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Sample records for techniques utilizing radionuclides

  1. Radionuclide techniques for brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.J.; Moody, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past decade, many of the prime indications for radionuclide brain scanning have become instead indications for CCT, and nuclear medicine studies of the brain have assumed more of a complementary, supportive role. However, there is great promise for improvement in central nervous system radionuclide applications with advances anticipated in both radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation. Nuclear medicine is continuing to function as a powerful research tool and, in the relatively near future, may regain its role as a major clinical test of the central nervous system

  2. Loading technique for preparing radionuclide containing nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    associated with leaky blood vessels. The composition and methods of the invention find particular use in diagnosing and imaging cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions associated with leaky blood vessels in a subject. The present invention provides a new diagnostic tool for the utilization......Source: US2012213698A The present invention relates to a novel composition and method for loading delivery systems such as liposome compositions with radionuclides useful in targeted diagnostic and/or therapy of target site, such as cancerous tissue and, in general, pathological conditions...... of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique. One specific aspect of the invention is directed to a method of producing nanoparticles with desired targeting properties for diagnostic and/or radio-therapeutic applications....

  3. Advances in process research by radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, A.; Vogg, H.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications and transformations of materials and their technical implementation in process systems require movement of materials. Radionuclide techniques can greatly help in understanding and describing these mechanisms. The specialized measuring technique is demonstrated by three examples selected from various fields of process technology. Radioactive tracer studies performed on a rotary kiln helped, inter alia, to establish a subdivision into process zones and to pinpoint areas of dust generation. Mixing and feeding actions were studied in a twin screw extruder equipped with a special screw and mixer disk arrangement. Tracer experiments conducted in two secondary settling basins indicate the differences in the mechanisms of movement of the aqueous phase if the mean residence time and the residence time distribution may be influenced not only by hydraulic loads, but also by design variants of the overflow flumes. (orig./HP) [de

  4. In vitro radionuclide techniques in medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    The use of radionuclide based microanalytical techniques for medical diagnosis has been increasing in recent years. Several such methods are in routine use in advanced laboratories in the industrialized world, but are often beyond the capability of developing countries. The IAEA has organized several training activities and seminars to bring the benefits of such advances to laboratories in developing Member States. The most recent was an interregional training course in Tokyo, March 1996, in collaboration with the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The course was conducted by international experts, local staff, and IAEA staff. With the intention of giving the main techniques used at the course to a wider distribution they have been compiled into the present technical document. It is hoped that laboratories in developing Member States that did not have participants at the training course will find the information provided useful and sufficiently detailed to enable their application in their home institutions

  5. Possible applications of radionuclide techniques in criminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Kopejtko, J.; Chodora, F.; Chyska, J.

    1976-01-01

    The use of radioindicator methods in dactyloscopy is described, in which is used the bond of suitable radioindicators to certain components of the sweat secretion with subsequent detection of the local distribution of these radionuclides using the autoradiographic method. The use of autoradiography and gamma spectrometry is given in ballistics, neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis in the investigation of motor car accidents and in the verification of historical objects, in forensic medicine, the use of autoradiography in the expertise of photographs, beta radiography in graphology and the use of radioactive labelling for trapping criminals. (J.P.)

  6. Dosimetry techniques for applications of incorporated radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Rao, D.V.; Haydock, C.

    1989-01-01

    Beta particle emitters are attracting attention as the radiolabels of choice for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Their use in cancer therapy has drawn attention to a variety of problems in estimating the absorbed dose to primary tumors and metastases from incorporated Β-emitters. Experimental evidence indicates that the distribution of radiopharmaceutical, such as radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, is highly nonuniform in tumor tissue. Three levels of nonuniformity may be noted: (1) inhomogeneity at the macroscopic level due to poor penetration of the radiopharmaceutical into the tumor, (2) microscopic inhomogeneity due to large variations in the number of binding sites on the tumor cells, and (3) nonuniformity at the subcellular level. Conventional application of the MIRD Schema for calculating absorbed doses from incorporated radionuclides may be inadequate under these circumstances since this approach assumes that the, distribution of radioactivity in the organ is uniform. The conventional dosimetry may be modified to handle inhomogeneous activity distributions by dividing the tumor into a number of subregions. At the macroscopic level a spherical tumor may be broken up into a group of concentric annular regions of tissue. At the microscopic level the tumor or metastasis may be considered as a multicellular cluster which in essence divides the tumor into many subtumors of cellular dimensions. Finally, at the subcellular level, a cancer cell may be viewed as consisting of several compartments: the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. In each case absorbed fractions, and therefore the total absorbed doses, may be calculated for the various subregions of the tumor using standard MIRD procedures. Using macroscopic and multicellular dosimetry models, the relative importance of these various levels of inhomogeneity in radionuclide distribution is examined. A dosimetry model which accounts for the possible time dependence of the tumor mass is formulated

  7. Separation Techniques for Quantification of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Galanda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliable and quantitative measurement of radionuclides is important in order to determine environmental quality and radiation safety, and to monitor regulatory compliance. We examined soil samples from Podunajske Biskupice, near the city of Bratislava in the Slovak Republic, for the presence of several natural (238U, 232Th, 40K and anthropogenic (137Cs, 90Sr, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am radionuclides. The area is adjacent to a refinery and hazardous waste processing center, as well as the municipal incinerator plant, and so might possess an unusually high level of ecotoxic metals. We found that the levels of both naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclides fell within the expected ranges, indicating that these facilities pose no radiological threat to the local environment. During the course of our analysis, we modified existing techniques in order to allow us to handle the unusually large and complex samples that were needed to determine the levels of 239Pu, 240Pu, and 241Am activity. We also rated three commercial techniques for the separation of 90Sr from aqueous solutions and found that two of them, AnaLig Sr-01 and Empore Extraction Disks, were suitable for the quantitative and reliable separation of 90Sr, while the third, Sr-Spec Resin, was less so. The main criterion in evaluating these methods was the chemical recovery of 90Sr, which was less than we had expected. We also considered speed of separation and additional steps needed to prepare the sample for separation.

  8. Fundamental investigations in the barite flotation using the radionuclide technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.; Wiese, K.; Hunsinger, H.

    1977-01-01

    The application of radioactive tracers in flotation is described taking the example of barite/silicate separation in a mechanically improved laboratory cell. The particular suitability of the radionuclide technique is not only brought out in the field of fundamental investigations, but also in the determination of dynamic systems data. The labelling of the liquid phase was done with Na 24 whereas useful mineral and gangue were traced by means of neutron-induced double-labelling. The necessary labelling, measuring and evaluating technique is described. (orig.) [de

  9. Investigations of Differential Scanning Techniques using Two Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrall, M. F.; French, Rosemary J.; Trott, N. G. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1969-01-15

    In the development of scanning procedures difficulties sometimes arise because a particular radiopharmaceutical, which is selectively concentrated in an organ of interest, is also widely distributed in neighbouring sites in the body. Investigations have been made of a method which involves the use of a second radioactive substance to label such sites. By means of suitable electrical circuits fitted to a conventional mechanical scanner (Picker Magnascanner III), a direct colour scan of the organ under study can be obtained. Signals from the two radionuclides are distinguished by pulse-height analysis and used to operate the colour shift mechanism. Experimental studies with phantoms and clinical trials are reported. An analysis of the statistical limitations of the technique is given, including a discussion of the most suitable operating conditions for particular pairs of radionuclides. Illustrations include the use of {sup 75}Se selenomethionine and {sup 99m}Tc sulphur colloid or {sup 198}Au colloid in the delineation of the pancreas, and reference is also made to work with {sup 18}F, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 133m}In and {sup 197}Hg, which are used in various chemical forms to visualize specific types of tumours in vascular surroundings labelled with other suitable tracers. Some discussion of the dosimetry of these procedures is made, since the extent to which the technique can be applied may be limited by the activities which can be administered. However, successful results are being obtained using activities within the range generally accepted for single radionuclide scanning procedures. For example, the pancreas can be successfully visualised using 250 {mu}Ci {sup 75}Se selenomethionine in combination with 1 mCi {sup 99m}TC sulphur colloid. (author)

  10. Calibration of radionuclides with decay trough beta emission or electron capture by liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Jamir dos Santos

    2000-02-01

    In this work is reported a methodology a methodology for pure beta and electron capture radionuclides standardization, suing liquid scintillation technique. In this sense the CIEMAT/NIST method, recently utilized by international laboratories, was implemented and the lack in the Laboratorio Nacional das Radiacoes Ionizantes - LNMRI, of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, for adequate methodology to standardize this kind if radionuclides was filled, fact that was not present with alpha and gamma radionuclides. The implementation procedure evaluation was provided by concentration activity determination of the following radionuclides: 14 C and 90 Sr, pure beta emitters; 55 Fe, electron capture decay; 204 Tl, electron capture and beta decay and 60 Co, beta-gamma emitter. In this way, a careful analysis of the implementation procedure with these radionuclides types, ranging on a broad energy spectral, was possible. To check the calibration results, intercomparisons among our measurements of these radionuclides and the reference values of the CIEMAT/Spain laboratory were provided. To check the calibration results, intercomparisons among our measurements of these radionuclides and the reference values of the CIEMAT/Spain laboratory were provided. Besides this intercomparisons, one was provided with a 204 Tl solution, utilized in the international comparison recently promoted by BIPM, and another one with a 60 C solution calibrated in LNMRI/CNEN previously by a relative calibration system, with a well type pressurized ionization chamber, and an absolute beta-gamma coincidence system, with a pill-box type proportional counter 4 π geometry, coupled with a scintillator system with a sodium iodide cristal of 4x4 inches. The comparisons among LNMRI/CNEN results and the reference values, showed a small deviation of 1,32% for 14 C, 0,40% for 60 Co, 1,12% for 55 Fe, 0,10% for 90 Sr and 0,73% for 204 Tl. For the BIPM solution the deviation was 0,46% and for 60 Co

  11. Application of Radionuclide Tracer Techniques in Research on Bio-Effects of Carbon Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Ran Tiecheng; Li Qingnuan; Xu Jingying; Li Wenxin

    2010-01-01

    There are few effective means to detect and analyze nanomaterials, therefore, radionuclide labeling and tracing techniques play an important role in the studies of interaction between nanoparticles and living systems. This paper briefly summarizes the main results from the application of radionuclide tracer techniques in the studies of interaction between carbon nanoparticles (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and nano-carbon blacks) and animals and mammalian cells, cites the experimental information on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of nanomaterials, and indicates the signification of these information in the drug development and bio-safety studies of nanomaterials. Based on the novel properties of carbon nanoparticles, the superiority of radionuclide tracer techniques over fluorescent labeling techniques is stressed. It is expected that the radionuclide tracer techniques have an increasing application prospect in the interdisciplinary fields of nanoscience and life science. (authors)

  12. Determination of natural radionuclide level in industrial waste slags and evaluation of comprehensive utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ruixiang; Liu Xinhua; Gan Lin

    1994-09-01

    Natural radionuclide contents were measured in various industrial waste slags in China by a low background HPGe γ spectrometer and the radiological impact was estimated for some comprehensive utilization of these slags. Most waste slags can be used for building materials except for tailing and waste rock form nuclear industry

  13. Prediction of acute cardiac rejection using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Bonioszczuk, J.; Cooper, D.K.C.; Isaacs, S.; Rose, A.G.; Smith, J.A.; Uys, C.J.; Barnard, C.N.; Fraser, R.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning of the donor left ventricle using technetium-99m-labelled red cells was used to monitor acute rejection after heterotopic heart transplantation and compared with histopathological evidence of rejection obtained at examination of an endomyocardial biopsy specimen. The ejection fraction and end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes were calculated at each examination; an equation was derived from these data to predict the degree of acute rejection, using histopathological examination of endomyocardial biopsy specimens as criteria of the presence and severity of rejection. A highly significant multiple correlation between radionuclide scanning parameters and endomyocardial biopsy was found. The advantages of non-invasive radionuclide scanning over the invasive procedure of endomyocardial biopsy are discussed

  14. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction leading to distress in many couples. Master and Johnson emphasized the concept of early learned experiences and Kaplan emphasized lack of sensory awareness. For treatment sex therapists mainly utilize start-stop and squeeze techniques as homework. Couples enter sex therapy with some cognitive distortions and beliefs about sex and sexuality. These beliefs are also named sexual myths. For some couples using techniques to challenge cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs about sex and sexuality can be used. In this paper by presenting a case we discussed how cognitive techniques can be used along with behaviour techniques with couples. Case: Presenting clients are five years married couple who are thirty and twenty nine years old respectively. They attended to the outpatient clinic with the request of the female client. Their main complaint was premature ejaculation. They were diagnosed premature ejaculation using clinical interview. In treatment besides start and stop technique, cognitive techniques were utilized to address dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality. Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy.

  15. The use of radionuclide techniques in soil erosion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.; Mabit, L.

    2006-01-01

    Erosion is of concern since it can reduce soil productivity as a result of exportation of inorganic and organic material and nutrients out of the cultivated fields. These are the so-called 'onsite' impacts of erosion. Some of the exported materials, and the associated elements, find their way to water bodies The result is a degradation of the water quality due to suspended solids, sedimentation, eutrophication and pesticide toxicity, what is currently referred to as off-site impacts. Despite its importance, many countries lack reliable and comprehensive data on the problem, its magnitude and spatial extent. One of the reasons is that producing representative and reliable data on erosion is a long and resource intensive process.Fallout radionuclides (FRNs), such as 137 Cs, 210 Pb and 7 Be, have proven to be very powerful tracers of soil movements, that can complement interestingly more conventional approaches. Starting in the mid-1990's the IAEA has been actively involved in supporting coordinated research activities to further develop several methodological aspects related to the use of these isotopes and in the dissemination of the techniques among Member States, through the joint efforts of the Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Section (SWMCN) of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the Soil Science Unit (SSU) of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory. A first Coordinated Research Project (CRP), from 1996 to 2001, helped to test and validate the basic assumptions underlying the use of FRN, to accelerate the development of conversion models used to translate FRN data into soil movements and to evaluate the effect of specific land use management on soil erosion. A second CRP, planned for 2003-2007, builds on the results of the first one to assess the efficiency of different soil conservation practices, to continue the validation of conversion models and the development of user-friendly software to

  16. Comparison of dye dilution method to radionuclide techniques for cardiac output determination in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, S.S.; Robayo, J.R.; Porter, W.; Smith, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the most accurate /sup 99m/Tc-labeled radiopharmaceutical and to determine the accuracy of a noninvasive radionuclide technique or cardiac output determinations. Phase I employed sodium pertechnetate, stannous pyrophosphate with sodium pertechnetate, /sup 99m/Tc red blood cells, and /sup 99m/Tc human serum albumin as radionuclide tracers. Cardiac output was determined by the dye dilution method and then by the invasive radionuclide technique. A pairied t test and regression analysis indicated that /sup 99m/Tc human serum albumin was the most accurate radiopharmaceutical for cardiac output determinations, and the results compared favorably to those obtained by the dye dilution method. In Phase II, /sup 99m/Tc human serum albumin was used as the radionuclide tracer for cardiac output determinations with the noninvasive technique. The results compared favorably to those obtained by the dye dilution method

  17. Premature Ejaculation and Utilization of Cognitive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Discussion: Premature ejaculation is a male sexual dysfunction that causes distress and intimacy problems between couples. Stop start and squeeze techniques were accepted as the choice of treatment but their effectiveness is questioned recently. Also cognitive distortions and maladaptive beliefs may hamper therapy progress. Besides that, behavioral techniques utilizing cognitive techniques to lessen the degree of dysfunctional beliefs about sex and sexuality may help the couple to overcome premature ejaculation and enhance sexual satisfaction and intimacy. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 47-52

  18. Techniques for rapid determination of effects of synergy between radionuclides and pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Grauby, A.

    1975-01-01

    The authors present a number of chromatographic techniques for rapid determination of synergy between radionuclides and various compounds in water. The first technique consists in studying how the chemical equilibrium of iodine varies in the presence of various organic and mineral compounds. The second makes it possible to define the effects of synergy within a given hydrographic basin. A third technique deals with the effects of synergy in ground water in the presence of various types of irrigation water. Finally, to complete this set of techniques, the authors define the mobility potential of a radionuclide in a given aqueous effluent

  19. Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudowe, Ralf; Roman, Audrey; Dailey, Ashlee; Go, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular, new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time- and labor-intensive, and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is required and/or large number of samples need to be analyzed. To address this issue we are currently investigating radiochemical separation methods based on extraction chromatography that have been specifically optimized for the analysis of process stream samples. The influence of potential interferences present in the process samples as well as mass loading, flow rate and resin performance is being studied. In addition, the potential to automate these procedures utilizing a robotic platform is evaluated. Initial studies have been carried out using the commercially available DGA resin. This resin shows an affinity for Am, Pu, U, and Th and is also exhibiting signs of a possible synergistic effects in the presence of iron.

  20. Neutron flux measurement utilizing Campbell technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropik, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of the Campbell technique for the neutron flux measurement is described in the contribution. This technique utilizes the AC component (noise) of a neutron chamber signal rather than a usually used DC component. The Campbell theorem, originally discovered to describe noise behaviour of valves, explains that the root mean square of the AC component of the chamber signal is proportional to the neutron flux (reactor power). The quadratic dependence of the reactor power on the root mean square value usually permits to accomplish the whole current power range of the neutron flux measurement by only one channel. Further advantage of the Campbell technique is that large pulses of the response to neutrons are favoured over small pulses of the response to gamma rays in the ratio of their mean square charge transfer and thus, the Campbell technique provides an excellent gamma rays discrimination in the current operational range of a neutron chamber. The neutron flux measurement channel using state of the art components was designed and put into operation. Its linearity, accuracy, dynamic range, time response and gamma discrimination were tested on the VR-1 nuclear reactor in Prague, and behaviour under high neutron flux (accident conditions) was tested on the TRIGA nuclear reactor in Vienna. (author)

  1. New developments in techniques for information processing in radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, R.; Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1981-01-01

    Processing of scintigraphic data has passed through different stages in the past fifteen years. After an 'euphoric' era when large off-line computer facilities were used to process very low-quality rectilinear scan pictures, a much more critical period followed the introduction of on-line minicomputer systems to acquire, process and visualize scintillation camera data. A selection of some of the available techniques that could improve the extraction of information from scintigraphic examinations in routine is presented. Tomography has been excluded. As examples, the different techniques of (a) inhomogeneity correction of camera response and (b) respiratory motion corrections are used to show one evolutionary process in the use of computer systems. Filtering has been for a long time the major area of research in scintigraphic image processing. Only very simple (usually smoothing) filters are widely distributed. Little use of more 'powerful' filters in clinical data has been made, and very few serious evaluations have been published. Nevertheless, the number of installed minicomputer and microprocessor systems is increasing rapidly, but in general performing tasks other than filtering. The reasons for this (relative) failure are examined. Some 'new' techniques of image processing are presented. The compression of scintigraphic information is important because of the expected need in the near future for handling of large numbers of static pictures as in dynamic and tomographic studies. For dynamic information processing, the present methodology has been narrowed to those techniques that permit the entire 'data space' to be manipulated (as opposed to curve fitting after region of interest definition). 'Functional' imaging was the first step in this process. 'Factor analysis' could be the next. The results obtained by various research laboratories are reviewed. (author)

  2. Natural radionuclides monitoring in Lombardia drinking water by liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, M.; Rusconi, R.; Bellinsona, S.; Sgorbati, G.

    2002-01-01

    Concern about total radionuclides content in water intended for human consumption has been brought to public attention by the recent Council Directive 98/83/EC, subsequently enforced through an Italian law (DL 31, February 2., 2001). Parameter values have been fixed for Tritium content and total indicative dose: the Directive points out that the total indicative dose must be evaluated excluding Tritium, 4 0K , 1 4C , Radon and its decay products, but including all other natural series radionuclides. Maximum concentration values for Radon are separately proposed in Commission Recommendation 2001/928/Euratom. Tritium determination follows a well established procedure, standardised by International Standard Organisation (ISO 9698, 1989). On the contrary, total indicative dose evaluation requires more specific and cumbersome procedures for the measurement of radioactivity content, with special regard to natural series radionuclides. The large number of possibly involved radionuclides and the good sensitivities required make the application of traditional analytical techniques unsuitable in view of a large scale monitoring program. World Health Organisation (WHO 1993 and 1996) guidelines for drinking water suggest performing an indirect evaluation of committed dose by measuring alpha and beta gross radioactivity and checking compliance to derived limit values; the proposed limit values are 0,1 Bq/l for gross alpha and 1 Bq/l for gross beta radioactivity. Nevertheless, it is desirable to identify single radionuclides contribution to alpha and beta activity in order to perform more accurate measurements of committed dose

  3. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger

    2017-01-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  4. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author)

  5. Improved techniques in radionuclides imaging of prostatic lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, R.A.; Fitzpatrick, J.M.; Constable, A.R.; Cranage, R.W.; O'Donoghue, E.P.N.; Wickham, J.E.A.

    1979-01-01

    Further improvements were made in the techniques of human prostatic lymphoscintigraphy, allowing better anatomical localisation of the areas of uptake of activity. A single median injection into the capsule of sup(99m)Tc labelled antimony sulphide colloid was found to give as good imaging as 2 injections on either side of the midline. By placing markers on the umbilicus, pubic symphysis and both anterior superior iliac spines, a 'pelvic grid' could be superimposed on the antero-posterior view. Further help with accurate localisation may be attained by taking 3 views; anterio-posterior, postero-anterior and lateral. In 9 instances, prostatic injection was performed without any sedation or anaesthesia. The resulting scintigrams were indistinguishable in quality from those of anaesthetised patients. (author)

  6. On the use of the spectroscopic techniques to model the interactions between radionuclides and solid minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, E. [IPN, Paris XI University, 91406 Orsay (France)]. e-mail: simoni@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2004-07-01

    In order to determine the radionuclides sorption constants on solid natural minerals, both thermodynamic and structural investigations, using spectroscopic techniques, are presented. The natural clays, that could be used as engineering barrier in the nuclear waste geological repository, are rather complex minerals. Therefore, in order to understand how these natural materials retain the radionuclides, it is necessary first to perform these studies on simple substrates such as phosphates, oxides and silicates (as powder and single crystal as well) and then extrapolate the obtained results on the natural minerals. As examples, the main results on the sorption processes of the hexavalent uranium onto zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) and lanthanum phosphate (LaPO{sub 4}) are presented. The corresponding sorption curves are simulated using the results obtained with the following spectroscopic techniques: laser induced spectro fluorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Exafs). Finally, the thermodynamic sorption constants are calculated. (Author)

  7. Determination of cesium and selenium in cultivated mushrooms using radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, L.; Bumbalova, A.; Harangozo, M.; Toelgyessy, J.; Tomecek, O.

    2000-01-01

    Cesium and selenium intake of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), with these elements previously added to culture medium, has been examined from the viewpoint of health- and environmental protection. The process of measuring has been carried out by the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique. Treatments of the elementary substance with Se salt appears to influence the Se content of the mushrooms to a significant extent. Cs intake is of considerable importance, as this element is accumulated by mushrooms. (author)

  8. The role of nuclear techniques in the long-term prediction of radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.; Duerden, P.

    1985-01-01

    Problems associated with the long-term prediction of the migration of radionuclides, and the role of natural analogues in reducing the inherent uncertainties are discussed. Particular reference is made to the evaluation of uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory, as analogues of high-level radioactive waste repositories. A range of nuclear techniques has been used to identify the role of colloids, of alpha recoil and of mineralogy in transport. Specific mention is made of a method being developed which enables models of the migration of solute through fractured rock to be assessed via a combination of alpha track, fission track and PIXE/PIGME techniques

  9. Substantiation of the admissable concentration of radionuclides in the utilization of concrete from disassembled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engovatov, I.A.; Mashkovich, V.P.; Morev, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    The complete or partial disassembly of the buildings and systems of a modern nuclear power plant results in the formation of hundreds of thousands of tons of wastes. More than 90% of this mass consists of reinforced concrete. Only a small fraction of these materials is contaminated and/or activated up to high level and must be treated as radioactive wastes that must be buried. For this reason, it is helpful to consider a variant of recycling of some of the wastes and secondary utilization of these wastes in different industrial production processes. In this paper, we analyze the concrete that is freed when a nuclear power plant is decommissioned, and in particular, we examine three scenarios: (1) stockpiling and long-term storage of concrete at an industrial site, (2) highway construction, and (3) industrial building construction. Admissable radionuclide concentrations of several isotopes are tabulated for each scenario, and the results provide the basic information for the development of standards for the utilization of the concrete wastes produced during the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

  10. Quantification of left to right shunts in adults with atrial septal defects of secundum type, using radionuclide technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sire, S.; Rootwelt, K.; Mangschau, A.

    1991-01-01

    Quantification of left to right shunt was carried out in 15 adult patients with a suspected ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD II). Radionuclide shunt quantitation correlated well with the results of righ heart catheterization. The radionuclide technique failed in two patients for technical reasons, but revealed no false negative or false positive results when technically satisfactory. The diagnosis was confirmed at operation. It is concluded that the radionuclide technique is a useful and reliable method which can also be used at follow-up after surgery in patients with artrial septal defects of secundum type. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey

  12. Vesical endometriosis: utility of imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, M.; Cascon, E.; Robledo, R.; Perez, M.

    1999-01-01

    We present three cases of vesical endometriosis initially studied with ultrasound. One case was also studied with intravenous urography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We discuss on the utility of these imaging methods in the diagnosis of vesical endometriosis. (Author) 9 refs

  13. Using ecosystem modelling techniques in exposure assessments of radionuclides - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumblad, L.

