WorldWideScience

Sample records for techniques utilizing radionuclides

  1. Radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.

    1988-01-01

    During approximately 25 years of experience with bone scanning, broad expansions in the clinical impact of radionuclide imaging on disorders of bones, joints, and soft tissues have occurred. This increased impact had its groundwork laid by advances in radiopharmaceuticals and instruments that are used for bone imaging. The progression from /sup 85/Sr- to /sup 99m/Tc-labeled phosphate and phosphonate compounds, coupled with the advance from crude rectilinear scanning techniques to whole body scintillation imaging with large crystal cameras and sophisticated electronics, has encourage use of radionuclide techniques in the evaluation of muscoloskeletal diseases. Many clinical studies have documented the high degree of sensitivity of the bone scan compared with that of the radiograph in detecting osseous and articular abnormalities

  2. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  3. Loading technique for preparing radionuclide containing nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Source: US2012213698A The present invention relates to a novel composition and method for loading delivery systems such as liposome compositions with radionuclides useful in targeted diagnostic and/or therapy of target site, such as cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions associ...... of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique. One specific aspect of the invention is directed to a method of producing nanoparticles with desired targeting properties for diagnostic and/or radio-therapeutic applications....

  4. In vitro radionuclide techniques in medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The use of radionuclide based microanalytical techniques for medical diagnosis has been increasing in recent years. Several such methods are in routine use in advanced laboratories in the industrialized world, but are often beyond the capability of developing countries. The IAEA has organized several training activities and seminars to bring the benefits of such advances to laboratories in developing Member States. The most recent was an interregional training course in Tokyo, March 1996, in collaboration with the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The course was conducted by international experts, local staff, and IAEA staff. With the intention of giving the main techniques used at the course to a wider distribution they have been compiled into the present technical document. It is hoped that laboratories in developing Member States that did not have participants at the training course will find the information provided useful and sufficiently detailed to enable their application in their home institutions

  5. Separation Techniques for Quantification of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Galanda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliable and quantitative measurement of radionuclides is important in order to determine environmental quality and radiation safety, and to monitor regulatory compliance. We examined soil samples from Podunajske Biskupice, near the city of Bratislava in the Slovak Republic, for the presence of several natural (238U, 232Th, 40K and anthropogenic (137Cs, 90Sr, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am radionuclides. The area is adjacent to a refinery and hazardous waste processing center, as well as the municipal incinerator plant, and so might possess an unusually high level of ecotoxic metals. We found that the levels of both naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclides fell within the expected ranges, indicating that these facilities pose no radiological threat to the local environment. During the course of our analysis, we modified existing techniques in order to allow us to handle the unusually large and complex samples that were needed to determine the levels of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Am activity. We also rated three commercial techniques for the separation of 90Sr from aqueous solutions and found that two of them, AnaLig Sr-01 and Empore Extraction Disks, were suitable for the quantitative and reliable separation of 90Sr, while the third, Sr-Spec Resin, was less so. The main criterion in evaluating these methods was the chemical recovery of 90Sr, which was less than we had expected. We also considered speed of separation and additional steps needed to prepare the sample for separation.

  6. Calibration of radionuclides with decay trough beta emission or electron capture by liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Jamir dos Santos

    2000-02-01

    In this work is reported a methodology a methodology for pure beta and electron capture radionuclides standardization, suing liquid scintillation technique. In this sense the CIEMAT/NIST method, recently utilized by international laboratories, was implemented and the lack in the Laboratorio Nacional das Radiacoes Ionizantes - LNMRI, of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, for adequate methodology to standardize this kind if radionuclides was filled, fact that was not present with alpha and gamma radionuclides. The implementation procedure evaluation was provided by concentration activity determination of the following radionuclides: 14 C and 90 Sr, pure beta emitters; 55 Fe, electron capture decay; 204 Tl, electron capture and beta decay and 60 Co, beta-gamma emitter. In this way, a careful analysis of the implementation procedure with these radionuclides types, ranging on a broad energy spectral, was possible. To check the calibration results, intercomparisons among our measurements of these radionuclides and the reference values of the CIEMAT/Spain laboratory were provided. To check the calibration results, intercomparisons among our measurements of these radionuclides and the reference values of the CIEMAT/Spain laboratory were provided. Besides this intercomparisons, one was provided with a 204 Tl solution, utilized in the international comparison recently promoted by BIPM, and another one with a 60 C solution calibrated in LNMRI/CNEN previously by a relative calibration system, with a well type pressurized ionization chamber, and an absolute beta-gamma coincidence system, with a pill-box type proportional counter 4 π geometry, coupled with a scintillator system with a sodium iodide cristal of 4x4 inches. The comparisons among LNMRI/CNEN results and the reference values, showed a small deviation of 1,32% for 14 C, 0,40% for 60 Co, 1,12% for 55 Fe, 0,10% for 90 Sr and 0,73% for 204 Tl. For the BIPM solution the deviation was 0,46% and for 60 Co

  7. Radionuclide monitoring techniques in on-site inspection for CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lixing

    2004-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was adopted by the-General Assembly of United Nations and opened for signature by all States in September 1996. The On-Site Inspection (OSI) is an important element of the CTBT verification regime. The purpose of the radionuclide monitoring in the OSI for the CTBT is to narrow down the inspected area through general searching and measuring the remain radioactivity of a suspect explosion event, searching and determining the positions for sampling, and collecting evidences of nuclear explosion through the sample analyses. The radiation safety of the inspection team is the first important consideration. Therefore, inspection team should investigate the radiation level for OSI area and determine a safety program for the OSI according to the results of the investigation. At the beginning of an OSI, vehicle-movable radioactivity measurement could be conducted quickly over large area, and based on the results of an initial overflight, airplane-movable radioactivity measurement may be conducted in an additional overflight. General information about the inspection area could be obtained, based on which some part of the area obviously irrelevant with the purpose of the inspection could be excluded and the inspection area could be narrowed down. Temporary radionuclide monitoring stations which collect and monitor the presence of relevant particulate matter in the atmosphere of the inspection area may be established by the inspection team. HPGe gamma spectrometer with blinded energy windows should be used in measurement in order to protect sensitive information. Monitoring the presence of radioxenon and argon-37 in the atmosphere and soil of the inspection area is also very important for OSI using specific equipments. Radionuclides contained in soil and water of inspection area can be measured by Marinelli beaker and HPGe gamma spectrometer with blinded energy windows. The objective of drilling is to directly obtain data and

  8. Application of Radionuclide Tracer Techniques in Research on Bio-Effects of Carbon Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Ran Tiecheng; Li Qingnuan; Xu Jingying; Li Wenxin

    2010-01-01

    There are few effective means to detect and analyze nanomaterials, therefore, radionuclide labeling and tracing techniques play an important role in the studies of interaction between nanoparticles and living systems. This paper briefly summarizes the main results from the application of radionuclide tracer techniques in the studies of interaction between carbon nanoparticles (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and nano-carbon blacks) and animals and mammalian cells, cites the experimental information on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of nanomaterials, and indicates the signification of these information in the drug development and bio-safety studies of nanomaterials. Based on the novel properties of carbon nanoparticles, the superiority of radionuclide tracer techniques over fluorescent labeling techniques is stressed. It is expected that the radionuclide tracer techniques have an increasing application prospect in the interdisciplinary fields of nanoscience and life science. (authors)

  9. Combined left and right ventricular volume determination by radionuclide angiocardiography using double bolus and equilibrium technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Stubgaard, M; Møgelvang, J

    1990-01-01

    Eighteen patients with ischaemic heart disease were studied. Left and right ventricular volumes including cardiac output (forward flow) were determined by radionuclide angiocardiography using a double bolus and equilibrium technique. As reference, cardiac output was simultaneously measured...... by indicator dilution. The radionuclide technique comprised four steps: (1) a first-pass study of right ventricle; (2) a bolus study of left ventricle; (3) an equilibrium study of left ventricle; (4) determination of the distribution volume of red blood cells. Absolute volumes of left ventricle were determined...... determinations by radionuclide angiocardiography and indicator dilution (r = 0.74; P less than 0.001). Stroke volume determination by radionuclide was 83 +/- 20 ml (mean +/- SD) and by indicator dilution 84 +/- 20 ml with a difference of -1 +/- 15 ml (NS). Cardiac output determination by radionuclide was 5...

  10. Determination of natural radionuclide level in industrial waste slags and evaluation of comprehensive utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruixiang; Liu Xinhua; Gan Lin

    1994-09-01

    Natural radionuclide contents were measured in various industrial waste slags in China by a low background HPGe γ spectrometer and the radiological impact was estimated for some comprehensive utilization of these slags. Most waste slags can be used for building materials except for tailing and waste rock form nuclear industry

  11. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Bonioszczuk, J.; Cooper, D.K.C.; Isaacs, S.; Rose, A.G.; Smith, J.A.; Uys, C.J.; Barnard, C.N.; Fraser, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning of the donor left ventricle using technetium-99m-labelled red cells was used to monitor acute rejection after heterotopic heart transplantation and compared with histopathological evidence of rejection obtained at examination of an endomyocardial biopsy specimen. The ejection fraction and end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes were calculated at each examination; an equation was derived from these data to predict the degree of acute rejection, using histopathological examination of endomyocardial biopsy specimens as criteria of the presence and severity of rejection. A highly significant multiple correlation between radionuclide scanning parameters and endomyocardial biopsy was found. The advantages of non-invasive radionuclide scanning over the invasive procedure of endomyocardial biopsy are discussed

  12. The use of radionuclide techniques in soil erosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Mabit, L.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion is of concern since it can reduce soil productivity as a result of exportation of inorganic and organic material and nutrients out of the cultivated fields. These are the so-called 'onsite' impacts of erosion. Some of the exported materials, and the associated elements, find their way to water bodies The result is a degradation of the water quality due to suspended solids, sedimentation, eutrophication and pesticide toxicity, what is currently referred to as off-site impacts. Despite its importance, many countries lack reliable and comprehensive data on the problem, its magnitude and spatial extent. One of the reasons is that producing representative and reliable data on erosion is a long and resource intensive process.Fallout radionuclides (FRNs), such as 137 Cs, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have proven to be very powerful tracers of soil movements, that can complement interestingly more conventional approaches. Starting in the mid-1990's the IAEA has been actively involved in supporting coordinated research activities to further develop several methodological aspects related to the use of these isotopes and in the dissemination of the techniques among Member States, through the joint efforts of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Section (SWMCN) of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the Soil Science Unit (SSU) of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory. A first Coordinated Research Project (CRP), from 1996 to 2001, helped to test and validate the basic assumptions underlying the use of FRN, to accelerate the development of conversion models used to translate FRN data into soil movements and to evaluate the effect of specific land use management on soil erosion. A second CRP, planned for 2003-2007, builds on the results of the first one to assess the efficiency of different soil conservation practices, to continue the validation of conversion models and the development of user-friendly software to

  13. Techniques for rapid determination of effects of synergy between radionuclides and pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Grauby, A.

    1975-01-01

    The authors present a number of chromatographic techniques for rapid determination of synergy between radionuclides and various compounds in water. The first technique consists in studying how the chemical equilibrium of iodine varies in the presence of various organic and mineral compounds. The second makes it possible to define the effects of synergy within a given hydrographic basin. A third technique deals with the effects of synergy in ground water in the presence of various types of irrigation water. Finally, to complete this set of techniques, the authors define the mobility potential of a radionuclide in a given aqueous effluent

  14. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  15. Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudowe, Ralf; Roman, Audrey; Dailey, Ashlee; Go, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular, new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time- and labor-intensive, and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is required and/or large number of samples need to be analyzed. To address this issue we are currently investigating radiochemical separation methods based on extraction chromatography that have been specifically optimized for the analysis of process stream samples. The influence of potential interferences present in the process samples as well as mass loading, flow rate and resin performance is being studied. In addition, the potential to automate these procedures utilizing a robotic platform is evaluated. Initial studies have been carried out using the commercially available DGA resin. This resin shows an affinity for Am, Pu, U, and Th and is also exhibiting signs of a possible synergistic effects in the presence of iron.

  16. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 47-52

  17. Natural radionuclides monitoring in Lombardia drinking water by liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, M.; Rusconi, R.; Bellinsona, S.; Sgorbati, G.

    2002-01-01

    Concern about total radionuclides content in water intended for human consumption has been brought to public attention by the recent Council Directive 98/83/EC, subsequently enforced through an Italian law (DL 31, February 2., 2001). Parameter values have been fixed for Tritium content and total indicative dose: the Directive points out that the total indicative dose must be evaluated excluding Tritium, 4 0K , 1 4C , Radon and its decay products, but including all other natural series radionuclides. Maximum concentration values for Radon are separately proposed in Commission Recommendation 2001/928/Euratom. Tritium determination follows a well established procedure, standardised by International Standard Organisation (ISO 9698, 1989). On the contrary, total indicative dose evaluation requires more specific and cumbersome procedures for the measurement of radioactivity content, with special regard to natural series radionuclides. The large number of possibly involved radionuclides and the good sensitivities required make the application of traditional analytical techniques unsuitable in view of a large scale monitoring program. World Health Organisation (WHO 1993 and 1996) guidelines for drinking water suggest performing an indirect evaluation of committed dose by measuring alpha and beta gross radioactivity and checking compliance to derived limit values; the proposed limit values are 0,1 Bq/l for gross alpha and 1 Bq/l for gross beta radioactivity. Nevertheless, it is desirable to identify single radionuclides contribution to alpha and beta activity in order to perform more accurate measurements of committed dose

  18. Radionuclide imaging of parathyroid tumors: historical perspectives and newer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzelberg, G.G.; Hydovitz, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    The increasing use of automated blood chemistry screens for serum calcium levels along with improved methods in measuring parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels have made the diagnosis of parathyroid disease a common clinical problem. Parathyroid adenomas account for the majority of primary hyperparathyroidism with diffuse hyperplasia and parathyroid carcinoma occurring less frequently. Early scintigraphic techniques to identify enlarged parathyroids used selenomethionine-75 which was considered to be incorporated into PTH. In general, the sensitivity of scanning the neck using this tracer was related to the size of the enlarged parathyroid, but in large series, the overall sensitivity was less than 50%. Recent work by Ferlin et al, using a Technetium-99m/Thallium-201 subtraction scintigraphic technique has yielded a sensitivity of 92% in identifying pathologically enlarged parathyroid glands. Winzelberg et al modified this technique to allow imaging the mediastinum plus simplifying the subtraction method. In a prospective study with high-resolution sonography, similar sensitivities and specificities were found with sonography and scintigraphy. Tl-201/Tc-99m pertechnetate subtraction scintigraphy appears to be an accurate technique in identifying pathologic parathyroid enlargement. Its ultimate role in the evaluation of patients with suspected hyperparathyroidism still needs to be determined. 37 references.

  19. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger

    2017-01-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  20. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author)

  1. On the use of the spectroscopic techniques to model the interactions between radionuclides and solid minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, E. [IPN, Paris XI University, 91406 Orsay (France)]. e-mail: simoni@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2004-07-01

    In order to determine the radionuclides sorption constants on solid natural minerals, both thermodynamic and structural investigations, using spectroscopic techniques, are presented. The natural clays, that could be used as engineering barrier in the nuclear waste geological repository, are rather complex minerals. Therefore, in order to understand how these natural materials retain the radionuclides, it is necessary first to perform these studies on simple substrates such as phosphates, oxides and silicates (as powder and single crystal as well) and then extrapolate the obtained results on the natural minerals. As examples, the main results on the sorption processes of the hexavalent uranium onto zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) and lanthanum phosphate (LaPO{sub 4}) are presented. The corresponding sorption curves are simulated using the results obtained with the following spectroscopic techniques: laser induced spectro fluorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Exafs). Finally, the thermodynamic sorption constants are calculated. (Author)

  2. Neutron flux measurement utilizing Campbell technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of the Campbell technique for the neutron flux measurement is described in the contribution. This technique utilizes the AC component (noise) of a neutron chamber signal rather than a usually used DC component. The Campbell theorem, originally discovered to describe noise behaviour of valves, explains that the root mean square of the AC component of the chamber signal is proportional to the neutron flux (reactor power). The quadratic dependence of the reactor power on the root mean square value usually permits to accomplish the whole current power range of the neutron flux measurement by only one channel. Further advantage of the Campbell technique is that large pulses of the response to neutrons are favoured over small pulses of the response to gamma rays in the ratio of their mean square charge transfer and thus, the Campbell technique provides an excellent gamma rays discrimination in the current operational range of a neutron chamber. The neutron flux measurement channel using state of the art components was designed and put into operation. Its linearity, accuracy, dynamic range, time response and gamma discrimination were tested on the VR-1 nuclear reactor in Prague, and behaviour under high neutron flux (accident conditions) was tested on the TRIGA nuclear reactor in Vienna. (author)

  3. Determination of cesium and selenium in cultivated mushrooms using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, L.; Bumbalova, A.; Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.

    2000-01-01

    Cesium and selenium intake of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), with these elements previously added to culture medium, has been examined from the viewpoint of health- and environmental protection. The process of measuring has been carried out by the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique. Treatments of the elementary substance with Se salt appears to influence the Se content of the mushrooms to a significant extent. Cs intake is of considerable importance, as this element is accumulated by mushrooms. (author)

  4. The role of nuclear techniques in the long-term prediction of radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Duerden, P.

    1985-01-01

    Problems associated with the long-term prediction of the migration of radionuclides, and the role of natural analogues in reducing the inherent uncertainties are discussed. Particular reference is made to the evaluation of uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory, as analogues of high-level radioactive waste repositories. A range of nuclear techniques has been used to identify the role of colloids, of alpha recoil and of mineralogy in transport. Specific mention is made of a method being developed which enables models of the migration of solute through fractured rock to be assessed via a combination of alpha track, fission track and PIXE/PIGME techniques

  5. Substantiation of the admissable concentration of radionuclides in the utilization of concrete from disassembled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engovatov, I.A.; Mashkovich, V.P.; Morev, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    The complete or partial disassembly of the buildings and systems of a modern nuclear power plant results in the formation of hundreds of thousands of tons of wastes. More than 90% of this mass consists of reinforced concrete. Only a small fraction of these materials is contaminated and/or activated up to high level and must be treated as radioactive wastes that must be buried. For this reason, it is helpful to consider a variant of recycling of some of the wastes and secondary utilization of these wastes in different industrial production processes. In this paper, we analyze the concrete that is freed when a nuclear power plant is decommissioned, and in particular, we examine three scenarios: (1) stockpiling and long-term storage of concrete at an industrial site, (2) highway construction, and (3) industrial building construction. Admissable radionuclide concentrations of several isotopes are tabulated for each scenario, and the results provide the basic information for the development of standards for the utilization of the concrete wastes produced during the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

  6. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey

  7. Simple counting technique for measuring mixtures of two pure beta-emitting radionuclides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyngaardt, WM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available of the technique can be enhanced by improving the determination of the figure-of-merit. r 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. PACS: 23.40.C0s; 29.30.Dn; 29.40.Mc; 29.85.+c Keywords: Pure b-emitting radionuclides; Mixtures; TDCR efficiency calculation; CIEMAT...,6] and the CIEMAT/ ARTICLE IN PRESS www.elsevier.com/locate/nima 0168-9002/$ -see front matter r 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2006.04.073 C3Corresponding author. Tel.: +2721 6857776; fax: +2721 6862759. E-mail address: fvwyngaardt...

  8. Determination of long-lived radionuclides at ultratrace level using advanced mass spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoriy, M.

    2005-11-01

    Determination of long-lived radionuclides at sub-fg concentration level is a challenging task in analytical chemistry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with its ability to provide the sensitive and fast multielemental analysis is one of the most suitable method for the measurements of long lived radionuclides in the trace and ultra trace concentration range. In present the Ph.D. study a variety of procedures have been developed permitting the sub fg ml-1 determination of long-lived radionuclides (e.g. U, Th, Pu) as well as 226 Ra (T 1/2 = 1600 y) and 90 Sr (T 1/2 = 28.1 y) in different samples. In order to avoid isobaric interferences, to increase the sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the methods the application of different techniques: pre-concentration of the sample, off-line separation on the crown resin, measurements under cold plasma conditions, using microconcentric nebulizers (e.g DIHEN, DS-5) or the application of LA-ICP-MS for sample introduction have been studied. The limits of detection for different radionuclides was significantly improved in comparison to the ones reported in the literature, and, depending on the method applied, was varied from 10 -15 to 10 -18 g ml -1 concentration range. In addition to the analysis of long lived radionuclides, some other elements, that can present potential interest to the analyzed sample, were measured within the framework of the present study. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAICP- MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 20μm m thin sections of human brain tissue. The sample surface was scanned (raster area ∝80 mm 2 ) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 213 nm, diameter of laser crater 50μm, and laser power density 3x10 9 W cm -2 ) in a cooled laser ablation chamber developed for these measurements. Cross sections of human brain samples - hippocampus as well as brain tissues infected and non-infected with Glioblastoma Multiforme (tumor

  9. Application of radionuclide techniques in evaluation of dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yueqin; Liu Xiujie; Shi Rongfang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical significance of radionuclide techniques in differentiating dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) from ischemic cardiomyopathy (CAD-CM). Methods: 28 patients (pts) with DCM and 55 pts with CAD-CM were studied. All pts underwent 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT and 18 F-FDG myocardial metabolic PET. 73 pts had 99 Tc m -RBC radionuclide ventriculography and 68 pts had coronary angiography. Results: 23 pts (82%) with DCM showed perfusion abnormalities with mild and not segmental distribution. 52 pts (95%) with CAD-CM showed perfusion abnormalities that distributed along the coronary vessel territories. Perfusion defects were found in 4 pts (14%) with DCM and 45 pts (82%) with CAD-CM (P<0.01). The average perfusion score was 4.5 +- 2.6 in DCM and 9.5 +- 2.9 in CAD-CM, the area of perfusion diminished uptake was significantly smaller in DCM than in CAD-CM (P < 0.001). 2 pts with DCM and 18 pts with CAD-CM had metabolic defect. The patterns of perfusion/metabolic imaging showed mismatch in most pts with CAD-CM but match in pts with DCM. The LVEF in pts with DCM and CAD-CM was decreased but no significant difference between DCM and CAD-CM was observed. The RVEF in pts with DCM was significantly lower than that in pts with CAD-CM (32.4% +- 13.9% vs 40.9% +- 15.4%, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The radionuclide techniques showed to be helpful for distinguishing DCM from CAD-CM. The discriminate analysis revealed that segmental perfusion abnormality and RVEF were the most important factors for differentiation of DCM from CAD-CM

  10. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ( 222 Rn), uranium ( 238,234 U), radium ( 226 , 228 Ra), lead ( 210 Pb) and polonium ( 210 Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 μSv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong acidic cation exchange resins

  11. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T. [eds.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ({sup 222}Rn), uranium ({sup 238,234}U), radium ({sup 226}, {sup 228}Ra), lead ({sup 210}Pb) and polonium ({sup 210}Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 {mu}Sv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong

  12. Radionuclide techniques in studies of cardiac performance and circulatory changes during antihypertensive treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falch, D.K.

    A non-invasive radionuclide technique to determine variables in the systematic and pulmonary circulation useful in out- patient studies is described. Indium 113m chloride was chosen as the tracer, and iodine 125 iothalamate may be used for simultaneous determination of the glomerular filtration rate. The counting geometry is discussed at some length. The errors of the method and its reproducability seem to be acceptable. The method was tested on two groups of healthy subjects, one of which was composed of well-trained athletes, and two groups of patients, one with chronic cardiac insufficiency, the other with primary hypertension. Tables are presented giving hemodynamic data for these groups. It is concluded that the technique gives some useful data, but that further refinement and supplementation is necessary to obtain a guidance in drug therapy. (JIW)

  13. Use of radionuclide techniques for assessment of splenic function and detection of splenic remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Sinha, S.; Sarkar, B.R.; Basu, S.; Ghosh, S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The spleen is often involved in hematological malignancies; it is also the site of RBC destruction in thalassemia and ITP. In latter cases, splenectomy is often performed and postoperatively, detection of functioning splenic remnants affect the prognosis adversely. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of radionuclide techniques in : a) assessment of splenic function in primarily non-splenic diseases (benign or malignant), and b) detection of splenic remnant after splenectomy. 12 patients of splenomegaly and 5 patients after splenectomy underwent splenic imaging; imaging was performed using both 99m Tc-sulphur colloid (with first pass) and 99m Tc labelled heat denatured RBCs as tracers. Thus splenic perfusion, morphology and RBC trapping functions were all assessed. The colloid images usually matched the RBC images except in 2 cases where photogenic areas (presumably infarcts) were visualized on RBC scans that were missed on colloid scans. Three of the post splenectomy cases revealed functioning splenic remnants, which was also better visualized on RBC scans. It is concluded that radionuclide imaging could be used regularly for assessing function of spleen, or detecting splenic remnants

  14. Percutaneous direct radionuclide cystography in children: description of technique and early experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, Graham A.

    2002-01-01

    Aims. To describe a new test for vesicoureteric reflux in children and assess patient preference compared to indirect radionuclide cystography. Materials and methods. One hundred and three toilet-trained children aged between 2.1 and 15.6 years underwent percutaneous injection of 10-20 MBq of 99m-technetium-labelled mercapto-acetyl-triglycine (MAG3) into the full bladder after the application of anaesthetic cream. Gamma camera images of the bladder and renal areas were recorded during a 5-min resting period and during micturition.Results. All procedures were successful, 97 with a single stab. Fifty-four of the 66 children who expressed a preference preferred percutaneous suprapubic injection to intravenous injection. Images were easy to interpret and there were no indeterminate results. Of 200 renal units, 33 refluxed during the resting phase and 31 during micturition. In 24 renal units, reflux was only demonstrated during the resting phase. Reflux was significantly associated with abnormalities on dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans (P<0.00 l).Conclusions. The new technique of direct percutaneous radionuclide cystography is described. It was well tolerated by patients. It detects reflux during the resting phase that would be missed on the indirect study and avoids doubt as to whether activity in the renal areas is due to reflux or excretion. Free pertechnetate could be used and would be much cheaper. (orig.)

  15. Radionuclide-guided biopsy of bone lesions in cancer patients; a reliable, well-tolerated technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Meyenfeldt, E M; Siebenga, J; van der Pol, H A G; Schreurs, W M J; Hulsewe, K W E

    2014-02-01

    In follow up or primary analysis of malignant disease, use of nuclear medicine imaging techniques is increasing. The lesions, detected by these modalities, do not always present with a matching radiological abnormality suitable for radiological biopsy. A method to confirm, or rule out, metastatic disease in these cases is radionuclide-guided surgical biopsy. The technique consists of injecting a Technetium-99m labelled diphosphonate, performing a bone scan and marking the lesion; under general anaesthetic a surgical biopsy is taken through a small incision guided by a gamma-probe. We evaluated the combined experience of two teaching hospitals, by conducting retrospective chart review, over a period of 5.5 years. Sixty-nine procedures with 79 biopsies were performed. The patients previously had breast cancer in 42%, lung cancer in 32%, both gastrointestinal and urological malignancies in 13%, miscellaneous or unknown origin were reported in 9%. In 68% a rib biopsy was taken, in 15% a pelvis biopsy and in 11% a sternum or clavicle biopsy. In 46.8% metastatic disease was confirmed and in 2.6% a new malignancy (M Kahler) was identified. During a median clinical follow up period of 31 months (1-70), 1 initially negative biopsy site was found to contain a metastasis. Apart from local pain in 3% of cases, no complications were mentioned. In conclusion we can state that, in this retrospective series, radionuclide-guided bone biopsy is a reliable, well-tolerated technique to determine the diagnosis of these lesions with a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 100%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Vesical endometriosis: utility of imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, M.; Cascon, E.; Robledo, R.; Perez, M.

    1999-01-01

    We present three cases of vesical endometriosis initially studied with ultrasound. One case was also studied with intravenous urography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We discuss on the utility of these imaging methods in the diagnosis of vesical endometriosis. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Technique for radionuclide composition analysis of snow cover in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone using fiber sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kham'yanov, L.P.; Rau, D.F.; Amosov, M.M.; Strel'nikova, A.E.; Tereshchenko, V.I.; Veber, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    The high-sensitivity, simple and fast technique for analysis of large-dispersive and ionic components of snow cover radioactivity is suggested. It is based on separation of a sample by fractions, concentration of the dispersive fraction on mechanical filters and the dissolved one on ion-exchange sorbents and separated fraction spectrometry. The minimum measured contamination level is 3.7 Bq/dm 3 for each radionuclide analyzed. The conclusion is made that the technique suggested is the reliable method for radionuclide content analysis is snow cover samples of the Chernobyl' NPP zone. 1 tab

  18. Leak detection utilizing analog binaural (VLSI) techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A detection method and system utilizing silicon models of the traveling wave structure of the human cochlea to spatially and temporally locate a specific sound source in the presence of high noise pandemonium. The detection system combines two-dimensional stereausis representations, which are output by at least three VLSI binaural hearing chips, to generate a three-dimensional stereausis representation including both binaural and spectral information which is then used to locate the sound source.

  19. Techniques for Loading Technetium-99m and Rhenium-186/188 Radionuclides into Preformed Liposomes for Diagnostic Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goins, Beth; Bao, Ande; Phillips, William T

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes can serve as carriers of radionuclides for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. Herein, procedures are outlined for radiolabeling liposomes with the gamma-emitting radionuclide, technetium-99m ( 99m Tc), for noninvasive detection of disease and for monitoring the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of liposomal drugs, and/or with therapeutic beta-emitting radionuclides, rhenium-186/188 ( 186/188 Re), for radionuclide therapy. These efficient and practical liposome radiolabeling methods use a post-labeling mechanism to load 99m Tc or 186/188 Re into preformed liposomes prepared in advance of the labeling procedure. For all liposome radiolabeling methods described, a lipophilic chelator is used to transport 99m Tc or 186/188 Re across the lipid bilayer of the preformed liposomes. Once within the liposome interior, the pre-encapsulated glutathione or ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient provides for stable entrapment of the 99m Tc and 186/188 Re within the liposomes. In the first method, 99m Tc is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and 99m Tc-HMPAO becomes trapped by interaction with the pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the second method, 99m Tc or 186/188 Re is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N',N'-diethylethylenediamine (BMEDA), and 99m Tc-BMEDA or 186/188 Re-BMEDA becomes trapped by interaction with pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the third method, an ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient loading technique is employed using liposomes with an extraliposomal pH of 7.4 and an interior pH of 5.1. BMEDA, which is lipophilic at pH 7.4, serves as a lipophilic chelator for 99m Tc or 186/188 Re to transport the radionuclides across the lipid bilayer. Once within the more acidic liposome interior, 99m Tc/ 186/188 Re-BMEDA complex becomes protonated and more hydrophilic, which results in stable

  20. Biomedical research and application utilizing cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, January 1 1977--December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Benua, R.S.; Tilbury, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on cyclotron production of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides ( 18 F, 15 O, 11 C, 13 N, 52 Fe, 38 K, 206 Bi, 73 Se, and 48 Cr) for use in the preparation labelled compounds for metabolic research in patients and animals. The chemical preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with cyclotron-produced radionuclides for pancreas and tumor scanning is discussed. The imaging capabilities of a total organ kinetic imaging monitor (TOKIM) gamma camera system operated in the positron coincidence mode were improved with the addition of computerized iterative correction procedures

  1. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  2. Utilization technique on variable speed device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This reports of workshop on power technology describes using technique on variable speed device, which deals with alternating current situation and prospect of current variable speed device, technical trend and prospect of electronics, reduce expenses by variable speed device, control technique, measurement technology, high voltage variable speed device, recent trend of inverter technology, low voltage and high voltage variable speed device control device, operating variable speed device in cooling fan, FDF application and defect case of variable speed device, cooling pump application of water variable transformer, inverter application and energy effect of ventilation equipment, application of variable speed device and analysis of the result of operation and study for application of variable speed technology.

  3. Beta Autoradiography. An analytical technique to investigate radionuclides contamination on surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficher, P.; Goutelard, F.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In decommissioning of old buildings and after disposal of nuclear facilities (materials, glove boxes,...), the inventory of the radioactive contamination of various building materials needs to be obtained in order to fix the working condition for dismantling. The challenge of this study was to classify different building materials of a whole research laboratory that was dedicated to research on organic molecules labeled with H-3 and C-14. The problem of waste classification is essential for safety treatment of waste and also for its cost. The analytical technique of beta autoradiography particularly well known for biological researches has been tested to investigate radionuclides contamination on surface. This technique is mainly interesting for beta and alpha emitters but also sensitive to gamma radiation. The first step of this technique is the deposit of a film on the surface of material to be analyzed. Films can be deposited on the ground or also fixed on the walls or even on the ceiling. The film is a plastic sheet covered with an emulsion containing photostimulable crystals and Eu that is activated when the film is exposed on radioactive source. The exposed films are then scanned with the Cyclone Plus equipment to get a digitized image. This image represents the radioactivity of the surface studied. The possibility to re-use the films is very important to investigate a large area. This autoradiography technique has retained our attention for its sensitivity and moreover the possibility of 2-dimensional investigation has been found as a real advantage. However it remains now as a qualitative technique and new studies must be launched to prove its quantitative potentialities. The high spatial resolution was not as important as in biological observation, and the mm resolution is totally sufficient

  4. Radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide cystography in infants and children for the detection of vesicoureteral reflux. Vesicoureteral reflux represents a common and potentially serious form of urinary tract pathology. Reflux accompanied by asymptomatic or inadequately treated urinary tract infections has been associated with significant sequelae, including renal scarring, hypertension, and end- stage renal disease. Although there are several advantages and disadvantages to both radionuclide and radiographic techniques for detection of reflux, radionuclide cystography has been found to be at least as sensitive as the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) for the detection of clinically significant reflux. The major advantage of radionuclide cystography is a significantly lower radiation dose as compared to VCUG. Both indirect and direct techniques for radionuclide cystography have been developed. In addition to detection of vesicoureteral reflux, indirect radionuclide cystography allows evaluation of differential renal function. Supplemental parameters that may be evaluated with direct radionuclide cystography include: quantitation of reflux, determination of bladder volume at which reflux occurs, evaluation of the dynamics of bladder emptying, and determination of residual bladder volume following voiding

  5. Radionuclide content and state of isotopic disequilibrium in some utilized smoking pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Yahya, Ahmad Abu Bakre [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering, Radiation Protection and Training Centre; Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2014-10-01

    {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were measured in some jurak and mehassel samples collected from the local market. Jurak is a paste mixture composed of 30% tobacco, 50% molasses and 20% spices and minced fruits. Mehassel is a local trade-name of a paste mixture of unknown ratios of tobacco to spices and minced fruits. Both jurak and mehassel are used for smoking by Shisha (a pipe used for smoking and has a water filter). Just for comparison, these radionuclides were measured in some cigarette tobacco samples. In cigarette tobacco samples, the average activity concentrations were 0.32 ± 0.10, 0.51 ± 0.11, 3.6 ± 1.0, 16.1 ± 2.4 and 15.8 ± 2.2 Bq/kg for {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, respectively. These values for the same isotopes were 1.01 ± 0.25, 1.04 ± 0.27, 1.2 ± 0.4, 4.4 ± 1.0 and 4.2 ± 0.9 Bq/kg in jurak samples and 0.17 ± 0.07, 0.24 ± 0.08, 1.8 ± 0.7, 7.5 ± 1.7 and 7.0 ± 1.6 Bq/kg in mehassel samples, respectively. Generally, the mean values of the results indicated that, except for uranium in jurak, the activity concentration for all the analyzed radionuclides in the different samples followed the sequence: {sup 210}Po ∼ {sup 210}Pb > {sup 226}Ra >> {sup 234}U > {sup 238}U, whereas for each radionuclide, its activity concentration followed the sequence: cigarette tobacco > mehassel > jurak. Molasses contributed to the enhanced uranium content in jurak samples. The obtained results are discussed in detail.

  6. Nuclear analytical techniques applied to the research on biokinetics of incorporated radionuclides for internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantone, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The presentation intends to discuss the contribution that techniques of analysis, based on activation analysis or mass spectrometry, can give to a very selected item of the protection against ionizing radiation: the biokinetics of relevant elements. The assessment of radiation dose to body tissues, following intakes of radionuclides in occupational, accidental exposures and environmental exposure in case of dispersion in the environment of radio contaminants of potential concerns, is essential to evaluate and manage the the related radiological risk, including the decisions and actions to be undertake. Internal dose is not directly measurable and the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP has developed models which describes the behavior of the substances in the human body, following their entry ways by inhalation or ingestion. Generally, all the available sources of information contribute in the modeling process, including studies on animals, use of chemical analogues and, obviously direct information on humans, which is definitely the preferred source on which a biokinetic model can be based. Biokinetic data on human are available for most of the biological essential elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Se) and for some elements the metabolic behavior is well know due to their use in clinical application (I, Sr, Tc), moreover research is in progress for non-essential alpha emitters. However, for a number of element, including elements with radionuclide of radiological significance in case of environmental contamination (Ru, Zr, Ce, Te and Mo), human data are poor or missing and biokinetic parameters are essentially extrapolated from data on animals. The use of stable isotopes is a publicly well acceptable and ethically justifiable method, compared to the use of radioisotopes, when volunteer subjects are considered in the investigations. The design of the investigation is based on the double tracer approach: one isotope is given orally and a second

  7. Application od scaling technique for estimation of radionuclide inventory in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelendi, E.; Szuecs, Z.; Gulyas, J.; Svingor, E.; Csongor, J.; Ormai, P.; Fritz, A.; Solymosi, J.; Gresits, I.; Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.

    1996-01-01

    Safety studies related to the disposal of low- and intermediate waste indicate that the long term risk is determined by the presence of long-lived nuclides such as 14 C, 59 Ni, 63 Ni, 99 Tc, 129 I and the transuranium elements. As most of these nuclides are difficult to measure, the correlation between these critical nuclides and some other easily measurable key nuclides such as 60 Co and 137 Cs has been investigated for typical waste streams of Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary) and scaling factors have been proposed. An automated gamma-scanning monitor has been purchased and calibrated to determine the gamma-emitting radionuclides. Radiochemical methods have been developed to determine significant difficult-to-measure radionuclides. The radionuclides of interest have been 3 H, 14 C, 90 Sr, 55 Fe, 59 Ni, 99 Tc, 129 I and TRUs. The measurements taken so far have revealed brand new information and data on radiological composition of waste of WWER-type reactors. The reliability of the radioanalytical methods was checked by an international intercomparison test. For all radionuclides the Hungarian results were in the average range of the total data set. (author)

  8. Utilizing Item Sampling Techniques To Scale Affective Reactions to Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursack, Bruce Allen

    Reported are the results of a study which investigated the possible utilization of item sampling techniques with Thurstone's Case V paired comparison method. The first objective involved the study of the scale and rank values of the stimuli and the frequency distribution of the responses. A paired comparison instrument consisting of mathematical…

  9. Improved biomass utilization through the use of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Biomass is a major by-product resource of agriculture and food manufacturing, but it is under-utilized as a source of food, fibre, and chemicals. Nuclear techniques provide unique tools for studies of the capabilities of micro-organisms in methane digestor operation and in the transformation of lignocellulosic materials to useful products. Nuclear techniques have also been effectively employed as mutagenic agents in the preparation of more efficient microbial strains for the conversion of biomass. This report reviews the variety and diversity of such applications with focus on the development of microbial processes to utilize agricultural wastes and by-products. The value of nuclear techniques is manifestly demonstrated in the production of efficient microbial mutant strains, in the tracing of metabolic pathways, in the monitoring of lignin degradation and also of fermenter operation. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Application of sorption technique for decontamination of liquid radwaste and natural water from cesium and strontium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyutin, V.V.; Gelis, V.M.; Penzin, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the results obtained in field tests of decontaminating radioactive natural and industrial solutions of different chemical and radionuclide composition from cesium and strontium radionuclides are reported. Decontamination of industrial reservoir water at the Production Association Mayak (Chelyabinsk Region, Russia) was performed using CMP synthetic zeolite. Efficient decontamination of the feed water is achieved after preliminary precipitation of hardness salts in the form of carbonates. Decontamination of water from the pool for spent fuel element storage from 137 Cs was conducted using NGA ferricyanide sorbent. Decontamination factors with respect to 137 Cs of 400 have been reached, the installation throughput being 100,000 by (bed volumes). Decontamination of liquid radwaste at Murmansk Shipping Co was conducted with CFB, CMP synthetic zeolites and NGA ferricyanide sorbent as well. Decontamination of D and D solutions and wastes of the special laundry resulted in decontamination factors within the range of 20--400, 10--100, and 10--30 with respect to 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and total β-activity, respectively. Installation throughput of 3,000--5,000 bv for zeolites and 8,000--10,000 bv for ferrocyanide sorbents has been reached. Results obtained prove the high efficiency of sorption technique for decontaminating solutions from cesium and strontium radionuclides

  11. The Development and Application of Reactive Transport Modeling Techniques to Study Radionuclide Migration at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Selvi Viswanathan

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada has been chosen as a possible site for the first high level radioactive waste repository in the United States. As part of the site investigation studies, we need to make scientifically rigorous estimations of radionuclide migration in the event of a repository breach. Performance assessment models used to make these estimations are computationally intensive. We have developed two reactive transport modeling techniques to simulate radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain: (1) the selective coupling approach applied to the convection-dispersion-reaction (CDR) model and (2) a reactive stream tube approach (RST). These models were designed to capture the important processes that influence radionuclide migration while being computationally efficient. The conventional method of modeling reactive transport models is to solve a coupled set of multi-dimensional partial differential equations for the relevant chemical components in the system. We have developed an iterative solution technique, denoted the selective coupling method, that represents a versatile alternative to traditional uncoupled iterative techniques and the filly coupled global implicit method. We show that selective coupling results in computational and memory savings relative to these approaches. We develop RST as an alternative to the CDR method for solving large two- or three-dimensional reactive transport simulations for cases in which one is interested in predicting the flux across a specific control plane. In the RST method, the multidimensional problem is reduced to a series of one-dimensional transport simulations along streamlines. The key assumption with RST is that mixing at the control plane approximates the transverse dispersion between streamlines. We compare the CDR and RST approaches for several scenarios that are relevant to the Yucca Mountain Project. For example, we apply the CDR and RST approaches to model an ongoing field experiment called the Unsaturated Zone

  12. Non-conventional measurement techniques for the determination of some long-lived radionuclides produced in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.J.

    1992-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on non-radiometric analytical techniques for the determination of long-lived radionuclides are described. The methods which have been considered are accelerator mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. Neutron activation analysis has been commonly used for the determination of 129 I and 237 Np in environmental samples. Inductively coupled mass spectrometry seems likely to become the method of choice for the determination of 99 Tc, 237 Np and Pu-isotopes. The methods are discussed and the chemical separation methods described. (orig.)

  13. Study of radionuclides speciation with biological molecules of interest by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, V.

    2007-07-01

    Mechanisms of complexation and accumulation of the radionuclides at the cellular and molecular level are complex and poorly known because the studies on these subjects are scarce. Within the framework of this thesis, we studied the interactions of europium (analogue of trivalent actinides) and uranium (VI) (actinide) with biological molecules of interest: phyto-chelatins. Their role is to protect cells against intrusions from nonessential heavy metals (thus toxic). These proteins are likely to be implied in the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides in living organisms. However, their structure is complex, this is why, in order to better understand their reactivity, we extended our studies to lower entities which constitute them (amino acids and glutathione). We determined solution speciation (stoichiometry, structure) as well as the complexing constants associated with the formation of these species. These studies were undertaken by Time Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Electro-Spray Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infra-Rouge spectroscopy (FTIR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS). The determination of the complexation constants enabled us to conclude that the complexing capacity of these molecules with respect to radionuclides was moderate (log 10 K 1 < 3, pH 3 or 6), the formed species are mononuclear with only one ligand molecule (1:1). The interaction is performed via oxygenated (hard) groups. The direct complexation of europium with phyto-chelatins at acidic pH was studied jointly by TRLIF and ES-MS. The complexing capacity of these molecules is much higher than that of GSH from which they result. In addition to studies undertaken on synthetic solutions reproducing the 'biological' conditions (pH close to neutrality, ionic strength 0.1 mol/L, etc), tests of cellular contamination were realized. The quantification of integrated europium showed that those are able to

  14. Dose point kernel simulation for monoenergetic electrons and radionuclides using Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Liu, Y L; Chang, S J; Chao, M M; Tsai, S Y; Huang, D E

    2012-11-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has been commonly used in the dose evaluation of radiation accidents and for medical purposes. The accuracy of simulated results is affected by the particle-tracking algorithm, cross-sectional database, random number generator and statistical error. The differences among MC simulation software packages must be validated. This study simulated the dose point kernel (DPK) and the cellular S-values of monoenergetic electrons ranging from 0.01 to 2 MeV and the radionuclides of (90)Y, (177)Lu and (103 m)Rh, using Fluktuierende Kaskade (FLUKA) and MC N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP5). A 6-μm-radius cell model consisting of the cell surface, cytoplasm and cell nucleus was constructed for cellular S-value calculation. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) of the scaled DPKs, simulated using FLUKA and MCNP5, were 7.92, 9.64, 4.62, 3.71 and 3.84 % for 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 MeV, respectively. For the three radionuclides, the MAPEs of the scaled DPKs were within 5 %. The maximum deviations of S(N←N), S(N←Cy) and S(N←CS) for the electron energy larger than 10 keV were 6.63, 6.77 and 5.24 %, respectively. The deviations for the self-absorbed S-values and cross-dose S-values of the three radionuclides were within 4 %. On the basis of the results of this study, it was concluded that the simulation results are consistent between FLUKA and MCNP5. However, there is a minor inconsistency for low energy range. The DPK and the cellular S-value should be used as the quality assurance tools before the MC simulation results are adopted as the gold standard.

