It has large amount of envisaged applications in consumer, welfare and industrial sector. Compared with other short range communication technologies such as Bluetooth or Wibree it provides advantages that we will introduce in this paper. In this paper, we present an example of applying NFC technology to industrial application where simple tasks can be automatized and industrial assembly process can be improved radically by replacing manual paperwork and increasing trace of the products during the production.

  14. Magnetic levitation technology and its applications in exploration projects

    Shu, Quan-Sheng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Susta, Joseph T.; Hull, John R.; Fesmire, James E.; Augustanowicz, Stan D.; Demko, Jonathan A.; Werfel, Frank N.


    An energy efficient cryogenic transfer line with magnetic suspension has been prototyped and cryogenically tested. The prototype transfer line exhibits cryogen saving potential of 30-35% in its suspension state as compared to its solid support state. Key technologies developed include novel magnetic levitation using multiple-pole high temperature superconductor (HTS) and rare earth permanent-magnet (PM) elements and a smart cryogenic actuator as the warm support structure. These technologies have vast applications in extremely low thermal leak cryogenic storage/delivery containers, superconducting magnetic bearings, smart thermal switches, etc. This paper reviews the development work and discusses future applications of established technologies.

  15. Introduction to Plasma Technology Science, Engineering and Applications

    Harry, John Ernest


    Written by a university lecturer with more than forty years experience in plasma technology, this book adopts a didactic approach in its coverage of the theory, engineering and applications of technological plasmas. The theory is developed in a unified way to enable brevity and clarity, providing readers with the necessary background to assess the factors that affect the behavior of plasmas under different operating conditions. The major part of the book is devoted to the applications of plasma technology and their accompanying engineering aspects, classified by the various pressure and densit

  16. Advanced technologies in web application design

    Peruš, Blaž


    The main goal of this diploma thesis is a presentation of Autocommerce web project development. All used technologies are described. On the basis of the project we also present agile methodologies for software development which helps us to efficiently build the whole information system from the idea to the first version. Such methodologies are mostly used by startups, because they are perfect for building and testing products in a very short time & for adapting with the provided feedback from...

  17. Advancement in Textile Technology for Defence Application

    Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian; Mr. Ramdayal


    The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating func...

  18. CPL reticle technology for advanced device applications

    Conley, Willard E.; Van Den Broeke, Douglas J.; Socha, Robert J.; Wu, Wei; Litt, Lloyd C.; Lucas, Kevin D.; Roman, Bernard J.; Peters, Richard D.; Parker, Colita; Chen, J. Fung; Wampler, Kurt E.; Laidig, Thomas L.; Schaefer, Erika; Kuijten, Jan-Pieter; Verhappen, Arjan; van de Goor, Stephan; Chaplin, Martin; Kasprowicz, Bryan S.; Progler, Christopher J.; Robert, Emilien; Thony, Philippe; Hathorn, Michael E.


    Each generation of semiconductor device technology drive new and interesting resolution enhancement technology (RET's). The race to smaller and smaller geometry's has forced device manufacturers to k1's approaching 0.40. The authors have been investigating the use of Chromeless phase-shifting masks (CLM) exposed with ArF, high numerical aperture (NA), and off-axis illumination (OAI) has been shown to produce production worthy sub-100nm resist patterns with acceptable overlapped process window across feature pitch. There have been a number of authors who have investigated CLM in the past but the technology has never received mainstream attention due to constraints such as wet quartz etch during mask fabrication, limited approach to optical proximity correction (OPC), and exposure tool limitations such as on-axis illumination and too low of NA. With novel binary halftone OPC and a capable modern mask making process, it has become possible to achieve global and local pattern optimization of the phase shifter for a given layout especially for patterning features with dimension at sub-half-exposure wavelength. The authors have built a number of test structures that require superior 2D control for SRAM gate structures. In this paper the authors will focus on image process integration for the 65nm node. Emphasis on pattern layout, mask fabrication and image processing will be discussed. Furthermore, the authors will discuss defect printing, inspection and repair, mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) of 2D structures coupled with phase error, layout, and mask fabrication specifications.

  19. Advances in brazing science, technology and applications


    Brazing processes offer enhanced control, adaptability and cost-efficiency in the joining of materials. Unsurprisingly, this has lead to great interest and investment in the area. Drawing on important research in the field, Advances in brazing provides a clear guide to the principles, materials, methods and key applications of brazing. Part one introduces the fundamentals of brazing, including molten metal wetting processes, strength and margins of safety of brazed joints, and modeling of associated physical phenomena. Part two goes on to consider specific materials, such as super alloys, filler metals for high temperature brazing, diamonds and cubic boron nitride, and varied ceramics and intermetallics. The brazing of carbon-carbon (C/C) composites to metals is also explored before applications of brazing and brazed materials are discussed in part three. Brazing of cutting materials, use of coating techniques, and metal-nonmetal brazing for electrical, packaging and structural applications are reviewed, alon...

  20. CERN's web application updates for electron and laser beam technologies

    Sigas, Christos


    This report describes the modifications at CERN's web application for electron and laser beam technologies. There are updates at both the front and the back end of the application. New electron and laser machines were added and also old machines were updated. There is also a new feature for printing needed information.

  1. Mobile Learning Application Based on RSS Feed Technology

    Mohanna, Mahmoud; Capus, Laurence


    This paper presents a mobile learning application for a learning course at higher education level. Based on the RSS feed technology, the presented mobile application establishes an in-time communication channel between the instructor and his/her students to keep them up-to-date with all course important dates, instructions and information in…

  2. Success Story of Radar Technology in Automotive Applications

    Meinecke, Marc-Michael; Jerhot, Jiři


    The radar technology has a long history of over more than one century. In contrast to this its application in the automotive domain is a quite young activity. The enablers of this relatively new research field are presented in this article from a car manufacturers perspective covering aspects of signal processing algorithms, hardware and driver assistance applications.

  3. The application of persuasive technology to educational settings

    Mintz, Joseph; Aagaard, Morten


    Persuasive technology is a sub-discipline of Human–Computer Interaction that has emerged within the last 10 years, and which has generated increasing interest in the application of persuasion to systems design. Most applications have to date been developed in commercial contexts, as well...... in the domain of health promotion. We present a mainly theoretical consideration of how persuasive technology could be used in educational contexts, particularly in school settings. We consider how persuasive technology design may need to be modified to meet the needs of complex educational settings. We propose...... four design principles for the use of persuasive technology in instructional design, including credibility and Kairos. We derive these from theoretical considerations, as well as from our experience with the HANDS project, which has developed a mobile persuasive application for positive behaviour...

  4. Manufacturing Technology and Application Trends of Titanium Clad Steel Plates

    Hang SU; Xiao-bing LUO; Feng CHAI; Jun-chang SHEN; Xin-jun SUN; Feng LU


    Some of the major manufacturing processes and corresponding mechanical properties of titanium clad steel plates were analyzed, and the consequences of research, manufacturing, and application of titanium clad steel plates in both markets of China and overseas were also summarized. As an economical and environmentally friendly technology, the roll bonding process is ex-pected to become the next-generation mainstream process for the manufacturing of titanium clad steel plate. Some of the crucial and most important technical problems of this particular process, including vacuum sealing technology, surface treatment process technology, application of a transition layer, and rolling process, were discussed along with the advantageous mechanical properties and life-cycle economy of these plates processed by this technology. Finally, the market needs, application trends, and requirements of titanium clad steel plate were also considered from industries of petrochemical, shipbuilding, marine, and electric power.

  5. Satellite Networks: Architectures, Applications, and Technologies

    Bhasin, Kul (Compiler)


    Since global satellite networks are moving to the forefront in enhancing the national and global information infrastructures due to communication satellites' unique networking characteristics, a workshop was organized to assess the progress made to date and chart the future. This workshop provided the forum to assess the current state-of-the-art, identify key issues, and highlight the emerging trends in the next-generation architectures, data protocol development, communication interoperability, and applications. Presentations on overview, state-of-the-art in research, development, deployment and applications and future trends on satellite networks are assembled.

  6. NASA Applications of Structural Health Monitoring Technology

    Richards, W Lance; Madaras, Eric I.; Prosser, William H.; Studor, George


    This presentation provides examples of research and development that has recently or is currently being conducted at NASA, with a special emphasis on the application of structural health monitoring (SHM) of aerospace vehicles. SHM applications on several vehicle programs are highlighted, including Space Shuttle Orbiter, International Space Station, Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles, and Expandable Launch Vehicles. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: acoustic emission impact detection, multi-parameter fiber optic strain-based sensing, wireless sensor system development, and distributed leak detection.

  7. An Application of Latent Variable Structural Equation Modeling For Experimental Research in Educational Technology

    Hyeon Woo LEE



  8. Application of BIM technology in green scientific research office building

    Ni, Xin; Sun, Jianhua; Wang, Bo


    BIM technology as a kind of information technology, has been along with the advancement of building industrialization application in domestic building industry gradually. Based on reasonable construction BIM model, using BIM technology platform, through collaborative design tools can effectively improve the design efficiency and design quality. Vanda northwest engineering design and research institute co., LTD., the scientific research office building project in combination with the practical situation of engineering using BIM technology, formed in the BIM model combined with related information according to the energy energy model (BEM) and the application of BIM technology in construction management stage made exploration, and the direct experience and the achievements gained by the architectural design part made a summary.

  9. Digital management technology and its application to investment casting enterprises

    Xiao-yuan Ji


    Full Text Available With the advent of Industry 4.0, more and more investment casting enterprises are implementing production manufacturing systems, especially in the last two years. This paper summarizes three new common requirements of the digital management aspect in precision casting enterprises, and puts forward three corresponding techniques. They are: the production process tracking card technology based on the main-sub card mode; the workshop site production process processing technology based on the barcode; and the equipment data integration technology. Then, this paper discusses in detail the principle, application and effect of these technologies; to provide the reference for enterprises to move towards digital casting and intelligent casting.

  10. Application study of nuclear technologies for dual use

    Shin, Jae Gon; Chung, W. S.; Park, W. S.; Lee, K. W.; Cha, H. K.; Han, M. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Honh, D. H.; Park, J. Y.; Lee, C. H.; Yeo, J. W.; Jung, M.; Ra, G. H


    The projects for the joint development of technology common to the civilian and military sectors are being carried out at national level to maximize the utilization of limited resources. The technologies have been identified through a process which considered whether they are duplicates of the present military technology, whether they are necessary, and whether their realization is feasible. In addition, the problems surfaced during the identification process have been analyzed and suggestions to vitalize the military application of civilian nuclear technology are presented in the contexts of personal channel, institutional networking, R and D information exchange, and budgetary support. (author)

  11. Intensification of interfacial mass, heat & momentum transfer in high-G fluidized beds in vortex chambers : experimental & theoretical study of potential applications

    Eliaers, Philippe


    Vortex chambers can be used for the generation of rotating fluidized beds. High-G operation allows eliminating many of the limitations faced in conventional fluidized beds. In particular, interfacial transfer of mass, heat and momentum can be significantly intensified. This opens perspectives for increasing the efficiency of some existing fluidized bed processes, but also for developing novel processing routes. Two processes were studied in this context: 1. Biomass drying is frequently carrie...

  12. New tricks with old sensors: Pervasive Technologies for Novel Applications

    Merrett, Geoff


    Sensors are interleaved into society, instrumenting considerable aspects of our lives without our comprehension. Sensors such as the MEMS accelerometer have transitioned from their original domains to applications that they were never conceived for: from games controllers to contextually rotating the screen on your smartphone. Further advances in technologies such as pervasive computing and networked embedded sensing are enabling new applications and smart devices which utilise sensors in new ways. In this presentation I will highlight new trends, applications and research in these fields, and show how "simple" sensors are being used in larger connected systems - from assistive technologies to distributed monitoring.

  13. Advances in control system technology for aerospace applications


    This book is devoted to Control System Technology applied to aerospace and covers the four disciplines Cognitive Engineering, Computer Science, Operations Research, and Servo-Mechanisms. This edited book follows a workshop held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2012, where the today's most important aerospace challenges, including aerospace autonomy, safety-critical embedded software engineering, and modern air transportation were discussed over the course of two days of intense interactions among leading aerospace engineers and scientists. Its content provide a snapshot of today's aerospace control research and its future, including Autonomy in space applications, Control in space applications, Autonomy in aeronautical applications, Air transportation, and Safety-critical software engineering.

  14. [The clinical application of three dimention printing technology].

    Zhong, S Z; Fang, C H


    In recent years, the three-dimentional(3D)printing technology is gradually applied in medicine.Now, the 3D printing has already play an important role in medical education, surgical device development, prosthesis implantation and so on.There are still many challenges and difficulties in the clinical overall application of 3D printing for some time, but it also contains a huge application prospect.Once with appropriate applications of this technology, it will be a major breakthrough in iatrical history once more.

  15. Development and application of genotyping technologies


    With the completion of Human Genome Project,International HapMap Project and the publication of copy number variation in human genome,a great number of accurate,rapid,and cost-effective technologies for SNP analysis have been developed,promoting the research of the complex diseases.This article presents a review of widely used genotyping techniques,and the progress and prospect in the study of complex diseases in terms of the projects and achievements of Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai(CHGCs).

  16. Development and application of genotyping technologies

    SHI JinXiu; WANG Ying; HUANG Wei


    With the completion of Human Genome Project, International HapMap Project and the publication of copy number variation in human genome, a great number of accurate, rapid, and cost-effective tech-nologies for SNP analysis have been developed, promoting the research of the complex diseases. This article presents a review of widely used genotyping techniques, and the progress and prospect in the study of complex diseases in terms of the projects and achievements of Chinese National Human Genome Center at Shanghai (CHGCs).

  17. Lithium batteries advanced technologies and applications

    Scrosati, Bruno; Schalkwijk, Walter A van; Hassoun, Jusef


    Explains the current state of the science and points the way to technological advances First developed in the late 1980s, lithium-ion batteries now power everything from tablet computers to power tools to electric cars. Despite tremendous progress in the last two decades in the engineering and manufacturing of lithium-ion batteries, they are currently unable to meet the energy and power demands of many new and emerging devices. This book sets the stage for the development of a new generation of higher-energy density, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries by advancing battery chemistry and ident

  18. Application of UDWDM technology in FTTH networks

    Lamperski, Jan; Stepczak, Piotr


    In the paper we presented results of investigation of an original ultra dense wavelength division technology based on optical comb generator and its implementation for FTTH networks. The optical comb generator used a ring configuration with an acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOFS) which ensured obtaining very stable optical carrier frequency distances. Properties of an optical comb generator module determined stability of the UDWDM transmitter. Key properties of a selective components based on all fiber Fabry-Perot resonant cavity were presented. Operation of direct and coherent detection DWDM systems were shown. New configurations of FTTH UDWDM architecture have been proposed.

  19. Interfacial Symmetry Control of Emergent Ferromagnetism at the Nanoscale.

    Grutter, A J; Vailionis, A; Borchers, J A; Kirby, B J; Flint, C L; He, C; Arenholz, E; Suzuki, Y


    The emergence of complex new ground states at interfaces has been identified as one of the most promising routes to highly tunable nanoscale materials. Despite recent progress, isolating and controlling the underlying mechanisms behind these emergent properties remains among the most challenging materials physics problems to date. In particular, generating ferromagnetism localized at the interface of two nonferromagnetic materials is of fundamental and technological interest. Moreover, the ability to turn the ferromagnetism on and off would shed light on the origin of such emergent phenomena and is promising for spintronic applications. We demonstrate that ferromagnetism confined within one unit cell at the interface of CaRuO3 and CaMnO3 can be switched on and off by changing the symmetry of the oxygen octahedra connectivity at the boundary. Interfaces that are symmetry-matched across the boundary exhibit interfacial CaMnO3 ferromagnetism while the ferromagnetism at symmetry-mismatched interfaces is suppressed. We attribute the suppression of ferromagnetic order to a reduction in charge transfer at symmetry-mismatched interfaces, where frustrated bonding weakens the orbital overlap. Thus, interfacial symmetry is a new route to control emergent ferromagnetism in materials such as CaMnO3 that exhibit antiferromagnetism in bulk form.

  20. Application of CFCC technology to hot gas filtration applications

    Richlen, S.


    Discussion will feature high temperature filter development under the DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composite (CFCC) Program. Within the CFCC Program there are four industry projects and a national laboratory technology support project. Atlantic Research, Babcock & Wilcox, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Textron are developing processing methods to produce CFCC Components with various types of matrices and composites, along with the manufacturing methods to produce industrial components, including high temperature gas filters. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is leading a National Laboratory/University effort to increase knowledge of such generic and supportive technology areas as environmental degradation, measurement of mechanical properties, long-term performance, thermal shock and thermal cycling, creep and fatigue, and non-destructive characterization. Tasks include composite design, materials characterization, test methods, and performance-related phenomena, that will support the high temperature filter activities of industry and government.

  1. Hypervelocity impact technology and applications: 2007.

    Reinhart, William Dodd; Chhabildas, Lalit C. (Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/RWMW, Eglin AFB, FL)


    The Hypervelocity Impact Society is devoted to the advancement of the science and technology of hypervelocity impact and related technical areas required to facilitate and understand hypervelocity impact phenomena. Topics of interest include experimental methods, theoretical techniques, analytical studies, phenomenological studies, dynamic material response as related to material properties (e.g., equation of state), penetration mechanics, and dynamic failure of materials, planetary physics and other related phenomena. The objectives of the Society are to foster the development and exchange of technical information in the discipline of hypervelocity impact phenomena, promote technical excellence, encourage peer review publications, and hold technical symposia on a regular basis. It was sometime in 1985, partly in response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), that a small group of visionaries decided that a conference or symposium on hypervelocity science would be useful and began the necessary planning. A major objective of the first Symposium was to bring the scientists and researchers up to date by reviewing the essential developments of hypervelocity science and technology between 1955 and 1985. This Symposia--HVIS 2007 is the tenth Symposium since that beginning. The papers presented at all the HVIS are peer reviewed and published as a special volume of the archival journal International Journal of Impact Engineering. HVIS 2007 followed the same high standards and its proceedings will add to this body of work.

  2. Interfacial solvation thermodynamics

    Ben-Amotz, Dor


    Previous studies have reached conflicting conclusions regarding the interplay of cavity formation, polarizability, desolvation, and surface capillary waves in driving the interfacial adsorptions of ions and molecules at air-water interfaces. Here we revisit these questions by combining exact potential distribution results with linear response theory and other physically motivated approximations. The results highlight both exact and approximate compensation relations pertaining to direct (solute-solvent) and indirect (solvent-solvent) contributions to adsorption thermodynamics, of relevance to solvation at air-water interfaces, as well as a broader class of processes linked to the mean force potential between ions, molecules, nanoparticles, proteins, and biological assemblies.

  3. Fuzzy technology present applications and future challenges

    Fedrizzi, Mario; Kacprzyk, Janusz


    This book provides readers with a timely and comprehensive yet concise view on the field of fuzzy logic and its real-world applications. The chapters, written by authoritative scholars in the field, report on promising new models for data analysis, decision making, and systems modeling, with a special emphasis on their applications in management science. The book is a token of appreciation from the fuzzy research community to Professor Christer Carlsson for his long time research and organizational commitment, which have among other things resulted in the foundation and success of the Institute for Advanced Management Systems Research (IAMSR) at Åbo Akademi University, in Åbo (Turku), Finland. The book serves as timely guide for the fuzzy logic and operations research communities alike. .

  4. Application of Terahertz Technology for Neuroscience

    Yi Zou; Jiang Li; Tu-Nan Chen; Kun Meng; Ze-Ren Li; Hua Feng; Jian-Heng Zhao; Li-Guo Zhu


    Abstract⎯Brain is the most complex organ of human beings. The complete understanding of human brains’ functions is an ongoing challenge for neuroscience. Although there are many techniques used for brain research, neuroscientists, physicists, and engineers are still exploring other access of research for applications. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging may create such a space for brain research. THz spectroscopic technique, which is a novel medical imaging modality, attracts attention of biomedical applications due to its unique features including non-invasive, non-ionizing, and high sensitivity to biomolecules and tissues. In this article, we introduce our recent investigations on neuroscience using THz techniques, meanwhile, introduce other’s work in this field. Our and others’ investigations indicate that the THz spectroscopy and imaging technique can be useful for diagnosing brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. THz spectroscopy and imaging has the potential to become real-time in vivo diagnostic methods.

  5. Technological choices for mobile clinical applications.

    Ehrler, Frederic; Issom, David; Lovis, Christian


    The rise of cheaper and more powerful mobile devices make them a new and attractive platform for clinical applications. The interaction paradigm and portability of the device facilitates bedside human-machine interactions. The better accessibility to information and decision-support anywhere in the hospital improves the efficiency and the safety of care processes. In this study, we attempt to find out what are the most appropriate Operating System (OS) and Software Development Kit (SDK) to support the development of clinical applications on mobile devices. The Android platform is a Linux-based, open source platform that has many advantages. Two main SDKs are available on this platform: the native Android and the Adobe Flex SDK. Both of them have interesting features, but the latter has been preferred due its portability at comparable performance and ease of development.

  6. Laser technology and applications in gynaecology.

    Adelman, M R; Tsai, L J; Tangchitnob, E P; Kahn, B S


    The term 'laser' is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers are commonly described by the emitted wavelength, which determines the colour of the light, as well as the active lasing medium. Currently, over 40 types of lasers have been developed with a wide range of both industrial and medical uses. Gas and solid-state lasers are frequently used in surgical applications, with CO2 and Ar being the most common examples of gas lasers, and the Nd:YAG and KTP:YAG being the most common examples of solid-state lasers. At present, it appears that the CO2, Nd:YAG, and KTP lasers provide alternative methods for achieving similar results, as opposed to superior results, when compared with traditional endoscopic techniques, such as cold-cutting monopolar and bipolar energy. This review focuses on the physics, tissue interaction, safety and applications of commonly used lasers in gynaecological surgery.