    2005-01-01

    The risk to humans from potential releases from nuclear facilities is evaluated in safety assessments. Essential components of these assessments are exposure models, which estimate the transport of radionuclides in the environment, the uptake in biota, and transfer to humans. Recently, there has been a growing concern for radiological protection of the whole environment, not only humans, and a first attempt has been to employ model approaches based on stylized environments and transfer functions to biota based exclusively on bioconcentration factors (BCF). They are generally of a non-mechanistic nature and involve no knowledge of the actual processes involved, which is a severe limitation when assessing real ecosystems. in this paper, the possibility of using an ecological modelling approach as a complement or an alternative to the use of BCF-based models is discussed. The paper gives an overview of ecological and ecosystem modelling and examples of studies where ecosystem models have been used in association to ecological risk assessment studies for other pollutants than radionuclides. It also discusses the potential to use this technique in exposure assessments of radionuclides with a few examples from the safety assessment work performed by the Swedish nuclear fuel and waste management company (SKB). Finally there is a comparison of the characteristics of ecosystem models and traditionally exposure models for radionuclides used to estimate the radionuclide exposure of biota. The evaluation of ecosystem models already applied in safety assessments has shown that the ecosystem approach is possible to use to assess exposure to biota, and that it can handle many of the modelling problems identified related to BCF-models. The findings in this paper suggest that both national and international assessment frameworks for protection of the environment from ionising radiation would benefit from striving to adopt methodologies based on ecologically sound principles and

  14. Investigations on high temperature coking of lignite with the help of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, H.G.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The time characteristics and the varying flow characteristics of fine-grained briquettes during the high temperature coking of lignite according to Rammler and Bilkenroth were studied with the help of radionuclide technique. The process parameters (tsub(V), zsub(R), etc.) refer to the different zones of the coke furnace (bunker/dryer, coker/cooler). The different time charakteristics of the coke-grain fractions formed during the BHT-process enables a correlation of the retention time and the quality factors of the coke. The results obtained would enable a better operation of the individual furnaces in the plant and offer the basis for further process developments. (orig.) [de

  15. Air Pollution with Heavy Metals and Radionuclides in Slovakia Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Florek, M; Mankovska, B; Oprea, K; Pavlov, S S; Steinnes, E; Sykora, I

    2001-01-01

    Applying the moss biomonitoring technique to air pollution studies in Slovakia, heavy metals, rare-earth elements, actinides (U and Th) were determined in 86 moss samples from the European moss survey 2000 by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor (Dubna). Such elements as In, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by AAS in the Forest Research Institute, Zvolen (Slovakia). The results of measurement of the natural radionuclides ^{210}Pb, ^{7}Be, ^{137}Cs and ^{40}K in 11 samples of moss are also reported. A comparison with the results from moss surveys 1991 and 1995 revealed previously unknown tendencies of air pollution in the examined areas.

  16. Research work in the field of lubricants with the aid of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruediger, V.

    1975-01-01

    The application of radionuclide technique to research tasks in the field of lubricants in the laboratorium fuer Isotopentechnik for the last three years is dealt with. In addition, oil foaming, operational oil testing, friction bearing investigations, motor examinations by means of the course of wear, as well as the grain size distribution of the abrasion, the bearing loadability of newtonian and non-newtonian oils, the cylinder wear (according to the principle of density measurement by absorption of characteristic X-rays), are described. (HK/LH) [de

  17. Utilization of natural hematite as reactive barrier for immobilization of radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Afifi, E M; Attallah, M F; Borai, E H

    2016-01-01

    Potential utilization of hematite as a natural material for immobilization of long-lived radionuclides from radioactive liquid waste was investigated. Hematite ore has been characterized by different analytical tools such as Fourier transformer infrared (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal (DT) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET-surface area. In this study, europium was used as REEs(III) and as a homolog of Am(III)-isotopes (such as (241)Am of 432.6 y, (242m)Am of 141 y and (243)Am of 7370 y). Micro particles of the hematite ore were used for treatment of radioactive waste containing (152+154)Eu(III). The results indicated that 96% (4.1 × 10(4) Bq) of (152+154)Eu(III) was efficiently retained onto hematite ore. Kinetic experiments indicated that the processes could be simulated by a pseudo-second-order model and suggested that the process may be chemisorption in nature. The applicability of Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models was investigated. It was found that Langmuir isotherm exhibited the best fit with the experimental results. It can be concluded that hematite is an economic and efficient reactive barrier for immobilization of long-lived radio isotopes of actinides and REEs(III). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  19. Utilization technique on variable speed device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This reports of workshop on power technology describes using technique on variable speed device, which deals with alternating current situation and prospect of current variable speed device, technical trend and prospect of electronics, reduce expenses by variable speed device, control technique, measurement technology, high voltage variable speed device, recent trend of inverter technology, low voltage and high voltage variable speed device control device, operating variable speed device in cooling fan, FDF application and defect case of variable speed device, cooling pump application of water variable transformer, inverter application and energy effect of ventilation equipment, application of variable speed device and analysis of the result of operation and study for application of variable speed technology.

  20. Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, B.R.; Benedict, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy

  1. Determination of long-lived radionuclides at ultratrace level using advanced mass spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoriy, M.

    2005-11-01

    Determination of long-lived radionuclides at sub-fg concentration level is a challenging task in analytical chemistry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with its ability to provide the sensitive and fast multielemental analysis is one of the most suitable method for the measurements of long lived radionuclides in the trace and ultra trace concentration range. In present the Ph.D. study a variety of procedures have been developed permitting the sub fg ml-1 determination of long-lived radionuclides (e.g. U, Th, Pu) as well as 226 Ra (T 1/2 = 1600 y) and 90 Sr (T 1/2 = 28.1 y) in different samples. In order to avoid isobaric interferences, to increase the sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the methods the application of different techniques: pre-concentration of the sample, off-line separation on the crown resin, measurements under cold plasma conditions, using microconcentric nebulizers (e.g DIHEN, DS-5) or the application of LA-ICP-MS for sample introduction have been studied. The limits of detection for different radionuclides was significantly improved in comparison to the ones reported in the literature, and, depending on the method applied, was varied from 10 -15 to 10 -18 g ml -1 concentration range. In addition to the analysis of long lived radionuclides, some other elements, that can present potential interest to the analyzed sample, were measured within the framework of the present study. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAICP- MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 20μm m thin sections of human brain tissue. The sample surface was scanned (raster area ∝80 mm 2 ) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 213 nm, diameter of laser crater 50μm, and laser power density 3x10 9 W cm -2 ) in a cooled laser ablation chamber developed for these measurements. Cross sections of human brain samples - hippocampus as well as brain tissues infected and non-infected with Glioblastoma Multiforme (tumor

  2. Application of radionuclide techniques in evaluation of dilated cardiomyopathy and ischemic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yueqin; Liu Xiujie; Shi Rongfang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical significance of radionuclide techniques in differentiating dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) from ischemic cardiomyopathy (CAD-CM). Methods: 28 patients (pts) with DCM and 55 pts with CAD-CM were studied. All pts underwent 99 Tc m -MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT and 18 F-FDG myocardial metabolic PET. 73 pts had 99 Tc m -RBC radionuclide ventriculography and 68 pts had coronary angiography. Results: 23 pts (82%) with DCM showed perfusion abnormalities with mild and not segmental distribution. 52 pts (95%) with CAD-CM showed perfusion abnormalities that distributed along the coronary vessel territories. Perfusion defects were found in 4 pts (14%) with DCM and 45 pts (82%) with CAD-CM (P<0.01). The average perfusion score was 4.5 +- 2.6 in DCM and 9.5 +- 2.9 in CAD-CM, the area of perfusion diminished uptake was significantly smaller in DCM than in CAD-CM (P < 0.001). 2 pts with DCM and 18 pts with CAD-CM had metabolic defect. The patterns of perfusion/metabolic imaging showed mismatch in most pts with CAD-CM but match in pts with DCM. The LVEF in pts with DCM and CAD-CM was decreased but no significant difference between DCM and CAD-CM was observed. The RVEF in pts with DCM was significantly lower than that in pts with CAD-CM (32.4% +- 13.9% vs 40.9% +- 15.4%, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The radionuclide techniques showed to be helpful for distinguishing DCM from CAD-CM. The discriminate analysis revealed that segmental perfusion abnormality and RVEF were the most important factors for differentiation of DCM from CAD-CM

  3. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ( 222 Rn), uranium ( 238,234 U), radium ( 226 , 228 Ra), lead ( 210 Pb) and polonium ( 210 Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 μSv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong acidic cation exchange resins

  4. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T. [eds.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ({sup 222}Rn), uranium ({sup 238,234}U), radium ({sup 226}, {sup 228}Ra), lead ({sup 210}Pb) and polonium ({sup 210}Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 {mu}Sv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong

  5. Radionuclide techniques in studies of cardiac performance and circulatory changes during antihypertensive treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falch, D.K.

    A non-invasive radionuclide technique to determine variables in the systematic and pulmonary circulation useful in out- patient studies is described. Indium 113m chloride was chosen as the tracer, and iodine 125 iothalamate may be used for simultaneous determination of the glomerular filtration rate. The counting geometry is discussed at some length. The errors of the method and its reproducability seem to be acceptable. The method was tested on two groups of healthy subjects, one of which was composed of well-trained athletes, and two groups of patients, one with chronic cardiac insufficiency, the other with primary hypertension. Tables are presented giving hemodynamic data for these groups. It is concluded that the technique gives some useful data, but that further refinement and supplementation is necessary to obtain a guidance in drug therapy. (JIW)

  6. Assessment Lumboperitoneal or Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Patency by Radionuclide Technique: A Review Experience Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiewvit, Sunanta; Nuntaaree, Sarun; Kanchaanapiboon, Potjanee; Chiewvit, Pipat

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocephalus-related symptoms that worsen after shunt placement may indicate a malfunctioning or obstructed shunt. The assessment of shunt patency and site of obstruction is important for planning of treatment. The radionuclide cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt study provides a simple, effective, and low-radiation-dose method of assessing CSF shunt patency. The radionuclide CSF shuntography is a useful tool in the management of patients presenting with shunt-related problems not elucidated by conventional radiological examination. This article described the imaging technique of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt and lumbar puncture (LP) shunt. The normal finding, abnormal finding of completed obstruction and partial obstruction is present by our cases experience. The radiopharmaceutical (Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) was injected via the reservoir for VP shunt and via lumbar puncture needle in subarachnoid space for LP shunt, then serial image in the head and abdominal area. The normal function of VP and LP shunt usually rapid spillage of the radioactivity in the abdominal cavity diffusely. The patent proximal tube VP shunt demonstrates ventricular reflux. The early image of patent LP shunt reveals no activity in the ventricular system contrast to distal LP shunt reveals early reflux of activity in the ventricular system. The completed distal VP and LP shunt obstruction show absence of tracer in the peritoneal area or markedly delayed appearance of abdominal activity. The partial distal VP and LP shunt obstruction recognized by slow transit or accumulation of tracer at the distal end or focal tracer in the peritoneal cavity near the tip of distal shunt. The images of the normal and abnormal CSF shunt as describe before are present in the full paper. Radionuclide CSF shuntography is a reliable and simple procedure for assessment shunt patency

  7. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S.; Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., 60 Co and 106 Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters

  8. Use of radionuclide techniques for assessment of splenic function and detection of splenic remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, S.; Sinha, S.; Sarkar, B.R.; Basu, S.; Ghosh, S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The spleen is often involved in hematological malignancies; it is also the site of RBC destruction in thalassemia and ITP. In latter cases, splenectomy is often performed and postoperatively, detection of functioning splenic remnants affect the prognosis adversely. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of radionuclide techniques in : a) assessment of splenic function in primarily non-splenic diseases (benign or malignant), and b) detection of splenic remnant after splenectomy. 12 patients of splenomegaly and 5 patients after splenectomy underwent splenic imaging; imaging was performed using both 99m Tc-sulphur colloid (with first pass) and 99m Tc labelled heat denatured RBCs as tracers. Thus splenic perfusion, morphology and RBC trapping functions were all assessed. The colloid images usually matched the RBC images except in 2 cases where photogenic areas (presumably infarcts) were visualized on RBC scans that were missed on colloid scans. Three of the post splenectomy cases revealed functioning splenic remnants, which was also better visualized on RBC scans. It is concluded that radionuclide imaging could be used regularly for assessing function of spleen, or detecting splenic remnants

  9. Technique for radionuclide composition analysis of snow cover in the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone using fiber sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kham'yanov, L.P.; Rau, D.F.; Amosov, M.M.; Strel'nikova, A.E.; Tereshchenko, V.I.; Veber, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    The high-sensitivity, simple and fast technique for analysis of large-dispersive and ionic components of snow cover radioactivity is suggested. It is based on separation of a sample by fractions, concentration of the dispersive fraction on mechanical filters and the dissolved one on ion-exchange sorbents and separated fraction spectrometry. The minimum measured contamination level is 3.7 Bq/dm 3 for each radionuclide analyzed. The conclusion is made that the technique suggested is the reliable method for radionuclide content analysis is snow cover samples of the Chernobyl' NPP zone. 1 tab

  10. Biomedical research and application utilizing cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report, January 1 1977--December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Benua, R.S.; Tilbury, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on cyclotron production of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides ( 18 F, 15 O, 11 C, 13 N, 52 Fe, 38 K, 206 Bi, 73 Se, and 48 Cr) for use in the preparation labelled compounds for metabolic research in patients and animals. The chemical preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labelled with cyclotron-produced radionuclides for pancreas and tumor scanning is discussed. The imaging capabilities of a total organ kinetic imaging monitor (TOKIM) gamma camera system operated in the positron coincidence mode were improved with the addition of computerized iterative correction procedures

  11. Impacts of uranium-utilization improvements on light-water-reactor radionuclide releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    This report discusses potential changes to radionuclide releases as a result of uranium-saving plant modifications and altered operating practices. Only releases to the environment from routine operation are considered; releases resulting from abnormal conditions outside the technical specifications covering plant operation are not considered

  12. Beta Autoradiography. An analytical technique to investigate radionuclides contamination on surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficher, P.; Goutelard, F.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In decommissioning of old buildings and after disposal of nuclear facilities (materials, glove boxes,...), the inventory of the radioactive contamination of various building materials needs to be obtained in order to fix the working condition for dismantling. The challenge of this study was to classify different building materials of a whole research laboratory that was dedicated to research on organic molecules labeled with H-3 and C-14. The problem of waste classification is essential for safety treatment of waste and also for its cost. The analytical technique of beta autoradiography particularly well known for biological researches has been tested to investigate radionuclides contamination on surface. This technique is mainly interesting for beta and alpha emitters but also sensitive to gamma radiation. The first step of this technique is the deposit of a film on the surface of material to be analyzed. Films can be deposited on the ground or also fixed on the walls or even on the ceiling. The film is a plastic sheet covered with an emulsion containing photostimulable crystals and Eu that is activated when the film is exposed on radioactive source. The exposed films are then scanned with the Cyclone Plus equipment to get a digitized image. This image represents the radioactivity of the surface studied. The possibility to re-use the films is very important to investigate a large area. This autoradiography technique has retained our attention for its sensitivity and moreover the possibility of 2-dimensional investigation has been found as a real advantage. However it remains now as a qualitative technique and new studies must be launched to prove its quantitative potentialities. The high spatial resolution was not as important as in biological observation, and the mm resolution is totally sufficient

  13. Radionuclide content and state of isotopic disequilibrium in some utilized smoking pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Yahya, Ahmad Abu Bakre [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering, Radiation Protection and Training Centre; Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2014-10-01

    {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were measured in some jurak and mehassel samples collected from the local market. Jurak is a paste mixture composed of 30% tobacco, 50% molasses and 20% spices and minced fruits. Mehassel is a local trade-name of a paste mixture of unknown ratios of tobacco to spices and minced fruits. Both jurak and mehassel are used for smoking by Shisha (a pipe used for smoking and has a water filter). Just for comparison, these radionuclides were measured in some cigarette tobacco samples. In cigarette tobacco samples, the average activity concentrations were 0.32 ± 0.10, 0.51 ± 0.11, 3.6 ± 1.0, 16.1 ± 2.4 and 15.8 ± 2.2 Bq/kg for {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, respectively. These values for the same isotopes were 1.01 ± 0.25, 1.04 ± 0.27, 1.2 ± 0.4, 4.4 ± 1.0 and 4.2 ± 0.9 Bq/kg in jurak samples and 0.17 ± 0.07, 0.24 ± 0.08, 1.8 ± 0.7, 7.5 ± 1.7 and 7.0 ± 1.6 Bq/kg in mehassel samples, respectively. Generally, the mean values of the results indicated that, except for uranium in jurak, the activity concentration for all the analyzed radionuclides in the different samples followed the sequence: {sup 210}Po ∼ {sup 210}Pb > {sup 226}Ra >> {sup 234}U > {sup 238}U, whereas for each radionuclide, its activity concentration followed the sequence: cigarette tobacco > mehassel > jurak. Molasses contributed to the enhanced uranium content in jurak samples. The obtained results are discussed in detail.

  14. Scaling model for prediction of radionuclide activity in cooling water using a regression triplet technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia Dulanska; Lubomir Matel; Milan Meloun

    2010-01-01

    The decommissioning of the nuclear power plant (NPP) A1 Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) is a complicated set of problems that is highly demanding both technically and financially. The basic goal of the decommissioning process is the total elimination of radioactive materials from the nuclear power plant area, and radwaste treatment to a form suitable for its safe disposal. The initial conditions of decommissioning also include elimination of the operational events, preparation and transport of the fuel from the plant territory, radiochemical and physical-chemical characterization of the radioactive wastes. One of the problems was and still is the processing of the liquid radioactive wastes. Such media is also the cooling water of the long-term storage of spent fuel. A suitable scaling model for predicting the activity of hard-to-detect radionuclides 239,240 Pu, 90 Sr and summary beta in cooling water using a regression triplet technique has been built using the regression triplet analysis and regression diagnostics. (author)

  15. Adsorption and desorption of radionuclide europium(III) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes studied by batch techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songsheng Lu; Junzheng Xu; Caicai Zhang; Zhiwei Niu

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of Eu(III) on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a function of pH, ionic strength and solid contents are studied by batch technique. The results indicate that the adsorption of Eu(III) on MWCNTs is strongly dependent on pH values, dependent on ionic strength at low pH values and independent of ionic strength at high pH values. Strong surface complexation and ion exchange contribute to the adsorption of Eu(III) on MWCNTs at low pH values, whereas surface complexation and surface precipitation are the main adsorption mechanism of Eu(III) on MWCNTs. The desorption of adsorbed Eu(III) from MWCNTs by adding HCl is also studied and the recycling use of MWCNTs in the removal of Eu(III) is investigated after the desorption of Eu(III) at low pH values. The results indicate that adsorbed Eu(III) can be easily desorbed from MWCNTs at low pH values, and MWCNTs can be repeatedly used to remove Eu(III) from aqueous solutions. MWCNTs are suitable material in the preconcentration and solidification of radionuclides from large volumes of aqueous solutions in nuclear waste management. (author)

  16. Tabular cross section file generation and utilization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; Ozer, O.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1975-03-01

    Criteria of importance to the generation of linear cross section tabulations are presented. Algorithms for reducing or thinning such tables within a desired accuracy criterion and the implementation of paging techniques for efficient utilization of large data tables are reviewed. (1 figure, 3 tables) (U.S.)

  17. Improved biomass utilization through the use of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Biomass is a major by-product resource of agriculture and food manufacturing, but it is under-utilized as a source of food, fibre, and chemicals. Nuclear techniques provide unique tools for studies of the capabilities of micro-organisms in methane digestor operation and in the transformation of lignocellulosic materials to useful products. Nuclear techniques have also been effectively employed as mutagenic agents in the preparation of more efficient microbial strains for the conversion of biomass. This report reviews the variety and diversity of such applications with focus on the development of microbial processes to utilize agricultural wastes and by-products. The value of nuclear techniques is manifestly demonstrated in the production of efficient microbial mutant strains, in the tracing of metabolic pathways, in the monitoring of lignin degradation and also of fermenter operation. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Comparison of two radionuclide ejection-fraction techniques with contrast angiography in ischemic heart disease and valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, I.M.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mohammed, M.M.J.; Simo, M.; Yousef, A.M.; Badruddosa, M.; Mahmood, A.R.; Sayed, M.E.

    1986-04-01

    First-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRA) in the 30/sup 0/ right anterior oblique and equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography (EGNA) in the 45/sup 0/ left anterior oblique were used for quantitative measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Equipment used was a 400T gamma-camera interfaced with a Simis III Informatek computer. The results were compared with contrast angiography (CA). The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of both radionuclide techniques. The present data are based on 65 patients in whom CA and EGNA were performed. In 47 patients both FPRA and EGNA were performed. Results suggested that in ischemic heart disease (IHD) and valvular heart disease (VHD) the EGNA technique is well correlated with CA (r=0.9 and 0.73, respectively). FPRA correlated well only with CA in IHD (r=0.86), but not in VHD (r=0.18). This study indicates that both FPRA and EGNA are sensitive, noninvasive techniques for measuring ejection fraction in IHD, while in VHD, EGNA is more sensitive technique than FPRA.

  19. A comparison of two radionuclide ejection-fraction techniques with contrast angiography in ischemic heart disease and valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Mohammed, M.M.J.; Simo, M.; Yousef, A.M.; Badruddosa, M.; Mahmood, A.R.; Sayed, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    First-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRA) in the 30 0 right anterior oblique and equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography (EGNA) in the 45 0 left anterior oblique were used for quantitative measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Equipment used was a 400T gamma-camera interfaced with a Simis III Informatek computer. The results were compared with contrast angiography (CA). The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of both radionuclide techniques. The present data are based on 65 patients in whom CA and EGNA were performed. In 47 patients both FPRA and EGNA were performed. Results suggested that in ischemic heart disease (IHD) and valvular heart disease (VHD) the EGNA technique is well correlated with CA (r=0.9 and 0.73, respectively). FPRA correlated well only with CA in IHD (r=0.86), but not in VHD (r=0.18). This study indicates that both FPRA and EGNA are sensitive, noninvasive techniques for measuring ejection fraction in IHD, while in VHD, EGNA is more sensitive technique than FPRA. (orig.)

  20. Imprecision of dose predictions for radionuclides released to the environment: an application of a Monte Carlo simulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, G; Hoffman, F O

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the imprecision in dose predictions for radionuclides has been performed using correct dose assessment models and knowledge of model parameter value uncertainties. The propagation of parameter uncertainties is demonstrated using a Monte Carlo technique for elemental iodine 131 transported via the pasture-cow-milk-child pathway. Results indicated that when site-specific information is unavailable, the imprecision inherent in the predictions for this pathway is potentially large. (3 graphs, 25 references, 5 tables)

  1. Simulation of radionuclide chemistry and sorption characteristics in the geosphere by artificial intelligence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shangjyh; National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu; Wang Shigang; Ho Liwei

    1988-01-01

    An expert system operated in a personal computer is employed to simulate chemistry and sorption phenomena of radionuclides in the geosphere. The system handles both qualitative and quantitative analyses primarily for the actinides and fission products. The system also incorporates data bases of several groundwater and rock types with mineral and chemical compositions, the distribution coefficients of nuclides for minerals, etc. The decision rule base facilitates this system to carry out the reasoning procedures to predict the solubility-limiting phase, solute species, oxidation states and possible complex formations of radionuclides, as well as to calculate the distribution coefficients and retardation factors in a geological formation, provided that the essential groundwater and host rock information are available. It is concluded that this device of artificial intelligence provides a vehicle to accumulate developed human knowledge and serves as a tool not only for simulating the complicated radionuclide behaviour in the geosphere, but also for instructional or educational purpose in this field. (orig.)

  2. Application od scaling technique for estimation of radionuclide inventory in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertelendi, E.; Szuecs, Z.; Gulyas, J.; Svingor, E.; Csongor, J.; Ormai, P.; Fritz, A.; Solymosi, J.; Gresits, I.; Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.

    1996-01-01

    Safety studies related to the disposal of low- and intermediate waste indicate that the long term risk is determined by the presence of long-lived nuclides such as 14 C, 59 Ni, 63 Ni, 99 Tc, 129 I and the transuranium elements. As most of these nuclides are difficult to measure, the correlation between these critical nuclides and some other easily measurable key nuclides such as 60 Co and 137 Cs has been investigated for typical waste streams of Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary) and scaling factors have been proposed. An automated gamma-scanning monitor has been purchased and calibrated to determine the gamma-emitting radionuclides. Radiochemical methods have been developed to determine significant difficult-to-measure radionuclides. The radionuclides of interest have been 3 H, 14 C, 90 Sr, 55 Fe, 59 Ni, 99 Tc, 129 I and TRUs. The measurements taken so far have revealed brand new information and data on radiological composition of waste of WWER-type reactors. The reliability of the radioanalytical methods was checked by an international intercomparison test. For all radionuclides the Hungarian results were in the average range of the total data set. (author)

  3. A study of radionuclide dispersion by river systems, using GIS and remote sensing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghuis, Sander; Brown, Justin; Steenhuisen, Frits; Skorve, Johnny

    2000-01-01

    The Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine in Zheleznogorsk, Russia, is situated on the banks of the Yenisey river. The combine consists of three RBMK-type graphite moderate reactors, a reprocessing plant for the production of weapons-grade plutonium and storage facilities for nuclear waste. Discharges of radionuclides into the Yenisey river were either part of normal operation procedures or caused by accidental releases (Strand et al., 1997). So far, little is known about the transport and fate of the radioactive contaminants in the areas downstream of the Krasnoyarsk CC that are influenced by the Yenisey river system. Aim is to comprehend the dispersion of radionuclides through the river system. Remotely sensed and field study information are combined in a geographical information system (GIS) to study the processes leading to the dispersion of sediment-bound radionuclides carried by the river system. Since the extent of the study area is several thousands or kilometres of river and adjacent flood plains, use is made of a record of remotely sensed (satellite) images that are handled by the GIS. Panchromatic, high resolution satellite images as well as multispectral Landsat MSS and TM images were compiled for the area of interest. The panchromatic images were taken in a period during which the facility was in operation (1960-1972) and obtained for intervals of circa 6 months. A time series of satellite images enables the identification of erosion and sedimentation zones. The behaviour and fate of particle-reactive radionuclides, e.g. 239,240 Pu and to large extent 137 Cs, will be closely related to the movement of sediment. With respect to the behaviour and fate of more conservative radionuclides as 90 Sr, information is required accounting for fractionation between the particulate and aqueous phases. Stereo images are used to comprehend the geomorphology of the Yenisey river systems, focused on classification of sedimentary deposits. Landsat MSS and TM with five

  4. Extended radionuclide urography (ERU). A new diagnostic technique in urinary tract infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Brand, J.; Fliegel, C.; Leititis, J.