  15. Cancer risk assessment after exposure from natural radionuclides in soil using Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupunski, Ljubica; Spasić-Jokić, Vesna; Trobok, Mirjana; Gordanić, Vojin

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess fatal cancer risk after external and internal (inhalation and ingestion) exposure from natural radionuclides in soil like (238)U, (232)Th, (40)K, and (226)Ra on the territory of Bela Crkva, Serbia. Although receiving doses are low from sources like natural radionuclides in soil, because of stochastic effects of ionizing radiation, risk for developing cancer exists and can be quantified. Concentrations of radionuclides from 80 soil samples are measured using HPGe detector. Fatal cancer risk is assessed from calculated ambient dose rate in the target organs of body due to external and internal exposure. Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain conversion factors which are required to calculate absorbed dose rate in target organs. Assessed cancer risk for (238)U in the case of both inhalation and ingestion exposure is from 1.11 × 10(-6) to 24 × 10(-6) for minimal and maximal activity in soil samples, from 1.02 × 10(-6) to 23.3 × 10(-6) for exposure to (226)Ra, from 1.89 × 10(-6) to 50.3 × 10(-6) for exposure to (232)Th, and from 0.265 × 10(-6) to 9.83 × 10(-6) for exposure to (40)K. Overall risk from (40)K as external and internal source is from 0.8 × 10(-6) to 31.9 × 10(-6). Calculated cancer risks from both inhalation and ingestion exposure could be related to all tissues that are on the way of distribution of particles within the body but especially to deposition sites in the body. Assessed risks for fatal cancer development from inhaled and ingested natural radionuclides originating in soil are not increased.

  16. DNA polymorphisms revealed by the RAPD technique show differences between radionuclide-contaminated and uncontaminated mosquitofish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, C.W.; Shugart, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1977, approximately 250 Mosquitofish (Gambusia affines) were transplanted from a relatively uncontaminated site into a small pond on the Oak Ridge Reservation that is heavily contaminated with radionuclides. DNA polymorphisms, using the RAPD technique, were examined in order to determine if any genetic differentiation had occurred between the two populations. Also, fish from another radionuclide-contaminated population (White Oak Lake) and two unrelated non-contaminated populations were also examined. The RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique uses the polymerase chain reaction with a short oligonucleotide primer to produce DNA fragments of various lengths. When analyzed by gel electrophoresis, these fragments form banding patterns similar to DNA fingerprints. A total of 26 primers were used to produce DNA band patterns, many of which revealed population differences. In addition several primers revealed banding patterns which differentiated between the Crystal Springs and Pond 3513 populations. Furthermore, bands found at high frequency in Pond 3513 and White Oak Lake populations were absent or present at a lower frequency in the non-contaminated populations. For some primers, the contaminated populations showed more DNA bands per individual, and fish with more bands had fewer DNA strand breaks than the fish with fewer bands. These data will be discussed with relation to biomonitoring programs and evolution of resistance to genotoxins in natural populations

  17. Radionuclide antisense therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Xiaohong

    2002-01-01

    Radionuclide antisense therapy achieves the joint goals of antisense therapy and internal radiation therapy. There have been a small number of investigations on the radionuclide antisense therapy in tissue culture and in animal studies. Considerable research is required before this novel technique can become a working practice. The authors reviewed some question and development on the radionuclide antisense therapy, such as selection of the target gene sequence, labelling the antisense oligonucleotide, improvement of the uptake and target of radionuclide antisense oligonucleotides and evaluation of the toxicity of the radionuclide antisense therapy

  18. Influence of nifedipine on left ventricular perfusion and function in patients with unstable angina: Evaluation with radionuclide techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, E.E. van der; Kerkkamp, H.J.; Simoons, M.L.; Rijk, P.P. van; Reiber, J.H.C.; Bom, N.; Lubsen, J.C.; Lie, K.I.

    1986-04-01

    In 1981, a large, double-blind, randomized trial was started in The Netherlands to evaluate the therapeutic effects of nifedipine and/or metoprolol in patients with unstable angina. This study has been called the Holland Interuniversity Nifedipine/metoprolol Trial (HINT) and required several hundred patients to establish potential therapeutic effects. From December 1982 to January 1984 the effects of nifedipine on left ventricular (LV) performance in a subgroup of 52 HINT patients were studied using radionuclide techniques. All patients (23 on nifedipine, 29 controls) underwent thallium-201 scintigraphy or radionuclide angiography just before and 48 h after the start of experimental medication. The radionuclide angiographic studies were also performed at 1 and 4 h after treatment. Nifedipine did not influence the incidence of disapperance of perfusion defects on the 48-h thallium images. No significant differences in overall LV ejections fraction (EF) were seen at any time between nifedipine-treated patients and controls. However, paired observations in 37 patients showed improvement of LVEF after 48 h in 8 patients on nifedipine and in only 1 control patient. Scintigraphic measurements on admission were not related to clinical outcome after 48 h. Concomitant administration of metoprolol did not influence LVEF in either group. It is concluded that nifedipine improves LVEF after 48 h in a subset of patients with unstable angina without affecting myocardial perfusion. This finding indicates that nifedipine has a predominant effect on afterload reduction in patients with unstable angina. Also, early scintigraphic measurements had no significant predictive value for subsequent cardiac events.

  19. The use of the GIS Kriging technique to determine the spatial changes of natural radionuclide concentrations in soil and forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindaroğlu, Turgay

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of radionuclides occurring naturally in the earth depends on bedrock characteristics. Therefore, the spatial distribution of radionuclides is not uniform. Consequently, radionuclide information is vitally important in determining and monitoring the spatial variation of the radionuclide concentrations that are over the limits for the sustainable environment and human health. This research was carried out using GIS methods and geostatistical analysis as Kriging techniques to reveal the spatial variation of the 226Ra, 232Th and 40 K concentrations of natural radionuclides in the Çoruh and Aras Basin. The spatial variations of the detected radionuclides were correlated with soil groups and forest cover. In the study area, 43.17% of the concentration of 40 K, 26.67% of the concentration of 226Ra and 28.16% of the 232Th concentration was determined to be over the average limits. Concentrations of radionuclides that are over the average limits have been found to be on basalt and chestnut soils. Brown and reddish brown soils have a low concentration of the spatial distribution of the radionuclides. Statistically positive correlations were detected (0.865 **) between the 226Ra and 232Th. In addition, a positive relationship between forest cover and 226Ra and a negative relationship between 232Th and 40 K were identified. Excessive exposure to radiation may cause cancer and hereditary diseases. Ecological environments include the soil and the plants. Hence, the periodical monitoring of the spatial variation in concentrations of radionuclides is very important for the health of future generations.

  20. Study of radionuclides speciation with biological molecules of interest by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, V.

    2007-07-01

    Mechanisms of complexation and accumulation of the radionuclides at the cellular and molecular level are complex and poorly known because the studies on these subjects are scarce. Within the framework of this thesis, we studied the interactions of these cations with biological molecules of interest. We chose to focus on an actinide: uranium (VI) as well as europium as an analogue of trivalent actinides. The selected biological molecules are the phyto-chelatins: their role is to protect cells against intrusions from nonessential heavy metals (thus toxic). These proteins are likely to be implied in the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides in living organisms. However, their structure is complex, this is why, in order to better include/understand their reactivity, we extended our studies to lower entities which constitute them (amino acid: glycine, glutamic acid and cysteine; polypeptides: glutathione reduced and oxidized forms). In particular, we determined solution speciation (stoichiometry, structure) as well as the complexing constants associated with the formation with these species. These studies were undertaken by Time Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Electro-Spray-Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infra-Rouge spectroscopy (FTIR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS).The determination of the complexation constants enabled us to conclude that the complexing capacity of these molecules with respect to radionuclides was moderate (log 10 K 1 ≤ 3, pH 3 or 6), the formed species are mononuclear with only one ligand molecule (1:1). The interaction is performed via oxygenated (hard) groups. The direct complexation of europium with phyto-chelatins at acidic pH was studied jointly by TRLIF and ES-MS. The complexing capacity of these molecules is much higher than that of GSH from which they result. The interaction of europium with metallothioneins is, on the contrary, lower than

  1. Benchmark studies of computer prediction techniques for equilibrium chemistry and radionuclide transport in groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review of two recent benchmark exercises is presented. These were separately concerned with the equilibrium chemistry of groundwater and the geosphere migration of radionuclides, and involved the use of a total of 19 computer codes by 11 organisations in Europe and Canada. A similar methodology was followed for each exercise, in that series of hypothetical test cases were used to explore the limits of each code's application, and so provide an overview of current modelling potential. Aspects of the user-friendliness of individual codes were also considered. The benchmark studies have benefited participating organisations by providing a means of verifying current codes, and have provided problem data sets by which future models may be compared. (author)

  2. Equilibrium radionuclide technique to assess the effect of propranolol on left ventricular function in thyrotoxicosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critchley, M.; Gulliford, P. (Royal Liverpool Hospital (UK))

    1980-11-01

    Radionuclide imaging of the left ventricular blood pool using sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate provides a convenient non-invasive method of monitoring left ventricular function. Left ventricular function is characterised by the left ventricular volume curve which represents all phases of the cardiac cycle and is obtained by a multiple gated equilibrium method (MUGA). Volume curves were obtained over a minimum 1 1/2h period in 15 normal subjects and in 20 thyrotoxic patients. Changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), maximum ejection fraction rate and total electromechanical time interval were recorded from volume curve data. To assess the effect of pharmacological intervention, serial measurements of LVEF were made before and after 40 mg oral propranolol. In thyrotoxic patients, LVEF decreased by 17% of the initial value and in normal subjects by less than 10% following propranolol. This method can be extended to assess the effects of physiological or pharmacological intervention on left ventricular function in other disease states.

  3. Calibration of radionuclides with decay trough beta emission or electron capture by liquid scintillation technique; Calibracao de radionuclideos que decaem por emissao beta ou por captura eletronica pela tecnica de cintilacao liquida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Jamir dos Santos

    2000-02-01

    In this work is reported a methodology a methodology for pure beta and electron capture radionuclides standardization, suing liquid scintillation technique. In this sense the CIEMAT/NIST method, recently utilized by international laboratories, was implemented and the lack in the Laboratorio Nacional das Radiacoes Ionizantes - LNMRI, of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, for adequate methodology to standardize this kind if radionuclides was filled, fact that was not present with alpha and gamma radionuclides. The implementation procedure evaluation was provided by concentration activity determination of the following radionuclides: {sup 14} C and {sup 90} Sr, pure beta emitters; {sup 55} Fe, electron capture decay; {sup 204} Tl, electron capture and beta decay and {sup 60} Co, beta-gamma emitter. In this way, a careful analysis of the implementation procedure with these radionuclides types, ranging on a broad energy spectral, was possible. To check the calibration results, intercomparisons among our measurements of these radionuclides and the reference values of the CIEMAT/Spain laboratory were provided. To check the calibration results, intercomparisons among our measurements of these radionuclides and the reference values of the CIEMAT/Spain laboratory were provided. Besides this intercomparisons, one was provided with a {sup 204} Tl solution, utilized in the international comparison recently promoted by BIPM, and another one with a {sup 60} C solution calibrated in LNMRI/CNEN previously by a relative calibration system, with a well type pressurized ionization chamber, and an absolute beta-gamma coincidence system, with a pill-box type proportional counter 4 {pi} geometry, coupled with a scintillator system with a sodium iodide cristal of 4x4 inches. The comparisons among LNMRI/CNEN results and the reference values, showed a small deviation of 1,32% for {sup 14} C, 0,40% for {sup 60} Co, 1,12% for {sup 55} Fe, 0,10% for {sup 90} Sr and 0,73% for {sup

  4. Radionuclide venography. Significance of delayed washout: visualization of the saphenous system. [/sup 99m/Tc tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryo, U.Y.; Colombetti, L.G.; Polin, S.G.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1976-07-01

    Venograms were obtained on dogs in which venous thrombosis had been surgically induced. Radionuclide venograms, obtained after injection of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled microspheres of macroaggregated albumin, showed decreased radioactivity over the areas of venous thrombosis and increased radioactivity over areas of venous stasis. Scintigrams of veins excised after an injection of labeled particles did not delineate thrombi, areas of crush-injured vein, or the venous valves. Delay in the washout of radioactivity on a venogram indicates stasis due to impeded venous flow in the area of thrombosis. A modified technique was developed to obtain simultaneous images of the superficial and deep veins of the leg. Visualization of the superficial veins not only permits detection of superficial abnormalities, but also assists interpretation of the venographic observations of the deep veins.

  5. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  6. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  7. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staab, E.V.

    1984-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) scanning, or cisternography, is a diagnostic technique that entails injection of an appropriate radiopharmaceutical into the subarachnoid space and sequential imaging of the spinal and cranial distribution. Radionuclide imaging techniques were originally named according to the spaces of greatest interest and the methods of administration (i.e., myeloscintigraphy, cisternography, and ventriculography). An all-inclusive term, CSF imaging, is now used. The initial studies were made in animals to investigate the physiology of the CSF. DiChiro et al. pioneered the subsequent clinical use in humans to investigate a variety of disorders, including hydrocephalus, leaks, shunt patency, and miscellaneous intracranial cysts

  8. Ferric iron remediation and stabilisation (firs) - developing a new robust electrokinetic remediation technique for heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, D.; Hopkinson, L.; Cundy, A.

    2005-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology that has generated considerable interest as a technique for the in-situ remediation of contaminated clay-rich soils and sediments. Despite promising experimental results, however, at present there is no standardised universal electrokinetic soil/sediment remediation approach. Many of the current technologies are technically complex and energy intensive, and geared towards the removal of 90% or more of specific contaminants, under very specific field or laboratory-based conditions. However, in the real environment a low-tech, low-energy contaminant reduction / containment technique may be more appropriate and realistic. Such a technique, FIRS (Ferric Iron Remediation and Stabilisation), is discussed here. The FIRS technique involves the application of a low magnitude (typically less than 0.2 V/cm) direct electric potential between two or more sacrificial, iron-rich, electrodes emplaced either side of a contaminated soil or sediment. The electric potential is used to generate a strong pH (and Eh) gradient within the soil column (pH 2 - 13), which acts to re-mobilize contaminants in the treated soil, and force the precipitation of an impermeable, sorptive iron-rich barrier or 'pan' in the soil between the electrodes. Geochemical data from bench-scale treatment cells indicate that the FIRS technique can significantly reduce the concentration of a range of heavy metals and radionuclides in contaminated soils, by remobilization of contaminants followed by precipitation on, or around, the iron-rich barrier generated by the technique. In addition, arsenic seems highly amenable to the FIRS treatment, due to its solubility under the high pH conditions generated near to the cathode, and its marked geochemical affinity with the freshly precipitated iron oxides and oxy-hydroxides in the iron barrier. Geotechnical tests indicate that the iron barrier produced by the technique is practically impervious (permeability 10 -9 m

  9. Contemporary management of carotid blowout syndrome utilizing endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Nauman F; Rezaee, Rod P; Ray, Abhishek; Wick, Cameron C; Blackham, Kristine; Stepnick, David; Lavertu, Pierre; Zender, Chad A

    2017-02-01

    To illustrate complex interdisciplinary decision making and the utility of modern endovascular techniques in the management of patients with carotid blowout syndrome (CBS). Retrospective chart review. Patients treated with endovascular strategies and/or surgical modalities were included. Control of hemorrhage, neurological, and survival outcomes were studied. Between 2004 and 2014, 33 patients had 38 hemorrhagic events related to head and neck cancer that were managed with endovascular means. Of these, 23 were localized to the external carotid artery (ECA) branches and five localized to the ECA main trunk; nine were related to the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA), and one event was related to the innominate artery. Seven events related to the CCA/ICA or innominate artery were managed with endovascular sacrifice, whereas three cases were managed with a flow-preserving approach (covered stent). Only one patient developed permanent hemiparesis. In two of the three cases where the flow-preserving approach was used, the covered stent eventually became exposed via the overlying soft tissue defect, and definitive management using carotid revascularization or resection was employed to prevent further hemorrhage. In cases of soft tissue necrosis, vascularized tissues were used to cover the great vessels as applicable. The use of modern endovascular approaches for management of acute CBS yields optimal results and should be employed in a coordinated manner by the head and neck surgeon and the neurointerventionalist. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:383-390, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Long-term monitoring of the Danube river-Sampling techniques, radionuclide metrology and radioecological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Gruber, V.; Hrachowitz, M.; Baumgartner, A.; Weilner, S.; Seidel, C.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling techniques and radiometric methods, developed and applied in a comprehensive radioecological study of the Danube River are presented. Results and radiometric data of sediment samples, collected by sediment traps in Austria and additionally by grab sampling in the Danube during research cruises between Germany and the delta (Black sea) are shown and discussed. Goal of the investigation is the protection of public and environment, especially the sustainable use and conservation of human freshwater resources against harmful radioactive exposure.

  11. Studying the migration of radionuclides of Chernobyl origin in groundwater utilized for potable water supply of Kyiv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestopalov, V.M.; Boguslavskij, A.S.; Bublyas', V.N.; Gudzenko, V.V.; Onishchenko, I.P.; Rudenko, Yu.F.

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of field observational data and results of modeling are presented on groundwater and rock media contamination with radionuclides ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) of Chernobyl origin in the region of major water intakes serving for potable water supply of Kiev industrial agglomeration. The data obtained enable to accept the possibility of accumulating in the geological rock medium of upper water-bearing system with down going infiltration flow a significant part of initial surface fallout contamination. This states in favor of the concept of anomalously fast migration pathways, but from the other hand, indicates the important role of geological rock media as a powerful protection buffer of the geosphere. Further studying of the character and pathways of groundwater radioactive contamination requires more precise information about the concentration of radionuclides in ground water and rocks, and also detailed ragging of the territory under studying, based on the data of hydrodynamic regime modeling and establishing of hydrogeological monitoring

  12. Detection of radionuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra using Lasso and subsampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Er-Wei; Chan, Kung-sik; Eichinger, William; Kump, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We consider a problem of identification of nuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra. A two stage algorithm is proposed and tested based on the principle of majority voting. The idea is to model gamma-ray counts as Poisson processes. Then, the average part is taken to be the model and the difference between the observed gamma-ray counts and the average is considered as random noise. In the linear part, the unknown coefficients correspond to if isotopes of interest are present or absent. Lasso types of algorithms are applied to find non-vanishing coefficients. Since Lasso or any prediction error based algorithm is inconsistent with variable selection for finite data length, an estimate of parameter distribution based on subsampling techniques is added in addition to Lasso. Simulation examples are provided in which the traditional peak detection algorithms fail to work and the proposed two stage algorithm performs well in terms of both the False Negative and False Positive errors. - Highlights: → Identification of nuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra. → An algorithm is proposed and tested based on the principle of majority voting. → Lasso types of algorithms are applied to find non-vanishing coefficients. → An estimate of parameter distribution based on sub-sampling techniques is included. → Simulations compare the results of the proposed method with those of peak detection.

  13. Comparison of radionuclide ventriculography using SPECT and planar techniques in different cardiac conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massardo, Teresa; Jaimovich, Rodrigo; Lavados, Hugo; Gutierrez, Daniela; Rodriguez, J.C.; Saavedra, J.M.; Alay, Rita [University of Chile - Clinical Hospital, Medicine Department, Nuclear Medicine Section, Santiago (Chile); Gatica, Hector [University of Chile, Clinical Hospital, Department of Medicine, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    Accurate assessment of ventricular function is required to optimize therapeutic management of cardiac diseases. The aim of this study was to correlate planar equilibrium multigated acquisition (MUGA) with tomographic ventriculography (SPECT) in patients with diverse volumes and wall motion abnormalities. Eighty-three studies in 80 patients (56{+-}14 years; 56% women) were classified according to ventricular dilation, wall motion abnormalities and systolic dysfunction. Left and right ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and RVEF) and end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes (EDV and ESV) were obtained using a commercial QBS program for SPECT. On planar acquisition, LVEF and RVEF were obtained using standard techniques and volumes were determined using the count-based method, without blood sampling. A. Total group: With the planar method, LVEF was 44{+-}17%, RVEF 42{+-}13%, left EDV 147{+-}97 ml (range 31-487 ml) and left ESV 93{+-}85 ml (range 15-423 ml); with SPECT the corresponding values were 40{+-}20%, 49{+-}16%,131{+-}95 ml and 91{+-}89 ml, respectively (p=NS for all but RVEF). Linear correlation was 0.845 for LVEF, 0.688 for RVEF, 0.927 for left EDV and 0.94 for left ESV, with good intra-class correlation. B. Subgroups: Global and intra-class correlations between planar imaging and SPECT were high for volumes, RVEF and LVEF in all subgroups, except in patients with normal wall motion and function, who showed smaller volumes with SPECT. The group with diffuse wall motion abnormalities had a lower EDV on SPECT. In the abnormal left ventricle, RVEF was higher with SPECT. Good correlation and agreement exist between SPECT and planar MUGA with respect to LVEF and left ventricular volumes. SPECT is useful in patients with functional abnormalities, but less reliable in those with normal small cavities. A combined technique is still necessary, and RVEF should be interpreted cautiously. (orig.)

  14. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization; Bilanz natuerlicher Radionuklide in der Braunkohleverstromung und Unbedenklichkeit bei der Verwendung von Rueckstaenden und Nebenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger [IAF-Radiooekologie GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  15. Radionuclide assessment of peripheral hemodynamics: a new technique for measurement of forearm blood volume and flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todo, Y.; Tanimoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Iwasaki, T.

    1986-02-01

    A new peripheral hemodynamic measurement system using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells has been developed. This method was carried out on 22 normal subjects, 29 with coronary artery disease, and two with dilated cardiomyopathy. Peripheral hemodynamic indices obtained from this method included forearm blood volume (FBV), venous capacity (FVC), venous capacity index (VCI), blood flow (FBF), and vascular resistance (FVR), and were compared with the central hemodynamic parameters of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP), cardiac output (CO), and total systemic vascular resistance (TSVR) obtained with an invasive technique. The normal values were FBV 8.54 +/- 2.04 ml/100 ml; FVC 4.54 +/- 1.23 ml/100 ml; VCI 65.5 +/- 3.8%; FBF 4.26 +/- 0.56 ml/100 ml/min; and FVR 20.9 +/- 4.4 mmHg/ml/100 ml/min. These values were in good agreement with the values reported using conventional plethysmography. The 16 patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA Class II or III) showed significantly lower FBV, FVC, and FBF values and significantly higher VCI and FVR values than the healthy subjects. Capacitance vessel parameters (FBV, FVC, and VCI) and LVFP, FBF and CO, and FVR and TSVR each showed significant correlation; reproducibility was also good. The advantages of this method are (a) the detector does not come in contact with the region being measured; (b) it is possible to ascertain the absolute quantity of blood in the tissue; (c) extravasation of the plasma component can be ignored; and (d) data processing is simple.

  16. Development of a technique of the rapid analysis for forecasting of possible radionuclides accumulation in the harvest of agricultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadgarov, Kh.T.; Pugachev, V.V.; Kim, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main ways of pollution of plants by radionuclides is the receipt of radionuclides in plants from ground through root system and direct uptake of radionuclides by underground parts of plants. Therefore receipt of radioisotopes in rhizosphere of plants plays the main role in radionuclides accumulation in the plants. For plants cultivation in conditions of radioactive pollution of region it is necessary to estimate the value of possible radionuclides accumulation in a harvest of plants. Such forecasts are necessary at planning of growing of agricultural crops for the food, forage or technical purposes depending on a degree of their pollution by radionuclides. We investigated correlation between the content of strontium - 90 in plants in early phases of their development (20 days time) and in a harvest of plants at a soil way of radionuclide receipt. Our results of study of dependence of strontium - 90 accumulation in a harvest from its content in 20 days time sprouts show, that with reduction of the content of strontium - 90 in 20 days time sprouts, its quantity in a harvest of agriculture cultures is reduced. The correlation analysis of the received data has confirmed positive connection between accumulation of radionuclide in young and adult plants. So, correlation coefficients for a cotton, wheat and barley are 0,89; 0,91 and 0,91 correspondingly. Thus, the direct connection between the contents of strontium - 90 in plants of young age and its accumulation in a harvest of adult plants is established. It enables to predict pollution of' harvest by strontium - 90 under its contents in young plants. Using the received data, with the help of the least- squares method, we have calculated coefficients of the regression equation of a kind: y = a + bx, Where: y - the predicted contents of radionuclide in the harvest; x - the content of radionuclide in 20 days time sprouts; a, b - the empirical coefficients. Rather good coincidence of theoretical calculations and

  17. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques; Flux des radionucleides dans les productions agricoles suite a un accident nucleaire: contre-mesures et techniques de rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouve, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 -Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author).

  18. Quantifying thumb rotation during circumduction utilizing a video technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coert, JH; van Dijke, GAH; Hovius, SER; Snijders, CJ; Meek, MF

    2003-01-01

    Thumb rotation is an essential component of circumduction in order to achieve pulp to pulp contact. In order to evaluate opponensplasty, a device was developed to quantify thumb rotation utilizing a special jig to hold the hand and video analysis. Twenty-seven healthy volunteers (12 female and 15

  19. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  20. Preliminary Study on the Use of Radionuclides 137Cs and 210Pb and Spectro radiometry Techniques as Tools to Determine Soil Erosion State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Vegas, E.; Gasco Leonarte, C.; Schmid, T.; Suarez, J. A.; Rodriguez Rastrero, M.; Almorox Alonso, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides are largely used as tools for studying and quantifying soil erosion. The global fallout of artificial radionuclides derived from weapons testing (1945-1970) was rapidly and firmly fixed in soil surface horizons. This allowed determining soil erosion by comparing 137 C s inventories at individual sampling points with a reference inventory. This procedure is complemented with the 210 P buns inventory calculation as an indicator of the local average of radionuclides deposition. Spectro radiometry is implemented to associate soil reflectance measurements to physical and chemical soil properties related to soil erosion processes obtained from laboratory analyses. The methodology applies both instrumental techniques in soil samples from a semiarid agricultural area near to Camarena (Toledo). The resulting inventories obtained for 137 C s and 210 P bexc are similar to the Spanish reference allowing comparation. Spectro radiometry results correlate well with soil properties measured in the laboratory and can be applied to determine these properties more quickly and easily, as well as for integration with gamma spectrometry results. This is a preliminary study to identify soils affected by erosion that is presented as a Master thesis of the Official Master Degree: A gro- Environmental Technology for a Sustainable Agriculture , of the Technical University of Madrid - School of Agricultural Engineers (UPM-ETSI). Coherent and complimentary results are obtained applying both instrumental techniques within this agricultural area.. (Author)

  1. Right ventricular functional analysis utilizing first pass radionuclide angiography for pre-operative ventricular assist device planning: a multi-modality comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Ryan; Day, Kevin; Jokerst, Clinton; Kazui, Toshinobu; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Khalpey, Zain

    2017-10-10

    Advanced heart failure treated with a left ventricular assist device is associated with a higher risk of right heart failure. Many advanced heart failures patients are treated with an ICD, a relative contraindication to MRI, prior to assist device placement. Given this limitation, left and right ventricular function for patients with an ICD is calculated using radionuclide angiography utilizing planar multigated acquisition (MUGA) and first pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA), respectively. Given the availability of MRI protocols that can accommodate patients with ICDs, we have correlated the findings of ventricular functional analysis using radionuclide angiography to cardiac MRI, the reference standard for ventricle function calculation, to directly correlate calculated ejection fractions between these modalities, and to also assess agreement between available echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters of right ventricular function. A retrospective review from January 2012 through May 2014 was performed to identify advanced heart failure patients who underwent both cardiac MRI and radionuclide angiography for ventricular functional analysis. Nine heart failure patients (8 men, 1 woman; mean age of 57.0 years) were identified. The average time between the cardiac MRI and radionuclide angiography exams was 38.9 days (range: 1 - 119 days). All patients undergoing cardiac MRI were scanned using an institutionally approved protocol for ICD with no device-related complications identified. A retrospective chart review of each patient for cardiomyopathy diagnosis, clinical follow-up, and echocardiogram and right heart catheterization performed during evaluation was also performed. The 9 patients demonstrated a mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using cardiac MRI of 20.7% (12 - 40%). Mean LVEF using MUGA was 22.6% (12 - 49%). The mean right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) utilizing cardiac MRI was 28.3% (16 - 43%), and the mean RVEF calculated by

  2. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  3. Natural resource inventory for urban planning utilizing remote sensing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K. E.; Mackey, P. F.; Bonham, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques were applied to the lower Pantano Wash area to acquire data for planning an ecological balance between the expanding Tucson metropolitan area and its environment. The types and distribution of vegetation are discussed along with the hydrologic aspects of the Wash.

  4. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  5. [The utility of the interrupter technique in pediatric asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Akiko; Yoshihara, Shigemi; Arisaka, Osamu

    2002-11-01

    Interrupter respiratory resistance (Rint) is a new lung function test for measuring airway resistance. We investigated the utility of the Rint lung function test in pediatric patients with asthma. Thirty seven asthmatic patients with mild or moderate asthma attack (asthma group) and 9 healthy children (control group) were enrolled in the study, and the utility of the Ring test was compared with that of the PEF lung function test. Rint and PEF were measured after the inhalation of saline or beta(2) stimulant, and the values for the asthma and control groups were compared. The rint and PEF values did not change after the inhalation of saline, but both values improved after the inhalation of beta(2) stimulant in the asthma group. In the control group, the PEF and Rint values measured after saline or beta(2) stimulant were not significantly different. Rint measurements may be more useful than PEF tests for evaluating therapeutic responses to mild asthma attacks in children. These findings suggest that Rint is a useful respiratory function test for evaluating children with asthma.

  6. Stainless Steel Crown Placement Utilizing the Hall Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Technique presented at/published to HINMAN Dental Society, 33 Lenox Pointe NE, Atlanta, GA, 23-25 March 2017 in accordance with MDWI 41-108, has...been approved and assigned local file #17124. 2. Pertinent biographic information (name of author(s), title, etc.) has been entered into our computer ...member, we can forward your request for funds to the designated Wing POC at the Chief Scientist’ s Office, Ms. Al ice Houy, office phone: 210-292-8029

  7. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Lin, Carol S.K. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hui, Chi-Wai [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon, E-mail: kemckayg@ust.hk [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • There is a major environmental issue about the printed circuit boards throughout the world. • Different physical and chemical recycling techniques have been reviewed. • Nonmetallic fraction of PCBs is the unwanted face of this waste stream. • Several applications of the nonmetallic fraction of waste PCBs have been introduced. - Abstract: E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly “recycling” has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined.

  8. MRI diagnosis of traumatic fornical injury. Investigation utilizing FLAIR Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Toshiharu; Kataoka, Kazuo; Uejima, Toshifumi; Maruyama, Jiro; Sakata, Ikuhiro; Taneda, Mamoru

    1996-01-01

    We studied traumatic fornix injuries by using the fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) technique which provides T 2 -weighted images without the unwanted influence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signals. 5-21 days (average: 10.3) after injury, we performed MRI on 14 patients (mean age: 22.6 years) who were clinically diagnosed as having diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The mid-sagittal FLAIR images in seven of the 14 patients clearly revealed T 2 -prolonged fornix lesions and the concurrent corpus callosum lesions. The same fornix lesions, as detected by the spin echo technique, were blurred by the partial volume effects and motion artifacts derived from the surrounding CSF signals. The accompanying callosal lesions were mainly in the splenium. Of the seven patients with fornix injuries, three had T 2 -prolonged lesions in the septum pellucidum. With respect to the outcome, there was no difference between patients with and without fornix injury. In conclusion, the FLAIR technique is appropriate for detecting fornix injuries adjacent to the CSF space. (author)

  9. MRI diagnosis of traumatic fornical injury. Investigation utilizing FLAIR Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Toshiharu; Kataoka, Kazuo; Uejima, Toshifumi; Maruyama, Jiro; Sakata, Ikuhiro; Taneda, Mamoru [Kinki Univ., Sayama, Osaka (Japan) School of Medicine

    1996-06-01

    We studied traumatic fornix injuries by using the fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) technique which provides T{sub 2}-weighted images without the unwanted influence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signals. 5-21 days (average: 10.3) after injury, we performed MRI on 14 patients (mean age: 22.6 years) who were clinically diagnosed as having diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The mid-sagittal FLAIR images in seven of the 14 patients clearly revealed T{sub 2}-prolonged fornix lesions and the concurrent corpus callosum lesions. The same fornix lesions, as detected by the spin echo technique, were blurred by the partial volume effects and motion artifacts derived from the surrounding CSF signals. The accompanying callosal lesions were mainly in the splenium. Of the seven patients with fornix injuries, three had T{sub 2}-prolonged lesions in the septum pellucidum. With respect to the outcome, there was no difference between patients with and without fornix injury. In conclusion, the FLAIR technique is appropriate for detecting fornix injuries adjacent to the CSF space. (author)

  10. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda, E-mail: spradhan@barc.gov.in, E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  11. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The invention provides physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carriers comprising a reducing agent bound to an anionic starch derivative, useful in the preparation of organ-specific diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals

  12. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S K; Hui, Chi-Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly "recycling" has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dependency Coefficient in Computerized GALS Examination Utilizing Motion Analysis Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Shahidian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The GALS (Gait, Arms, Legs and Spine examination is a compact version of standard procedures used by rheumatologists to determine musculoskeletal disorders in patients. Computerization of such a clinical procedure is necessary to ensure an objective evaluation. This article presents the first steps in such an approach by outlining a procedure to use motion analysis techniques as a new method for GALS examination. Methods: A 3D motion pattern was obtained from two subject groups using a six camera motion analysis system. The range of motion associated with GALS was consequently determined using a MATLAB program. Results: The range of motion (ROM of the two subject groups was determined, the validity of the approach was outlined, and the symmetry of movement on both sides of the body was quantified through introduction of a dependency coefficient. Discussion: Analysis of GALS examination and diagnosis of musculoskeletal problems could be addressed more accurately and reliably by adopting motion analysis techniques. Furthermore, introduction of a dependency coefficient offers a wide spectrum of prospective applications in neuromuscular studies .

  14. UTILIZATION OF TURKISH FOLK TUNES IN TEACHING MARTELE TECHNIQUE IN VIOLIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Akpınar

    2014-01-01

    Musical instrument eduction is the most essential and important component of music education in instutions. The violin’s touching sound, wide area of utilization in music education and rich repertoire make violin education have an important function in instrument education. Therefore, in this study, the spicatto technique –being one of the impotant techniques in violin – is addressed and utilization o Turkish folk tunes in teaching spiccato technique in violin is investigated. Among a large s...

  15. Accelerated partial breast irradiation utilizing balloon brachytherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Jonathan B.; Dickler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the barriers to BCT, methods of PBI in the setting of breast conservation have been explored. The method of PBI with the longest published follow-up is multi-catheter interstitial brachytherapy. Balloon-based brachytherapy with the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator was designed to simplify the brachytherapy procedure for PBI, enhance the reproducibility of the dosimetry, and improve patient comfort. The rates of local recurrence following PBI with the MammoSite applicator have been low, but there are few published reports and follow-up has been relatively short. The cosmetic outcomes and toxicity of MammoSite PBI are comparable to those seen after multicatheter-based PBI. Additional methods of balloon brachytherapy, including Xoft and SenoRx Contura have been developed. Finally, long-term follow-up after PBI is important for the welfare of individual patients and in order to establish the efficacy, late toxicity and cosmetic outcomes of this technique.

  16. Exercise radionuclide imaging approaches to coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Exercise thallium-201 myocardial imaging and exercise radionuclide angiography are the two techniques of nuclear cardiology most widly used for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Each of these tests provides information of diagnostic and functional value. The diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of these two tests for the detection of coronary artery disease are compared. The strengths and weakness of each approach are discussed. A clinical approach to the detection and evaluation of coronary artery disease using these radionuclide exercise techniques is presented

  17. A preliminary study for the production of high specific activity radionuclides for nuclear medicine obtained with the isotope separation on line technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgna, F; Ballan, M; Corradetti, S; Vettorato, E; Monetti, A; Rossignoli, M; Manzolaro, M; Scarpa, D; Mazzi, U; Realdon, N; Andrighetto, A

    2017-09-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals represent a fundamental tool for nuclear medicine procedures, both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The present work aims to explore the Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) technique for the production of carrier-free radionuclides for nuclear medicine at SPES, a nuclear physics facility under construction at INFN-LNL. Stable ion beams of strontium, yttrium and iodine were produced using the SPES test bench (Front-End) to simulate the production of 89 Sr, 90 Y, 125 I and 131 I and collected with good efficiency on suitable targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  19. Therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Ju; Hong, Young Don; Lee, So Young

    2006-01-01

    Since the development of sophisticated molecular carriers such as octereotides for peptide receptor targeting and monoclonal antibodies against various associated with specific tumor types, radionuclide therapy (RNT) employing open sources of therapeutic agents is promising modality for treatment of tumors. Furthermore, the emerging of new therapeutic regimes and new approaches for tumor treatment using radionuclide are anticipated in near future. In targeted radiotherapy using peptides and other receptor based carrier molecules, the use of radionuclide with high specific activity in formulating the radiopharmaceutical is essential in order to deliver sufficient number of radionuclides to the target site without saturating the target. In order to develop effective radiopharmaceuticals for therapeutic applications, it is crucial to carefully consider the choice of appropriate radionuclides as well as the carrier moiety with suitable pharmacokinetic properties that could result in good in vivo localization and desired excretion. Up to date, only a limited number of radionuclides have been applied in radiopharmaceutical development due to the constraints in compliance with their physical half-life, decay characteristics, cost and availability in therapeutic applications. In this review article, we intend to provide with the improved understanding of the factors of importance of appropriate radionuclide for therapy with respect to their physical properties and therapeutic applications

  20. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest

  1. [Utilization of radionuclide therapy facility and assembly-temporary type therapeutic facility for medical treatment of radioactivity contaminated patients in nuclear emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoyuki; Satro, Hiroyuki; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Yasuhito

    2011-05-01

    Medical management of patients internally contaminated in nuclear emergency needs, in addition to general medical treatment, to evaluate doses due to intakes of radioactive materials, to conduct effective treatment with stable isotopes and chelating agents and to keep public away from radioactive materials in and excreted from patients. The idea of medical treatment for internal contamination is demonstrated in the general principles on medical management of victims in nuclear emergency issued by the Cabinet Office in Japan. However, if impressive number patients with internal contamination are generated, the current medical management scheme in nuclear emergency is not able to admit them. The utilization of radionuclide therapy facilities where patients with thyroid diseases are treated with radioisotope and assembly-temporary housing type treatment facilities dedicated for internal contaminated patients may be expected to complement the medical management scheme in nuclear emergency. The effect or more medical management system for patients internally contaminated may become one of the safety nets in the contemporary society that inclines to use nuclear energy on account of accessibility.

  2. Potential Application Of Radionuclide Scaling Factors To High Level Waste Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-09-30

    Production sources, radiological properties, relative solubilities in waste, and laboratory analysis techniques for the forty-five radionuclides identified in Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Feed Acceptance Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document are addressed in this report. Based on Savannah River Site (SRS) experience and waste characteristics, thirteen of the radionuclides are judged to be candidates for potential scaling in High Level Waste (HLW) based on the concentrations of other radionuclides as determined through laboratory measurements. The thirteen radionuclides conducive to potential scaling are: Ni-59, Zr-93, Nb-93m, Cd-113m, Sn-121m, Sn-126, Cs-135, Sm-151, Ra-226, Ra-228, Ac-227, Pa-231, and Th-229. The ability to scale radionuclides is useful from two primary perspectives: 1) it provides a means of checking the radionuclide concentrations that have been determined by laboratory analysis; and 2) it provides a means of estimating radionuclide concentrations in the absence of a laboratory analysis technique or when a complex laboratory analysis technique fails. Along with the rationale for identifying and applying the potential scaling factors, this report also provides examples of using the scaling factors to estimate concentrations of radionuclides in current SRS waste and into the future. Also included in the report are examples of independent laboratory analysis techniques that can be used to check results of key radionuclide analyses. Effective utilization of radionuclide scaling factors requires understanding of the applicable production sources and the chemistry of the waste. As such, the potential scaling approaches identified in this report should be assessed from the perspective of the Hanford waste before reaching a decision regarding WTP applicability.

  3. Investigation on the development of measurement techniques, the behavior in the environment and the estimation of internal radiation dose by inhalation for some typical atmospheric radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Hikaru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-06-01

    Radionuclides in surface atmosphere on the earth are {sup 222}Rn, {sup 220}Rn and their short lived progeny, {sup 7}Be, {sup 85}Kr, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and so on. In this paper, among them, {sup 222}Rn, their short lived progeny ({sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb, {sup 214}Bi, {sup 214}Po), {sup 7}Be, {sup 3}H, and {sup 90}Sr are focused on as follows based on the experimental and observed results, 1. Development of their measurement techniques, 2. Analysis of their variation of atmospheric concentration with time and places, 3. Analysis of their interaction characteristics with surface environment including plants, 4. Estimation of internal radiation doses by inhalation of them. (author). 228 refs.

  4. Radionuclide carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    A new carrier for radionuclide technetium 99m has been prepared for scintiscanning purposes. The new preparate consists of physiologically acceptable water-insoluble Tcsup(99m)-carrier containing from 0.2 to 0.8 weight percent of stannic ion as reductor, bound to an anionic starch derivative with about 1-20% of phosphate substituents. (EG)

  5. Utilization of analytical techniques in aid the implantation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, M.P.; Sabino, C.V.S.; Avelar, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear, physico-chemical and classic techniques developed and utilized by Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnicas Nucleares are presented, as back up to the implementation and operation of nuclear installations related with several parts of fuel cycle from uranium prospecting to waste treatment samples of soils, ores, alloys, plastics, paints, biological materials, air and water were analysed. (M.C.K) [pt

  6. Fabrication of a metal-free ceramic restoration utilizing the monobloc technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissis, P

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a new technique which utilizes a porcelain core/crown unit, fabricated in the laboratory as a single component. The monobloc technique was developed by the author to replace the traditional metal post and core which prevents the transmission of light through porcelain crowns, creating a dark color effect. Between 1989 and 1992, a number of cases were successfully treated with several variations of the monobloc technique. Approximately 50 cases were completed with vitro-ceramic and followed up. The learning objective of this article is to introduce this novel technique. The article discusses the development of the technique, its advantages, disadvantages, and the potential failures. The clinical procedure is illustrated with several case presentations.