  7. AFRL Nanoscience Technologies: Applications, Transitions and Innovations


    2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AFRL Nanoscience Tecnologies : Applications, Transistions and...unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 “What’s new is the...notion that we can actually build new nano-objects that have never existed before that increase our arsenal of capabilities.” - Richard Smalley

  8. Implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin methods and interfacial gauge methods for high-order accurate interface dynamics, with applications to surface tension dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and free surface flow: Part II

    Saye, Robert


    In this two-part paper, a high-order accurate implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin (dG) framework is developed for fluid interface dynamics, facilitating precise computation of interfacial fluid flow in evolving geometries. The framework uses implicitly defined meshes-wherein a reference quadtree or octree grid is combined with an implicit representation of evolving interfaces and moving domain boundaries-and allows physically prescribed interfacial jump conditions to be imposed or captured with high-order accuracy. Part one discusses the design of the framework, including: (i) high-order quadrature for implicitly defined elements and faces; (ii) high-order accurate discretisation of scalar and vector-valued elliptic partial differential equations with interfacial jumps in ellipticity coefficient, leading to optimal-order accuracy in the maximum norm and discrete linear systems that are symmetric positive (semi)definite; (iii) the design of incompressible fluid flow projection operators, which except for the influence of small penalty parameters, are discretely idempotent; and (iv) the design of geometric multigrid methods for elliptic interface problems on implicitly defined meshes and their use as preconditioners for the conjugate gradient method. Also discussed is a variety of aspects relating to moving interfaces, including: (v) dG discretisations of the level set method on implicitly defined meshes; (vi) transferring state between evolving implicit meshes; (vii) preserving mesh topology to accurately compute temporal derivatives; (viii) high-order accurate reinitialisation of level set functions; and (ix) the integration of adaptive mesh refinement. In part two, several applications of the implicit mesh dG framework in two and three dimensions are presented, including examples of single phase flow in nontrivial geometry, surface tension-driven two phase flow with phase-dependent fluid density and viscosity, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and free

  9. Implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin methods and interfacial gauge methods for high-order accurate interface dynamics, with applications to surface tension dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and free surface flow: Part I

    Saye, Robert


    In this two-part paper, a high-order accurate implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin (dG) framework is developed for fluid interface dynamics, facilitating precise computation of interfacial fluid flow in evolving geometries. The framework uses implicitly defined meshes-wherein a reference quadtree or octree grid is combined with an implicit representation of evolving interfaces and moving domain boundaries-and allows physically prescribed interfacial jump conditions to be imposed or captured with high-order accuracy. Part one discusses the design of the framework, including: (i) high-order quadrature for implicitly defined elements and faces; (ii) high-order accurate discretisation of scalar and vector-valued elliptic partial differential equations with interfacial jumps in ellipticity coefficient, leading to optimal-order accuracy in the maximum norm and discrete linear systems that are symmetric positive (semi)definite; (iii) the design of incompressible fluid flow projection operators, which except for the influence of small penalty parameters, are discretely idempotent; and (iv) the design of geometric multigrid methods for elliptic interface problems on implicitly defined meshes and their use as preconditioners for the conjugate gradient method. Also discussed is a variety of aspects relating to moving interfaces, including: (v) dG discretisations of the level set method on implicitly defined meshes; (vi) transferring state between evolving implicit meshes; (vii) preserving mesh topology to accurately compute temporal derivatives; (viii) high-order accurate reinitialisation of level set functions; and (ix) the integration of adaptive mesh refinement. In part two, several applications of the implicit mesh dG framework in two and three dimensions are presented, including examples of single phase flow in nontrivial geometry, surface tension-driven two phase flow with phase-dependent fluid density and viscosity, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and free

  10. From cleanroom to desktop: emerging micro-nanofabrication technology for biomedical applications.

    Pan, Tingrui; Wang, Wei


    This review is motivated by the growing demand for low-cost, easy-to-use, compact-size yet powerful micro-nanofabrication technology to address emerging challenges of fundamental biology and translational medicine in regular laboratory settings. Recent advancements in the field benefit considerably from rapidly expanding material selections, ranging from inorganics to organics and from nanoparticles to self-assembled molecules. Meanwhile a great number of novel methodologies, employing off-the-shelf consumer electronics, intriguing interfacial phenomena, bottom-up self-assembly principles, etc., have been implemented to transit micro-nanofabrication from a cleanroom environment to a desktop setup. Furthermore, the latest application of micro-nanofabrication to emerging biomedical research will be presented in detail, which includes point-of-care diagnostics, on-chip cell culture as well as bio-manipulation. While significant progresses have been made in the rapidly growing field, both apparent and unrevealed roadblocks will need to be addressed in the future. We conclude this review by offering our perspectives on the current technical challenges and future research opportunities.

  11. From Cleanroom to Desktop: Emerging Micro-Nanofabrication Technology for Biomedical Applications

    Wang, Wei


    This review is motivated by the growing demand for low-cost, easy-to-use, compact-size yet powerful micro-nanofabrication technology to address emerging challenges of fundamental biology and translational medicine in regular laboratory settings. Recent advancements in the field benefit considerably from rapidly expanding material selections, ranging from inorganics to organics and from nanoparticles to self-assembled molecules. Meanwhile a great number of novel methodologies, employing off-the-shelf consumer electronics, intriguing interfacial phenomena, bottom-up self-assembly principles, etc., have been implemented to transit micro-nanofabrication from a cleanroom environment to a desktop setup. Furthermore, the latest application of micro-nanofabrication to emerging biomedical research will be presented in detail, which includes point-of-care diagnostics, on-chip cell culture as well as bio-manipulation. While significant progresses have been made in the rapidly growing field, both apparent and unrevealed roadblocks will need to be addressed in the future. We conclude this review by offering our perspectives on the current technical challenges and future research opportunities. PMID:21161384

  12. Interfacial Fluid Mechanics A Mathematical Modeling Approach

    Ajaev, Vladimir S


    Interfacial Fluid Mechanics: A Mathematical Modeling Approach provides an introduction to mathematical models of viscous flow used in rapidly developing fields of microfluidics and microscale heat transfer. The basic physical effects are first introduced in the context of simple configurations and their relative importance in typical microscale applications is discussed. Then,several configurations of importance to microfluidics, most notably thin films/droplets on substrates and confined bubbles, are discussed in detail.  Topics from current research on electrokinetic phenomena, liquid flow near structured solid surfaces, evaporation/condensation, and surfactant phenomena are discussed in the later chapters. This book also:  Discusses mathematical models in the context of actual applications such as electrowetting Includes unique material on fluid flow near structured surfaces and phase change phenomena Shows readers how to solve modeling problems related to microscale multiphase flows Interfacial Fluid Me...

  13. Electrochemical and Magnetic Technologies for Bio Applications

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    The electrochemical and magnetic biosensors have an advantage because of the easy miniaturization of electric device components as compared with photometric instruments. These technologies have been applied to develop portable, compact and inexpensive biochip devices. A commercially successful example is the glucose sensor using enzyme transducers, which was originally reported by Clark and Lyons [1] to measure glucose by detecting the decrease in oxygen by pO2 electrode when glucose is converted to gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Electrochemical biosensors can be separated into three typical assay systems using amperometric, potentiometric or conductometric transducers. Furthermore, various magnetosensors using magnetic particles have been developed over a decade in place of photometric biosensors. In this chapter, recent advances in electrochemical and magnetic biosensors toward development of portable, compact and inexpensive biochip devices have been focused.

  14. Technology applications for Magneto Inertial Fusion

    Intrator, T.; Weber, T.; Gao, K.; Yoo, C.; Klarenbeek, J.


    We describe several technology advances that we believe will be helpful for Magneto Inertial Fusion (MIF) experiments. We are developing plasma guns to improve the startup and flux trapping for magnetized plasma field reversed configuration (FRC) targets for MIF compression. This should aid initial pre ionization, freezing in of bias flux, line tie each end to the middle to retard toroidal rotation, and provide end shorting of radial electric fields. We are also developing a novel magnetic field diagnostic that uses a tiny section of Terbium doped optical fiber as a Faraday rotation medium. The optical path and hardware is inexpensive and simple, and has a small form factor that will fit inside a MagLIF capsule, and can be radation hardened. Low noise, optically coupled magnetic field measurements will be possible for vacuum MaGLIF shots.

  15. Applications of Simulation Technology - Pitfalls and Challenges

    A.A. Malik


    Full Text Available Simulator based training has its own unique features and problems associated with it. There is a need to discuss these issues in order to understand the real meaning of simulator based training and to handle it effectively. Like other fields of training, use of simulation in the maritime industry is owing to the multiple factors covering technological, financial and training needs of the time. When properly used, supported by well trained and experienced instructors, simulator training, through its risk free environment, can contribute to a reduction in accidents and improve capability and efficiency, by providing trainees with the necessary experience and self confidence to carry out their roles, functions and tasks.

  16. Ion beam therapy fundamentals, technology, clinical applications


    The book provides a detailed, up-to-date account of the basics, the technology, and the clinical use of ion beams for radiation therapy. Theoretical background, technical components, and patient treatment schemes are delineated by the leading experts that helped to develop this field from a research niche to its current highly sophisticated and powerful clinical treatment level used to the benefit of cancer patients worldwide. Rather than being a side-by-side collection of articles, this book consists of related chapters. It is a common achievement by 76 experts from around the world. Their expertise reflects the diversity of the field with radiation therapy, medical and accelerator physics, radiobiology, computer science, engineering, and health economics. The book addresses a similarly broad audience ranging from professionals that need to know more about this novel treatment modality or consider to enter the field of ion beam therapy as a researcher. However, it is also written for the interested public an...

  17. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others


    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  18. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Barshick, S.-A.; Griest, W.H.; Vass, A.A.


    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic `fingerprint` pattern representative of the vapor- phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The results to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  19. Electronic aroma detection technology for forensic and law enforcement applications

    Barshick, Stacy-Ann; Griest, Wayne H.; Vass, Arpad A.


    A major problem hindering criminal investigations is the lack of appropriate tools for proper crime scene investigations. Often locating important pieces of evidence means relying on the ability of trained detection canines. Development of analytical technology to uncover and analyze evidence, potentially at the scene, could serve to expedite criminal investigations, searches, and court proceedings. To address this problem, a new technology based on gas sensor arrays was investigated for its applicability to forensic and law enforcement problems. The technology employs an array of sensors that respond to volatile chemical components yielding a characteristic 'fingerprint' pattern representative of the vapor-phase composition of a sample. Sample aromas can be analyzed and identified using artificial neural networks that are trained on known aroma patterns. Several candidate applications based on known technological needs of the forensic and law enforcement communities have been investigated. These applications have included the detection of aromas emanating from cadavers to aid in determining time since death, drug detection for deterring the manufacture, sale, and use of drugs of abuse, and the analysis of fire debris for accelerant identification. The result to date for these applications have been extremely promising and demonstrate the potential applicability of this technology for forensic use.

  20. Effect of nanoscale patterned interfacial roughness on interfacial toughness.

    Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Moody, Neville Reid; Mook, William M. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Zhou, Xiao Wang; Reedy, Earl David, Jr.


    The performance and the reliability of many devices are controlled by interfaces between thin films. In this study we investigated the use of patterned, nanoscale interfacial roughness as a way to increase the apparent interfacial toughness of brittle, thin-film material systems. The experimental portion of the study measured the interfacial toughness of a number of interfaces with nanoscale roughness. This included a silicon interface with a rectangular-toothed pattern of 60-nm wide by 90-nm deep channels fabricated using nanoimprint lithography techniques. Detailed finite element simulations were used to investigate the nature of interfacial crack growth when the interface is patterned. These simulations examined how geometric and material parameter choices affect the apparent toughness. Atomistic simulations were also performed with the aim of identifying possible modifications to the interfacial separation models currently used in nanoscale, finite element fracture analyses. The fundamental nature of atomistic traction separation for mixed mode loadings was investigated.

  1. Technological applications of n=8 supergravity

    Julia, B


    My goal is to report on recent work done in collaboration with Eugene Cremmer and Joel Scherk at the Ecole Normale in Paris. A discussion of histo- . 1 h . 1 d ·1 b f d . h .. 1 [J, 2 ] . r1ca or tee n1ca eta1 s can e oun in t e or1g1na papers , it seems more appropriate to present here the classical Lagrangian in the most compact and symmetric form known today as well as some general observations and concepts of wider applicability.

  2. Clinical applications of choroidal imaging technologies

    Jay Chhablani


    Full Text Available Choroid supplies the major blood supply to the eye, especially the outer retinal structures. Its understanding has significantly improved with the advent of advanced imaging modalities such as enhanced depth imaging technique and the newer swept source optical coherence tomography. Recent literature reports the findings of choroidal changes, quantitative as well as qualitative, in various chorioretinal disorders. This review article describes applications of choroidal imaging in the management of common diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, high myopia, central serous chorioretinopathy, chorioretinal inflammatory diseases, and tumors. This article briefly discusses future directions in choroidal imaging including angiography.

  3. Interfacial debonding from a sandwiched elastomer layer

    Mukherjee, Bikramjit


    The problem of a thin elastomeric layer confined between two stiff adherends arises in numerous applications such as microelectronics, bio-inspired adhesion and the manufacture of soft biomedical products. A common requirement is that the debonding of the elastomeric layer from the adherends be controlled to avoid undesirable failure modes. This level of control may necessitate understanding the collective role of the interfacial adhesion, material properties, part geometries, and loading co...

  4. Workshop and conference on Grand Challenges applications and software technology


    On May 4--7, 1993, nine federal agencies sponsored a four-day meeting on Grand Challenge applications and software technology. The objective was to bring High-Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) Grand Challenge applications research groups supported under the federal HPCC program together with HPCC software technologists to: discuss multidisciplinary computational science research issues and approaches, identify major technology challenges facing users and providers, and refine software technology requirements for Grand Challenge applications research. The first day and a half focused on applications. Presentations were given by speakers from universities, national laboratories, and government agencies actively involved in Grand Challenge research. Five areas of research were covered: environmental and earth sciences; computational physics; computational biology, chemistry, and materials sciences; computational fluid and plasma dynamics; and applications of artificial intelligence. The next day and a half was spent in working groups in which the applications researchers were joined by software technologists. Nine breakout sessions took place: I/0, Data, and File Systems; Parallel Programming Paradigms; Performance Characterization and Evaluation of Massively Parallel Processing Applications; Program Development Tools; Building Multidisciplinary Applications; Algorithm and Libraries I; Algorithms and Libraries II; Graphics and Visualization; and National HPCC Infrastructure.

  5. Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies Developed for Biomedical Applications

    Alphus D. Wilson


    Full Text Available The research and development of new electronic-nose applications in the biomedical field has accelerated at a phenomenal rate over the past 25 years. Many innovative e-nose technologies have provided solutions and applications to a wide variety of complex biomedical and healthcare problems. The purposes of this review are to present a comprehensive analysis of past and recent biomedical research findings and developments of electronic-nose sensor technologies, and to identify current and future potential e-nose applications that will continue to advance the effectiveness and efficiency of biomedical treatments and healthcare services for many years. An abundance of electronic-nose applications has been developed for a variety of healthcare sectors including diagnostics, immunology, pathology, patient recovery, pharmacology, physical therapy, physiology, preventative medicine, remote healthcare, and wound and graft healing. Specific biomedical e-nose applications range from uses in biochemical testing, blood-compatibility evaluations, disease diagnoses, and drug delivery to monitoring of metabolic levels, organ dysfunctions, and patient conditions through telemedicine. This paper summarizes the major electronic-nose technologies developed for healthcare and biomedical applications since the late 1980s when electronic aroma detection technologies were first recognized to be potentially useful in providing effective solutions to problems in the healthcare industry.

  6. Field application of pathogen detection technologies

    Straub, Tim M.; Call, Douglas R.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Colburn, Heather A.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Jarman, Kristin H.


    Over the last 10 years there has been a significant increase in commercial products designed for field-based detection of microbial pathogens. This is due, in part, to the anthrax attacks in the United States in 2001, and the need for first responders to quickly identify the composition of suspected white powders and other potential biothreats. Demand for rapid detection is also driven by the need to ensure safe food, water, and environmental systems. From a technology perspective, rapid identification methods have largely capitalized on PCR and other molecular recognition techniques that can be deployed as robust field instrumentation. Examples of the relevant needs include the ability to: 1) declare a water distribution system free of microbial pathogens after a pipe/main break repair; 2) assess risks of contamination such as when produce production and processing plants are located near concentrated animal feeing operations; 3) evaluate the safety of ready-to-eat products; 4) determine the extent of potential serious disease outbreaks in remote and/or disaster stricken areas where access to clinical laboratories is not an immediate option; and 5) quickly assess credible biological terrorism events. Many of the principles underlying rapid detection methods are derived from methods for environmental microbiology, but there is a dearth of literature describing and evaluating field-based detection systems. Thus, the aims of this chapter are to: 1) summarize the different kinds of commercially available sampling kits and field-based biological detectors; 2) highlight some of the continued challenges of sample preparation to stimulate new research towards minimizing the impact of inhibitors on PCR-based detection systems; 3) describe our general rationale and statistically-based approach for instrument evaluation; 4) provide statistical and spatial guidelines for developing valid sampling plans; and 5) summarize some current needs and emerging technologies. This

  7. HPCC technology awareness program: Improved economic competitiveness through technology awareness, transfer and application. Final report


    A need has been defined by Congress for the DOE National Laboratories to participate in various dual use and technology transfer programs. This requirement has spawned several technology transfer approaches at the DOE laboratories. These programs are designed to encourage large and small business to bring their problems and needs forward, and to allow the labs to transfer effective high performance computing technology to the commercial marketplace. This IG Technologies grant from the DOE was undertaken to address the issues and problems associated with technology transfer between the DOE National Laboratories and commercial industry. The key focus is to gain an understanding of how DOE and industry independently and collectively view the requirements and the missing elements that could allow DOE to facilitate HPCC technology transfer. At issue is HPCC Technology Transfer for the High Performance Computing industry and its relationship to the DOE National Laboratories. Several observations on this are addressed. The issue of a ``Technology Utilization Gap`` between the National Laboratories and Independent Software Vendors is discussed. This study addressed the HPCC Technology Transfer plans of all six DOE National Labs. Study team members briefed numerous industrial users of HPCC technology as to the feasibility of technology transfer for various applications. Significant findings of the effort are that the resistance to technology transfer is much higher than anticipated for both the National Labs and industry. Also, HPCC Technology Transfer is observed to be a large company`s dominion. Small businesses have a difficult time in addressing the requirements of technology transfer using Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA`s). Large businesses and the DOE National Labs however, often have requirements and objectives which are at cross purposes, making effective technology transfer difficult.

  8. Frontiers of interfacial water research :workshop report.

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Greathouse, Jeffery A.


    Water is the critical natural resource of the new century. Significant improvements in traditional water treatment processes require novel approaches based on a fundamental understanding of nanoscale and atomic interactions at interfaces between aqueous solution and materials. To better understand these critical issues and to promote an open dialog among leading international experts in water-related specialties, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored a workshop on April 24-26, 2005 in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The ''Frontiers of Interfacial Water Research Workshop'' provided attendees with a critical review of water technologies and emphasized the new advances in surface and interfacial microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction, and computer simulation needed for the development of new materials for water treatment.

  9. 4th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    Karray, Fakhri; Jo, Jun; Sincak, Peter; Myung, Hyun


    This book covers all aspects of robot intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Bucheon, Korea, December 14 - 16, 2015. For better readability, this edition has the total of 49 article...

  10. Applications of three-dimensional printing technology in urological practice.

    Youssef, Ramy F; Spradling, Kyle; Yoon, Renai; Dolan, Benjamin; Chamberlin, Joshua; Okhunov, Zhamshid; Clayman, Ralph; Landman, Jaime


    A rapid expansion in the medical applications of three-dimensional (3D)-printing technology has been seen in recent years. This technology is capable of manufacturing low-cost and customisable surgical devices, 3D models for use in preoperative planning and surgical education, and fabricated biomaterials. While several studies have suggested 3D printers may be a useful and cost-effective tool in urological practice, few studies are available that clearly demonstrate the clinical benefit of 3D-printed materials. Nevertheless, 3D-printing technology continues to advance rapidly and promises to play an increasingly larger role in the field of urology. Herein, we review the current urological applications of 3D printing and discuss the potential impact of 3D-printing technology on the future of urological practice.

  11. Application of next-generation sequencing technology in forensic science.

    Yang, Yaran; Xie, Bingbing; Yan, Jiangwei


    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice.

  12. 3rd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    Yang, Weimin; Jo, Jun; Sincak, Peter; Myung, Hyun


    This book covers all aspects of robot intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 3rd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Beijing, China, November 6 - 8, 2014. For better readability, this edition has the total 74 papers group...

  13. Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Forensic Science

    Yaran Yang


    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multiple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice.

  14. Recent GRC Aerospace Technologies Applicable to Terrestrial Energy Systems

    Kankam, David; Lyons, Valerie J.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Tacina, Robert R.; Hepp, Aloysius F.


    This paper is an overview of a wide range of recent aerospace technologies under development at the NASA Glenn Research Center, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. The focused areas are space solar power, advanced power management and distribution systems, Stirling cycle conversion systems, fuel cells, advanced thin film photovoltaics and batteries, and combustion technologies. The aerospace-related objectives of the technologies are generation of space power, development of cost-effective and reliable, high performance power systems, cryogenic applications, energy storage, and reduction in gas-turbine emissions, with attendant clean jet engines. The terrestrial energy applications of the technologies include augmentation of bulk power in ground power distribution systems, and generation of residential, commercial and remote power, as well as promotion of pollution-free environment via reduction in combustion emissions.