    1982-01-01

    Radionuclide renal studies with 99m-Tc-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetate (99m-Tc-DTPA) are commonly used to assess renal perfusion, glomerular filtration and excretion. One of the two remaining problems in pediatric urology is the difficulty in determining the significance of upper urinary tract dilatation. The second is the need for a safe, non-invasive and reliable method to detect and quantify vesicoureteral reflux. Using Extended Radionuclide Urography (ERU) it is possible to distinguish between obstructive and dilated non obstructive hydronephrosis analysing activity time curves before and after furosemide injection. Furthermore, the miction part of the study can detect a vesicoureteral reflux without catheterisation. The method is non-invasive, saving radiation and costs and suitable for follow-up after surgical correction

  5. Relationship between deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism by radionuclide techniques in 150 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, R.F.; Wang, X.M.; Liu, X.J.; Fang, W.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study was to evaluate the relationship between deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism assessed by radionuclide imaging. Methods: One hundred and fifty patients with pulmonary embolism from September 1997 to September 2001 were included. Pulmonary perfusion/ventilation imaging and deep venous radionuclide venography was performed in all patients. There were 87 men, and 63 women, with an average age 39±18 years. Of them, 26 underwent pulmonary arteriography. Eleven patients had X Ray phleography of lower extremities, 18 patients had Impedence plethymography (IPG), and 36 patients had lower limb ultrasound study. Results: Out of 150 patients with pulmonary embolism, 128 (85.5%) had lower limb venous pathological changes. Among them, 100 patients had risk factors of deep venous thrombosis (78.3%). 120 patients had proximal vein (80.0%). The agreement between radionuclide venography and X Ray phleography of lower extremities UCG and IPG was 90.9%, 70.2% and 80.0% respectively. Conclusions: Our results indicate that DVT was one of most important cause for acute pulmonary embolism, and thrombosis is mostly located in the proximal veins

  6. The Development and Application of Reactive Transport Modeling Techniques to Study Radionuclide Migration at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Selvi Viswanathan

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada has been chosen as a possible site for the first high level radioactive waste repository in the United States. As part of the site investigation studies, we need to make scientifically rigorous estimations of radionuclide migration in the event of a repository breach. Performance assessment models used to make these estimations are computationally intensive. We have developed two reactive transport modeling techniques to simulate radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain: (1) the selective coupling approach applied to the convection-dispersion-reaction (CDR) model and (2) a reactive stream tube approach (RST). These models were designed to capture the important processes that influence radionuclide migration while being computationally efficient. The conventional method of modeling reactive transport models is to solve a coupled set of multi-dimensional partial differential equations for the relevant chemical components in the system. We have developed an iterative solution technique, denoted the selective coupling method, that represents a versatile alternative to traditional uncoupled iterative techniques and the filly coupled global implicit method. We show that selective coupling results in computational and memory savings relative to these approaches. We develop RST as an alternative to the CDR method for solving large two- or three-dimensional reactive transport simulations for cases in which one is interested in predicting the flux across a specific control plane. In the RST method, the multidimensional problem is reduced to a series of one-dimensional transport simulations along streamlines. The key assumption with RST is that mixing at the control plane approximates the transverse dispersion between streamlines. We compare the CDR and RST approaches for several scenarios that are relevant to the Yucca Mountain Project. For example, we apply the CDR and RST approaches to model an ongoing field experiment called the Unsaturated Zone

  7. Non-conventional measurement techniques for the determination of some long-lived radionuclides produced in nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.J.

    1992-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on non-radiometric analytical techniques for the determination of long-lived radionuclides are described. The methods which have been considered are accelerator mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, thermal ionization mass spectrometry, resonance ionization spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. Neutron activation analysis has been commonly used for the determination of 129 I and 237 Np in environmental samples. Inductively coupled mass spectrometry seems likely to become the method of choice for the determination of 99 Tc, 237 Np and Pu-isotopes. The methods are discussed and the chemical separation methods described. (orig.)

  8. Techniques for assessing the performance of in situ bioreduction and immobilization of metals and radionuclides in contaminated subsurface environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, P.M.; Watson, D.B.; Blake, D.A.; Beard, L.P.; Brooks, S.C.; Carley, J.M.; Criddle, C.S.; Doll, W.E.; Fields, M.W.; Fendorf, S.E.; Geesey, G.G.; Ginder-Vogel, M.; Hubbard, S.S.; Istok, J.D.; Kelly, S.; Kemner, K.M.; Peacock, A.D.; Spalding, B.P.; White, D.C.; Wolf, A.; Wu, W.; Zhou, J.

    2004-11-14

    monitoring of coupled hydrological, geochemical/geophysical, and microbial processes. In the following manuscript we will (1) discuss contaminant fate and transport problems in humid regimes, (2) efforts to immobilize metals and radionuclides in situ via bioremediation, and (3) state-of-the-art techniques for assessing the performance of in situ bioreduction and immobilization of metals and radionuclides. These included (a) in situ solution and solid phase monitoring, (b) in situ and laboratory microbial community analysis, (c) noninvasive geophysical methods, and (d) solid phase speciation via high resolution spectroscopy.

  9. Dose point kernel simulation for monoenergetic electrons and radionuclides using Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Liu, Y L; Chang, S J; Chao, M M; Tsai, S Y; Huang, D E

    2012-11-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation has been commonly used in the dose evaluation of radiation accidents and for medical purposes. The accuracy of simulated results is affected by the particle-tracking algorithm, cross-sectional database, random number generator and statistical error. The differences among MC simulation software packages must be validated. This study simulated the dose point kernel (DPK) and the cellular S-values of monoenergetic electrons ranging from 0.01 to 2 MeV and the radionuclides of (90)Y, (177)Lu and (103 m)Rh, using Fluktuierende Kaskade (FLUKA) and MC N-Particle Transport Code Version 5 (MCNP5). A 6-μm-radius cell model consisting of the cell surface, cytoplasm and cell nucleus was constructed for cellular S-value calculation. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) of the scaled DPKs, simulated using FLUKA and MCNP5, were 7.92, 9.64, 4.62, 3.71 and 3.84 % for 0.01, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 MeV, respectively. For the three radionuclides, the MAPEs of the scaled DPKs were within 5 %. The maximum deviations of S(N←N), S(N←Cy) and S(N←CS) for the electron energy larger than 10 keV were 6.63, 6.77 and 5.24 %, respectively. The deviations for the self-absorbed S-values and cross-dose S-values of the three radionuclides were within 4 %. On the basis of the results of this study, it was concluded that the simulation results are consistent between FLUKA and MCNP5. However, there is a minor inconsistency for low energy range. The DPK and the cellular S-value should be used as the quality assurance tools before the MC simulation results are adopted as the gold standard.

  10. Study of radionuclides speciation with biological molecules of interest by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, V.

    2007-07-01

    Mechanisms of complexation and accumulation of the radionuclides at the cellular and molecular level are complex and poorly known because the studies on these subjects are scarce. Within the framework of this thesis, we studied the interactions of europium (analogue of trivalent actinides) and uranium (VI) (actinide) with biological molecules of interest: phyto-chelatins. Their role is to protect cells against intrusions from nonessential heavy metals (thus toxic). These proteins are likely to be implied in the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides in living organisms. However, their structure is complex, this is why, in order to better understand their reactivity, we extended our studies to lower entities which constitute them (amino acids and glutathione). We determined solution speciation (stoichiometry, structure) as well as the complexing constants associated with the formation of these species. These studies were undertaken by Time Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Electro-Spray Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infra-Rouge spectroscopy (FTIR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS). The determination of the complexation constants enabled us to conclude that the complexing capacity of these molecules with respect to radionuclides was moderate (log 10 K 1 < 3, pH 3 or 6), the formed species are mononuclear with only one ligand molecule (1:1). The interaction is performed via oxygenated (hard) groups. The direct complexation of europium with phyto-chelatins at acidic pH was studied jointly by TRLIF and ES-MS. The complexing capacity of these molecules is much higher than that of GSH from which they result. In addition to studies undertaken on synthetic solutions reproducing the 'biological' conditions (pH close to neutrality, ionic strength 0.1 mol/L, etc), tests of cellular contamination were realized. The quantification of integrated europium showed that those are able to

  11. Application of nuclear analysis technique to determine radionuclide contents in critical food stuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Sukirno; Agus Taftazani

    2010-01-01

    Rice, cassava, grist, corn and salt are Indonesian critical food stuff. The analysis of nature radionuclide in rice, cassava, grist, corn and salt measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry with Germanium Lithium (GeLi) detector equipped by MESTROTM software and Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA) to analysis radionuclide and gamma gross. Analysis beta gross have been done using Low Background Counter (LBC) with Geiger Muller (GM) detector and Analog Digital Converter (ADC). Activity of K-40 on all samples range from 28.40 ± 2.06 to 4.22 ± 1.67 mBq/g; Th-232 range from 0.92 ± 0.57 to 6.63 ± 0.98 mBq/g; Pb-212 range from 0.38 ± 0.18 to 0.81 ± 0.10 mBq/g; Pb-214 range from 1.92 ± 1.28 - 5.17 ± 0.14 mBq/g. While beta gross and gamma gross activities range from 0.12 ± 0.09 to 0.31 ± 0.13 mBq/g and 101.73 ± 13.35 to 199.81 ± 9.21 mBq/g. Comparing with reference data from various countries, it can be concluded that radionuclide activity content in all of rice, cassava, grist, corn and salt samples doesn't difference significantly so that they are safe to be consumed. Using statistic test of ANOVA (α = 0.05) method, it found that the difference of sample has influence significant on the activity of TI-208, Pb-212, Pb-214 , gross beta and gamma gross radioactivity while on K-40 there is no significant influence on sample difference. (author)

  12. Radiochemical techniques for determining some naturally occurring radionuclides in marine environmental materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, C W [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (UK). Fisheries Lab.

    1984-06-15

    The determination of some of the naturally-occurring, alpha-emitting radionuclides in marine environmental materials, is of interest for several reasons. Radium and radon nuclides are potentially useful as oceanographic tracers. Lead and thorium nuclides may be used to study sedimentation rates, mixing processes and bioturbation in sediments. Radium and polonium nuclides are incorporated into food chains and the data may provide a perspective against which to assess the significance, for marine organisms, of exposure to radiation in a marine radioactive waste disposal situation. This paper discusses the manner in which samples are taken, and the radiochemical methods which have been employed to measure the nuclides, together with some data produced.

  13. DNA polymorphisms revealed by the RAPD technique show differences between radionuclide-contaminated and uncontaminated mosquitofish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, C.W.; Shugart, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1977, approximately 250 Mosquitofish (Gambusia affines) were transplanted from a relatively uncontaminated site into a small pond on the Oak Ridge Reservation that is heavily contaminated with radionuclides. DNA polymorphisms, using the RAPD technique, were examined in order to determine if any genetic differentiation had occurred between the two populations. Also, fish from another radionuclide-contaminated population (White Oak Lake) and two unrelated non-contaminated populations were also examined. The RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique uses the polymerase chain reaction with a short oligonucleotide primer to produce DNA fragments of various lengths. When analyzed by gel electrophoresis, these fragments form banding patterns similar to DNA fingerprints. A total of 26 primers were used to produce DNA band patterns, many of which revealed population differences. In addition several primers revealed banding patterns which differentiated between the Crystal Springs and Pond 3513 populations. Furthermore, bands found at high frequency in Pond 3513 and White Oak Lake populations were absent or present at a lower frequency in the non-contaminated populations. For some primers, the contaminated populations showed more DNA bands per individual, and fish with more bands had fewer DNA strand breaks than the fish with fewer bands. These data will be discussed with relation to biomonitoring programs and evolution of resistance to genotoxins in natural populations

  14. Radionuclide data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Chapter 8 presents tables on selected alpha, beta, gamma and x-ray emitters by increasing energy; information on specific activity for selected radionuclides; naturally occurring radionuclides; the natural decay series; and the artificially produced neptunium series. A table of alpha emitters is listed by increasing atomic number and by energy. The table of β emitters presented is useful in identifying β emitters whose energies and possibly half-lives have been determined by standard laboratory techniques. It is also a handy guide to β-emitting isotopes for applications requiring specific half-lives and/or energies. Gamma rays for radionuclides of importance to radiological assessments and radiation protection are listed by increasing energy. The energies and branching ratios are important for radionuclide determinations with gamma spectrometry detectors. This section also presents a table of x-ray energies which are useful for radiochemical analyses. A number of nuclides emit x-rays as part of their decay scheme. These x-rays may be counted with Ar proportional counters, Ge planar or n-type Ge co-axial detectors, or thin crystal NaI(T1) scintillation counters. In both cases, spectral measurements can be made and both qualitative and quantitative information obtained on the sample. Nuclear decay data (energy and probability by radiation type) for more than one hundred radionuclides that are important to health physicists are presented in a schematic manner

  15. Radionuclide angiocardiography. Improved diagnosis and quantitation of left-to-right shunts using area ratio techniques in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, P.O.; Jost, R.G.; Strauss, A.W.; Boonvisut, S.; Markham, J.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison of several reported methods for detection and quantitation of left-to-right shunts by radionuclides was performed in 50 children. Count ratio (C2/C1) techniques were compared with the exponential extrapolation and gamma function area ratio techniques. C2/C1 ratios accurately detected shunts and could reliably separate shunts from normals, but there was a high rate of false positives in children with valvular heart disease. The area ratio methods provided more accurate shunt quantitation and a better separation of patients with valvular heart disease than did the C2/C1 ratio. The gamma function method showed a higher correlation with oximetry than the exponential method, but the difference was not statistically significant. For accurate shunt quantitation and a reliable separation of patients with valvular heart disease from those with shunts, area ratio calculations are preferable to the C2/C1 ratio

  16. Influence of nifedipine on left ventricular perfusion and function in patients with unstable angina: Evaluation with radionuclide techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, E.E. van der; Kerkkamp, H.J.; Simoons, M.L.; Rijk, P.P. van; Reiber, J.H.C.; Bom, N.; Lubsen, J.C.; Lie, K.I.

    1986-04-01

    In 1981, a large, double-blind, randomized trial was started in The Netherlands to evaluate the therapeutic effects of nifedipine and/or metoprolol in patients with unstable angina. This study has been called the Holland Interuniversity Nifedipine/metoprolol Trial (HINT) and required several hundred patients to establish potential therapeutic effects. From December 1982 to January 1984 the effects of nifedipine on left ventricular (LV) performance in a subgroup of 52 HINT patients were studied using radionuclide techniques. All patients (23 on nifedipine, 29 controls) underwent thallium-201 scintigraphy or radionuclide angiography just before and 48 h after the start of experimental medication. The radionuclide angiographic studies were also performed at 1 and 4 h after treatment. Nifedipine did not influence the incidence of disapperance of perfusion defects on the 48-h thallium images. No significant differences in overall LV ejections fraction (EF) were seen at any time between nifedipine-treated patients and controls. However, paired observations in 37 patients showed improvement of LVEF after 48 h in 8 patients on nifedipine and in only 1 control patient. Scintigraphic measurements on admission were not related to clinical outcome after 48 h. Concomitant administration of metoprolol did not influence LVEF in either group. It is concluded that nifedipine improves LVEF after 48 h in a subset of patients with unstable angina without affecting myocardial perfusion. This finding indicates that nifedipine has a predominant effect on afterload reduction in patients with unstable angina. Also, early scintigraphic measurements had no significant predictive value for subsequent cardiac events.

  17. Study of radionuclides speciation with biological molecules of interest by spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, V.

    2007-07-01

    Mechanisms of complexation and accumulation of the radionuclides at the cellular and molecular level are complex and poorly known because the studies on these subjects are scarce. Within the framework of this thesis, we studied the interactions of these cations with biological molecules of interest. We chose to focus on an actinide: uranium (VI) as well as europium as an analogue of trivalent actinides. The selected biological molecules are the phyto-chelatins: their role is to protect cells against intrusions from nonessential heavy metals (thus toxic). These proteins are likely to be implied in the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides in living organisms. However, their structure is complex, this is why, in order to better include/understand their reactivity, we extended our studies to lower entities which constitute them (amino acid: glycine, glutamic acid and cysteine; polypeptides: glutathione reduced and oxidized forms). In particular, we determined solution speciation (stoichiometry, structure) as well as the complexing constants associated with the formation with these species. These studies were undertaken by Time Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Electro-Spray-Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infra-Rouge spectroscopy (FTIR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS).The determination of the complexation constants enabled us to conclude that the complexing capacity of these molecules with respect to radionuclides was moderate (log 10 K 1 ≤ 3, pH 3 or 6), the formed species are mononuclear with only one ligand molecule (1:1). The interaction is performed via oxygenated (hard) groups. The direct complexation of europium with phyto-chelatins at acidic pH was studied jointly by TRLIF and ES-MS. The complexing capacity of these molecules is much higher than that of GSH from which they result. The interaction of europium with metallothioneins is, on the contrary, lower than

  18. Benchmark studies of computer prediction techniques for equilibrium chemistry and radionuclide transport in groundwater flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    A brief review of two recent benchmark exercises is presented. These were separately concerned with the equilibrium chemistry of groundwater and the geosphere migration of radionuclides, and involved the use of a total of 19 computer codes by 11 organisations in Europe and Canada. A similar methodology was followed for each exercise, in that series of hypothetical test cases were used to explore the limits of each code's application, and so provide an overview of current modelling potential. Aspects of the user-friendliness of individual codes were also considered. The benchmark studies have benefited participating organisations by providing a means of verifying current codes, and have provided problem data sets by which future models may be compared. (author)

  19. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  20. Contemporary management of carotid blowout syndrome utilizing endovascular techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Nauman F; Rezaee, Rod P; Ray, Abhishek; Wick, Cameron C; Blackham, Kristine; Stepnick, David; Lavertu, Pierre; Zender, Chad A

    2017-02-01

    To illustrate complex interdisciplinary decision making and the utility of modern endovascular techniques in the management of patients with carotid blowout syndrome (CBS). Retrospective chart review. Patients treated with endovascular strategies and/or surgical modalities were included. Control of hemorrhage, neurological, and survival outcomes were studied. Between 2004 and 2014, 33 patients had 38 hemorrhagic events related to head and neck cancer that were managed with endovascular means. Of these, 23 were localized to the external carotid artery (ECA) branches and five localized to the ECA main trunk; nine were related to the common carotid artery (CCA) or internal carotid artery (ICA), and one event was related to the innominate artery. Seven events related to the CCA/ICA or innominate artery were managed with endovascular sacrifice, whereas three cases were managed with a flow-preserving approach (covered stent). Only one patient developed permanent hemiparesis. In two of the three cases where the flow-preserving approach was used, the covered stent eventually became exposed via the overlying soft tissue defect, and definitive management using carotid revascularization or resection was employed to prevent further hemorrhage. In cases of soft tissue necrosis, vascularized tissues were used to cover the great vessels as applicable. The use of modern endovascular approaches for management of acute CBS yields optimal results and should be employed in a coordinated manner by the head and neck surgeon and the neurointerventionalist. 4. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:383-390, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Calibration of radionuclides with decay trough beta emission or electron capture by liquid scintillation technique; Calibracao de radionuclideos que decaem por emissao beta ou por captura eletronica pela tecnica de cintilacao liquida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Jamir dos Santos

    2000-02-01

    In this work is reported a methodology a methodology for pure beta and electron capture radionuclides standardization, suing liquid scintillation technique. In this sense the CIEMAT/NIST method, recently utilized by international laboratories, was implemented and the lack in the Laboratorio Nacional das Radiacoes Ionizantes - LNMRI, of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, for adequate methodology to standardize this kind if radionuclides was filled, fact that was not present with alpha and gamma radionuclides. The implementation procedure evaluation was provided by concentration activity determination of the following radionuclides: {sup 14} C and {sup 90} Sr, pure beta emitters; {sup 55} Fe, electron capture decay; {sup 204} Tl, electron capture and beta decay and {sup 60} Co, beta-gamma emitter. In this way, a careful analysis of the implementation procedure with these radionuclides types, ranging on a broad energy spectral, was possible. To check the calibration results, intercomparisons among our measurements of these radionuclides and the reference values of the CIEMAT/Spain laboratory were provided. To check the calibration results, intercomparisons among our measurements of these radionuclides and the reference values of the CIEMAT/Spain laboratory were provided. Besides this intercomparisons, one was provided with a {sup 204} Tl solution, utilized in the international comparison recently promoted by BIPM, and another one with a {sup 60} C solution calibrated in LNMRI/CNEN previously by a relative calibration system, with a well type pressurized ionization chamber, and an absolute beta-gamma coincidence system, with a pill-box type proportional counter 4 {pi} geometry, coupled with a scintillator system with a sodium iodide cristal of 4x4 inches. The comparisons among LNMRI/CNEN results and the reference values, showed a small deviation of 1,32% for {sup 14} C, 0,40% for {sup 60} Co, 1,12% for {sup 55} Fe, 0,10% for {sup 90} Sr and 0,73% for {sup

  2. New Hydrological Age-Dating Techniques Using Cosmogenic Radionuclides Beryllium-7 and Sodium-22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, S.; Kuells, C. [Institute of Hydrology, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg (Germany); Schlosser, C. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Freiburg (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    Since atmospheric tritium levels have nearly reached the natural background, there is a need for further development of existing or additional methods for the age dating of young water. Non-gaseous age dating tracers are especially needed for hydrological applications in lakes, rivers and springs and for surface-groundwater interaction studies. Cosmogenically produced isotopes of sodium and beryllium ({sup 22}Na, {sup 7}Be, half-lives of 2.602 years and 53.29 days respectively) have been investigated as potential environmental tracers for residence time analysis of surface water. A simple chemical separation scheme for both radionuclides was established and {sup 7}Be was detected in both surface and groundwater samples. The ions were extracted from 500 L water using an ion exchange resin. The water samples were dated to ages of about 165 and 323 days for riverine samples and 475 days for a groundwater sample. Measurement was performed using a lead covered HPGe detector. These ages match ages previously reported using stable isotopes and tritium. (author)

  3. Radionuclide and/or radiological technique as a comprehensive renal function study in clinical pediatric pratice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, G.; La Vecchia, G.; Nodari, A.; Cenci, F.

    1984-01-01

    84 patients with clinically suspected urinary pathway pathology always underwent CRRA (Computerized Radionuclide Renal Angiography) and IVP (Intra Venous Pyelography); in some selected children RC (Retrograde Cystography) and CRDC (Computerized Retrograde Cysto Scintigraphy) and/or RCS (Retrograde Cysto Scintigraphy) and/or RCS (Retrograde Cysto Scintigraphy) were performed. These children, ranging from 1 day to 14 years of age, were classified, on the basis of clinical features, as: glomerulonephritis (34 cases); pyelonephritis (7 cases); vesico-ureteral reflux (15 cases); kidney and/or urinary tract malformations (29 cases). Clinical suspicion was proven by radioisotope and radiographic studies in 55 patients, namely: glomerulonephritis (23 cases); pyelonephritis (5 cases); vesico-ureteral reflux (11 cases); kidney and/or urinary tract malformation (16 cases). Among complications of the last pathology two cases of pyelo-pyelic reflux in a Y shaped duplication, cause of recurrent lumbar pain and urinary infection, not detected by IVP and RC, were discovered by CRRA; in addition two cases of vesico-ureteral reflux in patients with recurrent urinary infection were detected by CRDC but not confirmed by RC (these refluxes were considered as insignificant and transient). In our opinion, radioisotope studies (CRRA-CRDC-RCS) by i.v. injection (99m-Tc-DTPA; 0.30 MBq/kg) or by vesical catheterisation (99m-Tc-pertecnetate; 18 MBq) are particularly useful to differentiate complete from incomplete, organic from functional urinary tract obstruction, since they allow a quantitative assessment of both kidney function and unilateral renal impairment. Radiographic examination (IVP and RC), on the other hand, provide more detailed anatomical information, but are less suitable for monitoring treatment because of the higher radiation dose delivered to the patients. (Author)

  4. The utilization of irradiation techniques in food industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation technical researches and the main areas of nuclear technical applications are surveyed, and the main areas where nuclear techniques are used are reported. Then an overview on radiation techniques including radiostimulation, radiomutation, radurization, radioecology and isotope techniques used in the food industry is presented. (author) 4 refs

  5. Ferric iron remediation and stabilisation (firs) - developing a new robust electrokinetic remediation technique for heavy metal and radionuclide contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, D.; Hopkinson, L.; Cundy, A.

    2005-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology that has generated considerable interest as a technique for the in-situ remediation of contaminated clay-rich soils and sediments. Despite promising experimental results, however, at present there is no standardised universal electrokinetic soil/sediment remediation approach. Many of the current technologies are technically complex and energy intensive, and geared towards the removal of 90% or more of specific contaminants, under very specific field or laboratory-based conditions. However, in the real environment a low-tech, low-energy contaminant reduction / containment technique may be more appropriate and realistic. Such a technique, FIRS (Ferric Iron Remediation and Stabilisation), is discussed here. The FIRS technique involves the application of a low magnitude (typically less than 0.2 V/cm) direct electric potential between two or more sacrificial, iron-rich, electrodes emplaced either side of a contaminated soil or sediment. The electric potential is used to generate a strong pH (and Eh) gradient within the soil column (pH 2 - 13), which acts to re-mobilize contaminants in the treated soil, and force the precipitation of an impermeable, sorptive iron-rich barrier or 'pan' in the soil between the electrodes. Geochemical data from bench-scale treatment cells indicate that the FIRS technique can significantly reduce the concentration of a range of heavy metals and radionuclides in contaminated soils, by remobilization of contaminants followed by precipitation on, or around, the iron-rich barrier generated by the technique. In addition, arsenic seems highly amenable to the FIRS treatment, due to its solubility under the high pH conditions generated near to the cathode, and its marked geochemical affinity with the freshly precipitated iron oxides and oxy-hydroxides in the iron barrier. Geotechnical tests indicate that the iron barrier produced by the technique is practically impervious (permeability 10 -9 m

  6. Simple counting technique for measuring mixtures of two pure beta-emitting radionuclides

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyngaardt, WM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available on counting statistics. The method is demonstrated experimentally for various mixture combinations of C-14 and Ni-63. It is shown that the accuracy of the technique can be enhanced by improving the determination of the figure-of-merit....