  7. Radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatal, J F; Hoefnagel, C A

    1999-09-11

    Nuclear medicine therapy uses unsealed radioactive sources for the selective delivery of radiation to tumours or target organs. For benign disorders such as thyrotoxicosis and arthritis radionuclide therapy provides an alternative to surgery or medical treatment. In cancer treatment, it often combines the advantage of target selectivity (like brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy) with that of being systemic, as with chemotherapy, and it may be used as part of a therapeutic strategy with curative intent or for disease control and palliation. Toxicity is generally limited to the haematopoietic tissue and few side-effects are observed. When cure is feasible, the long-term consequences of radionuclide therapy (eg, fertility disorders and leukaemia or other secondary cancers) do compare favourably with the risks associated with and accepted for chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  8. Micrometric scale measurement of material structure moving utilizing μ-radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrik, Daniel; Jakubek, Jan; Holy, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Studies concerning the functionality and integrity of the loaded materials require information about their mechanical behavior. Consequently, the displacement field of the loaded material has to be studied for this purpose. Although it is quite a common problem, new challenges arise when one is interested about displacement field of the micrometric scale. One promising solution is utilizing the μ-radiographic technique. Generally, the measurement of the displacement field requires some marks which can be followed as moving objects during loading. Radiographic studies of mechanical behavior of alloys or composite materials can benefit from their natural microstructure, which can be utilized as natural mark fields

  9. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  10. Utilization of artificial intelligence techniques for the Space Station power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, Thomas C.; Gholdston, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) as currently envisioned, artificial intelligence/expert system techniques are being investigated to automate operations, maintenance, and diagnostic functions. A study was conducted to investigate this technology as it applies to failure detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) and health monitoring of power system components and of the total system. Control system utilization of expert systems for load scheduling and shedding operations was also researched. A discussion of the utilization of artificial intelligence/expert systems for Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for the Space Station effort is presented along with future plans at Rocketdyne for the utilization of this technology for enhanced Space Station power capability.

  11. Chemical studies of H chondrites 11. Cosmogenic radionuclides in falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferko, T. E.; Wang, M.-S.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    2002-10-01

    We measured the long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl in 47 H chondrite falls: 13 ``Cluster 1'' members, 9 ``Cluster 5'' members, and 25 random falls. From the date and time of fall, Clusters 1 and 5 were previously identified as possible coorbital meteoroid streams with distinctive thermal histories being confirmed by contents of volatile trace elements. Here, we use model data, including a three-radionuclide plot (10Bebulk/26Albulk versus 36Clmetal/26Albulk) and the multivariate statistical techniques of logistic regression and linear discriminant analysis to compare radionuclide levels and their utility to differentiate specific suites from other H chondrites. From our radionuclide results and from noble gas data from other workers, we identified 35 falls with simple irradiation histories and cosmic ray exposure ages >4 Ma. Eight others exhibit evidence for shorter (falls with complex exposure histories supports recent suggestions that they are not commonly encountered, as earlier workers suggested. Although cosmogenic radionuclides do not differentiate between Cluster 1 and a random set of H chondrites, H chondrites that lost 3He from solar heating are distinguishable from those with normal 3He levels.

  12. Survey on Robot-Assisted Surgical Techniques Utilization in US Pediatric Surgery Fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlin, Ilan I; Shroyer, Michelle C; Yu, David C; Martin, Colin A; Chen, Mike K; Russell, Robert T

    2017-02-01

    Robotic technology has transformed both practice and education in many adult surgical specialties; no standardized training guidelines in pediatric surgery currently exist. The purpose of our study was to assess the prevalence of robotic procedures and extent of robotic surgery education in US pediatric surgery fellowships. A deidentified survey measured utilization of the robot, perception on the utility of the robot, and its incorporation in training among the program directors of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) pediatric surgery fellowships in the United States. Forty-one of the 47 fellowship programs (87%) responded to the survey. While 67% of respondents indicated the presence of a robot in their facility, only 26% reported its utilizing in their surgical practice. Among programs not utilizing the robot, most common reasons provided were lack of clear supportive evidence, increased intraoperative time, and incompatibility of instrument size to pediatric patients. While 58% of program directors believe that there is a future role for robotic surgery in children, only 18% indicated that robotic training should play a part in pediatric surgery education. Consequently, while over 66% of survey respondents received training in robot-assisted surgical technique, only 29% of fellows receive robot-assisted training during their fellowship. A majority of fellowships have access to a robot, but few utilize the technology in their current practice or as part of training. Further investigation is required into both the technology's potential benefits in the pediatric population and its role in pediatric surgery training.

  13. Investigations of the corrosion behaviour of the Si-containing stainless steel 1.4361 with combined surface analysis, electrochemistry and radionuclide technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maar-Stumm, M.

    1990-03-01

    The present work aimed at detailed information on the corrosion behaviour and particularly the corrosion mechanism of the steel 1.4361 in concentrated nitric acid by use of a combination of electrochemical methods, radionuclide technique and surface analysis. For comparison steel samples corroded by other methods were investigated by surface analysis, too. At the beginning of the corrosion in nitric acid Fe and Ni are dissolved preferentially. Cr and Si are enriched in the surface region. A primary corrosion layer is formed which is equivalent to the oxidic overlayer of atmospherically oxidized samples. It consists of the oxides of chromium and iron mixed up with glass-like SiO 2 . Ni does not contribute to the formation of the oxidic overlayer. On top of this primary corrosion layer there is an isolating gel-like SiO 2 -layer with a thickness depending on strength and duration of the corrosive attack. Its mechanical stability decreases with increasing layer thickness. At the boundary to the primary corrosion layer this gel-like SiO 2 -layer is closed, mechanically stable and conducting. Samples corroded under the standardized conditions of the Huey-test show a similar structure of the overlayer with the exception that the primary corrosion layer consists only of glass-like SiO 2 . The combination of several methods revealed detailed information about mass loss and structure of the overlayer at different electrode potentials. (orig./MM) [de

  14. Value of radionuclide studies in cardiac transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flotats, A.; Carrio, I.

    2006-01-01

    Effective noninvasive evaluation of acute and chronic allograft rejection remains an important challenge in patients with cardiac transplantation. Radionuclide studies have demonstrated utility because of their ease of use, giving relevant information about the pathophysiology of the transplanted heart, along with valuable diagnostic and prognostic indicators. This article focuses on reviewing the pathophysiological changes of the transplanted heart and implications for radionuclide studies. (author)

  15. Fractionation of radionuclide species in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, Brit

    2009-01-01

    Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment may be present in different physico-chemical forms (i.e., radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, degree of complexation, etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time-dependent transformation processes such as mobilisation of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews available fractionation techniques which can be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes

  16. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  17. Analyzing the barriers affecting the effective utilization of quality tools and techniques using Integrated ISM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sharma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to recognize and scrutinize the barriers affecting the utilization of quality tools and techniques (QT&T in manufacturing organizations. For this purpose, twelve barriers af-fecting the execution of QT&T in manufacturing organizations have been identified from literature analysis and experts’ opinion (academicians and industrial. Questionnaire-based survey has been utilized for the validation of identified barriers. Afterwards, an integrated model of QT&T has been developed by using interpretive structural Modelling (ISM and Matriced Impacts Croisés Multi-plication Appliquée á un Classement (MICMAC approach. This research gives an apparent depic-tion to identify and handle the barriers by computing the effectiveness of each barrier. Barriers like accessibility of time and space, inability to change organizational culture and inadequate coordina-tion and teamwork are found to be the key barriers for utilization of QT&T in manufacturing organ-ization. The developed model will help the manufacturing organizations effectively utilize QT&T.

  18. Therapeutic Radionuclide Generators: 90Sr/90Y and 188W/188Re Generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    adsorbents having higher binding capacities and demonstrate their utility in the preparation of column generators. The objective of this publication is to summarize the work done and the results achieved by the participating countries in the above areas. This publication covers the results of the research undertaken in the development of 90 Sr/ 90 Y and 188 W/ 188 Re generators, studies on post-elution concentration of 188 Re, the use of higher capacity adsorbents based on zirconium and titanium composites, and analytical techniques developed for the quality control of generator produced radionuclides

  19. Optimizing Availability of a Framework in Series Configuration Utilizing Markov Model and Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Ahmed Siddiqui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed at optimizing the availability of a framework comprising of two units linked together in series configuration utilizing Markov Model and Monte Carlo (MC Simulation techniques. In this article, effort has been made to develop a maintenance model that incorporates three distinct states for each unit, while taking into account their different levels of deterioration. Calculations are carried out using the proposed model for two distinct cases of corrective repair, namely perfect and imperfect repairs, with as well as without opportunistic maintenance. Initially, results are accomplished using an analytical technique i.e., Markov Model. Validation of the results achieved is later carried out with the help of MC Simulation. In addition, MC Simulation based codes also work well for the frameworks that follow non-exponential failure and repair rates, and thus overcome the limitations offered by the Markov Model.

  20. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  1. Utilization technique for advanced nuclear materials database system Data-Free-Way'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Kurihara, Yutaka; Kinugawa, Junichi; Kitajima, Masahiro; Nagakawa, Josei; Yamamoto, Norikazu; Noda, Tetsuji; Yagi, Koichi; Ono, Akira

    2001-01-01

    Four organizations the National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Science and Technology Incorporation (JST), conducted the 2nd period joint research for the purpose of development of utilization techniques for advanced nuclear materials database system named 'Data-Free-Way' (DFW), to make more useful system to support research and development of the nuclear materials, from FY 1995 to FY 1999. NRIM intended to fill a data system on diffusion and nuclear data by developing utilization technique on diffusion informations of steels and aluminum and nuclear data for materials for its independent system together with participating in fulfil of the DFW. And, NRIM has entered to a project on wide area band circuit application agreed at the G7 by using technologies cultivated by NRIM, to investigate network application technology with the Michigan State University over the sea under cooperation assistant business of JST, to make results on CCT diagram for welding and forecasting of welding heat history accumulated at NRIM for a long term, to perform development of a simulator assisting optimum condition decision of welding. (G.K.)

  2. Radionuclide techniques in criminology. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Kopejtko, J.; Chodora, F.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted aimed at testing the possible use of beta radiography for the study of the structures of normal types of paper, banknotes and hand-made paper for graphic art. A large-area 14 C beta emitter in the form of radioactive polymethyl methacrylate was used. In paper, the structure could be studied up to 18 mg/cm 2 in weight. Examples are shown of the radiograms of paper, a polyethylene film, banknotes and a coloured engraving. In banknotes, the watermark appeared clearly and the fine print lines could be seen. In graphics, beta radiography allows the determination of the dimensions of mesh sieve in the hand-made paper manufacture. Also shown were clusters of binders strongly absorbing beta radiation. In coloured graphics different absorption capacity of the individual pigments could be observed. Comparing the colouring of a graphic and the degree of absorption radiographically detected, the type of pigments used can be estimated. The results show that beta radiography may be used as an expertise method in criminology and graphic studies. (J.P.)

  3. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. Copyright

  4. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of the different soil conservation measure on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably - a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. (author)

  5. Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

  6. A Limited Submuscular Direct-to-Implant Technique Utilizing AlloMax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Brichacek, MD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:. This study evaluates a novel limited submuscular direct-to-implant technique utilizing AlloMax where only the upper few centimeters of the implant is covered by the pectoralis, whereas the majority of the implant including the middle and lower poles are covered by acellular dermal matrix. Methods:. The pectoralis muscle is released off its inferior and inferior-medial origins and allowed to retract superiorly. Two sheets of AlloMax (6 × 16 cm are sutured together and secured to the inframammary fold, serratus fascia, and the superiorly retracted pectoralis. Thirty-seven breasts in 19 consecutive patients with follow-up at 6 months were reviewed. Results:. Nineteen consecutive patients with 37 reconstructed breasts were studied. Average age was 50 years, average BMI was 24.3. Ptosis ranged from grade 0–III, and average cup size was B (range, A–DDD. Early minor complications included 1 seroma, 3 minor postoperative hematomas managed conservatively, and 3 minor wound healing problems. Three breasts experienced mastectomy skin flap necrosis and were managed with local excision. There were no cases of postoperative infection, red breast, grade III/IV capsular contractures, or implant loss. A single patient complained of animation postoperatively. One patient desired fat grafting for rippling. Conclusions:. The limited submuscular direct-to-implant technique utilizing AlloMax appears to be safe with a low complication rate at 6 months. This technique minimizes the action of the pectoralis on the implant, reducing animation deformities but still providing muscle coverage of the upper limit of the implant. Visible rippling is reduced, and a vascularized bed remains for fat grafting of the upper pole if required.

  7. Study of radionuclide and element characterization of Angola marine sediment using low background gamma spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.C.P.; Vuong Huu Tan; Truong Y; Ho Manh Dung; Le Nhu Sieu; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of radionuclides and chemical elements in Angola marine sediment samples were determined by using low background gamma (LBG) spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The combination of radionuclide and elemental concentration values yielded synergy in the validation of analytical data and identification of sediment sources modeled by multivariate factor analysis. Varimax rotation factor analysis based on the elemental concentrations revealed five sources contributed to the sediment composition, i.e. crustal, sea-salt, industrial, coal-related and Se-related sources. (author)

  8. Distal Radius Allograft Reconstruction Utilizing a Step-Cut Technique After En Bloc Tumor Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Timothy J; Wysocki, Robert W; Cohen, Mark S

    2018-01-01

    En bloc resection of the distal radius is a common treatment for advanced and recurrent giant cell tumors and less commonly for sarcoma. Various reconstructive options exist, including ulnar transposition, osteoarticular autograft and allograft, and allograft arthrodesis. We present a technique of reconstruction using a distal radius bulk allograft with a step-cut to allow for precise restoration of proper length and to promote bony union. Preoperative templating is performed with affected and contralateral radiographs to assess the size of the expected bony defect, location of the step-cut, and the optimal size of the distal radius allograft required. A standard dorsal approach to the distal radius is utilized, and the tumor is resected. A proximal row carpectomy is performed, and the plate/allograft construct is applied to the remaining host bone. Iliac crest bone graft is harvested and introduced at the graft-bone interface and radiocarpal arthrodesis sites. We have previously reported outstanding union rates with the step-cut technique compared with a standard transverse cut. The technique described provides reproducible union and stabilization of the wrist and forearm with adequate function following en bloc resection of the distal radius for tumor.

  9. Development of a novel nanoindentation technique by utilizing a dual-probe AFM system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyup Cinar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel instrumentation approach to nanoindentation is described that exhibits improved resolution and depth sensing. The approach is based on a multi-probe scanning probe microscopy (SPM tool that utilizes tuning-fork based probes for both indentation and depth sensing. Unlike nanoindentation experiments performed with conventional AFM systems using beam-bounce technology, this technique incorporates a second probe system with an ultra-high resolution for depth sensing. The additional second probe measures only the vertical movement of the straight indenter attached to a tuning-fork probe with a high spring constant and it can also be used for AFM scanning to obtain an accurate profiling. Nanoindentation results are demonstrated on silicon, fused silica, and Corning Eagle Glass. The results show that this new approach is viable in terms of accurately characterizing mechanical properties of materials through nanoindentation with high accuracy, and it opens doors to many other exciting applications in the field of nanomechanical characterization.

  10. Utilization of induced mutation techniques in rice improvement in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asencion, A.B.; Santos, I.S.; Barrida, A.C.; Medina, F.I.S. III [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Atomic Research Center (Philippines)

    2001-03-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the Philippines, as such, efforts have been made consistently to improve the varieties released to the farmers for planting. Both conventional and induced mutation techniques were utilized to solve some of the problems. Varieties with improved qualities, resistance to pests and diseases, reduced height, early maturity and non-photoperiod sensitive were developed using either physical or chemical mutagen. Other methods were also tried to enhance variability like combination of gamma irradiation and biotechnology. Irradiation of F1 seeds was also initiated including the use of mutants in crosses to transfer their improved mutated characters. Promising selections were already tested and six lines from the F1 irradiation out-yielded both C4-63G and IR 1561-288-3, their parents. (author)

  11. Utilization of induced mutation techniques in rice improvement in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asencion, A.B.; Santos, I.S.; Barrida, A.C.; Medina, F.I.S. III

    2001-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the Philippines, as such, efforts have been made consistently to improve the varieties released to the farmers for planting. Both conventional and induced mutation techniques were utilized to solve some of the problems. Varieties with improved qualities, resistance to pests and diseases, reduced height, early maturity and non-photoperiod sensitive were developed using either physical or chemical mutagen. Other methods were also tried to enhance variability like combination of gamma irradiation and biotechnology. Irradiation of F1 seeds was also initiated including the use of mutants in crosses to transfer their improved mutated characters. Promising selections were already tested and six lines from the F1 irradiation out-yielded both C4-63G and IR 1561-288-3, their parents. (author)

  12. Mortality of acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged despite significant increase in utilization of endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; McPhee, James T; Farber, Alik

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated if increase in utilization of endovascular surgery has affected in-hospital mortality rates among patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. The National Inpatient Sample (2003-2011) was queried for acute mesenteric ischemia using ICD-9 code for acute mesenteric ischemia (557.1). This cohort was divided into patients treated with open vascular surgery (open vascular group) and by endovascular therapies (endovascular group) based on the ICD-9CM procedure codes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine temporal trend for mortality while adjusting for confounding variables. There was 1.45-fold increase in utilization of endovascular techniques in this study. In-hospital mortality rate, total median charges and length of stay were significantly lower among the endovascular group than the open vascular group despite having significantly higher Elixhauser comorbidities index (3 ± 0.1 vs. 2.7 ± 0.1, p = .003). Over the course of the study period, there was no change in the overall mortality rate despite higher endovascular utilization. Factors associated with increased mortality included age, open surgical repair (Odds ratio: 1.45, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10-1.91, p = .016) and bowel resection Odds ratio: 2.88, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.01-4.12). The mortality rate for acute mesenteric ischemia remains unchanged throughout this contemporary study. Open surgical intervention, bowel resection and age were associated with increased mortality. Endovascular group patients had better survival despite higher morbidity indices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  14. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2001-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem requiring monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to the analytical laboratory where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector, using automated microfluidics for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field analytical chemistry

  15. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2003-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  16. Investigation on the chemically fixing technique of carbon dioxide utilizing solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effective fixing technique of CO2 by utilizing solar energy. First of all, the investigation was directed to the technique for synthesizing ethylene, hydrocarbons, and alcohol by electrochemical reduction of CO2. The power required for this process is supplied by photovoltaic power generation. Development of an excellent electrode catalyst is needed because the reduction of CO2 requires a high overvoltage. It is desirable to enhance the selectivity of the reaction for specific material and improve the transport process in the electrolytic cell. Next, the designing of materials and the reaction of photocatalysts using semiconductor electrode and semiconductor particulate was examined. A semiconductor electrode made of FeS2 is inexpensive and is very efficient at collecting solar light. In the category of a photocatalysis system, a photocatalytic system in which semiconductor particles are embedded in a vesicle and a photocatalyst based on potassium niobate are noteworthy. As biosystem, the method of reducing CO2 by calcareous algae which simultaneously advances fixing and calcification of CO2 by photosynthesis is noteworthy.

  17. Chronic swine instrumentation techniques utilizing the GOR-REX peritoneal catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, C. C.; White, F. C.; Crisman, R. P.; Wisniewski, J.; McKirnan, D.

    1985-05-01

    The GORE-TEX peritoneal catheter interface is an effective skin interface device for many types of instrumentation in the swine. When properly utilized, the interface allows the development of a stable and effective biological seal which will reduce or eliminate sinus tract formation and resultant systemic infection. The interface is suitable for running any wire or catheter (up to about 2.5mm diameter) through the integument of the animal, thus increasing the possibilities for chronic instrumentation while maintaining a healthy animal. The lack of evidence of any growth phenomenon acting to extrude the interface segment, similar to that observed using other synthetic materials, and the superior biological seal which the interface develops, may allow many chronic studies which were previously not feasible. Using special catheter adapter stubs and an intermittent infusion plug, a sterile, sealed catheter system has decreased the possibilities for introducing pathogens while allowing ready access to the blood stream. Detailed descriptions of surgical implantation techniques and catheter set up and maintenance techniques are included.

  18. Quo vadis radionuclide ventriclography (RNV)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoer, G.; Hertel, A.; Diehl, M.

    1999-01-01

    Unjustifiably radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) lost some of its importance with the advance of stress-echocardiography. This editorial aims at reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of both procedures, pointing to the ability of standardized and reproducible quantified global and regional (sectorial) multiparametric analysis, as compared to the qualitative evaluation of global left ventricular function and regional wall motion abnormalities, utilizing stress-echo. Based on a questionnaire sent to German centers the sequence of clinical application of RNV runs like this: Cardiomyopathy, cardiotoxicity-testing, coronary artery disease (CAD) - prognosis, remodeling, risk stratification - PTCA - success and failure - valve disease (chronic aortic insufficiency), cardiac transplantation (observation of progressive vasulopathies) and pharmaceutical testing. Differences in comparison to the guidelines of task force groups in USA are opposed where a consensus conference is still missing in Germany. Final outlook is given on combining PET-derived ejection fraction together with ECG-gated PET (GAPET) for quantification of function, regional perfusion (ischemia) and viable myocardium (hibernating myocardium). Control of successful revascularization by modern angioplasty techniques such as stent implantation, laser angioplasty today is primarily subject to echocardiography, where it is to be considered that the sensitivity of stress-echo is equivalent to nuclear medicine procedures in multivessel disease but inferior to nuclear medicine in single vessel disease and small vessel disease (with normal coronary angiography). (orig.) [de

  19. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  20. Flapless alveolar ridge preservation utilizing the "socket-plug" technique: clinical technique and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsakis, Georgios; Chrepa, Vanessa; Marcou, Nicolas; Prasad, Hari; Hinrichs, James

    2014-12-01

    It has been documented that after every extraction of one or more teeth, the alveolar bone of the respective region undergoes resorption and atrophy. Therefore, ridge preservation techniques are often employed after tooth extraction to limit this phenomenon. The benefits of a flapless procedure include maintenance of the buccal keratinized gingiva, prevention of alterations to the gingival contours, and migration of the mucogingival junction that are often experienced after raising a flap. The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning flapless ridge preservation techniques with the aid of collagen plugs for occlusion of the socket. The term "socket-plug" technique is introduced to describe these techniques. The basic steps of the "socket-plug" technique consist of atraumatic tooth extraction, placement of the appropriate biomaterials in the extraction site, preservation of soft tissue architecture employing a flapless technique, and placement and stabilization of the collagen plug. A case example is presented that illustrates the steps used in this technique.

  1. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  2. Fabrication of nanofluidic devices utilizing proton beam writing and thermal bonding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.P.; Shao, P.G.; Kan, J.A. van; Ansari, K.; Bettiol, A.A.; Pan, X.T.; Wohland, T.; Watt, F.

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of polymer lab-on-a-chip systems for applications in Chemistry and Biology is one of the envisaged niche areas for the Proton Beam Writing (PBW) technique developed at the Centre for Ion Beam Applications (CIBA). Utilizing a highly focused beam of MeV protons, well-defined nanostructures with smooth and straight side walls have been directly written in a 500 nm to 10 μm thick PMMA layer spin coated onto a Kapton substrate. By subsequently thermally bonding the fabricated structures to bulk PMMA and carefully peeling off the Kapton, nanostructures can be attached to bulk PMMA. Finally, by bonding a PMMA sheet to the bottom side of the structure, an integrated PMMA device with enclosed multiple high aspect ratio nanochannels can be realized. Preliminary experiments conducted in order to test this polymeric device indicate good fluidic properties. The nanochannels can be easily filled with dye solution using both pressure and capillary action in the case of hydrophilic solutions

  3. A Modular Approach Utilizing Decision Tree in Teaching Integration Techniques in Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edrian E. Gonzales

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available – This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of modular approach using decision tree in teaching integration techniques in Calculus. It sought answer to the question: Is there a significant difference between the mean scores of two groups of students in their quizzes on (1 integration by parts and (2 integration by trigonometric transformation? Twenty-eight second year B.S. Computer Science students at City College of Calamba who were enrolled in Mathematical Analysis II for the second semester of school year 2013-2014 were purposively chosen as respondents. The study made use of the non-equivalent control group posttest-only design of quasi-experimental research. The experimental group was taught using modular approach while the comparison group was exposed to traditional instruction. The research instruments used were two twenty-item multiple-choice-type quizzes. Statistical treatment used the mean, standard deviation, Shapiro-Wilk test for normality, twotailed t-test for independent samples, and Mann-Whitney U-test. The findings led to the conclusion that both modular and traditional instructions were equally effective in facilitating the learning of integration by parts. The other result revealed that the use of modular approach utilizing decision tree in teaching integration by trigonometric transformation was more effective than the traditional method.

  4. A new technique for promoting cyclic utilization of cyclodextrins in biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanbing; Yu, Ziqi; Yang, Xu; Wang, Fang; Luo, Jianmei; Wang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) can improve the productivity of steroid biotransformation by enhancing substrate solubility. CDs can be recycled by grafting them with appropriate carriers. Loofah fiber is an excellent grafting material for CDs, and can be applied to the biotransformation and recycling of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). In this work, a technique for recycling β-CD in cortisone acetate (CA) biotransformation by Arthrobacter simplex CPCC 140451 was studied. Loofah fiber-grafted β-CD (LF-β-CD) was prepared using epichlorohydrin, which is a cross-linking agent. The grafting yield of β-CD was 74.8 mg g -1 dried fibers. LF-β-CD could increase the solubility of CA and enhance biotransformation. The initial conversion rate of CA was 1.5-fold higher than that of the blank group. LF-β-CD was also used in biocatalytic reactions for eight cycles, and it maintained the conversion ratio of CA at approximately 90%. Given the above positive results, LF-β-CD can be utilized in biotechnological recycling applications. This method can also be applied to CD derivatives and hydrophobic compounds.

  5. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  6. Radionuclide migration as a function of mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The migration of radionuclides is studies as a function of mineralogy utilizing batch sorption and column experiments. The transport behavior of alkaline, alkaline-earth, and transition metals, and actinide species is studies in pure mineral separates. The solid phases utilized for these investigations are silicates, alumino-silicates, carbonates, and metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The results of this effort are utilized to aid in the elucidation of the dominant chemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration, the prediction of radionuclide transport in conditions similar to those expected at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the identification of materials that act as natural geological barriers or that can be utilized as strong sorbers in engineered barriers. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Options to meet the future global demand of radionuclides for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tapas; Pillai, M.R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine continues to represent one of the important modalities for cancer management. While diagnostic nuclear medicine for cancer management is fairly well established, therapeutic strategies using radionuclides are yet to be utilized to their full potential. Even if 1% of the patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures can benefit from subsequent nuclear therapeutic intervention, the radionuclide requirement for nuclear therapeutics would be expected to be in the multi-million Curie levels. Meeting the demand for such high levels of therapeutic radionuclides at an affordable price is an important task for the success of radionuclide therapy. Although different types of particle emitters (beta, alpha, Auger electron etc.) have been evaluated for treating a wide variety of diseases, the use of β − emitting radionuclides is most feasible owing to their ease of production and availability. Several β − emitting radionuclides have been successfully used to treat different kind of diseases. However, many of these radionuclides are not suitable to meet the projected demand owing to the non-availability with sufficiently high specific activity and adequate quantity because of high production costs, relatively short half-lives etc. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages for broader uses of some of the well known therapeutic radionuclides. In addition, radioisotopes which are expected to have the potential to meet the growing demand of therapeutic radionuclides are also discussed.

  8. Options to meet the future global demand of radionuclides for radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tapas; Pillai, M R A

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine continues to represent one of the important modalities for cancer management. While diagnostic nuclear medicine for cancer management is fairly well established, therapeutic strategies using radionuclides are yet to be utilized to their full potential. Even if 1% of the patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures can benefit from subsequent nuclear therapeutic intervention, the radionuclide requirement for nuclear therapeutics would be expected to be in the multi-million Curie levels. Meeting the demand for such high levels of therapeutic radionuclides at an affordable price is an important task for the success of radionuclide therapy. Although different types of particle emitters (beta, alpha, Auger electron etc.) have been evaluated for treating a wide variety of diseases, the use of β⁻ emitting radionuclides is most feasible owing to their ease of production and availability. Several β⁻ emitting radionuclides have been successfully used to treat different kind of diseases. However, many of these radionuclides are not suitable to meet the projected demand owing to the non-availability with sufficiently high specific activity and adequate quantity because of high production costs, relatively short half-lives etc. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages for broader uses of some of the well known therapeutic radionuclides. In addition, radioisotopes which are expected to have the potential to meet the growing demand of therapeutic radionuclides are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Hancock, G.; Nguyen, M.L.; Dornhofer, P.; Bacchi, O.O.S.; Benmansour, M.; Bernard, C.; Froehlich, W.; Golosov, V.N.; Haciyakupoglu, S.; Hai, P.S.; Klik, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002–2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on “Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides” (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably – a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. - Highlights:

  10. Polar map or novel three-dimensional display technique for the improved detection of inferior wall myocardial infarction using tomographic radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, M.J.; Cross, S.; Norton, M.Y.; Lomax, A.; Jennings, K.; Walton, S.

    1994-01-01

    Tomographic radionuclide ventriculography has the potential to be a significant improvement over conventional planar imaging. Although tomographic imaging can now be performed with relative ease, it is little used. This is most probably due to a perceived imbalance between potential clinical benefit and the extra complications of imaging. We investigated this matter by examining a series of 30 patients with isolated inferior or anterior myocardial infarction, identified by cardiac catheterization. Using either radionuclide imaging method, a significant wall motion abnormality was defined as matching (and appropriately located) phase and amplitude values outwith of two standard deviations from control values. These values were obtained from a series of 25 controls and represent construction values used to create a conventional polar map display. Overall detection rates for anterior myocardial infarction were 93 and 100% for planar and tomographic imaging, respectively (ns). For inferior myocardial infarction the rates were 7 and 93% respectively (p <0.001). Identical results were found using a novel three-dimensional method of displaying wall motion abnormalities. Tomography is therefore superior to planar imaging for the detection of inferior myocardial infarction but similar to planar imaging for the detection of anterior myocardial infarction. (Author)

  11. Reversal of Growth of Utilization of Interventional Techniques in Managing Chronic Pain in Medicare Population Post Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Soin, Amol; Mann, Dharam P; Bakshi, Sanjay; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2017-11-01

    Over the past 2 decades, the increase in the utilization of interventional techniques has been a cause for concern. Despite multiple regulations to reduce utilization of interventional techniques, growth patterns continued through 2009. A declining trend was observed in a previous evaluation; however, a comparative analysis of utilization patterns of interventional techniques has not been performed showing utilization before and after the enactment of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Our aim is to assess patterns of utilization and variables of interventional techniques in chronic pain management in the fee-for-service (FFS) Medicare population, with a comparative analysis of pre- and post-ACA. Utilization patterns and variables of interventional techniques were assessed from 2000 to 2009 and from 2009 to 2016 in the FFS Medicare population of the United States in managing chronic pain. The master data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) physician/supplier procedure summary from 2000 to 2016 was utilized to assess overall utilization and comparative utilization at various time periods. The analysis of Medicare data from 2000 to 2016 showed an overall decrease in utilization of interventional techniques 0.6% per year from 2009 to 2016, whereas from 2000 to 2009, there was an increase of 11.8% per year per 100,000 individuals of the Medicare population. In addition, the United States experienced an increase of 0.7% per year of population growth, 3.2% of those 65 years or older and a 3% annual increase in Medicare participation from 2009 to 2016. Further analysis also showed a 1.7% annual decrease in the rate of utilization of epidural and adhesiolysis procedures per 100,000 individuals of the Medicare population, with a 2.2% decrease for disc procedures and other types of nerve blocks, whereas there was an increase of 0.8% annually for facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint blocks from 2009 to 2016. Epidural and adhesiolysis procedures

  12. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  13. A modified version of the combined in-diffusion/abrasive peeling technique for measuring diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in argillaceous rocks: a test study on the diffusion of caesium in Opalinus Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Luc R; Müller, Werner

    2014-08-01

    A filter free diffusion set-up was developed for measuring the diffusion of strongly sorbing radionuclides in indurated argillaceous rocks such as Opalinus Clay (OPA) that normally disintegrate when contacted with a solution. Small bore cores drilled parallel to the bedding plane and embedded in epoxy resin were found to be stable and could be used for performing in-diffusion measurements. The method was tested with the diffusion of caesium, spiked with caesium-134, in Opalinus Clay. The profile of Cs in the clay sample was determined with a modified version of the abrasive peeling technique. The diffusion parameters obtained for caesium were in fair agreement with those determined earlier using the classical through-diffusion technique where stainless steel filters were used to confine the samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of the SCAMPER Technique in Raising Awareness Regarding the Collection and Utilization of Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikler, Dilek; Harman, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the SCAMPER technique in raising awareness among science students regarding the collection and utilization of solid waste. The participants included a total of 65 third-year students. According to the study results, the science students described schools and visual media as their main source of…

  15. Internal radiation dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Lim, Sang Moo

    2006-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has been continued for treatment of incurable diseases for past decades. Relevant evaluation of absorbed dose in radionuclide therapy in important to predict treatment output and essential for making treatment planning to prevent unexpected radiation toxicity. Many scientists in the field related with nuclear medicine have made effort to evolve concept and technique for internal radiation dosimetry. In this review, basic concept of internal radiation dosimetry if described and recent progress in method for dosimetry is introduced

  16. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  17. Techniques of analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography provides documentation for use by state public utility commissions and major nonregulated utilities in evaluating the applicability of a wide range of electric utility rate design and regulatory concepts in light of certain regulatory objectives. Part I, Utility Regulatory Objectives, contains 2084 citations on conservation of energy and capital; efficient use of facilities and resources; and equitable rates to electricity consumers. Part II, Rate Design Concepts, contains 1238 citations on time-of-day rates; seasonally-varying rates; cost-of-service rates; interruptible rates (including the accompanying use of load management techniques); declining block rates; and lifeline rates. Part III, Regulatory Concepts, contains 1282 references on restrictions on master metering; procedures for review of automatic adjustment clauses; prohibitions of rate or regulatory discrimination against solar, wind, or other small energy systems; treatment of advertising expenses; and procedures to protect ratepayers from abrupt termination of service.

  18. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  19. Development of an Ex Vivo Organ Culture Technique to Evaluate Probiotic Utilization in IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnini, Cristiano; Martorelli, Michela; Lanini, Claudio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    The consistent technical and conceptual progress in the study of the microbiota has led novel impulse to the research for therapeutical application of probiotic bacteria in human pathologies, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Considering the heterogenous results of probiotics in clinical studies, the model of translational medicine may lead to a more specific and efficacious utilization of probiotic bacteria in IBD. In this regard, the selection and utilization of appropriate experimental models may drive the transition from pure in vitro systems to practical clinical application. We developed a simple and reproducible ex vivo organ culture method with potential utilization for the evaluation of probiotic bacteria efficacy in IBD patients.

  20. Therapeutic radionuclides: Production and decay property considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkert, W.A.; Goeckeler, W.F.; Ehrhardt, G.J.; Ketring, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    The development of effective therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals requires careful consideration in the selection of the radionuclide. The in vivo targeting and clearance properties of the carrier molecule must be balanced with the decay properties of the attached radionuclide. Radionuclides for therapeutic applications fall into three general categories: beta-particle emitters, alpha-particle emitters, and Auger and Coster-Kronig-electron emitters following electron capture. Alpha particles and Auger electrons deposit their energy over short distances with a high LET that limits the ability of cells to repair damage to DNA. Despite their high levels of cytotoxicity, the relatively short range of alpha particles requires binding of the carrier molecule to most cancer cells within a tumor in order to be effective. Because of the extremely short range of Auger electrons, the radionuclide must be carried directly into the nucleus to elicit high radiotoxicity, making it necessary to deliver the radionuclide to every cell within a tumor cell population. These characteristics impose rigid restrictions on the nature of the carrier molecules for these types of particle emitters but successful targeting of these types of radionuclides could result in high therapeutic ratios. Most beta-emitting radionuclides are produced in nuclear rectors via neutron capture reactions; however, a few are produced in charged-particle accelerators. For radionuclides produced by direct neutron activation, the quantities and specific activities that can be produced are determined in large part by the cross-section of the target isotope and the flux of the reactor. Many applications do not require high-specific activities and can therefore utilize the wide range of radionuclides that can be produced in sufficient quantity by direct neutron activation. 114 refs

  1. Selection and manipulation of immunoglobulins for radionuclide delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steplewski, Z.; Curtis, P. [The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hainfeld, J.; Mausner, L.; Mease, R.; Srivastava, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-12-31

    This report describes a collection of monoclonal antibodies that are candidates for use in radioimmunotherapy towards neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, or of astrocytomas. In addition a large series of candidate radionuclides to conjugate to antibodies for therapeutic uses are discussed with respect to potential therapeutic utility and to means of radionuclide production.

  2. Tumor functional and molecular imaging utilizing ultrasound and ultrasound-mediated optical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Baohong; Rychak, Joshua

    2013-02-01

    Tumor functional and molecular imaging has significantly contributed to cancer preclinical research and clinical applications. Among typical imaging modalities, ultrasonic and optical techniques are two commonly used methods; both share several common features such as cost efficiency, absence of ionizing radiation, relatively inexpensive contrast agents, and comparable maximum-imaging depth. Ultrasonic and optical techniques are also complementary in imaging resolution, molecular sensitivity, and imaging space (vascular and extravascular). The marriage between ultrasonic and optical techniques takes advantages of both techniques. This review introduces tumor functional and molecular imaging using microbubble-based ultrasound and ultrasound-mediated optical imaging techniques. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  4. Online estimation of radionuclide transportation in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Jing Zhang; Li-Sheng Hu

    2017-01-01

    Transportation evaluation of the radionuclide waste discharged from nuclear power plants is an essential licensing issue, especially for inland sites. Basically, the dynamics of radionuclide transportation are nonlinear and time-varying. Motivated by its time-consuming computation, the work proposed an online estimation method for the radionuclide waste in water surface. After extracting the nonlinearity of factors influencing radionuclide transportation, the method utilizes transfer function and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models to perform deterministic and probabilistic estimations. It turns out that, the resulting predictions show high accuracy and can optimize the online discharge management of radioactive waste for nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  6. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: Development and selection of analytical techniques for measuring accidentally released radionuclides in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The participants at the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (Vienna, 12-16 August 1991) of the CRP on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', recommended that a new CRP be established. The current CRP on 'Development and Selection of Analytical Techniques and Procedures for Measuring Accidentally Released Radionuclides in Environment' was established based on this recommendation. The objectives of this CRP are to conduct research and development on applicable methodologies for response to accidental releases, and to improve and maintain the capabilities of the network of laboratories and provide training of individuals within member states. Thus, the CRP serves as a vehicle to maintain contact within the network of laboratories, while developing and transferring analytical techniques and procedures for measuring accidentally released radioactivity. The purpose of the Research Co-ordination Meeting is to discuss the proposed research programs, the status to date and the work planned for the duration of the CRP. The meeting also provides the opportunity for the CRP participants to exchange ideas and possibly develop collaborations in their research. The members of the CRP also need to discuss issues related to the previous CRP on Rapid methods. These include: the preparation of the final report of the previous CRP, the preparation of an addendum to TRS-295 and the ultimate revision or updating of TRS-295. Finally, it is intended that the members of the CRP should discuss the mandate and scope of work of the network of analytical laboratories and the steps needed to firmly establish this network

  7. Simple lock-in detection technique utilizing multiple harmonics for digital PGC demodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fajie; Huang, Tingting; Jiang, Jiajia; Fu, Xiao; Ma, Ling

    2017-06-01

    A simple lock-in detection technique especially suited for digital phase-generated carrier (PGC) demodulators is proposed in this paper. It mixes the interference signal with rectangular waves whose Fourier expansions contain multiple odd or multiple even harmonics of the carrier to recover the quadrature components needed for interference phase demodulation. In this way, the use of a multiplier is avoided and the efficiency of the algorithm is improved. Noise performance with regard to light intensity variation and circuit noise is analyzed theoretically for both the proposed technique and the traditional lock-in technique, and results show that the former provides a better signal-to-noise ratio than the latter with proper modulation depth and average interference phase. Detailed simulations were conducted and the theoretical analysis was verified. A fiber-optic Michelson interferometer was constructed and the feasibility of the proposed technique is demonstrated.

  8. A Wireless Fatigue Monitoring System Utilizing a Bio-Inspired Tree Ring Data Tracking Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Shi; Li, Xuan; Xie, Zhaohui; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue, a hot scientific research topic for centuries, can trigger sudden failure of critical structures such as aircraft and railway systems, resulting in enormous casualties as well as economic losses. The fatigue life of certain structures is intrinsically random and few monitoring techniques are capable of tracking the full life-cycle fatigue damage. In this paper, a novel in-situ wireless real-time fatigue monitoring system using a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique is propo...

  9. An alternative technique for simulating volumetric cylindrical sources in the Morse code utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, W.J.; Mendonca, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In the solution of deep-penetration problems using the Monte Carlo method, calculation techniques and strategies are used in order to increase the particle population in the regions of interest. A common procedure is the coupling of bidimensional calculations, with (r,z) discrete ordinates transformed into source data, and tridimensional Monte Carlo calculations. An alternative technique for this procedure is presented. This alternative proved effective when applied to a sample problem. (F.E.) [pt

  10. Investigation of the effects of external current systems on the MAGSAT data utilizing grid cell modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Efforts devoted to reading MAGSAT data tapes in preparation for further analysis of the MAGSAT data are discussed. A modeling procedure developed to compute the magnetic fields at satellite orbit due to hypothesized current distributions in the ionosphere and magnetosphere is described. This technique utilizes a linear current element representation of the large-scale space-current system. Several examples of the model field perturbations computed along hypothetical satellite orbits are shown.

  11. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  12. Rest and exercise radionuclide angiography for diagnosis in chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide angiography is frequently employed for the diagnosis of chest pain syndromes. Its value and limitations in this regard have been well studied, but proper utilization of the technique requires an understanding of five critical concepts: (1) Radionuclide angiography is superior to treadmill exercise testing and probably equivalent to thallium scintigraphy, although the published series did not use current methods. (2) The true specificity of radionuclide angiography is about 80%, intermediate between the early optimistic estimates and the later pessimistic ones. (3) The peak exercise ejection fraction is the preferred test parameter for diagnosis, although exercise hemodynamics, symptoms, and electrocardiographic changes should also be considered. (4) Although radionuclide angiography is clearly helpful for noninvasive diagnosis, significant numbers of patients will continue to fall in an uncertain category. (5) The proper application of the technique requires recognition of its limitations and careful attention to technical details. When properly applied, this modality can make an important contribution to clinical decision making. 58 references

  13. Human mixed lymphocyte cultures. Evaluation of microculture technique utilizing the multiple automated sample harvester (MASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, G. B.; Strong, D. M.; Ahmed, A.; Green, S. S.; Sell, K. W.; Hartzman, R. J.; Bach, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Use of lymphocyte cultures for in vitro studies such as pretransplant histocompatibility testing has established the need for standardization of this technique. A microculture technique has been developed that has facilitated the culturing of lymphocytes and increased the quantity of cultures feasible, while lowering the variation between replicate samples. Cultures were prepared for determination of tritiated thymidine incorporation using a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). Using this system, the parameters that influence the in vitro responsiveness of human lymphocytes to allogeneic lymphocytes have been investigated. PMID:4271568

  14. Towards a plant-based technique to measure utilization of Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sparseness of Karoo veld renders the destructive sampling of areas less efficient than clipping individual plants. However, sampling of whole plants and their separation into edible and inedible fractions is laborious and expensive. There is thus a need to develop suitable non-destructive techniques.Language: English.

  15. utilization of adsorption and/or liquid membranes techniques in treatment of some hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin, L.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    environmental pollution, as a consequence of the industrialization process, is one of the major problems that has to be solved and controlled. The most important treatment processes for metals and dyes contaminated waste streams include chemical precipitation, membrane, filtration, ion exchange, carbon adsorption and coprecipitation/adsorption. However, all these techniques have their inherent advantages and limitations in applications. These processes usually need expensive facility and high maintenance cost. Therefore, there is a need for more economical alternative technologies for the treatment of metals and dyes contaminated waste streams. The aim of present work is to study the treatment of some hazardous substances such as heavy metals e.g. ( lead, cobalt and strontium) and dyes e.g. ( acid red 73, and acid blue 74 ) using either adsorption or liquid emulsion membrane techniques. The experimental part deals with the application of adsorption and liquid emulsion membrane techniques for removal of some hazardous substances such as metal ions ( lead, cobalt and strontium) and dyes (acid red 73 and acid blue 74). All the apparatus and techniques employed were described.