  15. Application of Next-generation Sequencing Technology in Forensic Science

    Yaran Yang; Bingbing Xie; Jiangwei Yan


    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with its high-throughput capacity and low cost, has developed rapidly in recent years and become an important analytical tool for many genomics researchers. New opportunities in the research domain of the forensic studies emerge by harnessing the power of NGS technology, which can be applied to simultaneously analyzing multi-ple loci of forensic interest in different genetic contexts, such as autosomes, mitochondrial and sex chromosomes. Furthermore, NGS technology can also have potential applications in many other aspects of research. These include DNA database construction, ancestry and phenotypic inference, monozygotic twin studies, body fluid and species identification, and forensic animal, plant and microbiological analyses. Here we review the application of NGS technology in the field of forensic science with the aim of providing a reference for future forensics studies and practice.

  16. Advancement in Textile Technology for Defence Application



    Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.

  17. Advancement in Textile Technology for Defence Application

    Balasubramanian Kandasubramanian


    Full Text Available The early development of textiles involved use of natural materials like cotton, wool and flax. The advent of the new technology revolutionized textiles which enables to develop synthetic fibers like lycra®, a segmented polyurethane-urea, which has exceptional elastic properties, Kevlar®, which has ultra high strength properties and is used as bulletproof vest. For the improvement of personal mobility, health care and rehabilitation, it requires to integrate novel sensing and actuating functions to textiles. Fundamental challenge in the development of smart textile is that drapability and manufacturability of smart textiles should not be affected. Textile fabrics embedded with sensors, piezoelectric materials, flame retardant materials, super hydrophobic materials, controlled drug release systems and temperature adaptable materials can play major role in the development of advanced and high-tech military clothes. Advancement in the textile materials has the capacity of improving comfort, mobility and protection in diverse hostile environment. In this study, the advancement in energy harvesting textiles, controlled release textiles and engineering textiles are presented.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.331-339, DOI:

  18. Study and application of temporal index technology

    YE XiaoPing; TANG Yong; CHEN LuoWu; GUO Huan; ZHU Jun; CHEN KaiYuan


    This paper addresses the mathematical relation on a set of periods and temporal indexing constructions as well as their applications. First we introduce two concepts, i.e. the temporal connection and temporal inclusion, which are equivalence relation and preorder relation respectively. Second, by studying some basic topics such as the division of "large" equivalence classes and the overlaps of preorder relational sets, we propose a temporal data index model (TDIM) with a tree-structure consisting of a root node, equivalence class nodes and linearly ordered branch nodes. Third, we study algorithms for the temporal querying and incremental updating as well as dynamical management within the framework of TDIM. Based on a proper mathematical supporting, TDIM can be applied to researching some significant practical cases such as temporal relational and temporal XML data and so on.

  19. Wearable computer technology for dismounted applications

    Daniels, Reginald


    Small computing devices which rival the compact size of traditional personal digital assistants (PDA) have recently established a market niche. These computing devices are small enough to be considered unobtrusive for humans to wear. The computing devices are also powerful enough to run full multi-tasking general purpose operating systems. This paper will explore the wearable computer information system for dismounted applications recently fielded for ground-based US Air Force use. The environments that the information systems are used in will be reviewed, as well as a description of the net-centric, ground-based warrior. The paper will conclude with a discussion regarding the importance of intuitive, usable, and unobtrusive operator interfaces for dismounted operators.

  20. Application of Cloud Technology in Digital Library

    D Kishore Kumar


    Full Text Available Libraries may soon be building and managing their own data centers. This model would letlibraries maintain more control over the applications and data stores that containsensitive, private information about patrons. Provisioning and maintenance of infrastructure forWeb based digital library present several challenges. In this paper we discuss problems facedwith digital library and development efforts to overcome that problem. Infrastructure virtualizationand cloud computing are particularly attractive choices which is challenged by both growth inthe size of the indexed document collection, new features and most prominently usage. With thepurpose of applying Cloud Computing to university library, the paper describes the currentstatus of user service models in university libraries. Then it proposed to improve current userservice model with Cloud Computing. This paper explores some of the security issuessurrounding data location, mobility and availability.

  1. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu


    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  2. Application on Internet of Things Technology Using in Library Management

    Liu, Xueqing; Sheng, Wenwen

    Following the computer, Internet and mobile communication network, the Internet of Things (IOT) will bring a new development of information industry, and moreover is a global technology revolution that is bound to have a profound impact on the economic development and social life. This paper analyzes the key technology and working principle of IOT, its development at home and abroad, its application in the library management, and proposes its development direction in the field of library management and promotion programs.

  3. Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;


    An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing....... An example of a nearterm application is given, and a comparison of routing technologies is made regarding their cost and reliability aspects....

  4. Laser Ignition Technology for Bi-Propellant Rocket Engine Applications

    Thomas, Matt; Bossard, John; Early, Jim; Trinh, Huu; Dennis, Jay; Turner, James (Technical Monitor)


    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of laser ignition technology for bipropellant rocket engines applications. The objectives of this project include: (1) the selection test chambers and flows; (2) definition of the laser ignition setup; (3) pulse format optimization; (4) fiber optic coupled laser ignition system analysis; and (5) chamber integration issues definition. The testing concludes that rocket combustion chamber laser ignition is imminent. Support technologies (multiplexing, window durability/cleaning, and fiber optic durability) are feasible.

  5. Research and Application of Multi-Agent Technology

    Li Wei; Zhang Fengming


    This paper firstly introduces the background and conception of Agent and Multi-Agent technology and compares the frameworks of Agent system and MAS. Analyzing the framework of Agent secondly. Then explaining the communication language used in the Multi-Agent society where knowledge communication plays a key role among Agents. Finally, some applications are enumerated and the future direction of this technology is prospected.

  6. Artificial intelligence applications in information and communication technologies

    Bouguila, Nizar


    This book presents various recent applications of Artificial Intelligence in Information and Communication Technologies such as Search and Optimization methods, Machine Learning, Data Representation and Ontologies, and Multi-agent Systems. The main aim of this book is to help Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) practitioners in managing efficiently their platforms using AI tools and methods and to provide them with sufficient Artificial Intelligence background to deal with real-life problems.  .

  7. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application

    Goland, A.N.


    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  8. Wireless Technology Use Case Requirement Analysis for Future Space Applications

    Abedi, Ali; Wilkerson, DeLisa


    This report presents various use case scenarios for wireless technology -including radio frequency (RF), optical, and acoustic- and studies requirements and boundary conditions in each scenario. The results of this study can be used to prioritize technology evaluation and development and in the long run help in development of a roadmap for future use of wireless technology. The presented scenarios cover the following application areas: (i) Space Vehicles (manned/unmanned), (ii) Satellites and Payloads, (iii) Surface Explorations, (iv) Ground Systems, and (v) Habitats. The requirement analysis covers two parallel set of conditions. The first set includes the environmental conditions such as temperature, radiation, noise/interference, wireless channel characteristics and accessibility. The second set of requirements are dictated by the application and may include parameters such as latency, throughput (effective data rate), error tolerance, and reliability. This report provides a comprehensive overview of all requirements from both perspectives and details their effects on wireless system reliability and network design. Application area examples are based on 2015 NASA Technology roadmap with specific focus on technology areas: TA 2.4, 3.3, 5.2, 5.5, 6.4, 7.4, and 10.4 sections that might benefit from wireless technology.

  9. Application of stereo-imaging technology to medical field.

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Park, Jeongyun; Kim, In Young; Kim, Kwang Gi


    There has been continuous development in the area of stereoscopic medical imaging devices, and many stereoscopic imaging devices have been realized and applied in the medical field. In this article, we review past and current trends pertaining to the application stereo-imaging technologies in the medical field. We describe the basic principles of stereo vision and visual issues related to it, including visual discomfort, binocular disparities, vergence-accommodation mismatch, and visual fatigue. We also present a brief history of medical applications of stereo-imaging techniques, examples of recently developed stereoscopic medical devices, and patent application trends as they pertain to stereo-imaging medical devices. Three-dimensional (3D) stereo-imaging technology can provide more realistic depth perception to the viewer than conventional two-dimensional imaging technology. Therefore, it allows for a more accurate understanding and analysis of the morphology of an object. Based on these advantages, the significance of stereoscopic imaging in the medical field increases in accordance with the increase in the number of laparoscopic surgeries, and stereo-imaging technology plays a key role in the diagnoses of the detailed morphologies of small biological specimens. The application of 3D stereo-imaging technology to the medical field will help improve surgical accuracy, reduce operation times, and enhance patient safety. Therefore, it is important to develop more enhanced stereoscopic medical devices.

  10. Application of EPON Technology in Transmission Line Video Monitoring

    Xia Zongze


    Full Text Available The operating condition of transmission lines directly determines the efficiency of the power system. Therefore, faced with a complex operating environment, it is extremely important to protect transmission line video monitoring. At present, the technology widely used in the power distribution and network communication in domestic power industry is EPON technology. This technology has a broad application prospect on the transmission of electrical circuit video monitoring information. On this basis, this paper carries out a further research on the application of EPON technology in transmission line video monitoring. This paper firstly proposes the design principle of transmission line video monitoring, and on this basis, it carries out a comparative analysis of merits and demerits of different types of EPON networking schemes. In addition, quantification is given for the EPON networking power consumption, so as to obtain a complete EPON combining scheme which is combined with specific examples to validate, and finally realize that the EPON technology has a certain application value because it is in line with various indicators after application in transmission line video monitoring.

  11. Computer technology: its potential for industrial energy conservation. A technology applications manual



    Today, computer technology is within the reach of practically any industrial corporation regardless of product size. This manual highlights a few of the many applications of computers in the process industry and provides the technical reader with a basic understanding of computer technology, terminology, and the interactions among the various elements of a process computer system. The manual has been organized to separate process applications and economics from computer technology. Chapter 1 introduces the present status of process computer technology and describes the four major applications - monitoring, analysis, control, and optimization. The basic components of a process computer system also are defined. Energy-saving applications in the four major categories defined in Chapter 1 are discussed in Chapter 2. The economics of process computer systems is the topic of Chapter 3, where the historical trend of process computer system costs is presented. Evaluating a process for the possible implementation of a computer system requires a basic understanding of computer technology as well as familiarity with the potential applications; Chapter 4 provides enough technical information for an evaluation. Computer and associated peripheral costs and the logical sequence of steps in the development of a microprocessor-based process control system are covered in Chapter 5.

  12. xMAP Technology: Applications in Detection of Pathogens

    Reslova, Nikol; Michna, Veronika; Kasny, Martin; Mikel, Pavel; Kralik, Petr


    xMAP technology is applicable for high-throughput, multiplex and simultaneous detection of different analytes within a single complex sample. xMAP multiplex assays are currently available in various nucleic acid and immunoassay formats, enabling simultaneous detection and typing of pathogenic viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi and also antigen or antibody interception. As an open architecture platform, the xMAP technology is beneficial to end users and therefore it is used in various pharmaceutical, clinical and research laboratories. The main aim of this review is to summarize the latest findings and applications in the field of pathogen detection using microsphere-based multiplex assays. PMID:28179899

  13. Satellite systems for personal applications concepts and technology

    Richharia, Madhavendra


    Presents the concepts, technology, and role of satellite systems in support of personal applications, such as mobile and broadband communications, navigation, television, radio and multimedia broadcasting, safety of life services, etc. This book presents a novel perspective on satellite systems, reflecting the modern personal technology context, and hence a focus on the individual as end-user. The book begins by outlining key generic concepts before discussing techniques adopted in particular application areas; next, it exemplifies these techniques through discussion of state-of-art c

  14. Field-programmable custom computing technology architectures, tools, and applications

    Luk, Wayne; Pocek, Ken


    Field-Programmable Custom Computing Technology: Architectures, Tools, and Applications brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this fast-moving area. In seven selected chapters, the book describes the latest advances in architectures, design methods, and applications of field-programmable devices for high-performance reconfigurable systems. The contributors to this work were selected from the leading researchers and practitioners in the field. It will be valuable to anyone working or researching in the field of custom computing technology. It serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most challenging issues being examined today.

  15. Application of electrostatic prevention technology on polyethylene silos

    Gong, Hong; Liu, Quanzhen; Tan, Fenggui; Zhang, Yunpeng


    The main reasons of static electric explosion accidents in polyolefin plant silos were analyzed in this paper, and the study finds that the reasons include control failure of flammable gas content in the feed, high electrification caused by the wind supply, and frequent electrostatic discharge in silos. The electrostatic-reducing technologies of polyolefin powder were introduced, and its application performance in polyolefin plant silos was also clarified. In addition, the methods including FDCS and DGES for evaluation of electrostatic explosion in polyolefin plant silo were proposed. In the end, the risk of electrostatic explosion in PE plant blended silo was evaluated before and after application of electrostatic reducing technology.

  16. Understanding surveillance technologies spy devices, their origins & applications

    Petersen, JK


    From electronic wire taps to baby monitors and long-distance video and listening devices, startling changes occur everyday in how we gather, interpret, and transmit information. An extraordinary range of powerful new technologies has come into existence to meet the requirements of this expanding field.Your search for a comprehensive resource for surveillance devices is over. Understanding Surveillance Technologies: Spy Devices, Their Origins and Applications serves as a provocative, broad-based, and visually appealing reference that introduces and describes the technologies rapidly moving into

  17. Using Technology for Ministry: Trends, Principles and Applications

    Alfredo Vergel


    Full Text Available This survey of developments, guidelines and uses of technology by congregations and their leaders offers an overview of the topic and points to sources for further study. As technology plays a larger role in religious communities there is a need for guiding principles for its use. Congregational leaders do well to engage technology reflectively while staying informed on its possible applications in ministry. While this article is of primary interest to those in leadership positions at the congregational level, it can also serve both as a primer to seminary students and as a tool for librarians providing reference services on the topic.

  18. Application of virtual reality technology in clinical medicine

    Li, Lan; Yu, Fei; Shi, Dongquan; Shi, Jianping; Tian, Zongjun; Yang, Jiquan; Wang, Xingsong; Jiang, Qing


    The present review discusses the application of virtual reality (VR) technology in clinical medicine, especially in surgical training, pain management and therapeutic treatment of mental illness. We introduce the common types of VR simulators and their operational principles in aforementioned fields. The clinical effects are also discussed. In almost every study that dealt with VR simulators, researchers have arrived at the same conclusion that both doctors and patients could benefit from this novel technology. Moreover, advantages and disadvantages of the utilization of VR technology in each field were discussed, and the future research directions were proposed. PMID:28979666

  19. Applications for Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator Technology

    van der List, M.; van Vliet, L. D.; Sanders, H. M.; Put, P. A. G.; Elst, J. W. E. C.


    In 2002 and 2003, Bradford Engineering B.V. conducted, in corporation with the Dutch research institute TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory (PML) a SME study for ESA-ESTEC for the identification of spaceflight applications and on-ground demonstration of Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator (SPCGG) technology. This innovative technology has been developed by TNO-PML while Bradford Engineering also brought in its experience in spaceflight hardware development and manufacturing. The Solid Propellant Cool Gas Generator (SPCGG) technology allows for pure gas generation at ambient temperatures, as opposed to conventional solid propellant gas generators. This makes the SPCGG technology interesting for a wide range of terrestrial spaceflight applications. During the first part of the study, a variety of potential applications have been identified and three applications were selected for a more detailed quantitative study. In the third phase a ground demonstration was performed successfully for a cold gas propulsion system application. During the actual demonstration test, 10 cool gas generators were mounted and all operated successfully in sequence, demonstrating good repeatability of the produced amount of gas and pressure.

  20. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films technologies and applications

    Tiginyanu, Ion


    Gives a comprehensive account of the developments of nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. This book covers the fundamentals, processes of deposition and characterisation of nanocoatings, as well as the applications. It is suitable for the glass and glazing, automotive, electronics, aerospace, construction and biomedical industries in particular.$bCoatings are used for a wide range of applications, from anti-fogging coatings for glass through to corrosion control in the aerospace and automotive industries. Nanocoatings and ultra-thin films provides an up-to-date review of the fundamentals, processes of deposition, characterisation and applications of nanocoatings. Part one covers technologies used in the creation and analysis of thin films, including chapters on current and advanced coating technologies in industry, nanostructured thin films from amphiphilic molecules, chemical and physical vapour deposition methods and methods for analysing nanocoatings and ultra-thin films. Part two focuses on the applications...

  1. Technology and Its Application:MIS with Geographical Information


    Despite the constant expansion of the application of GIS, in recent years, the data processing ability of the application system developed with GIS_Tool is quite limited. Management information system with the geographical information can not only be used to deal with data commonly, but also deal with digitized maps as GIS_Tool does. Thus it can help the user develop an application system high-qualified both in maps and traditional data. This paper, by taking the method of integrated MapInfo in the application of Visual Basic as an example, mainly illustrates two technological problems-integrated map technology and the multiuserization of Maplnfo geographical information. And also the concrete solutions to the problems are provided.

  2. Review on thin-film transistor technology, its applications, and possible new applications to biological cells

    Tixier-Mita, Agnès; Ihida, Satoshi; Ségard, Bertrand-David; Cathcart, Grant A.; Takahashi, Takuya; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi


    This paper presents a review on state-of-the-art of thin-film transistor (TFT) technology and its wide range of applications, not only in liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), but also in sensing devices. The history of the evolution of the technology is first given. Then the standard applications of TFT-LCDs, and X-ray detectors, followed by state-of-the-art applications in the field of chemical and biochemical sensing are presented. TFT technology allows the fabrication of dense arrays of independent and transparent microelectrodes on large glass substrates. The potential of these devices as electrical substrates for biological cell applications is then described. The possibility of using TFT array substrates as new tools for electrical experiments on biological cells has been investigated for the first time by our group. Dielectrophoresis experiments and impedance measurements on yeast cells are presented here. Their promising results open the door towards new applications of TFT technology.

  3. Telemedicine technology and applications for home hemodialysis.

    Agroyannis, B; Fourtounas, C; Romagnoli, G; Skiadas, M; Tsavdaris, C; Chassomeris, C; Tzanatos, H; Kopelias, I; Lymberopoulos, D; Psarras, J


    Home hemodialysis (HD) for the treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was first put into practice about 30 years ago. In this paper we describe the application of telematics monitoring services (TMS) for supporting patients who need home or satellite HD (SHD). For the clinical trials two modified HD machines were located in the renal unit and a central control station (UNIX workstation with multimedia PC-terminal) was located in another room of the hospital. Bi-directional communication between modified HD machines and central control station was managed via ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) links. Using these HD-machines 150 HD sessions were performed in nine patients over a period of five months. This system enabled on-line remote supervision of the HD machine-related functions (air in the blood, leak of blood, low conductivity etc.) and the clinical condition of patients through measurement of blood pressure (BP), pulse rate, PO2 (pulse oxymetry) and electrocardiogram (ECG) from the central control station (CCS). The user checked the type of alarm/warning, its appearance on HD machines and multimedia terminal units (MTU), the action of the protective system and the appearance of consultative messages from CCS on the remote terminal unit RTU. According to the data collected, the disturbances of HD machine function were visible and audible in the CCS and the user messages were always observed on the RTU. No unusual dialysis-associated complications were observed, all data and alarms/warnings were transmitted correctly and patients had adequate HD treatment.

  4. Color line-scan technology in industrial applications

    Lemstrom, Guy F.


    Color machine vision opens new possibilities for industrial on-line quality control applications. With color machine vision it's possible to detect different colors and shades, make color separation, spectroscopic applications and at the same time do measurements in the same way as with gray scale technology. These can be geometrical measurements such as dimensions, shape, texture etc. By combining these technologies in a color line scan camera, it brings the machine vision to new dimensions of realizing new applications and new areas in the machine vision business. Quality and process control requirements in the industry get more demanding every day. Color machine vision can be the solution for many simple tasks that haven't been realized with gray scale technology. The lack of detecting or measuring colors has been one reason why machine vision has not been used in quality control as much as it could have been. Color machine vision has shown a growing enthusiasm in the industrial machine vision applications. Potential areas of the industry include food, wood, mining and minerals, printing, paper, glass, plastic, recycling etc. Tasks are from simple measuring to total process and quality control. The color machine vision is not only for measuring colors. It can also be for contrast enhancement, object detection, background removing, structure detection and measuring. Color or spectral separation can be used in many different ways for working out machine vision application than before. It's only a question of how to use the benefits of having two or more data per measured pixel, instead of having only one as in case with traditional gray scale technology. There are plenty of potential applications already today that can be realized with color vision and it's going to give more performance to many traditional gray scale applications in the near future. But the most important feature is that color machine vision offers a new way of working out applications, where

  5. 2nd International Symposium on Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications

    Mitra, Sushmita; Thampi, Sabu; El-Alfy, El-Sayed


    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the second International Symposium on Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications (ISTA’16), held on September 21–24, 2016 in Jaipur, India. The 80 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 210 initial submissions and are organized in topical sections on image processing and artificial vision, computer networks and distributed systems, intelligent tools and techniques and applications using intelligent techniques.