  7. Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function

  8. Speciation analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides in the environment can be present in different physico-chemical forms (i. e. radionuclide species) varying in size (nominal molecular mass), charge properties and valence, oxidation state, structure and morphology, density, complexing ability etc. Low molecular mass (LMM) species are believed to be mobile and potentially bioavailable, while high molecular mass (HMM) species such as colloids, polymers, pseudocolloids and particles are considered inert. Due to time dependent transformation processes such as mobilization of radionuclide species from solid phases or interactions of mobile and reactive radionuclide species with components in soils and sediments, however, the original distribution of radionuclides deposited in ecosystems will change over time and influence the ecosystem behaviour. To assess the environmental impact from radionuclide contamination, information on radionuclide species deposited, interactions within affected ecosystems and the time-dependent distribution of radionuclide species influencing mobility and biological uptake is essential. The development of speciation techniques to characterize radionuclide species in waters, soils and sediments should therefore be essential for improving the prediction power of impact and risk assessment models. The present paper reviews fractionation techniques which should be utilised for radionuclide speciation purposes. (author)

  9. Long-term monitoring of the Danube river-Sampling techniques, radionuclide metrology and radioecological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.; Gruber, V.; Hrachowitz, M.; Baumgartner, A.; Weilner, S.; Seidel, C.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling techniques and radiometric methods, developed and applied in a comprehensive radioecological study of the Danube River are presented. Results and radiometric data of sediment samples, collected by sediment traps in Austria and additionally by grab sampling in the Danube during research cruises between Germany and the delta (Black sea) are shown and discussed. Goal of the investigation is the protection of public and environment, especially the sustainable use and conservation of human freshwater resources against harmful radioactive exposure.

  10. Neutron diagnostics on TFTR utilizing the Campbelling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.C.; Hendel, H.W.; Neischmidt, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report modified commercial neutron counting equipment installed on a tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) which utilizes the Campbelling theorem to monitor the neutron source strength at very high neutron count rates. Campbelling utilizes the large amplitude fluctuation from neutron events in the detectors to discriminate against small amplitude noise events. Source strengths yielding equivalent count rates a factor of five higher than possible in the conventional count rate mode have been obtained to date. The concept of Campbelling is discussed and the particular application to TFTR is illustrated

  11. Detection of radionuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra using Lasso and subsampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Er-Wei; Chan, Kung-sik; Eichinger, William; Kump, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We consider a problem of identification of nuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra. A two stage algorithm is proposed and tested based on the principle of majority voting. The idea is to model gamma-ray counts as Poisson processes. Then, the average part is taken to be the model and the difference between the observed gamma-ray counts and the average is considered as random noise. In the linear part, the unknown coefficients correspond to if isotopes of interest are present or absent. Lasso types of algorithms are applied to find non-vanishing coefficients. Since Lasso or any prediction error based algorithm is inconsistent with variable selection for finite data length, an estimate of parameter distribution based on subsampling techniques is added in addition to Lasso. Simulation examples are provided in which the traditional peak detection algorithms fail to work and the proposed two stage algorithm performs well in terms of both the False Negative and False Positive errors. - Highlights: → Identification of nuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra. → An algorithm is proposed and tested based on the principle of majority voting. → Lasso types of algorithms are applied to find non-vanishing coefficients. → An estimate of parameter distribution based on sub-sampling techniques is included. → Simulations compare the results of the proposed method with those of peak detection.

  12. Detection of radionuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra using Lasso and subsampling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Er-Wei, E-mail: er-wei-bai@uiowa.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Chan, Kung-sik, E-mail: kung-sik-chan@uiowa.edu [Department of Statistical and Actuarial Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Eichinger, William, E-mail: william-eichinger@uiowa.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Kump, Paul [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We consider a problem of identification of nuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra. A two stage algorithm is proposed and tested based on the principle of majority voting. The idea is to model gamma-ray counts as Poisson processes. Then, the average part is taken to be the model and the difference between the observed gamma-ray counts and the average is considered as random noise. In the linear part, the unknown coefficients correspond to if isotopes of interest are present or absent. Lasso types of algorithms are applied to find non-vanishing coefficients. Since Lasso or any prediction error based algorithm is inconsistent with variable selection for finite data length, an estimate of parameter distribution based on subsampling techniques is added in addition to Lasso. Simulation examples are provided in which the traditional peak detection algorithms fail to work and the proposed two stage algorithm performs well in terms of both the False Negative and False Positive errors. - Highlights: > Identification of nuclides from weak and poorly resolved spectra. > An algorithm is proposed and tested based on the principle of majority voting. > Lasso types of algorithms are applied to find non-vanishing coefficients. > An estimate of parameter distribution based on sub-sampling techniques is included. > Simulations compare the results of the proposed method with those of peak detection.

  13. Separation and quantitation of radionuclides in Hanford environmental and waste tank samples using IC-ICP/MS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, O.T. III; Smith, M.R.; Wyse, E.J.; Barinage, C.J.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The use of shielded ICP/MS instrumentation to characterize radioactive material has seen marked growth over the past few years. With a lower limit detection now in the fg/mL range for newer units, ICP/MS has become the method of choice for many studies requiring rapid, isotopic analysis of both stable elements and radionuclides with half-lives greater than 102-103 years. However, despite its sensitivity and versatility, ICP/MS has heretofore had some notable limitations in certain radiological applications. For example, Hanford waste tank samples contain a variety of nuclides with altered isotopic abundances, which complicate identification of these nuclides. Even if a nuclide can be identified, conventional quantitation using vendor-supplied software assumes natural, or knowledge of, isotopic abundance. Difficult sample matrices like those obtained from the Hanford tanks can further complicate interpretation and quantitation. On-line ion chromatography (IC) has been recently employed to mitigate some these problems. By sequentially separating elements, isobars can be resolved, thereby permitting the unequivocal determination of isotopic abundances. But even though the technique resolves isobaric interferences and is effective in reducing matrix problems, IC does not easily lend itself to quantitation. Internal standards, which are crucial for quantitation during a prolonged ICP/MS analysis with varying eluant matrices, are separated or affected as any indigenous element is using standard IC methodology

  14. Application of decision tree technique to sensitivity analysis for results of radionuclide migration calculations. Research documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kunihiko; Makino, Hitoshi

    2005-03-01

    Uncertainties are always present in the parameters used for the nuclide migration analysis in the geological disposal system. These uncertainties affect the result of such analyses, e.g., and the identification of dominant nuclides. It is very important to identify the parameters causing the significant impact on the results, and to investigate the influence of identified parameters in order to recognize R and D items with respect to the development of geological disposal system and understanding of the system performance. In our study, the decision tree analysis technique was examined in the sensitivity analysis as a method for investigation of the influences of the parameters and for complement existing sensitivity analysis. As a result, results obtained from Monte Carlo simulation with parameter uncertainties could be distinguished with not only important parameters but also with their quantitative conditions (e.g., ranges of parameter values). Furthermore, information obtained from the decision tree analysis could be used 1) to categorize the results obtained from the nuclide migration analysis for a given parameter set, 2) to show prospective effect of reduction to parameter uncertainties on the results. (author)

  15. [The utility of the interrupter technique in pediatric asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Akiko; Yoshihara, Shigemi; Arisaka, Osamu

    2002-11-01

    Interrupter respiratory resistance (Rint) is a new lung function test for measuring airway resistance. We investigated the utility of the Rint lung function test in pediatric patients with asthma. Thirty seven asthmatic patients with mild or moderate asthma attack (asthma group) and 9 healthy children (control group) were enrolled in the study, and the utility of the Ring test was compared with that of the PEF lung function test. Rint and PEF were measured after the inhalation of saline or beta(2) stimulant, and the values for the asthma and control groups were compared. The rint and PEF values did not change after the inhalation of saline, but both values improved after the inhalation of beta(2) stimulant in the asthma group. In the control group, the PEF and Rint values measured after saline or beta(2) stimulant were not significantly different. Rint measurements may be more useful than PEF tests for evaluating therapeutic responses to mild asthma attacks in children. These findings suggest that Rint is a useful respiratory function test for evaluating children with asthma.

  16. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization; Bilanz natuerlicher Radionuklide in der Braunkohleverstromung und Unbedenklichkeit bei der Verwendung von Rueckstaenden und Nebenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger [IAF-Radiooekologie GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  17. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng; Lin, Carol S.K.; Hui, Chi-Wai; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There is a major environmental issue about the printed circuit boards throughout the world. • Different physical and chemical recycling techniques have been reviewed. • Nonmetallic fraction of PCBs is the unwanted face of this waste stream. • Several applications of the nonmetallic fraction of waste PCBs have been introduced. - Abstract: E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly “recycling” has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined

  18. Waste printed circuit board recycling techniques and product utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadi, Pejman; Xu, Meng [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Lin, Carol S.K. [School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hui, Chi-Wai [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon, E-mail: kemckayg@ust.hk [Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • There is a major environmental issue about the printed circuit boards throughout the world. • Different physical and chemical recycling techniques have been reviewed. • Nonmetallic fraction of PCBs is the unwanted face of this waste stream. • Several applications of the nonmetallic fraction of waste PCBs have been introduced. - Abstract: E-waste, in particular waste PCBs, represents a rapidly growing disposal problem worldwide. The vast diversity of highly toxic materials for landfill disposal and the potential of heavy metal vapors and brominated dioxin emissions in the case of incineration render these two waste management technologies inappropriate. Also, the shipment of these toxic wastes to certain areas of the world for eco-unfriendly “recycling” has recently generated a major public outcry. Consequently, waste PCB recycling should be adopted by the environmental communities as an ultimate goal. This article reviews the recent trends and developments in PCB waste recycling techniques, including both physical and chemical recycling. It is concluded that the physical recycling techniques, which efficiently separate the metallic and nonmetallic fractions of waste PCBs, offer the most promising gateways for the environmentally-benign recycling of this waste. Moreover, although the reclaimed metallic fraction has gained more attention due to its high value, the application of the nonmetallic fraction has been neglected in most cases. Hence, several proposed applications of this fraction have been comprehensively examined.

  19. Neutron diagnostics on TFTR utilizing the Campbelling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.C.; Hendel, H.W.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Modified commercial equipment installed on the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) utilizes Campbell's mean square voltage theorem to monitor the neutron source strength at neutron count rates orders of magnitude above the capability of the count rate mode. Campbelling uses the large amplitude fluctuations from neutron fission events in the detectors to discriminate against small amplitude γ ray and other noise events. Source strengths yielding equivalent count rates a factor of 5 greater than possible in the conventional count rate mode have been obtained to date. The concept of Campbelling is discussed and the particular application to TFTR is illustrated. Fundamental advantages are the extended useful range of the detectors by a factor of --10 4 and gamma rejection by a factor of --10 3 . Some results are shown and the neutron source strengths obtained are compared to those from conventional counting circuits and from other detectors whose outputs have not yet suffered counting losses

  20. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda, E-mail: spradhan@barc.gov.in, E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  1. Review Article : Utilization of Environmental Radiochemistry Techniques for Selection and Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, E.R.; Madbouly, A.M.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2016-01-01

    This research review puts necessary considerations on the available environmental radiochemistry techniques for selection and evaluation of a nuclear facility sites.The main bjective in site evaluation for nuclear facilities in terms of nuclear safety is to protect the site workers, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation release from nuclear facilities due to accidents. The extreme sensitivity and speed of radiochemical methods make their applications of considerable importance in several fields and they have found many uses. Information about the existed radioactivity in the different nuclear facilities is an essential requirement for their environmental assessment. It is necessary to estimate the various radioactivity levels in the environment through qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques and to assess the potential effects of the nuclear facility in the region by considering the characteristics of sites.The siting and site evaluation requirements are discussed. Emphasis was given to types of radiochemical techniques used for characterization of the site parameters which determine the potential hazards of the site on the facility and the facility on the site. Emphasis has been also given to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides for monitoring and control .There are some techniques employed such as radioactive tracer technique, liquid scintillation technique, gamma spectrometry technique, neutron activation analysis technique, fluorimetric technique and isotope hydrology technique.

  2. Accelerated partial breast irradiation utilizing balloon brachytherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Jonathan B.; Dickler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the barriers to BCT, methods of PBI in the setting of breast conservation have been explored. The method of PBI with the longest published follow-up is multi-catheter interstitial brachytherapy. Balloon-based brachytherapy with the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator was designed to simplify the brachytherapy procedure for PBI, enhance the reproducibility of the dosimetry, and improve patient comfort. The rates of local recurrence following PBI with the MammoSite applicator have been low, but there are few published reports and follow-up has been relatively short. The cosmetic outcomes and toxicity of MammoSite PBI are comparable to those seen after multicatheter-based PBI. Additional methods of balloon brachytherapy, including Xoft and SenoRx Contura have been developed. Finally, long-term follow-up after PBI is important for the welfare of individual patients and in order to establish the efficacy, late toxicity and cosmetic outcomes of this technique.

  3. Development of a technique of the rapid analysis for forecasting of possible radionuclides accumulation in the harvest of agricultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadgarov, Kh.T.; Pugachev, V.V.; Kim, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main ways of pollution of plants by radionuclides is the receipt of radionuclides in plants from ground through root system and direct uptake of radionuclides by underground parts of plants. Therefore receipt of radioisotopes in rhizosphere of plants plays the main role in radionuclides accumulation in the plants. For plants cultivation in conditions of radioactive pollution of region it is necessary to estimate the value of possible radionuclides accumulation in a harvest of plants. Such forecasts are necessary at planning of growing of agricultural crops for the food, forage or technical purposes depending on a degree of their pollution by radionuclides. We investigated correlation between the content of strontium - 90 in plants in early phases of their development (20 days time) and in a harvest of plants at a soil way of radionuclide receipt. Our results of study of dependence of strontium - 90 accumulation in a harvest from its content in 20 days time sprouts show, that with reduction of the content of strontium - 90 in 20 days time sprouts, its quantity in a harvest of agriculture cultures is reduced. The correlation analysis of the received data has confirmed positive connection between accumulation of radionuclide in young and adult plants. So, correlation coefficients for a cotton, wheat and barley are 0,89; 0,91 and 0,91 correspondingly. Thus, the direct connection between the contents of strontium - 90 in plants of young age and its accumulation in a harvest of adult plants is established. It enables to predict pollution of' harvest by strontium - 90 under its contents in young plants. Using the received data, with the help of the least- squares method, we have calculated coefficients of the regression equation of a kind: y = a + bx, Where: y - the predicted contents of radionuclide in the harvest; x - the content of radionuclide in 20 days time sprouts; a, b - the empirical coefficients. Rather good coincidence of theoretical calculations and

  4. Grid Generation Techniques Utilizing the Volume Grid Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents grid generation techniques available in the Volume Grid Manipulation (VGM) code. The VGM code is designed to manipulate existing line, surface and volume grids to improve the quality of the data. It embodies an easy to read rich language of commands that enables such alterations as topology changes, grid adaption and smoothing. Additionally, the VGM code can be used to construct simplified straight lines, splines, and conic sections which are common curves used in the generation and manipulation of points, lines, surfaces and volumes (i.e., grid data). These simple geometric curves are essential in the construction of domain discretizations for computational fluid dynamic simulations. By comparison to previously established methods of generating these curves interactively, the VGM code provides control of slope continuity and grid point-to-point stretchings as well as quick changes in the controlling parameters. The VGM code offers the capability to couple the generation of these geometries with an extensive manipulation methodology in a scripting language. The scripting language allows parametric studies of a vehicle geometry to be efficiently performed to evaluate favorable trends in the design process. As examples of the powerful capabilities of the VGM code, a wake flow field domain will be appended to an existing X33 Venturestar volume grid; negative volumes resulting from grid expansions to enable flow field capture on a simple geometry, will be corrected; and geometrical changes to a vehicle component of the X33 Venturestar will be shown.

  5. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques; Flux des radionucleides dans les productions agricoles suite a un accident nucleaire: contre-mesures et techniques de rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouve, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 -Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author).

  6. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques; Flux des radionucleides dans les productions agricoles suite a un accident nucleaire: contre-mesures et techniques de rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouve, A [CEA Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 -Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author).

  7. Right ventricular functional analysis utilizing first pass radionuclide angiography for pre-operative ventricular assist device planning: a multi-modality comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Ryan; Day, Kevin; Jokerst, Clinton; Kazui, Toshinobu; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Khalpey, Zain

    2017-10-10

    Advanced heart failure treated with a left ventricular assist device is associated with a higher risk of right heart failure. Many advanced heart failures patients are treated with an ICD, a relative contraindication to MRI, prior to assist device placement. Given this limitation, left and right ventricular function for patients with an ICD is calculated using radionuclide angiography utilizing planar multigated acquisition (MUGA) and first pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA), respectively. Given the availability of MRI protocols that can accommodate patients with ICDs, we have correlated the findings of ventricular functional analysis using radionuclide angiography to cardiac MRI, the reference standard for ventricle function calculation, to directly correlate calculated ejection fractions between these modalities, and to also assess agreement between available echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters of right ventricular function. A retrospective review from January 2012 through May 2014 was performed to identify advanced heart failure patients who underwent both cardiac MRI and radionuclide angiography for ventricular functional analysis. Nine heart failure patients (8 men, 1 woman; mean age of 57.0 years) were identified. The average time between the cardiac MRI and radionuclide angiography exams was 38.9 days (range: 1 - 119 days). All patients undergoing cardiac MRI were scanned using an institutionally approved protocol for ICD with no device-related complications identified. A retrospective chart review of each patient for cardiomyopathy diagnosis, clinical follow-up, and echocardiogram and right heart catheterization performed during evaluation was also performed. The 9 patients demonstrated a mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using cardiac MRI of 20.7% (12 - 40%). Mean LVEF using MUGA was 22.6% (12 - 49%). The mean right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) utilizing cardiac MRI was 28.3% (16 - 43%), and the mean RVEF calculated by

  8. Preliminary Study on the Use of Radionuclides 137Cs and 210Pb and Spectro radiometry Techniques as Tools to Determine Soil Erosion State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Vegas, E.; Gasco Leonarte, C.; Schmid, T.; Suarez, J. A.; Rodriguez Rastrero, M.; Almorox Alonso, J.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclides are largely used as tools for studying and quantifying soil erosion. The global fallout of artificial radionuclides derived from weapons testing (1945-1970) was rapidly and firmly fixed in soil surface horizons. This allowed determining soil erosion by comparing 137 C s inventories at individual sampling points with a reference inventory. This procedure is complemented with the 210 P buns inventory calculation as an indicator of the local average of radionuclides deposition. Spectro radiometry is implemented to associate soil reflectance measurements to physical and chemical soil properties related to soil erosion processes obtained from laboratory analyses. The methodology applies both instrumental techniques in soil samples from a semiarid agricultural area near to Camarena (Toledo). The resulting inventories obtained for 137 C s and 210 P bexc are similar to the Spanish reference allowing comparation. Spectro radiometry results correlate well with soil properties measured in the laboratory and can be applied to determine these properties more quickly and easily, as well as for integration with gamma spectrometry results. This is a preliminary study to identify soils affected by erosion that is presented as a Master thesis of the Official Master Degree: A gro- Environmental Technology for a Sustainable Agriculture , of the Technical University of Madrid - School of Agricultural Engineers (UPM-ETSI). Coherent and complimentary results are obtained applying both instrumental techniques within this agricultural area.. (Author)

  9. A comparative study of peripheral to central circulation delivery times between intraosseous and intravenous injection using a radionuclide technique in normovolemic and hypovolemic canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, J.L.; Fontanarosa, P.B.; Passalaqua, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Intraosseous infusion is considered a useful technique for administration of medications and fluids in emergency situations when peripheral intravascular access is unobtainable. This study examined the effectiveness of intraosseous infusion for delivery of substances to the central circulation. Central deliveries of a radionuclide tracer administered by the intraosseous and intravenous routes were evaluated during normovolemic and hypovolemic states. Intraosseous infusion achieved peripheral to central circulation transit times comparable to those achieved by the intravenous route. Analysis of variance revealed no statistically significant differences between the peripheral to central delivery times comparing intraosseous and intravenous administration. The results demonstrate that intraosseous infusion is a rapid and effective method of delivery to the central circulation and is an alternative method for intravascular access. This study also suggests that a radionuclide tracer is useful for the evaluation of transit times following intraosseous injection

  10. Radionuclide trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition

  11. Fallout radionuclide based techniques for assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures in different eroded regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hanqing; Li Yong; Liu Guoqiang; Li Junjie; Nguyen, M.L.; Funk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using fallout radionuclide techniques (FRN), we investigated the extent of soil erosion and to quantify the beneficial effects of soil conservation measures at four sites (Xichang city in the Yangtze upriver, Yan'an in the Loess Plateau, Fengning in the wind erosion region of northern China, and Baiquan in black soil region of north-eastern China) extending from South West (SW) to North East (NE) China. At the Xichang site of SW-China, the combined use of FRN 137 Cs and 210 Pbex measurements demonstrated that the effectiveness of vegetation species in reducing soil erosion decreased in the following order: shrubs > trees with litter layer > grasses > trees without litter layer. At the Yan'an site of Loess Plateau, sediment production estimated by 137 Cs declined by 49% due to terracing and by 80% due to vegetated (with grass forest) compared to the cultivated hillslopes. Vegetated hillslope with grasses and forest increased soil organic matter (SOM) by 255%, soil available N (AN) by 198%, and soil available P (AP) by 18% while terracing increased SOM by 121%, soil AN by 103%, and soil AP by 162% compared with the entire cultivated hillslope. Both terracing and vegetating hillslopes were found to enhance soil porosity as shown by a decrease in soil bulk density (1.6% and 6.4%, respectively). At the Fengning site, data from 7 Be measurements indicated that four years of no tillage with high crop residues (50 ∼ 56 cm depth) reduced soil erosion by 44% and no tillage with low residues (25 cm depth) reduced soil erosion rates by 33% when compared with conventional tillage practices. At the Baiquan site in NE-China, soil loss as measured by 137 Cs tracer, decreased by 14% due to terracing and by 34% due to contoured tillage. Our results suggested that shrub cover and composite structure of forest and grass are the effective practices to control hillslope erosion in SW-China, while terracing forest-grass structure can greatly reduce soil erosion and improve soil quality

  12. Radionuclide cardiography in medical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strangfeld, D.; Mohnike, W.; Schmidt, J.; Heine, H.; Correns, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    This publication is a compendium on all aspects of radionuclide diagnostics concerning cardiovascular system diseases. Starting with introductory remarks on the control of cardiovascular diseases the contribution of radionuclide cardiology to functional cardiovascular diagnostics as well as pathophysiological and pathobiochemical aspects of radiocardiography are outlined. Radiopharmaceuticals used in radiocardiography, physical and technical problems in application of radionuclides and their measuring techniques are discussed. In individual chapters radionuclide ventriculography, myocardial scintiscanning, circulatory diagnostics, radionuclide diagnostics of arterial hypertension, of thrombosis and in vitro diagnostics of thrombophilia are treated in the framework of clinical medicine

  13. Radionuclide diagnosis of allograft rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Interaction with one or more anatomical and physiopathological characteristics of the rejecting renal allograft is suggested by those radioagents utilized specifically for the diagnosis of allograft rejection. Rejection, the most common cause of declining allograft function, is frequently mimicked clinically or masked by other immediate or long term post transplant complications. Understanding of the anatomical pathological features and kinetics of rejection and their modification by immunosuppressive maintenance and therapy are important for the proper clinical utilization of these radioagents. Furthermore, in selecting these radionuclides, one has to consider the comparative availability, preparatory and procedural simplicity, acquisition and display techniques and the possibility of timely report. The clinical utilities of radiofibrinogen, /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid and 67 Ga in the diagnosis of allograft rejection have been evaluated to a variable extent in the past. The potential usefulness of the recently developed preparations of 111 In labeled autologous leukocytes and platelets are presently under investigation

  14. Fiber break location technique utilizing stimulated Brillouin scattering effects in optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, A A A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Mahdi, M A; Mohd Azau, M A; Zainal Abidin, M S

    2009-01-01

    A new technique of fiber break detection system in optical communication networks is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. This technique is based-on continuous wave light source rather than pulsed source that is commonly deployed in existing techniques. The nonlinear effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering is manipulated to locate the fiber-break position in optical communication networks. This technique enables the utilization of a less-sensitive photodetector to detect the Brillouin Stokes line since its intensity increases with the fiber length in the detectable region. The fiber break location can be determined with accuracy of more than 98% for fiber length less than 50 km using this technique

  15. Process for encapsulating radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, L.E.; Isaacson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclides are immobilized in virtually an insoluble form by reacting at a temperature of at least 90 0 C as an aqueous alkaline mixture having a solution pH of at least 10, containing a source of silicon, the radionuclide waste, and a metal cation. The molar ratio of silicon to the metal cation is on the order of unity to produce a gel from which complex metalosilicates crystallize to entrap the radionuclides within the resultant condensed crystal lattice. The product is a silicious stone-like material which is virtually insoluble and nonleachable in alkaline or neutral environment. One embodiment provides for the formation of the complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by gel formation with subsequent calcination to the solid product; another embodiment utilizes a hydrothermal process, either above ground or deep within basalt caverns, at greater than atmospheric pressures and a temperature between 90 and 500 0 C to form complex metalo-silicates, such as strontium aluminosilicate. Another embodiment provides for the formation of complex metalo-silicates, such as synthetic pollucite, by slurrying an alkaline mixture of bentonite or kaolinite with a source of silicon and the radionuclide waste in salt form. In each of the embodiments a mobile system is achieved whereby the metalo-silicate constituents reorient into a condensed crystal lattice forming a cage structure with the condensed metalo-silicate lattice which completely surrounds the radionuclide and traps the radionuclide therein; thus rendering the radionuclide virtually insoluble

  16. Evaluation of the effect of different types and location of pacemaker on cardiac function using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Rongfang; Liu Xiujie; Guo Xiuzhen

    1993-01-01

    Left ventricular function was measured in 24 patients using radionuclide ventriculography before and after planting different types of pacemakers. The results showed that the heart rate, peak filling rate (PFR) and relative cardiac output (RCO) were significantly increased after planting the pacemaker. However, the effects of AAI and VVI on the synchronism of LV were different. AAI can significantly improve the synchronism and compliance of LV

  17. Radionuclide toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, P.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this symposium was to review the radionuclide toxicity problems. Five topics were discussed: (1) natural and artificial radionuclides (origin, presence or emission in the environment, human irradiation); (2) environmental behaviour of radionuclides and transfer to man; (3) metabolism and toxicity of radionuclides (radioiodine, strontium, rare gas released from nuclear power plants, ruthenium-activation metals, rare earths, tritium, carbon 14, plutonium, americium, curium and einsteinium, neptunium, californium, uranium) cancerogenous effects of radon 222 and of its danghter products; (4) comparison of the hazards of various types of energy; (5) human epidemiology of radionuclide toxicity (bone cancer induction by radium, lung cancer induction by radon daughter products, liver cancer and leukaemia following the use of Thorotrast, thyroid cancer; other site of cancer induction by radionuclides) [fr

  18. Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

  19. Retention of barium and europium radionuclides from aqueous solutions on ash-based sorbents by application of radiochemical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Fotini; Kapnisti, Maria; Buema, Gabriela; Harja, Maria

    2016-10-01

    New materials were synthesized for application in sorption of radionuclides from aqueous solutions. The elaboration was performed by conversion of power plant ash using the hydrothermal method under optimum experimental conditions. Sodalite, Na-Y, and analcime were formed from ash precursor during the treatment, exhibiting thermal stability as revealed by the characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore volume were determined and they presented higher values than plant ash. The ability of the new products to retain Ba and Eu radionuclides was studied in aqueous solutions using (133)Ba and (152)Eu as tracers and γ-ray spectroscopy under batch experiments. The experimental data were modeled by the Langmuir and Freundlich equations, whereas sorption kinetics measurements were performed at 293, 308, and 323K and thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The release of the sorbed ions into the environment was also tested by leaching experiments. The results of these tests indicated that the synthesized materials are very efficient in removing the aforementioned metals from aqueous solutions and can be considered as potential low-cost sorbents in nuclear waste management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cisternography are discussed, followed by a description of the normal and abnormal radionuclide cisternograms. The dynamics of CFS by means of radionuclide cisternography were examined in 188 patients in whom some kind of hydrocephalus was suspected. This study included findings of anomalies associated with hydrocephalus in a number of cases, such as nasal liquorrhea, hygromas, leptomeningeal or porencephalic cysts. The investigation substantiates the value of radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of disturbances of CSF flow. The retrograde flow of radiopharmaceutical into the ventricular system (ventricular reflux) is an abnormal phenomenon indicating the presence of communicating hydrocephalus. (Auth.)