  16. Report of the 2. research coordination meeting on development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this CRP are to evaluate various generator and concentration technologies for 188 W- 188 Re, 99 Mo- 99 mTc and 90 Sr- 90 Y generators, to optimize generator fabrication and use, to standardize quality control techniques for the eluted radionuclides and to provide standardized procedures to participating laboratories. The following issues will be addressed during the CRP. - Development of reproducible methodologies for the preparation of 188 W- 188 Re, 99 Mo- 99 mTc and 90 Sr- 90 Y generators. - Development and evaluation of chromatography adsorbents (Zr/Ti composites) having higher binding capacities and demonstration of their utility in the preparation of column generators for 188 Re and 99 mTc. - Comparison and optimization of technologies for post elution concentration of 188 Re and 99 mTc in order to improve the radioactive concentration. - Development of quality control techniques and specifications for generator eluted therapeutic radionuclides

  17. Utility of natural generalised inverse technique in the interpretation of dyke structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, P.R.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    ) in descending order. The noise in the data kernel prevailing in the form of small values increases the ranking of the matrix apart from amplifying the solution. This however does not provide any additional information on the model parameters. So, it can... (i.e. the dimension of activated space) besides amplifying the solution due to the presence of noise. Such a filtered data kernel has been utilized in 3-D form (Fig. 8), which almost represents the original data kernel to build GIO. In Fig. 6...

  18. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  19. Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

  20. Utilization the nuclear techniques use to estimate the water erosion in tobacco plantations in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Reinaldo H.; Peralta, José L.; Carrazana, Jorge; Fleitas, Gema; Aguilar, Yulaidis; Rivero, Mario; Morejón, Yilian M.; Oliveira, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is a relevant factor in land degradation, causing several negative impacts to different levels in the environment, agriculture, etc. The tobacco plantations in the western part of the country have been negatively affected by the water erosion due to natural and human factors. For the implementation of a strategy for sustainable land management a key element is to quantify the soil losses in order to establish policies for soil conservation. The nuclear techniques have advantages in comparison with the traditional methods to assess soil erosion and have been applied in different agricultural settings worldwide. The tobacco cultivation in Pinar del Río is placed on soils with high erosion levels, therefore is important to apply techniques which support the soil erosion rate quantification. This work shows the use of 137 Cs technique to characterize the soil erosion status in two sectors in a farm with tobacco plantations located in the south-western plain of Pinar del Rio province. The sampling strategy included the evaluation of selected transects in the slope direction for the studied site. The soil samples were collected in order to incorporate the whole 137 Cs profile. Different conversion models were applied and the Mass Balance Model II provided the more representative results, estimating the soil erosion rate from –18,28 to 8,15 t ha -1 año -1 . (author)

  1. Two Felling Techniques and Feller Postures for Increasing the Utilization of Gmelina Wood (a Case Study at Two Timber Estates in East Kalimantan)

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartana, Sona; Yuniawati, Yuniawati

    2006-01-01

    Fellingis an early step in timber utilization process. Efficiencyand effectivity of felling technique, tool type and feller posture will affect the whole timber utilization efficiency. This study was carried out at two timber estates in East Kalimantan and intended to see the effect of two felling techniques and feller postures on felling productivity, fellingcost, as well as timber utilization efficiency. Primary data collected in this research included : felling time, volume of fel...

  2. Determination of radionuclides in discharged water from gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of radionuclides concentrations in discharged water from gold processing into the environment of Bogoso (Ghana) were determined using radioanalytical techniques. Radioactivity screening was first carried out to identify physical and chemical processing stages that might be concentrating the radionuclides.

  3. Radionuclide exercise ventriculography and levels of workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchank, S.

    1982-01-01

    The wealth of useful information made available from the utilization of radionuclide cardiological investigations by non-invasive means is outlined and reasons for investigating results obtained under conditions of increased heart workload are explained. The lack of an accepted protocol for the determination of exercise levels is noted. A format for obtaining increasing heart loads dependent on increasing pulse rate is offered, with justification. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography examinations can be conducted which are simple, reproducible and allow appropriate levels of stress in patients who can benefit from such investigations

  4. Development of nano-fabrication technique utilizing self-organizational behavior of point defects induced by ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Noriko; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2006-04-01

    The present authors proposed a novel nano-fabrication technique that is able to arrange the fine cells orderly, based on their finding in GaSb implanted at a low temperature. In this article, first the experimental results that anomalous cellular structure was formed in GaSb by ion implantation is introduced and the self-organizational formation mechanism of the structure is described. Next a nano-fabrication technique that utilizes focused ion beam is described. This technique consists of two procedures, i.e. the formation process of the voids array and the development of the initial array to ordered cellular structure. Finally, the nano-fabrication is actually performed by this technique and their results are reported. Fabrication succeeded in structures where the dot (cell) interval was 100 nm or larger. The minimum ion dose for initial voids which develops to the ordered cellular structure is evaluated. It is also shown that the substrate temperature during implantation is an essential parameter for this technique.

  5. Utility of antioxidants during assisted reproductive techniques: an evidence based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2014-11-24

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a common treatment of choice for many couples facing infertility issues, be it due to male or female factor, or idiopathic. Employment of ART techniques, however, come with its own challenges as the in vitro environment is not nearly as ideal as the in vivo environment, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) build-up leading to oxidative stress is kept in check by the endogenous antioxidants system. While physiological amounts of ROS are necessary for normal reproductive function in vivo, in vitro manipulation of gametes and embryos exposes these cells to excessive ROS production either by endogenous or exogenous environmental factors. In this review, we discuss the sources of ROS in an in vitro clinical setting and the influence of oxidative stress on gamete/embryo quality and the outcome of IVF/ICSI. Sources of ROS and different strategies of overcoming the excessive generation of ROS in vitro are also highlighted. Endogenously, the gametes and the developing embryo become sources of ROS. Multiple exogenous factors act as potential sources of ROS, including exposure to visible light, composition of culture media, pH and temperature, oxygen concentration, centrifugation during spermatozoa preparation, ART technique involving handling of gamete/embryo and cryopreservation technique (freeze/thawing process). Finally, the use of antioxidants as agents to minimize ROS generation in the in vitro environment and as oral therapy is highlighted. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants are discussed and the outcome of studies using these antioxidants as oral therapy in the male or female or its use in vitro in media is presented. While results of studies using certain antioxidant agents are promising, the current body of evidence as a whole suggests the need for further well-designed and larger scale randomized controlled studies, as well as research to minimize oxidative stress conditions in the clinical ART setting.

  6. Analysis of boron utilization in sample preparation for microorganisms detection by neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacha, Reinaldo; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron radiography technique applied to the microorganisms detection is the study of a new and faster alternative for diagnosis of infectious means. This work presents the parameters and the effects involved in the use of the boron as a conversion agent, that convert neutrons in a particles, capable ones of generating latent tracks in a solid state nuclear tracks detector, CR-39. The collected samples are doped with the boron by the incubation method, propitiating an interaction microorganisms/boron, that will guarantee the identification of the images of those microorganisms, through your morphology. (author)

  7. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  8. Colonization of Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae) utilizing an artificial blood feeding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory colonization of hematophagous insects must include an efficient method of blood feeding, preferably by artificial means. Strict rules for obtaining animal use permits, extensive animal maintenance costs, and indirect anesthesia effects on animal health warrant the development of an artificial membrane feeding technique for sand fly colonization in laboratories. An attempt was made to colonize Lutzomyia shannoni using an artificial blood feeding membrane to replace the use of live animals commonly used for sand fly blood-feeding purposes. Lutzomyia shannoni readily fed through a pig intestine membrane exposed at an angle of 45°. However, it did not feed through a chicken skin membrane. Olfactory attractants were unable to improve blood-feeding efficiency. Plaster of Paris was the most suitable oviposition substrate. Female L. shannoni adults laid no eggs on moist sand substrate. Sand fly adults held in groups of ten or more laid higher numbers of eggs than did individually maintained sand flies. Inclusion of the L. longipalpis oviposition hormone dodecanoic acid or the presence of previously laid eggs did not stimulate L. shannoni oviposition. The average L. shannoni egg, larval, and pupal duration were 9.3, 36.7, and 17.8 days, respectively. The addition of a 20% sugar solution improved adult female longevity. Females survived longer (14.8 days) than males (11.9 days). Lutzomyia shannoni was successfully colonized in the laboratory for up to four generations using this artificial membrane technique. © 2010 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. A Wireless Fatigue Monitoring System Utilizing a Bio-Inspired Tree Ring Data Tracking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Bai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue, a hot scientific research topic for centuries, can trigger sudden failure of critical structures such as aircraft and railway systems, resulting in enormous casualties as well as economic losses. The fatigue life of certain structures is intrinsically random and few monitoring techniques are capable of tracking the full life-cycle fatigue damage. In this paper, a novel in-situ wireless real-time fatigue monitoring system using a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique is proposed. The general framework, methodology, and verification of this intelligent system are discussed in details. The rain-flow counting (RFC method is adopted as the core algorithm which quantifies fatigue damages, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP is introduced as the core module for data collection and analysis. Laboratory test results based on strain gauges and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF sensors have shown that the developed intelligent system can provide a reliable quick feedback and early warning of fatigue failure. With the merits of low cost, high accuracy and great reliability, the developed wireless fatigue sensing system can be further applied to mechanical engineering, civil infrastructures, transportation systems, aerospace engineering, etc.

  10. Utilization of two different surgical techniques in gingival recession treatment: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Miljan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gingival recession is a displacement of gingival margin apically to cementenamel junction. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the results achieved with two different surgical procedures used in gingival recession treatment. Methods. Ten patients with bilateral buccal recession on maxillary canines or premolars were included in the study. Professional teeth cleaning was performed before surgery. Recession on the experimental side was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with coronally advanced, split thickness flap (tunnel technique. Control side recession was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with trapezoidal coronally advanced, full thickness flap. Coin toss was used for side decision. The following parameters were evaluated before surgery and 6 months post-op: Vertical Recession Dimension, Clinical Attachment Level, Apico-coronal width of the keratinized tissue, Healing index (Laundry, RES index, and Patient evaluation of esthetic results. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results. Six months after surgery, mean root coverage was 91.5±14.1% and 90.1±14.6% on the experimental and on the control side, respectively. RES index, Healing index (Laundry and Patient Subjective evaluation of esthetic results showed significantly better results (p≤0.05. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures produce highly successful clinical results based on evaluated parameters, but this tunnel technique provides significantly better esthetic results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41008: Interakcija etiopatogenetskih mehanizama parodontopatije i periimplantitisa sa sistemskim bolestima današnjice

  11. Utilization of tritiated water dilution technique in determination of nitrogen partitioning in cashmere goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Linfeng; Yang Gaiqing; Liu Ping; Zhang Shijun

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate nitrogen partitioning in local cashmere goats, six Inner Mogolia White Cashmere goats between 2 to 2.5 years old were used to determine the nitrogen partitioning in cashmere goats. The total retained nitrogen (TN) in body, distribution of body nitrgen and hair nitrogen were measured by general digestive and metabolism method combined with tritiated water dilution technique. Results showed that the combined methods were ideal for determining body nitrgen (BN) and hair nitrogen (fur nitrogen, FN) of Cashmere goats. There were obvious significance between BN and FN in different seasons. In telogen, BN and FN partitioning was 75.7% ± 0.62% and 24.3% ± 0.62%, respectively. Whereas, it changed to 66.6% ± 2.2% and 33.4% ± 2.2% in anagen. BN partitioning decreased when the season changed from telogen to anagen, while FN partitioning increased, which indicated that more nitrogen substance was partitioned to body growth in telogen, and more nitrogen substance was distribute to cashmere growth in anagen. These transformation were related to the changing of photoperiod and some hormones, such as melatonin (MT), prolactin (PRL) and IGF-I. It could be concluded that tritiated water dilution technique can be used to detect body protein content as well as BN, combining general digestive and metabolism experiment, FN partitoning can be determined. BN and FN partitoning varied with the season in cashmere goats because of hormones changing. (authors)

  12. A wireless fatigue monitoring system utilizing a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi; Li, Xuan; Xie, Zhaohui; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

    2014-03-05

    Fatigue, a hot scientific research topic for centuries, can trigger sudden failure of critical structures such as aircraft and railway systems, resulting in enormous casualties as well as economic losses. The fatigue life of certain structures is intrinsically random and few monitoring techniques are capable of tracking the full life-cycle fatigue damage. In this paper, a novel in-situ wireless real-time fatigue monitoring system using a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique is proposed. The general framework, methodology, and verification of this intelligent system are discussed in details. The rain-flow counting (RFC) method is adopted as the core algorithm which quantifies fatigue damages, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is introduced as the core module for data collection and analysis. Laboratory test results based on strain gauges and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors have shown that the developed intelligent system can provide a reliable quick feedback and early warning of fatigue failure. With the merits of low cost, high accuracy and great reliability, the developed wireless fatigue sensing system can be further applied to mechanical engineering, civil infrastructures, transportation systems, aerospace engineering, etc.

  13. Radionuclide Migration Program: strategy document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Radionuclide Migration Program (RNM) is composed of projects to obtain data that will define the hydrologic system on NTS and determine the radionuclides available for migration in that system. Specific objectives are: (1) determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides available for migration in groundwater (Hydrologic Source Term); (2) determine regional and local hydrology; and (3) predict the direction and migration rates of radionuclides in groundwater and the radionuclide concentration at any given distance for the source

  14. Prediction method of unburnt carbon for coal fired utility boiler using image processing technique of combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Sugano, A.; Kimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method predicting unburnt carbon in a coal fired utility boiler developed using an image processing technique. The method consists of an image processing unit and a furnace model unit. temperature distribution of combustion flames can be obtained through the former unit. The later calculates dynamics of the carbon reduction from the burner stages to the furnace outlet using coal feed rate, air flow rate, chemical and ash content of coal. An experimental study shows that the prediction error of the unburnt carbon can be reduced to 10%

  15. Wind Turbines Support Techniques during Frequency Drops — Energy Utilization Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman B. Attya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The supportive role of wind turbines during frequency drops is still not clear enough, although there are many proposed algorithms. Most of the offered techniques make the wind turbine deviates from optimum power generation operation to special operation modes, to guarantee the availability of reasonable power support, when the system suffers frequency deviations. This paper summarizes the most dominant support algorithms and derives wind turbine power curves for each one. It also conducts a comparison from the point of view of wasted energy, with respect to optimum power generation. The authors insure the advantage of a frequency support algorithm, they previously presented, as it achieved lower amounts of wasted energy. This analysis is performed in two locations that are promising candidates for hosting wind farms in Egypt. Additionally, two different types of wind turbines from two different manufacturers are integrated. Matlab and Simulink are the implemented simulation environments.

  16. utilization of bio fertilizers and organic sources in arable soils under saline conditions using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, O.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, more attention has been paid to conserve and save surrounding environment via minimizing the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and, in general, the agrochemicals applied in heavy quantities in agricultural agroecosystems. Therefore, the attention of most of agronomists was turned towards the use of so called clean agriculture or organic farming. Many of organic systems was pointed out such as the recycling of farm wastes i.e. crop residues, animal manure, organic conditioners for reclamation of soil and in the same time enhancement of plant growth and improving yield quality. The application of organic wastes combined with or without microbial inoculants to plant media are considered as a good management practice in any agricultural production system because it improves, plant quality and soil fertility. Therefore, we have the opportunity to conduct some experiments for achieving the clean agriculture approach, combating the adverse effects of salinity and avoiding the environmental pollution. Series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the impact of (1) potent isolated fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus) on degrading plant residues (Leucaena and Acacia green parts), and (2) biofertilizers (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Azospirillum brasilense, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in assessing barley and spinach plants to combat salinity of soil and irrigation water. 15 N-tracer technique that considered unique and more reliable technique may benefits in clarifying the responsible mechanisms related to plant growth and gave us the opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to spinach and barley plants grown on sandy saline soil and irrigated with saline water.

  17. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Kenny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also address interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.

  18. Datum maintenance of the main Egyptian geodetic control networks by utilizing Precise Point Positioning "PPP" technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabah, Mostafa; Elmewafey, Mahmoud; Farahan, Magda H.

    2016-06-01

    A geodetic control network is the wire-frame or the skeleton on which continuous and consistent mapping, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and surveys are based. Traditionally, geodetic control points are established as permanent physical monuments placed in the ground and precisely marked, located, and documented. With the development of satellite surveying methods and their availability and high degree of accuracy, a geodetic control network could be established by using GNSS and referred to an international terrestrial reference frame used as a three-dimensional geocentric reference system for a country. Based on this concept, in 1992, the Egypt Survey Authority (ESA) established two networks, namely High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) and the National Agricultural Cadastral Network (NACN). To transfer the International Terrestrial Reference Frame to the HARN, the HARN was connected with four IGS stations. The processing results were 1:10,000,000 (Order A) for HARN and 1:1,000,000 (Order B) for NACN relative network accuracy standard between stations defined in ITRF1994 Epoch1996. Since 1996, ESA did not perform any updating or maintaining works for these networks. To see how non-performing maintenance degrading the values of the HARN and NACN, the available HARN and NACN stations in the Nile Delta were observed. The Processing of the tested part was done by CSRS-PPP Service based on utilizing Precise Point Positioning "PPP" and Trimble Business Center "TBC". The study shows the feasibility of Precise Point Positioning in updating the absolute positioning of the HARN network and its role in updating the reference frame (ITRF). The study also confirmed the necessity of the absent role of datum maintenance of Egypt networks.

  19. Transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation of native aortic valve area: utility of the double-envelope technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, A D; Mashikian, J; Haering, J M; Heindel, S; Douglas, P; Levine, R

    2001-06-01

    To assess the accuracy of aortic valve area (AVA) calculations using the continuity equation with data obtained from the double envelope (DE) (simultaneously obtained left ventricular outflow tract [V1]) and aortic valve [V2] velocities) during intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Prospective study; measurements were performed on-line. University hospital. Cardiac and noncardiac surgical patients (n = 75) with recent aortic valve assessment (AVA was measured by the continuity equation using the DE technique (DE/TEE) and by planimetry (PL/TEE). Left ventricular outflow tract diameter was obtained from midesophageal views, whereas subvalvular (V1) and valvular (V2) velocities were obtained simultaneously using continuous-wave Doppler from transgastric views. V1 was also obtained using pulsed-wave Doppler. Measurements were compared with AVA obtained preoperatively by the Gorlin equation during cardiac catheterization (G/CATH) or by transthoracic echocardiography using the traditional continuity equation (C/TTE) (nonsimultaneously obtained V1 and V2). A DE was obtained in 73 of 75 patients (97%). Four patients had atrial fibrillation at the time of the examination, whereas the rest were in sinus rhythm. PL/TEE was performed in 54 of 71 patients with sinus rhythm (76%). Agreement was good between DE/TEE and G/CATH (mean bias, 0.02 cm(2) [SD, 0.24 cm(2)]), and C/TTE (mean bias, -0.05 cm(2) [SD, 0.16 cm(2)]). Agreement was not as good between PL/TEE and G/CATH (mean bias, -0.07 cm(2) [SD, 0.28 cm(2)]) and C/TTE (mean bias, -0.13 cm(2) [SD, 0.30 cm(2)]). V1 obtained by pulsed-wave Doppler and with DE closely agreed (mean bias, 0.01 m/sec [SD, 0.05 m/sec]). TEE evaluation of native AVA using the DE technique is feasible and in good agreement with that obtained by C/TTE and G/CATH. Compared with DE/TEE, PL/TEE did not agree as well. Use of DE/TEE should simplify the continuity equation and may minimize errors resulting from beat-to-beat variability in

  20. Utilizing the cochlea as a bio-inspired compressive sensing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peckens, C A; Lynch, J P

    2013-01-01

    Structural monitoring for civil infrastructure is a rapidly developing field that has made significant advancements over the last decade. However, a number of performance bottlenecks remain including challenges with cost-effectively scaling monitoring systems up to large nodal counts. Due to the many parallels between biological sensory systems and engineered sensing systems, the biological nervous system can offer potential solutions to the current deficiencies of structural monitoring systems. The nervous system is capable of real-time processing and data transmission of external stimuli through an extremely condensed format with very basic processing units. This study explores the mammalian auditory system for inspiration because it achieves efficient data acquisition processes that outperform existing engineered sensing systems. Specifically, the auditory system realizes this through three steps: (1) real-time decomposition of a convoluted time-based signal into frequency components, (2) information compression for each component, and (3) efficient high-speed data transmission to the auditory cortex. In this paper, these three main mechanisms are explored and a bio-inspired structural monitoring system is proposed. The functionality of the proposed system is compared to traditional data compression techniques (wavelet transforms and compressed sensing) on various vibratory signals. While the wavelet transform is able to outperform the proposed sensor by minimizing signal reconstruction errors, the proposed bio-inspired sensor achieves similar compression rates but, unlike the others, does so using real-time processing. (paper)

  1. Production of solid mutants in citrus, utilizing new approaches and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.; Kochba, J.

    1975-01-01

    Conditions for embryoid differentiation in Shamouti orange ovular callus were studied. Lines differing in embryogenic capacity were established. Ageing of callus prior to subculture enhanced embryoid development. A pronounced habituation effect has been found in most cultures. Protoplasts have been obtained from callus after treatment with cellolytic enzymes. Irradiation of any embryogenic line of callus with 12-20 kR seemed to promote embryoid formation, after a time lag in their appearance. Transferrence of embryoids into agar+sucrose and GA 3 and a further transfer into agar+sucrose, GA 3 and adenine sulphate gave best results as to rooting of embryoids and plant survival. The technique of using decapitated nucellar seedlings for mutagenic treatment was developed further with Shamouti orange and Marsh grapefruit. Irradiation 48-72 hours after decapitation with 2 kR resulted in shoot neoformation and survival not much below that of control, while 6 kR impeded de novo shoot formation in Marsh grapefruit. A tendency towards mutants with earlier fruit maturity was found in mV 2 plants from material originating from irradiation with the 8-kR dose. (author)

  2. Utilization of radiation technique on the saccharification and fermentation of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaetsu, I.; Kumakura, M.; Fujimura, T.; Yoshii, F.; Kojima, T.; Tamada, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1981-01-01

    The application of irradiation technique to the process of saccharification and subsequent fermentation of cellulosic wastes such as chaff and rice straw to obtain ethanol, was investigated. It was found that when waste raw materials were irradiated by ..gamma..-ray or electron beam, they became accessible to the subsequent enzymatic saccharification reaction. Irradiation of 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ Rad was enough for this effect. Some kind of additives reduced necessary dosage for this pretreatment. Cellulase, Trichoderma reesei which produce cellulase, and yeast were immobilized as biocatalysts for biomass conversion by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomer at low temperature. The immobilized cellulase showed almost the same activity of glucose production as the native cellulase. Continuous saccharification reaction was carried out by using the immobilized cellulase. The immobilized Trichoderma reesei and the immobilized yeast showed almost the same activity as the intact biocatalysts. It was concluded that the continuous saccharification and subsequent fermentation could be carried out effectively by using the immobilized biocatalysts. Spinach chloroplasts were immobilized by the same method as the first step for the conversion of water into hydrogen gas using solar energy. The immobilized chloroplasts kept the O/sub 2/ evolution activity in storage more than 30 days at 4/sup 0/C.

  3. Assessment of improved organ at risk sparing for advanced cervix carcinoma utilizing precision radiotherapy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, D.; Georg, P.; Hillbrand, M.; Poetter, R.; Mock, U. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Medical Univ. AKH, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the potential benefit of proton therapy and photon based intensity-modulated radiotherapy in comparison to 3-D conformal photon radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in locally advanced cervix cancer. Patients and methods: in five patients with advanced cervix cancer 3D-CRT (four-field box) was compared with intensity modulated photon (IMXT) and proton therapy (IMPT) as well as proton beam therapy (PT) based on passive scattering. Planning target volumes (PTVs) included primary tumor and pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were analyzed for the PTV and various organs at risk (OARs) (rectal wall, bladder, small bowel, colon, femoral heads, and kidneys). In addition dose conformity, dose inhomogeneity and overall volumes of 50% isodoses were assessed. Results: all plans were comparable concerning PTV parameters. Large differences between photon and proton techniques were seen in volumes of the 50% isodoses and conformity indices. DVH for colon and small bowel were significantly improved with PT and IMPT compared to IMXT, with D{sub mean} reductions of 50-80%. Doses to kidneys and femoral heads could also be substantially reduced with PT and IMPT. Sparing of rectum and bladder was superior with protons as well but less pronounced. Conclusion: proton beam RT has significant potential to improve treatment related side effects in the bowel compared to photon beam RT in patients with advanced cervix carcinoma. (orig.)

  4. Utilization of radiation technique on the saccharification and fermentation of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaetsu, I.; Kumakura, M.; Fujimura, T.; Yoshii, F.; Kojima, T.; Tamada, M.

    The application of irradiation technique to the process of saccharification and subsequent fermentation of cellulosic wastes such as chaff and rice straw to obtain ethanol, was investigated. It was found that when waste raw materials were irradiated by ?-ray or electron beam, they became accessible to the subsequent enzymatic saccharification reaction. Irradiation of 10 7-10 8 Rad was enough for this effect. Some kind of additives reduced necessary dosage for this pretreatment. Cellulase, Trichoderma reesei which produce cellulase, and yeast were immobilized as biocatalysts for biomass conversion by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomer at low temperature. The immobilized cellulase showed almost same activity of glucose production as the native cellulase. Continuous saccharification reaction was carried out by using the immobilized cellulase. The immobilized Trichoderma reesei and the immobilized yeast showed almost same activity as the intact biocatalysts. It was concluded that the continuous saccharification and subsequent fermentation could be carried out effectively by using the immobilized biocatalysts. Spinach chloroplasts were immobilized by the same method as the first step for the conversion of water into hydrogen gas using solar energy. The immobilized chloroplasts kept the O 2 evolution activity in storage more than 30 days at 4°C. Thermostatility of chloroplasts was also improved greatly by the immobilization.

  5. Assessment of improved organ at risk sparing for advanced cervix carcinoma utilizing precision radiotherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, D.; Georg, P.; Hillbrand, M.; Poetter, R.; Mock, U.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the potential benefit of proton therapy and photon based intensity-modulated radiotherapy in comparison to 3-D conformal photon radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in locally advanced cervix cancer. Patients and methods: in five patients with advanced cervix cancer 3D-CRT (four-field box) was compared with intensity modulated photon (IMXT) and proton therapy (IMPT) as well as proton beam therapy (PT) based on passive scattering. Planning target volumes (PTVs) included primary tumor and pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were analyzed for the PTV and various organs at risk (OARs) (rectal wall, bladder, small bowel, colon, femoral heads, and kidneys). In addition dose conformity, dose inhomogeneity and overall volumes of 50% isodoses were assessed. Results: all plans were comparable concerning PTV parameters. Large differences between photon and proton techniques were seen in volumes of the 50% isodoses and conformity indices. DVH for colon and small bowel were significantly improved with PT and IMPT compared to IMXT, with D mean reductions of 50-80%. Doses to kidneys and femoral heads could also be substantially reduced with PT and IMPT. Sparing of rectum and bladder was superior with protons as well but less pronounced. Conclusion: proton beam RT has significant potential to improve treatment related side effects in the bowel compared to photon beam RT in patients with advanced cervix carcinoma. (orig.)

  6. Determination of glomerular filtration rate with radionuclide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct urinary activity quantitation was done in patients scheduled for routine radionuclide renography and compared to standard multiple-blood-sample techniques by means of Cr-51-EDTA and Tc-99m-DTPA. Setting. Academic Medical Complex, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein.

  7. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jessica S Veysey; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer) and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools). Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding populations of pool

  8. Developing techniques for the utilization of Planctomycetes as producers of bioactive molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Jeske

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Planctomycetes are conspicuous, ubiquitous, environmentally important bacteria. They can attach to various surfaces in aquatic habitats and form biofilms. Their unique FtsZ-independent budding cell division mechanism is associated with slow growth and doubling times from six hours up to one month. Despite this putative disadvantage in the struggle to colonize surfaces, Planctomycetes are frequently associated with aquatic phototrophic organisms such as diatoms, cyanobacteria or kelp, whereby Planctomycetes can account for up to 50 % of the biofilm-forming bacterial population. Consequently, Planctomycetes were postulated to play an important role in carbon utilization, for example as scavengers after phototrophic blooms. However, given their observed slow growth, such findings are surprising since other faster- growing heterotrophs tend to colonize similar ecological niches. Accordingly, Planctomycetes were suspected to produce antibiotics for habitat protection in response to the attachment on phototrophs. Recently, we demonstrated their genomic potential to produce nonribosomal peptides, polyketides, bacteriocins, and terpenoids that might have antibiotic activities. In this study, we describe the development of a pipeline that consists of tools and procedures to cultivate Planctomycetes for the production of antimicrobial compounds in a chemically- defined medium and a procedure to chemically mimic their interaction with bacteria such as for example Cyanobacteria. We evaluated and adjusted screening assays to allow the hunt for planctomycetal antibiotics. As proof of principle, we demonstrate antimicrobial activities of planctomycetal extracts from Planctopirus limnophila DSM 3776, Rhodopirellula baltica DSM 10527, and the recently isolated strain Pan216. By combining UV/Vis and high resolution mass spectrometry data from High-Performance Liquid Chromatography fractionations with growth inhibition of indicator strains, we were able to assign

  9. Subcellular fractionation associated to radionuclide analysis in various tissues: validation of the technique by using light and electron observations applied on gills bivalves and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, V.; Simon, O.; Grasset, G. [CEA Cadarache (DEI/SECRE/LRE), Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    The metal bioaccumulation levels in target-organs associated with micro-localization approaches at the subcellular level provide information for the understanding of the metabolic metal cycle. These findings could be used to select relevant bio-markers of exposure and to focus on specific contaminated organelles to study potential biological effects. Moreover, the metal accumulated in the cytosol fraction can be bound to macromolecules in order to be eliminated and/or to induce a potential cellular effect. Tissular distribution, transfer efficiency from water and subcellular fractionation were investigated on the freshwater bivalve, Corbicula fluminea after uranium aqueous exposure. The subcellular fractionation was performed while measuring associated uranium to each cellular different fraction as follows: cellular debris and nuclei, mitochondria and lysosomes, membranes, microsomes and cytosol. In our experimental conditions, the accumulation in the cytosol fraction was low and more than 80 % of the total uranium in gills and visceral mass was accumulated in the insoluble fraction. Main results presented in this poster come from light and electron microscope observations of subcellular fractions (nuclei/debris and lysosomes/mitochondria) in order to validate the efficiency of the fractionation technique. An adaptation of the fractionation technique is proposed. This set of data confirms high differences of fractionation efficiency as a function of fractionation technique and organs/biological model used (gills of bivalves, digestive gland of crayfish). (author)

  10. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-05-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references.

  11. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-01-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references

  12. Utilization of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring and Evaluation of Solo Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Gunawan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is an application of remote sensing technology for monitoring and evaluation of watershed management, which was conducted is Solo Watershed, Central and East Java. The research objectives were 1 to investigate the capability of photomorphic analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Themmatic Mapper (ETM + imagery as the basic for analyzes of landforms, landuse, and morphometry of the land surface; 2 to calculate the overland flow – peak discharge and erosion – sediment yield as indicators of land degradation of the area; 3 to use the indicators as set of instrument for monitoring and evaluation of watershed management. In this study, visual interpretation by means of on-screen digilization of the digital imagery was carried out in order to identify and to delineate land parameters using photomorphic approach. Based on the photomorphic analysis, several image – based parameters such as relief topography, physical soil characteristic, litho – stratigraphy, and vegetation cover were integrated with other themati maps in a geographic information system (GIS environment. Estimation of overland flow (C based on Cook methods (1942 and calculation of peak disccharge (Qmax based on rational method (Qmax = C. I. A were applied. Meanwhile, estimation of surface erosion was carried out using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, A = R. K. L. S. CP. The sediment yield (Sy was estimated using seddiment delivery ratio ( SDR based on the following formula: Sy = [A + (25% x A] x SDR. Both pairs of C – Qmax and A – Sy, were utilized as the basis for monitoring and evaluation of the watershed. The combination of C – Qmax and A – Sy were also used as the basis for selection of stream gauge setting / AWLR within particular sub – catchment. It was found that the photomorphic analysis is only color/tone, slope aspects, pattern, and texture, unit boundaries between volcanic – origin landscape (Wilis volcanic complex and folded

  13. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY FOR DIRECT REPAIR OF LUMBAR SPONDYLOLYSIS BY UTILIZING INTRAOPERATIVE NAVIGATION AND MICROENDOSCOPIC TECHNIQUES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Li, Changqing; Zheng, Wenjie

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the effectiveness of direct screw repair for lumbar spondylolysis by using intraoperative O-arm based navigation and microendoscopic techniques. Between February 2012 and May 2014, 11 consecutive patients with lumbar spondylolysis were treated with Buck's procedure by the aid of intraoperative O-arm based navigation and minimally invasive approach. The debridement and autograft of pars interarticularis defects was performed under microendoscopy. There were 7 males and 4 females, with an average age of 28.4 years (range, 19 - 47 years) and an average disease duration of 10.5 months (range, 8-23 months); no nerve symptoms or signs of lower limb was observed. The radiological examinations showed single level bilateral lumbar spondylolysis without obvious disc degeneration, lumbar instability, or spondylolisthesis. Isthmic injury located at L4 in 2 cases and at L5 in 9 cases. Of 11 patients, 7 were rated as grade 2 disc degeneration, and 4 as grade 3 disc degeneration according to the modified Pfirrmann classification system. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and complications were recorded. The fluoroscopic examinations were performed to assess defect repair and screw position. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to evaluate the improvement of low back pain. The average operation time was 147.6 minutes (range, 126-183 minutes). The average blood loss was 54.9 mL (range, 40-85 mL). Primary healing of incision was obtained. There was no complication of nerve root injury, dural tear, or infection. Three patients had pain at donor site postoperatively, and pain disappeared within 3 weeks. The average follow-up duration was 15.7 months (range, 10-23 months). VAS score of low back pain was significantly decreased from preoperative 7.1 ± 2.3 to 1.8 ± 0.4 at last follow-up (t = 13.42, P = 0.01). Of 22 isthmic bone grafting, bilateral isthmic bony fusion was achieved in 7 patients and unilateral isthmic bony fusion in 3 patients at 6-10 months

  14. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  15. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  16. Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the "Holy Gray".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brans, B.; Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Tennvall, J.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. REVIEW: This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each

  17. EANM 2012 guidelines for radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taieb, D.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Hindie, E.; Guillet, B.A.; Neumann, H.P.; Walz, M.K.; Opocher, G.; de Herder, W.W.; Boedeker, C.C.; de Krijger, R.R.; Chiti, A.; Al-Nahhas, A.; Pacak, K.; Rubello, D.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) involves various functional imaging techniques and approaches for accurate diagnosis, staging and tumour characterization. The purpose of the present guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in

  18. An Approach for Synthesis of Modulated M-Channel FIR Filter Banks Utilizing the Frequency-Response Masking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Johansson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency-response masking (FRM technique was introduced as a means of generating linear-phase FIR filters with narrow transition band and low arithmetic complexity. This paper proposes an approach for synthesizing modulated maximally decimated FIR filter banks (FBs utilizing the FRM technique. A new tailored class of FRM filters is introduced and used for synthesizing nonlinear-phase analysis and synthesis filters. Each of the analysis and synthesis FBs is realized with the aid of only three subfilters, one cosine-modulation block, and one sine-modulation block. The overall FB is a near-perfect reconstruction (NPR FB which in this case means that the distortion function has a linear-phase response but small magnitude errors. Small aliasing errors are also introduced by the FB. However, by allowing these small errors (that can be made arbitrarily small, the arithmetic complexity can be reduced. Compared to conventional cosine-modulated FBs, the proposed ones lower significantly the overall arithmetic complexity at the expense of a slightly increased overall FB delay in applications requiring narrow transition bands. Compared to other proposals that also combine cosine-modulated FBs with the FRM technique, the arithmetic complexity can typically be reduced by 40% in specifications with narrow transition bands. Finally, a general design procedure is given for the proposed FBs and examples are included to illustrate their benefits.

  19. An Approach for Synthesis of Modulated -Channel FIR Filter Banks Utilizing the Frequency-Response Masking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum Linnéa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency-response masking (FRM technique was introduced as a means of generating linear-phase FIR filters with narrow transition band and low arithmetic complexity. This paper proposes an approach for synthesizing modulated maximally decimated FIR filter banks (FBs utilizing the FRM technique. A new tailored class of FRM filters is introduced and used for synthesizing nonlinear-phase analysis and synthesis filters. Each of the analysis and synthesis FBs is realized with the aid of only three subfilters, one cosine-modulation block, and one sine-modulation block. The overall FB is a near-perfect reconstruction (NPR FB which in this case means that the distortion function has a linear-phase response but small magnitude errors. Small aliasing errors are also introduced by the FB. However, by allowing these small errors (that can be made arbitrarily small, the arithmetic complexity can be reduced. Compared to conventional cosine-modulated FBs, the proposed ones lower significantly the overall arithmetic complexity at the expense of a slightly increased overall FB delay in applications requiring narrow transition bands. Compared to other proposals that also combine cosine-modulated FBs with the FRM technique, the arithmetic complexity can typically be reduced by in specifications with narrow transition bands. Finally, a general design procedure is given for the proposed FBs and examples are included to illustrate their benefits.

  20. Performance evaluation of spectral deconvolution analysis tool (SDAT) software used for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz Biegalski, K.M.; Biegalski, S.R.; Haas, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) software was developed to improve counting statistics and detection limits for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements. SDAT utilizes spectral deconvolution spectroscopy techniques and can analyze both β-γ coincidence spectra for radioxenon isotopes and high-resolution HPGe spectra from aerosol monitors. Spectral deconvolution spectroscopy is an analysis method that utilizes the entire signal deposited in a gamma-ray detector rather than the small portion of the signal that is present in one gamma-ray peak. This method shows promise to improve detection limits over classical gamma-ray spectroscopy analytical techniques; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. To address this issue, we performed three tests to compare the detection ability and variance of SDAT results to those of commercial off- the-shelf (COTS) software which utilizes a standard peak search algorithm. (author)

  1. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  2. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  3. A kinetic-allometric approach to predicting tissue radionuclide concentrations for biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higley, K.A.; Domotor, S.L.; Antonio, E.J.

    2003-01-01

    Allometry, or the biology of scaling, is the study of size and its consequences. It has become a useful tool for comparative physiology. There are several allometric equations that relate body size to many parameters, including ingestion rate, lifespan, inhalation rate, home range and more. While these equations were originally derived from empirical observations, there is a growing body of evidence that these relationships have their origins in the dynamics of energy transport mechanisms. As part of an ongoing effort by the Department of Energy in developing generic methods for evaluating radiation dose to biota, we have examined the utility of applying allometric techniques to predicting radionuclide tissue concentration across a large range of terrestrial and riparian species of animals. This particular study examined 23 radionuclides. Initial investigations suggest that the allometric approach can provide a useful tool to derive limiting values of uptake and elimination factors for animals

  4. A kinetic-allometric approach to predicting tissue radionuclide concentrations for biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, K.A. E-mail: higley@engr.orst.edu; Domotor, S.L.; Antonio, E.J

    2003-07-01

    Allometry, or the biology of scaling, is the study of size and its consequences. It has become a useful tool for comparative physiology. There are several allometric equations that relate body size to many parameters, including ingestion rate, lifespan, inhalation rate, home range and more. While these equations were originally derived from empirical observations, there is a growing body of evidence that these relationships have their origins in the dynamics of energy transport mechanisms. As part of an ongoing effort by the Department of Energy in developing generic methods for evaluating radiation dose to biota, we have examined the utility of applying allometric techniques to predicting radionuclide tissue concentration across a large range of terrestrial and riparian species of animals. This particular study examined 23 radionuclides. Initial investigations suggest that the allometric approach can provide a useful tool to derive limiting values of uptake and elimination factors for animals.

  5. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  6. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. (St. Peter' s Hospitals, London (England))

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  7. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  8. Biological targeting of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheldon, T.E.; Glasgow Univ.

    1993-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy in several forms has now been investigated in the clinic for more than 10 years. Despite some promising indications, targeted radiotherapy has not yet had a large impact on cancer therapy. Theoretical analysis shows that tumour cure would not often be expected using existing treatments. Addition of external-beam irradiation appears to be a robust strategy, which is appropriate in a wide range of situations. In future, many new agents will be made available by progress in molecular biology. However, integration of targeted radionuclide therapy with other modalities, especially radiotherapy, may still be required. (Author)

  9. Treatment with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeva, M.

    2000-01-01

    The application of nuclides for therapy is a noninvasive treatment modality, which is characterized by the selective delivery of the radiation dose to target tissues (tumors or organs). Radionuclide therapy provides an alternative to surgical or medical treatment for several benign disorders. Basically, it is disease (metabolic radionuclide therapy). On the same principle is based the nuclide therapy of any endocrine tumors. The paper presents several methods for determination of the dose in treatment of thyroid diseases. A data of the '1'3'1' I therapy of thyroid diseases at the Medical University of Sofia are shown

  10. Improved growth media and culture techniques for genetic analysis and assessment of biomass utilization by Caldicellulosiruptor bescii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Joel; Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Copeland, Jennifer; Grayeski, Philip; Westpheling, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Methods for efficient growth and manipulation of relatively uncharacterized bacteria facilitate their study and are essential for genetic manipulation. We report new growth media and culture techniques for Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, the most thermophilic cellulolytic bacterium known. A low osmolarity defined growth medium (LOD) was developed that avoids problems associated with precipitates that form in previously reported media allowing the monitoring of culture density by optical density at 680 nm (OD(680)) and more efficient DNA transformation by electroporation. This is a defined minimal medium and does not support growth when a carbon source is omitted, making it suitable for selection of nutritional markers as well as the study of biomass utilization by C. bescii. A low osmolarity complex growth medium (LOC) was developed that dramatically improves growth and culture viability during storage, making it a better medium for routine growth and passaging of C. bescii. Both media contain significantly lower solute concentration than previously published media, allowing for flexibility in developing more specialized media types while avoiding the issues of growth inhibition and cell lysis due to osmotic stress. Plating on LOD medium solidified by agar results in ~1,000-fold greater plating efficiency than previously reported and allows the isolation of discrete colonies. These new media represent a significant advance for both genetic manipulation and the study of biomass utilization in C. bescii, and may be applied broadly across the Caldicellulosiruptor genus.

  11. Evaluation of absorption of radionuclides via roots of plants at different growth stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambe, Shizuko [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    For the environmental risk assessment of radionuclides and toxic elements which were released by nuclear power plants and factories, the absorption of trace elements by plants has been studied by a multitracer technique. The selective absorption coefficient, which is a parameter of an uptake model of radionuclides by plants, was determined for various radionuclides. The selective absorption coefficients of some elements varied greatly in experimental runs. Therefore, the selective absorption coefficients of radionuclides by komatsuna at different growth stages were determined. Moreover, the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides in komatsuna at different growth stages was studied. Extraction of the radionuclides from the soil was carried out in order to study the correlation between the transfer factor and the aging effect of the radionuclides in soil. The effect of soil acidity on the absorption of radionuclides in soybean and tomato was studied using the plants at different growth stages. (author)

  12. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  13. Utility of γH2AX as a molecular marker of DNA double-strand breaks in nuclear medicine: applications to radionuclide therapy employing auger electron-emitting isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Li-Jeen; Orlowski, Christian; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    There is an intense interest in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy. In particular, radiopharmaceuticals which involve targeting radionuclides specifically to cancer cells with the use of monoclonal antibodies (radioimmunotherapy) or peptides (targeted radiotherapy) are being widely investigated. For example, the ultra-short range Auger electron-emitting isotopes, which are discussed in this review, are being considered in the context of DNAtargeted radiotherapy. The efficient quantitative evaluation of the levels of damage caused by such potential radiopharmaceuticals is required for assessment of therapeutic efficacy and determination of relevant doses for successful treatment. The DNA double-strand break surrogate marker, γH2AX, has emerged as a useful biomonitor of damage and thus effectiveness of treatment, offering a highly specific and sensitive means of assessment. This review will cover the potential applications of γH2AX in nuclear medicine, in particular radionuclide therapy.