  6. Applications of physical chemistry to glass technology

    Stewart, Ogie Gregory


    Industrial manufacturing of glass, called float glass, involves a process in which flat pieces of glass are produced by pouring molten glass on a bath of molten tin metal. The glass is then coated with thin film coatings for such applications as solar radiation control and "privacy" glass. In this thesis, principles of physical chemistry are applied to selected aspects of glass production and thin film coatings in an effort to better understand these processes with the hope of improving film and glass quality. The research described here consists of three major studies. Part 1 describes the production of thin films by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (APCVD) and characterization of the films by various analytical techniques. Vanadium oxide films were produced from vanadium (IV) chloride and each of several alcohols to determine the feasibility of this method of deposition and to investigate its use in an electrochromic device. The focus here was to investigate the levels of carbon contamination in the films. It was found that the level of carbon present in the films depend on the type of amine used. Part 2 is an investigation of the flow dynamics that occur during the two thin film deposition processes. APCVD and Powder Spray Pyrolysis (PSP). Information regarding flow dynamics and particle distribution in the region above the films' substrates were obtained and related to film formation and quality. Part 3 is a kinetic study of the gas phase reactions that occur in the vapor region above the glass during float glass production. A kinetic model of the possible reactions was devised and integrated to predict the formation of these impurities with time. An experimental setup to test the model's predictions is also discussed. The research described in this thesis lays the groundwork for several possibilities for future work. Electrochromic films can be produced by APCVD to construct an all-solid-state device. Two dimensional imaging coupled with Laser

  7. Application of the Maxwell-Wagner-Hanai effective medium theory to the analysis of the interfacial polarization relaxations in conducting composite films

    Adohi, B J-P [UFR-SSMT, Universite de Cocody, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Ivory Coast (Cote d' Ivoire); Bouanga, C Vanga; Fatyeyeva, K; Tabellout, M [Laboratoire de Physique de l' Etat Condense, UMR CNRS 6087, Universite du Maine, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail:


    A new approach to explain the interfacial polarization phenomenon in conducting composite films is proposed. HCl-doped poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polyamide-6 (PA-6) matrices with embedded polyaniline (PANI) particles as filler were investigated and analysed, combining dielectric spectroscopy and AFM electrical images with the effective medium theory analysis. Up to three relaxation peaks attributed to the interfacial polarization phenomena were detected in the studied frequency range (0.1 Hz-1 MHz). The AFM electrical images revealed that the doped PA-6/PANI composite can be modelled as a single-type particle medium and the PET/PANI one as a two-type particle medium. A simple dielectric loss expression was derived from the Maxwell-Wagner-Hanai mixture equation and was applied to the experimental data to identify the interfaces involved in each of the relaxation peaks. The parameter values (permittivity, conductivity, volume fraction of the PANI particles) were found to agree well with the measured one, hence validating the models.

  8. Robot Control System based on Web Application and RFID Technology

    Barenji Ali Vatankhah


    Full Text Available This paper discusses an integration driven framework for enabling the RFID based identification of parts to perform robotic distributor operations in the random mix based parts control based on web application. The RFID technology senses newly arriving parts to be distribution robot, the robot is able to recognize them and perform cooperative distributing via web-based application. The developed web application control system is implemented in the educational robotic arm. RFID system sends real time information from parts to the web application and web based application makes a decision for control of the robot arm, controller of robot controls the robot as based on the decision from web application. The proposed control system has increases the reconfiguration and scalability of robot system.

  9. First International Conference on Applications of Photonic Technology (ICAPT'94)

    Chrostowski, Jacek; Measures, Raymond; Applications of Photonic Technology


    In this book we present a snapshot of the state of the art in photonics in 1994, showing typical applications and emerging new ones; discussing the key technologies behind these applications, their limitations, and prospects. The articles in this book are extended versions of the papers presented at the first International Conference on Applications ofPhotonic Technology (ICAPT'94), held in Toronto, Canada, on June 21-23, 1994. Photonics has been recognized as one of the key technologies for the 21 st century, as electronics was the technology of the 20th centrury and electrical engineering changed the life of people in the 19th century. According to the recent report of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in Paris (OECD), the market for photonics will grow dramatically in the next 10 years with an expected world-wide expenditure of US $230 billion from some US $30 billion in 1992. The explosion of information technology was the largest driving force for the deployment of photonic techno...

  10. Computer program for distance learning of pesticide application technology.

    Maia, Bruno; Cunha, Joao P A R


    Distance learning presents great potential for mitigating field problems on pesticide application technology. Thus, due to the lack of teaching material about pesticide spraying technology in the Portuguese language and the increasing availability of distance learning, this study developed and evaluated a computer program for distance learning about the theory of pesticide spraying technology using the tools of information technology. The modules comprising the course, named Pulverizar, were: (1) Basic concepts, (2) Factors that affect application, (3) Equipments, (4) Spraying nozzles, (5) Sprayer calibration, (6) Aerial application, (7) Chemigation, (8) Physical-chemical properties, (9) Formulations, (10) Adjuvants, (11) Water quality, and (12) Adequate use of pesticides. The program was made available to the public on July 1(st), 2008, hosted at the web site, and was simple, robust and practical on the complementation of traditional teaching for the education of professionals in Agricultural Sciences. Mastering pesticide spraying technology by people involved in agricultural production can be facilitated by the program Pulverizar, which was well accepted in its initial evaluation.

  11. Brushless dc motors. [applications in non-space technology


    Brushless dc motors were intensively developed and tested over several years before qualification as the prime movers for Apollo Spacecraft life support blowers, and for circulating oxygen in the lunar portable life support system. Knowledge gained through prototype development and critical testing has significantly influenced the technology employed, broadened markets and applications, and reduced the cost of present day motors.

  12. Nosql Technology In Android Based Mobile Chat Application Using Mongodb

    Yovita Tunardi


    Full Text Available Along with the development of data storage technology which previously using relational concept began to change to the non-relational concept or sometimes referred to as the term NoSQL technology. Data storage in NoSQL is no longer based on the relations between tables but using another methods, one of them is document-oriented. This method was applied specifically in MongoDB. This concept brings new hope because oftheir superiority that can handle very large data with promising performance and is perfect for agile system development. The purpose of this research was to measure the performance NoSQL, especially MongoDB with implemented it in a Android based mobile chat application. This research uses three methods, analysis method including literature study, analysis of similar application, questionnaires, design method using Agile SofwareDevelopment, and evaluation method including eight golden rules, analysis of similar application, questionnaires, and interview. The results of this research is a mobile chat application that uses MongoDB as the data storage technology. Through this research can be drawn the conclusion that NoSQL technology implementation, MongoDB, give special advantages like lighter data storage and faster data access.

  13. Application and prospect of computer technology in welding materials field


    This paper summarizes the application status of computer technology in welding materials field from three aspects: the CAD of welding materials, the date base system for welding materials and the expert system for welding materials .Besides, this paper explores and discusses the existing problems and the developing trend in the future.

  14. Mobile Technology: Implications of Its Application on Learning

    Adeyemo, Samuel Adesola; Adedoja, Gloria Olusola; Adelore, Omobola


    Learning in Nigeria is considered to have taken a new dimension as the Distance Learning Centre (DLC) of the University of Ibadan has created wider access to learning through the application of mobile technology to learning with particular reference to mobile phones use for the teaching and learning process. By this, the Centre seeks to achieve…

  15. Economic evaluation of information technology applications on dairy farms

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.


    The research described in this thesis focused on the economic evaluation of information technology (IT) applications on dairy farms in order to support investment decisions. The evaluation included a normative (deductive) approach and an empirical (positive) approach. The normative approach predicte

  16. Ceramic Integration Technologies for Energy and Aerospace Applications

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Asthana, Ralph N.


    Robust and affordable integration technologies for advanced ceramics are required to improve the performance, reliability, efficiency, and durability of components, devices, and systems based on them in a wide variety of energy, aerospace, and environmental applications. Many thermochemical and thermomechanical factors including joint design, analysis, and optimization must be considered in integration of similar and dissimilar material systems.

  17. Development and Commercial Application of Resid Hydrotreating Technology--RHT

    Dai Lishun; Yang Qinghe; Niu Chuanfeng; Nie Hong; Shi Yahua


    The RHT technology is developed by Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP) for residuum hydrotreating in order to produce good quality RFCC feed. The advantages of the RHT series catalysts are presented in this article, based on the results of activity tests and a 9500 hours service life test in pilot plants and the assessment on a commercial application.

  18. The application of persuasive technology to educational settings

    Mintz, Joseph; Aagaard, Morten


    four design principles for the use of persuasive technology in instructional design, including credibility and Kairos. We derive these from theoretical considerations, as well as from our experience with the HANDS project, which has developed a mobile persuasive application for positive behaviour...

  19. International Symposium on Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications

    Thampi, Sabu; Dasgupta, Soura; Srivastava, Praveen; ISTA


    This book contains a selection of refereed and revised papers from three special tracks: Ad-hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks, Intelligent Distributed Computing and, Business Intelligence and Big Data Analytics originally presented at the International Symposium on Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications (ISTA), August 10-13, 2015, Kochi, India.  .

  20. Application of Data Collection Techniques by Human Performance Technology Practitioners

    Duan, Minjing


    By content-analyzing 22 published cases from a variety of professional and academic books and journals, this study examines the status quo of human performance technology (HPT) practitioners' application of five major data collection techniques in their everyday work: questionnaire, interview, focus group, observation, and document collection. The…

  1. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    Rouse, D. J.


    Utilization of NASA technology and its application to medicine is discussed. The introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products and incorporation of aerospace technology is outlined. A biopolar donor-recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the methodology. The methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the ocular screening device, a system for quick detection of vision problems in preschool children, and Porta-Fib III, a hospital monitoring unit. Two institutional transfers were completed: implant materials testing, the application of NASA fracture control technology to improve reliability of metallic prostheses, and incinerator monitoring, a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor combustion products of municipal incinerators. Mobility aids for the blind and ultrasound diagnosis of burn depth are also studied.

  2. Micromachined Systems-on-a-Chip: Infrastructure, Technology and Applications

    Allen, J. J.; Krygowski, T. W.; Miller, S. L.; Montague, S.; Rodgers, M. S.; Schriner, H.; Smith, J. H.; Sniegowski, J. J.


    A review is made of the infrastructure, technology and capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories for the development of micromechanical systems that have potential space applications. By incorporating advanced fabrication processes, such as chemical mechanical polishing, and several mechanical polysilicon levels, the range' of rrticromechanical systems that can be fabricated in these technologies is virtually limitless. Representative applications include a micro- engine driven mirror, and a micromachined lock. Using a novel integrated MEM!YCMOS technology, a six degree-of-freedom accelerometer/gyroscope system has been designed by researchers at U.C. Berkeley and fabricated on the same silicon chip as the CMOS control circuits to produce an integrated micro-navigational unit.

  3. An overview of integrated flywheel technology for aerospace application

    Keckler, C. R.; Groom, N. J.


    Space missions ranging from small scientific satellites to large manned spacecraft have, for many years, utilized systems of spinning flywheels to maintain vehicle attitude. These systems have included momentum and reaction wheels as well as control moment gyros. Extension of that technology to satisfy the additional tasks associated with energy storage has also been pursued. The combining of control and energy storage features into one system has been examined by NASA for space applications and demonstrated in the laboratory. The impact of technology advances in such areas as composite material rotors, magnetic suspensions, motor/generators, and electronics have prompted a re-evaluation of the viability of the flywheel storage system concept for aerospace applications. This paper summarizes the results of this re-examination and identifies shortfalls in the various technology areas.

  4. Printing technologies for biomolecule and cell-based applications.

    Ihalainen, Petri; Määttänen, Anni; Sandler, Niklas


    Biomolecules, such as enzymes, proteins and other biomacromolecules (polynucleotides, polypeptides, polysaccharides and DNA) that are immobilized on solid surfaces are relevant to many areas of science and technology. These functionalized surfaces have applications in biosensors, chromatography, diagnostic immunoassays, cell culturing, DNA microarrays and other analytical techniques. Printing technologies offer opportunities in this context. The main interests in printing biomolecules are in immobilizing them on surfaces for sensors and catalysts or for controlled delivery of protein-based drugs. Recently, there have been significant developments in the use of inkjet printing for dispensing of proteins, biomacromolecules and cells. This review discusses the use of roll-to-roll and inkjet printing technologies in manufacturing of biomolecule and cell-based applications.

  5. Fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application in cleanrooms

    Xu, Zhonglin


    Fundamentals of Air Cleaning Technology and Its Application in Cleanrooms sets up the theoretical framework for cleanrooms. New ideas and methods are presented, which include the characteristic index of cleanrooms, uniform and non-uniform distribution characteristics, the minimum sampling volume, a new concept of outdoor air conditioning and the fundamentals of leakage-preventing layers. Written by an author who can look back on major scientific achievements and 50 years of experience in this field, this book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application. The work is intended for researchers, college teachers, graduates, designers, technicians and corporate R&D personnel in the field of HVAC and air cleaning technology. Zhonglin Xu is a senior research fellow at China Academy of Building Research.

  6. The Modern Applications of Surface Duplex Treatment Technology

    JerzySmolik; JanWalkowicz; AdamMazurkiewicz; JerzyTomaszewski


    The paper presents results of the research carried out by the authors in different fields of plasma surface technologies applications. Three groups of different surface engineering technologies are shown in the paper. The first one concerns the possibility of using the duplex treatment technology for creation of biocompatible diamond-like a-C:H films. The paper presents research results concerning influence of the process parameters of the a-C:H coatings creation by means of the RFPACVD method in the pure methane amlosphere on their phase structure and mechanical properties. In the second case authors present the concept of a new special multilayer thermal barrier coatings with the PAPVD diffusion barrier layers based on aluminium oxide. As the last one the special application of plasma techniques for creation of composite materials characterized by the muffling of mechanical vibration was presented.

  7. The Modern Applications of Surface Duplex Treatment Technology

    Jerzy Smolik; Jan Walkowicz; Adam Mazurkiewicz; Jerzy Tomaszewski


    The paper presents results of the research carried out by the authors in different fields of plasma surface technologies applications. Three groups of different surface engineering technologies are shown in the paper. The first one concerns the possibility of using the duplex treatment technology for creation of biocompatible diamond-like a-C:H films.The paper presents research results concerning influence of the process parameters of the a-C:H coatings creation by means of the RF PACVD method in the pure methane atmosphere on their phase structure and mechanical properties. In the second case authors present the concept of a new special multilayer thermal barrier coatings with the PAPVD diffusion barrier layers based on aluminium oxide. As the last one the special application of plasma techniques for creation of composite materials characterized by the muffling of mechanical vibration was presented.

  8. 1st International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    Matson, Eric; Myung, Hyun; Xu, Peter


    In recent years, robots have been built based on cognitive architecture which has been developed to model human cognitive ability. The cognitive architecture can be a basis for intelligence technology to generate robot intelligence. In this edited book the robot intelligence is classified into six categories: cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, ambient intelligence, collective intelligence and genetic intelligence. This classification categorizes the intelligence of robots based on the different aspects of awareness and the ability to act deliberately as a result of such awareness. This book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 1st International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Gwangju, Korea, December 16-18, 2012. For a better readability, this edition has the total 101 ...

  9. [Flexible print circuit technology application in biomedical engineering].

    Jiang, Lihua; Cao, Yi; Zheng, Xiaolin


    Flexible print circuit (FPC) technology has been widely applied in variety of electric circuits with high precision due to its advantages, such as low-cost, high specific fabrication ability, and good flexibility, etc. Recently, this technology has also been used in biomedical engineering, especially in the development of microfluidic chip and microelectrode array. The high specific fabrication can help making microelectrode and other micro-structure equipment. And good flexibility allows the micro devices based on FPC technique to be easily packaged with other parts. In addition, it also reduces the damage of microelectrodes to the tissue. In this paper, the application of FPC technology in biomedical engineering is introduced. Moreover, the important parameters of FPC technique and the development trend of prosperous applications is also discussed.

  10. Accessing multimedia content from mobile applications using semantic web technologies

    Kreutel, Jörn; Gerlach, Andrea; Klekamp, Stefanie; Schulz, Kristin


    We describe the ideas and results of an applied research project that aims at leveraging the expressive power of semantic web technologies as a server-side backend for mobile applications that provide access to location and multimedia data and allow for a rich user experience in mobile scenarios, ranging from city and museum guides to multimedia enhancements of any kind of narrative content, including e-book applications. In particular, we will outline a reusable software architecture for both server-side functionality and native mobile platforms that is aimed at significantly decreasing the effort required for developing particular applications of that kind.

  11. Research progress of aluminum alloy automotive sheet and application technology

    Ma Mingtu; You Jianghai; Lu Hongzhou; Wang Zhiwen


    Pretrcatment technology is deeply discussed to explain its importance in guaranteeing properties and form- ability of aluminum alloy automotive sheet. Some typical applications of aluminum alloy automotive sheet to automotive industry are listed. Based on the author's knowledge and recognition and research progress presently, the important re- search contents about aluminum alloy automotive sheet are emphasized. Reducing cost and price of sheet and going deeply into application research are the main work for expending the application of aluminum alloy automotive sheet in the automobile.

  12. Application and development status of coal gasification technology in China

    BU Xue-peng; XU Zhen-gang


    Introduced the application and development status of coal gasification technology in China. The most widely used coal gasification technology in China is the atmospheric fixed-bed gasifier, its total number is about 9 000. About 30 pressurized fixed-bed gasifiers are in operation, and more than 10 atmospheric fluidized-bed gasifiers were used. There are 13 Texaco entrained-flow bed gasifiers are under operation,10 Texaco and 11 Shell gasifiers that are being installed or imported. About 10 underground gasifiers are under running now. The present R&D of coal gasification technologies are to improve the operation and controlling level of fixed-bed gasification technology, and developing or demonstration of fluidized-bed and entrained-flow bed gasifiers.

  13. The Application of Computer Technology in Art Design

    Tao Xin


    Full Text Available After entering the twenty-first Century, computer technology has been greatly developed, applied in various fields gradually, and gained remarkable achievement. Computer technology not only is a project of great importance in China, but also cannot be ignored in the world. It has already attracted attention of numerous people, gradually integrated in daily life and closely related with it. Now how to apply it into more fields has been the main focus of our nation and also the topic we care about all the time. It is also an important project in our country to apply computer technology in art design in order to higher the art design quality. The purpose of this paper is to introduce people problems of the application of computer technology in art design, and find ways to promote cooperation and common development of them.

  14. Interfacial Instabilities in Evaporating Drops

    Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar


    We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.

  15. Interfacial forces in aqueous media

    van Oss, Carel J


    Thoroughly revised and reorganized, the second edition of Interfacial Forces in Aqueous Media examines the role of polar interfacial and noncovalent interactions among biological and nonbiological macromolecules as well as biopolymers, particles, surfaces, cells, and both polar and apolar polymers. The book encompasses Lifshitz-van der Waals and electrical double layer interactions, as well as Lewis acid-base interactions between colloidal entities in polar liquids such as water. New in this Edition: Four previously unpublished chapters comprising a new section on interfacial propertie

  16. Survey of advanced nuclear technologies for potential applications of sonoprocessing.

    Rubio, Floren; Blandford, Edward D; Bond, Leonard J


    Ultrasonics has been used in many industrial applications for both sensing at low power and processing at higher power. Generally, the high power applications fall within the categories of liquid stream degassing, impurity separation, and sonochemical enhancement of chemical processes. Examples of such industrial applications include metal production, food processing, chemical production, and pharmaceutical production. There are many nuclear process streams that have similar physical and chemical processes to those applications listed above. These nuclear processes could potentially benefit from the use of high-power ultrasonics. There are also potential benefits to applying these techniques in advanced nuclear fuel cycle processes, and these benefits have not been fully investigated. Currently the dominant use of ultrasonic technology in the nuclear industry has been using low power ultrasonics for non-destructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE), where it is primarily used for inspections and for characterizing material degradation. Because there has been very little consideration given to how sonoprocessing can potentially improve efficiency and add value to important process streams throughout the nuclear fuel cycle, there are numerous opportunities for improvement in current and future nuclear technologies. In this paper, the relevant fundamental theory underlying sonoprocessing is highlighted, and some potential applications to advanced nuclear technologies throughout the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed.

  17. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher


    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals.

  18. Overview of detector technologies for EO/IR sensing applications

    Sood, Ashok K.; Zeller, John W.; Welser, Roger E.; Puri, Yash R.; Lewis, Jay S.; Dhar, Nibir K.; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal


    Optical sensing technology is critical for optical communication, defense and security applications. Advances in optoelectronics materials in the UV, Visible and Infrared, using nanostructures, and use of novel materials such as CNT and Graphene have opened doors for new approaches to apply device design methodology that are expected to offer enhanced performance and low cost optical sensors in a wide range of applications. This paper is intended to review recent advancements and present different device architectures and analysis. The chapter will briefly introduce the basics of UV and Infrared detection physics and various wave bands of interest and their characteristics [1, 2] We will cover the UV band (200-400 nm) and address some of the recent advances in nanostructures growth and characterization using ZnO/MgZnO based technologies and their applications. Recent advancements in design and development of CNT and Graphene based detection technologies have shown promise for optical sensor applications. We will present theoretical and experimental results on these device and their potential applications in various bands of interest.

  19. Potential applications of bioprocess technology in petroleum industry.

    Singh, Ajay; Singh, Brajesh; Ward, Owen


    Petroleum refining is traditionally based on the use of physicochemical processes such as distillation and chemical catalysis that operate under high temperatures and pressures conditions, which are energy intensive and costly. Biotechnology has become an important tool for providing new approaches in petroleum industry during oil production, refining and processing as well as managing environmentally safe pollutant remediation and disposal practices. Earlier biotechnology applications in the petroleum industry were limited to microbial enhanced oil recovery, applications of bioremediation to contaminated marine shorelines, soils and sludges. The potential role of bioprocess technology in this industry has now expanded further into the areas of biorefining and upgrading of fuels, production of fine chemicals, control of souring during production and air VOC biofiltration. In this paper we provide an overview of the major applications of bioprocesses and technology development in the petroleum industry both in upstream and downstream areas and highlight future challenges and opportunities.

  20. Neural computation and particle accelerators research, technology and applications

    D'Arras, Horace


    This book discusses neural computation, a network or circuit of biological neurons and relatedly, particle accelerators, a scientific instrument which accelerates charged particles such as protons, electrons and deuterons. Accelerators have a very broad range of applications in many industrial fields, from high energy physics to medical isotope production. Nuclear technology is one of the fields discussed in this book. The development that has been reached by particle accelerators in energy and particle intensity has opened the possibility to a wide number of new applications in nuclear technology. This book reviews the applications in the nuclear energy field and the design features of high power neutron sources are explained. Surface treatments of niobium flat samples and superconducting radio frequency cavities by a new technique called gas cluster ion beam are also studied in detail, as well as the process of electropolishing. Furthermore, magnetic devises such as solenoids, dipoles and undulators, which ...