  1. Utilization of analytical techniques in aid the implantation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, M.P.; Sabino, C.V.S.; Avelar, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear, physico-chemical and classic techniques developed and utilized by Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnicas Nucleares are presented, as back up to the implementation and operation of nuclear installations related with several parts of fuel cycle from uranium prospecting to waste treatment samples of soils, ores, alloys, plastics, paints, biological materials, air and water were analysed. (M.C.K) [pt

  2. Fabrication of a metal-free ceramic restoration utilizing the monobloc technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pissis, P

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a new technique which utilizes a porcelain core/crown unit, fabricated in the laboratory as a single component. The monobloc technique was developed by the author to replace the traditional metal post and core which prevents the transmission of light through porcelain crowns, creating a dark color effect. Between 1989 and 1992, a number of cases were successfully treated with several variations of the monobloc technique. Approximately 50 cases were completed with vitro-ceramic and followed up. The learning objective of this article is to introduce this novel technique. The article discusses the development of the technique, its advantages, disadvantages, and the potential failures. The clinical procedure is illustrated with several case presentations.

  3. Radionuclide carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, F.A.; Kretschmar, H.C.; Tofe, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A physiologically acceptable particulate radionuclide carrier is described. It comprises a modified anionic starch derivative with 0.1% to 1.5% by weight of a reducing agent and 1 to 20% by weight of anionic substituents

  4. Synthesis and tissue distribution studies of two novel esters of haloperidol and the application of radiolabelling techniques using short-lived radionuclides in the study of the deposition characteristics of suspended aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the present work, the Schotten-Baumann reaction conditions were modified to esterify the tertiary hydroxyl group of haloperidol. The rapid synthesis (less than 20 min) makes this procedure applicable to the preparation of esters of haloperidol containing fluorine-18 (t/sup (1/2)/ 110 min), a γ-emitting radioisotope useful in external scintigraphy. In vivo distribution studies of the synthesized tritiated esters and haloperidol in the rat demonstrated that neither ester prodrug achieved overall higher brain concentration levels than haloperidol. In this study, radiotracer techniques were developed to examine parameters that characterize pressurized aerosols designed to utilize insoluble particles suspended in the aerosol formulation. The suspended micro-aggregated bovine albumin microspheres were labelled with iodine-131 (t/sup (1/2)/ 8 days). The techniques developed illustrate the use of short-lived radionuclides for: 1) quantitation of each metered dose; 2) characterization of particle size distribution by the aerosol; and 3) determination of the extent of deposition of the particles in the aerosol and all of its components

  5. Application of physical separation techniques for waste utilization and management - case studies from Indian uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand Rao, K.; Sreenivas, T.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of physical beneficiation techniques in metallurgical industry showed gradual decline due to decreasing ore grades and very-fine size dissemination of valuable minerals in the host matrix. However, this technology regained prominence in recent past due to their utility in resource recycle, waste utilization, waste treatment and environmental remediation. Hybrid processes combined with physical, chemical and biological technology is now developing such that the idea of sustainable development is implemented. The uranium ore processing industry has always been under intense public scanner for some of the apprehensions, chiefly radioactivity, inspite of its immense energy delivering potential. Besides this, the chemical compounds formed due to gangue mineral reactivity and their carry-over to tailings pond added further owes. However, conscious scientific efforts are being made to contain these hazards to permissible levels by application of various remedial methods of which the physical separation techniques too are quite prominent

  6. Utilization of artificial intelligence techniques for the Space Station power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evatt, Thomas C.; Gholdston, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    Due to the complexity of the Space Station Electrical Power System (EPS) as currently envisioned, artificial intelligence/expert system techniques are being investigated to automate operations, maintenance, and diagnostic functions. A study was conducted to investigate this technology as it applies to failure detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) and health monitoring of power system components and of the total system. Control system utilization of expert systems for load scheduling and shedding operations was also researched. A discussion of the utilization of artificial intelligence/expert systems for Initial Operating Capability (IOC) for the Space Station effort is presented along with future plans at Rocketdyne for the utilization of this technology for enhanced Space Station power capability.

  7. Effect of chronic L-thyroxine-suppressive therapy on cardiac function in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: Radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, G.; Farouk, S.; Zidan, A.; Mustafa, S.; El-Reffaie, S.

    2005-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is usually treated by a combination of surgery, radioiodine (I-131) and suppressive doses of thyroid hormones [L-thyroxine (Eltroxine)]. It is well-known that thyroid hormone affects the function of cardiovascular system. However there is no study to objectively substantiate this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to assess the left ventricular function with the help of radionuclide ventriculography in patients of DTC. Various parameters of systolic function [ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER) and time to peak ejection rate (TPER)], diastolic function [peak filling rate (PFR) and time to peak filling rate (TPFR)] and heart rate were determined. Ten healthy control subjects and 50 patients of DTC on suppressive doses of eltroxine following surgery and radio-iodine (I-131) therapy were evaluated. The patients were divided into 5 groups according to their clinical status and thyroid hormone profile. These groups were: euthyroid, sub-clinical hypothyroid, hypothyroid, sub-clinical hyperthyroid and hyperthyroid groups. The results of the study revealed that Eltroxine significantly affected left ventricular function. Although it did not affect the systolic function, the diastolic function was significantly impaired. Prolongation of TPER was noted in hypothyroid patients, while the same was significantly decreased in hyper- and sub-clinical hyper-thyroids patients. Such abnormalities in cardiac function would be responsible for serious morbidity and could affect the lives of patients' in several ways. Hence, early effective treatment of thyroid function is important in patients of DTC, which would improve their quality of life and avoid long-term serious or irreversible cardiovascular disorder. (author)

  8. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  9. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The status of radionuclide generators for chemical research and applications related to the life sciences and biomedical research are reviewed. Emphasis is placed upon convenient, efficient and rapid separation of short-lived daughter radionuclides in a chemical form suitable for use without further chemical manipulation. The focus is on the production of the parent, the radiochemistry associated with processing the parent and daughter, the selection and the characteristic separation methods, and yields. Quality control considerations are briefly noted. The scope of this review includes selected references to applications of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, and the life sciences, particularly in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine. The 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generator was excluded. 202 references are cited. (orig.)

  10. Outcomes and Resource Utilization of Endoscopic Mass-Closure Technique for Laryngeal Clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Karthik; Cheng, Esther; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Sidell, Douglas R; Hart, Catherine K; Rutter, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    To compare resource utilization and clinical outcomes between endoscopic mass-closure and open techniques for laryngeal cleft repair. Case series with chart review. Tertiary academic children's hospital. Pediatric patients undergoing repair for Benjamin-Inglis type 1-3 laryngeal clefts over a 15-year period. All 20 patients undergoing endoscopic repair were included. Eight control patients undergoing open repair were selected using matching by age and cleft type. Demographic, clinical, and resource utilization data were collected. Twenty-eight patients were included (20 endoscopic, 8 open). Mean age, rates of tracheostomy and vocal fold immobility, and distribution of cleft types were not different between the 2 groups (all P > .2). Mean operative time (P = .004) and duration of hospital stay (P group. All repairs were intact in both groups at final postoperative endoscopy. Rates of persistent laryngeal penetration or aspiration on swallow study were not different between groups (P = 1.000), although results were available for only 11 patients. Endoscopic laryngeal cleft repair using a mass-closure technique provides a durable result while requiring significantly shorter operative times and hospital stays than open repair and avoiding the potential morbidity of laryngofissure. However, open repair may allow the simultaneous performance of other airway reconstructive procedures and may be a useful salvage technique when endoscopic repair fails. Postoperative swallowing results require further study. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  11. Radionuclide generators for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, R.D.; Molinski, V.J.; Hupf, H.B.; Kramer, H.

    1983-10-01

    This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of this work is to provide a reference point for the investigator who is interested in the development of a particular generator system and the refinements which have been reported. Moreover, the incorporation of the particular daughter radionuclide into a suitable radiodiagnostic agent is presented

  12. About the parametrizations utilized to perform magnetic moments measurements using the transient field technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, A. M., E-mail: amgomezl-1@uqvirtual.edu.co [Programa de Física, Universidad del Quindo (Colombia); Torres, D. A., E-mail: datorresg@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    The experimental study of nuclear magnetic moments, using the Transient Field technique, makes use of spin-orbit hyperfine interactions to generate strong magnetic fields, above the kilo-Tesla regime, capable to create a precession of the nuclear spin. A theoretical description of such magnetic fields is still under theoretical research, and the use of parametrizations is still a common way to address the lack of theoretical information. In this contribution, a review of the main parametrizations utilized in the measurements of Nuclear Magnetic Moments will be presented, the challenges to create a theoretical description from first principles will be discussed.

  13. Radionuclide generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wollongong Univ.; Tomiyoshi, K.; Sekine, T.

    1997-01-01

    The present status and future directions of research and development on radionuclide generator technology are reported. The recent interest to develop double-neutron capture reactions for production of in vivo generators; neutron rich nuclides for radio-immunotherapeutic pharmaceuticals: and advances with ultra-short lived generators is highlighted. Emphasis is focused on: production of the parent radionuclide; the selection and the evaluation of support materials and eluents with respect to the resultant radiochemical yield of the daughter, and the breakthrough of the radionuclide parent: and, the uses of radionuclide generators in radiopharmaceutical chemistry, biomedical and industrial applications. The 62 Zn → 62 Cu, 66 Ni → 66 Cu, 103m Rh → 103 Rh, 188 W → 188 Re and the 225 Ac → 221 Fr → 213 Bi generators are predicted to be emphasized for future development. Coverage of the 99 Mo → 99m Tc generator was excluded, as it the subject of another review. The literature search ended June, 1996. (orig.)

  14. Optimizing Availability of a Framework in Series Configuration Utilizing Markov Model and Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Ahmed Siddiqui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed at optimizing the availability of a framework comprising of two units linked together in series configuration utilizing Markov Model and Monte Carlo (MC Simulation techniques. In this article, effort has been made to develop a maintenance model that incorporates three distinct states for each unit, while taking into account their different levels of deterioration. Calculations are carried out using the proposed model for two distinct cases of corrective repair, namely perfect and imperfect repairs, with as well as without opportunistic maintenance. Initially, results are accomplished using an analytical technique i.e., Markov Model. Validation of the results achieved is later carried out with the help of MC Simulation. In addition, MC Simulation based codes also work well for the frameworks that follow non-exponential failure and repair rates, and thus overcome the limitations offered by the Markov Model.

  15. Utilization of a photon transport code to investigate radiation therapy treatment planning quantities and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile computer program MORSE, based on neutron and photon transport theory has been utilzed to investigate radiation therapy treatment planning quantities and techniques. A multi-energy group representation of transport equation provides a concise approach in utilizing Monte Carlo numerical techniques to multiple radiation therapy treatment planning problems. Central axis total and scattered dose distributions for homogeneous and inhomogeneous water phantoms are calculated and the correction factor for lung and bone inhomogeneities are also evaluated. Results show that Monte Carlo calculations based on multi-energy group tansport theory predict the depth dose distributions that are in good agreement with available experimental data. Central axis depth dose distributions for a bremsstrahlung spectrum from a linear accelerator is also calculated to exhibit the versatility of the computer program in handling multiple radiation therapy problems. A novel approach is undertaken to study the dosimetric properties of brachytherapy sources

  16. Activation analysis with neutron generators using short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.

    1993-01-01

    The short half-life involves a number of important differences in production, transportation and measurement of radionuclides, and in counting statistics as compared with those in traditional activation analysis. Experiments were performed to investigate the analytical possibilities and prospective utilization of short-lived radionuclides produced by 14-MeV neutron irradiation. A rapid pneumatic transfer system for use with neutron generators was installed and applied for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from 300 ms to 30 s. The transport time for samples with a total mass of 1-4 g is between 130 and 160 ms for pressurized air of 0.1-0.4 MPa. 11 elements were studied by the conventional activation method using both a typical pneumatic transport system (run time 3 s) and the fast pneumatic transport facility. The effect of the cyclic activation technique on the elemental sensitivities was also investigated. (orig.)

  17. Utilization technique for advanced nuclear materials database system Data-Free-Way'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Kurihara, Yutaka; Kinugawa, Junichi; Kitajima, Masahiro; Nagakawa, Josei; Yamamoto, Norikazu; Noda, Tetsuji; Yagi, Koichi; Ono, Akira

    2001-01-01

    Four organizations the National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Science and Technology Incorporation (JST), conducted the 2nd period joint research for the purpose of development of utilization techniques for advanced nuclear materials database system named 'Data-Free-Way' (DFW), to make more useful system to support research and development of the nuclear materials, from FY 1995 to FY 1999. NRIM intended to fill a data system on diffusion and nuclear data by developing utilization technique on diffusion informations of steels and aluminum and nuclear data for materials for its independent system together with participating in fulfil of the DFW. And, NRIM has entered to a project on wide area band circuit application agreed at the G7 by using technologies cultivated by NRIM, to investigate network application technology with the Michigan State University over the sea under cooperation assistant business of JST, to make results on CCT diagram for welding and forecasting of welding heat history accumulated at NRIM for a long term, to perform development of a simulator assisting optimum condition decision of welding. (G.K.)

  18. Utilization technique for advanced nuclear materials database system Data-Free-Way'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Kurihara, Yutaka; Kinugawa, Junichi; Kitajima, Masahiro; Nagakawa, Josei; Yamamoto, Norikazu; Noda, Tetsuji; Yagi, Koichi; Ono, Akira [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    Four organizations the National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Japan Science and Technology Incorporation (JST), conducted the 2nd period joint research for the purpose of development of utilization techniques for advanced nuclear materials database system named 'Data-Free-Way' (DFW), to make more useful system to support research and development of the nuclear materials, from FY 1995 to FY 1999. NRIM intended to fill a data system on diffusion and nuclear data by developing utilization technique on diffusion informations of steels and aluminum and nuclear data for materials for its independent system together with participating in fulfil of the DFW. And, NRIM has entered to a project on wide area band circuit application agreed at the G7 by using technologies cultivated by NRIM, to investigate network application technology with the Michigan State University over the sea under cooperation assistant business of JST, to make results on CCT diagram for welding and forecasting of welding heat history accumulated at NRIM for a long term, to perform development of a simulator assisting optimum condition decision of welding. (G.K.)

  19. Imprecision of dose predictions for radionuclides released to the environment: an application of a Monte Carlo simulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, G; Hoffman, F O

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the imprecision in dose predictions has been performed using current dose assessment models and present knowledge of the variability or uncertainty in model parameter values. The propagation of parameter uncertainties is demonstrated using a Monte Carlo technique for elemental /sup 131/I transported via the pasture-cow-milk-child pathway. The results indicate that when site-specific information is not available the imprecision inherent in the predictions for this pathway is potentially large. Generally, the 99th percentile in thyroid dose for children was predicted to be approximately an order of magnitude greater than the median value. The potential consequences of the imprecision in dose for radiation protection purposes are discussed.

  20. Radionuclide release from non-nuclear energy production: a sensitive technique for measuring lead-210 on air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Meadows, J.W.T.

    1978-01-01

    A method of measuring 210 Pb content on air filters directly by Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectroscopy and thus eliminating costly and lengthy radiochemical procedures is discussed. Successful analyses of filters with typical atmospheric concentrations (0.3 to 30 fCi/m 3 ) of 210 Pb have been done with air volumes as low as 5000 m 3 with a low-background, high-resolution, high-efficiency spectrometer. Examples are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of the technique for inexpensive 210 Pb analyses in normal environmental air-sampling operations. Studies of the movements, effects, and chemistries of emissions from coal-fired power plants and geothermal areas are in progress

  1. A Limited Submuscular Direct-to-Implant Technique Utilizing AlloMax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Brichacek, MD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:. This study evaluates a novel limited submuscular direct-to-implant technique utilizing AlloMax where only the upper few centimeters of the implant is covered by the pectoralis, whereas the majority of the implant including the middle and lower poles are covered by acellular dermal matrix. Methods:. The pectoralis muscle is released off its inferior and inferior-medial origins and allowed to retract superiorly. Two sheets of AlloMax (6 × 16 cm are sutured together and secured to the inframammary fold, serratus fascia, and the superiorly retracted pectoralis. Thirty-seven breasts in 19 consecutive patients with follow-up at 6 months were reviewed. Results:. Nineteen consecutive patients with 37 reconstructed breasts were studied. Average age was 50 years, average BMI was 24.3. Ptosis ranged from grade 0–III, and average cup size was B (range, A–DDD. Early minor complications included 1 seroma, 3 minor postoperative hematomas managed conservatively, and 3 minor wound healing problems. Three breasts experienced mastectomy skin flap necrosis and were managed with local excision. There were no cases of postoperative infection, red breast, grade III/IV capsular contractures, or implant loss. A single patient complained of animation postoperatively. One patient desired fat grafting for rippling. Conclusions:. The limited submuscular direct-to-implant technique utilizing AlloMax appears to be safe with a low complication rate at 6 months. This technique minimizes the action of the pectoralis on the implant, reducing animation deformities but still providing muscle coverage of the upper limit of the implant. Visible rippling is reduced, and a vascularized bed remains for fat grafting of the upper pole if required.

  2. Utilizing Z-track Air Lock Technique to Reduce Pain in Intramuscular Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Hemme Tambunan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injection is one of most painful and common medical interventions that more than 12 billion of it are administered annually throughout the world. Pain remains as one of the unresolved health problems. The objective of this research was to investigate the pain severity utilizing the z-track air lock technique during intra muscular injection procedure. Method:This study was conducted as an unblinded cinical trial, where 90 female subjects aged between 18-25 years old were randomly assigned to three groups of 30. Each group received z-track air lock (Group ZTAL, air lock (AL, and z-track (Group ZT techniques. Neurobion 5000 vitamin used as an injection substance.A Verbal Rating Scale (VRS on 0–3 was used to evaluate the severity of pain during procedure. Data were analized using the SPSS version 19. Groups’ age, Body Mass Index (BMI and pain severity were analyzed through descriptive and One Way ANOVA statistics. Results: Results showed that there were no signifi cant differences of pain severity both within and between groups (p > 0.05. Discussion: Both Z-track and air lock method are less pain compared to traditional method according to previous studies. Noncicepti stimulus inhibited nocicepti stimulus in z-track technique while locking effect inhibit leakeage of substance injection to subcutaneous layer of skin which contain of nerve fi bers. However All techniques are recommended to produce less pain therefore it can be considered as a standard procedure for intra muscular injection. Keywords: intramuscular injection, z-track air lock technique, pain

  3. Investigations of the corrosion behaviour of the Si-containing stainless steel 1.4361 with combined surface analysis, electrochemistry and radionuclide technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maar-Stumm, M.

    1990-03-01

    The present work aimed at detailed information on the corrosion behaviour and particularly the corrosion mechanism of the steel 1.4361 in concentrated nitric acid by use of a combination of electrochemical methods, radionuclide technique and surface analysis. For comparison steel samples corroded by other methods were investigated by surface analysis, too. At the beginning of the corrosion in nitric acid Fe and Ni are dissolved preferentially. Cr and Si are enriched in the surface region. A primary corrosion layer is formed which is equivalent to the oxidic overlayer of atmospherically oxidized samples. It consists of the oxides of chromium and iron mixed up with glass-like SiO 2 . Ni does not contribute to the formation of the oxidic overlayer. On top of this primary corrosion layer there is an isolating gel-like SiO 2 -layer with a thickness depending on strength and duration of the corrosive attack. Its mechanical stability decreases with increasing layer thickness. At the boundary to the primary corrosion layer this gel-like SiO 2 -layer is closed, mechanically stable and conducting. Samples corroded under the standardized conditions of the Huey-test show a similar structure of the overlayer with the exception that the primary corrosion layer consists only of glass-like SiO 2 . The combination of several methods revealed detailed information about mass loss and structure of the overlayer at different electrode potentials. (orig./MM) [de

  4. Radionuclide examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on radionuclide examinations of the pancreas. The pancreas, situated retroperitonally high in the epigastrium, was a particularly difficult organ to image noninvasively before ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) became available. Indeed the organ still remains difficult to examine in some patients, a fact reflected in the variety of methods available to evaluate pancreatic morphology. It is something of a paradox that the pancreas is metabolically active and physiologically important but that its examination by radionuclide methods has virtually ceased to have any role in day-to-day clinical practice. To some extent this is caused by the tendency of the pancreas's commonest gross diseases emdash carcinoma and pancreatitis, for example emdash to result in nonfunction of the entire organ. Disorders of pancreatic endocrine function have generally not required imaging methods for diagnosis, although an understanding of diabetes mellitus and its nosology has been advanced by radioimmunoassay of plasma insulin concentrations

  5. Utilization of advanced calibration techniques in stochastic rock fall analysis of quarry slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preh, Alexander; Ahmadabadi, Morteza; Kolenprat, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    In order to study rock fall dynamics, a research project was conducted by the Vienna University of Technology and the Austrian Central Labour Inspectorate (Federal Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection). A part of this project included 277 full-scale drop tests at three different quarries in Austria and recording key parameters of the rock fall trajectories. The tests involved a total of 277 boulders ranging from 0.18 to 1.8 m in diameter and from 0.009 to 8.1 Mg in mass. The geology of these sites included strong rock belonging to igneous, metamorphic and volcanic types. In this paper the results of the tests are used for calibration and validation a new stochastic computer model. It is demonstrated that the error of the model (i.e. the difference between observed and simulated results) has a lognormal distribution. Selecting two parameters, advanced calibration techniques including Markov Chain Monte Carlo Technique, Maximum Likelihood and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) are utilized to minimize the error. Validation of the model based on the cross validation technique reveals that in general, reasonable stochastic approximations of the rock fall trajectories are obtained in all dimensions, including runout, bounce heights and velocities. The approximations are compared to the measured data in terms of median, 95% and maximum values. The results of the comparisons indicate that approximate first-order predictions, using a single set of input parameters, are possible and can be used to aid practical hazard and risk assessment.

  6. Radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The research project described here had the aim to obtain further information on the transfer of nuclides during pregnancy and lactation. The tests were carried out in mini-pigs and rats receiving unchanging doses of radionuclides with the food. The following findings were revealed for the elements examined: Fe, Se, Cs and Zn were characterized by very high transfer levels in the mother, infant and foetus. A substantial uptake by the mother alone was observed for Co, Ag and Mn. The uptake by the foetus and infant here was 1 to 10 times lower. A preferential concentration in certain tissues was seen for Sr and Tc; the thyroid levels of Tc were about equally high in mothers and infants, while Sr showed less accumulation in the maternal bone. The lanthanide group of substances (Ce, Eu and Gd as well as Y and Ru) were only taken up to a very limited extent. The uptake of the examined radionuclides (Fe, Co, Ag, Ce) with the food ingested was found here to be ten times greater in rats as compared to mini-pigs. This showed that great caution must be observed, if the behaviour of radionuclides in man is extrapolated from relevant data obtained in rodents. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Fukushima Daiichi Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.