  14. Measurements of the Backstreaming Proton IONS in the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) Diode Utilizing Copper Activation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarakis, Michael; Cuneo, Michael; Fournier, Sean; Johnston, Mark; Kiefer, Mark; Leckbee, Joshua; Simpson, Sean; Renk, Timothy; Webb, Timothy; Bennett, Nichelle

    2016-10-01

    The results presented here were obtained with an SMP diode mounted at the front high voltage end of the 8-10-MV RITS Self-Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITL) voltage adder. Our experiments had two objectives: first, to measure the contribution of the back-streaming proton currents emitted from the anode target, and second, to evaluate the energy of those ions and hence the actual Anode-Cathode (A-K) gap voltage. The accelerating voltage quoted in the literature is estimated utilizing para-potential flow theories. Thus, it is interesting to have another independent measurement of the A-K voltage. We have measured the back-streaming protons emitted from the anode and propagating through a hollow cathode tip for various diode configurations and different techniques of target cleaning treatment, namely, heating at very high temperatures with DC and pulsed current, with RF plasma cleaning, and with both plasma cleaning and heating. We have also evaluated the A-K gap voltage by energy filtering techniques. Sandia is operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE NNSA under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Utility of iodine overlay technique and virtual unenhanced images for the characterization of renal masses by dual-energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Bohyun

    2011-12-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the utility of dual-energy CT for characterizing renal masses using iodine overlay techniques and virtual unenhanced images and to measure the potential radiation dose reduction for two-phase kidney CT compared with a standard three-phase protocol. Sixty patients with suspected renal masses underwent dual-energy CT including true unenhanced, dual-energy corticomedullary, and dual-energy late nephrographic phase imaging. Iodine overlay and virtual unenhanced images were derived from the corticomedullary and late nephrographic phases, respectively. The CT numbers of renal masses were calculated using the iodine overlay images superimposed on the virtual unenhanced images. The overall imaging quality of the true unenhanced images and of the virtual unenhanced images was also evaluated. The effective radiation doses for dual-energy CT and for true unenhanced imaging were calculated. For overlay or enhancement values on iodine overlay images, 36 simple cysts and 10 hemorrhagic cysts had an attenuation value of less than 20 HU, whereas 21 renal cell carcinomas showed an attenuation value of 20 HU or greater. Eleven angiomyolipomas contained macroscopic fat tissue. All renal masses were accurately classified on the basis of dual-energy CT. The imaging quality of the virtual unenhanced images from the corticomedullary and late nephrographic phases was inferior to the image quality of the true unenhanced images (p overlay techniques and virtual unenhanced images may be useful for characterizing renal masses.

  16. Sedimentary Processes. Quantification Using Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Lerche, I.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of radionuclide methods in geochronology has revolutionized our understanding of modern sedimentary processes in aquatic systems. This book examines the principles of the method and its use as a quantitative tool in marine geology, with emphasis on the Pb-210 method. The assumptions and consequences of models and their behaviour are described providing the necessary background to assess the advantages and trade-offs involved when choosing a particular model for application. One of the purposes of this volume is to disentangle the influences of complicating factors, such as sediment flux variations, post-depositional diffusion of radionuclides, and bio-irrigation of sediments, to arrive at sediment ages and to properly assess the attendant data uncertainty. Environmental impacts of chemical, nuclear, or other waste material are of concern in a variety of areas around the world today. A number of relevant examples are included, demonstrating how dating models are useful for determining sources of contaminants and interpreting their influence on the environment. The book is set at a level so that an able student or professional should have no difficulty in following the procedures and methods developed. Each chapter includes case histories showing the strengths and weaknesses of a given procedure with respect to a data example. Included with this volume is the computer source code of a new generation of modelling tools based on inverse numerical analysis techniques. This first generation of the modelling tool is included, along with detailed instructions and examples for its use, in an appendix

  17. Radionuclide production and radiopharmaceutical chemistry with BNL cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wolf, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) radiopharmaceutical chemistry program focuses on production and utilization of radionuclides having a half-life of > 2 hr. However, a major portion of the BNL program is devoted to short-lived radionuclides, such as 11 C and 18 F. Activities encompassed in the program are classified into seven areas: cyclotron parameters, radiochemistry, design and rapid synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals and labeled compounds, radiotracer evaluation in animals, studies in humans, technology transfer, and several other areas

  18. Radionuclides and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasia, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The pollution of agricultural ecosystems by radionuclides is reviewed. Examples are taken from the measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident. Radioisotopes, however, can also play a useful role in agriculture. Their use as tracers or as ionizing radiation sources is described. (M.C.B.)

  19. Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated--therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129 Xe + for the determination of 129 I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass

  20. Bioaccumulation factors for radionuclides in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Parzyck, D.C.; Wilcox, W.H.; Kercher, J.R.; Kaye, S.V.

    1975-11-01

    This report analyzes over 200 carefully selected papers to provide concise data sets and methodology for estimation of bioaccumulation factors for tritium and isotopes of strontium, cesium, iodine, manganese, and cobalt in major biotic components of freshwater environments. Bioaccumulation factors of different tissues are distinguished where significant differences occur. Since conditions in the laboratory are often unnatural in terms of chemical and ecological relationships, this review was restricted as far as possible to bioaccumulation factors determined for natural systems. Because bioaccumulation factors were not available for some shorter-lived radionuclides, a methodology for converting bioaccumulation factors of stable isotopes to those of shorter-lived radionuclides was derived and utilized. The bioaccumulation factor for a radionuclide in a given organism or tissue may exhibit wide variations among bodies of water that are related to differences in ambient concentrations of stable-element and carrier-element analogues. To account for these variations, simple models are presented that relate bioaccumulation factors to stable-element and carrier-element concentrations in water. The effects of physicochemical form and other factors in causing deviations from these models are discussed. Bioaccumulation factor data are examined in the context of these models, and bioaccumulation factor relations for the selected radionuclides are presented

  1. Mobility of radionuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gee, G.W.; Rai, D.; Serne, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Recent public interest in nuclear power production and waste disposal has led to increased awareness and concern about the biological hazards of radionuclide cycling in soil. Various radionuclides found in soils are shown and can be seen to originate from numerous sources including: radioisotopes formed during earth genesis, cosmic irradiation, fallout from atmospheric testing, uranium mill tailings, phosphate mill wastes, nuclear and coal fired power plants, defense activities, medical, industrial and research use. The objectives of this review are to summarize the factors that affect radionuclide mobility in soil, including adsorption-desorption, precipitation-dissolution reactions for liquid phase radionuclides as well as the transport of gaseous radionuclides in soils. Areas where more information is needed are also discussed. The mobility of selected radionuclides including isotopes of Sr, Cs, Co, Tc, I, Se, Pu, Am, Np, and Rn are discussed in additional detail. Two brief examples of waste management systems to control radionuclide mobility are presented

  2. Radiation dosimetry for radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Hee

    2001-01-01

    The radionuclide therapy is a protocol for tumor control by administering radionuclides as the cytotoxic agents. Radionuclides concentrated at the site of cancerous lesion are expected to kill the cancerous cells with minimal injury to the normal tissue. The efficacy of every radionuclide treatment can be evaluated by examining the toxicity to the lesion differentiated from that to the normal tissue. Radiation dosimerty is the procedure of quantitating the energy absorbed by target volumes of interest. Dosimetric information plays an indicator of the expected radiation damage and thus the therapeutic efficacy. This paper summarizes the dosimetric aspects in radionuclide therapy in terms of radionuclides of use, radionuclides of use, radiation dosimetry methodology and considerations for each treatment in practical use

  3. Utilization of the Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation Technique for Characterization and Verification of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-27

    New nondestructive assay techniques are sought to better characterize spent nuclear fuel. One of the NDA instruments selected for possible deployment is differential die-away self-interrogation (DDSI). The proposed DDSI approach for spent fuel assembly assay utilizes primarily the spontaneous fission and (α, n) neutrons in the assemblies as an internal interrogating radiation source. The neutrons released in spontaneous fission or (α,n) reactions are thermalized in the surrounding water and induce fission in fissile isotopes, thereby creating a measurable signal from isotopes of interest that would be otherwise difficult to measure. The DDSI instrument employs neutron coincidence counting with 3He tubes and list-mode-based data acquisition to allow for production of Rossi-alpha distributions (RADs) in post-processing. The list-mode approach to data collection and subsequent construction of RADs has expanded the analytical possibilities, as will be demonstrated throughout this thesis. One of the primary advantages is that the measured signal in the form of a RAD can be analyzed in its entirety including determination of die-away times in different time domains. This capability led to the development of the early die-away method, a novel leakage multiplication determination method which is tested throughout the thesis on different sources in simulation space and fresh fuel experiments. The early die-away method is a robust, accurate, improved method of determining multiplication without the need for knowledge of the (α,n) source term. The DDSI technique and instrument are presented along with the many novel capabilities enabled by and discovered through RAD analysis. Among the new capabilities presented are the early die-away method, total plutonium content determination, and highly sensitive missing pin detection. Simulation of hundreds of different spent and fresh fuel assemblies were used to develop the analysis algorithms and the techniques were tested on a

  4. Technical Note: Application of positive matrix factor analysis in heterogeneous kinetics studies utilizing the mixed-phase relative rates technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Li, S.-M.; Liggio, J.

    2014-09-01

    The mixed-phase relative rates approach for determining aerosol particle organic heterogeneous reaction kinetics is often performed utilizing mass spectral tracers as a proxy for particle-phase reactant concentration. However, this approach may be influenced by signal contamination from oxidation products during the experiment. In the current study, the mixed-phase relative rates technique has been improved by combining a positive matrix factor (PMF) analysis with electron ionization aerosol mass spectrometry (unit-mass resolution), thereby removing the influence of m / z fragments from reaction products on the reactant signals. To demonstrate the advantages of this approach, the heterogeneous reaction between OH radicals and citric acid (CA) was investigated using a photochemical flow tube coupled to a compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (C-ToF-AMS). The measured heterogeneous rate constant (k2) of citric acid toward OH was (3.31 ± 0.29) × 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 at 298 K and (30 ± 3)% relative humidity (RH) and was several times greater than the results utilizing individual m / z fragments. This phenomenon was further evaluated for particulate-phase organophosphates (triphenyl phosphate (TPhP), tris-1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate (TDCPP) and tris-2-ethylhexyl phosphate (TEHP)), leading to k2 values significantly larger than previously reported. The results suggest that heterogeneous kinetics can be significantly underestimated when the structure of the products is highly similar to the reactant and when a non-molecular tracer is measured with a unit-mass resolution aerosol mass spectrometer. The results also suggest that the heterogeneous lifetime of organic aerosol in models can be overestimated due to underestimated OH uptake coefficients. Finally, a comparison of reported rate constants implies that the heterogeneous oxidation of aerosols will be dependent upon a number of factors related to the reaction system, and that a single rate

  5. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  8. Radionuclides in pharmaceutical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The development of modern stage of nuclear medicine is characterized by the increasing role of methods using radionuclides. Radioactive nuclides used in nuclear medicine may be divided into 2 groups. Radionuclides used for diagnostic researches and radionuclides used for therapeutic purposes. These two directions are considered to be the main ones in usage of radionuclides in medicine. However there is one more direction in the research of new medical products where it is possible to use radionuclides to study their pharmacological kinetics. In these researches radionuclide is applied as a radioactive label at the stage of studying pharmacological kinetics of a new medical product. In Institute of Nuclear Physics AS RUz the works are being carried out in the recent years focused on studying pharmacology of some new medical preparations, which are synthesized in Tashkent Pharmaceutical Institute. Syntheses these preparations are based on use microelements. Its compounds are possessed expressed biological activity and be of great importance in the pharmaceutical science of Uzbekistan. Introducing a radioisotope at the stage of synthesis carried out reception of labeled connections of all preparations. The output of the final product reached the yield of no less than 80 % in all cases of synthesis. This work presents the results of research on synthesis and study of pharmacology of radioactively labeled preparations - Piracin, labeled by radioisotope 69m Zn; Pheramed, labeled by radioisotope 59 Fe; Cobavit, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co; VUC, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co, CO-101, labeled by radioisotope 57 Co. Received radioisotope - labeled compounds of medical preparations were used in the study of their pharmacological kinetics on experimental rats. In all cases, preliminary irradiation of corresponding nuclear targets in the nuclear reactor and cyclotron, radiochemical procedures on separation, purification and concentration oi radioactive isotopes

  9. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  10. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  11. Radionuclide migration experiments related to an underground nuclear test: II. modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A.; Carle, S.F.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Bruton, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The goal of this project is to improve our understanding of water and radionuclide migration in both saturated and unsaturated geologic media by coupling advanced simulation techniques, available characterization data, and radioanalytical measurements in the context of a remarkable field experiment. Between 1975 and 1991, groundwater was steadily pumped from a well adjacent to a 1965 underground test conducted in alluvium at the Nevada Test Site. The experiment was primarily conducted in order to elicit information on radionuclide migration through the saturated zone between the test and the well. The effluent was monitored. discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to infiltrate into the ground during flow towards a dry lake, about a kilometer away. The 16 years of pumping and infiltration created an unexpected second experiment in which the migration of the ditch effluent through the 200 meters of unsaturated media, back to the water table, could be studied. Pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with chemical measurements made in groundwater and a series of numerical models to better understand the movement of radionuclides in the system, both between the test and the well, and between the ditch and the water table. The release of radionuclides away from a testing area will be controlled by local groundwater flow rates, by their dissolution from solidified melt glass produced by the test, and by chemical sorption processes that retard their migration rates in chemically reactive geologic media. Only the more mobile and less reactive radionuclides (e.g.. tritium, 14 C, 36 Cl, 85 Kr, and 129 I) were measured in the well effluent. The movement of these radionuclides through the unsaturated media beneath the ditch will be affected additionally by the capillary nature of moisture movement under unsaturated conditions and by their interaction with and potential mass exchange with the gas (air) phase. Results of numerical simulations

  12. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  13. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This document, Glossary, is the first in a series of reports to identify, describe, and apply techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric utility concepts. This report was developed with a focus on the currently evolving issues of ratemaking, especially as they might be expected to arise under Sections 101, 111, 113, 114, 131, 132, and 210 of the P.U.R.P.A. of 1978. Because the evolutionary process of ratemaking has led to multiple proceedings and changes of inference in some terms, the glossary attempts to delineate these changes where appropriate. Definitions not uniquely related to ratemaking are included if they are likely to be used in ratemaking proceedings. To avoid unnecessary duplication of effort and expense, the compilers relied heavily on previously developed, publicly available glossaries and definitions developed by organizations such as Edison Electric Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Existing definitions were revised and new ones were developed as appropriate.

  14. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  15. Radionuclide therapy beyond radioiodine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Michael

    2012-10-01

    For decades, Iodine-131 has been used for the treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. In recent years, increasingly, other radiopharmaceuticals are in clinical use in the treatment of various malignant diseases. Although in principle these therapies-as in all applications of radionuclides-special radiation protection measures are required, a separate nuclear medicine therapy department is not necessary in many cases due to the lower or lack of gamma radiation. In the following article, four different radionuclide therapies are more closely presented which are emerging in the last years. One of them is the "Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy," the so-called PRRT in which radiolabeled somatostatin (SST)-receptor(R) ligands are used in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. On the basis of radiolabeled antibodies against CD20-positive cells, the so-called radioimmunotherapy is used in the treatment of certain forms of malignant lymphoma. In primary or secondary liver tumors, the (90)Y-labeled particles can be administered. Last but not the least, the palliative approach of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is noted in patients with painful bone metastases.

  16. Radionuclide therapy of diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Keigo

    1998-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has a long history of more than 50 years. Radioiodine (I-131) is specifically taken up by the thyroid and has been still used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancer. In the western country, I-131 is the first choice of the therapy of Graves' disease and it is well known that Mr. Geroge Bush, the former president of the United States, was suffered from Graves' disease and treated with I-131. I-131 therapy is cheap, safe, effective, but little adverse effects. On the contrary, in Japan I-131 therapy is less frequently used than the anti-thyroid drugs due to the national sentiments of allergy to radionuclides, and the strict regulation by the government. Bone pain is commonly seen in patients with bone metastasis, which occurs in prostate, breast and lung cancers. Strontium-89 is an effective treatment of bone pain palliation and widely used in the western countries. In Japan clinical use of strontium-89 is planned to be approved by this coming summer on the out-patients basis. Still we have many problems for the radionuclide therapy of diseases, although it is very useful method of treatment. (author)

  17. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  18. The use of radionuclides for tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawwaz, R.A.; Wang, T.S.T.; Hardy, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The successful use of radionuclides for tumor therapy depends to a major extent on the ability to achieve a high concentration of radioactivity in the tumor relative to other radiosensitive organs not involved by tumor, such as bone marrow, intestinal mucosa, liver, and kidneys. Techniques designed to achieve such differential localization of the radionuclides include the use of (1) radiopharmaceuticals that enter specific metabolic pathways unique to certain tumor types; (2) radiolabeled antibodies that attach to tumor-associated antigens present on tumor cell surfaces; (3) heterologous antibodies that attach to tumor-associated antigens present on tumor cell surfaces and which are then identified by radiolabeled antibodies directed against the species in which the original, unlabeled antibody was made; and (4) radiolabeled compounds injected regionally at the tumor site. Although both clinical and experimental evidence on the use of radionuclides for tumor therapy is encouraging in preliminary studies, extensive further research needs to be done in this area to insure the clinical efficacy of radionuclides for tumor therapy. (author)

  19. Preliminary Study on the Use of Radionuclides 137{sup C}s and 210{sup P}b and Spectro radiometry Techniques as Tools to Determine Soil Erosion State; Estudio Preliminar sobre el Uso de los Radionucleidos 137{sup C}s y 210{sup P}b y las Tecnicas de Espectrorradiometria como Herramientas para Determinar el Estado de Erosion de Suelos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Vegas, E.; Gasco Leonarte, C.; Schmid, T.; Suarez, J. A.; Rodriguez Rastrero, M.; Almorox Alonso, J.

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides are largely used as tools for studying and quantifying soil erosion. The global fallout of artificial radionuclides derived from weapons testing (1945-1970) was rapidly and firmly fixed in soil surface horizons. This allowed determining soil erosion by comparing 137{sup C}s inventories at individual sampling points with a reference inventory. This procedure is complemented with the 210{sup P}buns inventory calculation as an indicator of the local average of radionuclides deposition. Spectro radiometry is implemented to associate soil reflectance measurements to physical and chemical soil properties related to soil erosion processes obtained from laboratory analyses. The methodology applies both instrumental techniques in soil samples from a semiarid agricultural area near to Camarena (Toledo). The resulting inventories obtained for 137{sup C}s and 210{sup P}bexc are similar to the Spanish reference allowing comparation. Spectro radiometry results correlate well with soil properties measured in the laboratory and can be applied to determine these properties more quickly and easily, as well as for integration with gamma spectrometry results. This is a preliminary study to identify soils affected by erosion that is presented as a Master thesis of the Official Master Degree: {sup A}gro- Environmental Technology for a Sustainable Agriculture{sup ,} of the Technical University of Madrid - School of Agricultural Engineers (UPM-ETSI). Coherent and complimentary results are obtained applying both instrumental techniques within this agricultural area.. (Author)

  20. SU-F-T-427: Utilization and Evaluation of Diagnostic CT Imaging with MAR Technique for Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M; Foster, R; Parks, H; Pankuch, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to utilize and evaluate diagnostic CT-MAR technique for radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods: A Toshiba-diagnostic-CT acquisition with SEMAR(Single-energy-MAR)-algorism was performed to make the metal-artifact-reduction (MAR) for patient treatment planning. CT-imaging datasets with and without SEMAR were taken on a Catphan-phantom. Two sets of CT-numbers were calibrated with the relative electron densities (RED). A tissue characterization phantom with Gammex various simulating material rods was used to establish the relationship between known REDs and corresponding CT-numbers. A GE-CT-sim acquisition was taken on the Catphan for comparison. A patient with bilateral hip arthroplasty was scanned in the radiotherapy CT-sim and the diagnostic SEMAR-CT on a flat panel. The derived SEMAR images were used as a primary CT dataset to create contours for the target, critical-structures, and for planning. A deformable registration was performed with VelocityAI to track voxel changes between SEMAR and CT-sim images. The SEMAR-CT images with minimal artifacts and high quality of geometrical and spatial integrity were employed for a treatment plan. Treatment-plans were evaluated based on deformable registration of SEMAR-CT and CT-sim dataset with assigned CT-numbers in the metal artifact regions in Eclipse v11 TPS. Results: The RED and CT-number relationships were consistent for the datasets in CT-sim and CT’s with and without SEMAR. SEMAR datasets with high image quality were used for PTV and organ delineation in the treatment planning process. For dose distribution to the PTV through the DVH analysis, the plan using CT-sim with the assigned CT-number showed a good agreement to those on deformable CT-SEMAR. Conclusion: A diagnostic-CT with MAR-algorithm can be utilized for radiotherapy treatment planning with CT-number calibrated to the RED. Treatment planning comparison and DVH shows a good agreement in the PTV and critical organs between

  1. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  2. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    OpenAIRE

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré; Caroline Rousseau; Caroline Bodet-Milin; Cédric Mathieu; François Guérard; Eric Frampas; Thomas Carlier; Nicolas Chouin; Ferid Haddad; Jean-François Chatal; Alain Faivre-Chauvet; Michel Chérel; Jacques Barbet

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others a...

  3. Radionuclide inventory calculation in VVER and BWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhaddane, A.; Farkas, F.; Slugen, V.; Ackermann, L.; Schienbein, M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows different aspects in the radionuclide inventory determination. Precise determination of the neutron flux distribution, presented for a BRW reactor, is vital for the activation calculations. The precision can be improved utilizing variance reduction methods as importance treatment, weight windows etc. Direct calculation of the radionuclide inventory via Monte Carlo code is presented for a VVER reactor. Burn-up option utilized in this calculation appears to be proper for reactor internal components. However, it will not be probably effective outside the reactor core. Further calculations in this area are required to support the forth-set findings. (authors)

  4. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  7. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinakhom, F.; Mongkolphantha, S.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  8. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  9. Radionuclide therapy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettich, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In Slovenia 1260 radionuclide therapies are performed per year for a population of 2,000,000 (63/100,000 inhabitants). Approximately half of the patients (691) were treated as outpatients. There are 7 nuclear medicine departments in the country and 4 of them are licensed to perform radionuclide therapy and two have specialised wards for patients receiving radionuclide treatment (10 beds). 131-I is used by far most commonly for benign thyroid diseases and differentiated thyroid Ca treatment. The patients receiving doses of radioactivity below 550 MBqs, i.e. mostly patients with Graves' disease, are treated as outpatients i.e. 610/year, (31/100 000 inhabitants). The patients treated with doses between 740 1110 MBq, mostly hyperthyroid patients with autonomous thyroid tissue (Plummer's disease), 300/year (15/100 000 inhabitants) are hospitalised for 3-5 days in a specialised wards. (Fractionated therapy is not used). 137 therapies were performed for ablation and treatment of metastases in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer receiving 1850 5550 MBq, in 2004 as inpatients. 131-I mIBG is used for treatment of neuroblastoma very occasionally, less than 1/year due to low number of patients. Such patient has to be hospitalised in an adult radiotherapy ward, a situation not preferred by paediatricians. 186-Re HEDP, 153-Sm EDTPM and 89-Sr were used for palliation of bone pain due to bony metastasis usually as outpatients, depending on patient's condition, in only 14 patients in 2004. 186-Re colloid and 90-Y colloid are used for radiosynovectomies in patients with rheumatic and (32/year) and hemophilic (25/year) arthropathies. These patients are not hospitalised. 5 patients were treated with 90-Y anti CD20 MoAB for NHLymphoma, all on outpatient basis and 2 patients received 90-Y Octreotide for metastatic carcinoid also as outpatients. 12 patients received 90-Y colloid intraperitoneally for experimental treatment of carcinosis due to ovarian Ca in 2004

  10. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  11. Utilization of Innovations and Techniques of Educational Technology in Delivering of Educational Practicum and Its Impact on Increasing Academic Achievement among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hatim G.

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the utilization of innovations and techniques of educational technology in teaching of educational practicum and its impact on increasing academic achievement among pre-service teachers. The study sample consisted of (60) pre-service teachers (student teachers) randomly selected from public middle and secondary…

  12. Translating state-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques to clinical use: A systematic review of clinical studies utilizing DTI, MT, MWF, MRS, and fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: State-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques are emerging with great potential to improve the diagnosis and management of various spinal pathologies, but the current body of evidence has only showed limited clinical utility to date. Among these imaging tools DTI is the most mature, but further work is necessary to standardize and validate its use before it will be adopted in the clinical realm. Large, well-designed studies with a priori hypotheses, standardized acquisition methods, detailed clinical data collection, and robust automated analysis techniques are needed to fully demonstrate the potential of these rapidly evolving techniques.

  13. Radionuclides in nephrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausanne, A.B.D.

    1987-01-01

    In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension

  14. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  15. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  16. Utility Weights for Allergic Rhinitis Based on a Community Survey with a Time Trade-off Technique in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Tamayama

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: The authors consider that the elicited utility weights are reliable. The results of this study could facilitate economic evaluations regarding allergic rhinitis in various contexts, contributing to better management of the disease.

  17. Classification of soil systems on the basis of transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to reference plants. Report of the final research coordination meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The IAEA Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection include the general requirement to keep all doses as low as reasonably achievable, taking account of economic and social considerations, within the overall constraint of individual dose limits. National and Regional authorities have to set release limits for radioactive effluent and also to establish contingency plans to deal with an uncontrolled release following an accident or terrorist activity. It is normal practice to assess radiation doses to man by means of radiological assessment models. In this context the IAEA published (1994), in cooperation with the International Union of Radioecologists (IUR), a Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments to facilitate such calculations. The obvious limitation of the Handbook is that the data on soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides are strictly relevant only to temperate climates. Therefore, the IAEA, together with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the IUR, conducted a coordinated research project (CRP), to obtain similar data in tropical and sub-tropical regions. A conclusion of this research was that some combinations of ecosystems and radionuclides do not behave as might be expected. A consultants meeting held in May 1998 produced a proposal for a CRP to address the issue of identifying such situations in temperate as well as tropical and sub-tropical conditions

  18. Beta-emitting radionuclides for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parus, J L; Mikolajczak, R

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the β-emitting radionuclides which might be useful for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, PRRT. For the effective design of the radiopharmaceutical, the choice of radionuclide will depend on the purpose for which the radioligand is being used and on the physicochemical properties of the radionuclide. The important factor is also the availability and the cost of production. The physical characteristics of several radionuclides which are currently used or can be considered as potential candidates for PRRT is provided, followed by short description of production methods and chemical aspects of their use in preparation of peptide-based radiopharmaceuticals. Somatostatin analogues labeled with radionuclides have been a successful example of PRRT. For treatment of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumors, somatostatin analogues labeled with the radioisotopes (111)In, (90)Y and (177)Lu have been used so far. Labeling with (111)In, mainly an Auger electron emitter, resulted in no reduction of tumor size while somatostatin analogues labeled with (90)Y and (177)Lu gave overall positive response and improved the patients' quality of life. These promising results together with the increasing availability of other β-emitting radionuclides are a good basis for further studies.

  19. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen

  20. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed

  1. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  2. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  3. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  4. Numerical studies of radionuclide migration in layered porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, R.L.; Loyalka, S.K.; Williams, M.M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Numerical solutions to both the conventional advection-dispersion equation and a new transport equation (containing directional dependence) are utilized to study the migration of radionuclides in layered fractured formations. The new transport formulation, with its directional dependence, yields details in concentration profiles not shown by the advection-dispersion approach

  5. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  6. Use of nuclear techniques for mutation and selection of fungi for high protein yield utilizing carbon from inexpensive agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopulos, S.

    1976-12-01

    The report briefly describes work carried out on the following subjects: Determination of protein in fungal strains (including Fusarium and Aspergillus niger); induction and selection of mutants (Aspergillus niger) giving higher yields of biomass and/or higher protein content; ability of fungi (Candida tropicalis) to utilize water extracts of carob bean pods; growth of Fusarium monoliforme at the expense of carob sugars; the use of alternate oxidase-negative mutants (of Ustilago maydis), for better utilization of substrates for growth (electron transport pathways in reoxidation of reduced coenzymes); kinetics of batch and continuous cultivation of Fusarium moniliforme (cultivated on aqueous carob extracts)

  7. Investigation of storage system designs and techniques for optimizing energy conservation in integrated utility systems. Volume 1: (Executive summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Integrated Utility Systems (IUS) have been suggested as a means of reducing the cost and conserving the nonrenewable energy resources required to supply utility services (energy, water, and waste disposal) to developments of limited size. The potential for further improving the performance and reducing the cost of IUS installations through the use of energy storage devices is examined and the results are summarized. Candidate energy storage concepts in the general areas of thermal, inertial, superconducting magnetic, electrochemical, chemical, and compressed air energy storage are assessed and the storage of thermal energy as the sensible heat of water is selected as the primary candidate for near term application to IUS.

  8. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraky, G.; Lewis, C.; Hamlat, S.; Nollmann, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  9. Short lived radionuclides in therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    A brief article examines some of the arguments for using shorter lived radionuclides in therapy. Shorter lived radionuclides would 1) reduce over-saturation of the target lesions and consequently reduce irradiation of other parts of the body, 2) reduce the DNA repair capacity of the target cells, 3) reduce the 'escape' of the radionuclide from the major therapeutic locale, 4) reduce the portion of the patient's life span during which the patient is receiving radiotherapy and 5) be useful in evaluating the radiation effects of fractionated radiotherapy. (U.K.)

  10. Study of silver-110M transfer mechanisms in freshwater. Conceiving and utilization of an experimental model of ecosystem and of a mathematical model to simulate the radionuclide through a trophic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.

    1990-10-01

    Uptake and retention of 110m Ag are quantified from laboratory studies carried out on an experimental freshwater ecosystem composed by two abiotic units, water and sediment, and by four trophic levels: primary producer (Scenedesmus obliquus), first order consumers (Daphnia magna, Gammarus pulex, Chrionomus sp.), second order consumer (Cyprinus carpio) and third order one (Salmo trutta). The chosen analytical process consists in expressing each transfer by a mathematical equation which formulation is based on a theoric analysis. Experiments allow to calibrate parameters of these equations for each unit of the food chain. All experimental data concerning 110m Ag uptake emphasize the radioprotection implications of this radioelement, because of the high values of the estimated radioecological parameters. On the basis of the results obtained, a determinist mathematical model has been conceived to simulate the radionuclide distribution in the food chain as a function of a chronic or acute contamination mode. Its application gives the development with time of the mean 110m Ag concentration values for each trophic level. The first approaches based on the analysis of the results of field studies, carried out on ecosystems affected by chronic pollution (Rhone river) or acute one (as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident), give to the model an important explicative and global predictive quality. The age of the fish, their dietary habits which vary according to the annual cycle of the prey species and with theirposition in the food chain, appear such as essential parameters. The trophic pathway is clearly predominant whatever the contamination mode and, explains, for acute exposure, why accumulation of 110m Ag can be prolonged for a long time after the surrounding environment contamination [fr

  11. Implementation of a deterministic dose calculation method in targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiner, D.

    2009-01-01

    the convolution technique is a very precise calculation methodology for the determination of spatially varying dose distribution on voxel level in TRT. The convolution and MCNP5 results also show a very good accordance in regions with a low radionuclide uptake, whereas in areas with high radiopharmaceutical concentration the convolution method underestimates the dose with increasing radiation range of the emitted particles up to 16%. Additionally discrete dose kernels for ten radionuclides of presumable interest for TRT are presented which have been calculated with MCNP5 as accompanying work. Once a deterministic dose calculation system is routinely available, these data can be utilized for performing the convolution. By storing the dose kernels in large data bases, they can be quickly accessible. The complete tabular list of the dose kernels is attached at the end of the thesis as supplementary material in the appendix. (author)

  12. The removal of radionuclides from foodstuffs during technological treatment and culinary processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perepelyatnikova, L.V.; Lazarev, N.M.; Ivanova, T.N.; Fedin, F.A.; Long, S.; Pollard, D.

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data on the efficiency of industrial and domestic processing techniques of plant and animal products, which reduce radionuclides content foodstuffs, are summarized. Methods, which provide the greatest decrease of radionuclides content in the final products with minimum losses of nutritional value, were identified

  13. A New Approach for Complex Upper Limb Revisions Utilizing the Clavicula Pro Humero Technique: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayer, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A complex case is described involving limb salvage using a combination of the clavicula pro humero technique with a free vascularized fibular graft to span the defect following a failed megaprosthetic reconstruction. This is believed to be the first description of this approach for a very difficult problem. In the setting of infection and minimal bone stock, conventional reconstruction options for the proximal aspect of the humerus were unsatisfactory. This new technique provides a biologic, immunocompetent option for limb salvage.

  14. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  15. Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins radionuclide transport: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotson, W.L.; Peterson, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    The current estimates of increased utilization of nuclear power have brought into focus the problem of the cumulative interaction of several nuclear facilities with the biosphere of a region. An engineering analysis tool to make the necessary calculations from which reasonable estimates of potential radiation dose and dose commitment to individuals and population groups in such a region has been devised by Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This paper discusses the application of the radionuclide transport elements of this computer code to the Tennessee and Cumberland River Basins. The radionuclide transport simulator codes (HERMES) were designed to evaluate the environment impact of nuclear facilities in or near the year 2000

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  17. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  18. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  19. Radionuclide imaging in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, C.A.; Robinson, R.G.; Hinthorn, D.R.; Liu, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eight patients with herpes simplex encephalitis among the 10 cases diagnosed at the University of Kansas Medical Center from 1966 to 1976 were studied with /sup 99m/Tc early in their diagnostic work-up. The images were unilaterally positive in the temporal lobe area in all 8 patients. Radionuclide studies can suggest herpes simplex as the specific etiology in cases of encephalitis and can also indicate the best site for brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis by fluorescent antibody techniques. Appropriate antiviral therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to alter the course of this destructive form of viral encephalitis

  20. Utilization of MRI for Cerebral White Matter Injury in a Hypobaric Swine Model-Validation of Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    disruption of axonal integrity as measured by DTI.11,12 The traditional neuropathological model posits gaseous embolic damage to the brain as the main...embolic cerebral damage and change in permeabil- ity of the blood brain barrier (BBB).26,27 DSC utilizes an exogenous contrast imaging agent that...spatial (1.6 × 1.6 × 2.0 mm) resolution, acquiring 23 slices for full brain coverage with no gaps. Imaging slices were prescribed axially. Image

  1. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agool, Ali [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Center Twente, Hengelo (Netherlands); University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, P.O. Box 30,001, Groningen (Netherlands); Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Vellenga, Edo [University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Hematology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as {sup 99m}Tc-nanocolloid, {sup 99m}Tc-sulphur colloid, {sup 111}In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using {sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 18}F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  3. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  4. In flight ground control of high drag satellites utilizing on-board accelerometer data and rapid orbit prediction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. J.; Velez, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    High drag satellites frequently require precise verification of orbital maneuvers and the accurate prediction of perigee height. An in-flight ground support system designed to monitor and compute orbital state and maneuvers is described. The use of on-board three-axis accelerometer data in a flight support software system to perform on-line maneuver analysis and atmospheric model updating is discussed. In addition, automated analytic techniques to rapidly and accurately predict perigee height following a maneuver are described, as well as semianalytic averaging techniques designed to predict a decaying orbital state for mission control.

  5. Translating state-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques to clinical use: A systematic review of clinical studies utilizing DTI, MT, MWF, MRS, and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allan R; Aleksanderek, Izabela; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Tarmohamed, Zenovia; Tetreault, Lindsay; Smith, Nathaniel; Cadotte, David W; Crawley, Adrian; Ginsberg, Howard; Mikulis, David J; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    A recent meeting of international imaging experts sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust (ISRT) and the Wings for Life Foundation identified 5 state-of-the-art MRI techniques with potential to transform the field of spinal cord imaging by elucidating elements of the microstructure and function: diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer (MT), myelin water fraction (MWF), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and functional MRI (fMRI). However, the progress toward clinical translation of these techniques has not been established. A systematic review of the English literature was conducted using MEDLINE, MEDLINE-in-Progress, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify all human studies that investigated utility, in terms of diagnosis, correlation with disability, and prediction of outcomes, of these promising techniques in pathologies affecting the spinal cord. Data regarding study design, subject characteristics, MRI methods, clinical measures of impairment, and analysis techniques were extracted and tabulated to identify trends and commonalities. The studies were assessed for risk of bias, and the overall quality of evidence was assessed for each specific finding using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. A total of 6597 unique citations were identified in the database search, and after full-text review of 274 articles, a total of 104 relevant studies were identified for final inclusion (97% from the initial database search). Among these, 69 studies utilized DTI and 25 used MT, with both techniques showing an increased number of publications in recent years. The review also identified 1 MWF study, 11 MRS studies, and 8 fMRI studies. Most of the studies were exploratory in nature, lacking a priori hypotheses and showing a high (72%) or moderately high (20%) risk of bias, due to issues with study design, acquisition techniques, and analysis methods. The acquisitions for each technique varied widely across

  6. Translating state-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques to clinical use: A systematic review of clinical studies utilizing DTI, MT, MWF, MRS, and fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allan R.; Aleksanderek, Izabela; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Tarmohamed, Zenovia; Tetreault, Lindsay; Smith, Nathaniel; Cadotte, David W.; Crawley, Adrian; Ginsberg, Howard; Mikulis, David J.; Fehlings, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent meeting of international imaging experts sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust (ISRT) and the Wings for Life Foundation identified 5 state-of-the-art MRI techniques with potential to transform the field of spinal cord imaging by elucidating elements of the microstructure and function: diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer (MT), myelin water fraction (MWF), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and functional MRI (fMRI). However, the progress toward clinical translation of these techniques has not been established. Methods A systematic review of the English literature was conducted using MEDLINE, MEDLINE-in-Progress, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify all human studies that investigated utility, in terms of diagnosis, correlation with disability, and prediction of outcomes, of these promising techniques in pathologies affecting the spinal cord. Data regarding study design, subject characteristics, MRI methods, clinical measures of impairment, and analysis techniques were extracted and tabulated to identify trends and commonalities. The studies were assessed for risk of bias, and the overall quality of evidence was assessed for each specific finding using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. Results A total of 6597 unique citations were identified in the database search, and after full-text review of 274 articles, a total of 104 relevant studies were identified for final inclusion (97% from the initial database search). Among these, 69 studies utilized DTI and 25 used MT, with both techniques showing an increased number of publications in recent years. The review also identified 1 MWF study, 11 MRS studies, and 8 fMRI studies. Most of the studies were exploratory in nature, lacking a priori hypotheses and showing a high (72%) or moderately high (20%) risk of bias, due to issues with study design, acquisition techniques, and analysis methods. The acquisitions for each

  7. Studies evaluating the applicability of utilizing the same concentration techniques for the detection of protozoan parasites and viruses in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available sample volume to about 101. This study shows that concentration techniques utilised for the isolation of enteric viruses can also be applied for the detection of protozoan parasites from water. This procedure allows for co-analysis of both viruses...

  8. Review on ultrasound measurement of bladder or detrusor wall thickness in women: techniques, diagnostic utility, and use in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelke, Matthias; Khullar, Vik; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2013-01-01

    To provide a narrative review of literature evaluating ultrasound techniques for the measurement of bladder wall hypertrophy in women as an alternative to invasive urodynamic assessment for the diagnosis of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A literature review was performed using PubMed and all

  9. Investigation of the effects of external current systems on the MAGSAT data utilizing grid cell modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of modeling magnetic fields due to certain electrical currents flowing in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere was investigated. A method was devised to carry out forward modeling of the magnetic perturbations that arise from space currents. The procedure utilizes a linear current element representation of the distributed electrical currents. The finite thickness elements are combined into loops which are in turn combined into cells having their base in the ionosphere. In addition to the extensive field modeling, additional software was developed for the reduction and analysis of the MAGSAT data in terms of the external current effects. Direct comparisons between the models and the MAGSAT data are possible.

  10. Sorbent application on the base of chitosan for radionuclides separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarciova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste contains enormous amounts of radionuclides, which pollute the environment and can cause serious chemical and radiological toxicity threats to lower and higher living organism. Alternative process for the removal of heavy metal ions and radionuclides is sorption, which utilizes various certain natural materials of biological origin. Amino-polysaccharide-based sorbents e.g. chitosan represent suitable materials for binding of metal oxo-anion species because of numerous functional groups -OH and -NH 2 because of their suitable H-bond donor and acceptor sites. The sorbents on the base chitosan prepared through chemical modification were used for removal and separation certain radionuclides from aqueous media. The aim of this work was the study of physicochemical properties of prepared sorbents. The specific surface of sorbents was characterized with BET methods. Point of zero charge was identified with potentiometric titration. The size of particles and shape of sorbents were determined by scanning electron microscope. The sorption experiments for selected radionuclides were conducted under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of various parameters on the sorption 99m Tc, 60 Co and the effect of pH on the separation of radionuclide mixture in the solution were studied. (author)

  11. [Use of radionuclides in therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucina, J; Han, R

    2001-01-01

    In nuclear medicine therapy is based on deposition of certain doses of ionizing radiation in tumors or organ tissues. Regarding their linear energy transfer (LET) values and relative biological effectiveness (RBE), principal radiotherapeuticals are alpha-, beta-, beta/gamma- or electron-emitters. In principle, to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, a particular radionuclide should exhibit adequate physical, chemical and biological properties. However, considerable efforts are required in selecting an optimal radionuclide for a specific application and then, in the development of methods for its routine production. The paper reviews several aspects of use, properties and production of unsealed radiation sources which are intended to be administered for therapeutic purposes. It covers scientific and practical criteria involved in selecting the radionuclide from medical point of view. The main indications for use of radiotherapeuticals are in oncology and rheumathology. Besides well known, like 32P, 89Sr, 90Y and 131I, several other radionuclides are also listed. Some of them are already in routine use while the others are still under investigation. The main chemical forms of radionuclides and indications are revealed. Particular emphasis is put on the discussion on criteria which a radionuclide should fulfill regarding its physical properties (type, energy, half life, ratio and abundance of the particulate and gamma ray emission). Ideally, they should, together with chemical and biological properties, match with the in-vivo pharmacokinetics and localization of the radionuclide and/or radiopharmaceutical. The trend in modern nuclear medicine is introduction of radionuclides of very specific properties. This, on the other side, opens a question of their availability on the routine basis and at reasonable prices. This matter is also discussed in the present review. Production of radionuclides for therapeutic purposes (as well as those for diagnostics) is performed

  12. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (GISPI) was employed to determine the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides on various beaches in and around Saldanha Bay, located on the West Coast of South Africa. Several mathematical techniques were applied to obtain GIS overlay that could be ...

  13. Radionuclides in the clinical study of renal physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.

    1975-01-01

    A view is presented of the use and misuse of some techniques using radionuclides in the measurement of total renal blood flow, the individual contribution of each kidney to total uptake function and the distribution of function between two populations of nephrons in each kidney

  14. Radionuclide scan and other diagnostic studies in goitre patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study were to determine the pattern of radionuclide scan, its accuracy in diagnosing the nature of the lesion of a thyroid disease and comparing this with other available diagnostic techniques. Methods: This was a retrospective study that evaluated 124 patients with goiters who underwent clinical evaluation, ...

  15. Analytical methods for radionuclides in liquid and solid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture describes in vitro techniques for the radiochemical determination and dosimetry of radionuclides in the body that have been metabolized and are in the circulatory system. Measurements are made in the excretions and other body specimens such as blood, perspiration, hair, exhaled air, and tissue. 13 references, 4 tables

  16. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by means of GIS techniques. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work ...

  17. Description of a PCR-based technique for DNA splicing and mutagenesis by producing 5' overhangs with run through stop DNA synthesis utilizing Ara-C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Mel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Splicing of DNA molecules is an important task in molecular biology that facilitates cloning, mutagenesis and creation of chimeric genes. Mutagenesis and DNA splicing techniques exist, some requiring restriction enzymes, and others utilize staggered reannealing approaches. Results A method for DNA splicing and mutagenesis without restriction enzymes is described. The method is based on mild template-dependent polymerization arrest with two molecules of cytosine arabinose (Ara-C incorporated into PCR primers. Two rounds of PCR are employed: the first PCR produces 5' overhangs that are utilized for DNA splicing. The second PCR is based on polymerization running through the Ara-C molecules to produce the desired final product. To illustrate application of the run through stop mutagenesis and DNA splicing technique, we have carried out splicing of two segments of the human cofilin 1 gene and introduced a mutational deletion into the product. Conclusion We have demonstrated the utility of a new PCR-based method for carrying out DNA splicing and mutagenesis by incorporating Ara-C into the PCR primers.