  1. Application of inertial confinement fusion to weapon technology

    Toepfer, A.J.; Posey, L.D.


    This report reviews aspects of the military applications of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program at Sandia Laboratories. These applications exist in the areas of: (1) weapon physics research, and (2) weapon effects simulation. In the area of weapon physics research, ICF source technology can be used to study: (1) equations-of-state at high energy densities, (2) implosion dynamics, and (3) laboratory simulation of exoatmospheric burst phenomena. In the area of weapon effects simulation, ICF technology and facilities have direct near, intermediate, and far term applications. In the near term, short pulse x-ray simulation capabilities exist for electronic component effects testing. In the intermediate term, capabilities can be developed for high energy neutron exposures and bremsstrahlung x-ray exposures of components. In the far term, system level exposures of full reentry vehicles will be possible if sufficiently high pellet gains are achieved.

  2. Superconducting RF Technology R&D for Future Accelerator Applications

    Reece, Charles E


    Superconducting rf technology (SRF) is evolving rapidly as are its applications. While there is active exploitation of what one may term the current state-of-the-practice, there is also rapid progress expanding in several dimensions the accessible and useful parameter space. While state-of-the-art performance sometimes outpaces thorough understanding, the improving scientific understanding from active SRF research is clarifying routes to obtain optimum performance from present materials and opening avenues beyond the standard bulk niobium. The improving technical basis understanding is enabling process engineering to both improve performance confidence and reliability and also unit implementation costs. Increasing confidence in the technology enables the engineering of new creative application designs. We attempt to survey this landscape to highlight the potential for future accelerator applications.

  3. Application of 3D stereoscopic visualization technology in casting aspect

    Kang Jinwu; Zhang Xiaopeng; Zhang Chi; Liu Baicheng


    3D stereoscopic visualization technology is coming into more and more common use in the field of entertainment, and this technology is also beginning to cut a striking ifgure in casting industry and scientiifc research. The history, fundamental principle, and devices of 3D stereoscopic visualization technology are reviewed in this paper. The authors’ research achievements on the 3D stereoscopic visualization technology in the modeling and simulation of the casting process are presented. This technology can be used for the observation of complex 3D solid models of castings and the simulated results of solidiifcation processes such as temperature, lfuid lfow, displacement, stress strain and microstructure, as wel as the predicted defects such as shrinkage/porosity, cracks, and deformation. It can also be used for other areas relating to 3D models, such as assembling of dies, cores, etc. Several cases are given to compare the illustration of simulated results by traditional images and red-blue 3D stereoscopic images. The spatial shape is observed better by the new method. The prospect of 3D stereoscopic visualization in the casting aspect is discussed as wel. The need for aided-viewing devices is stil the most prominent problem of 3D stereoscopic visualization technology. However, 3D stereoscopic visualization represents the tendency of visualization technology in the future; and as the problem is solved in the years ahead, great breakthroughs wil certainly be made for its application in casting design and modeling and simulation of the casting processes.

  4. The Research on Application of Information Technology in sports Stadiums

    Can, Han; Lu, Ma; Gan, Luying

    With the Olympic glory in the national fitness program planning and the smooth development of China, the public's concern for the sport continues to grow, while their physical health is also increasingly fervent desired, the country launched a modern technological construction of sports facilities. Information technology applications in the sports venues in the increasingly wide range of modern venues and facilities, including not only the intelligent application of office automation systems, intelligent systems and sports facilities, communication systems for event management, ticket access control system, contest information systems, television systems, Command and Control System, but also in action including the use of computer technology, image analysis, computer-aided training athletes, sports training system and related data entry systems, decision support systems.Using documentary data method, this paper focuses on the research on application of information technology in Sports Stadiums, and try to explore its future trends.With a view to promote the growth of China's national economyand,so as to improve the students'quality and promote the cause of Chinese sports.

  5. Application of GIS technology in public health: successes and challenges.

    Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie M; Caprarelli, Graziella


    The uptake and acceptance of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology has increased since the early 1990s and public health applications are rapidly expanding. In this paper, we summarize the common uses of GIS technology in the public health sector, emphasizing applications related to mapping and understanding of parasitic diseases. We also present some of the success stories, and discuss the challenges that still prevent a full scope application of GIS technology in the public health context. Geographical analysis has allowed researchers to interlink health, population and environmental data, thus enabling them to evaluate and quantify relationships between health-related variables and environmental risk factors at different geographical scales. The ability to access, share and utilize satellite and remote-sensing data has made possible even wider understanding of disease processes and of their links to the environment, an important consideration in the study of parasitic diseases. For example, disease prevention and control strategies resulting from investigations conducted in a GIS environment have been applied in many areas, particularly in Africa. However, there remain several challenges to a more widespread use of GIS technology, such as: limited access to GIS infrastructure, inadequate technical and analytical skills, and uneven data availability. Opportunities exist for international collaboration to address these limitations through knowledge sharing and governance.

  6. Graphene-based technologies for energy applications, challenges and perspectives

    Quesnel, Etienne; Roux, Frédéric; Emieux, Fabrice; Faucherand, Pascal; Kymakis, Emmanuel; Volonakis, George; Giustino, Feliciano; Martín-García, Beatriz; Moreels, Iwan; Alkan Gürsel, Selmiye; Bayrakçeken Yurtcan, Ayşe; Di Noto, Vito; Talyzin, Alexandr; Baburin, Igor; Tranca, Diana; Seifert, Gotthard; Crema, Luigi; Speranza, Giorgio; Tozzini, Valentina; Bondavalli, Paolo; Pognon, Grégory; Botas, Cristina; Carriazo, Daniel; Singh, Gurpreet; Rojo, Teófilo; Kim, Gunwoo; Yu, Wanjing; Grey, Clare P.; Pellegrini, Vittorio


    Here we report on technology developments implemented into the Graphene Flagship European project for the integration of graphene and graphene-related materials (GRMs) into energy application devices. Many of the technologies investigated so far aim at producing composite materials associating graphene or GRMs with either metal or semiconducting nanocrystals or other carbon nanostructures (e.g., CNT, graphite). These composites can be used favourably as hydrogen storage materials or solar cell absorbers. They can also provide better performing electrodes for fuel cells, batteries, or supercapacitors. For photovoltaic (PV) electrodes, where thin layers and interface engineering are required, surface technologies are preferred. We are using conventional vacuum processes to integrate graphene as well as radically new approaches based on laser irradiation strategies. For each application, the potential of implemented technologies is then presented on the basis of selected experimental and modelling results. It is shown in particular how some of these technologies can maximize the benefit taken from GRM integration. The technical challenges still to be addressed are highlighted and perspectives derived from the running works emphasized.

  7. The application of CAD / CAM technology in Dentistry

    Susic, I.; Travar, M.; Susic, M.


    Information and communication technologies have found their application in the healthcare sector, including the frameworks of modern dentistry. CAD / CAM application in dentistry is the process by which is attained finished dental restoration through fine milling process of ready ceramic blocks. CAD / CAM is an acronym of english words Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) / Computer-Aided-Manufacture (CAM), respectively dental computer aided design and computer aided manufacture of inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges. CAD / CAM technology essentially allows you to create a two-dimensional and three-dimensional models and their materialization by numerical controlled machines. In order to operate more efficiently, reduce costs, increase user/patient satisfaction and ultimately achieve profits, many dental offices in the world have their attention focused on implementation of modern IT solutions in everyday practice. In addition to the specialized clinic management software, inventory control, etc., or hardware such as the use of lasers in cosmetic dentistry or intraoral scanning, recently the importance is given to the application of CAD / CAM technology in the field of prosthetic. After the removal of pathologically altered tooth structure, it is necessary to achieve restoration that will be most similar to the anatomy of a natural tooth. Applying CAD / CAM technology on applicable ceramic blocks it can be obtained very quick, but also very accurate restoration, in the forms of inlays, onlays, bridges and crowns. The paper presents the advantages of using this technology as well as satisfaction of the patients and dentists by using systems as: Cercon, Celay, Cerec, Lava, Everest, which represent imperative of modern dentistry in creating fixed dental restorations.

  8. Field application of freezing technology for social infrastructures

    EunChul Shin; YuRa Gong; CheolGyu Jeong


    There are numerous methods to prevent seepage flow and ground improvement methodologies such as cement grouting, sheet piling, and the membrane method. In this paper, we present case histories of freezing technology applications in the construction of a deep tunnel sewerage system, undersea highway tunnel, and liquefied natural gas tank. Heaving pressure measurements for various soil types around a liquefied natural tank are compared with existing data. In this paper, we present temperature variations at the bottom and side of a liquefied natural gas tank. Our findings show that ground-freezing technology is very effective in controlling ground water infiltration into underground structures as well providing soil reinforcement in the soft ground.

  9. Development of Plant Control Diagnosis Technology and Increasing Its Applications

    Kugemoto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Hashizume, Satoru; Kageyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toru

    A plant control diagnosis technology was developed to improve the performance of plant-wide control and maintain high productivity of plants. The control performance diagnosis system containing this technology picks out the poor performance loop, analyzes the cause, and outputs the result on the Web page. Meanwhile, the PID tuning tool is used to tune extracted loops from the control performance diagnosis system. It has an advantage of tuning safely without process changes. These systems are powerful tools to do Kaizen (continuous improvement efforts) step by step, coordinating with the operator. This paper describes a practical technique regarding the diagnosis system and its industrial applications.

  10. Alternative high-resolution lithographic technologies for optical applications

    Zeitner, Uwe D.; Weichelt, Tina; Bourgin, Yannick; Kinder, Robert


    Modern optical applications have special demands on the lithographic fabrication technologies. This relates to the lateral shape of the structures as well as to their three dimensional surface profile. On the other hand optical nano-structures are often periodic which allows for the use of dedicated lithographic exposure principles. The paper briefly reviews actual developments in the field of optical nano-structure generation. Special emphasis will be given to two technologies: electron-beam lithography based on a flexible cell-projection method and the actual developments in diffractive mask aligner lithography. Both offer a cost effective fabrication alternative for high resolution structures or three-dimensional optical surface profiles.

  11. Biomedical technical transfer. Applications of NASA science and technology


    Lower body negative pressure testing in cardiac patients has been completed as well as the design and construction of a new leg negative unit for evaluating heart patients. This technology is based on NASA research, using vacuum chambers to stress the cardiovascular system during space flight. Additional laboratory tests of an intracranial pressure transducer, have been conducted. Three new biomedical problems to which NASA technology is applicable are also identified. These are: a communication device for the speech impaired, the NASA development liquid-cooled garment, and miniature force transducers for heart research.

  12. Technology Applications Group Multimedia CD-ROM Project

    McRacken, Kristi D.


    To produce a multimedia CD-ROM for the Technology Applications Group which would present the Technology Opportunity Showcase (TOPS) exhibits and Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) projects to interested companies. The CD-ROM format is being used and developed especially for those companies who do not have Internet access, and cannot directly visit Langley through the World Wide Web. The CD-ROM will include text, pictures, sound, and movies. The information for the CD-ROM will be stored in a database from which the users can query and browse the information, and future CD's can be maintained and updated.

  13. A Survey of Power Electronics Applications in Aerospace Technologies

    Kankam, M. David; Elbuluk, Malik E.


    The insertion of power electronics in aerospace technologies is becoming widespread. The application of semiconductor devices and electronic converters, as summarized in this paper, includes the International Space Station, satellite power system, and motor drives in 'more electric' technology applied to aircraft, starter/generators and reusable launch vehicles. Flywheels, servo systems embodying electromechanical actuation, and spacecraft on-board electric propulsion are discussed. Continued inroad by power electronics depends on resolving incompatibility of using variable frequency for 400 Hz-operated aircraft equipment. Dual-use electronic modules should reduce system development cost.

  14. Renewable energy systems advanced conversion technologies and applications

    Luo, Fang Lin


    Energy conversion techniques are key in power electronics and even more so in renewable energy source systems, which require a large number of converters. Renewable Energy Systems: Advanced Conversion Technologies and Applications describes advanced conversion technologies and provides design examples of converters and inverters for renewable energy systems-including wind turbine and solar panel energy systems. Learn Cutting-Edge Techniques for Converters and Inverters Setting the scene, the book begins with a review of the basics of astronomy and Earth physics. It then systematically introduc

  15. Lead-acid battery technologies fundamentals, materials, and applications

    Jung, Joey; Zhang, Jiujun


    Lead-Acid Battery Technologies: Fundamentals, Materials, and Applications offers a systematic and state-of-the-art overview of the materials, system design, and related issues for the development of lead-acid rechargeable battery technologies. Featuring contributions from leading scientists and engineers in industry and academia, this book:Describes the underlying science involved in the operation of lead-acid batteriesHighlights advances in materials science and engineering for materials fabricationDelivers a detailed discussion of the mathematical modeling of lead-acid batteriesAnalyzes the

  16. Interfacial gauge methods for incompressible fluid dynamics.

    Saye, Robert


    Designing numerical methods for incompressible fluid flow involving moving interfaces, for example, in the computational modeling of bubble dynamics, swimming organisms, or surface waves, presents challenges due to the coupling of interfacial forces with incompressibility constraints. A class of methods, denoted interfacial gauge methods, is introduced for computing solutions to the corresponding incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These methods use a type of "gauge freedom" to reduce the numerical coupling between fluid velocity, pressure, and interface position, allowing high-order accurate numerical methods to be developed more easily. Making use of an implicit mesh discontinuous Galerkin framework, developed in tandem with this work, high-order results are demonstrated, including surface tension dynamics in which fluid velocity, pressure, and interface geometry are computed with fourth-order spatial accuracy in the maximum norm. Applications are demonstrated with two-phase fluid flow displaying fine-scaled capillary wave dynamics, rigid body fluid-structure interaction, and a fluid-jet free surface flow problem exhibiting vortex shedding induced by a type of Plateau-Rayleigh instability. The developed methods can be generalized to other types of interfacial flow and facilitate precise computation of complex fluid interface phenomena.

  17. Providing Assistive Technology Applications as a Service Through Cloud Computing.

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio


    Users with disabilities interact with Personal Computers (PCs) using Assistive Technology (AT) software solutions. Such applications run on a PC that a person with a disability commonly uses. However the configuration of AT applications is not trivial at all, especially whenever the user needs to work on a PC that does not allow him/her to rely on his / her AT tools (e.g., at work, at university, in an Internet point). In this paper, we discuss how cloud computing provides a valid technological solution to enhance such a scenario.With the emergence of cloud computing, many applications are executed on top of virtual machines (VMs). Virtualization allows us to achieve a software implementation of a real computer able to execute a standard operating system and any kind of application. In this paper we propose to build personalized VMs running AT programs and settings. By using the remote desktop technology, our solution enables users to control their customized virtual desktop environment by means of an HTML5-based web interface running on any computer equipped with a browser, whenever they are.


    Yovita Tunardi


    began to change to the non-relational concept or sometimes referred to as the term NoSQL technology. Data storage in NoSQL is no longer based on the relations between tables but using another methods, one of them is document-oriented. This method was applied specifically in MongoDB. This concept brings new hope because of their superiority that can handle very large data with promising performance and is perfect for agile system development. The purpose of this research was to measure the performance NoSQL, especially MongoDB with implemented it in a Android based mobile chat application. This research uses three methods, analysis method including literature study, analysis of similar application, questionnaires, design method using Agile Sofware Development, and evaluation method including eight golden rules, analysis of similar application, questionnaires, and interview. The results of this research is a mobile chat application that uses MongoDB as the data storage technology. Through this research can be drawn the conclusion that NoSQL technology implementation, MongoDB, give special advantages like lighter data storage and faster data access.

  19. Applications and Advances in Electronic-Nose Technologies

    Manuela Baietto


    Full Text Available Electronic-nose devices have received considerable attention in the field of sensor technology during the past twenty years, largely due to the discovery of numerous applications derived from research in diverse fields of applied sciences. Recent applications of electronic nose technologies have come through advances in sensor design, material improvements, software innovations and progress in microcircuitry design and systems integration. The invention of many new e-nose sensor types and arrays, based on different detection principles and mechanisms, is closely correlated with the expansion of new applications. Electronic noses have provided a plethora of benefits to a variety of commercial industries, including the agricultural, biomedical, cosmetics, environmental, food, manufacturing, military, pharmaceutical, regulatory, and various scientific research fields. Advances have improved product attributes, uniformity, and consistency as a result of increases in quality control capabilities afforded by electronic-nose monitoring of all phases of industrial manufacturing processes. This paper is a review of the major electronic-nose technologies, developed since this specialized field was born and became prominent in the mid 1980s, and a summarization of some of the more important and useful applications that have been of greatest benefit to man.


    Maslov G. G.


    Full Text Available There have been suggested the courses of the machine technologies refinement in the process of spiked cereals production. The course of their technical update was studied in our previous article. There were analyzed the drawbacks of the modern machine production of crops and we presented the course of their elimination due to the technology optimization, resource and energy preservation, machine technologies of soil improvement and new innovative technological solutions. The suggested technology optimization was designed taking into account rigorous alternation of crops in the rotation, optimizing of breeds and crossbreeds, application of intermediate crops simultaneously with harvesting the previous crop, introducing progressive methods of chemical treatment and synchronous tillage. The resource and energy preservation is based on the combination of technological operations coinciding with the tasks in agricultural terms during a single machinery pass across the field, application of the mobile power unit (UPU-450, low- and ultralow capacity spraying, optimization of choice of certain agrimethods in the process of crop production and the resource calculation of estimated crop yield. In the set of soil improvement courses we have studied the mechanization of the restoration processes of natural soil formation, defecate introduction, the use of stubbly remains, compulsory presence of permanent grasses in crop rotation. New innovative solutions in the crop production technologies include the refinement of the mechanization facilities in tillage, spraying, new methods of crop harvesting (unwinnowed bread, root tow, cleaning of thrashed heap after the harvesting, etc. We have analyzed the ways of mechanization of “organic farming” and seed treatment with biologic mixtures

  1. Interfacial microfluidic transport on micropatterned superhydrophobic textile.

    Xing, Siyuan; Jiang, Jia; Pan, Tingrui


    Textile-enabled interfacial microfluidics, utilizing fibrous hydrophilic yarns (e.g., cotton) to guide biological reagent flows, has been extended to various biochemical analyses recently. The restricted capillary-driving mechanism, however, persists as a major challenge for continuous and facilitated biofluidic transport. In this paper, we have first introduced a novel interfacial microfluidic transport principle to drive three-dimensional liquid flows on a micropatterned superhydrophobic textile (MST) platform in a more autonomous and controllable manner. Specifically, the MST system utilizes the surface tension-induced Laplace pressure to facilitate the liquid motion along the hydrophilic yarn, in addition to the capillarity present in the fibrous structure. The fabrication of MST is simply accomplished by stitching hydrophilic cotton yarn into a superhydrophobic fabric substrate (contact angle 140 ± 3°), from which well-controlled wetting patterns are established for interfacial microfluidic operations. The geometric configurations of the stitched micropatterns, e.g., the lengths and diameters of the yarn and bundled arrangement, can all influence the transport process, which is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Two operation modes, discrete and continuous transport, are also presented in detail. In addition, the gravitational effect as well as the droplet removal process have been also considered and quantitatively analysed during the transport process. As a demonstration, an MST design has been implemented on an artificial skin surface to collect and remove sweat in a highly efficient and facilitated means. The results have illustrated that the novel interfacial transport on the textile platform can be potentially extended to a variety of biofluidic collection and removal applications.

  2. Application of NASA's advanced life support technologies in polar regions.

    Bubenheim, D L; Lewis, C


    NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge in the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. This project addresses treatment and reduction of waste, purification and recycling of water, and production of food in remote communities of Alaska. The project focus is a major issue in the state of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, care for the environment, and economic opportunity through technology transfer. The challenge is to implement the technologies in a manner compatible with the social and economic structures of native communities, the state, and the commercial sector. NASA goals are technology selection, system design and methods development of regenerative life support systems for planetary and Lunar bases and other space exploration missions. The ALSEE project will provide similar advanced technologies to address the multiple problems facing the remote communities of Alaska and provide an extreme environment testbed for future space applications. These technologies have never been assembled for this purpose. They offer an integrated approach to solving pressing problems in remote communities.

  3. Wearable sensors and systems. From enabling technology to clinical applications.

    Bonato, Paolo


    It is now more than 50 years since the time when clinical monitoring of individuals in the home and community settings was first envisioned. Until recently, technologies to enable such vision were lacking. However, wearable sensors and systems developed over the past decade have provided the tools to finally implement and deploy technology with the capabilities required by researchers in the field of patients' home monitoring. As discussed, potential applications of these technologies include the early diagnosis of diseases such as congestive heart failure, the prevention of chronic conditions such as diabetes, improved clinical management of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, and the ability to promptly respond to emergency situations such as seizures in patients with epilepsy and cardiac arrest in subjects undergoing cardiovascular monitoring. Current research efforts are now focused on the development of more complex systems for home monitoring of individuals with a variety of preclinical and clinical conditions. Recent research on the clinical assessment of wearable technology promises to deliver methodologies that are expected to lead to clinical adoption within the next five to ten years. In particular, combining home robots and wearable technology is likely to be a key step toward achieving the goal of effectively monitoring patients in the home. These efforts to merge home robots and wearable technology are expected to enable a new generation of complex systems with the ability to monitor subjects' status, facilitate the administration of interventions, and provide an invaluable tool to respond to emergency situations.

  4. Microplasmas, a platform technology for a plethora of plasma applications

    Becker, Kurt


    Publications describing microplasmas, which are commonly defined as plasmas with at least one dimension in the submillimeter range, began to appear to the scientific literature about 20 years ago. As discussed in a recent review by Schoenbach and Becker [1], interest and activities in basic microplasma research as well as in the use of microplasma for a variety of application has increased significatly over the past 20 years. The number of papers devoted to basic microplasma science increased by an order of magnitude between 1995 and 2015, a count that excludes publications dealing exclusively with technological applications of microplasmas, where the microplasma is used solely as a tool. In reference [1], the authors limited the topical coverage largely to the status of microplasma science and our understanding of the physics principles that enable microplasma operation and further stated that the rapid proliferation of microplasma applications made it impossible to cover both basic microplasma science and their application in a single review article.