  8. Utilization of induced mutation techniques in rice improvement in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asencion, A.B.; Santos, I.S.; Barrida, A.C.; Medina, F.I.S. III

    2001-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the Philippines, as such, efforts have been made consistently to improve the varieties released to the farmers for planting. Both conventional and induced mutation techniques were utilized to solve some of the problems. Varieties with improved qualities, resistance to pests and diseases, reduced height, early maturity and non-photoperiod sensitive were developed using either physical or chemical mutagen. Other methods were also tried to enhance variability like combination of gamma irradiation and biotechnology. Irradiation of F1 seeds was also initiated including the use of mutants in crosses to transfer their improved mutated characters. Promising selections were already tested and six lines from the F1 irradiation out-yielded both C4-63G and IR 1561-288-3, their parents. (author)

  9. Dipole field measurement technique utilizing the Faraday rotation effect in polarization preserving optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddock, C.; Tong, M.Y.M.

    1989-10-01

    TRIUMF is presently in the project definition stage of its proposed KAON factory. The facility will require approximately 300 dipole magnets. The rapid measurement of representative parameters of these magnets, in particular effective length, is one of the challenges to be met. As well as the commissioning of a.c magnetic field measurement systems based on established techniques a project is underway to investigate an alternative method utilizing the Faraday Rotation effect in polarization preserving optical fibers. It is shown that a fiber equivalent to a Faraday cell can be constructed by winding a fiber in a such a way that the induced beat length L p is equal to (2n+1) times the bending circumference, with n integer. Background to the subject and preliminary results of the measurements are reported in this paper

  10. Utilization of induced mutation techniques in rice improvement in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asencion, A.B.; Santos, I.S.; Barrida, A.C.; Medina, F.I.S. III [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Atomic Research Center (Philippines)

    2001-03-01

    Rice is one of the most important food crops in the Philippines, as such, efforts have been made consistently to improve the varieties released to the farmers for planting. Both conventional and induced mutation techniques were utilized to solve some of the problems. Varieties with improved qualities, resistance to pests and diseases, reduced height, early maturity and non-photoperiod sensitive were developed using either physical or chemical mutagen. Other methods were also tried to enhance variability like combination of gamma irradiation and biotechnology. Irradiation of F1 seeds was also initiated including the use of mutants in crosses to transfer their improved mutated characters. Promising selections were already tested and six lines from the F1 irradiation out-yielded both C4-63G and IR 1561-288-3, their parents. (author)

  11. Ultra-sensitive radionuclide spectrometry. Radiometrics and mass spectrometry synergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments in radiometrics and mass spectrometry techniques for ultra-sensitive analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment are reviewed. In the radiometrics sector the dominant development has been the utilization of large HPGe detectors in underground laboratories with anti-cosmic or anti-Compton shielding for the analysis of short and medium-lived radionuclides in the environment. In the mass spectrometry sector, applications of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for the analysis of long-lived radionuclides in the environment are the most important recent achievements. The recent developments do not only considerably decrease the detection limits for several radionuclides (up to several orders of magnitude), but they also enable to decrease sample volumes so that sampling, e.g., of the water column can be much easier and more effective. A comparison of radiometrics and mass spectrometry results for the analysis of radionuclides in the marine environment shows a reasonable agreement - within quoted uncertainties, for wide range of activities and different sample matrices analyzed. (author)

  12. Radionuclide radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarsbrook, A.F.; Graham, R.N.J.; Perriss, R.W.; Bradley, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of short reviews of internet-based radiological educational resources, and will focus on radionuclide radiology and nuclear medicine. What follows is a list of carefully selected websites to save time in searching them out. Most of the sites cater for trainee or non-specialist radiologists, but may also be of interest to specialists for use in teaching. This article may be particularly useful to radiologists interested in the rapidly expanding field of positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET-CT). Hyperlinks are available in the electronic version of this article and were all active at the time of going to press (February 2006)

  13. Chemistry and analysis of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Lehto, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Written by chemists for chemists, this is a comprehensive guide to the important radionuclides as well as techniques for their separation and analysis. It introduces readers to the important laboratory techniques and methodologies in the field, providing practical instructions on how to handle nuclear waste and radioactivity in the environment.

  14. Standardization of radionuclide technique for nephrourologic studies: An IAEA Cooperative group study in Latin America and the Caribbean undertaken under the auspices ARCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barragan, L; Bernal, P; Britton, K; Cerqueira, A; Estrella, O; Fraxeda, R; Garcia, E; Hilson, A; Lagos, G; Morales, R; Orellana, P; Padhy, A; Sixt, R; Soroa, V; Touya, E; Yerovi, M

    2001-01-01

    The economic and health situation in Latin-America and the Caribbean differ between countries. For nuclear medicine, factors such the availability of radiopharmaceuticals and equipment, may present problems, as may lack of knowledge and protocols. A major problem in this area is that some countries do not have local production of radiopharmaceutical which makes them expansive. Beside different national rules regulate the use if imported products which may prohibit their wide spread use. There is a well known non-homogenous state of equipment, but all of the countries have at least planar cameras with a PIP system (developed by IAEA) that allows dynamic acquisition. There is a lack of software for processing to get the different quantitative data necessary for better interpretation of the studies. A lack of knowledge and diffusion of radionuclide techniques among clinicians is another difficulty. Some of the problems above have been addressed by a group of regional experts, who work during 15 months writing a Manual of Nephro-Urologic Procedures, considering the national and regional realities. In spite of the differences we were able to write a harmonized Manual for static renal scan, dynamic renal scan, both baseline and with pharmacological interventions (diuretic and ACE inhibitors)- transplant studies, cystography (direct and indirect), clearance studies, radiopharmaceutical and equipment quality controls. It was also possible to develop a model renal software to be used with PIP systems. We conclude that in spite of the differences, with a common effort of the countries involved and with the significant support of the International Atomic Energy Agency it is possible to improve the quality of nuclear nephrourology practice in the region (au)

  15. Radionuclide techniques in criminology. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Kopejtko, J.

    1979-01-01

    A radiotracer method was developed and tested for the age determination of manuscripts. The method is based on the autoradiographic detection of chloride ions migration from inks and on the use of insoluble sup(110m)AgCl formation. (author)

  16. Radionuclide techniques in criminology. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stverak, B.; Kopejtko, J.; Chodora, F.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted aimed at testing the possible use of beta radiography for the study of the structures of normal types of paper, banknotes and hand-made paper for graphic art. A large-area 14 C beta emitter in the form of radioactive polymethyl methacrylate was used. In paper, the structure could be studied up to 18 mg/cm 2 in weight. Examples are shown of the radiograms of paper, a polyethylene film, banknotes and a coloured engraving. In banknotes, the watermark appeared clearly and the fine print lines could be seen. In graphics, beta radiography allows the determination of the dimensions of mesh sieve in the hand-made paper manufacture. Also shown were clusters of binders strongly absorbing beta radiation. In coloured graphics different absorption capacity of the individual pigments could be observed. Comparing the colouring of a graphic and the degree of absorption radiographically detected, the type of pigments used can be estimated. The results show that beta radiography may be used as an expertise method in criminology and graphic studies. (J.P.)

  17. Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring of Geological Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage: Methodology, Workflow and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, G. G.; Madsen, R.; Feese, K.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases and energy between land or water surfaces and the atmosphere [1]. This method allows for observations of gas transport scales from 20-40 times per second to multiple years, represents gas exchange integrated over a large area, from hundreds of square meters to tens of square kilometres, and corresponds to gas exchange from the entire surface, including canopy, and soil or water layers. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are characterized from single-point in situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries [1]. EC is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including CCUS [2-10]. Emerging projects utilize EC to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and quantify leakages where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to improve storage efficiency, and for other CCUS characterizations [5-10]. Although EC is one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques measuring gas emission and transport, and complete automated stations and processing are readily available, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup and execution specific to the site and project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created in [1] to introduce a novice to the EC method, and to assist in further understanding of the method through more advanced references. In this presentation we provide brief highlights of the eddy covariance method, its application to geological carbon capture, utilization and storage, key requirements, instrumentation and software, and review educational resources particularly useful for carbon sequestration research. References: [1] Burba G. Eddy Covariance Method

  18. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. Copyright

  19. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of the different soil conservation measure on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably - a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. (author)

  20. Clinical utility of an endoscopic ultrasound-guided rendezvous technique via various approach routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Sasahira, Naoki; Nakai, Yousuke; Kogure, Hirofumi; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Miyabayashi, Koji; Mizuno, Suguru; Sasaki, Takashi; Ito, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Hirano, Kenji; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2013-09-01

    The endoscopic ultrasound-guided rendezvous techniques (EUS-rendezvous) provide reliable biliary access after failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) cannulation. We evaluated the clinical utility of an EUS-rendezvous technique using various approach routes. Patients undergoing EUS-rendezvous for biliary access after failed bile duct cannulation in ERCP were included. EUS-rendezvous was performed via three approach routes depending on the patient's condition: transgastric, transduodenal in a short endoscopic position, or transduodenal in a long endoscopic position. The main outcomes were the technical success rates. Secondary outcomes were procedure time and complications. Fourteen patients (median age, 77 years) underwent EUS-rendezvous for biliary access resulting from failed biliary cannulation. The reasons for biliary drainage were malignant biliary obstruction in five patients and choledocholithiasis in nine. Transgastric, transduodenal in a short position, and transduodenal in a long position EUS-rendezvous was performed in five, five, and four patients, respectively. Bile duct puncture occurred in the left intrahepatic duct in four patients, right hepatic duct in one, middle common bile duct in four, and lower common bile duct in five. The technical success rate was 100 %. In four patients, the approach route was modified from transduodenal in a short position to transduodenal in a long position or transgastric route. The median procedure time was 81 min. One case each of biliary peritonitis and pancreatitis occurred and were managed conservatively. EUS-rendezvous provided safe and reliable transpapillary bile duct access after failed ERCP cannulation. The selection of the appropriate approach routes, depending on patient condition, is critical.

  1. A new technique for promoting cyclic utilization of cyclodextrins in biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yanbing; Yu, Ziqi; Yang, Xu; Wang, Fang; Luo, Jianmei; Wang, Min

    2017-01-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) can improve the productivity of steroid biotransformation by enhancing substrate solubility. CDs can be recycled by grafting them with appropriate carriers. Loofah fiber is an excellent grafting material for CDs, and can be applied to the biotransformation and recycling of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). In this work, a technique for recycling β-CD in cortisone acetate (CA) biotransformation by Arthrobacter simplex CPCC 140451 was studied. Loofah fiber-grafted β-CD (LF-β-CD) was prepared using epichlorohydrin, which is a cross-linking agent. The grafting yield of β-CD was 74.8 mg g -1 dried fibers. LF-β-CD could increase the solubility of CA and enhance biotransformation. The initial conversion rate of CA was 1.5-fold higher than that of the blank group. LF-β-CD was also used in biocatalytic reactions for eight cycles, and it maintained the conversion ratio of CA at approximately 90%. Given the above positive results, LF-β-CD can be utilized in biotechnological recycling applications. This method can also be applied to CD derivatives and hydrophobic compounds.

  2. Study of radionuclide and element characterization of Angola marine sediment using low background gamma spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.C.P.; Vuong Huu Tan; Truong Y; Ho Manh Dung; Le Nhu Sieu; Cao Dong Vu; Nguyen Thanh Binh

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of radionuclides and chemical elements in Angola marine sediment samples were determined by using low background gamma (LBG) spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The combination of radionuclide and elemental concentration values yielded synergy in the validation of analytical data and identification of sediment sources modeled by multivariate factor analysis. Varimax rotation factor analysis based on the elemental concentrations revealed five sources contributed to the sediment composition, i.e. crustal, sea-salt, industrial, coal-related and Se-related sources. (author)

  3. Geochemistry and radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretically, the geochemical barrier can provide a major line of defense in protecting the biosphere from the hazards of nuclear waste. The most likely processes involved are easily identified. Preliminary investigations using computer modeling techniques suggest that retardation is an effective control on radionuclide concentrations. Ion exchange reactions slow radionuclide migration and allow more time for radioactive decay and dispersion. For some radionuclides, solubility alone may limit concentrations to less than the maximum permissible now considered acceptable by the Federal Government. The effectiveness of the geochemical barrier is ultimately related to the repository site characteristics. Theory alone tells us that geochemical controls will be most efficient in an environment that provides for maximum ion exchange and the precipitation of insoluble compounds. In site selection, consideration should be given to rock barriers with high ion exchange capacity that might also act as semi-permeable membranes. Also important in evaluating the site's potential for effective geochemical controls are the oxidation potentials, pH and salinity of the groundwater

  4. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  5. Genetic variations in phosphorus utilization in rice investigation by tracer technique using Phosphorus-32

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjivkumar, V.; Malarvizhi, P.; Meena, S.; Latha, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    In most soils, soil and fertilizer P are easily bound by either soil organic matter or chemicals and thus are unavailable to plants unless hydrolyzed to release inorganic phosphate. Therefore, the development of P-efficient rice varieties that can grow and yield better with low P supply is a key to improve crop production. P efficient plants play a major role in increasing crop yields due to shortage of inorganic P fertilizer resources, limited land and water resources and increasing environmental concerns. Based on the P uptake efficiency, four rice genotypes were selected from the field experiment and used in pot culture experiment with three levels of P using radio isotope technique to quantify the P acquisition efficiency (PAE) and P use efficiency (PUE) and also to determine the native P supplying power of the soils using 32 P in low P soils. Growth and yield parameters, grain and straw yield and major nutrients uptake of rice genotypes were increased with enhanced level of phosphorus application. Among the four genotypes, TNRH 180 recorded the highest grain yield and uptake. Increasing the P application rate from 25 to 50 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 increased the %Pdff in grain and straw for all the genotypes. The mean per cent phosphorus utilization (PPU) ranged between 18.74 and 23.72. The PPU of the genotypes followed the order TNRH 180 (23.72 %) > CO08504 (23.36 %) > CO06732 (20.54%) > ADT 47 (18.74%) . The PPU values were higher at lower level of P application (25 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ) for the genotypes TNRH 180, CB08504 and CB06732. (author)

  6. Utilization of spray drying technique for improvement of dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Gamal; Badran, Mohamed; Zoheir, Khairy; Alomrani, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Meloxicam (MLX) is a poorly water-soluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The main objective of the present work was to enhance the dissolution of MLX and thus its bioavailability by the aid of additives. The novelty of this work rises from the utilization of spray drying technology to produce micro particulates solid dispersion systems containing MLX in the presence of small amount of additives. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were used for studying the physico-chemical and morphological properties of MLX samples. The dissolution of MLX samples was investigated in two different pH media. The morphology of MLX solid dispersion micro-particles was spherical in shape according to SEM. FT-IR profiles indicated that a complex was formed between MLX and the additives. DSC patterns of the MLX micro-particles suggested a reduction in the crystallinity of MLX and probability of presence of an interaction between MLX and the additives. The rate of dissolution of the spray-dried MLX enhanced as compared with the unprocessed MLX in both acidic and neutral media. It was found that 100% of the added MLX released within 5 min in phosphate buffer dissolution medium (pH 7.4) compared to that of the unprocessed MLX (15% in 60 min). Such increase rate in the dissolution of the spray dried MLX could be attributed to the increase in wettability of MLX particles and the hydrophilic nature of the additives. The anti-inflammatory effect of the spray dried MLX was explored using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The spray-dried samples showed an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of MLX as compared to the unprocessed MLX. This work reveals that the spray drying technique is suitable for preparation of micro-particles with improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of MLX.

  7. The Effect of the SCAMPER Technique in Raising Awareness Regarding the Collection and Utilization of Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelikler, Dilek; Harman, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the SCAMPER technique in raising awareness among science students regarding the collection and utilization of solid waste. The participants included a total of 65 third-year students. According to the study results, the science students described schools and visual media as their main source of…

  8. Techniques of analyzing the impacts of certain electric-utility ratemaking and regulatory-policy concepts. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This bibliography provides documentation for use by state public utility commissions and major nonregulated utilities in evaluating the applicability of a wide range of electric utility rate design and regulatory concepts in light of certain regulatory objectives. Part I, Utility Regulatory Objectives, contains 2084 citations on conservation of energy and capital; efficient use of facilities and resources; and equitable rates to electricity consumers. Part II, Rate Design Concepts, contains 1238 citations on time-of-day rates; seasonally-varying rates; cost-of-service rates; interruptible rates (including the accompanying use of load management techniques); declining block rates; and lifeline rates. Part III, Regulatory Concepts, contains 1282 references on restrictions on master metering; procedures for review of automatic adjustment clauses; prohibitions of rate or regulatory discrimination against solar, wind, or other small energy systems; treatment of advertising expenses; and procedures to protect ratepayers from abrupt termination of service.

  9. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for loW--level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements

  10. Significance of the Hepatic Artery Anatomy and Radionuclide Flow Data for the Technique and Results of Intra-arterial Infusion Chemotherapy in Patients with Liver Neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaicekavicius, E.; Satkevicius, Z.; Kiudelis, J. and others

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different variations of liver vascular anatomy and hemodynamics in achieving the maximum effect of the hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) in patients with primary or metastatic hepatic malignancies. The retrograde analysis of hepatic artery (HA) anatomy and of radionuclide flow data on 23 patients treated by HAIC was performed. The HA anatomy was analysed according to two classification systems: the first one proposed by Michels, which describes 10 variants, and the second one proposed by Suzuki, which describes 3 variants - single, double or multiple HA with 3 subtypes of each variant (celiac, mesenteric and mixed). Additionally, before starting HAIC, 99mTc human macroalbumin was injected through the catheter at a slow rate into the HA of 10 patients with abnormal variants of HA anatomy. Radionuclide testing was performed with the aim to evaluate the subsequent intrahepatic distribution of chemotherapy agents. The intra-arterial regimen of HAIC for all patients consisted of a 5-day infusion of 5-ftorouracil or floxuridine with addition of doxorubicin or cisplatin. Such treatment was repeated every 3-4 weeks 3-6 times for every patient. The typical anatomy of HA branching was seen in 12 (52.2%) patients. The double origin of HA (according to Suzuki's classification) was seen in 9 (39.1%). In 5 (21.7%) of them the right HA was coming out from the superior mesenteric artery. In the remaining 4 (17.4%) patients the left HA was coming out from the left gastric artery. In one patient, multiple HA were observed, and there was no possibility to perform HAIC at all. The preliminary embolization of one of HA was performed in 3 patients with double HA according to Suzuki's classification. Redistribution of hepatic flow through intrahepatic collaterals was achieved in all 3 patients and assessed by radionuclide examination. The aberrant left HA was not embolized in 4 patients, because the metastatic tumours were

  11. Radionuclides in the environment: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzerman, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental chemistry plays a critical role in the open-quotes nuclear ageclose quotes. It makes a vital contribution to understanding of the sources, fate and effects of radionuclides in the environment, both man-made and natural. Risk assessment of radionuclides in the environment relies heavily on the tools of environmental chemistry. On the other hand, radionuclides provide unique opportunities to exploit in environmental chemistry investigations due to their well-defined sources, traceability in environmental processes, analytical sensitivities, and open-quotes built-inclose quotes radioactive decay open-quotes clocksclose quotes. In some cases naturally present radionuclides are utilized, while in others tracers are deliberately added or have already been added by the nuclear fuel cycle or nuclear testing. Several examples in each of these categories are discussed to spotlight the current status of environmental chemistry and radionuclides in the environment as an example application

  12. Utility of the molecular biology techniques to the analytical control of the microbiological quality of waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codony, F.; Martin Perez, L.; Morato, J.; Dominguez Gual, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    The molecular biology techniques made accessible to the water industry the ability to detect and quantify, in a few hours, any organism known. given this scenario, it is important to realize the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques to get a better picture of the scope of its implementation and its most that probably usefulness. We must be familiar with these techniques to understand the results and properly evaluate its detection limit. (Author) 4 refs.

  13. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  14. Characterization of nanostructures in the live cell plasma membrane utilizing advanced single molecule fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brameshuber, M.

    2009-01-01

    lipid-lipid or protein-lipid interactions, protein-protein interactions play of mayor role for the regulation of cell metabolism and function. In this thesis I further characterized the interaction between human CD4, the major co-receptor in T cell activation, and human Lck, the protein tyrosine kinase essential for early T cell signaling using an ultra-sensitive fluorescence-based method. Interaction dynamics were studied in detail by performing photobleaching experiments and single molecule brightness analysis. This enabled a combined mobility and stoichiometry analysis of Lck-molecules interacting with the captured CD4 protein. In the last part of my thesis I present a single molecule fluorescence study using a variant of an oxidized phospholipid - which is known to induce apoptosis - to probe the structure of the cellular plasmamembrane. The cells were illuminated using a recently introduced technique which utilizes a highly inclined and laminated optical sheet (HILO) to reduce background signal arising from intracellular fluorophores or from cellular autofluorescence. Our data demonstrate the relevance of plasma membrane properties for uptake of oxidized phospholipids, and indicate a novel indirect mechanism for the control of endocytosis. (author) [de

  15. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Hancock, G.; Nguyen, M.L.; Dornhofer, P.; Bacchi, O.O.S.; Benmansour, M.; Bernard, C.; Froehlich, W.; Golosov, V.N.; Haciyakupoglu, S.; Hai, P.S.; Klik, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002–2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on “Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides” (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably – a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. - Highlights:

  16. Utility of Vascular Enhancement Technique (ClarifyTM) in Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Abdominal Vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Young; Cho, Jin Han; Choi, Jong Cheol; Shin, Tae Beom; Lee, Jin Hwa; Yoon, Seong Kuk; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2006-01-01

    Vascular enhancement (VE) technology(ClarifyTM) is a new technique in vascular, B-mode imaging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of VE technology in ultrasonographic diagnosis of abdominal vasculature. Seventy-one adult patients (39 men and 32 women: age range, 25-89 years: mean age, 56 years) who had undergone abdominal ultrasonography were included in this study. The imaging was performed with a 1.8-4.0 MHz convex array transducer (SONOLINE, Antares, Siemens Medical Solutions, WA) by an abdominal radiologist. The radiologist obtained images of the same vascular area with each of conventional ultrasonography imaging (CUS), tissue harmonic imaging (THI), CUS plus VE technique and THI plus VE technique. Images were divided into normal (56) and abnormal (15) groups. The vessel visibility, conspicuity of the vascular wall and contrast resolution with adjacent structures were evaluated in the normal group, and the lesion conspicuity and border sharpness were evaluated in the abnormal group. On the PACS monitor, the images were graded into four grades by two radiologists in consensus. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. In the normal group, all parameters of the ultrasonographic imaging which applied the VE technique were superior to those of the imaging without VE technique (p < 0.05). In the abnormal group, combined use of VE technique with CUS or THI provided better results than CUS or THI alone in terms of lesion conspicuity and border sharpness (p < 0.05). THI combined with VE technique provided the best image quality among the 4 ultrasonographic methods examined in this study for the evaluation of both normal and abnormal abdominal vessels (p < 0.05). VE technology was a helpful technique to evaluate the abdominal vasculature. Furthermore, VE technique combined with THI provided better image quality than other ultrasonographic methods in the evaluation of abdominal vessels

  17. Entrapment of Radionuclides in Nanoparticle Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the technical field of imaging compositions useful for diagnosing cancer and other diseases in a subject. In particular, the invention relates to a class of diagnostic compounds comprising a novel liposome composition with encapsulated metal entities such as r...... tissue and, in general, pathological conditions associated with leaky blood vessels. The present invention provides a new diagnostic tool for the utilization of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique.......The present invention is directed to the technical field of imaging compositions useful for diagnosing cancer and other diseases in a subject. In particular, the invention relates to a class of diagnostic compounds comprising a novel liposome composition with encapsulated metal entities...... such as radionuclides,for example 61Cu and 64Cu copper isotopes. The invention further relates to a novel method for loading delivery systems, such as liposome compositions, with metal entities such as radionuclides, and the use of liposomes for targeted diagnosis and treatment of a target site, such as cancerous...

  18. Novel technique for addressing streak artifact in gated dual-source MDCT angiography utilizing ECG-editing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Laura T.; Boll, Daniel T. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Streak artifact is an important source of image degradation in computed tomographic imaging. In coronary MDCT angiography, streak artifact from pacemaker leads in the SVC can render segments of the right coronary artery uninterpretable. With current technology in clinical practice, there is no effective way to eliminate streak artifact in coronary MDCT angiography entirely. We propose a technique to minimize the impact of streak artifact in retrospectively gated coronary MDCT angiography by utilizing small shifts in the reconstruction window. In our experience, previously degraded portions of the coronary vasculature were able to be well evaluated using this technique. (orig.)

  19. Cucumber nitrogen utilization as affected by compost levels and nitrogen rates using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sherif, M.F.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abdalla, M.M.F.; El-Oksh, I.I.