  18. Study of radionuclides speciation with biological molecules of interest by spectrometric techniques; Etude de la speciation des radionucleides avec les molecules d'interet biologique par approche spectrometrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, V

    2007-07-15

    Mechanisms of complexation and accumulation of the radionuclides at the cellular and molecular level are complex and poorly known because the studies on these subjects are scarce. Within the framework of this thesis, we studied the interactions of these cations with biological molecules of interest. We chose to focus on an actinide: uranium (VI) as well as europium as an analogue of trivalent actinides. The selected biological molecules are the phyto-chelatins: their role is to protect cells against intrusions from nonessential heavy metals (thus toxic). These proteins are likely to be implied in the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides in living organisms. However, their structure is complex, this is why, in order to better include/understand their reactivity, we extended our studies to lower entities which constitute them (amino acid: glycine, glutamic acid and cysteine; polypeptides: glutathione reduced and oxidized forms). In particular, we determined solution speciation (stoichiometry, structure) as well as the complexing constants associated with the formation with these species. These studies were undertaken by Time Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Electro-Spray-Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infra-Rouge spectroscopy (FTIR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS).The determination of the complexation constants enabled us to conclude that the complexing capacity of these molecules with respect to radionuclides was moderate (log{sub 10}K{sub 1} {<=} 3, pH 3 or 6), the formed species are mononuclear with only one ligand molecule (1:1). The interaction is performed via oxygenated (hard) groups. The direct complexation of europium with phyto-chelatins at acidic pH was studied jointly by TRLIF and ES-MS. The complexing capacity of these molecules is much higher than that of GSH from which they result. The interaction of europium with metallothioneins is, on the contrary

  19. Radionuclide therapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmedo, H.; Bucerius, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many tumors (like prostate- and breast cancer) induce osseous metastases that need to be treated. Bone targeted radionuclide therapy should be performed at an early stage in patients with painful bone metastases and scintigraphically positive lesions. The combination of external beam irradiation and systemic administration of radionuclides is often advantageous and can be performed without clinical problems. In patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer and bone metastases, radionuclide therapy is increasingly performed as antitumor treatment for asymptomatic patients in clinical trials. By randomised, controlled clinical phase-II studies, it has been shown that new therapy regimens can prolong the progression-free interval and overall survival. New protocols that have been proposed represent the simultaneous application of chemotherapy and radionuclides. Side effects of such protocols are kept within a low toxicity level by reducing the dose of the chemotherapeutic agent (low-dose-chemotherapy). This combined therapy approach, however, is able to generate a radiosensitive state in the tumor cells resulting in an increased tumoricide efficiency of radionuclides. A different, innovative approach is the administration of multiple radionuclide injections at defined time intervals aiming at killing tumor cells with higher radiation doses. Side effects of these new treatment regimens can be scored as moderate. Consequently, in hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients, such new protocols should be considered as an alternative treatment option after standardised therapy regimens have been accomplished. In this situation, extensive experience for treating and selecting appropriate patients is crucial. A randomised pase-III study for the prove of an increased progression-free interval and overall-survival by radionuclide therapy is still missing. (orig.)

  20. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring (Project Number: 70179)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2002-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem requiring monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to the analytical laboratory where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90 Sr, 99 Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector using automated microfluidics for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field analytical chemistry

  1. EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, B.; Lindhardt, T.B.; Acampa, W.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging of cardiac function represents a number of well-validated techniques for accurate determination of right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and LV volumes. These first European guidelines give recommendations for how and when to use first-pass and equilibrium...... radionuclide ventriculography, gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, gated PET, and studies with non-imaging devices for the evaluation of cardiac function. The items covered are presented in 11 sections: clinical indications, radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry, study acquisition, RV EF, LV EF, LV volumes...

  2. Radionuclide venography of the lower limbs in pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Ricco, G.; Formichi, B.; Marini, C.; Rindi, M.; Solfanelli, S.; Giuntini, C.

    1986-01-01

    In 62 unselected patients affected by pulmonary embolism, radionuclide venography of the lower limbs was performed in order to detect the source of the emboli. Vascular obstruction were found in the deep veins in 13 cases, in the superficial veins in another 13, while in 3 patients both veneous systems were affected. These results suggest that a relationship between superficial vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism exists. Radionuclide venography allowed us to detect venous obstruction in 6 out of 15 patients with pulmonary embolism but without both anamnesic and clinical evidence of venous thrombosis; hence, this technique may be useful in all cases of pulmonary embolism of unknown origin

  3. Radionuclide assessment of pulmonary microvascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, A.B.J. [Medical Intensive Care Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Free University Hospital, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-04-01

    The literature has been reviewed to evaluate the technique and clinical value of radionuclide measurements of microvascular permeability and oedema formation in the lungs. Methodology, modelling and interpretation vary widely among studies. Nevertheless, most studies agree on the fact that the measurement of permeability via pulmonary radioactivity measurements of intravenously injected radiolabelled proteins versus that in the blood pool, the so-called pulmonary protein transport rate (PTR), can assist the clinician in discriminating between permeability oedema of the lungs associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and oedema caused by an increased filtration pressure, for instance in the course of cardiac disease, i.e. pressure-induced pulmonary oedema. Some of the techniques used to measure PTR are also able to detect subclinical forms of lung microvascular injury not yet complicated by permeability oedema. This may occur after cardiopulmonary bypass and major vascular surgery, for instance. By paralleling the clinical severity and course of the ARDS, the PTR method may also serve as a tool to evaluate new therapies for the syndrome. Taken together, the currently available radionuclide methods, which are applicable at the bedside in the intensive care unit, may provide a gold standard for detecting minor and major forms of acute microvascular lung injury, and for evaluating the severity, course and response to treatment. (orig.). With 2 tabs.

  4. Radionuclide studies in paediatric nephro-urology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy E-mail: amypiepsz@yahoo.com

    2002-08-01

    The main tool of radionuclide techniques applied to paediatric uro-nephrology is the quantitation of function, which is an information not easily obtained by other diagnostic modalities. The radiation burden is low. Drug sedation is only rarely needed, whatever the age of the patient. Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate can be obtained by means of an intravenous injection of Cr-51 EDTA and one or two blood samples. Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy is an accurate method for evaluation of regional cortical impairment during acute pyelonephritis and later on, for detection of permanent scarring. Tc-99m MAG3 renography is nowadays a well-standardized method for accurate estimation of the split renal function and of renal drainage with or without furosemide challenge. This technique is particularly indicated in uni- or bilateral uropathies with or without renal and/or ureteral dilatation. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography are two alternative modalities for X-ray MCUG. Their relative place in the strategy of management of vesicoureteral reflux is discussed.

  5. Radionuclide imaging of the lower genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, P.A.; Pjura, G.A.; Kin, E.E.; Brown, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    The major use of radionuclide cystography is in the management of children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Reflux is common, occurring in one-third to one-half of children with urinary tract infection. The significance of VUR lies in its associated symptoms and consequences, which include impaired renal growth and function, vague ill health, renal pain, and more importantly the development of reflux nephropathy, a significant cause of end-stage renal disease and hypertension in children. Although reflux may resolve spontaneously, particularly milder degrees of reflux, the age at which this may occur is unpredictable and repeated follow-up cystography over a number of years may be necessary. Therefore, it is important to minimize radiation to the child while providing accurate diagnostic information. This paper discusses how the technique of radionuclide cystography compares favorably with routine contrast voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in these respects, and in addition can provide quantitative information not obtained by radiographic techniques. Other indications may include screening siblings of patients known to have reflux, follow-up of antireflux surgery and occasionally screening for reflux in children who have had urinary tract infection

  6. The utility of ultrasonographic bone age determination in detecting growth disturbances; a comparative study with the conventional radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem; Arami, Sara [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghojazadeh, Morteza [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To test whether the conventional radiographic technique in determining bone age abnormalities can be replaced by ultrasonography. A total of 54 Caucasian subjects up to 7 years of age with clinically suspected growth problems underwent left hand and wrist radiographic and ultrasonographic bone age estimations with the use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The ultrasonographic scans targeted the ossification centers in the radius and ulna distal epiphysis, carpal bones, epiphyses of the first and third metacarpals, and epiphysis of the middle phalanx, as described in previous reports. The degree of agreement between the two sets of data, as well as the accuracy of the ultrasonographic method in detecting radiographically suggested bone age abnormities, was examined. The mean chronological age, radiographic bone age, and ultrasonographic bone age (all in months) were 41.96 ± 22.25, 26.68 ± 14.08, and 26.71 ± 13.50 in 28 boys and 43.62 ± 24.63, 30.12 ± 17.69, and 31.27 ± 18.06 in 26 girls, respectively. According to the Bland-Altman plot there was high agreement between the results of the two methods with only three outliers. The deviations in bone age from the chronological age taken by the two techniques had the same sign in all patients. Supposing radiography to be the method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of sonography in detecting growth abnormalities were all 100 % in males and 90.9, 100, 100, and 93.8 %, respectively, in females. The conventional radiographic technique for determining bone age abnormalities could be replaced by ultrasonography. (orig.)

  7. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  8. Recent Advances in Digital Coincidence Counting for Radionuclide Metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keightley, John; Bobin, Christophe; Bouchard, Jacques; Capogni, Marco; Loreti, Stefano; Roteta, Miguel

    2013-06-01

    The radioactivity measurement techniques developed within the EURAMET EMRP 'MetroFission' Joint Research Project, were aimed at performing on-site activity measurements at the primary standard level (4πβ-γ coincidence counting) for a wide range of radionuclides utilizing recent advances in high-speed digital sampling and digital signal processing. The state-of-the-art technology employed within this project provides up to 14-bit digitizer systems operating with sampling rates in the order of 10 8 to 10 9 samples-per-second, incorporating on-board FPGA devices, which greatly enhances the application of digital signal processing for the implementation of digital coincidence counting. These devices when coupled to suitable analysis software, demonstrate a significant improvement in the provision of primary standards of radioactivity. This manuscript provides a description of the systems employed, along with recommendations regarding optimization of the digital sampling of signals from photo-multiplier tubes and pre-amplifiers and compare the benefits of 'off-line' versus 'on-line' 4πβ-γ digital coincidence counting systems. (authors)

  9. Utility of Indocyanine Green Video Angiography for Sylvian Fissure Dissection in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients - Sylvian ICG Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Nobuhisa; Ogawa, Yukari; Kinoshita, Keita; Satoh, Kohei; Takai, Hiroki; Hirai, Satoshi; Hara, Keijiro; Matsubara, Shunji; Uno, Masaaki

    2018-02-15

    Indocyanine green (ICG) emits fluorescence in the far-red domain under light excitation. ICG video angiography (ICG-VA) has been established as a useful method to evaluate blood flow in the operative field. We report the usefulness of ICG-VA for Sylvian fissure dissection in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subjects comprised 7 patients who underwent ICG-VA before opening the Sylvian fissure during neck clipping for ruptured cerebral aneurysm. We observed contrasted Sylvian veins before opening the Sylvian fissure using surgical microscopes. This procedure was termed "Sylvian ICG". We observed ICG fluorescence quickly in all cases. Sylvian veins that appeared unclear in the standard microscopic operative field covered with subarachnoid hemorrhage were extremely clearly depicted. These Sylvian ICG findings were helpful in identifying entry points and the dissecting course of the Sylvian fissure. At the time of clipping, no residual fluorescence from Sylvian ICG was present, and aneurysm clipping was not impeded. Sylvian ICG for SAH patients is a novel technique to facilitate dissection of the Sylvian fissure. We believe that this technique will contribute to improved safety of clipping surgery for ruptured aneurysms.

  10. Correction of angular limb deformity in two subspecies of flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) utilizing a transphyseal bridging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, Tawnia J; Backues, Kay A; Burgos-Rodriguez, Armando G

    2005-12-01

    Three hand-raised American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber) chicks and one hand-raised Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber chilensis) developed valgus angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsal bone. All flamingos underwent surgical correction to unequally retard the growth plate using transphyseal bridging. Positive profile pins were placed in the proximal epiphysis and distal to the growth plate in the metaphysis on the convex side of the affected tarsometatarsus. Various banding techniques were used in each flamingo to create tension. Three of the four flamingos responded in 7-14 days with correction or slight overcorrection of the valgus limb deformity. The fourth flamingo's leg deformity did not improve for reasons thought to be related to improper implant placement. Growth plate retardation by transphyseal bridging proved successful in correcting valgus limb deformity of the proximal tarsometatarsus. This technique may be considered as an option for correction of angular limb deformities of the proximal tarsometatarsus in flamingos less than 90-120 days of age.

  11. Applying multivariate clustering techniques to health data: the 4 types of healthcare utilization in the Paris metropolitan area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lefèvre

    Full Text Available Cost containment policies and the need to satisfy patients' health needs and care expectations provide major challenges to healthcare systems. Identification of homogeneous groups in terms of healthcare utilisation could lead to a better understanding of how to adjust healthcare provision to society and patient needs.This study used data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study, a representative, population-based, socio-epidemiological study set up in 2005 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. The data were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals were interviewed in their homes. Non-conventional multivariate clustering techniques were used to determine homogeneous user groups in data. Multinomial models assessed a wide range of potential associations between user characteristics and their pattern of healthcare utilisation.We identified four distinct patterns of healthcare use. Patterns of consumption and the socio-demographic characteristics of users differed qualitatively and quantitatively between these four profiles. Extensive and intensive use by older, wealthier and unhealthier people contrasted with narrow and parsimonious use by younger, socially deprived people and immigrants. Rare, intermittent use by young healthy men contrasted with regular targeted use by healthy and wealthy women.The use of an original technique of massive multivariate analysis allowed us to characterise different types of healthcare users, both in terms of resource utilisation and socio-demographic variables. This method would merit replication in different populations and healthcare systems.

  12. Seminar on utilization of nuclear techniques in the agricultural research carried out in FONAIAP. Abstracts and lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero S, Alfredo

    1997-01-01

    The lectures included in this seminar are related to: development and evaluation of prophylactic methods to control the anaplasmosis and babesiosis (babesia bovis) in the livestock; the diagnosis of bovine basesiosis (babesia bovis) by means of the test of ELISA; validation of the kit ELISA (FAO, OIEA, PANAFTOSA) to determine antibodies against the virus of the foot and mouth disease; variability generation in sugar cane for resistance to mosaic viruses and rusts (puccinia melanocephala) by means of the cultivation of explants and irradiated callus; bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding; biological fixation of nitrogen in three tropical feed crops leguminous and its transfer to Brachiaria humidicola in association; unit of stable isotopic N 1 5 analysis; effect of the efficiency of N by use of different forms of fertilizer application in ground, evaluated by means of the isotopic technique and the N absorbed by the cultivation; application of progesterone and testosterone in the diagnose and control of reproduction in crossbreeds animal husbandry; advances in the monitoring of production systems in double purpose cattle raising in the area of Guayabal, Guarico State; aquatic investigations with nuclear energy techniques; development of the Venezuelan Edaphological Bibliographic Database [es

  13. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  14. Graphic display of internal doses from multiple uptakes of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Personnel routinely working in a contaminated area may receive small uptakes of radionuclides. The amount and behavior of the inhaled and/of ingested radionuclides can be established from a bioassay and in vivo measurements. The dose evaluation of the uptake becomes complex when there are several radionuclides involved and when multiple exposures are experienced over a long period of time. A computer is used to calculate the dose and to display graphically the dose received by an organ as it is accumulated along with the projected dose. This paper presents graphic displays of actual multiple internal doses received by a radiation worker and presents the techniques used to calculate and display the doses

  15. SCATTER: Source and Transport of Emplaced Radionuclides: Code documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longsine, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    SCATTER simulated several processes leading to the release of radionuclides to the site subsystem and then simulates transport via the groundwater of the released radionuclides to the biosphere. The processes accounted for to quantify release rates to a ground-water migration path include radioactive decay and production, leaching, solubilities, and the mixing of particles with incoming uncontaminated fluid. Several decay chains of arbitrary length can be considered simultaneously. The release rates then serve as source rates to a numerical technique which solves convective-dispersive transport for each decay chain. The decay chains are allowed to have branches and each member can have a different radioactive factor. Results are cast as radionuclide discharge rates to the accessible environment

  16. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  17. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: vc@cdtn.b, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Oliveira, Arno H. de, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  18. Utilization technique of 'radiation management manual in medical field (2012).' What should be learnt from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    From the abstract of contents of the 'Radiation management manual in medical field (2012),' the utilization technique of the manual is introduced. Introduced items are as follows: (1) Exposure management; exposure management for radiation medical workers, patients, and citizens in the medical field, and exposure management for radiation workers and citizens involved in the emergency work related to the Fukushima nuclear accident, (2) Health management; health management for radiation medical workers, (3) Radiation education: Education/training for radiation medical workers, and radiation education for health care workers, (4) Accident and emergency measures; emergency actions involved in the radiation accidents and radiation medicine at medical facilities

  19. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  20. Utilization of γ-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Hirokatsu

    1997-01-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed γ-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of γ-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of γ-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of γ-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  1. Utilization of a Technique of Percutaneous S2 Alar-Iliac Fixation in Immunocompromised Patients with Spondylodiscitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funao, Haruki; Kebaish, Khaled M; Isogai, Norihiro; Koyanagi, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Morio; Ishii, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Spondylodiscitis still remains a serious problem, especially in immunocompromised patients. Surgery is necessary when nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. Although minimally invasive spine stabilization (MISt) with percutaneous pedicle screws is less invasive, percutaneous sacropelvic fixation techniques are not common practice. Here, we describe 2 cases in which spondylodiscitis in the lumbosacral spine was treated with percutaneous stabilization using an S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw technique. Case 1 is a 77-year-old man who presented with low back pain and high fever. He was diagnosed with spondylodiscitis at L4-5. He had a history of lung cancer, which was complicated by the recurrence. Because nonsurgical treatment failed, MISt with percutaneous S2AI screws was performed. The patient's low back pain subsided markedly 1 week after surgery, and there was no screw/rod breakage or recurrence of infection during the follow-up period. Case 2 is a 71-year-old man who presented with hemiparesis because of a stroke. He also developed high fever and was diagnosed with spondylodiscitis at L5-S1. Because nonsurgical treatment failed, the patient was treated by MISt with percutaneous S2AI screws while being maintained on anticoagulants for stroke. Although his clinical symptoms had markedly improved, a postoperative lumbar computed tomography scan demonstrated a bone defect at L5-S1. An anterior spinal fusion with an iliac bone graft at L5-S1 was performed when a temporary cessation of anticoagulants was permitted. Both patients tolerated the procedures well and had no major perioperative complications. MISt with percutaneous S2AI screws was less invasive and efficacious for lumbosacral spondylodiscitis in providing rigid percutaneous sacropelvic fixation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radionuclide Therapy for Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cives, Mauro; Strosberg, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a form of systemic radiotherapy that allows targeted delivery of radionuclides to tumor cells expressing high levels of somatostatin receptors. The two radiopeptides most commonly used for PRRT, 90 Y-DOTATOC and 177 Lu-DOTATATE, have been successfully employed for more than a decade for the treatment of advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Recently, the phase III, randomized NETTER-1 trial has compared 177 Lu-DOTATATE versus high-dose octreotide LAR in patients with progressive, metastatic midgut NETs, demonstrating exceptional tolerability and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments in the field of radionuclide therapy for gastroenteropancreatic and lung NETs and considers possible strategies to further enhance its clinical efficacy.

  3. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  4. Determination of Long-lived Radionuclides in the Environment using ICP-MS and AMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    ICP-MS and AMS have been widely used for the measurement of radionuclides, especially long-lived radionculides. The new progress, major advantages of these two techniques and their major applications for measurement of important radionculides are summarized.......ICP-MS and AMS have been widely used for the measurement of radionuclides, especially long-lived radionculides. The new progress, major advantages of these two techniques and their major applications for measurement of important radionculides are summarized....

  5. Prediction of radionuclide accumulation in main ecosystem components of NPP cooling water reservoirs and assessment of acceptable radionuclide disposal into water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of prediction of radionuclide accumulation in ecosystem main components of NPP cooling water-reservoirs (CWR) and assessment of radionuclide acceptable disposal into water reservoir are considered. Two models are nessecary for the calculation technique: model of radionuclide migration and accumulation in CWR ecosystem components and calculation model of population dose commitment due to water consumption (at the public health approach to the normalization of the NPP radioactive effect on CWC) or calculation model of dose commitment on hydrocenosis components (at the ecological approach to the normalization). Analytical calculations and numerical calculation results in the model CWC, located in the USSR middle region, are presented

  6. Utilization of Geospatial Techniques for Extraction of Suitable River Islands for Construction of Eco-Friendly Tourism Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, K.

    2016-02-01

    In India, most of the rivers form big size natural islands due to change in its course. However, identification of suitable river island for construction of Eco-friendly parks/tourist destination is a very challenging task since these are exposed to river flooding. River islands which are least vulnerable to the impact of severe flooding can be a suitable place for construction of tourism destination such as eco-friendly Parks, Hotels etc. The study involves a two step approach viz. automatic extraction of river islands and model development for flood inundation mapping for extraction of eco-friendly tourism destinations. In this study, automatic extraction of the river islands has been carried out using knowledge based classification approach. The satellite data acquired by the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites sensors such as LISS-III and Cartosat-1 DEM have been used for analyses. In the first step, satellite imagery has been broadly categorized into 5 landuse/cover classes viz. Water, Sand, Islands, Settlements and Cropland. Extraction of such islands which remain unaffected during severe flooding has been accomplished with the flood inundation mapping which has been carried out in HEC-GeoRas with in GIS environment. The model utilizes the primary 4 inputs viz. geometry of the river (DEM, slope), time series data of water surface elevation, landuse/cover, and location of rain gauge station for flood inundation mapping. This paper also investigates the applicability of the eco-island concept to include protection of wetland, management of land-resources, sustainable use of natural resources and construction of ecological park/hotels. The output of the study will be very useful for Government authorities in stabilizing economy, and enhancing the tourism infrastructure in a better way.

  7. Radionuclide migration through fractured granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grondin, D.M.; Vandergraaf, T.T.; Drew, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide migration has been studied in natural fractures in granite blocks of up to 30 cm in length. Results are reported for four migration experiments involving synthetic groundwaters containing tritiated water, 95m Tc, 75 Se, 137 Cs, or 60 Co-labelled natural colloids, which were injected into the fractures at flow rates of 0.4-0.45 mL/h, giving residence times in the fractures of up to 15 h. Also presented are the results of the post-experiment analyses, including an autoradiograph of one of the fracture surfaces, and the spatial distribution of the sorbed radionuclides determined by γ-scanning and selective chemical extractions

  8. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  9. Current surgical treatment option, utilizing robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in obese women with endometrial cancer: Farghalys technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endometrial cancer is the most prevalent cancer of the female genital tract in North America. Minimally invasive laparoscopic-assisted surgery and panniculectomy in obese women with endometrial cancer are associated with an improved lymph node count, and lower rate of incisional complications than laparotomy. Methods: Technique for robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery for obese women with endometrial cancer is detailed. Results: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgical staging, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and panniculectomy allow us to avoid the use of postoperative pelvic radiation which is recommended in women with histopathology high-risk findings: deep myometrial invasion or high grade histology. The procedure has the advantage of three-dimensional vision, ergonomic, intuitive control, and wristed instrument that approximate the motion of the human hand. Conclusion: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgical staging, and panniculectomy in these patients are a safe, and effective alternative to laparoscopic, and laparotomy surgery. It is an ideal tool for performing the complex oncologic procedures encountered in endometrial cancer staging that requires delicate retroperitoneal, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, while maintaining the principles of oncologic surgery but in a minimally invasive fashion.

  10. Utilization of noise analysis technique for mechanical vibrations estimation in the ATUCHA1 and Embalse Argentine NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, V.H.; Wentzeis, L.M.; Guevara, M.; Moreno, C.; Pineyro, J.

    1996-01-01

    In Argentine, comprehensive noise measurements have been performed with the reactor instrumentation of the PHWR power plant Atucha I and Embalse. The Embalse reactor is a CANDU-600 (600 Mwe) type pressurized heavy water reactor. It's a heavy water moderator and heavy water cooled natural uranium fueled pressure tube system. Signal of vanadium and platinum type in core-self power neutron detectors of ex-core ion chambers and of a moderator pressure sensor have been recorded and analysed. The vibration of reactor internals as vertical and horizontal in-core neutron flux detectors units and the coolant channels systems, consisting of calandria and pressure tubes with fuel bundles, have been identified and monitored during normal reactor operation. Atucha I, is a PHWR reactor natural uranium fueled, and heavy water moderated and cooled. Neutron noise techniques using of ex-core ionization chambers and in-core Vanadium SPND's were implemented, among others, in order to produce early detection of anomalous vibrations in the reactor internals. Noise analysis was successfully performed to identify normal and peculiar vibrations in particular reactor internals. (author)

  11. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. The presence of a large number of fission products along with multiple oxidation state long-lived radionuclides such as neptunium ((237)Np), plutonium ((239)Pu), americium ((241/243)Am) and curium ((245)Cm) make the waste streams a potential radiological threat to the environment. Commonly high concentrations of cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr) are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue. Heavy metals occur naturally in the earth crust and in low concentration, are also essential for the metabolism of living beings. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals causes hazardous effects. These pollutants enter the human body directly via contaminated drinking water or through the food chain. This issue has drawn the attention of scientists throughout the world to device eco-friendly treatments to remediate the soil and water resources. Various physical and chemical treatments are being applied to clean the waste, but these techniques are quite expensive, complicated and comprise various side effects. One of the promising techniques, which has been pursued vigorously to overcome these demerits, is phytoremediation. The process is very effective, eco-friendly, easy and affordable. This technique utilizes the plants and its associated microbes to decontaminate the low and moderately contaminated sites efficiently. Many plant species are successfully used for remediation of contaminated soil and water systems. Remediation of these systems turns into a serious problem due to various anthropogenic activities that have

  12. Genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected crops in low income food deficit countries through irradiation and related techniques. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    The majority of the world's food is produced from only a few crops, and yet many neglected and under-utilized crops are extremely important for food production in low income food deficit countries (LIFDCs). As the human population grows at an alarming rate in LIFDCs, food availability has declined and is also affected due to environmental factors, lack of improvement of local crop species, erosion of genetic diversity and dependence on a few crop species for food supply. Neglected crops are traditionally grown by farmers in their centres of origin or centres of diversity, where they are still important for the subsistence of local communities, and maintained by socio-cultural preferences and traditional uses. These crops remain inadequately characterised and, until very recently, have been largely ignored by research and conservation. Farmers are losing these crops because they are less competitive with improved major crop species. Radiation-induced mutation techniques have successfully been used that benefited the most genetic improvement of 'major crops' and their know-how have a great potential for enhancing the use of under-utilized and neglected species and speeding up their domestication and crop improvement. The FAO/IAEA efforts on genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected species play a strategic role in complementing the work that is being carried out worldwide in their promotion. This CRP entitled Genetic Improvement of Under-utilized and Neglected Crops in LIFDCs through Irradiation and Related Techniques was initiated in 1998 with an overall objective to improve food security, enhance nutritional balance, and promote sustainable agriculture in LIFDCs. Specific objectives addressed major constraints to productivity of neglected and under-utilized crops by genetic improvement with radiation-induced mutations and biotechnology in order to enhance economic viability and sustain crop species diversity, and in future to benefit small farmers. This

  13. Wind Transport of Radionuclide- Bearing Dust, Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, R.; Goodell, P. C.; Gill, T. E.; Arimoto, R.

    2007-05-01

    This investigation evaluates radionuclide fractionation during wind erosion of high-grade uranium ore storage piles at Peña Blanca (50km north of Chihuahua City), Chihuahua, Mexico. The aridity of the local environment promotes dust resuspension by high winds. Although active operations ceased in 1983, the Peña Blanca mining district is one of Mexico`s most important uranium ore reserves. The study site contains piles of high grade ore, left loose on the surface, and separated by the specific deposits from which they were derived (Margaritas, Nopal I, and Puerto I). Similar locations do not exist in the United States, since uranium mining sites in the USA have been reclaimed. The Peña Blanca site serves as an analog for the Yucca Mountain project. Dust deposition is collected at Peña Blanca with BSNE sediment catchers (Fryrear, 1986) and marble dust traps (Reheis, 1999). These devices capture windblown sediment; subsequently, the sample data will help quantify potentially radioactive short term field sediment loss from the repository surface and determine sediment flux. Aerosols and surface materials will be analyzed and radioactivity levels established utilizing techniques such as gamma spectroscopy. As a result, we will be able to estimate how much radionuclide contaminated dust is being transported or attached geochemically to fine grain soils or minerals (e.g., clays or iron oxides). The high-grade uranium-bearing material is at secular equilibrium, thus the entire decay series is present. Of resulting interest is not only the aeolian transport of uranium, but also of the other daughter products. These studies will improve our understanding of geochemical cycling of radionuclides with respect to sources, transport, and deposition. The results may also have important implications for the geosciences and homeland security, and potential applications to public health. Funding for this project is provided in part via a NSF grant to Arimoto.

  14. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  15. Utilization of combined remote sensing techniques to detect environmental variables influencing malaria vector densities in rural West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambach Peter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of remote sensing has found its way into the field of epidemiology within the last decades. With the increased sensor resolution of recent and future satellites new possibilities emerge for high resolution risk modeling and risk mapping. Methods A SPOT 5 satellite image, taken during the rainy season 2009 was used for calculating indices by combining the image's spectral bands. Besides the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI other indices were tested for significant correlation against field observations. Multiple steps, including the detection of surface water, its breeding appropriateness for Anopheles and modeling of vector imagines abundance, were performed. Data collection on larvae, adult vectors and geographic parameters in the field, was amended by using remote sensing techniques to gather data on altitude (Digital Elevation Model = DEM, precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission = TRMM, land surface temperatures (LST. Results The DEM derived altitude as well as indices calculations combining the satellite's spectral bands (NDTI = Normalized Difference Turbidity Index, NDWI Mac Feeters = Normalized Difference Water Index turned out to be reliable indicators for surface water in the local geographic setting. While Anopheles larvae abundance in habitats is driven by multiple, interconnected factors - amongst which the NDVI - and precipitation events, the presence of vector imagines was found to be correlated negatively to remotely sensed LST and positively to the cumulated amount of rainfall in the preceding 15 days and to the Normalized Difference Pond Index (NDPI within the 500 m buffer zone around capture points. Conclusions Remotely sensed geographical and meteorological factors, including precipitations, temperature, as well as vegetation, humidity and land cover indicators could be used as explanatory variables for surface water presence, larval development and imagines

  16. Utility of single shot fast spin echo technique in evaluating pancreaticobiliary diseases: T2-weighted image and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Myeong Jin; Chung, Jae Bok; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Chung, Jae Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of T2-weighted imaging an MR cholangiopancreatography using the single shot fast spin-echo technique for evaluating pancreaticobiliary disease. Between March and July 1997, axial and coronal T2-weighted images(TE: 80-200 msec) and MR cholangiopancreatograms (TE: 800-1200 msec) were obtained in two ways [single slab (thickness: 30-50 mm) and multislice acquisition under chemical fat saturation] using SSFSE pulse sequencing in 131 cases of suspected pancreati-cobiliary disease. The accuracy of SSFSE MR imaging was assessed in 89 lesions of 74 patients [male, 48; female, 26; age range, 30-86 (mean, 59) years] confirmed surgicopathologically (50 lesions in 39 patients) and clinically (39 lesions in 35 patients). Two radiologists reviewed the MR images and diagnosis was determined by consensus. Correct diagnosis was confirmed in 84 of 89 lesions (94%). Seven lesions were falsely interpreted, false positive and false negative results accounting for two and five cases, respectively. Two pancreatic cancers were misdiagnosed as pancreatitis and a cancer of the proximal common bile duct(CBD) was interpreted as a distal CBD cancer. The sensitivity of SSFSE MR imaging for malignancy was 93 %. One CBD stone revealed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was not detected on MR images. In contrast, a stone in the CBD seen on MR images was not apparent on subsequent ERCP. Sensitivity and specificity for calculous disease were 96% and 99.7%, respectively. A benign stricture of the ampulla of Vater was falsely interpreted as normal, and correct diagnosis was possible in two falsely diagnosed cases when MR images were reviewed retrospectively. The combination of T2-weighted and cholangiographic images using SSFSE is an accurate method for diagnosing pancreatcobiliary diseases

  17. A kinetic-allometric approach to predicting tissue radionuclide concentrations for biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higley, K. A.; Domotor, S. L.; Antonio, E. J.

    2003-01-01

    Allometry, or the biology of scaling, is the study of size and its consequences. It has become a useful tool for comparative phsiology. There are several allometric equations that relate body size to many parameters, including ingestion rate, lifespan, inhalation rate, home range and more. While these equations were originally derived from empirical observations, there is a growing body of evidence that these relationships have their origins in the dynamics of energy transport mechanisms. As part of an ongoing effort to assist the Department of Energy in developing generic methods for evaluating radiation dose to biota, we have examined the utility of applyig allometric techniques to predicting radionuclide tissue concentration across a large range of terrestrial and riparian species of animals. This particular study examined twenty-three elements. Initial investigations suggest that the allometric approach can provide a useful tool to derive limiting values of uptake and elimination factors for biota.

  18. Sorption of radionuclides by tertiary clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.; Czurda, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The sorption capacity of different clay types for some metals (Co, Cs, Sr and Zn), occurring as common radionuclides in radioactive waste deposits, had been analysed by a static (batch technique) and a dynamic method (percolation tests, in which the driving force is a hydraulic gradient). Sorption capacity generally increased with an increasing pH of solution. A decrease of sorption capacity had been observed in the order Zn > Cs ≥ Co > Sr for the batch and Cs > Zn > Sr > Co for the percolation tests. Clay marls showed a distinctly higher sorption respectively retention capacity as pure clays. Sorption capacity depends on solution parameters like type and concentration of radionuclide, pH, salt concentration, etc., and on rock parameters like mineral content (e.g. swelling clay minerals and carbonates), organic material, rock pH, micro fabric, etc. A third parameter of great influence is the contact time between clay and solution. The adsorption isotherms reflect two different adsorption mechanisms: a very rapid adsorption (a few minutes) on the external surfaces of clay minerals and a slow adsorption process (weeks and longer), due to the diffusion of metal ions into the interlayer space of clay minerals. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  19. Uptake of radionuclides from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.

    1980-01-01

    The field studies by the KFA Juelich to determine the transfer factors for the radionuclides 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn are reported about. Potatoes, sugar beets, winter wheat, spring barley, clover, alfalfa and ray grass, and in some cases also field vegetables were used. The influence of soil properties on the transfer factors is investigated. (MG) [de

  20. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  1. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-02-11

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality.

  2. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  3. Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the ''Holy Gray''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brans, B.; Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Tennvall, J.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose-response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. (orig.)

  4. Modeling Radionuclide Transport in Clays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Lianchong [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, Jonny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Hui -Hai [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Clay/shale has been considered as potential host rock for geological disposal of high-level nuclear waste throughout the world, because of its low permeability, low diffusion coefficient, high retention capacity for radionuclides, and capability to self-seal fractures induced by tunnel excavation. For example, Callovo-Oxfordian argillites at the Bure site, France (Fouche et al., 2004), Toarcian argillites at the Tournemire site, France (Patriarche et al., 2004), Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri site, Switzerland (Meier et al., 2000), and Boom clay at the Mol site, Belgium (Barnichon and Volckaert, 2003) have all been under intensive scientific investigation (at both field and laboratory scales) for understanding a variety of rock properties and their relationships to flow and transport processes associated with geological disposal of nuclear waste. Clay/shale formations may be generally classified as indurated or plastic clays (Tsang and Hudson, 2010). The latter (including Boom clay) is a softer material without high cohesion; its deformation is dominantly plastic. During the lifespan of a clay repository, the repository performance is affected by complex thermal, hydrogeological, mechanical, chemical (THMC) processes, such as heat release due to radionuclide decay, multiphase flow, formation of damage zones, radionuclide transport, waste dissolution, and chemical reactions. All these processes are related to each other. An in-depth understanding of these coupled processes is critical for the performance assessment (PA) of the repository. These coupled processes may affect radionuclide transport by changing transport paths (e.g., formation and evolution of excavation damaged zone (EDZ)) and altering flow, mineral, and mechanical properties that are related to radionuclide transport. While radionuclide transport in clay formation has been studied using laboratory tests (e,g, Appelo et al. 2010, Garcia-Gutierrez et al., 2008, Maes et al., 2008), short-term field

  5. Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Mori, A

    2007-09-12

    In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np) in the fracture-granite interface zones. Long-lived {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 237}Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the adjacent rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA/ICP-MS technique. The injected sorbing actinides are mainly located within the advective flowing fractures and the immediately adjacent regions. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. These actinides did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as the relatively higher-porosity granite matrix, most likely due to the low porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and diffusivity of the fracture wall (a thickness of about 0.4 mm separates the mylonite region from the fracture) and the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for the more diffusive {sup 237}Np over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modeling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results. Measured apparent diffusivity of multiple tracers in granite provided consistent predictions for radionuclide transport in the fractured granitic rock.

  6. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Assessment of litter prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in preweaned piglets utilizing an antemortem tracheobronchial mucus collection technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Karriker, Locke; Main, Rodger; Christianson, Eric; Marsteller, Thomas; Hammen, Kristin; Bates, Jessica; Thomas, Paul; Ellingson, Josh; Harmon, Karen; Abate, Sarah; Crawford, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    The swine industry currently lacks validated antemortem methods of detecting baseline herd prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The focus of our study was to evaluate alternative antemortem detection techniques and to determine baseline litter prevalence in preweaned pig populations utilizing the selected technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Preliminary data was analyzed on weaned piglets with evidence of respiratory disease (n = 32). Five sample types (antemortem nasal swab, tracheobronchial mucus, postmortem deep airway swab, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung tissue) were collected from each pig. Individual samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae using qPCR. Compared to nasal swabs, tracheobronchial mucus demonstrated higher test sensitivity (P hyopneumoniae. Two out of 180 litters revealed a positive result (1.1%). Individual qPCR assays were run on the samples collected from sow farm 4. Five out of 30 samples revealed a positive result (16.7%). Tracheobronchial mucus collection in combination with qPCR is a sensitive antemortem sampling technique that can be used to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in preweaned pigs, thus providing insight into the infection dynamics across the entire farrow-to-finish process. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  9. Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been initiated of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10 4 . In 1956 and 1958 considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies, have largely been confined to a few radionuclides, and most of the work in the last twenty years has been done in the northern hemisphere. The authors participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. The authors were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides 7 Be, 40 K, and the U and Th series, and they believe that they have detected low levels of 144 Ce and 95 Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68 0 . Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  10. Non-invasive measurement of stroke volume and left ventricular ejection fraction. Radionuclide cardiography compared with left ventricular cardioangiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Aldershvile, J

    2011-01-01

    The stroke volume (SV) was determined by first passage radionuclide cardiography and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by multigated radionuclide cardiography in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease. The results were evaluated against those obtained by the invasive dye dilution...... or thermodilution and left ventricular cardioangiographic techniques. In a paired comparison the mean difference between the invasive and radionuclide SV was -1 ml (SED 3.1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.83 (p less than 0.01). Radionuclide LVEF values also correlated well with cardioangiographic measurements......, r = 0.93 (p less than 0.001). LVEF determined by multigated radionuclide cardiography was, however, significantly lower than when measured by cardioangiography, the mean difference being 6 per cent (p less than 0.001). These findings suggest that radionuclide determinations of SV and LVEF...

  11. Grading of vesicoureteral reflux by radionuclide cystography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fretzayas, A.; Karpathios, T.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1984-03-01

    Thirty-six children with urinary tract infection aged 6 months to 14 years (mean age 4 1/2 years) were studied sequentially using direct radionuclide (RNC) and conventional voiding cystourethrography (VCU). Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was detected equally well by both methods. Twenty-seven refluxing ureters were foand by RNC, 23 by VCU and 22 by both methods. Radiologic grade of reflux may be determined approximately with the isotope technique from the volume of regurgitating urine und duration of reflux, at a much decreased radiation exposure. Residual urine was also measured by RNC and found to be higher in children with VUR. RNC is a reliable method for detecting and grading VUR and should effectively replace VCU as the follow-up examination of choice.

  12. Clinical utility of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique in identification of aetiology of unexplained mental retardation: A study in 203 Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay R Boggula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Developmental delay (DD/mental retardation also described as intellectual disability (ID, is seen in 1-3 per cent of general population. Diagnosis continues to be a challenge at clinical level. With the advancement of new molecular cytogenetic techniques such as cytogenetic microarray (CMA, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA techniques, many microdeletion/microduplication syndromes with DD/ID are now delineated. MLPA technique can probe 40-50 genomic regions in a single reaction and is being used for evaluation of cases with DD/ID. In this study we evaluated the clinical utility of MLPA techniques with different probe sets to identify the aetiology of unexplained mental retardation in patients with ID/DD. Methods: A total of 203 randomly selected DD/ID cases with/without malformations were studied. MLPA probe sets for subtelomeric regions (P070/P036 and common microdeletions/microduplications (P245-A2 and X-chromosome (P106 were used. Positive cases with MLPA technique were confirmed using either fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH or follow up confirmatory MLPA probe sets. Results: The overall detection rate was found to be 9.3 per cent (19 out of 203. The detection rates were 6.9 and 7.4 per cent for common microdeletion/microduplication and subtelomeric probe sets, respectively. No abnormality was detected with probe set for X-linked ID. The subtelomeric abnormalities detected included deletions of 1p36.33, 4p, 5p, 9p, 9q, 13q telomeric regions and duplication of 9pter. The deletions/duplications detected in non telomeric regions include regions for Prader Willi/Angelman regions, Williams syndrome, Smith Magenis syndrome and Velocardiofacial syndrome. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that the use of P245-A2 and P070/P036-E1 probes gives good diagnostic yield. Though MLPA cannot probe the whole genome like cytogenetic microarray, due to its ease and relative low cost it is an

  13. Complementary roles of radionuclide scintigraphy and transmission computed tomography in the diagnosis of intracranial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepstone, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    Transmission computed tomography (TCT) is a very useful technique for detection of intracranial disease, but radionuclide (RN) scintigraphy also has a place and is cheaper. The best results are however obtained by using both diagnostic techniques in a complementary manner. It may be possible one day to combine the two techniques in an in vivo autoradiograph

  14. Electrochemical separation is an attractive strategy for development of radionuclide generators for medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-07-01

    Electrochemical separation techniques are not widely used in radionuclide generator technology and only a few studies have been reported [1-4]. Nevertheless, this strategy is useful when other parent-daughter separation techniques are not effective or not possible. Such situations are frequent when low specific activity (LSA) parent radionuclides are used for instance with adsorption chromatographic separations, which can result in lower concentration of the daughter radionuclide in the eluent. In addition, radiation instability of the column matrix in many cases can affect the performance of the generator when long lived parent radionuclides are used. Intricate knowledge of the chemistry involved in the electrochemical separation is crucial to develop a reproducible technology that ensures that the pure daughter radionuclide can be obtained in a reasonable time of operation. Crucial parameters to be critically optimized include the applied potential, choice of electrolyte, selection of electrodes, temperature of electrolyte bath and the time of electrolysis in order to ensure that the daughter radionuclide can be reproducibly recovered in high yields and high purity. The successful electrochemical generator technologies which have been developed and are discussed in this paper include the (90)Sr/(90)Y, (188)W/(188)Re and (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators. Electrochemical separation not only acts as a separation technique but also is an effective concentration methodology which yields high radioactive concentrations of the daughter products. The lower consumption of reagents and minimal generation of radioactive wastes using such electrochemical techniques are compatible with 'green chemistry' principles.