  5. Visual Servoing: A technology in search of an application

    Feddema, J.T.


    Considerable research has been performed on Robotic Visual Servoing (RVS) over the past decade. Using real-time visual feedback, researchers have demonstrated that robotic systems can pick up moving parts, insert bolts, apply sealant, and guide vehicles. With the rapid improvements being made in computing and image processing hardware, one would expect that every robot manufacturer would have a RVS option by the end of the 1990s. So why aren`t the Fanucs, ABBs, Adepts, and Motomans of the world investing heavily in RVS? I would suggest four seasons: cost, complexity, reliability, and lack of demand. Solutions to the first three are approaching the point where RVS could be commercially available; however, the lack of demand is keeping RVS from becoming a reality in the near future. A new set of applications is needed to focus near term RVS development. These must be applications which currently do not have solutions. Once developed and working in one application area, the technology is more likely to quickly spread to other areas. DOE has several applications that are looking for technological solutions, such as agile weapons production, weapons disassembly, decontamination and dismantlement of nuclear facilities, and hazardous waste remediation. This paper will examine a few of these areas and suggest directions for application-driven visual servoing research.

  6. The application of artificial intelligence technology to aeronautical system design

    Bouchard, E. E.; Kidwell, G. H.; Rogan, J. E.


    This paper describes the automation of one class of aeronautical design activity using artificial intelligence and advanced software techniques. Its purpose is to suggest concepts, terminology, and approaches that may be useful in enhancing design automation. By understanding the basic concepts and tasks in design, and the technologies that are available, it will be possible to produce, in the future, systems whose capabilities far exceed those of today's methods. Some of the tasks that will be discussed have already been automated and are in production use, resulting in significant productivity benefits. The concepts and techniques discussed are applicable to all design activity, though aeronautical applications are specifically presented.

  7. Recent Applications of Ionic Liquids in Separation Technology

    Dandan Han


    Full Text Available Ionic liquids (ILs have been applied in different areas of separation, such as ionic liquid supported membranes, as mobile phase additives and surface-bonded stationary phases in chromatography separations and as the extraction solvent in sample preparations, because they can be composed from various cations and anions that change the properties and phase behavior of liquids. Although the applications of ILs in separations are still in their early stages, the academic interest in ILs is increasing. An overview of the principle applications of ILs in separation technology is present in this work. Furthermore, the prospects of the ILs in separation techniques are discussed.

  8. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua


    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed.

  9. High-performance silicon photonics technology for telecommunications applications.

    Yamada, Koji; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Nishi, Hidetaka; Kou, Rai; Hiraki, Tatsurou; Takeda, Kotaro; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko; Wada, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi


    By way of a brief review of Si photonics technology, we show that significant improvements in device performance are necessary for practical telecommunications applications. In order to improve device performance in Si photonics, we have developed a Si-Ge-silica monolithic integration platform, on which compact Si-Ge-based modulators/detectors and silica-based high-performance wavelength filters are monolithically integrated. The platform features low-temperature silica film deposition, which cannot damage Si-Ge-based active devices. Using this platform, we have developed various integrated photonic devices for broadband telecommunications applications.

  10. CMC Technology Advancements for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Grady, Joseph E.


    CMC research at NASA Glenn is focused on aircraft propulsion applications. The objective is to enable reduced engine emissions and fuel consumption for more environmentally friendly aircraft. Engine system studies show that incorporation of ceramic composites into turbine engines will enable significant reductions in emissions and fuel burn due to increased engine efficiency resulting from reduced cooling requirements for hot section components. This presentation will describe recent progress and challenges in developing fiber and matrix constituents for 2700 F CMC turbine applications. In addition, ongoing research in the development of durable environmental barrier coatings, ceramic joining integration technologies and life prediction methods for CMC engine components will be reviewed.

  11. Electroporation-based technologies for medicine: principles, applications, and challenges.

    Yarmush, Martin L; Golberg, Alexander; Serša, Gregor; Kotnik, Tadej; Miklavčič, Damijan


    When high-amplitude, short-duration pulsed electric fields are applied to cells and tissues, the permeability of the cell membranes and tissue is increased. This increase in permeability is currently explained by the temporary appearance of aqueous pores within the cell membrane, a phenomenon termed electroporation. During the past four decades, advances in fundamental and experimental electroporation research have allowed for the translation of electroporation-based technologies to the clinic. In this review, we describe the theory and current applications of electroporation in medicine and then discuss current challenges in electroporation research and barriers to a more extensive spread of these clinical applications.

  12. Wireless body area networks technology, implementation, and applications

    Yuce, Mehmet R


    The book provides a comprehensive overview for the latest WBAN systems, technologies, and applications. The chapters of the book have been written by various specialists who are experts in their areas of research and practice. The book starts with the basic techniques involved in designing and building WBAN systems. It explains the deployment issues and then moves into the application areas of WBAN. The remaining chapters focus on the development of hardware, signal processing algorithms, and wireless communication and network design for wearable and implantable body sensors used in WBAN appli

  13. Applications of ionic liquids in polymer science and technology


    This book summarizes the latest knowledge in the science and technology of ionic liquids and polymers in different areas. Ionic liquids (IL) are actively being investigated in polymer science and technology for a number of different applications. In the first part of the book the authors present the particular properties of ionic liquids as speciality solvents. The state-of-the art in the use of ionic liquids in polymer synthesis and modification reactions including polymer recycling is outlined. The second part focuses on the use of ionic liquids as speciality additives such as plasticizers or antistatic agents.  The third part examines the use of ionic liquids in the design of functional polymers (usually called polymeric ionic liquids (PIL) or poly(ionic liquids)). Many important applications in diverse scientific and industrial areas rely on these polymers, like polymer electrolytes in electrochemical devices, building blocks in materials science, nanocomposites, gas membranes, innovative anion sensitive...

  14. Non-food radiation technology applications of food commodities

    Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Travessa R, 400 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    At present food irradiation is considered an effective, broad-spectrum, residue-free, mature technology. Expertise in irradiation processing exists in a network of centers around the world, some of them in developing countries like Brazil and Argentina South American region. The use of renewable resources coming from crops products is becoming attractive also for non-food applications. In this sense, a complete new approach of higher aggregated value of some commodities like soy and maize, for example, is as renewable resources to create functional polymers, mainly for innovative biodegradable packaging solutions. There is a need of innovative approaches to produce edible/biodegradable materials from natural polymeric macromolecules with adequate properties. Incipient researches pointed to the successful use of irradiation processing to obtain or modify different types of biodegradable/edible plastic materials. This new radiation technology application is particularly important for countries that are leading producers of soybean and other commodities. (Author)

  15. Technology Roadmaps: Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications



    A new technology roadmap on Carbon Capture and Storage in Industrial Applications, released today in Beijing, shows that carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial applications by 4 gigatonnes in 2050. Such an amount is equal to roughly one-tenth of the total emission cuts needed from the energy sector by the middle of the century. This requires a rapid deployment of CCS technologies in various industrial sectors, and across both OECD and non-OECD countries. The roadmap, a joint report from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), says that over 1800 industrial-scale projects are required over the next 40 years.

  16. New trends in atomic and molecular physics advanced technological applications


    The field of Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMP) has reached significant advances in high–precision experimental measurement techniques. The area covers a wide spectrum ranging from conventional to new emerging multi-disciplinary areas like physics of highly charged ions (HCI), molecular physics, optical science, ultrafast laser technology etc. This book includes the important topics of atomic structure, physics of atomic collision, photoexcitation, photoionization processes, Laser cooling and trapping, Bose Einstein condensation and advanced technology applications of AMP in the fields of astronomy , astrophysics , fusion, biology and nanotechnology. This book is useful for researchers, professors, graduate, post graduate and PhD students dealing with atomic and molecular physics. The book has a wide scope with applications in neighbouring fields like plasma physics, astrophysics, cold collisions, nanotechnology and future fusion energy sources like ITER (international Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) To...

  17. Human walking in virtual environments perception, technology, and applications

    Visell, Yon; Campos, Jennifer; Lécuyer, Anatole


    This book presents a survey of past and recent developments on human walking in virtual environments with an emphasis on human self-motion perception, the multisensory nature of experiences of walking, conceptual design approaches, current technologies, and applications. The use of virtual reality and movement simulation systems is becoming increasingly popular and more accessible to a wide variety of research fields and applications. While, in the past, simulation technologies have focused on developing realistic, interactive visual environments, it is becoming increasingly obvious that our everyday interactions are highly multisensory. Therefore, investigators are beginning to understand the critical importance of developing and validating locomotor interfaces that can allow for realistic, natural behaviours. The book aims to present an overview of what is currently understood about human perception and performance when moving in virtual environments and to situate it relative to the broader scientific and ...

  18. Supercritical fluid technology for energy and environmental applications

    Anikeev, Vladimir


    Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources - including renewable materials - using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine...

  19. Application of micro-seismic monitoring technology in mining engineering

    Sun Jian; Wang Lianguo; Hou Huaqiang


    Micro-seismic phenomena,occurring when rock masses are subjected to forces and failures,allow the determination of their unstable states and failure zones by analyzing micro-seismic signals.We first present the principles of micro-seismic monitoring and location,as well as an underground explosion-proof micro-seismic monitoring system.Given a practical engineering application,we describe the application of micro-seismic monitoring technology in determining the height of a "two-zone" overburden,i.e.,a caving zone and a fracture zone,the width of a coal-pillar section and the depth of failure of a floor.The workfaces monitored accomplished safe and highly efficient mining based on our micro-seismic monitoring results and provide direct proof of the reliability and validity of micro-seismic monitoring technology.

  20. New development on additive manufacturing technology and its applications

    Tian Xiaoyong; Li Dichen; Zhang Anfeng; Lu Zhongliang; Lu Bingheng


    Additive manufacturing technology has been developed in Xi' an Jiaotong University for almost 20 years.Up to now,it is still attracting the attentions of the researchers or manufacturers all over the world.Some innovative processes and frontier application research are all being conducted here to catch up with the new development of this technology.In the paper,newly developed processes,such as ultraviolet-light emitting diode (UVLED) stereolithography,ceramic stereolithography,and direct metal forming,were described.Some results of the frontier application researches,such as indirect fabrication of ceramic casting mould,wind-tunnel-testing models,photonic crystals and metamaterials,were also briefly reviewed.

  1. Potential applications of video disc technology to missile guidance

    Ormsby, C. C.; Long, H. S.


    An assessment of video disk data storage technology suggests the possibility of a missile-borne data storage system providing real-time access to a data base consisting of approximately 10 to the 11th bits, with readout rates of up to 200 Mbits/sec and average frame access time of 2-3 sec. The Direct Read After Write (DRAW) technology currently under development will also provide a data recording capability of 10 to the 7th - 10 to the 8th bits/sec. Five cruise missile applications of this technology are discussed: (1) Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) data base guidance; (2) target signature data base guidance; (3) terrain/obstacle files navigation; (4) preprogrammed route storage navigation; and (5) reconnaissance data recording.

  2. Research status and application prospects of digital technology in orthopaedics.

    Chen, Yan-xi; Zhang, Kun; Hao, Yi-ni; Hu, Yong-cheng


    In the last 10 years, basic and clinical research in orthopaedics has developed rapidly. Understanding of orthopaedic disorders involves not only routine diagnosis, but also the pursuit of highly efficient and accurate three-dimensional imaging of the intra- and extra-medullary distribution, form and structure of orthopaedic disorders, thus allowing scientific evaluation of the indications for surgery, drawing up of the best surgical plan, minimization of operative trauma and the earliest possible restoration of limb function. Meanwhile, the most important type of basic research, which was previously biomechanical research, has gradually become computational biomechanics based on in vitro cadaver experiments. This review aims to summarize the research status and application prospects of digital technology in orthopaedics, including virtual reality technology, reverse engineering and rapid prototyping techniques, computational biomechanics, computer navigation technology and management of digitization of medical records. © 2012 Tianjin Hospital and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Application of polymer flooding technology for enhanced oil recovery

    Sarkyt Kudaivergenov


    Full Text Available Application of brine-initiated gelation of gellan for conformance control and water shutoff operations in field conditions was demonstrated. The developed technology was tested in Kumkol oilfield (Kyzylorda region, Kazakhstan on five injection wells. According to the results of the first oilfield test, the amount of additionally recovered oil during 11 months (from October 1, 2013 till September 1, 2014 was equal to 5890 tons. In 2014, the JSC “NIPIneftegas” (Aktau city, Kazakhstan carried out the second pilot test of polymer flooding technology on the same oilfield. The amount of additionally recovered oil during eight months (from October 2014 till May 2015 was equal to 8695 tons. The technology was tested for water shut-off purposes in producing well of Karabulak oilfield. After one-month treatment of production well the amount of water decreased 16 times in comparison with previous results.

  4. The Application of NASA Technology to Public Health

    Rickman, Douglas L.; Watts, C.


    NASA scientists have a history of applying technologies created to handle satellite data to human health at various spatial scales. Scientists are now engaged in multiple public health application projects that integrate NASA satellite data with measures of public health. Such integration requires overcoming disparities between the environmental and the health data. Ground based sensors, satellite imagery, model outputs and other environmental sources have inconsistent spatial and temporal distributions. The MSFC team has recognized the approach used by environmental scientists to fill in the empty places can also be applied to outcomes, exposures and similar data. A revisit to the classic epidemiology study of 1854 using modern day surface modeling and GIS technology, demonstrates how spatial technology can enhance and change the future of environmental epidemiology. Thus, NASA brings to public health, not just a set of data, but an innovative way of thinking about the data.

  5. Treatment of textile surfaces by plasma technology for biomedical applications

    Labay, Cédric


    Medical applications of technical textiles are an expanding field of research. One of the added values of these new materials would be that they were suitable to contain and release active compounds in a controlled and sustained manner. Drug incorporation and release from synthetic fibers is related to the interaction of the drug with the polymer and probably greatly depends on the surface chemistry of the fiber. Plasma technology is a tool that enables to modify physical and chemical prop...

  6. Time to shine applications of solar energy technology

    Grupp, Michael


    As solar energy becomes increasingly more important in all of our lives, it is more important to learn how it works and how it can be implemented. This book is the perfect primer for the engineer, scientist, and layperson alike, for learning about the practical applications of solar energy technology and how it is being used today to heat homes, light city streets, and provide power worldwide.

  7. Spray drying technique: II. Current applications in pharmaceutical technology.

    Sollohub, Krzysztof; Cal, Krzysztof


    This review presents current applications of spray drying in pharmaceutical technology. The topics discussed include the obtention of excipients and cospray dried composites, methods for increasing the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of active substances, and modified release profiles from spray-dried particles. This review also describes the use of the spray drying technique in the context of biological therapies, such as the spray drying of proteins, inhalable powders, and viable organisms, and the modification of the physical properties of dry plant extracts.

  8. Development of Laser Application Technology for Stable Isotope Production

    Jeong, Do Young; Ko, Kwang Hoon; Kwon, Duck Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    Tl-203 is used as a source material to produce Tl-201 radioisotope which is produced in a cyclotron by irradiating the enriched Tl-203 target. Tl-201 is a radiopharmaceutical for SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) to diagnose heart diseases and tumors. This Project aim to develop laser application technology to product stable isotopes such as Tl-203, Yb-168, and Yb-176. For this, photoion extraction device, atomic beam generator, dye lasers, and high power IR lasers are developed.

  9. Machine-to-machine communications architectures, technology, standards, and applications

    Misic, Vojislav B


    With the number of machine-to-machine (M2M)-enabled devices projected to reach 20 to 50 billion by 2020, there is a critical need to understand the demands imposed by such systems. Machine-to-Machine Communications: Architectures, Technology, Standards, and Applications offers rigorous treatment of the many facets of M2M communication, including its integration with current technology.Presenting the work of a different group of international experts in each chapter, the book begins by supplying an overview of M2M technology. It considers proposed standards, cutting-edge applications, architectures, and traffic modeling and includes case studies that highlight the differences between traditional and M2M communications technology.Details a practical scheme for the forward error correction code designInvestigates the effectiveness of the IEEE 802.15.4 low data rate wireless personal area network standard for use in M2M communicationsIdentifies algorithms that will ensure functionality, performance, reliability, ...

  10. Results of advanced batter technology evaluations for electric vehicle applications

    DeLuca, W.H.; Gillie, K.R.; Kulaga, J.E.; Smaga, J.A.; Tummillo, A.F.; Webster, C.E.


    Advanced battery technology evaluations are performed under simulated electric-vehicle operating conditions at the Analysis Diagnostic Laboratory (ADL) of Argonne National Laboratory. The ADL results provide insight Into those factors that limit battery performance and life. The ADL facilities include a test laboratory to conduct battery experimental evaluations under simulated application conditions and a post-test analysis laboratory to determine, In a protected atmosphere if needed, component compositional changes and failure mechanisms. This paper summarizes the performance characterizations and life evaluations conducted during 1991--1992 on both single cells and multi-cell modules that encompass eight battery technologies (Na/S, Li/MS (M=metal), Ni/MH, Ni/Cd, Ni/Zn, Ni/Fe, Zn/Br, and Pb-acid). These evaluations were performed for the Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Electric and Hybrid Propulsion Division, and the Electric Power Research Institute. The ADL provides a common basis for battery performance characterization and life evaluations with unbiased application of tests and analyses. The results help identify the most-promising R D approaches for overcoming battery limitations, and provide battery users, developers, and program managers with a measure of the progress being made in battery R D programs, a comparison of battery technologies, and basic data for modeling.

  11. Rapid prototyping technology and its application in bone tissue engineering.

    Yuan, Bo; Zhou, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Xiong-Sheng

    Bone defects arising from a variety of reasons cannot be treated effectively without bone tissue reconstruction. Autografts and allografts have been used in clinical application for some time, but they have disadvantages. With the inherent drawback in the precision and reproducibility of conventional scaffold fabrication techniques, the results of bone surgery may not be ideal. This is despite the introduction of bone tissue engineering which provides a powerful approach for bone repair. Rapid prototyping technologies have emerged as an alternative and have been widely used in bone tissue engineering, enhancing bone tissue regeneration in terms of mechanical strength, pore geometry, and bioactive factors, and overcoming some of the disadvantages of conventional technologies. This review focuses on the basic principles and characteristics of various fabrication technologies, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, and fused deposition modeling, and reviews the application of rapid prototyping techniques to scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In the near future, the use of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering prepared by rapid prototyping technology might be an effective therapeutic strategy for bone defects.

  12. [Current problems of information technologies application for forces medical service].

    Ivanov, V V; Korneenkov, A A; Bogomolov, V D; Borisov, D N; Rezvantsev, M V


    The modern information technologies are the key factors for the upgrading of forces medical service. The aim of this article is the analysis of prospective information technologies application for the upgrading of forces medical service. The authors suggested 3 concepts of information support of Russian military health care on the basis of data about information technologies application in the foreign armed forces, analysis of the regulatory background, prospects of military-medical service and gathered experience of specialists. These three concepts are: development of united telecommunication network of the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation medical service, working out and implementation of standard medical information systems for medical units and establishments, monitoring the military personnel health state and military medical service resources. It is noted that on the assumption of sufficient centralized financing and industrial implementation of the military medical service prospective information technologies, by the year 2020 the united information space of the military medical service will be created and the target information support effectiveness will be achieved.

  13. Application of Near Field Communication Technology for Mobile Airline Ticketing

    Wayan Suparta


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Near Field Communication (NFC technology opens up exciting new usage scenarios for mobile devices based platform. Users of NFC-enabled devices can simply point or touch their devices to other NFC-enabled elements in the environment to communicate with them (‘contactless’, making application and data usage easy and convenient. Approach: The study describes the characteristics and advantages of NFC technology offers for the development of mobile airline ticketing. This scenario describes the potential to overcome the conventional systems that are not gated and use study tickets. In such a system, today a transport application can be loaded on a NFC-enabled phone. To study such a case, Yogyakarta International Airport was taken as an example for a discussion. Results: NFC technology which consisting of three modes of operation and with international standardization can be applied as contactless to simplicity transactions, content delivery and information sharing on a mobile based platform. Conclusion: The idea of NFC application for mobile airline ticketing has been discussed for Yogyakarta International Airport."

  14. Limiting factors to advancing thermal battery technology for naval applications

    Davis, Patrick B.; Winchester, Clinton S.


    Thermal batteries are primary reserve electrochemical power sources using molten salt electrolyte which experience little effective aging while in storage or dormant deployment. Thermal batteries are primarily used in military applications, and are currently used in a wide variety of Navy devices such as missiles, torpedoes, decays, and training targets, usually as power supplies in guidance, propulsion, and Safe/Arm applications. Technology developments have increased the available energy and power density ratings by an order of magnitude in the last ten years. Present thermal batteries, using lithium anodes and metal sulfide cathodes, are capable of performing applications where only less rugged and more expensive silver oxide/zinc or silver/magnesium chloride seawater batteries could serve previously. Additionally, these batteries are capable of supplanting lithium/thionyl chloride reserve batteries in a variety of specifically optimized designs. Increases in thermal battery energy and power density capabilities are not projected to continue with the current available technology. Several battery designs are now at the edge of feasibility and safety. Since future naval systems are likely to require continued growth of battery energy and power densities, there must be significant advances in battery technology. Specifically, anode alloy composition and new cathode materials must be investigated to allow for safe development and deployment of these high power, higher energy density batteries.