    2005-01-01

    The beneficial effect of compost application to the sandy soil on dry matter production of shoots and fruits as well as its effect on l5N-uptake and nitrogen utilization percent of cucumber plant (Cucumis sativus L.) were studied under field conditions. Two types of natural compost (i.e. sugar cane bagasse (SC) and beet compost (BC)) with three levels (2, 4, 6 ton/fed) in addition to check treatment for each kind of compost (sheep manure with rate of 20 in/fed) combined with three rates of nitrogen fertilizer rates (50, 75, 100% from the recommended rate, i.e. 75 kg /fed) were used. The bagasse compost in both seasons gave a significantly higher response than the beet compost. There was a greet reduction in cucumber dry weight, N yield, Ndff%, FN yield and N utilization % of shoots and fruits as the level of compost application decreased. However, cucumber plants grown on high compost application level (6 ton/fed) were similar in their responses to plants grown on the check treatment. The results of N utilization indicated that the fertilizer utilization by the cucumber shoots and fruits during both seasons was significantly higher for the medium N rate (75% N) in comparison to the lowest fertigation treatment (50% N) and similar to the highest N fertigation rate (100% N). Generally, the results showed that under the experimental conditions to reach an acceptable yield with a high fertilizer utilization, it could be suggested to apply relatively medium rates of N fertigation (56.25 kg N/fed) combined with the high level ofSC compost application (6 t/fed) keeping in mind the regional site conditions

  20. Simple lock-in detection technique utilizing multiple harmonics for digital PGC demodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Fajie; Huang, Tingting; Jiang, Jiajia; Fu, Xiao; Ma, Ling

    2017-06-01

    A simple lock-in detection technique especially suited for digital phase-generated carrier (PGC) demodulators is proposed in this paper. It mixes the interference signal with rectangular waves whose Fourier expansions contain multiple odd or multiple even harmonics of the carrier to recover the quadrature components needed for interference phase demodulation. In this way, the use of a multiplier is avoided and the efficiency of the algorithm is improved. Noise performance with regard to light intensity variation and circuit noise is analyzed theoretically for both the proposed technique and the traditional lock-in technique, and results show that the former provides a better signal-to-noise ratio than the latter with proper modulation depth and average interference phase. Detailed simulations were conducted and the theoretical analysis was verified. A fiber-optic Michelson interferometer was constructed and the feasibility of the proposed technique is demonstrated.

  1. An alternative technique for simulating volumetric cylindrical sources in the Morse code utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, W.J.; Mendonca, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In the solution of deep-penetration problems using the Monte Carlo method, calculation techniques and strategies are used in order to increase the particle population in the regions of interest. A common procedure is the coupling of bidimensional calculations, with (r,z) discrete ordinates transformed into source data, and tridimensional Monte Carlo calculations. An alternative technique for this procedure is presented. This alternative proved effective when applied to a sample problem. (F.E.) [pt

  2. A Wireless Fatigue Monitoring System Utilizing a Bio-Inspired Tree Ring Data Tracking Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Shi; Li, Xuan; Xie, Zhaohui; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue, a hot scientific research topic for centuries, can trigger sudden failure of critical structures such as aircraft and railway systems, resulting in enormous casualties as well as economic losses. The fatigue life of certain structures is intrinsically random and few monitoring techniques are capable of tracking the full life-cycle fatigue damage. In this paper, a novel in-situ wireless real-time fatigue monitoring system using a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique is propo...

  3. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.E.; Horrill, A.D.; Howard, B.J.; Lowe, V.P.W.; Parkinson, J.A.

    1983-07-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: concentration and spatial distribution of radionuclides in grazed and ungrazed saltmarshes; incorporation of radionuclides by sheep grazing on an estuarine saltmarsh; inland transfer of radionuclides by birds feeding in the estuaries and saltmarshes at Ravenglass; radionuclides in contrasting types of coastal pastures and taken up by individual plant species found in west Cumbria; procedures developed and used for the measurement of alpha and gamma emitters in environmental materials. (U.K.)

  4. Distribution of radionuclides in mussels, winkles and prawns: Pt. 1; Study of organisms under environmental conditions using conventional radio-analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P [Scottish Research Reactor Centre, East Kilbride (United Kingdom); Baxter, M S; Fowler, S W [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). Marine Environment Lab.

    1993-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and winkles (Littorina littorea), collected from Ravenglass, Cumbria, England in the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels plc nuclear reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and prawns (Palaemon serratus), landed nearby at Whitehaven, have been investigated to determine the distributions of [alpha]-emitting ([sup 210]Po, [sup 238]Pu, [sup 239] [sup +] [sup 240]Pu, [sup 241]Am) and [gamma]-emitting ([sup 95]Nb, [sup 95]Zr, [sup 103]Ru, [sup 106]Ru, [sup 137]Cs, [sup 241]Am) radionuclides in their tissues and organs. Previous studies have attempted to determine the principal nuclide source to marine organisms by comparing nuclide activity ratios in their tissues, sea water and particulate material. From the environmental samples studied here, no single transport medium appears to dominate uptake. The primary radiological implantation of the observed radionuclide concentrations in Ravenglass mussels and winkles is that, from seafood ingestion, the critical group receives only a small percentage (ca. 10%) of the ICRP-recommended subsidiary dose limit. Dose contributions from [sup 210]Po are higher than those from [sup 239] + [sup 240]Pu in mussels but are less than those from [sup 239] [sup +] [sup 240]Pu in winkles. (Author).

  5. 100 Years of radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, S.M.; Arnold, D.; Chauvenet, B.; Collé, R.; De Felice, P.; García-Toraño, E.; Wätjen, U.

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. - Highlights: • The driving forces for the development of radionuclide metrology. • Radium standards to facilitate trade of this valuable commodity in the early years. • After 1950, focus changes to healthcare and industrial applications. • National Measurement Institutes develop new techniques, standards, and disseminate the best practice in measurement. • Challenges in nuclear medicine, radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics

  6. Radionuclide and electric accelerator sources for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Matthews, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation processing of food requires radiation sources with high intensity, penetrability, reliability, and the flexibility to be adapted to current food processing techniques. Current proposed regulations limit the radiation sources which can be utilized to radionuclides or electrically-driven accelerators. Therefore, the power, throughput, and use efficiency of these sources are important factors affecting the design, installation, operation, and economics of large-scale food-processing facilities. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these sources is presented here, with special attention to the current status of both technologies, and with emphasis on the needs of the food-processing industry. (author)

  7. Electrical hand tools and techniques: A compilation. [utilization of space technology for tools and adapters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Space technology utilization for developing tools, adapters, and fixtures and procedures for assembling, installing, and servicing electrical components and equipment are discussed. Some of the items considered are: (1) pivotal screwdriver, (2) termination locator tool for shielded cables, (3) solder application tools, (4) insulation and shield removing tool, and (5) torque wrench adapter for cable connector engaging ring. Diagrams of the various tools and devices are provided.

  8. Improvement in QEPAS system utilizing a second harmonic based wavelength calibration technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinduan; Chang, Jun; Wang, Fupeng; Wang, Zongliang; Xie, Yulei; Gong, Weihua

    2018-05-01

    A simple laser wavelength calibration technique, based on second harmonic signal, is demonstrated in this paper to improve the performance of quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) gas sensing system, e.g. improving the signal to noise ratio (SNR), detection limit and long-term stability. Constant current, corresponding to the gas absorption line, combining f/2 frequency sinusoidal signal are used to drive the laser (constant driving mode), a software based real-time wavelength calibration technique is developed to eliminate the wavelength drift due to ambient fluctuations. Compared to conventional wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS), this method allows lower filtering bandwidth and averaging algorithm applied to QEPAS system, improving SNR and detection limit. In addition, the real-time wavelength calibration technique guarantees the laser output is modulated steadily at gas absorption line. Water vapor is chosen as an objective gas to evaluate its performance compared to constant driving mode and conventional WMS system. The water vapor sensor was designed insensitive to the incoherent external acoustic noise by the numerical averaging technique. As a result, the SNR increases 12.87 times in wavelength calibration technique based system compared to conventional WMS system. The new system achieved a better linear response (R2 = 0 . 9995) in concentration range from 300 to 2000 ppmv, and achieved a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 630 ppbv.

  9. Human mixed lymphocyte cultures. Evaluation of microculture technique utilizing the multiple automated sample harvester (MASH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, G. B.; Strong, D. M.; Ahmed, A.; Green, S. S.; Sell, K. W.; Hartzman, R. J.; Bach, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    Use of lymphocyte cultures for in vitro studies such as pretransplant histocompatibility testing has established the need for standardization of this technique. A microculture technique has been developed that has facilitated the culturing of lymphocytes and increased the quantity of cultures feasible, while lowering the variation between replicate samples. Cultures were prepared for determination of tritiated thymidine incorporation using a Multiple Automated Sample Harvester (MASH). Using this system, the parameters that influence the in vitro responsiveness of human lymphocytes to allogeneic lymphocytes have been investigated. PMID:4271568

  10. Utility of natural generalised inverse technique in the interpretation of dyke structures

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, M.M.M.; Murty, T.V.R.; Rao, P.R.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    environs along the central west coast of India: analysis using EOF, J. Geophys.Res.,91(1986) 8523 -8526. 9 Marquardt D W, An algorithm for least-squares estimation of non-linear parameters, J. Soc. Indust. Appl. Math, 11 (1963) 431-441. INDIAN J. MAR... technique in reconstruction of gravity anomalies due to a fault, Indian J. Pure. Appl. Math., 34 (2003) 31-47. 16 Ramana Murty T V, Somayajulu Y K & Murty C S, Reconstruction of sound speed profile through natural generalised inverse technique, Indian J...

  11. NMR Techniques in Metabolomic Studies: A Quick Overview on Examples of Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Joanna; Doskocz, Marek; Jodłowska, Elżbieta; Zacharzewska, Anna; Łakomiec, Joanna; Czaja, Kornelia; Kujawski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics is a rapidly developing branch of science that concentrates on identifying biologically active molecules with potential biomarker properties. To define the best biomarkers for diseases, metabolomics uses both models (in vitro, animals) and human, as well as, various techniques such as mass spectroscopy, gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, infrared and UV-VIS spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. The last one takes advantage of the magnetic properties of certain nuclei, such as 1 H, 13 C, 31 P, 19 F, especially their ability to absorb and emit energy, what is crucial for analyzing samples. Among many spectroscopic NMR techniques not only one-dimensional (1D) techniques are known, but for many years two-dimensional (2D, for example, COSY, DOSY, JRES, HETCORE, HMQS), three-dimensional (3D, DART-MS, HRMAS, HSQC, HMBC) and solid-state NMR have been used. In this paper, authors taking apart fundamental division of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques intend to shown their wide application in metabolomic studies, especially in identifying biomarkers.

  12. Towards a plant-based technique to measure utilization of Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sparseness of Karoo veld renders the destructive sampling of areas less efficient than clipping individual plants. However, sampling of whole plants and their separation into edible and inedible fractions is laborious and expensive. There is thus a need to develop suitable non-destructive techniques.Language: English.

  13. utilization of adsorption and/or liquid membranes techniques in treatment of some hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussin, L.M.S.

    2011-01-01

    environmental pollution, as a consequence of the industrialization process, is one of the major problems that has to be solved and controlled. The most important treatment processes for metals and dyes contaminated waste streams include chemical precipitation, membrane, filtration, ion exchange, carbon adsorption and coprecipitation/adsorption. However, all these techniques have their inherent advantages and limitations in applications. These processes usually need expensive facility and high maintenance cost. Therefore, there is a need for more economical alternative technologies for the treatment of metals and dyes contaminated waste streams. The aim of present work is to study the treatment of some hazardous substances such as heavy metals e.g. ( lead, cobalt and strontium) and dyes e.g. ( acid red 73, and acid blue 74 ) using either adsorption or liquid emulsion membrane techniques. The experimental part deals with the application of adsorption and liquid emulsion membrane techniques for removal of some hazardous substances such as metal ions ( lead, cobalt and strontium) and dyes (acid red 73 and acid blue 74). All the apparatus and techniques employed were described.

  14. Bioprinting of Cartilage and Skin Tissue Analogs Utilizing a Novel Passive Mixing Unit Technique for Bioink Precellularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Patrick Scott; Orrhult, Linnea Stridh; Martínez, Héctor

    2018-01-01

    Bioprinting is a powerful technique for the rapid and reproducible fabrication of constructs for tissue engineering applications. In this study, both cartilage and skin analogs were fabricated after bioink pre-cellularization utilizing a novel passive mixing unit technique. This technique was developed with the aim to simplify the steps involved in the mixing of a cell suspension into a highly viscous bioink. The resolution of filaments deposited through bioprinting necessitates the assurance of uniformity in cell distribution prior to printing to avoid the deposition of regions without cells or retention of large cell clumps that can clog the needle. We demonstrate the ability to rapidly blend a cell suspension with a bioink prior to bioprinting of both cartilage and skin analogs. Both tissue analogs could be cultured for up to 4 weeks. Histological analysis demonstrated both cell viability and deposition of tissue specific extracellular matrix (ECM) markers such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen I respectively. PMID:29364216

  15. Utilization of Integrated Geophysical Techniques to Delineate the Extraction of Mining Bench of Ornamental Rocks (Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low yields in ornamental rock mining remain one of the most important problems in this industry. This fact is usually associated with the presence of anisotropies in the rock, which makes it difficult to extract the blocks. An optimised planning of the exploitation, together with an improved geological understanding of the deposit, could increase these yields. In this work, marble mining in Macael (Spain was studied to test the capacity of non-destructive geophysical prospecting methods (GPR and ERI as tools to characterize the geology of the deposit. It is well-known that the ERI method provides a greater penetration depth. By using this technique, it is possible to distinguish the boundaries between the marble and the underlying micaschists, the morphology of the unit to be exploited, and even fracture zones to be identified. Therefore, this technique could be used in the early stages of research, to estimate the reserves of the deposit. The GPR methodology, with a lower penetration depth, is able to offer more detailed information. Specifically, it detects lateral and vertical changes of the facies inside the marble unit, as well as the anisotropies of the rock (fractures or holes. This technique would be suitable for use in a second stage of research. On the one hand, it is very useful for characterization of the texture and fabric of the rock, which allows us to determine in advance its properties, and therefore, the quality for ornamental use. On the other hand, the localization of anisotropy using the GPR technique will make it possible to improve the planning of the rock exploitation in order to increase yields. Both integrated geophysical techniques are effective for assessing the quality of ornamental rock and thus can serve as useful tools in mine planning to improve yields and costs.

  16. Determination of urea utilization of rice at different growth stages by 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, A.; Halitligil, M.B.; Torun, M.

    1991-01-01

    This study reported here examines the percent utilization of 15 N labelled urea by rice when it is broadcasted over the soil surface or mixed within 10 cm soil at different vegetative stages. The experimental plots were arranged in randomized block design and replicated 3 times. N was applied at a rate of 120 kg N/ha as single or split applications at four different times during the growing season. Labelled urea was applied to 0.5x0.5 m plots only in 1988, however in 1989 unlabelled urea was applied to all plots. Stover and seed samples from each plot were harvested, dried at 65 0 C, weighed and kilogram per hectare were calculated in 1988. Also, the yield surplus per kilogram N was calculated for each treatment and this was indicated as urea fertilizer efficiency coefficient. Total N and 15 N analysis for stover and seed were done. Significant differences (at 0.05 level) were observed in stover and seed yields, when 120 kg/ha urea was split applied at different growth stages. Similar yield responses were obtained in 1988 and 1989. Highest seed yields were obtained when half of urea was applied at planting and the other half was applied at one week before heading. The results also showed that the highest utilization of urea for seed plus stover was obtained from the second half of urea (60 kg N/ha) applied one week before heading. Percent utilization of urea by rice also differed according to the rate applied at each stage

  17. Characterization of failure modes in deep UV and deep green LEDs utilizing advanced semiconductor localization techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Miller, Mary A.; Cole, Edward Isaac, Jr.

    2012-03-01

    We present the results of a two-year early career LDRD that focused on defect localization in deep green and deep ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs). We describe the laser-based techniques (TIVA/LIVA) used to localize the defects and interpret data acquired. We also describe a defect screening method based on a quick electrical measurement to determine whether defects should be present in the LEDs. We then describe the stress conditions that caused the devices to fail and how the TIVA/LIVA techniques were used to monitor the defect signals as the devices degraded and failed. We also describe the correlation between the initial defects and final degraded or failed state of the devices. Finally we show characterization results of the devices in the failed conditions and present preliminary theories as to why the devices failed for both the InGaN (green) and AlGaN (UV) LEDs.

  18. Determination of total uranium by mass spectrometry utilizing the isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretella, R.F.; Noutary, C.J.; Servant, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The isotopic dilution associated to mass spectrometry is a high-sensitivity technique that allows to work with microquantities of the sample, making it possible to analize the content in highly radioactive solutions with excellent accuracy and minimum risk. The proposed technique is described and its results are discussed through the analysis of: 1) A synthetic sample that simulates dissolved spent fuel elements; 2) Uranium dioxide of nuclear purity and 3) Uranium concentrate. 233 U(ORNL) was employed as a tracer and a Nuclide 12-90-SU mass spectrometer of simple magnetic focus as measurement instrument. The accuracy reached in the analyses is better than 0.5% with a reliability of 95%. The analysis of the errors shows that their main contributing source are the errors in the measurement of the isotopic ratios. (M.E.L.) [es

  19. Chiropractic treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a case report utilizing active release techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliedt, Jordan A; Daniels, Clinton J

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the chiropractic management of a case of lateral epicondylitis with active release techniques (ART). A 48-year-old white man presented to a chiropractic clinic with a complaint of left lateral elbow pain that began 2 years previous with insidious onset. The patient reported an inability to play 18 consecutive holes of golf due to the pain. Treatment consisted of 5 sessions of ART (a soft tissue technique that is applied to muscles, fascia, tendons, ligaments, and nerves) applied to the left elbow soft tissue over a duration of 3 weeks. The patient reported an absence of pain and ability to consistently play 18 consecutive holes of golf up to 3 times per week at 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment. This patient with lateral epicondylitis responded favorably to chiropractic treatment using the application of ART, as demonstrated by reduced pain and increased functional outcomes.

  20. UTILIZATION OF FORMALIN EMBALMED SPECIMENS UNDER ECO-FRIENDLY CONDITIONS BY ADVANCED PLASTINATION TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Menaka; S. Chaurasia

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of anatomical models and teaching aids is a challenging task in the medical, veterinary and paramedical sciences as like as life form. The successful preservation of conventional methods by embalmed cadavers/ corpse’s are routinely practiced for educational/research purposes. The existing form of preservation technique is not promising to meet the current challenges in the teaching and learning of human/veterinary anatomy. The embalming fluid causes potential health hazards with c...

  1. Utility of replica techniques for x-ray microanalysis of second phase particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, J.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray microanalysis of second phase particles in ion-milled or electropolished thin foils is often complicated by the presence of the matrix nearby. Extraction replica techniques provide a means to avoid many of the complications of thin-foil analyses. In this paper, three examples of the analysis of second phase particles are described and illustrate the improvement obtained by the use of extraction replicas for qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, and analysis of radioactive specimens

  2. Utilization the nuclear techniques use to estimate the water erosion in tobacco plantations in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Reinaldo H.; Peralta, José L.; Carrazana, Jorge; Fleitas, Gema; Aguilar, Yulaidis; Rivero, Mario; Morejón, Yilian M.; Oliveira, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion is a relevant factor in land degradation, causing several negative impacts to different levels in the environment, agriculture, etc. The tobacco plantations in the western part of the country have been negatively affected by the water erosion due to natural and human factors. For the implementation of a strategy for sustainable land management a key element is to quantify the soil losses in order to establish policies for soil conservation. The nuclear techniques have advantages in comparison with the traditional methods to assess soil erosion and have been applied in different agricultural settings worldwide. The tobacco cultivation in Pinar del Río is placed on soils with high erosion levels, therefore is important to apply techniques which support the soil erosion rate quantification. This work shows the use of "1"3"7Cs technique to characterize the soil erosion status in two sectors in a farm with tobacco plantations located in the south-western plain of Pinar del Rio province. The sampling strategy included the evaluation of selected transects in the slope direction for the studied site. The soil samples were collected in order to incorporate the whole "1"3"7Cs profile. Different conversion models were applied and the Mass Balance Model II provided the more representative results, estimating the soil erosion rate from –18,28 to 8,15 t ha"-"1año"-"1. (author)

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhagen, J.D.; Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux

  4. Use of remote sensing techniques for inventorying and planning utilization of land resources in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, V. I.; Frazee, C. J.; Rusche, A. E.; Moore, D. G.; Nelson, G. D.; Westin, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    The basic procedures for interpreting remote sensing imagery to rapidly develop general soils and land use inventories were developed and utilized in Pennington County, South Dakota. These procedures and remote sensing data products were illustrated and explained to many user groups, some of whom are interested in obtaining similar data. The general soils data were integrated with land soils data supplied by the county director of equalization to prepare a land value map. A computer print-out of this map indicating a land value for each quarter section is being used in tax reappraisal of Pennington County. The land use data provided the land use planners with the present use of land in Pennington County. Additional uses of remote sensing applications are also discussed including tornado damage assessment, hail damage evaluation, and presentation of soil and land value information on base maps assembled from ERTS-1 imagery.

  5. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at efficient phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides, we examined the effect of soil microbes on the uptake ability of plants using the multitracer technique to find that tomato rhizofungi in Fusarium spp. can stimulate the uptake of 85 Sr and 137 Cs by the plants. The synergic effect of a nonpathogenic strain of F. oxysporum on the uptake of radionuclides by plants proved to be enhanced by introducing a phytochelatin synthase gene into the fungus. Since soil contamination by radionuclides is still an unsolved problem in many parts of the world. Studies on phytoremediation of polluted soil environment will be important for developing effective strategies and devising adequate techniques to reduce human risks caused by food contamination of radionuclides. (author)

  6. Automatic Generation of English-Japanese Translation Pattern Utilizing Genetic Programming Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Koki; Tamekuni, Yuji; Kimura, Shuhei

    There are a lot of constructional differences in an English-Japanese phrase template, and that often makes the act of translation difficult. Moreover, there exist various and tremendous phrase templates and sentence to be refered to. It is not easy to prepare the corpus that covers the all. Therefore, it is very significant to generate the translation pattern of the sentence pattern automatically from a viewpoint of the translation success rate and the capacity of the pattern dictionary. Then, for the purpose of realizing the automatic generation of the translation pattern, this paper proposed the new method for the generation of the translation pattern by using the genetic programming technique (GP). The technique tries to generate the translation pattern of various sentences which are not registered in the phrase template dictionary automatically by giving the genetic operation to the parsing tree of a basic pattern. The tree consists of the pair of the English-Japanese sentence generated as the first stage population. The analysis tree data base with 50,100,150,200 pairs was prepared as the first stage population. And this system was applied and executed for an English input of 1,555 sentences. As a result, the analysis tree increases from 200 to 517, and the accuracy rate of the translation pattern has improved from 42.57% to 70.10%. And, 86.71% of the generated translations was successfully done, whose meanings are enough acceptable and understandable. It seemed that this proposal technique became a clue to raise the translation success rate, and to find the possibility of the reduction of the analysis tree data base.

  7. Utility Of Stress-Texture Characteristics Of Structural Materials By X-Ray Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonarski J.T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of residual stress analysis in selected metal-metal joints manufactured by conventional welding and explosive merging. The X-ray diffraction technique applied for advanced stress-texture measurements and data processing revealed directions and values of the principal stresses and their configuration on the surface of the examined structural elements. The obtained stress topography of the joint intersections indicates a possible path of potential cracking formed during the exploitation process and thus it becomes a very useful tool in the diagnostics of structural elements.

  8. Analysis of boron utilization in sample preparation for microorganisms detection by neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacha, Reinaldo; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron radiography technique applied to the microorganisms detection is the study of a new and faster alternative for diagnosis of infectious means. This work presents the parameters and the effects involved in the use of the boron as a conversion agent, that convert neutrons in a particles, capable ones of generating latent tracks in a solid state nuclear tracks detector, CR-39. The collected samples are doped with the boron by the incubation method, propitiating an interaction microorganisms/boron, that will guarantee the identification of the images of those microorganisms, through your morphology. (author)

  9. Development of nano-fabrication technique utilizing self-organizational behavior of point defects induced by ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, Noriko [Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada-Cho, Kochi-Prefecture 782-8502 (Japan); Taniwaki, Masafumi [Department of Environmental Systems Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Tosayamada-Cho, Kochi-Prefecture 782-8502 (Japan)]. E-mail: taniwaki.masafumi@kochi-tech.ac.jp

    2006-04-01

    The present authors proposed a novel nano-fabrication technique that is able to arrange the fine cells orderly, based on their finding in GaSb implanted at a low temperature. In this article, first the experimental results that anomalous cellular structure was formed in GaSb by ion implantation is introduced and the self-organizational formation mechanism of the structure is described. Next a nano-fabrication technique that utilizes focused ion beam is described. This technique consists of two procedures, i.e. the formation process of the voids array and the development of the initial array to ordered cellular structure. Finally, the nano-fabrication is actually performed by this technique and their results are reported. Fabrication succeeded in structures where the dot (cell) interval was 100 nm or larger. The minimum ion dose for initial voids which develops to the ordered cellular structure is evaluated. It is also shown that the substrate temperature during implantation is an essential parameter for this technique.