  15. Stable isotopes as tracers for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, A.; Bartolo, D. de; Cantone, M.C.; Zilker, T.; Greim, H.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of internal dose after incorporation of radionuclides requires as input data the knowledge of the uptake into the systemic circulation, the distribution and retention in selected organs, the excretion pathways. Realistic biokinetic models are needed for reliable estimates, correct interpretation of bioassay measurements, appropriate decision-making in radiological emergencies. For many radionuclides, however, the biokinetic models currently recommended are often generic, with very few specific parameters, due to the lack of experimental human data. The use of stable isotopes as tracers enables to determine important biokinetic parameters such as the fractional uptake, the clearance from the transfer compartment, the excretion patterns under experimentally controlled conditions. The subjects investigated are not exposed to any radiation risk, so this technique enables to obtain biokinetic information also for sensitive groups of the population, such as children or pregnant women, and to determine age- and gender-specific model parameters. Sophisticated analytical method, able to discriminate and quantitate different isotopes of the same element in complex matrices such as biological fluids, have to be purposely developed and optimized. Activation analysis and mass spectrometry are the most proper techniques of choice. Experiments were conducted with molybdenum, tellurium, ruthenium and zirconium. Activation analysis with protons, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled mass spectrometry were employed for the determination of stable isotopes of these elements in blood plasma and urine samples. Several deviations from the predictions of the ICRP models were observed. For example, modifications to the current model for molybdenum have been suggested on the basis of these results. The dose coefficients to the target regions calculated with this proposed model are even of one order of magnitude different than the ICRP estimates

  16. Radionuclide mapping using a position sensitive photomultiplier tube and a germanium detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewaraja, Y.K.; He, Z.; Fleming, R.F.; Wehe, D.K.; Fleming, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper demonstrates simultaneous two-dimensional mapping of multiple radionuclides which are present in a sample. The technique, which is based on position sensitive beta-gamma coincidence measurement, is applicable to most radionuclides that decay by beta emission followed by the emission of a coincident gamma-ray. In the present works, a Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube [PSPMT] is used for imaging the beta particles while a Ge detector is used to identify the radionuclides by detecting the coincident gamma-rays

  17. Broadband Utilization of Eigenvalue Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kus

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of signal processing problems are concerned with estimating unknown parameters from sensor array measurement. This paper presents simple algorithm for estimating spatio-temporal spectrum of signals received by passive array derivated from MUSIC algorithm, based on eigenstructure of covariance matrices of received signals. Some simulation results are presented.

  18. Radionuclide synovectomy - essentials for rheumatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnowski, Marek M; Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70-80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice.

  19. Radionuclide cinematography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Sigel, H.; Geffers, H.; Bitter, F.; Meyer, G.; Kampmann, H.; Stauch, M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide cinematography is described as a procedure making use of radiation-level variations above the heart after equipartitioning of sup(99m)Tc-labelled human serum albumin in the blood pool. Regional ventricular and vestibular variations are phase-shifted. This procedure permits delineation of aneurysmas with interphasic course, cicatrization of the cardiac wall not producing any cyclical variation. The study included normal subjects and 16 patients with full course infarction. Characteristic disturbances of motility distribution were found in all cases of scarred or aneurysmic alterations in the frontal and side walls of the left ventricle. The procedure was unable to detect two small infarction scars on the rear wall. The possibility of using radionuclide cinematography to prove coronary insufficiency as well as a comparison with other methods are discussed

  20. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.; Jungerman, J.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cole, W.C.; Meares, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  1. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  2. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestr, Christopher J.; North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY; Love, Charito

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  3. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  4. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  5. Radionuclide evaluation of renal transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Zhao Deshan

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide renal imaging and plasma clearance methods can quickly quantitate renal blood flow and function in renal transplants. They can diagnose acute tubular necrosis and rejection, renal scar, surgical complications such as urine leaks, obstruction and renal artery stenosis after renal transplants. At the same time they can assess the therapy effect of renal transplant complications and can also predict renal transplant survival from early post-operative function studies

  6. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Amorim, E.S. do; Panetta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author) [pt

  7. A study on the radionuclide transport by bacteria in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Sub

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology to develop a predictive model based on a conceptual three phase system and to investigate the influence of bacteria and their generation on the transport of radionuclide in porous and fractured media. The mass balance for bacteria, substrate and radionuclide were formulated. To illustrate the model simply, an equilibrium condition was assumed to partition the substrate, bacteria and radionuclide concentrations between the solid soil matrix, aqueous phase, rock matrix and bacterial surface. From the numerical calculation of the radionuclide transport in the presence of bacteria, it was found that the growth of bacteria and supplied primary substrate as limiting or stimulating growth factor of bacteria are the most important factors of the radionuclide transport. We also found that, depend on the transport of bacteria the temporal and spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration was significantly altered. The model proposed in this study will improve the evaluation of the role of the bacteria in the transport of radionuclide in groundwater systems. Furthermore, this model would be usefully utilized in analyzing the important role of colloidal particulate on the overall performance of radioactive waste safety

  8. The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers, in particular rock phosphate, in Venezuela: I. phosphorus uptake, utilization and agronomic effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, E.; Salas, A.M.; Toro, M.

    2002-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of natural and modified rock phosphate using conventional and isotopic techniques in an acid soil from El Pao, Cojedes state, Venezuela, using maize and sorghum with the application of different phosphate fertilizers to measure dry matter production, P accumulated in plant, efficiency parameters using isotopic techniques or yield. Finally, commercial plots were established with the application of soluble P fertilizers and rock phosphate products to validate the results obtained in the field experiments. The results showed highly significant differences between partially acidulated rock phosphate, natural rock phosphate, and the check plot in dry matter production, and P accumulation in plant and grain yield. When the efficiency parameters were evaluated in microplots with 32 P-TSP at 60 days of plant growth, it confirmed results obtained in semi commercial plots where the P in the plant derived from the fertilizer was 46% with partially acidulated rock phosphate (PAR) and 14% with natural Riecito rock phosphate (RR). Utilization coefficients of P by the plants were 34.2 and 8.8% for both treatments, respectively. The Substitution relation parameter showed that just 0.8 kg of P of PAR or 3.1 kg P of RR was required to produce the same yield as 1 kg P of TSP. These results were further validated in 5 ha commercial plots using corn and sorghum. (author)

  9. Bench-Top Antigen Detection Technique that Utilizes Nanofiltration and Fluorescent Dyes which Emit and Absorb Light in the Near Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaljay-Spence, Vanessa A.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the development of a bench-top technique to detect antigens in fluids. The technique involves the use of near infrared NIR fluorescent dyes conjugated to antibodies, centrifugation, nanofilters, and spectrometry. The system used to detect the antigens utilizes a spectrometer, fiber optic cables, NIR laser, and laptop computer thus making it portable and ideally suited for desk top analysis. Using IgM as an antigen and the secondary antibody, anti-IgM conjugated to the near infrared dye, IRDye (trademark) 800, for detection, we show that nanofiltration can efficiently and specifically separate antibody-antigen complexes in solution and that the complexes can be detected by a spectrometer and software using NIR laser excitation at 778 nm and NIR dye offset emission at 804 nm. The peak power detected at 778 nm for the excitation emission and at 804 nm for the offset emission is 879 pW (-60.06 dBm) and 35.7 pW (-74.5 dBm), respectively.

  10. Physical and chemical factors influencing radionuclide behaviour in arable soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauret, G.; Vidal, M.; Alexakhin, R.M.; Kruglov, S.V.; Cremers, A.; Wauters, J.; Valcke, E.; Ivanov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides integrates plant physiological and soil chemical aspects. Therefore, it is necessary to study the factors affecting the equilibrium of the radionuclides between solid and soil solution phases. Desorption and adsorption studies were applied to the podsolic and peat soils considered in the ECP-2 project. In the desorption approach, both sequential extraction and 'infinite bath' techniques were used. In the adsorption approach, efforts were directed at predicting Cs and Sr-K D on the basis of soil properties and soil solution composition. Desorption approach predicts time-dynamics of transfer with time but it is un sufficient for comparatively predicting transfer. Adsorption studies informs about which are the key factors affecting radionuclide transfer. For Sr, availability depends on the CEC and on the concentration of the Ca + Mg in the soil solution. For Cs, availability is mainly dependent on the partitioning between FES -frayed edge sites-, which are highly specific and REC -regular exchange complex-, with low selectivity for Cs. Moreover, availability depends on the K and NH 4 , levels in the soil solution and fixation properties of the soil. Considering these factors, the calculation of the in situ K D values helps to predict the relative transfer of radionuclides. The calculation of the K D of the materials that could be used as countermeasures could permit the prediction of its suitability to decrease transfer and therefore to help in producing cleaner agricultural products

  11. Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program: 1989 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program (HRMP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal year 1989. The report compares and summarizes studies of radionuclide and stable element transport atf radionuclide and stable the Cheshire and Cambric sites; progress toward the understanding of colloidal particle transport in porous and fractured media; further calibration of Marinelli beaker containers for gamma-ray spectroscopy; and an appendix listing all announced tests fired near the water table through October 1989. Four such tests were fired in FY89. Laboratory and model investigations of colloid transport in porous and fractured media have supported ongoing field investigations at the NTS. Aqueous chemistry has been shown to control colloid attachment and release from clean mineral surfaces. For colloidal deposits on fracture walls, the current experimental program will determine how this material responds to hydrodynamic forcing and if the porous colloidal deposit causes the more rapid transport of colloids than non-sorbing tracers. Fifteen radionuclides are either frequently found or likely to be found in HRMP and other environmental samples. For 3 of these 15 we have calibrated 4 gamma-ray detectors for use with samples contained in Marinelli beakers. Our calibrations for these three nuclides indicate that the technique is accurate and applicable to the types of environmental samples that we analyze

  12. Monitoring and characterization of radionuclide transport in the hydrogeologic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Raymond, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    Historical records pertaining to the 300 North and Wye Burial Grounds at the Hanford Reservation were reviewed as a prerequisite to determining programs for land reclamation. All available historical documents, agency communications, and engineering drawings related to the study areas were located, reviewed, and analyzed. An inventory of recorded location, type, and quantity of radionuclides and associated materials in each burial ground was completed and distributed to cooperating investigators. A geophysical survey of the 300 North Burial Ground was conducted as a basis for detecting the composition, size, distribution, and depth of buried objects and characterizing the sediments in which they are buried. Acoustic, radar, magnetic, and metal detection surveys were completed and their applicability evaluated; drilling techniques and equipment for recovering and characterizing sediments and radioactive contaminated material were developed. Drilling will also determine the amount and dimensional extent of radionuclide migration; sediment-fluid interaction and fluid migration through the unsaturated zone at the 300 North Burial Ground were characterized. A study to determine biological transport of radionuclides at the Wye Burial Ground was also initiated. This study involved a preliminary survey of present flora and fauna inhabiting the Wye Burial Ground site. Plant tissue was chemically and radiochemically analyzed to determine radionuclide migration and possible dose effects and population dynamics of burrowing animals that could potentially be exposed to buried waste materials were investigated

  13. Metabolism of radionuclides in domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Leising, C.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl has shown that shortly after the contamination of the environment radionuclides can be found in animal products. The main contamination pathways of domestic animas are: uptake of radionuclides by foodstuffs; uptake of radionuclides by contaminated drinking water; uptake of radionuclides by inhalation; uptake of radionuclides through skin; uptake of radionuclides by ingestion of soil particles. Generally the uptake of radionuclides by food is the dominant exposure pathway. In rare cases the inhalation of radionuclides or the uptake by drinking water may be of importance. The metabolism of incorporated radionuclides is comparable to the respective metabolism of essential mass or trace elements or heavy metals. Radioisotopes of essential elements are for instance iron 55, manganese 54, cobalt 58 and cobalt 60. Other elements are typical antagonists to essential elements, e.g. strontium 90 is an antagonist to calcium or cesium 137 to potassium. Lead 210 and plutonium 239 behave similarly as heavy metals. Generally the knowledge of the metabolism of trace and mass elements, of antagonistic and synergistic elements and heavy metals can be applied to these radionuclides

  14. WE-G-BRA-07: Analyzing the Safety Implications of a Brachytherapy Process Improvement Project Utilizing a Novel System-Theory-Based Hazard-Analysis Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, A; Samost, A [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Viswanathan, A; Cormack, R; Damato, A [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute - Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the hazards in cervical-cancer HDR brachytherapy using a novel hazard-analysis technique, System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA). The applicability and benefit of STPA to the field of radiation oncology is demonstrated. Methods: We analyzed the tandem and ring HDR procedure through observations, discussions with physicists and physicians, and the use of a previously developed process map. Controllers and their respective control actions were identified and arranged into a hierarchical control model of the system, modeling the workflow from applicator insertion through initiating treatment delivery. We then used the STPA process to identify potentially unsafe control actions. Scenarios were then generated from the identified unsafe control actions and used to develop recommendations for system safety constraints. Results: 10 controllers were identified and included in the final model. From these controllers 32 potentially unsafe control actions were identified, leading to more than 120 potential accident scenarios, including both clinical errors (e.g., using outdated imaging studies for planning), and managerial-based incidents (e.g., unsafe equipment, budget, or staffing decisions). Constraints identified from those scenarios include common themes, such as the need for appropriate feedback to give the controllers an adequate mental model to maintain safe boundaries of operations. As an example, one finding was that the likelihood of the potential accident scenario of the applicator breaking during insertion might be reduced by establishing a feedback loop of equipment-usage metrics and equipment-failure reports to the management controller. Conclusion: The utility of STPA in analyzing system hazards in a clinical brachytherapy system was demonstrated. This technique, rooted in system theory, identified scenarios both technical/clinical and managerial in nature. These results suggest that STPA can be successfully used to analyze safety in

  15. Radionuclide methods and instrumentation for breast cancer detection and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surti, Suleman

    2013-07-01

    Breast cancer mammography is a well-acknowledged technique for patient screening due to its high sensitivity. However, in addition to its low specificity the sensitivity of mammography is limited when imaging patients with dense breasts. Radionuclide imaging techniques, such as coincidence photon-based positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography or scintimammography, can play a role in assisting screening of such patients. Radionuclide techniques can also be useful in assessing treatment response of patients with breast cancer to therapy, and staging of patients to diagnose the disease extent. However, the performance of these imaging modalities is generally limited because of the poor spatial resolution and sensitivity of the commercially available multipurpose imaging systems. Here, we describe some of the dedicated imaging systems (positron emission mammography [PEM] and breast-specific gamma imaging [BSGI]) that have been developed both commercially and in research laboratories for radionuclide imaging of breast cancer. Clinical studies with dedicated PEM scanners show improved sensitivity to detecting cancer in patients when using PEM in conjunction with additional imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging or mammography or both, as well as improved disease staging that can have an effect on surgical planning. High-resolution BSGI systems are more widely available commercially and several clinical studies have shown very high sensitivity and specificity in detecting cancer in high-risk patients. Further development of dedicated PEM and BSGI systems is ongoing, promising further expansion of radionuclide imaging techniques in the realm of breast cancer detection and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Criteria for the selection of radionuclides for tumor radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Mausner, L.F.; Mease, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The potential of utilizing monoclonal antibodies as carriers of radionuclides for the selective destruction of tumors (radioimmunotherapy, RIT) has stimulated much research activity. From dosimetric and other considerations, the choice of radiolabel is an important factor that needs to be optimized for maximum effectiveness of RIT. This paper reviews and assesses a number of present and future radionuclides that are particularly suitable for RIT based on the various physical, chemical, and biological considerations. Intermediate to high-energy beta emitters' (with and without gamma photons in their emission) are emphasized since they possess a number of advantages over alpha and Auger emitters. Factors relating to the production and availability of candidate radiometals as well as their stable chemical attachment to monoclonal antibodies are discussed. 34 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Radionuclide Inventory Distribution Project Data Evaluation and Verification White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-05-17

    Testing of nuclear explosives caused widespread contamination of surface soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Atmospheric tests produced the majority of this contamination. The Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) was developed to determine distribution and total inventory of radionuclides in surface soils at the NTS to evaluate areas that may present long-term health hazards. The RIDP achieved this objective with aerial radiological surveys, soil sample results, and in situ gamma spectroscopy. This white paper presents the justification to support the use of RIDP data as a guide for future evaluation and to support closure of Soils Sub-Project sites under the purview of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Use of the RIDP data as part of the Data Quality Objective process is expected to provide considerable cost savings and accelerate site closures. The following steps were completed: - Summarize the RIDP data set and evaluate the quality of the data. - Determine the current uses of the RIDP data and cautions associated with its use. - Provide recommendations for enhancing data use through field verification or other methods. The data quality is sufficient to utilize RIDP data during the planning process for site investigation and closure. Project planning activities may include estimating 25-millirem per industrial access year dose rate boundaries, optimizing characterization efforts, projecting final end states, and planning remedial actions. In addition, RIDP data may be used to identify specific radionuclide distributions, and augment other non-radionuclide dose rate data. Finally, the RIDP data can be used to estimate internal and external dose rates. The data quality is sufficient to utilize RIDP data during the planning process for site investigation and closure. Project planning activities may include estimating 25-millirem per industrial access year dose rate boundaries, optimizing characterization efforts, projecting final

  18. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Gudkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carriers of radionuclides with high affinity to antigens on the surface of tumor cells. The potential of targeted radionuclide therapy has markedly grown nowadays due to the expanded knowledge base in cancer biology, bioengineering, and radiochemistry. In this review, progress in the radionuclide therapy of hematological malignancies and approaches for treatment of solid tumors is addressed.

  19. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  20. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  1. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Human Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Gudkov, Sergey V.; Shilyagina, Natalya Yu.; Vodeneev, Vladimir A.; Zvyagin, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy is one of the most intensively developing directions of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, the targeted radionuclide therapy causes less collateral damage to normal tissues and allows targeted drug delivery to a clinically diagnosed neoplastic malformations, as well as metastasized cells and cellular clusters, thus providing systemic therapy of cancer. The methods of targeted radionuclide therapy are based on the use of molecular carrier...

  2. Production of radionuclides in nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucina, J.; Vuksanovic, Lj.; Dobrijevic, R.

    1998-01-01

    Given is a short review on the production of radionuclides which was performed in the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences by using the nuclear reactor RA. Regarding the considerations of the possible re-starting of this reactor its use for the production of medical radionuclides should be taken into account. Listed are some of the important medical radionuclides routinely produced in nuclear reactors in the world and discussed the conditions for their obtaining in the reactor RA. (author)

  3. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  4. Methods in environmental sampling for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews methods of environmental sampling for radionuclides around operational and preoperational nuclear power plants. We examine in detail the implications of the established radiation standards and their effect on sampling procedures. Transport mechanisms of radionuclides in liquid effluent, and the deposition of airborne radionuclides onto soil and vegetation are discussed. We evaluate water- and soil-sampling procedures. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory program of terrestrial gamma-ray surveys at preoperational nuclear power plants is described

  5. Environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental behaviour of the radionuclides making the major contribution to man's irradiation through diet is described. The following stages are emphasized: transfer of radionuclides to plants; transfer of radionuclides to animals; metabolism of inhaled or ingested radionuclides in animals providing food for man; transfer of radionuclides through the aquatic environment; application of food chain models. (43 references)

  6. The development of damage identification methods for buildings with image recognition and machine learning techniques utilizing aerial photographs of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohei, N.; Nakamura, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Naoichi, M.; Hiromitsu, T.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to get schematic information of the damage situation immediately after the earthquake utilizing photographs shot from an airplane in terms of the investigation and the decision-making for authorities. In case of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, we have acquired more than 1,800 orthographic projection photographs adjacent to damaged areas. These photos have taken between April 16th and 19th by airplanes, then we have distinguished damages of all buildings with 4 levels, and organized as approximately 296,000 GIS data corresponding to the fundamental Geospatial data published by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. These data have organized by effort of hundreds of engineers. However, it is not considered practical for more extensive disasters like the Nankai Trough earthquake by only human powers. So, we have been developing the automatic damage identification method utilizing image recognition and machine learning techniques. First, we have extracted training data of more than 10,000 buildings which have equally damage levels divided in 4 grades. With these training data, we have been raster scanning in each scanning ranges of entire images, then clipping patch images which represents damage levels each. By utilizing these patch images, we have been developing discriminant models by two ways. One is a model using the Support Vector Machine (SVM). First, extract a feature quantity of each patch images. Then, with these vector values, calculate the histogram density as a method of Bag of Visual Words (BoVW), then classify borders with each damage grades by SVM. The other one is a model using the multi-layered Neural Network. First, design a multi-layered Neural Network. Second, input patch images and damage levels based on a visual judgement, and then, optimize learning parameters with error backpropagation method. By use of both discriminant models, we are going to discriminate damage levels in each patches, then create the image that shows

  7. Mobilization of radionuclides from sediments. Potential sources to Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.; Boerretzen, P.; Mathisen, B.; Salbu, B.; Tronstad, E.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments can act as secondary sources of radionuclides to Arctic waters. In cases where the original source of contamination has ceased or been greatly reduced (e.g., weapons' testing, waste discharges from Mayak and Sellafield) remobilization of radionuclides from preciously contaminated sediments increases in importance. With respect to Arctic waters, potential secondary sources include sediments contaminated by weapons' testing, by discharges from nuclear installations to seawater, e.g., the Irish Sea, or by leakages from dumped waste containers. The major land-based source is run-off from soils and transport from sediments in the catchment areas of the Ob and Yenisey rivers, including those contaminated by Mayak discharges. Remobilization of radionuclides is often described as a secondary source of contamination. Whereas primary sources of man-made radionuclides tend to be point sources, secondary sources are usually more diffuse. Experiments were carried out on marine (Kara Sea, Irish Sea, Stepovogo and Abrosimov Fjords), estuarine (Ob-Yenisey) and dirty ice sediments. Total 137 Cs and 90 Sr concentrations were determined using standard radiochemical techniques. Tracer studies using 134 Cs and 85 Sr were used to investigate the kinetics of radionuclide adsorption and desorption. It is concluded that 90 Sr is much less strongly bound to marine sediments than 137 Cs, and can be chemically mobilized through ion exchange with elements is seawater. Radiocaesium is strongly and rapidly fixed to sediments. Discharges of 137 Cs to surface sediments (i.e., from dumped containers) would be expected to be retained in sediments to a greater extent than discharges to sea-waters. Physical mobilization of sediments, for example resuspension, may be of more importance for transport of 137 Cs than for 90 Sr. 7 refs., 4 figs

  8. Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.H.

    1981-03-01

    In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain

  9. Radionuclide accumulation peculiarities demonstrated by vegetable varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, A.V.; Goncharenko, G.G.; Kilchevsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on ecological and genetic aspects of radionuclide accumulation demonstrated by a number of vegetable varieties. The researches resulted in determining the cabbage varieties which were characterised by the minimal level of radionuclide accumulation. It was shown that the above varieties manifested the relation between radionuclide accumulation and morphobiological characteristics such as vegetation period duration and yield criteria. The study specified the genotypes with high ecological stability as regards to radionuclide accumulation: 'Beloruskaya 85' cabbage and 'Dokhodny' tomato showed the best response to Cs 137, while 'Beloruskaya 85', 'Rusinovka', 'Amager 611' cabbage varieties and 'Sprint' tomato showed the minimal level of Sr 90 accumulation. (authors)

  10. Radionuclide migration in plants of forest phytocenoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabashnikova, G.I.; Bolotskikh, T.N.

    1992-01-01

    Five-year observations are generalized on a dynamic of a radionuclide accumulation and a radionuclide migration in lives of 8 species of young tress (an oak, an aspen, a birch, an alder, a fir, a pine, a maple) and 16 species of bushes (raspberry, amountain ash, a willow and other). The former have the more considerable radionuclide content, then the latter. The change of plant radioactivity is dependent upon the radionuclide soil contamination, local conditions and species belonging of the plants. The data are needed for pharmacological industry, using the plants for medicines. 19 refs

  11. Radionuclide transfer to meadow vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharova, N.; Matsko, N.; Zhebrakova, I.; Montik, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the paper results of radioecological monitoring of natural plant populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Polesky State Radioecological Reserve) during the period from 1987 to 1998 are presented. The level of radiation background in experimental areas varied from 0.1 to 30 mR/h that correspond to the total soil activity of 300-24000 kBq/m 2 (for May 1997). Monitoring was carried out including the radionuclide migration in natural plant complexes and transfer of 137 Cs between some plant organs. Refs. 3 (author)

  12. Radionuclide cisternography after head injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.D.; Hoff, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-seven patients with severe head injury underwent radionuclide cisternography to detect early and late effects of trauma on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation. Thirty-one patients had subdural hematomas or hygromas and six had cerebral contusions without extracerebral masses. Cisternographic results were abnormal in 23 patients with subdural masses and normal in five who had only cerebral contusions. Of eight patients undergoing serial studies, one had persistent partial obstruction, five had partial resolution of abnormalities, and the two with progressive obstruction had their conditions improved by shunting. Angiography suggested transtentorial herniation in 11 patients with cisternal block, six of whom had clinical signs of herniation on the same side

  13. A Green Desulfurization Technique: Utilization of Flue Gas SO2 to Produce H2 via a Photoelectrochemical Process Based on Mo-Doped BiVO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A green photoelectrochemical (PEC process with simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production has attracted an increasing attention. The proposed process uses flue gas SO2 to improve H2 production. The improvement of the efficiency of this process is necessary before it can become industrial viable. Herein, we reported a Mo modified BiVO4 photocatalysts for a simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production. And the PEC performance could be significantly improved with doping and flue gas removal. The evolution rate of H2 and removal of SO2 could be enhanced by almost three times after Mo doping as compared with pristine BiVO4. The enhanced H2 production and SO2 removal is attributed to the improved bulk charge carrier transportation after Mo doping, and greatly enhanced oxidation reaction kinetics on the photoanode due to the formation of SO32− after SO2 absorption by the electrolyte. Due to the utilization of SO2 to improve the production of H2, the proposed PEC process may become a profitable desulfurization technique.

  14. Sewage Sludge Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Decontamination Technique Based on the Utilization of a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant Extracted from Corn Steep Liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecino, Xanel; Rodríguez-López, Lorena; Cruz, Jose M; Moldes, Ana B

    2015-08-19

    A decontamination technique based on the utilization of a lipopeptide biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor has been developed to eliminate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge. High concentrations of PAHs were used during experiments observing that 408.3 mg/kg of naphthalene was almost completely mobilized and biodegraded, only 1.7% of naphthalene remained in the sewage sludge, whereas anthracene and pyrene were reduced up to 51.7 and 69.4%, respectively. The biodegradation of PAHs was fitted to several kinetic models (zero- and first-order kinetic models), observing good correlation coefficient values when biodegradation was described by the first-order kinetic model. Experimental results suggest that biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor may have great potential, as an ecofriendly washing agent, for the treatment of sewage sludge contaminated with PAHs. Therefore, in situ application of natural biosurfactants may be considered to be a good remediation alternative as they are not hazardous for water and soil organisms.

  15. Alveolar ridge preservation with the socket-plug technique utilizing an alloplastic putty bone substitute or a particulate xenograft: a histological pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Lanka; Venkataraman, Narayan; Shukla, Sagrika; Prasad, Hari; Kotsakis, Georgios A

    2015-04-01

    Following tooth extraction, ridge preservation procedures are employed to regenerate bone in the extraction socket, limit consequent ridge resorption, and provide a stable base for implant placement. The purpose of this study is to histologically evaluate and compare bone regeneration in extraction sockets grafted with either a putty alloplastic bone substitute or particulate anorganic bovine xenograft utilizing the socket-plug technique. Nineteen patients underwent 20 tooth extractions and ridge preservation following a standardized protocol. Ten sites were grafted with calcium phosphosilicate putty (CPS group) and the remaining 10 with anorganic bovine bone substitute (BO group). Patients were recalled after 4-6 months to evaluate the bone regeneration and to proceed with implant placement. A bone core was obtained during the implant procedure from each site and was used for histologic analysis. Histomorphometry revealed that residual graft values were significantly higher in the BO group (25.60% ± 5.89%) compared to the CPS group (17.40% ± 9.39%) (P preservation using a putty calcium phosphosilicate alloplastic bone substitute demonstrates more timely graft substitution and increased bone regeneration when compared to an anorganic bovine bone xenograft.

  16. Up-to-date radiochemical methods for the determination of long-lived radionuclides in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Vajda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiochemical methods for the determination of long-lived radionuclides have been briefly reviewed. Developments in nuclear measuring techniques such as alpha spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting as well as in chemical separations have been comparatively evaluated.

  17. Achievements and experiences in the 'TC Regional Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques RER/2/004' obtained in the fields of radionuclide and trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.; Bodizs, D.; Balla, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Radiochemical Laboratory participated in the 2-year-long TC Project on Quality Control and Quality Assurance for Nuclear Analytical Techniques RER/2/004 organized by the IAEA during the period June 1999 and September 2001. Motivations, major goals of participation in the project, cornerstones of implementation of the project, establishing the quality system, improvements fulfilling both technical and management requirements as well as major achievements for future activities of the laboratory with respect to technical and financial conditions are discussed in detail. (author)

  18. The value of radionuclide cystography in the study of reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechi, G.; Vichi, G.F.; Franchini, F.; La Cava, G.; Moretti, A.; Taddei, I.; Bartolozzi, G.

    1980-01-01

    Reduction of the risk connected with widespread and repeated radiological examinations in children is a purpose to be pursued. Children with urinary tract infection or suspected uropathy have been submitted also to radionuclide cystography (which has the advantage of a minimal radiation dose) to obtain a comparison with micturition cysto-urethrography. The authors' experience is based on 80 examinations performed in 65 children. Results obtained by the combined use of both techniques have revealed a substantial agreement in the evaluation of reflux, but also some important limitations of radionuclide cystography: the technique does not reveal the aspects of pelvis and ureter, of the uretero-vesical junction, of the bladder wall and, lastly, does not allow the study of morphology of function of cervico-uretral structures. On the basis of these limitations, radionuclide cystography can replace the micturition cysto-urethrography only in certain phases of the diagnosis and mostly of the follow-up of reflux in children; for this purpose a diagnostic protocol is proposed [fr

  19. Emerging trends in radionuclide therapy: advances in radionuclides and carrier molecules - an overview of the work done at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Venkatesh, Meera

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop effective radiopharmaceuticals for therapy, it is important to consider the choices of radionuclides as well as the carrier moiety that have suitable pharmacokinetic properties and the development of potential therapeutic agents for bone pain palliation, radiation synovectomy, agents for in vivo targeted therapy, radioactive skin bandages for superficial tumors and agents for intravascular radiation therapy like the variety of radionuclides including commonly used such as 186 /:1:8 8 Re, 153 Sm, 90 Y as well as few other less explored radioisotopes such as 166 Ho, 177 Lu, 175 Yb have been utilized for applications

  20. Evaluation of the specificity of radionuclide myocardial imaging for detecting CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiujie

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the specificity of radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD), 50 patients with normal coronary arteriography and radionuclide myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were analysed. The results from 201 T1 (20 cases) and 99m Tc-MIBI (30 cases) studies showed that out of 33 patients with no organic cardiovascular disease, 29 had normal myocardial imaging, and the specificity of radionuclide myocardial imaging for detecting CAD was 87.8%. 4 normal young women had false positive myocardial imaging. Out of 17 patients with cardiovascular disease and normal coronary arteriography, 15 patients had abnormal myocardial imaging. The final clinical diagnoses of these 15 patients were: 4 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 3 with old myocardial infarction, 2 with myocarditis, 3 with small coronary vessel disease, 1 with congestive cardiomyopathy, and 2 with other cardiac disorder. The points of differentiation between CAD and other cardiovascular disease using radionuclide techniques were discussed

  1. Association of radionuclides with streambed sediments in White Oak Creek watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.; Cerling, T.E.

    1979-09-01

    Radionuclides are found in much higher concentrations on streambed sediment than in the water of White Oak Creek. Selective extraction of sediments demonstrates that 60 Co is immobilized in a nonexchangeable form in the ferromanganese hydrous oxide coatings on the sediments; 90 Sr occurs predominantly in an exchangeable form on clay, iron oxides, and ferromanganese hydrous oxides; 137 Cs occurs in a nonexchangeable and strongly bound form on clays which compose the dominant rock (Conasauga shale) in the watershed. The fine-gravel to coarse-sand size fraction of streambed sediments is the most suitable fraction for radionuclide analysis because of its abundance in the sediment and its high concentration of radionuclides compared to larger and smaller size fractions. A preliminary survey of all major tributes in White Oak Creek shows that radionuclide analysis of streambed sediments is a very useful technique to locate sources of radioactive contamination

  2. Radionuclide sorption from the safety evaluation perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Research and development directed towards the assessment of the long-term performance of radioactive waste disposal systems has been recognised as a priority area with a strong need for international co-operation and co-ordination. The ultimate aims is to promote the quality and credibility of safety assessment techniques for radioactive waste disposal. Sorption in the geosphere is one of the key processes for retarding the transport of radionuclide from the underground disposal facility to the biosphere. In many cases, sorption in the near field and in the biosphere is also important. A workshop, organised to favor discussion around a small number of invited papers, was held in October 1991: - to evaluate critically the way sorption processes are incorporated in performance assessment models; - to identify open issues of high priority, and; - to propose future activities to resolve these issues. These proceedings reproduce the invited papers and the conclusions and recommendations adopted by the workshop. Eight papers are in the INIS SCOPE. The main subjects studied are: sorption database comparison, sorption database development and three case studies, experimental techniques, adsorption models

  3. EANM/ESC guidelines for radionuclide imaging of cardiac function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, B.; Lindhardt, T.B.; Acampa, W.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging of cardiac function represents a number of well-validated techniques for accurate determination of right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and LV volumes. These first European guidelines give recommendations for how and when to use first-pass and equilibrium...... radionuclide ventriculography, gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, gated PET, and studies with non-imaging devices for the evaluation of cardiac function. The items covered are presented in 11 sections: clinical indications, radiopharmaceuticals and dosimetry, study acquisition, RV EF, LV EF, LV volumes......, LV regional function, LV diastolic function, reports and image display and reference values from the literature of RVEF, LVEF and LV volumes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to "prevailing or general consensus...

  4. Economic and technical assay of the application of radionuclide technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrich, F.G.

    1976-05-01

    The dynamically loaded components of combustion engines undergo wear during operation as a function of the operating points and the operating parameters selected. Radionuclide measurement methods developed in the Federal Republic of Germany in the LIT laboratory of Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung allow to determine the wear of machine components during operation, contrary to conventional length measurement techniques. In the first part of this work the existing wear problems will be analyzed and investigations will be made into the capacities of conventional and radionuclide measurement methods. Based on this, a cost-benefit analysis system was developed for evaluation under technical and economical aspects of the use of different measurement methods allowing to solve detailed wear problems. This system furnishes results on the respective optimum wear measurement method relating to the actual problem and taking into account the relevant technical and economical boundary conditions. (orig.) [de

  5. Optimization of the measuring method selection for natural radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, T.; Funke, L.; Koehler, M.; Schkade, U.K.; Ullrich, F.; Loebner, W.; Hoepner, J.; Weiss, D.

    2007-01-01

    The publication is aimed to an optimized selection of measuring methods for the evaluation of natural radionuclides in environmental media, taking into account the required financial and temporal investment besides the informative value of the results. The evaluation is considered as a recommendation for contractors concerning required measurements or for installation or upgrading of laboratory equipment. The evaluation identifies measuring requirements and boundary conditions according to legal regulations and discusses a strategy to reach optimized results. The radiological environment monitoring is focused on the estimation of radiation exposure of personal and public. Requirements for measuring techniques (detection limits, limit values and guideline values) are summarized in tables. The evaluation is covering radionuclide measurements in the following media: air (airborne particulates); water; soils, sediments and residues; residues from natural gas, crude oil and thermal water extraction; uranium containing paints in the porcelain industry; thorium compounds for weld electrodes; filter dusts from the steel industry; biomedia

  6. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the PATHWAY radionuclide transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otis, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    Procedures were developed for the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a dynamic model of radionuclide transport through human food chains. Uncertainty in model predictions was estimated by propagation of parameter uncertainties using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. Sensitivity of model predictions to individual parameters was investigated using the partial correlation coefficient of each parameter with model output. Random values produced for the uncertainty analysis were used in the correlation analysis for sensitivity. These procedures were applied to the PATHWAY model which predicts concentrations of radionuclides in foods grown in Nevada and Utah and exposed to fallout during the period of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in Nevada. Concentrations and time-integrated concentrations of iodine-131, cesium-136, and cesium-137 in milk and other foods were investigated. 9 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Stochastic approach for radionuclides quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, A.; Saurel, N.; Perrin, G.

    2018-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is a passive non-destructive assay used to quantify radionuclides present in more or less complex objects. Basic methods using empirical calibration with a standard in order to quantify the activity of nuclear materials by determining the calibration coefficient are useless on non-reproducible, complex and single nuclear objects such as waste packages. Package specifications as composition or geometry change from one package to another and involve a high variability of objects. Current quantification process uses numerical modelling of the measured scene with few available data such as geometry or composition. These data are density, material, screen, geometric shape, matrix composition, matrix and source distribution. Some of them are strongly dependent on package data knowledge and operator backgrounds. The French Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing a new methodology to quantify nuclear materials in waste packages and waste drums without operator adjustment and internal package configuration knowledge. This method suggests combining a global stochastic approach which uses, among others, surrogate models available to simulate the gamma attenuation behaviour, a Bayesian approach which considers conditional probability densities of problem inputs, and Markov Chains Monte Carlo algorithms (MCMC) which solve inverse problems, with gamma ray emission radionuclide spectrum, and outside dimensions of interest objects. The methodology is testing to quantify actinide activity in different kind of matrix, composition, and configuration of sources standard in terms of actinide masses, locations and distributions. Activity uncertainties are taken into account by this adjustment methodology.

  8. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities

  10. Radionuclide evaluation of tubal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, S.C.; McCalley, M.; Braunstein, P.; Egbert, R.

    1985-05-01

    The tubal capacity to transport radioactively labeled human albumin microspheres deposited in the vaginal fornix and cervical canal and to concentrate them on the ovarian surface was evaluated in a group of 34 patient-volunteers. One millicurie of /sup 99m/Tc was used to label human albumin microspheres of 20 ..mu.. in diameter, suspended in 1 ml of saline. The distribution of the radioactive material was imaged on a gamma camera at different intervals between 15 and 240 minutes. The radiation dose to the ovaries was estimated to be similar to that of a hysterosalpingogram. The results of the radionuclide evaluation were compared with the surgical findings at the time of laparoscopy or laparotomy performed for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. The overall correlation was 87.1%. It would appear that as opposed to the traditional hysterosalpingogram, a radionuclide test may give a better understanding of the functional capacity of the tube and may also prove a useful method in the evaluation of the results of tubal microsurgical procedures.

  11. Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Craig; Johnsson, Anna; Moll, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell-radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial spe...

  12. Modeling Radionuclide Decay Chain Migration Using HYDROGEOCHEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Lai, K. H.; Chen, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear technology has been employed for energy production for several decades. Although people receive many benefits from nuclear energy, there are inevitably environmental pollutions as well as human health threats posed by the radioactive materials releases from nuclear waste disposed in geological repositories or accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear facilities. Theoretical studies have been undertaken to understand the transport of radionuclides in subsurface environments because that the radionuclide transport in groundwater is one of the main pathway in exposure scenarios for the intake of radionuclides. The radionuclide transport in groundwater can be predicted using analytical solution as well as numerical models. In this study, we simulate the transport of the radionuclide decay chain using HYDROGEOCHEM. The simulated results are verified against the analytical solution available in the literature. Excellent agreements between the numerical simulation and the analytical are observed for a wide spectrum of concentration. HYDROGECHEM is a useful tool assessing the ecological and environmental impact of the accidental radionuclide releases such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster where multiple radionuclides leaked through the reactor, subsequently contaminating the local groundwater and ocean seawater in the vicinity of the nuclear plant.

  13. Radiographic and radionuclide findings in Rhizopus osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, P.H. Jr.; McKinney, R.G.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    A case of Rhizopus osteromyelitis is described. The radionuclide and radiographic findings differ from those of osteomyelitis secondary to common pathogens: low-level radionuclide activity is observed, while soft-tissue swelling, periosteal reaction, and loss of fascial margins are absent.

  14. Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

    2005-01-14

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

  15. Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

    2003-01-01

    The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less

  16. Speciation of radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunten, H.R. von; Benes, P.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the determination of the speciation of radionuclides in aerosols, in aquatic solutions, in sediments, soils and rocks are reviewed. At present, most of the results about speciation are deduced from model calculations, model experiments, and separation of species (forms) of radionuclides, e.g., by sequential extraction procedures. Methods of direct determination of speciation of radionuclides (e.g. by laser induced spectroscopy) are in general not yet sensitive enough for a measurement of the very low concentrations of radionuclides in the environment. The methodological part of this paper is followed by a review of the very abundant literature about speciation of important radionuclides in the environment, i.e. in the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. The review does not include the biosphere. Literature up to spring 1993 is included (with a few more recent additions). (author)

  17. Mobility and Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iurian, A.; Olufemi Phaneuf, M.; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to understand the behavior of radionuclides in the environment, their potential mobility and bioavailability related to long-term persistence, radiological hazards, and impact on human health. Such key information is used to develop strategies that support policy decisions. The environmental behavior of radionuclides depends on ecosystem characteristics. A given soil’s capacity to immobilize radionuclides has been proved to be the main factor responsible for their resulting activity concentrations in plants. The mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides in soils is complex, depending on clay-sized soil fraction, clay mineralogy, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, pH and quantities of competing cations. Moreover, plant species have different behaviors regarding radionuclide absorption depending on soil and plan characteristics

  18. Attenuation-corrected radionuclide differential glomerular filtration: Using a bilateral slant hole collimator for determining depth of kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasher, J.C.; Kopp, D.T.; Lancaster, J.L.; Blumhardt, R.

    1986-01-01

    There has recently been considerable interest in measuring differential renal function utilizing radionuclide attenuation correction techniques. One popular method is that of estimating kidney depth from the patient's weight-to-height ratio. A recent publication showed that renal depth can also be accurately determined using measurements from lateral views of each kidney. The authors have developed a third radionculide method using a bilateral slant-hole collimator (SHC) that is capable of obtaining the depth of both kidneys without repositioning the camera. This method makes use of the fact that two unique projections of each kidney are simultaneously acquired along spatial angles. The depth of each kidney used in the attenuation correction calculation can be easily obtained trigometrically using this known angle and the distance of the collimator from the patient

  19. Endoprobe: A system for radionuclide-guided endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Srinivasan, Amarnath

    2004-01-01

    Methods to guide the surgical treatment of cancer utilizing handheld beta-sensitive probes in conjunction with tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals [such as 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)] have previously been developed. These technologies could also potentially be used to assist in minimally invasive techniques for the diagnosis of cancer. The goal of this project is to develop and test a system for performing radionuclide-guided endoscopies. This system (called Endoprobe) has four major subsystems: beta detector, position tracker, endoscope, and user interface. The beta detection unit utilizes two miniaturized solid state detectors to preferentially detect beta particles. The position tracking system allows real-time monitoring of the unit's location. The beta detector and position tracking system's receiver are mounted on the tip of an endoscope. Information from the beta detector and tracking system, in addition to the video signal from the endoscope, are combined and presented to the user via a computer interface. The system was tested in a simulated search for radiotracer-avid areas of esophageal cancer. The search for esophageal cancer was chosen because this type of cancer is often diagnosed with endoscopic procedures and has been reported to have good affinity for FDG. Accumulations of FDG in the normal organs of the abdomen were simulated by an anthropomorphic torso phantom filled with the appropriate amounts of radioactivity. A 1.5-mm-thick gelatin film containing FDG was used to simulate radiotracer uptake in the lining of normal esophagus. Esophageal lesions (both benign and malignant) were simulated by thin disks of gelatin (diameters=3.5-12 mm) containing appropriate concentrations of FDG embedded in the gelatin film simulating normal esophagus. Endoprobe facilitated visual identification and examination of the simulated lesions. The position tracking system permitted the location of the Endoprobe tip to be monitored and plotted in real time on a

  20. Analytical evaluation of the radionuclide concentration through the aquifer for the Abadia de Goias Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Antonio Sergio de Martin

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the radionuclide concentration though the aquifer has been determined by an analytical process considering that the radionuclide migration is influenced by two kinds of radionuclides releases from the repository during an overflow. In the first release it is assumed that when the radionuclides reach the aquifer there is no contamination in it and the release rate is a constant. For this case it is utilized the model of Reference. For the subsequent releases there will be a contamination in the aquifer provenient from the former releases; it is considered that the subsequent releases are a function of the time which, for the Abadia de Goias Repository, was determined in the Reference. The Laplace transform Method has been utilized to solve the Radionuclide Migration Transport Equation in the aquifer region for the subsequent releases and the resulting function is expressed in terms of exponential and complementary error functions. The improvement in the calculation model, presented in this paper, can be used in the safety analysis of repositories, contributing thus in the nuclear waste management field and particularly, being connecting also to the environmental protection concern. (author)

  1. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  2. Radionuclides in surface and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.