  15. Internet of Things Technology and its Applications in Smart Grid

    Liu Hua


    Full Text Available Smart grid is the latest trend of development and reform in today’s world, and it is also a major technological innovation and development trend in the 21st century. Internet of Things technology is a new information processing and acquisition method, and it has been widely used in intelligent transportation, environmental monitoring and other fields. Internet of Things is an important technical mean to promote the development of smart grid. Using Internet of Things technology can effectively integrate the infrastructure resources in communications and electrical power system, increase the level of power system information, and improve the utilization efficiency of infrastructures in the existing power system. In this paper, the concept of smart grid and Internet of Things are briefed, thus the urgency of its applications in smart grid are pointed out. Meanwhile, a research and design in the construction of smart grid which is based on Internet of things are made, and the design and implementation in typical application links, including wind power prediction, condition monitoring of overhead transmission lines, power monitoring, smart home and asset management are elaborated emphatically. Finally, the problems in applications and future research direction are also analyzed.

  16. Space Life Support Technology Applications to Terrestrial Environmental Problems

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Sleeper, Howard L.


    Many of the problems now facing the human race on Earth are, in fact, life support issues. Decline of air Quality as a result of industrial and automotive emissions, pollution of ground water by organic pesticides or solvents, and the disposal of solid wastes are all examples of environmental problems that we must solve to sustain human life. The technologies currently under development to solve the problems of supporting human life for advanced space missions are extraordinarily synergistic with these environmental problems. The development of these technologies (including both physicochemical and bioregenerative types) is increasingly focused on closing the life support loop by removing and recycling contaminants and wastes to produce the materials necessary to sustain human life. By so doing, this technology development effort also focuses automatically on reducing resupply logistics requirements and increasing crew safety through increased self-sufficiency. This paper describes several technologies that have been developed to support human life in space and illustrates the applicability of the technologies to environmental problems including environmental remediation and pollution prevention.

  17. Research on UV detector technology and application in MAWS

    Yao, Da-wei; Hao, Wei; Yang, Xiao-jun; Tian, Yan


    The atmospheric transmission characteristics of ultraviolet radiation are unique, which have made ultraviolet detecting technology has been developed rapidly in military application domain. Missile approaching warning system based UV detecting technology distinguish target by detecting the ultraviolet radiation in solar blind spectrum from missile's plumes. This warning system is a passive warning system, which has advantages of good concealment, low false-alarm rate, cooling without low temperature, small size and light weight. It has been an important part of modern battlefield in the electro-optical countermeasure domain This paper expatiate the principle of ultraviolet detecting technology and introduce the developments about ultraviolet warning and related technology, including the ultraviolet transmission in the atmosphere, the ultraviolet radiance characteristic of target and background, the ultraviolet photoelectric detectors, and the ultraviolet detection technology. A suit of ultraviolet photoelectric imaging system has been designed. This system is made up of three parts, there are narrowband ultraviolet optical system in large field, ultraviolet ICCD camera and ultraviolet warming image processing device. A great deal of imaging experiments about ultraviolet target in several kinds of typical meteorological condition have been done, these images shows the system is efficient and reasonable. The characteristics of ultraviolet objective imaging be tested and evaluated by analyze the experiment images obtained by the system. This system provide theoretical and test bases for engineering research on ultraviolet missile approaching warning system.

  18. Oriented cluster perforating technology and its application in horizontal wells

    Huabin Chen


    Full Text Available An oriented cluster perforating technology, which integrates both advantages of cluster and oriented perforating, will help solve a series of technical complexities in horizontal well drilling. For realizing its better application in oil and gas development, a series of technologies were developed including perforator self-weight eccentricity, matching of the electronic selective module codes with the surface program control, axial centralized contact signal transmission, and post-perforation intercluster sealing insulation. In this way, the following functions could be realized, such as cable-transmission horizontal well perforator self-weight orientation, dynamic signal transmission, reliable addressing & selective perforation and post-perforation intercluster sealing. The combined perforation and bridge plug or the multi-cluster perforation can be fulfilled in one trip of perforation string. As a result, the horizontal-well oriented cluster perforating technology based on cable conveying was developed. This technology was successfully applied in unconventional gas reservoir exploitation, such as shale gas and coalbed methane, with accurate orientation, reliable selective perforation and satisfactory inter-cluster sealing. The horizontal-well oriented cluster perforating technology benefits the orientation of horizontal well drilling with a definite target and direction, which provides a powerful support for the subsequent reservoir stimulation. It also promotes the fracturing fluid to sweep the principal pay zones to the maximum extent. Moreover, it is conductive to the formation of complex fracture networks in the reservoirs, making quality and efficient development of unconventional gas reservoirs possible.

  19. Practical application of amorphous solar cells. High quality production technology


    The targets of the project are to develop production technology of amorphous solar cells for electric power generation which will possess good reproducibility and be highly sensitive to solar light, and to elucidate their technological and economical applicability. During the years of from 1980 to 1982, studies on research and development of amorphous solar cells with multi-layer structure were made, and the conversion efficiency of the amorphous sollar cell was improved to 82.5% (10 cm square cell). (1) Amorphous growth equipment for continuous formation of tandem structure was designed and constructed. Boron concentration when grown in independent separate reaction chambers was found to be less than 1/10 of that grown in the single chanber. Film formation rate of 7/sup 0/ A/sec was achieved using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ for the growth of a-Si:H(i). (2) In the technology for stainless steel substrate modules, modules of the sizes specified by NEDO were assembled with the super strail structure employing tempered glass, achieving 4.7% conversion rate. (3) For materials and formation technology of the transparent conductive film grid electrode, light transmittance and resistance of the film made by sputtering evaporation of ITO film were studied. (4) As regards reliability technology, it was found that the tandem structure will greatly decreace the deterioration rate as compared with the single layer structure. The modules with super strait structre proved to be weatherproof. (4 figs)

  20. Using Science Driven Technologies for the Defense and Security Applications

    Habib, Shahid; Zukor, Dorthy; Ambrose, Stephen D.


    For the past three decades, Earth science remote sensing technologies have been providing enormous amounts of useful data and information in broadening our understanding of our home planet as a system. This research, as it has expanded our learning process, has also generated additional questions. This has further resulted in establishing new science requirements, which have culminated in defining and pushing the state-of-the-art technology needs. NASA s Earth science program has deployed 18 highly complex satellites, with a total of 80 sensors, so far and is in a process of defining and launching multiple observing systems in the next decade. Due to the heightened security alert of the nation, researchers and technologists are paying serious attention to the use of these science driven technologies for dual use. In other words, how such sophisticated observing and measuring systems can be used in detecting multiple types of security concerns with a substantial lead time so that the appropriate law enforcement agencies can take adequate steps to defuse any potential risky scenarios. This paper examines numerous NASA technologies such as laser/lidar systems, microwave and millimeter wave technologies, optical observing systems, high performance computational techniques for rapid analyses, and imaging products that can have a tremendous pay off for security applications.

  1. Screening applications in drug discovery based on microfluidic technology.

    Eribol, P; Uguz, A K; Ulgen, K O


    Microfluidics has been the focus of interest for the last two decades for all the advantages such as low chemical consumption, reduced analysis time, high throughput, better control of mass and heat transfer, downsizing a bench-top laboratory to a chip, i.e., lab-on-a-chip, and many others it has offered. Microfluidic technology quickly found applications in the pharmaceutical industry, which demands working with leading edge scientific and technological breakthroughs, as drug screening and commercialization are very long and expensive processes and require many tests due to unpredictable results. This review paper is on drug candidate screening methods with microfluidic technology and focuses specifically on fabrication techniques and materials for the microchip, types of flow such as continuous or discrete and their advantages, determination of kinetic parameters and their comparison with conventional systems, assessment of toxicities and cytotoxicities, concentration generations for high throughput, and the computational methods that were employed. An important conclusion of this review is that even though microfluidic technology has been in this field for around 20 years there is still room for research and development, as this cutting edge technology requires ingenuity to design and find solutions for each individual case. Recent extensions of these microsystems are microengineered organs-on-chips and organ arrays.

  2. Multiscale Modeling of Mesoscale and Interfacial Phenomena

    Petsev, Nikolai Dimitrov

    With rapidly emerging technologies that feature interfaces modified at the nanoscale, traditional macroscopic models are pushed to their limits to explain phenomena where molecular processes can play a key role. Often, such problems appear to defy explanation when treated with coarse-grained continuum models alone, yet remain prohibitively expensive from a molecular simulation perspective. A prominent example is surface nanobubbles: nanoscopic gaseous domains typically found on hydrophobic surfaces that have puzzled researchers for over two decades due to their unusually long lifetimes. We show how an entirely macroscopic, non-equilibrium model explains many of their anomalous properties, including their stability and abnormally small gas-side contact angles. From this purely transport perspective, we investigate how factors such as temperature and saturation affect nanobubbles, providing numerous experimentally testable predictions. However, recent work also emphasizes the relevance of molecular-scale phenomena that cannot be described in terms of bulk phases or pristine interfaces. This is true for nanobubbles as well, whose nanoscale heights may require molecular detail to capture the relevant physics, in particular near the bubble three-phase contact line. Therefore, there is a clear need for general ways to link molecular granularity and behavior with large-scale continuum models in the treatment of many interfacial problems. In light of this, we have developed a general set of simulation strategies that couple mesoscale particle-based continuum models to molecular regions simulated through conventional molecular dynamics (MD). In addition, we derived a transport model for binary mixtures that opens the possibility for a wide range of applications in biological and drug delivery problems, and is readily reconciled with our hybrid MD-continuum techniques. Approaches that couple multiple length scales for fluid mixtures are largely absent in the literature, and

  3. Applications of energy harvesting for ultralow power technology

    Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Barz, C.; Chiver, O.


    Ultra-low-power (ULP) technology is enabling a wide range of new applications that harvest ambient energy in very small amounts and need little or no maintenance - self-sustaining devices that are capable of perpetual or nearly perpetual operation. These new systems, which are now appearing in industrial and consumer electronics, also promise great changes in medicine and health. Until recently, the idea of micro-scale energy harvesting, and collecting miniscule amounts of ambient energy to power electronic systems, was still limited to research proposals and laboratory experiments.Today an increasing number of systems are appearing that take advantage of light, vibrations and other forms of previously wasted environmental energy for applications where providing line power or maintaining batteries is inconvenient. In the industrial world, where sensors gather information from remote equipment and hazardous processes; in consumer electronics, where mobility and convenience are served; and in medical systems, with unique requirements for prosthetics and non-invasive monitoring, energy harvesting is rapidly expanding into new applications.This paper serves as a survey for applications of energy harvesting for ultra low power technology based on various technical papers available in the public domain.

  4. Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications

    Vickers, J. H.; Tate, L. C.; Gaddis, S. W.; Neal, R. E.


    Composite materials offer significant advantages in space applications. Weight reduction is imperative for deep space systems. However, the pathway to deployment of composites alternatives is problematic. Improvements in the materials and processes are needed, and extensive testing is required to validate the performance, qualify the materials and processes, and certify components. Addressing these challenges could lead to the confident adoption of composites in space applications and provide spin-off technical capabilities for the aerospace and other industries. To address the issues associated with composites applications in space systems, NASA sponsored a Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM) entitled, "Composites Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Space Applications," the proceedings of which are summarized in this Conference Publication. The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate and the Game Changing Program chartered the meeting. The meeting was hosted by the National Center for Advanced Manufacturing (NCAM)-a public/private partnership between NASA, the State of Louisiana, Louisiana State University, industry, and academia, in association with the American Composites Manufacturers Association. The Louisiana Center for Manufacturing Sciences served as the coordinator for the TIM.

  5. Interfacial fluid dynamics and transport processes

    Schwabe, Dietrich


    The present set of lectures and tutorial reviews deals with various topical aspects related to instabilities of interfacial processes and driven flows from both the theoretical and experimental point of views. New research has been spurred by the many demands for applications in material sciences (melting, solidification, electro deposition), biomedical engineering and processing in microgravity environments. This book is intended as both a modern source of reference for researchers in the field as well as an introduction to postgraduate students and non-specialists from related areas.

  6. Interfacial Properties Modification of Carbon Fiber/ Polyarylacetylene Composites

    FU Hong-jun; MA Chong-qi; KUANG Nai-hang; LUAN Shi-lin


    This work was dedicated to performing surface oxidation and coating treatments on carbon fibers (CF) and investigating the changes of fiber surface properties after these treatments, including surface composition, relative volume of functional groups, and surface topography with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atom force microscopy (AFM) technology. The results show that,after oxidation treatments, interfacial properties between CF and non-polar polyarylacetylene (PAA) resin are remarkably modified by removing weak surface layers and increasing fiber surface roughness. Coating treatment by high char phenolic resin solution after oxidation makes interface of CF/PAA composites to be upgraded and the interfacial properties further bettered.

  7. Interfacial Effects in Polymer Membranes for Clean Energy

    Soles, Christopher


    Polymeric membranes are critical components in several emerging clean energy technologies. Examples include proton exchange membranes for hydrogen fuel cells, anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells, flow batteries, and even block copolymer membranes for solid electrolytes/separators in lithium ion and other battery technologies. In all of these examples the function of the membrane is to physically separate two reactive electrodes or reactants, but allow the transport or exchange of specific ions through the membrane between the active electrodes. The flow of the charged ionic species between the electrodes can be used to balance the flow of electrons through an external electrical circuit that connects the electrodes, thereby storing or delivering charge electrochemically. In this presentation I will review the use of polymeric membranes in electrochemical energy storage technologies and discuss the critical issues related to the membranes that hinder these technologies. In particular I will also focus on the role the polymer membrane interface on device performance. At some point the polymer membrane must be interfaced with an active electrode or catalyst and the nature of this interface can significantly impact performance. Simulations of device performance based on bulk membrane transport properties often fail to predict the actual performance and empirical interfacial impedance terms usually added to capture the device performance. In this presentation I will explore the origins of this interfacial impedance in the different types of fuel cell membranes (proton and alkaline) by creating model thin film membranes where all of the membrane can be considered interfacial. We then use these thin films as a surrogate for the interfacial regions of a bulk membrane and then quantify the structure, dynamics, and transport properties of water and ions in the confined interfacial films. Using neutron reflectivity, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and

  8. A demonstration of enhancements in interfacial rheological characterisations

    Hodder, Peter; Baldursdottir, Stefania G.

    system (the component actually in the interface) has taken place culminating in the Double Wall Ring (DWR) a joint patented device between two great pioneers of interfacial rheology Jan Vermant and Gerry Fuller in the collaboration with TA Instruments. Such technology has become the basis of many...... we have compared the performance of two models of the new Discovery Hybrid Rheometer and the AR G2 rheometer when studying the interfacial adsorption of lysozyme (from hen egg white, Sigma-Aldrich, Denmark) using the double wall ring geometry. The results show great improvement in the detection limit...

  9. Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.

    Sofos, J N; Smith, G C


    Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications.

  10. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography: technologies and clinical applications [Invited].

    Gora, Michalina J; Suter, Melissa J; Tearney, Guillermo J; Li, Xingde


    In this paper, we review the current state of technology development and clinical applications of endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). Key design and engineering considerations are discussed for most OCT endoscopes, including side-viewing and forward-viewing probes, along with different scanning mechanisms (proximal-scanning versus distal-scanning). Multi-modal endoscopes that integrate OCT with other imaging modalities are also discussed. The review of clinical applications of endoscopic OCT focuses heavily on diagnosis of diseases and guidance of interventions. Representative applications in several organ systems are presented, such as in the cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems. A brief outlook of the field of endoscopic OCT is also discussed.

  11. Carbon The Future Material for Advanced Technology Applications

    Messina, Giacomo


    Carbon-based materials and their applications constitute a burgeoning topic of scientific research among scientists and engineers attracted from diverse areas such as applied physics, materials science, biology, mechanics, electronics and engineering. Further development of current materials, advances in their applications, and discovery of new forms of carbon are the themes addressed by the frontier research in these fields. This book covers all the fundamental topics concerned with amorphous and crystalline C-based materials, such as diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon alloys, carbon nanotubes. The goal is, by coherently progressing from growth - and characterisation techniques to technological applications for each class of material, to fashion the first comprehensive state-of-the-art review of this fast evolving field of research in carbon materials.

  12. Assessment of conducting polymer applications in power equipment technology

    Schoch, K.F. Jr.; Bennett, A.I.; Burghardt, R.R.; Cookson, A.H.; Kennedy, W.N.; Oommen, T.V.; Saunders, H.E.; Smith, J.D.B.; Voshall, R.E. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Fort, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (USA)); Robbins, B. (Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA (USA))


    This report describes for the first time the state-of-the-art in conducting polymer technology specifically relating to electric power apparatus for transmission, distribution and generation. Thirty-two new applications in power equipment are proposed and assessed. The areas of the proposed applications include solid dielectric cable, oil-filled cable, capacitors, transformers, rotating machines, bushings, surge supressors, vacuum interrupters, gas-insulated equipment, and miscellaneous applications. The best applications will result in improved reliability and efficiency, design innovations, and simpler manufacturing procedures by taking advantage of the particular characteristics of conducting polymers. These characteristics include good control of conductivity over a range of 10{sup {minus}8} to 10{sup 3} S/cm, compatibility with organic compounds, simple preparation and development of anisotropic conductivity by polymer orientation. The proposed applications were evaluated according to technical impact, probability of success, economic impact, and time frame for implementation. The state-of-the-art of conducting polymers is also reviewed and areas requiring further research for these applications are discussed. Because of substantial recent progress is developing more practical conducting polymer materials, now is an excellent time to pursue the additional research needed. 37 refs., 16 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Three-dimensional integration technology of magnetic tunnel junctions for magnetoresistive random access memory application

    Yakushiji, Kay; Takagi, Hideki; Watanabe, Naoya; Fukushima, Akio; Kikuchi, Katsuya; Kurashima, Yuuichi; Sugihara, Atsushi; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji


    Three-dimensional integration processes (based on direct wafer bonding and back-surface silicon removal) for magnetic tunnel junctions with perpendicular magnetization (p-MTJs) were developed. Perfect wafer bonding, namely, bonding without interfacial voids, and damageless silicon removal were successfully demonstrated by using very flat tantalum cap layers. Moreover, p-MTJ nanopillars subjected to these processes exhibited no degradation in magnetoresistance or spin-transfer-torque (STT) switching. Magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) technology incorporating these processes (direct wafer bonding and back-surface silicon removal) will make it possible to integrate epitaxial MTJs (with a single-crystal tunnel barrier) and ferromagnetic electrode layers (based on new materials).

  14. Technology application analyses at five Department of Energy Sites



    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), a division of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., managing contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was tasked by the United States Air Force (USAF) through an Interagency Agreement between DOE and the USAF, to provide five Technology Application Analysis Reports to the USAF. These reports were to provide information about DOE sites that have volatile organic compounds contaminating soil or ground water and how the sites have been remediated. The sites were using either a pump-and-treat technology or an alternative to pump-and-treat. The USAF was looking at the DOE sites for lessons learned that could be applied to Department of Defense (DoD) problems in an effort to communicate throughout the government system. The five reports were part of a larger project undertaken by the USAF to look at over 30 sites. Many of the sites were DoD sites, but some were in the private sector. The five DOE projects selected to be reviewed came from three sites: the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Kansas City Site, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). SRS and LLNL provided two projects each. Both provided a standard pump-and-treat application as well as an innovative technology that is an alternative to pump-and-treat. The five reports on these sites have previously been published separately. This volume combines them to give the reader an overview of the whole project.

  15. Application of Electron Beam Surface Technologies in the Automotive Industry

    Rolf Zenker; Anja Buchwalder


    Progress in the beam deflection technique opens up new possibilities for the application of electron beam (EB)surface and welding technologies in the automotive industry. This development is based on three-dimensional high-speed beam deflection and fully automatic online process control. So, in the EB surface treatment three-dimensional energy transfer fields can be realised which take into account the contour of a component, the conditions of heat conduction and the load conditions. High flexibility, precision and reproducibility are typical characteristics. High productivity is achieved by the simultaneous interaction of the EB in several processing areas or by carrying out several processes simultaneously. EB surface treatment is becoming more and more attractive and important especially in the automotive industry, and also in comparison to laser technologies. This paper deals with different EB surface technologies, for example hardening,remelting, surface alloying, dispersing or cladding of different materials such as steel, cast iron and different alloys of Al,Mg and Ti. Examples of applications in the automotive industry, especially engine components, will be discussed.

  16. Soft Robotics: from scientific challenges to technological applications

    Laschi, C.


    Soft robotics is a recent and rapidly growing field of research, which aims at unveiling the principles for building robots that include soft materials and compliance in the interaction with the environment, so as to exploit so-called embodied intelligence and negotiate natural environment more effectively. Using soft materials for building robots poses new technological challenges: the technologies for actuating soft materials, for embedding sensors into soft robot parts, for controlling soft robots are among the main ones. This is stimulating research in many disciplines and many countries, such that a wide community is gathering around initiatives like the IEEE TAS TC on Soft Robotics and the RoboSoft CA - A Coordination Action for Soft Robotics, funded by the European Commission. Though still in its early stages of development, soft robotics is finding its way in a variety of applications, where safe contact is a main issue, in the biomedical field, as well as in exploration tasks and in the manufacturing industry. And though the development of the enabling technologies is still a priority, a fruitful loop is growing between basic research and application-oriented research in soft robotics.

  17. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer


    Full Text Available Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. Flours were analyzed for water activity, color, centesimal composition, total dietary fiber, amylose content and identification of high molecular weight glutenins. The rheological properties of the flours were estimated by farinography, extensography, falling number, rapid visco amylography, and glutomatic and glutork equipment. Baking tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. BRS Timbauva and BRS Guamirim presented results that did not allow for specific technological application. On the other hand, BRS Louro presented suitable characteristics for the elaboration of products with low dough strength such as cakes, pies and biscuits, while BRS Pardela seemed suitable for bread and pasta products.