    2009-01-01

    Unique among all the contaminants that adversely affect surface and water quality, radioactive compounds pose a double threat from both toxicity and damaging radiation. The extreme energy potential of many of these materials makes them both useful and toxic. The unique properties of radioactive materials make them invaluable for medical, weapons, and energy applications. However, mining, production, use, and disposal of these compounds provide potential pathways for their release into the environment, posing a risk to both humans and wildlife. This chapter discusses the sources, uses, and regulation of radioactive compounds in the United States, biogeochemical processes that control mobility in the environment, examples of radionuclide contamination, and current work related to contaminated site remediation.

  3. Radionuclide interactions with marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgo, J.J.W.

    1987-09-01

    A critical review of the literature on the subject of the interactions of radionuclides with marine sediments has been carried out. On the basis of the information available, an attempt has been made to give ranges and 'best estimates' for the distribution ratios between seawater and sediments. These estimates have been based on an understanding of the sediment seawater system and the porewater chemistry and mineralogy. Field measurements, laboratory measurements and estimates based on stable-element geochemical data are all taken into account. Laboratory measurements include distribution-ratio and diffusion-coefficient determinations. The elements reviewed are carbon, chlorine, calcium, nickel, selenium, strontium, zirconium, niobium, technetium, tin, iodine, caesium, lead, radium, actinium, thorium, protactinium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium. (author)

  4. Radionuclide study for mediastinal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Kenji (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kubo, Atsushi; Tanabe, Masatada; Ochi, Hironobu; Kusakabe, Kiyoko

    1992-07-01

    {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy has been most available as radionuclide study for mediastinal tumor. Recently {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy is also used to assess the localization and the extent of mediastinal tumor such as thymic tumor, extopic parathyroid tumor, mediastinal metastasis, ect. We surveyed the usefulness of {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy in 24 cases of thymic diseases. Sensitivity of {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy was 100% for thymic diseases, although this method could not differentiate among thymoma, malignant thymoma and thymic hyperplasia. The ability of {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy to detect the metastasis to mediastinal lymph nodes of lung cancer was also high with 100% of sensitivity and 80% of specificity. Applications of {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy for detecting the mediastinal metastasis of parathyroid carcinoma and {sup 131}I-TMBG scintigraphy for the metastasis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland were also discussed. (author).

  5. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pjura, G.A.; Kim, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  6. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoichiro

    1994-01-01

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  7. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  8. FY 1998 R and D of utilization of biological resources such as those in bioconsortia. Report on development results of techniques for utilization/production of organisms in bioconsortia; 1998 nendo fukugo seibutsukeinado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Fukugo seibutsukei riyo seisan gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objectives are set to analyze functions and interactions of organisms having specific functions, to develop the techniques for isolating and cultivating the constituent organisms, and thereby to develop the techniques for their industrial utilization, in order to develop the techniques for handling organisms in bioconsortia as the techniques to utilize their functions, e.g., production and decomposition of materials, and also to develop the techniques for culturing/controlling microorganisms in bioconsortia and for strengthening their functions. The FY 1998 themes are development of the functional material production technology, and comprehensive study for the project. More concretely, the former includes histochemical analytical technology (development of techniques for detecting microorganisms in soil, and of techniques for in-situ detection/isolation of specific microorganisms in bioconsortia and for analysis their functions), isolation and culture technology (development of detection, separation and cultivation technology of microorganisms that are not easily cultured), functional substance production technology (technical utilization of microbial consortia for production of environment-friendly oil/water separation polymers), and functional material production technology (development of methods for artificial gene exchange in microbial consortia). (NEDO)

  9. Radionuclides: Accumulation and Transport in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Chatterjee, S; Datta, S; Voronina, A V; Walther, C

    Application of radioactive elements or radionuclides for anthropogenic use is a widespread phenomenon nowadays. Radionuclides undergo radioactive decays releasing ionizing radiation like gamma ray(s) and/or alpha or beta particles that can displace electrons in the living matter (like in DNA) and disturb its function. Radionuclides are highly hazardous pollutants of considerable impact on the environment, food chain and human health. Cleaning up of the contaminated environment through plants is a promising technology where the rhizosphere may play an important role. Plants belonging to the families of Brassicaceae, Papilionaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Poaceae, and Asteraceae are most important in this respect and offer the largest potential for heavy metal phytoremediation. Plants like Lactuca sativa L., Silybum marianum Gaertn., Centaurea cyanus L., Carthamus tinctorius L., Helianthus annuus and H. tuberosus are also important plants for heavy metal phytoremediation. However, transfer factors (TF) of radionuclide from soil/water to plant ([Radionuclide]plant/[Radionuclide]soil) vary widely in different plants. Rhizosphere, rhizobacteria and varied metal transporters like NRAMP, ZIP families CDF, ATPases (HMAs) family like P1B-ATPases, are involved in the radio-phytoremediation processes. This review will discuss recent advancements and potential application of plants for radionuclide removal from the environment.

  10. Radionuclides in air, water, and biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, A.H.; Nelson, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Air, water, and biological samples collected before and after the 1965, 1969, and 1971 underground nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island were analyzed for natural and fallout radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. Selected samples were also analyzed for tritium, 55 Fe, and 90 Sr. The objectives were to search for and identify radionuclides of Amchitka origin in the samples and to contribute to the general knowledge of the distribution of radionuclides in the environment. The studies showed that there has been no escape of radionuclides from the underground sites of the three nuclear detonations at Amchitka Island except for trace quantities of radionuclides, principally tritium, in water and soil gas samples from the immediate vicinity of the surface ground zero for the 1965 event. Two naturally occurring radionuclides, 40 K and 7 Be, were the most abundant radionuclides in the samples, usually by a factor of 10 or more, except for 137 Cs in lichen samples. All levels were well below applicable Radiation Protction Guides, often being near the statistical limit of detection

  11. Automation of radionuclide analysis in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostilo, V.; Sokolov, A.; Kuzmenko, V.; Kondratjev, V.

    2009-01-01

    The development results for the automated precise HPGe spectrometers and systems for radionuclide analyses in nuclear industry and environmental monitoring are presented. Automated HPGe spectrometer for radionuclide monitoring of coolant in primary circuit of NPPs is intended for technological monitoring of the radionuclide specific activity in liquid and gaseous flows in the on-line mode. The automated spectrometer based on flowing HPGe detector with the through channel is intended for control of the uniformity of distribution of uranium and/or plutonium in fresh fuel elements, transferred through the detector, as well as for on-line control of the fluids and gases flows with low activity. Automated monitoring system for radionuclide volumetric activity in outlet channels of NPPs is intended for radionuclide monitoring of water reservoirs in the regions of nuclear weapons testing, near nuclear storage, nuclear power plants and other objects of nuclear energetic. Autonomous HPGe spectrometer for deep water radionuclide monitoring is applicable for registration of gamma radionuclides, distributed in water depth up to 3000 m (radioactive wastes storage, wreck of atomic ships, lost nuclear charges, atomic industry technological waste release etc.).(authors)

  12. Guidelines for agricultural countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused significant radioactive contamination of the environment over widely separated areas, some relatively remote from the site. Considerable scientific research was stimulated directly and indirectly and a good deal of practical experience was obtained in dealing with the aftermath. The collation of the relevant information and experience concerning the transfer of radionuclides through food chains and ways of reducing this transfer is a prudent insurance for the management of agriculture should a major nuclear accident occur again. Work to this end was begun in 1990 by a consultants group convened in a co-ordinated research programme of the IAEA and the CEC on the Validation of Models for the Transfer of Radionuclides in Terrestrial, Urban and Aquatic Environments (VAMP). The work was further developed by a joint programme of the IAEA Division of Nuclear Safety and the Agrochemicals and Residues Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture entitled ''Alleviating the Adverse Effects of Excessive Radionuclide Contamination of the Agricultural Environment''. The present Guidelines are an output of this programme and are intended to assist those charged with administrative, scientific and advisory responsibilities to prepare more detail plans specific to the local conditions. 80 refs, 1 fig., 20 tabs

  13. Evaluation of radionuclide migration in forest ecosystems in TEMAS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claver, F.; Vazquez, C.

    1998-01-01

    The applicability study of the best countermeasures for the restoration of environments contaminated by the accidental liberation of radionuclides, requires the assessment of the space and the temporal flow of radionuclides. The objective of the multinational project TEMAS (Techniques and Management Strategies for environmental restoration and their ecological consequences), that is carried out under EU-CIEMAT contract n. TI4-CT95-0021, is the development of management tool that provides the necessary support in the selection of the best strategies of environmental restoration after a nuclear accident, considering all the possible affected environments (urban, agricultural, semi natural and forest). In the forest environment,CIEMAT is working with the University of Lund (Sweden) and the Physical Science Faculty of the University of Seville in the prognosis of the distribution of Cesium and Strontium in forest ecosystems and through the associated production systems. This paper summarizes the study of the response of two different models, FORM and FORESTPATH to predict the radionuclides flow in the event of an accidental contamination of a forest. The comparison of results has been carried out over a period of 100 years after deposition on a coniferous forest. Although the approaches are different, the results obtained (using generic parameters) indicate that either model could to be selected for the analysis of the intervention in TEMAS. (Author) 14 refs

  14. Radionuclide evaluation before and after medical or surgical myocardial revascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and radionuclide angiography performed in the resting state or during the course of exercise testing may provide clinically relevant information that is helpful in decision making in patients with coronary artery disease. These noninvasive techniques may be particularly useful in assessing the functional severity of coronary artery disease in patients presenting with chest pain, and could be employed to assist in differentiating between ischemic and infarcted or scarred myocardium. By the identification of high-risk and low-risk subsets based on certain radionuclide and exercise test findings, coronary arteriography with a view toward revascularization would be recommended in the former and medical therapy in the latter. Patients with mild symptoms and a low-risk scintigraphic pattern or functional response to stress could be spared an invasive procedure until symptoms became progressive and refractory to medical treatment. In this review, the value and limitations of /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy and radionuclide angiography in the patient being considered for coronary bypass surgery, transluminal angioplasty, or who receives thrombolytic therapy are discussed

  15. Research reactor utilization. Summary reports of three study group meetings: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, held in Istanbul 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, held in Caracas 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, held in Lucas Heights 28 February - 4 March 1966

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The three sections of this book, which are summary reports of three Study Group meetings of the IAEA: Irradiation techniques at research reactors, Istanbul, 15-19 November 1965; Research reactor operation and maintenance problems, Caracas, 6-10 December 1965; and Research reactor utilization in the Far East, Lucas Heights, Australia, 28 February - 4 March 1966. These meetings were the latest in a series designed to promote efficient utilization of research reactors, to disseminate information on advances in techniques, to discuss common problems in reactor operations, and to outline some advanced areas of reactor-based research. (author)

  16. The Value of Radionuclide Bone Imaging in Defining Fresh Fractures Among Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Quan-Ming; Gu, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Zhong-Tang; Cheng, Li

    2016-05-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. To perform percutaneous vertebral body cement augmentation, it is essential to accurately identify the affected vertebrae. The study evaluated the role of radionuclide bone imaging in identifying fresh osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. A prospective study of 39 patients with acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures was carried out. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radionuclide bone imaging to determine if the fractures were fresh, followed by percutaneous kyphoplasty for the fresh fractures. The positive rate on radionuclide bone imaging was 92.1% (82/89), and the positive rate on MRI was 93.3% (83/89), with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). Eighty-one vertebrae had the same positive identification by both radionuclide bone imaging and MRI, and 5 of the same vertebrae were diagnosed negative by both techniques. One patient with positive radionuclide bone imaging was negative according to MRI, and 2 patients were entirely positive by MRI but negative by radionuclide bone imaging. A kappa test showed good consistency between the 2 methods for detecting the affected vertebrae (Kappa = 0.751, P osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, making it an effective method for detecting affected vertebrae for percutaneous vertebroplasty.

  17. Dispersion of long-lived radionuclides from uranium mining, milling and fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.B.L.

    1990-11-01

    The principal aim of the study was to gain further insight into the environmental dispersion of long-lived U series radionuclides from selected part of the nuclear fuel cycle and to assess the resulting exposure of members of the public. The specific objectives of this study were: 1. To determine the levels of natural radioactivity in the vicinity of two U deposits in Sweden and to establish whether U prospecting had generated significant radiological impact on man. 2. To investigate the spatial distributions of long-lived U series radionuclides caused by the dispersion of dust from the Ranger open-pit U mine in Australia. 3. To study the uptakes of long-lived U and T series radionuclides by the waterlily in order to facilitate assessment of natural exposures to the public and predictions of exposures arising from consumption of the plant due to any subsequent discharges of water from the Ranger U mine. 4. To investigate the spatial distributions of U isotopes in environmental air as a result of the release of radionuclides from the ABB-ATOM nuclear fuel factory at Vaesteraas in Sweden. In these investigations special emphasis was given to - activity ratio techniques suitable for distinguishing between natural and operation-related concentrations and for facilitating determination of the source of radionuclide uptake in the waterlily, and - the use of passive air samplers such as 'sticky vinyl' and bioindicators in investigating the aerial dispersion of radionuclides. (author)

  18. Effects of bedrock fractures on radionuclide transport near a vertical deposition hole for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H.

    2011-12-01

    Effects of bedrock fractures on radionuclide transport near a vertical deposition hole for spent nuclear fuel are studied computationally. The studied fractures are both natural and excavation damage fractures. The emphasis is on the detailed modelling of geometry in 3D in contrast to the traditional radionuclide transport studies that often concentrate on chain decays, sorption, and precipitation at the expense of the geometry. The built computer model is used to assess the significance of components near a deposition hole for radionuclide transport and to estimate the quality of previously used modelling techniques. The results show nearly exponential decrease of radionuclide mass in the bentonite buffer when the release route is a thin natural fracture. The results also imply that size is the most important property of the tunnel section for radionuclide transport. In addition, the results demonstrate that the boundary layer theory can be used to approximate the release of radionuclides with certain accuracy and that a thin fracture in rock can be modelled, at least to a certain limit, by using a fracture with wider aperture but with same flow rate as the thin fracture. (orig.)

  19. 2008 LANL radionuclide air emissions report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2009-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2008. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  20. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  1. Current potential of radionuclide applications in therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, L.

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented of the proceedings of the 4th Boettstein Collegium held in June, 1986 in Wuerenlingen (CH), debating new possibilities in applying radionuclides in the therapy of malignant diseases. The new possibilities are open with the development of new biological carriers with high detection capacities, especially monoclonal antibodies. Therapeutical applications are characterized of some radionuclides, mainly 131 I and 123 I, and beta and alpha radionuclides are listed promising for therapeutical uses. Therapeutical prospects are also outlined for immunotherapy. (L.O.). 1 ref

  2. DNA damage induced by radionuclide internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Zhao Jingyong; Hong Chengjiao; Lao Qinhua; Wang Liuyi; Yang Shuqin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the DNA damage of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) in rats exposed to radionuclide internal irradiation. Methods: The radionuclides were injected into the rats and single cell get electrophoresis (SCGE) was performed to detect the length of DNA migration in the rat PBMC. Results: DNA migration in the rat PBMC increased with accumulative dose or dose-rate. It showed good relationship of dose vs. response and of dose-rate vs. response, both relationship could be described as linear models. Conclusion: Radionuclide internal irradiation could cause DNA damage in rat PBMC. (authors)

  3. Solubility limited radionuclide transport through geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Susumu; Iwamoto, Fumio; Pigford, T.H.

    1980-11-01

    Prior analyses for the migration of radionuclides neglect solubility limits of resolved radionuclide in geologic media. But actually some of the actinides may appear in chemical forms of very low solubility. In the present report we have proposed the migration model with no decay parents in which concentration of radionuclide is limited in concentration of solubility in ground water. In addition, the analytical solutions of the space-time-dependent concentration are presented in the case of step release, band release and exponential release. (author)

  4. Soil - plant experimental radionuclide transfer factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R.I.; Dulama, C.N.; Toma, Al.

    2006-01-01

    Some experimental research was performed in our institute to assess site specific soil-plant transfer factors. A full characterization of an experimental site was done both from pedo-chemical and radiological point of view. Afterwards, a certain number of culture plants were grown on this site and the evolution of their radionuclide burden was then recorded. Using some soil amendments one performed a parallel experiment and the radionuclide root uptake was evaluated and recorded. Hence, transfer parameters were calculated and some conclusions were drawn concerning the influence of site specific conditions on the root uptake of radionuclides. (authors)

  5. Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States)]. E-mail: linkov@cambridgeenvironmental.com; Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN)/Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling - LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  6. Radionuclides in fruit systems. Model-model intercomparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linkov, I. [Cambridge Environmental, 58 Charles Street, Cambridge, MA 02141 (United States); Carini, F. [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Via Emilia Parmense, 84, I-29100 Piacenza (Italy); Collins, C. [T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering (United Kingdom); Eged, K. [Department of Radiochemistry, University of Veszprem, P.O. Box 158 H-8201, H-8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Mitchell, N.G. [Mouchel Consulting Ltd., West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ (United Kingdom); Mourlon, C. [Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety IPSN, Division of Environmental Protection (DPRE), Laboratory of Environmental Modelling LMODE, CE/Cadarache, 13 108 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Ould-Dada, Z. [Food Standards Agency, Radiological Protection and Research Management Division, Aviation House, 125 Kingsway, Room 715B, London WC2B 6NH (United Kingdom); Robles, B. [CIEMAT, Dept. de Impacto Ambiental (DIAE), Edif. 3A, Avenida Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Sweeck, L. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Venter, A. [Enviros Consulting Ltd., Telegraphic House, Waterfront Quay, Salford Quays, Greater Manchester, M50 3XW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with parameter uncertainty are fairly well developed, an adequate representation of uncertainties associated with models remains rare. This paper addresses uncertainty about a model's structure (i.e., the relevance of simplifying assumptions and mathematical equations) that is seldom addressed in practical applications of environmental modeling. The use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs or risks is probably the only available technique to assess consistency in model prediction. Since each independent model requires significant resources for development and calibration, multiple models are not generally applied to the same problem. This study uses results from one such model intercomparison conducted by the Fruits Working Group, which was created under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) Program. Model-model intercomparisons presented in this study were conducted by the working group for two different scenarios (acute or continuous deposition), one radionuclide ({sup 137}Cs), and three fruit-bearing crops (strawberries, apples, and blackcurrants). The differences between models were as great as five orders of magnitude for short-term predictions following acute radionuclide deposition. For long-term predictions and for the continuous deposition scenario, the differences between models were about two orders of magnitude. The difference between strawberry, apple, and blackcurrant contamination predicted by one model is far less than the

  7. Development, implementation and utilization of 210Pb in vivo measurement techniques as indicator of human being exposure to 222Rn - evaluation of associated parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida

    2005-01-01

    Radon and its decay products are present in the atmosphere and are the most important contributors for the internal exposure of humans to natural radiation. The execution of in vivo measurements of 210 Pb in the population and in individuals occupationally exposed in underground mines has been studied and recommended as one of the procedures for the estimation of the exposure to 222 Rn. The metabolism of 210 Pb and its distribution within the human body, mainly deposited in the bone tissue, suggests the regions of skull and knee as the most suitable for the in vivo monitoring of such radionuclide. A radiological survey in non uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the State of Parana, in the south of Brazil, had high radon concentration. The aim of this work were: (1) To investigate whether underground coal miners may also have elevated 210 Pb in the skeleton as a result of occupational exposure to radon in the coal mine; (2) To estimate the committed equivalent dose and the committed effective dose in different incorporation scenarios using a computer code. The calibration and the in vivo measurements of underground coal miners were performed in the IRD-CNEN Whole Body Counter shielded room using an array of four high resolution germanium detectors. The detection system was positioned at the head and knee geometries. The minimum detectable quantity of 210 Pb in the skeleton using this methodology was (50 Bq) and the positive results were verified using a mathematical method that applies a moving median smoothing function to the total spectrum for each measurement. In vivo measurements of 210 Pb in 6 out of the 32 underground coal miners ranged between 83 Bq and 164 Bq suggesting that these workers received significant occupational cumulative exposure to 222 Rn. The simulation of some exposure patterns of 222 Rn progeny and 210 Pb incorporation showed that the most important contribution for 210 Pb skeleton deposition was the intake of

  8. Research progess on treatment of cancer with targeted radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jiawen; Zhang Caixia

    2008-01-01

    The new development and situation of targeted radionuclide therapy in oncology is described, which include radioimmunotherapy, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, gene therapy and radionuclide labled chemotherapeutics therapy. The application research on labled carrier of those therapy is emphasized. Meanwhile, the research progess of indomethacin and its combined with targeted radionuclide therapy is also described. (authors)

  9. Radionuclide Generators: New Systems for Nuclear Medicine Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F.; Butler, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    This book reviews and discusses in detail the new generation and improved versions of older radionuclide generators that are being developed for nuclear medicine applications. Short-lived radionuclides, positron-emitting radionuclides, and radionuclide production and miscellaneous applications are studied

  10. Recent advances in targeted radionuclide therapy in treatment of metastatic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the early forties, Nuclear Medicine uses 'targeted radionuclide therapy' for treatment, when it was discovered that 131 I (radioiodine) is accumulated in thyroid tumours and their metastases. The examples of nuclear medicine viz. radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer, for bone metastases in prostrate and breast cancer, in neuroendocrine tumors, selective internal radio therapy, antibody therapy of lymphoma, indicates its benefits. In the near future, some other ways of tumour treatment using PSMA and RGD have to prove their utility for targeted radionuclide therapy

  11. The deportment of uranium decay chain radionuclides during processing of an Australian monazite concentrate using a caustic conversion route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellodee Anvia; Brown, S.A.; McOrist, G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Monazite is conventionally processed using caustic conversion and hydrochloric acid leaching in industry, to recover the rare earth elements (REE). Understanding the deportment of uranium decay chain radionuclides is of particular importance for product quality and occupational health and safety (OH and S) purposes. Here, the deportment of uranium decay chain radionuclides during the alkaline treatment route was investigated for the first time, using analytical techniques. Significant quantities of 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 227 Ac were found to report to the rare earth chloride liquor. Subsequent impurity removal treatment generally resulted in the elimination of more than 85 % of radionuclides contained in the chloride liquor. (author)

  12. GHSI emergency radionuclide bioassay laboratory network - summary of the second exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Quayle, Debora; Sadi, Baki; Bartizel, Christine; Battisti, Paolo; Boettger, Axel; Bouvier, Celine; Paquet, Francois; CapoteCuellar, Antonio; Carr, Zhanat; Hammond, Derek; Hartmann, Martina; Heikkinen, Tarja; Jones, Robert L.; Kim, Eunjoo; Koga, Roberto; Kukhta, Boris; Mitchell, Lorna; Morhard, Ryan; Rulik, Petr; Sergei, Aleksanin; Sierra, Inmaculada; Oliveira Sousa, Wandersonde; Szabo, Gyula

    2017-01-01

    The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) established a laboratory network within the GHSI community to develop collective surge capacity for radionuclide bioassay in response to a radiological or nuclear emergency as a means of enhancing response capability, health outcomes and community resilience. GHSI partners conducted an exercise in collaboration with the WHO Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network and the IAEA Response and Assistance Network, to test the participating laboratories (18) for their capabilities in in vitro assay of biological samples, using a urine sample spiked with multiple high-risk radionuclides ( 90 Sr, 106 Ru, 137 Cs, and 239 Pu). Laboratories were required to submit their reports within 72 h following receipt of the sample, using a pre-formatted template, on the procedures, methods and techniques used to identify and quantify the radionuclides in the sample, as well as the bioassay results with a 95% confidence interval. All of the participating laboratories identified and measured all or some of the radionuclides in the sample. However, gaps were identified in both the procedures used to assay multiple radionuclides in one sample, as well as in the methods or techniques used to assay specific radionuclides in urine. Two-third of the participating laboratories had difficulties in determining all the radionuclides in the sample. Results from this exercise indicate that challenges remain with respect to ensuring that results are delivered in a timely, consistent and reliable manner to support medical interventions. Laboratories within the networks are encouraged to work together to develop and maintain collective capabilities and capacity for emergency bioassay, which is an important component of radiation emergency response. (authors)

  13. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Palestro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of "complicating osteomyelitis" such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose.Estudos através de imagens com o uso de radionuclídeos são rotineiramente usadas para avaliar pacientes suspeitos de terem infecção músculo-esquelética. A imagem óssea em tridimensional é facilmente avaliável, relativamente de baixo custo, e muito precisa na localização de alterações ósseas. Imagem com leucócito marcado poderia ser usada nos casos de "osteomielite com complicações" tais como infecção prostética articular. Esse teste também é útil na não suspeita clinica de osteomielite associada ao pé diabético tanto quanto nas junções neuropáticas. É sempre necessário, por outro lado, realizar imagem complementar da medula óssea para aumentar a precisão da imagem com leucócito marcado. Em contraste com outras regiões no esqueleto, imagem com leucócito marcado não é útil para diagnosticar osteomielite da coluna vertebral. Até agora, o gálio é o radionuclídeo preferido para

  14. Transfer of radionuclides into human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, M.; Wirth, E.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now the potential radiation exposure to breast-fed babies due to contaminated human milk has not been taken into account, when deriving international limit values and reference levels for radionuclides in foodstuffs, in air at monitored work places or for exposures in the medical field. It was the aim of the research project 'Transfer of radionuclides into human milk' to quantify the transfer of incorporated radionuclides into mother's milk, and develop simple models to estimate the radiation exposure of babies through the ingestion of human milk. The study focused on considerations of the radiation exposure due to the ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs by the mother, the inhalation of radionuclides at monitored work places, and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals to breast-feeding mothers. The blocking of infant thyroid glands by stable iodine in the case of accidental releases of radioiodine was considered as well. (orig.) [de

  15. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  16. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hille, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given on the actual knowledge about occurence and environmental relevancy of the most important radionuclides from natural and anthropogenic origin. The contribution of AGF installation is emphasized. (orig.) [de

  17. Computed tomography and radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusins, J.O.; Chayes, Z.; Nakagawa, H.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison o CT (computerized Tomography) and radionuclide brain scanning was performed; 30 patients with a total of 42 lesions were evaluated. Previous sreports have shown that CT and radionuclide scanning are equally useful in detecting metastatic disease. However, if contrast enhancement is used we find that computerized tomography is far more accurate than radionuclide scanning in detecting metastatic disease to the brain, 95.4 percent as compared to 62 percent. Our study also shows that radionuclide scanning falls off in accuracy when the the lesion is below 2 cm. in size. Also, the presence of brain edema in association with metastatic disease increases the probability of having a positive nuclear scan finding

  18. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  19. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy: An Evolution Toward Precision Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    This article reviews recent developments in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) approaches directed to malignant liver lesions, bone metastases, neuroendocrine tumors, and castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer and discusses challenges and opportunities in this field. TRT has been employed since the first radioiodine thyroid treatment almost 75 years ago. Progress in the understanding of the complex underlying biology of cancer and advances in radiochemistry science, multimodal imaging techniques including the concept of "see and treat" within the framework of theranostics, and universal traction with the notion of precision medicine have all contributed to a resurgence of TRT.

  20. Radionuclide angiocardiography in pulmonary hypertension: hemodynamic data relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, A.A.B.; Meneguetti, J.C.; Soares Junior, J.; Ratti, A.N.; Ebaid, M.; Camargo, E.E.

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen patients with primary or secondary pulmonary hypertension were studied. Radionuclide angiocardiographic data were obtained by in vivo red blood cell labeling with technetium-99m pertechnetate. A pulmonary time-activity curve was plotted using the firstpass technique. The first derivative of the upstroke of the time-activity curve was normalized to the maximum count rate of the pulmonary time-activity curve (Dmax), and compared to mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), Pulmonary resistence (Rp) and the ratio Rp/Rs. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. The fate of radionuclides in the body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, P.; Le Gall, B.

    2003-01-01

    Depending on the way in which a radionuclide arrives in the body, its fate and the possible effects of the contamination can range widely. To evaluate fully and realistically the consequences of a possible internal contamination by a radionuclide it is therefore most important to study the way in which it is transported in the body, whether and how it binds to different tissues and organs, and by what means it is likely to be eliminated. (authors)

  2. Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Scott [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bleuel, Darren [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Micah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rusnak, Brian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tonchev, Anton [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The Livermore Accelerator Source for Radionuclide Science (LASRS) will generate intense photon and neutron beams to address important gaps in the study of radionuclide science that directly impact Stockpile Stewardship, Nuclear Forensics, and Nuclear Material Detection. The co-location of MeV-scale neutral and photon sources with radiochemical analytics provides a unique facility to meet current and future challenges in nuclear security and nuclear science.

  3. The uptake of radionuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.; Turner, G.S.

    1982-02-01

    A review of the literature, since 1970, on the research into the uptake of radionuclides by plants, with references to earlier soil and plant studies on the fate of nuclear weapons fallout. Experimental data on the uptake of plutonium isotopes, americium 241, cesium 137, radium 226, curium 244 and neptunium 237 and details of the chemical form of the radionuclide, soil type and plant growth period are tabulated. (U.K.)

  4. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique using Subsecond Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.K.; Schmidt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The fast irradiation facility Mach-1 installed at the Danish DR 3 reactor has been used in boron determinations by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using12B with 20-ms half-life. The performance characteristics of the system are presented and boron determinations of NBS standard...

  5. Review of radionuclide treatment for neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hwan Jeong

    2006-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) consist of a heterogeneous group of tumors that are uptake neuroamine and/or specific receptors, such as somatostatin receptors, which can play important roles of the localization and treatment of these tumors. When considering therapy with radionuclides, the best radioligand should be carefully investigated. 131 I-MIBG and beta-particle emitter labeled somatostatin analogs are well established radionuclide therapy modalities for NETs. 111 In, 90 Y and 177 Lu radiolabelled somatostatin analogues have been used for treatment of NETs. Further, radionuclide therapy modalities, for example, radioimmunotherapy, radiolabeled peptides such as minigastrin are currently under development and in different phases of clinical investigation. For all radionuclides used for therapy, long-tem and survival statistics are not yet available and only partial tumour responses have been obtained using 131 I-MIBG and 111 In-octreotide. Experimental results using 90 Y-DOTA-lanreotide as well as 90 Y-DOTA-D -Phe1-Tyr 3 -octreotide and/or 177 Lu-DOTA-Tyr 3 -octreotate have indicated the possible clinical potential of radionuclides receptor-targeted radiotherapy. It may be hoped that the efficacy of radionuclide therapy will be improved by co-administration of chemotherapeutic drugs whose antitumoral properties may be synergistic with that of irradiation

  6. Radionuclide therapy practice and facilities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Clarke, S.E.M.; Fischer, M.; Chatal, J.F.; Lewington, V.J.; Nilsson, S.; Troncone, L.; Vieira, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Using a questionnaire the EANM Task Group Radionuclide Therapy in 1993 collected data on the current practice of radionuclide therapy in European countries. Subsequently, at the request of the EANM Executive Committee, the EANM Radionuclide Therapy Committee has made an inventory of the distribution of facilities for radionuclide therapy and undertaken an assessment of the total number of patients treated throughout Europe and of the types of treatment provides, with the aim of supporting the development of policy to adjust the available capacity to the needs by the year 2000. For this purpose, a second, more detailed questionnaire was sent out the members and national advisors of the Committee (see below), who gathered the data for each country that was a member of the EANM at the time. It is concluded that a wide bariation in therapy practice exists across Europe, particularly in the utilisation of radionuclide therapy, the requirement and availability of proper isolation facilities and the background training of those undertaking therapy. More uniform guidelines and legislation are required, although changes in legislation may have a significant impact in some countries. Although there is wide variation in the therapies used in each country, one the whole it appears that there is an underutilisation of nuclear medicine as a therapeutic modality. A rapidly increasing role may be expected, in particular for oncological indications requiring high-dose radionuclide treatment. Therefore there is an urgent need for a greater number of isolation beds in dedicated centers throughout Europe

  7. Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, Linnea [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, store d, and potentially emitted . These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989a). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2012, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]) . These minor sources include d about 140 stack sources and no diffuse sources . T here were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley Lab operations . Emissions from minor sources were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building- specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA -approved computer code s, CAP88-PC and COMPLY , to calculate doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) at any offsite point where there is a residence, school, business, or office. Because radionuclides are used at three noncontiguous locations (the main site, Berkeley West Bio center, and Joint BioEnergy Institute), three different MEIs were identified.

  8. Radionuclide therapy practice and facilities in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Clarke, S.E.M.; Fischer, M.; Chatal, J.F.; Lewington, V.J.; Nilsson, S.; Troncone, L.; Vieira, M.R.

    1999-03-01

    Using a questionnaire the EANM Task Group Radionuclide Therapy in 1993 collected data on the current practice of radionuclide therapy in European countries. Subsequently, at the request of the EANM Executive Committee, the EANM Radionuclide Therapy Committee has made an inventory of the distribution of facilities for radionuclide therapy and undertaken an assessment of the total number of patients treated throughout Europe and of the types of treatment provides, with the aim of supporting the development of policy to adjust the available capacity to the needs by the year 2000. For this purpose, a second, more detailed questionnaire was sent out the members and national advisors of the Committee (see below), who gathered the data for each country that was a member of the EANM at the time. It is concluded that a wide bariation in therapy practice exists across Europe, particularly in the utilisation of radionuclide therapy, the requirement and avilability of proper isolation facilities and the background training of those undertaking therapy. More uniform guidelines and legislation are required, although changes in legislation may have a significant impact in some countries. Although there is wide variation in the therapies used in each country, one the whole it appears that there is an underutilisation of nuclear medicine as a therapeutic modality. A rapidly increasing role may be expected, in particular for oncological indications requiring high-dose radionuclide treatment. Therefore there is an urgent need for a greater number of isolation beds in dedicated centers throughout Europe. With 8 tabs.

  9. Inventories of selected radionuclides in the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    In March 1984 an ad hoc Review Committee composed of senior experts in the marine radioactivity field made recommendations that ''the Monaco Laboratory should be engaged in compiling and evaluating the input of radionuclides into the marine environment''. The Committee recommended that work should commence on selected radionuclides, viz., 14 C, caesium isotopes, plutonium isotopes, 210 Po and 210 Pb followed by 226 Ra. Depending on the radionuclides involved the assistance of competent experts from outside as well as inside the IAEA was sought. The present document is a product of the work carried out within the framework of the above-mentioned task and contains reports on 14 C, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 210 Pb, 210 Po and 226 Ra. Although the estimation of the inventory in the marine environment and related input and output fluxes, is the same for all radionuclides concerned, different approaches were followed to achieve this objective. These approaches depended on the geochemical characteristics of the radionuclides and the availability of data for different times and locations. For regions where data were lacking, extrapolation on the basis of specific assumptions has often been necessary. As the work was initiated during the pre-Chernobyl period, the radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl incident were not, in general, considered. Since the work for preparing the forthcoming report of the UNSCEAR is scheduled to be completed by 1991, it is hoped that the information contained in this volume will be beneficial. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  11. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  12. Radionuclide transport in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, the classical advective-dispersive transport equation was considered to be an adequate model for describing the motion of a solute (e.g. radionuclides) in porous and fractured media. In this model, the dispersion coefficient is either obtained from a microscopic model of the porous medium or by carefully controlled experiments. As a result of such experiments, a large body of data has been accumulated on the dispersivity. Detailed examination of these data has resulted in a curious phenomenon being discovered; namely, that the longitudinal dispersion length is 'scale-dependent'. That is to say the value deduced depends on the 'size' of the experiment, i.e. on the distance over which measurements are made. Several interesting attempts have been made to develop theories which explain this phenomenon, all based on treating the velocity of the water in the porous medium as a spatially random variable, but retaining the advective-dispersive balance equation. In this work we present an entirely new approach to the problem of solute transport in fractured media based upon an analogy with neutron transport. The new method has several advantages over the previous theories and these will be explained below. Results from the new theory are in agreement with experimental trends and do not require any further adjustment to explain the scale-dependent effect

  13. Gut-related radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project is concerned with the behavior of radioactive materials that may be ingested as a consequence of a reactor accident, unavoidable occupational exposure, or after release to the environment and incorporation into the food chain. Current emphasis is directed toward evaluating hazards from ingested actinides as a function of animal age, species, nutrition, and diet, or chemicophysical state of the actinide. Recent observations indicate that the influence of chemical form on plutonium absorption observed at high mass levels does not occur at low mass concentrations. For example, at doses of 0.6 μg/kg there was no difference between absorption of the carbonate, citrate or nitrate forms of plutonium. However, at 1.5 mg/kg, the citrate was absorbed in quantities 30 times higher than the nitrate. The opposite effect occurred for neptunium GI absorption. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that materials such as citrus fruit juices and calcium, as well as drugs that affect GI function (such as aspirin and DTPA), markedly influence GI absorption of plutonium. Such studies provide evidence that diet and nutritional state should be considered in establishing safe limits for radionuclides that may be ingested

  14. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ''experiments'' conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes

  15. Radionuclides in forest biogeocenose elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavik, I.M.; Zhuchenko, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    In 1991 year investigations are made on a studying of the radionuclide distribution (CS-137 and Sr-90) through the main forest biogeocenose elements (a litter a mineral soil layer, overground trees parts) on 5 experimental objects of Gomel' region with a various contamination. Radiation characters of the objects are done. As compared with 1989 year cesium and strontium migration from tress into the litter and from the litter to the soil is shown. In the litter and upper soil layer (5 m) contents of Cs-137 and Sr-90 are 95 and 80% accordingly. The Sr-90 concentration in the wood and the isotope concentration change through yearly layers (1986-1991 years) are studied. Wood layers formed to the accident have a lesser cesium concentration, especially in the oax-tree. The highest Cs and Se translocation, into the wood is noted in the pine the lesse one in the oax-tree. Among all elements of the biogeocenose the highest Cs-137 concentration the litter has and then one-year-old shoots, needles, lives, the bark and the wood go on. Even on the sixth year after the accident Cs concentration in the wood was 20-30 times less, than the one in needes and one-year-old shoot of this year. 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  16. Geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from Corumbatai River basin (SP), Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Fabiano Tomazini da

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the geochemical behavior of radionuclides and heavy metals in soils of agricultural use at Corumbatai River basin (SP). The natural concentration and variability in sedimentary rocks at Corumbatai river basin follow the trend Ca > Mg > K > Na, with the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides. The distribution of exposure rate in soils shows the occurrence of higher values towards south of the Corumbatai river basin, region where are applied phosphate fertilizers, amendments and 'vinhaca' in sugar cane crops. Heavy metals and radionuclides incorporated in phosphate fertilizers and amendments are annually added during the fertilization process in the sugar cane crops, but if they are utilized in accordance with the recommended rate, they do not rise the concentration levels in soils up to hazards levels. Thus, they are lower transferred from soils to sugar cane at Corumbatai river basin, not offering hazard to the ecosystem and animal or human health. (author)

  17. Comparative analysis of radionuclide inhalation and perfusion lung imaging with X ray pulmonary angiography for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanyan; Chen Man; Shao Maogang; Zhang Songlin; Mao Jieming; Guo Jingxuan

    1993-01-01

    The result of radionuclide lung imaging was compared in 18 patients of pulmonary embolism (PE) and 2 normal persons. The discovered perfusion defects correlated well with the location of angiographic obstruction. The positive angiographic and radionuclide finding was in 141 and 104 emboli arteries respectively. The sensitivity of total emboli pulmonary segments of lung imaging was 73.8%, the specificity was 82.7 and the accuracy was 79%. The techniques correlated quite well (r = 0.83, P<0.001)

  18. Techniques for analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Regulatory laws and policies. [State by state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This report is a legal study prepared to provide a review of the substantive and procedural laws of each regulatory jurisdiction that may affect implementation of the PURPA standards, and to summarize the current state of consideration and implementation of policies and rate designs similar or identical to the PURPA standards by state regulatory agencies and nonregulated utilities. This report is divided into three sections. The first section, the Introduction, summarizes the standards promulgated by PURPA and the results of the legal study. The second section, State Regulatory Law and Procedure, summarizes for each state or other ratemaking jurisdiction: (1) general constitutional and statutory provisions affecting utility rates and conditions of service; (2) specific laws or decisions affecting policy or rate design issues covered by PURPA standards; and (3) statutes and decisions governing administrative procedures, including judicial review. A chart showing actions taken on the policy and rate design issues addressed by PURPA is also included for each jurisdiction, and citations to relevant authorities are presented for each standard. State statutes or decisions that specifically define a state standard similar or identical to a PURPA standard, or that refer to one of the three PURPA objectives, are noted. The third section, Nonregulated Electric Utilities, summarizes information available on nonregulated utilities, i.e., publicly or cooperatively owned utilities which are specifically exempted from state regulation by state law.

  19. Health risks from radionuclides released into the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.A.; Hoffman, F.O.; Miller, L.F.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to estimate off-site radiation doses and health risks (with uncertainties) associated with the release of radionuclides from the X-10 site. Following an initial screening analysis, the exposure pathways of interest included fish ingestion, drinking water ingestion, the ingestion of milk and meat, and external exposure from shoreline sediment. Four representative locations along the Clinch River, from the White Oak Creek Embayment to the city of Kingston, were chosen. The demography of the lower Clinch River supplied information dealing with land use that aided in the determination of sites on which to focus efforts. The locations that proved to be the most significant included Jones Island at Clinch River Mile (CRM) 20.5, Grassy Creek and K-25 (CRM 14), Kingston Steam Plant (CRM 3.5), and the city of Kingston (CRM 0). These areas of interest have historically been and are still primarily agricultural and residential areas. Reference individuals were determined with respect to the pathways involved. The primary radionuclides of interest released from the X-10 facility into the Clinch River via White Oak Creek were identified in the initial screening analysis as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co, 106 Ru, 144 Ce, 131 I, 95 Zr, and 95 Nb. Of these radionuclides, 137 Cs, 60 Co, 106 Ru, 90 Sr, 144 Ce, 95 Zr, and 95 Nb were evaluated for their contribution to the external exposure pathway. This study utilized an object-oriented modeling software package that provides an alternative to the spreadsheet, providing graphical influence diagrams to show qualitative structure of models, hierarchical models to organize complicated models into manageable modules, and intelligent arrays with the power to scale up simple models to handle large problems. The doses and risks estimated in this study are not significant enough to cause a detectable increase in health effects in the population. In most cases, the organ does are well below the limits of epidemiological

  20. Quo vadis radionuclid ventriclography (RNV)?; Quo vadis Radionuklidventrikulographie (RNV)?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoer, G.; Hertel, A.; Diehl, M. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Zentrum der Radiologie

    1999-06-01

    Unjustifiably radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) lost some of its importance with the advance of stress-echocardiography. This editorial aims at reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of both procedures, pointing to the ability of standardized and reproducible quantified global and regional (sectorial) multiparametric analysis, as compared to the qualitative evaluation of global left ventricular function and regional wall motion abnormalities, utilizing stress-echo. Based on a questionnaire sent to German centers the sequence of clinical application of RNV runs like this: Cardiomyopathy, cardiotoxicity-testing, coronary artery disease (CAD) - prognosis, remodeling, risk stratification - PTCA - success and failure - valve disease (chronic aortic insufficiency), cardiac transplantation (observation of progressive vasulopathies) and pharmaceutical testing. Differences in comparison to the guidelines of task force groups in USA are opposed where a consensus conference is still missing in Germany. Final outlook is given on combining PET-derived ejection fraction together with ECG-gated PET (GAPET) for quantification of function, regional perfusion (ischemia) and viable myocardium (hibernating myocardium). Control of successful revascularization by modern angioplasty techniques such as stent implantation, laser angioplasty today is primarily subject to echocardiography, where it is to be considered that the sensitivity of stress-echo is equivalent to nuclear medicine procedures in multivessel disease but inferior to nuclear medicine in single vessel disease and small vessel disease (with normal coronary angiography). (orig.) [Deutsch] Zu Unrecht hat die Radionuklidventrikulographie mit dem Fortschritt der Stressechokardiographie einen Teil ihrer Bedeutung verloren. Dieses Editorial hat zum Ziel, die Vor- und Nachteile beider Methoden zu betrachten und die Moeglichkeit der standardisierten und reproduzierbaren quantifizierten globalen und regionalen (sektoralen