  18. Advances in wearable technology and its medical applications.

    Bonato, Paolo


    The concept of monitoring individuals in the home and community settings was introduced more than 50 years ago, when Holter monitoring was proposed (in the late 1940s) and later adopted (in the 1960s) as a clinical tool. However, technologies to fully enable such vision were lacking and only sporadic and rather obtrusive monitoring techniques were available for several decades. Over the past decade, we have witnessed a great deal of progress in the field of wearable sensors and systems. Advances in this field have finally provided the tools to implement and deploy technology with the capabilities required by researchers in the field of patients' home monitoring. These technologies provide the tools to achieve early diagnosis of diseases such as congestive heart failure, prevention of chronic conditions such as diabetes, improved clinical management of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, and the ability to promptly respond to emergency situations such as seizures in patients with epilepsy and cardiac arrest in subjects undergoing cardiovascular monitoring. Current research efforts are focused on the development of systems enabling clinical applications. The current focus on developing and deploying wearable systems targeting specific clinical applications has the potential of leading to clinical adoption within the next five to ten years.

  19. Configuration and technology implications of potential nuclear hydrogen system applications.

    Conzelmann, G.; Petri, M.; Forsberg, C.; Yildiz, B.; ORNL


    Nuclear technologies have important distinctions and potential advantages for large-scale generation of hydrogen for U.S. energy services. Nuclear hydrogen requires no imported fossil fuels, results in lower greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants, lends itself to large-scale production, and is sustainable. The technical uncertainties in nuclear hydrogen processes and the reactor technologies needed to enable these processes, as well waste, proliferation, and economic issues must be successfully addressed before nuclear energy can be a major contributor to the nation's energy future. In order to address technical issues in the time frame needed to provide optimized hydrogen production choices, the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) must examine a wide range of new technologies, make the best use of research funding, and make early decisions on which technology options to pursue. For these reasons, it is important that system integration studies be performed to help guide the decisions made in the NHI. In framing the scope of system integration analyses, there is a hierarchy of questions that should be addressed: What hydrogen markets will exist and what are their characteristics? Which markets are most consistent with nuclear hydrogen? What nuclear power and production process configurations are optimal? What requirements are placed on the nuclear hydrogen system? The intent of the NHI system studies is to gain a better understanding of nuclear power's potential role in a hydrogen economy and what hydrogen production technologies show the most promise. This work couples with system studies sponsored by DOE-EE and other agencies that provide a basis for evaluating and selecting future hydrogen production technologies. This assessment includes identifying commercial hydrogen applications and their requirements, comparing the characteristics of nuclear hydrogen systems to those market requirements, evaluating nuclear hydrogen configuration options

  20. Interfacial waves generated by electrowetting-driven contact line motion

    Ha, Jonghyun; Park, Jaebum; Kim, Yunhee; Shin, Bongsu; Bae, Jungmok; Kim, Ho-Young


    The contact angle of a liquid-fluid interface can be effectively modulated by the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) technology. Rapid movement of the contact line can be achieved by swift changes of voltage at the electrodes, which can give rise to interfacial waves under the strong influence of surface tension. Here we experimentally demonstrate EWOD-driven interfacial waves of overlapping liquids and compare their wavelength and decay length with the theoretical results obtained by a perturbation analysis. Our theory also allows us to predict the temporal evolution of the interfacial profiles in either rectangular or cylindrical containers, as driven by slipping contact lines. This work builds a theoretical framework to understand and predict the dynamics of capillary waves of a liquid-liquid interface driven by EWOD, which has practical implications on optofluidic devices used to guide light.

  1. Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications: Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields

    Hillemanns, H


    Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications in 'Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications' of Chapter '7 Applications of Detectors in Technology; Medicine and Other Fields' with the content: 7.3 Instrumentation for Applied Physics and Industrial Applications 7.3.1 Applications of HEP Detectors 7.3.2 Fast Micro- and Nanoelectronics for Particle Detector Readout Fast Counting Mode Front End Electronics NINO,...

  2. Application of Technology in Project-Based Distance Learning

    Ali Mehrabian


    Full Text Available Present technology and the accessibility of internet have made distance learning easier, more efficient, and more convenient for students. This technology allows instructors and students to communicate asynchronously, at times and locations of their own choosing, by exchanging printed or electronic information. The use of project-based approach is being recognized in the literature as a potential component of courses in the faculties of engineering, science, and technology. Instructors may have to restructure their course differently to accommodate and facilitate the effectiveness of distance learning. A project-based engineering course, traditionally taught in a classroom settings using live mode at the College of Engineering and Computer Sciences at the University of Central Florida (UCF has been transformed to a distance course taught using distance modes. In this case, pedagogical transitions and adjustments are required, in particular for obtaining an optimal balance between the course material and the project work. Project collaboration in groups requires communication, which is possible with extensive utilization of new information and communication technology, such as virtual meetings. This paper discusses the course transition from live to distance modes and touches on some issues as they relate to the effectiveness of this methodology and the lessons learned from its application within different context. More specifically, this discussion includes the benefit of implementing project-based work in the domain of the distance learning courses.

  3. Development and application of biological technologies in fish genetic breeding.

    Xu, Kang; Duan, Wei; Xiao, Jun; Tao, Min; Zhang, Chun; Liu, Yun; Liu, ShaoJun


    Fish genetic breeding is a process that remolds heritable traits to obtain neotype and improved varieties. For the purpose of genetic improvement, researchers can select for desirable genetic traits, integrate a suite of traits from different donors, or alter the innate genetic traits of a species. These improved varieties have, in many cases, facilitated the development of the aquaculture industry by lowering costs and increasing both quality and yield. In this review, we present the pertinent literatures and summarize the biological bases and application of selection breeding technologies (containing traditional selective breeding, molecular marker-assisted breeding, genome-wide selective breeding and breeding by controlling single-sex groups), integration breeding technologies (containing cross breeding, nuclear transplantation, germline stem cells and germ cells transplantation, artificial gynogenesis, artificial androgenesis and polyploid breeding) and modification breeding technologies (represented by transgenic breeding) in fish genetic breeding. Additionally, we discuss the progress our laboratory has made in the field of chromosomal ploidy breeding of fish, including distant hybridization, gynogenesis, and androgenesis. Finally, we systematically summarize the research status and known problems associated with each technology.

  4. [The applicability of sucrose laurate in hot-melt technology].

    Lang, Péter; Szuts, Angéla; Ambrus, Rita; Szabóné, Révész Piroska


    Nowadays, one of the most important task of the pharmaceutical technology is to optimize the dissolution of active ingredients, because most of the drug candidates have a poorly water solubility and hence a slow absorption. According to the latest examinations, the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs can be increased significantly by using surfactants or the mixture of surfactants and polymers. Nowadays, surfactants (like polysorbates) are generally used in the production of solid dispersions, so the use of surface-active sucrose esters can be resulted an innovative solution in the pharmaceutical technology. The aim of our investigation was to examine the applicability of sucrose laurate in hot-melt technology in order to influence the crystalline structure and dissolution rate of a poorly water soluble drug (gemfibrosil) having low-melting point. The results of the X-ray powder diffractometry have showed that the sucrose laurate had no significant effect on the crystallization degree of the drug which is important in case of the stability. On the bases of the results of in-vitro dissolution studies, it can be concluded that the sucrose laurate (using minimum 5%) can be well applied in hot-melt technology with carriers having characteristic melting point (e.g. Macrogol) to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs.

  5. [Single B cell monoclonal antibody technologies and applications].

    Chi, Xiangyang; Yu, Changming; Chen, Wei


    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) contribute a lot to the development of numerous fields in life science as a pivotal tool in modern biological research. Development of the PCR methods and maturation of antibody production have made it possible to generate mAbs from single human B cells by single cell RT-PCR with successional cloning and expression in vitro. Compared to traditional monoclonal antibody technologies, single B cell technologies require relatively fewer cells, which are highly efficient in obtaining specific mAbs in a rapid way with preservation of the natural heavy and light chain pairing. With so many advantages, single B cell technologies have been proved to be an attractive approach for retrieval of naive and antigen-experienced antibody repertoires generated in vivo, design of rationale structure-based vaccine, evaluation and development of basic B cell biology concepts in health and autoimmunity, and prevention of infectious diseases by passive immunization and therapy for disorders. Accordingly, this review introduced recent progresses in the single B cell technologies for generating monoclonal antibodies and applications.

  6. Wearable Training-Monitoring Technology: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities.

    Cardinale, Marco; Varley, Matthew C


    The need to quantify aspects of training to improve training prescription has been the holy grail of sport scientists and coaches for many years. Recently, there has been an increase in scientific interest, possibly due to technological advancements and better equipment to quantify training activities. Over the last few years there has been an increase in the number of studies assessing training load in various athletic cohorts with a bias toward subjective reports and/or quantifications of external load. There is an evident lack of extensive longitudinal studies employing objective internal-load measurements, possibly due to the cost-effectiveness and invasiveness of measures necessary to quantify objective internal loads. Advances in technology might help in developing better wearable tools able to ease the difficulties and costs associated with conducting longitudinal observational studies in athletic cohorts and possibly provide better information on the biological implications of specific external-load patterns. Considering the recent technological developments for monitoring training load and the extensive use of various tools for research and applied work, the aim of this work was to review applications, challenges, and opportunities of various wearable technologies.

  7. Computer technology applications in industrial and organizational psychology.

    Crespin, Timothy R; Austin, James T


    This article reviews computer applications developed and utilized by industrial-organizational (I-O) psychologists, both in practice and in research. A primary emphasis is on applications developed for Internet usage, because this "network of networks" changes the way I-O psychologists work. The review focuses on traditional and emerging topics in I-O psychology. The first topic involves information technology applications in measurement, defined broadly across levels of analysis (persons, groups, organizations) and domains (abilities, personality, attitudes). Discussion then focuses on individual learning at work, both in formal training and in coping with continual automation of work. A section on job analysis follows, illustrating the role of computers and the Internet in studying jobs. Shifting focus to the group level of analysis, we briefly review how information technology is being used to understand and support cooperative work. Finally, special emphasis is given to the emerging "third discipline" in I-O psychology research-computational modeling of behavioral events in organizations. Throughout this review, themes of innovation and dissemination underlie a continuum between research and practice. The review concludes by setting a framework for I-O psychology in a computerized and networked world.


    张喜平; 苏丹; 程琪辉


    S To provide evidences for exploiting tissue microarray (TMA) technology, we reviewed advantages and applications of TMA on tumor research. TMA has many advantages, including (1) section from TMA blocks can be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of up to 1,000 different tumors at DNA, RNA or protein level; (2) TMA is highly representative of their donor tissues; (3) TMA can improve conservation of tissue resources and experimental reagents, improve internal experimental control, and increase sample numbers per experiment, and can be used for large-scale, massively parallel in situ analysis; (4) TMA facilitates rapid translation of molecular discoveries to clinical applications. TMA has been applied to tumor research, such as glioma, breast tumor, lung cancer and so on. The development of novel biochip technologies has opened up new possibilities for the high-throughput molecular profiling of human tumors. Novel molecular markers emerging from high-throughput expression surveys could be analyzed on tumor TMA. It is anticipated that TMA, a new member of biochip, will soon become a widely used tool for all types of tissue-based research. TMA will lead to a significant acceleration of the transition of basic research findings into clinical applications.

  9. Application of Raman spectroscopy technology to studying Sudan I

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Guoping; Chen, Chen


    Being an industrial dye, the Sudan I may have a toxic effect after oral intake on the body, and has recently been shown to cause cancer in rats, mice and rabbits. Because China and some other countries have detected the Sudan I in samples of the hot chilli powder and the chilli products, it is necessary to study the characteristics of this dye. As one kind of molecule scattering spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is characterized by the frequency excursion caused by interactions of molecules and photons. The frequency excursion reflects the margin between certain two vibrational or rotational energy states, and shows the information of the molecule. Because Raman spectroscopy can provides quick, easy, reproducible, and non-destructive analysis, both qualitative and quantitative, with no sample preparation required, Raman spectroscopy has been a particularly promising technique for analyzing the characteristics and structures of molecules, especially organic ones. Now, it has a broad application in biological, chemical, environmental and industrial applications. This paper firstly introduces Sudan I dye and the Raman spectroscopy technology, and then describes its application to the Sudan I. Secondly, the fingerprint spectra of the Sudan I are respectively assigned and analyzed in detail. Finally, the conclusion that the Raman spectroscopy technology is a powerful tool to determine the Sudan I is drawn.

  10. ``Low Power Wireless Technologies: An Approach to Medical Applications''

    Bellido O., Francisco J.; González R., Miguel; Moreno M., Antonio; de La Cruz F, José Luis

    Wireless communication supposed a great both -quantitative and qualitative, jump in the management of the information, allowing the access and interchange of it without the need of a physical cable connection. The wireless transmission of voice and information has remained in constant evolution, arising new standards like BluetoothTM, WibreeTM or ZigbeeTM developed under the IEEE 802.15 norm. These newest wireless technologies are oriented to systems of communication of short-medium distance and optimized for a low cost and minor consume, becoming recognized as a flexible and reliable medium for data communications across a broad range of applications due to the potential that the wireless networks presents to operate in demanding environments providing clear advantages in cost, size, power, flexibility, and distributed intelligence. About the medical applications, the remote health or telecare (also called eHealth) is getting a bigger place into the manufacturers and medical companies, in order to incorporate products for assisted living and remote monitoring of health parameteres. At this point, the IEEE 1073, Personal Health Devices Working Group, stablish the framework for these kind of applications. Particularly, the 1073.3.X describes the physical and transport layers, where the new ultra low power short range wireless technologies can play a big role, providing solutions that allow the design of products which are particularly appropriate for monitor people’s health with interoperability requirements.

  11. The clinical application of mobile technology to disaster medicine.

    Case, Timothy; Morrison, Cecily; Vuylsteke, Alain


    Mobile health care technology (mHealth) has the potential to improve communication and clinical information management in disasters. This study reviews the literature on health care and computing published in the past five years to determine the types and efficacy of mobile applications available to disaster medicine, along with lessons learned. Five types of applications are identified: (1) disaster scene management; (2) remote monitoring of casualties; (3) medical image transmission (teleradiology); (4) decision support applications; and (5) field hospital information technology (IT) systems. Most projects have not yet reached the deployment stage, but evaluation exercises show that mHealth should allow faster processing and transport of patients, improved accuracy of triage and better monitoring of unattended patients at a disaster scene. Deployments of teleradiology and field hospital IT systems to disaster zones suggest that mHealth can improve resource allocation and patient care. The key problems include suitability of equipment for use in disaster zones and providing sufficient training to ensure staff familiarity with complex equipment. Future research should focus on providing unbiased observations of the use of mHealth in disaster medicine.

  12. Micromachined systems-on-a-chip: Technology and applications

    Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.; Lemkin, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center


    Sacrificial polysilicon surface micromachining is emerging as a technology that enables the mass production of complex microelectromechanical systems by themselves or integrated with microelectronic systems. Early versions of these micromachined systems-on-a-chip have already found application in the commercial world as acceleration sensors for airbag deployment (for example, ADI`s ADXL50). Two technologies described here, enable systems with increasing degrees of complexity to be fabricated. The first is a three-level polysilicon micromachining process which includes a fourth polysilicon electrical interconnect level, while the other is a single-level (+ second electrical interconnect level) polysilicon surface micromachining process integrated with 1.25 micron CMOS. Samples of systems-on-a-chip built in these processes such as combination locks, pop-up mirrors, and multi-axis accelerometers are also given.

  13. Modern wind energy technology for Russian applications. Main report

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Winther-Jensen, Martin; Bindner, Henrik W.


    The general objective of the project is to establish a technical foundation for an intensified application of wind energy in Russia with medium to large wind turbines and transfer/adaptation of Danish and European wind turbine technology as a basis forfuture joint ventures and technology exports...... the project reported herein. The main purpose of phase 1 is to assess the needs for modifications and adaptations of established standard (in casu Danish) windturbine designs for decentralised energy systems with a limited number of medium sized wind turbines and for grid connected wind turbines in cold...... climate and in-land sites of Russia. As part of this work it is necessary to clarify the types of operationalconditions and requirements that are to be met by wind turbines operating in such conditions, and to outline suitable test procedures and test set-up’s for verifications of such adapted...

  14. Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb Technology Principle, Operation and Application

    Ye, Jun


    Over the last few years, there has been a remarkable convergence among the fields of ultrafast optics, optical frequency metrology, and precision laser spectroscopy. This convergence has enabled unprecedented advances in control of the electric field of the pulses produced by femtosecond mode-locked lasers. The resulting spectrum consists of a comb of sharp spectral lines with well-defined frequencies. These new techniques and capabilities are generally known as "femtosecond comb technology." They have had dramatic impact on the diverse fields of precision measurement and extreme nonlinear optical physics. This book provides an introductory description of mode-locked lasers, the connection between time and frequency descriptions of their output and the physical origins of the electric field dynamics, together with an overview of applications of femtosecond comb technology. Individual chapters go into more detail on mode-locked laser development, spectral broadening in microstructure fiber, optical parametric ...

  15. Overview of current additive manufacturing technologies and selected applications.

    Horn, Timothy J; Harrysson, Ola L A


    Three-dimensional printing or rapid prototyping are processes by which components are fabricated directly from computer models by selectively curing, depositing or consolidating materials in successive layers. These technologies have traditionally been limited to the fabrication of models suitable for product visualization but, over the past decade, have quickly developed into a new paradigm called additive manufacturing. We are now beginning to see additive manufacturing used for the fabrication of a range of functional end use components. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of additive manufacturing from its roots in accelerating product development to its proliferation into a variety of fields. Here, we focus on some of the key technologies that are advancing additive manufacturing and present some state of the art applications.

  16. Refractory alloy technology for space nuclear power applications

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.; Hoffman, E.E. (eds.)


    Purpose of this symposium is twofold: (1) to review and document the status of refractory alloy technology for structural and fuel-cladding applications in space nuclear power systems, and (2) to identify and document the refractory alloy research and development needs for the SP-100 Program in both the short and the long term. In this symposium, an effort was made to recapture the space reactor refractory alloy technology that was cut off in midstream around 1973 when the national space nuclear reactor program began in the early 1960s, was terminated. The six technical areas covered in the program are compatibility, processing and production, welding and component fabrication, mechanical and physical properties, effects of irradiation, and machinability. The refractory alloys considered are niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. Thirteen of the 14 pages have been abstracted separately. The remaining paper summarizes key needs for further R and D on refractory alloys. (DLC)

  17. Evaluation of Trenchless Installation Technology for Radioactive Wastewater Piping Applications

    Robinson, Sharon M [ORNL; Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL; Patton, Bradley D [ORNL; Sullivan, Nicholas M [ORNL; Bugbee, Kathy P [ORNL


    sanitary sewer and natural gas pipeline industries, they have been used far less in contaminated environments. Although trenchless technologies have been used at ORNL in limited applications to install new potable water and gas lines, the technologies have not been used in radioactive applications. This study evaluates the technical risks, benefits, and economics for installing gravity drained and pressurized piping using trenchless technologies compared to conventional installation methods for radioactive applications under ORNL geological conditions. A range of trenchless installation technologies was reviewed for this report for general applicability for replacing existing contaminated piping and/or installing new pipelines in potentially contaminated areas. Installation methods that were determined to have potential for use in typical ORNL contaminated environments were then evaluated in more detail for three specific ORNL applications. Each feasible alternative was evaluated against the baseline conventional open trench installation method using weighted criteria in the areas of environment, safety, and health (ES&H); project cost and schedule; and technical operability. The formulation of alternatives for evaluation, the development of selection criteria, and the scoring of alternatives were performed by ORNL staff with input from vendors and consultants. A description of the evaluation methodology and the evaluation results are documented in the following sections of this report.

  18. Technology development of the Space Transportation System mission and terrestrial applications of satellite technology


    The Space Transportation System (STS) is discussed, including the launch processing system, the thermal protection subsystem, meteorological research, sound supression water system, rotating service structure, improved hypergol or removal systems, fiber optics research, precision positioning, remote controlled solid rocket booster nozzle plugs, ground operations for Centaur orbital transfer vehicle, parachute drying, STS hazardous waste disposal and recycle, toxic waste technology and control concepts, fast analytical densitometry study, shuttle inventory management system, operational intercommunications system improvement, and protective garment ensemble. Terrestrial applications are also covered, including LANDSAT applications to water resources, satellite freeze forecast system, application of ground penetrating radar to soil survey, turtle tracking, evaluating computer drawn ground cover maps, sparkless load pulsar, and coupling a microcomputer and computing integrator with a gas chromatograph.

  19. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.


    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  20. Radiation processing applications in the Czechoslovak water treatment technologies

    Vacek, K.; Pastuszek, F.; Sedláček, M.

    The regeneration of biologically clogged water wells by radiation proved to be a successful and economically beneficial process among other promising applications of ionizing radiation in the water supply technology. The application conditions and experience are mentioned. The potential pathogenic Mycobacteria occuring in the warm washing and bathing water are resistant against usual chlorine and ozone concentrations. The radiation sensitivity of Mycobacteria allowed to suggest a device for their destroying by radiation. Some toxic substances in the underground water can be efficiently degraded by gamma radiation directly in the wells drilled as a hydraulic barrier surrounding the contaminated land area. Substantial decrease of CN - concentration and C.O.D. value was observed in water pumped from such well equipped with cobalt sources and charcoal. The removing of pathogenic contamination remains to be the main goal of radiation processing in the water purification technologies. The decrease of liquid sludge specific filter resistance and sedimentation acceleration by irradiation have a minor technological importance. The hygienization of sludge cake from the mechanical belt filter press by electron beam appears to be the optimum application in the Czechoslovak conditions. The potatoes and barley crop yields from experimental plots treated with sludge were higher in comparison with using the manure. Biological sludge from the municipal and food industry water purification plants contains nutritive components. The proper hygienization is a necessary condition for using them as a livestock feed supplement. Feeding experiments with broilers and pigs confirmed the possibility of partial (e.g. 50%) replacement of soya-, bone- or fish flour in feed mixtures by dried sludge hygienized either by heat or by the irradiation.