  10. Development of nano-fabrication technique utilizing self-organizational behavior of point defects induced by ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Noriko; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2006-01-01

    The present authors proposed a novel nano-fabrication technique that is able to arrange the fine cells orderly, based on their finding in GaSb implanted at a low temperature. In this article, first the experimental results that anomalous cellular structure was formed in GaSb by ion implantation is introduced and the self-organizational formation mechanism of the structure is described. Next a nano-fabrication technique that utilizes focused ion beam is described. This technique consists of two procedures, i.e. the formation process of the voids array and the development of the initial array to ordered cellular structure. Finally, the nano-fabrication is actually performed by this technique and their results are reported. Fabrication succeeded in structures where the dot (cell) interval was 100 nm or larger. The minimum ion dose for initial voids which develops to the ordered cellular structure is evaluated. It is also shown that the substrate temperature during implantation is an essential parameter for this technique

  11. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs

  12. Radionuclide diagnosis of Meckel's diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1980-01-01

    Meckel's diverticulum can be detected with a high degree of accuracy by radionuclide scintigraphy using technetium-99m pertechnetate. The technique is without risk and should precede roentgenographic studies when the diagnosis is suspected. The method is described and the causes for false positive and false negative examinations are discussed. False negatives are rare and false positives are usually secondary to other surgical entities. Overall accuracy is 85 to 90%. (orig.) [de

  13. Radionuclides for therapy: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, H.; Noelpp, U.; Triller, K.J.; Steffen, R.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in angiographic techniques has been a gradual evolutionary development which now permits the selective and superselective access to a tumor's vascular bed. A diagnostic angiographic procedure can be supplemented by a one-step, quick application of embolizing radioactive material. This endoarterial radionuclide embolizing tumor therapy has the maximum selectivity among radiotherapeutic methods, with the highest radiation doses to the tumor and neglectible exposure of normal tissue. Spread of radioactivity by diffusion or leaching can be prevented

  14. Utilization of tritiated water dilution technique in determination of nitrogen partitioning in cashmere goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Linfeng; Yang Gaiqing; Liu Ping; Zhang Shijun

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate nitrogen partitioning in local cashmere goats, six Inner Mogolia White Cashmere goats between 2 to 2.5 years old were used to determine the nitrogen partitioning in cashmere goats. The total retained nitrogen (TN) in body, distribution of body nitrgen and hair nitrogen were measured by general digestive and metabolism method combined with tritiated water dilution technique. Results showed that the combined methods were ideal for determining body nitrgen (BN) and hair nitrogen (fur nitrogen, FN) of Cashmere goats. There were obvious significance between BN and FN in different seasons. In telogen, BN and FN partitioning was 75.7% ± 0.62% and 24.3% ± 0.62%, respectively. Whereas, it changed to 66.6% ± 2.2% and 33.4% ± 2.2% in anagen. BN partitioning decreased when the season changed from telogen to anagen, while FN partitioning increased, which indicated that more nitrogen substance was partitioned to body growth in telogen, and more nitrogen substance was distribute to cashmere growth in anagen. These transformation were related to the changing of photoperiod and some hormones, such as melatonin (MT), prolactin (PRL) and IGF-I. It could be concluded that tritiated water dilution technique can be used to detect body protein content as well as BN, combining general digestive and metabolism experiment, FN partitoning can be determined. BN and FN partitoning varied with the season in cashmere goats because of hormones changing. (authors)

  15. Portable (handheld) clinical device for quantitative spectroscopy of skin, utilizing spatial frequency domain reflectance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saager, Rolf B.; Dang, An N.; Huang, Samantha S.; Kelly, Kristen M.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2017-09-01

    Spatial Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (SFDS) is a technique for quantifying in-vivo tissue optical properties. SFDS employs structured light patterns that are projected onto tissues using a spatial light modulator, such as a digital micromirror device. In combination with appropriate models of light propagation, this technique can be used to quantify tissue optical properties (absorption, μa, and scattering, μs', coefficients) and chromophore concentrations. Here we present a handheld implementation of an SFDS device that employs line (one dimensional) imaging. This instrument can measure 1088 spatial locations that span a 3 cm line as opposed to our original benchtop SFDS system that only collects a single 1 mm diameter spot. This imager, however, retains the spectral resolution (˜1 nm) and range (450-1000 nm) of our original benchtop SFDS device. In the context of homogeneous turbid media, we demonstrate that this new system matches the spectral response of our original system to within 1% across a typical range of spatial frequencies (0-0.35 mm-1). With the new form factor, the device has tremendously improved mobility and portability, allowing for greater ease of use in a clinical setting. A smaller size also enables access to different tissue locations, which increases the flexibility of the device. The design of this portable system not only enables SFDS to be used in clinical settings but also enables visualization of properties of layered tissues such as skin.

  16. A Wireless Fatigue Monitoring System Utilizing a Bio-Inspired Tree Ring Data Tracking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Bai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue, a hot scientific research topic for centuries, can trigger sudden failure of critical structures such as aircraft and railway systems, resulting in enormous casualties as well as economic losses. The fatigue life of certain structures is intrinsically random and few monitoring techniques are capable of tracking the full life-cycle fatigue damage. In this paper, a novel in-situ wireless real-time fatigue monitoring system using a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique is proposed. The general framework, methodology, and verification of this intelligent system are discussed in details. The rain-flow counting (RFC method is adopted as the core algorithm which quantifies fatigue damages, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP is introduced as the core module for data collection and analysis. Laboratory test results based on strain gauges and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF sensors have shown that the developed intelligent system can provide a reliable quick feedback and early warning of fatigue failure. With the merits of low cost, high accuracy and great reliability, the developed wireless fatigue sensing system can be further applied to mechanical engineering, civil infrastructures, transportation systems, aerospace engineering, etc.

  17. A wireless fatigue monitoring system utilizing a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi; Li, Xuan; Xie, Zhaohui; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

    2014-03-05

    Fatigue, a hot scientific research topic for centuries, can trigger sudden failure of critical structures such as aircraft and railway systems, resulting in enormous casualties as well as economic losses. The fatigue life of certain structures is intrinsically random and few monitoring techniques are capable of tracking the full life-cycle fatigue damage. In this paper, a novel in-situ wireless real-time fatigue monitoring system using a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique is proposed. The general framework, methodology, and verification of this intelligent system are discussed in details. The rain-flow counting (RFC) method is adopted as the core algorithm which quantifies fatigue damages, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is introduced as the core module for data collection and analysis. Laboratory test results based on strain gauges and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors have shown that the developed intelligent system can provide a reliable quick feedback and early warning of fatigue failure. With the merits of low cost, high accuracy and great reliability, the developed wireless fatigue sensing system can be further applied to mechanical engineering, civil infrastructures, transportation systems, aerospace engineering, etc.

  18. Utilization of two different surgical techniques in gingival recession treatment: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Miljan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gingival recession is a displacement of gingival margin apically to cementenamel junction. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the results achieved with two different surgical procedures used in gingival recession treatment. Methods. Ten patients with bilateral buccal recession on maxillary canines or premolars were included in the study. Professional teeth cleaning was performed before surgery. Recession on the experimental side was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with coronally advanced, split thickness flap (tunnel technique. Control side recession was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with trapezoidal coronally advanced, full thickness flap. Coin toss was used for side decision. The following parameters were evaluated before surgery and 6 months post-op: Vertical Recession Dimension, Clinical Attachment Level, Apico-coronal width of the keratinized tissue, Healing index (Laundry, RES index, and Patient evaluation of esthetic results. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results. Six months after surgery, mean root coverage was 91.5±14.1% and 90.1±14.6% on the experimental and on the control side, respectively. RES index, Healing index (Laundry and Patient Subjective evaluation of esthetic results showed significantly better results (p≤0.05. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures produce highly successful clinical results based on evaluated parameters, but this tunnel technique provides significantly better esthetic results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41008: Interakcija etiopatogenetskih mehanizama parodontopatije i periimplantitisa sa sistemskim bolestima današnjice

  19. Colonization of Lutzomyia shannoni (Diptera: Psychodidae) utilizing an artificial blood feeding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Rajinder S; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2010-12-01

    Laboratory colonization of hematophagous insects must include an efficient method of blood feeding, preferably by artificial means. Strict rules for obtaining animal use permits, extensive animal maintenance costs, and indirect anesthesia effects on animal health warrant the development of an artificial membrane feeding technique for sand fly colonization in laboratories. An attempt was made to colonize Lutzomyia shannoni using an artificial blood feeding membrane to replace the use of live animals commonly used for sand fly blood-feeding purposes. Lutzomyia shannoni readily fed through a pig intestine membrane exposed at an angle of 45°. However, it did not feed through a chicken skin membrane. Olfactory attractants were unable to improve blood-feeding efficiency. Plaster of Paris was the most suitable oviposition substrate. Female L. shannoni adults laid no eggs on moist sand substrate. Sand fly adults held in groups of ten or more laid higher numbers of eggs than did individually maintained sand flies. Inclusion of the L. longipalpis oviposition hormone dodecanoic acid or the presence of previously laid eggs did not stimulate L. shannoni oviposition. The average L. shannoni egg, larval, and pupal duration were 9.3, 36.7, and 17.8 days, respectively. The addition of a 20% sugar solution improved adult female longevity. Females survived longer (14.8 days) than males (11.9 days). Lutzomyia shannoni was successfully colonized in the laboratory for up to four generations using this artificial membrane technique. © 2010 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  20. Prediction method of unburnt carbon for coal fired utility boiler using image processing technique of combustion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Sugano, A.; Kimura, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ishiyama, K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method predicting unburnt carbon in a coal fired utility boiler developed using an image processing technique. The method consists of an image processing unit and a furnace model unit. temperature distribution of combustion flames can be obtained through the former unit. The later calculates dynamics of the carbon reduction from the burner stages to the furnace outlet using coal feed rate, air flow rate, chemical and ash content of coal. An experimental study shows that the prediction error of the unburnt carbon can be reduced to 10%

  1. Utilization technique of 'radiation management manual in medical field (2012).' What should be learnt from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Toru

    2014-01-01

    From the abstract of contents of the 'Radiation management manual in medical field (2012),' the utilization technique of the manual is introduced. Introduced items are as follows: (1) Exposure management; exposure management for radiation medical workers, patients, and citizens in the medical field, and exposure management for radiation workers and citizens involved in the emergency work related to the Fukushima nuclear accident, (2) Health management; health management for radiation medical workers, (3) Radiation education: Education/training for radiation medical workers, and radiation education for health care workers, (4) Accident and emergency measures; emergency actions involved in the radiation accidents and radiation medicine at medical facilities

  2. Assessment of beta-emitter radionuclides in biological samples using liquid scintillation counting. Application to the study of internal doses in molecular and cellular biology techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, I.; Delgado, A.; Navarro, T.; Macias, M. T.

    2007-01-01

    The radioisotopic techniques used in Molecular and Cellular Biology involve external and internal irradiation risk. It is necessary to control the possible internal contamination associated to the development of these techniques. The internal contamination risk can be due to physical and chemical properties of the labelled compounds, aerosols generated during the performance technique. The aim of this work was to estimate the possible intake of specific beta emitters during the technique development and to propose the required criterions to perform Individual Monitoring. The most representative radioisotopic techniques were selected attending their potential risk of internal contamination. Techniques were analysed applying IAEA methodology according to the used activity in each technique. It was necessary to identify the worker groups that would require individual monitoring on the base of their specific risk. Different measurement procedures were applied to study the possible intake in group risk and more than 160 persons were measured by in vitro bioassay. (Author) 96 refs

  3. Facilitating the exploitation of ERTS-1 imagery utilizing snow enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, F. J. (Principal Investigator); Martin, K. R.; Amato, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Snow cover in combination with low angle solar illumination has been found to provide increased tonal contrast of surface feature and is useful in the detection of bedrock fractures. Identical fracture systems were not as readily detectable in the fall due to the lack of a contrasting surface medium (snow) and a relatively high sun angle. Low angle solar illumination emphasizes topographic expressions not as apparent on imagery acquired with a higher sun angle. A strong correlation exists between the major fracture-lineament directions interpreted from multi-sensor imagery (including snow-free and snow cover ERTS) and the strike of bedrock joints recorded in the field indicating the structural origin of interpreted fracture-lineaments. A fracture-annotated ERTS-1 photo base map (1:250,000 scale) is being prepared for western Massachusetts. The map will document the utilization of ERTS-1 imagery for geological analysis in comparative snow-free and snow-covered terrain.

  4. Banking a hemi-abdominal DIEP flap: a pilot report of indications, technique, and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Singh, Navin K; Taylor, Jesse A; Rosson, Gedge D

    2009-01-01

    We present a pilot report of "banking" the contralateral hemi-abdominal deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap under the abdominal closure in patients undergoing unilateral autologous breast reconstruction when a hemi-abdominal flap suffices. Four patients undergoing unilateral autologous breast reconstruction with a hemi-abdominal DIEP or superficial inferior epigastric artery flap had their contralateral hemi-abdominal flap left in position, or "banked," under their abdominal closure to be used in case of failure. This novel method may be of assistance when a free microvascular hemi-abdominal flap is felt to be threatened or suspect. It provides a life-boat for the younger and experienced surgeon alike, and most importantly, for the breast cancer survivor. Economic analysis of the technique reveals that the contralateral hemi-abdominal flap should be banked more often than intuition alone would suggest. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Utilization of the Rutherford backscattering technique for precise measurements of thickness by an alternative procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagas, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    This technique was used to determine the thickness of targets on very thick substrates as this type of target is used a lot in nuclear physics, and especially in γ spectroscpy. The difficulties introduced in this case, occur because of the appearance of a small peak on a very high continuous background, due to the fact that the atomic number of the substrate is bigger than that of the targets. These difficulties are overcome using an alternative procedure to determine precisely the loss of energy of the beam whilst crossing the refered target. Targets of 59 Co, 46-48-50 Ti and 10 B on substrate of Pd and Ta, with thicknesses betwnn 30μg/cm 2 and 500μg/cm 2 were measured with a precision of 5%. The biggest sources of imprecision are the amounts of dE/dX. (Author) [pt

  6. Wind Turbines Support Techniques during Frequency Drops — Energy Utilization Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman B. Attya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The supportive role of wind turbines during frequency drops is still not clear enough, although there are many proposed algorithms. Most of the offered techniques make the wind turbine deviates from optimum power generation operation to special operation modes, to guarantee the availability of reasonable power support, when the system suffers frequency deviations. This paper summarizes the most dominant support algorithms and derives wind turbine power curves for each one. It also conducts a comparison from the point of view of wasted energy, with respect to optimum power generation. The authors insure the advantage of a frequency support algorithm, they previously presented, as it achieved lower amounts of wasted energy. This analysis is performed in two locations that are promising candidates for hosting wind farms in Egypt. Additionally, two different types of wind turbines from two different manufacturers are integrated. Matlab and Simulink are the implemented simulation environments.

  7. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  8. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo

    2000-03-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal.

  9. Single event upset mitigation techniques for FPGAs utilized in nuclear power plant digital instrumentation and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Holbert, Keith E.; Clark, Lawrence T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Triple modular redundancy (TMR) implementation is the best solution for digital I and C. → Maximal probability of two simultaneous errors with TMR maximum partition is 4.44%. → Dual modular redundancy minimum logic partitioning design is an additional option. - Abstract: Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are integrated circuits being increasingly used for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) in nuclear power plants (NPPs) because of low cost, re-configurability and low design turn-around time. However, to ensure reliability, proper design techniques must be employed since the memory and logic in FPGAs are susceptible to single event upsets (SEUs). Triple modular redundancy (TMR) has become a common SEU mitigation design technique because of its straightforward implementation and reliable results. Partitioned TMR approaches are introduced in this paper, and formulae derived indicate that the maximum probability of two simultaneous errors [P E ] max is inversely proportional to the number of logic partitions in a TMR design, when each redundant logic block in every logic partition has the same number of sensitive nodes. However, the maximum logic partitioning design cannot completely eliminate the possibility of two simultaneous upsets. For the example test circuit it is found that [P E ] max is reduced dramatically from 66.67% for minimum logic partitioning to 4.44% for maximum logic partitioning. Because TMR introduces significant overhead due to its full hardware redundancy, a dual modular redundancy approach is also examined for application to less demanding situations. By comparative analysis this study reaches the conclusion that the maximum logic partitioning TMR implementation is the best solution for digital I and C applications in NPPs where obtaining robustness is of the highest importance, despite its higher area overhead.

  10. utilization of bio fertilizers and organic sources in arable soils under saline conditions using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, O.A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, more attention has been paid to conserve and save surrounding environment via minimizing the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and, in general, the agrochemicals applied in heavy quantities in agricultural agroecosystems. Therefore, the attention of most of agronomists was turned towards the use of so called clean agriculture or organic farming. Many of organic systems was pointed out such as the recycling of farm wastes i.e. crop residues, animal manure, organic conditioners for reclamation of soil and in the same time enhancement of plant growth and improving yield quality. The application of organic wastes combined with or without microbial inoculants to plant media are considered as a good management practice in any agricultural production system because it improves, plant quality and soil fertility. Therefore, we have the opportunity to conduct some experiments for achieving the clean agriculture approach, combating the adverse effects of salinity and avoiding the environmental pollution. Series of laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the impact of (1) potent isolated fungi (Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus terreus) on degrading plant residues (Leucaena and Acacia green parts), and (2) biofertilizers (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Azospirillum brasilense, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) in assessing barley and spinach plants to combat salinity of soil and irrigation water. 15 N-tracer technique that considered unique and more reliable technique may benefits in clarifying the responsible mechanisms related to plant growth and gave us the opportunity to quantify the exact amounts of N derived from the different sources of nitrogen available to spinach and barley plants grown on sandy saline soil and irrigated with saline water.

  11. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Kenny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also address interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.

  12. Measurements and properties of ice particles and carbon dioxide bubbles in aqueous mixture utilizing optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Amadou O.

    Optical techniques are used to determine the size, shape and many other properties of particles ranging from the micro to a nano-level. These techniques have endless applications. This research is based on a project assigned by a "Vendor" that wants anonymity. The Leica optical microscope and the Dark Field Polarizing Metallurgical Microscope is used to determine the size and count of ice crystals (Vendors products) in multiple time frames. Since the ice temperature influences, its symmetry and the shape is subject to changes at room temperature (300 K) and the atmospheric pressure that is exerted on the ice crystals varies. The ice crystals are in a mixture of water, electrolytes and carbon dioxide with the optical spectroscopy (Qpod2) and Spectra suite, the optical density of the ice crystals is established from the absorbance and transmission measurements. The optical density in this case is also referred to as absorption; it is plotted with respect to a frequency (GHz), wavelength (nm) or Raman shift (1/cm) which shows the light colliding with the ice particles and CO2. Depending on the peaks positions, it is possible to profile the ice crystal sizes using a mean distribution plots. The region of absorbency wavelength expected for the ice is in the visible range; the water molecules in the (UV) Ultra-violet range and the CO2 in the (IR) infrared region. It is also possible to obtain the reflection and transmission output as a percentage change with the wavelengths ranging from 200 to 1100 nm. The refractive index of the ice can be correlated to the density based on the optical acoustic theorem, or Mie Scattering Theory. The viscosity of the ice crystals and the solutions from which the ice crystals are made of as well are recorded with the SV-10 viscometer. The baseline viscosity is used as reference and set lower than that of the ice crystals. The Zeta potential of the particles present in the mixture are approximated by first finding the viscosity of the

  13. Report of the first research co-ordination meeting on the co-ordinated research programme: Development and selection of analytical techniques for measuring accidentally released radionuclides in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The participants at the second Research Co-ordination Meeting (Vienna, 12-16 August 1991) of the CRP on 'Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and Environmental Samples', recommended that a new CRP be established. The current CRP on 'Development and Selection of Analytical Techniques and Procedures for Measuring Accidentally Released Radionuclides in Environment' was established based on this recommendation. The objectives of this CRP are to conduct research and development on applicable methodologies for response to accidental releases, and to improve and maintain the capabilities of the network of laboratories and provide training of individuals within member states. Thus, the CRP serves as a vehicle to maintain contact within the network of laboratories, while developing and transferring analytical techniques and procedures for measuring accidentally released radioactivity. The purpose of the Research Co-ordination Meeting is to discuss the proposed research programs, the status to date and the work planned for the duration of the CRP. The meeting also provides the opportunity for the CRP participants to exchange ideas and possibly develop collaborations in their research. The members of the CRP also need to discuss issues related to the previous CRP on Rapid methods. These include: the preparation of the final report of the previous CRP, the preparation of an addendum to TRS-295 and the ultimate revision or updating of TRS-295. Finally, it is intended that the members of the CRP should discuss the mandate and scope of work of the network of analytical laboratories and the steps needed to firmly establish this network

  14. Utilization of radiation technique on the saccharification and fermentation of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaetsu, I.; Kumakura, M.; Fujimura, T.; Yoshii, F.; Kojima, T.; Tamada, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1981-01-01

    The application of irradiation technique to the process of saccharification and subsequent fermentation of cellulosic wastes such as chaff and rice straw to obtain ethanol, was investigated. It was found that when waste raw materials were irradiated by ..gamma..-ray or electron beam, they became accessible to the subsequent enzymatic saccharification reaction. Irradiation of 10/sup 7/ to 10/sup 8/ Rad was enough for this effect. Some kind of additives reduced necessary dosage for this pretreatment. Cellulase, Trichoderma reesei which produce cellulase, and yeast were immobilized as biocatalysts for biomass conversion by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomer at low temperature. The immobilized cellulase showed almost the same activity of glucose production as the native cellulase. Continuous saccharification reaction was carried out by using the immobilized cellulase. The immobilized Trichoderma reesei and the immobilized yeast showed almost the same activity as the intact biocatalysts. It was concluded that the continuous saccharification and subsequent fermentation could be carried out effectively by using the immobilized biocatalysts. Spinach chloroplasts were immobilized by the same method as the first step for the conversion of water into hydrogen gas using solar energy. The immobilized chloroplasts kept the O/sub 2/ evolution activity in storage more than 30 days at 4/sup 0/C.

  15. Production of solid mutants in citrus, utilizing new approaches and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegel-Roy, P.; Kochba, J.

    1975-01-01

    Conditions for embryoid differentiation in Shamouti orange ovular callus were studied. Lines differing in embryogenic capacity were established. Ageing of callus prior to subculture enhanced embryoid development. A pronounced habituation effect has been found in most cultures. Protoplasts have been obtained from callus after treatment with cellolytic enzymes. Irradiation of any embryogenic line of callus with 12-20 kR seemed to promote embryoid formation, after a time lag in their appearance. Transferrence of embryoids into agar+sucrose and GA 3 and a further transfer into agar+sucrose, GA 3 and adenine sulphate gave best results as to rooting of embryoids and plant survival. The technique of using decapitated nucellar seedlings for mutagenic treatment was developed further with Shamouti orange and Marsh grapefruit. Irradiation 48-72 hours after decapitation with 2 kR resulted in shoot neoformation and survival not much below that of control, while 6 kR impeded de novo shoot formation in Marsh grapefruit. A tendency towards mutants with earlier fruit maturity was found in mV 2 plants from material originating from irradiation with the 8-kR dose. (author)

  16. Utilization of radiation technique on the saccharification and fermentation of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaetsu, I.; Kumakura, M.; Fujimura, T.; Yoshii, F.; Kojima, T.; Tamada, M.

    1981-01-01

    The application of irradiation technique to the process of saccharification and subsequent fermentation of cellulosic wastes such as chaff and rice straw to obtain ethanol, was investigated. It was found that when waste raw materials were irradiated by γ-ray or electron beam, they became accessible to the subsequent enzymatic saccharification reaction. Irradiation of 10 7 to 10 8 Rad was enough for this effect. Some kind of additives reduced necessary dosage for this pretreatment. Cellulase, Trichoderma reesei which produce cellulase, and yeast were immobilized as biocatalysts for biomass conversion by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomer at low temperature. The immobilized cellulase showed almost the same activity of glucose production as the native cellulase. Continuous saccharification reaction was carried out by using the immobilized cellulase. The immobilized Trichoderma reesei and the immobilized yeast showed almost the same activity as the intact biocatalysts. It was concluded that the continuous saccharification and subsequent fermentation could be carried out effectively by using the immobilized biocatalysts. Spinach chloroplasts were immobilized by the same method as the first step for the conversion of water into hydrogen gas using solar energy. The immobilized chloroplasts kept the O 2 evolution activity in storage more than 30 days at 4 0 C. (author)

  17. Utilization of radiation technique on the saccharification and fermentation of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaetsu, I.; Kumakura, M.; Fujimura, T.; Yoshii, F.; Kojima, T.; Tamada, M.

    The application of irradiation technique to the process of saccharification and subsequent fermentation of cellulosic wastes such as chaff and rice straw to obtain ethanol, was investigated. It was found that when waste raw materials were irradiated by ?-ray or electron beam, they became accessible to the subsequent enzymatic saccharification reaction. Irradiation of 10 7-10 8 Rad was enough for this effect. Some kind of additives reduced necessary dosage for this pretreatment. Cellulase, Trichoderma reesei which produce cellulase, and yeast were immobilized as biocatalysts for biomass conversion by radiation-induced polymerization of glass-forming monomer at low temperature. The immobilized cellulase showed almost same activity of glucose production as the native cellulase. Continuous saccharification reaction was carried out by using the immobilized cellulase. The immobilized Trichoderma reesei and the immobilized yeast showed almost same activity as the intact biocatalysts. It was concluded that the continuous saccharification and subsequent fermentation could be carried out effectively by using the immobilized biocatalysts. Spinach chloroplasts were immobilized by the same method as the first step for the conversion of water into hydrogen gas using solar energy. The immobilized chloroplasts kept the O 2 evolution activity in storage more than 30 days at 4°C. Thermostatility of chloroplasts was also improved greatly by the immobilization.

  18. Value impact analysis utilizing PRA techniques combined with a hybrid plant model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.; Stillwell, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A value impact analysis (VIA) has been performed by the INEL to support a NRC Regulatory Analysis for resolution of Generic Issue (GI) 29, Bolting Degradation or Failure in Nuclear Power Plants. A VIA for replacing the reactor coolant pressure boundary (RCPB) bolts of BWRs and PWRs was previously prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratories in 1985 under instructions limiting the VIA to the potential for failure of primary pressure boundary bolting. Subsequently the INEL was requested to perform a VIA that included non primary systems and component support bolts to be compatible with the resolution of the broader issue. Because the initial list of systems and bolting applications that could be included in the VIA was very large, including them all in the VIA would likely result in analyzing some that have little if any effect on public risk. This paper discusses how PRA techniques combined with a hybrid plant model were used to determine which bolts have the potential to be significant contributors to public risk if they were to fail, and therefore were included in the VIA

  19. Assessment of improved organ at risk sparing for advanced cervix carcinoma utilizing precision radiotherapy techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, D.; Georg, P.; Hillbrand, M.; Poetter, R.; Mock, U. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Medical Univ. AKH, Vienna (Austria)

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: to evaluate the potential benefit of proton therapy and photon based intensity-modulated radiotherapy in comparison to 3-D conformal photon radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in locally advanced cervix cancer. Patients and methods: in five patients with advanced cervix cancer 3D-CRT (four-field box) was compared with intensity modulated photon (IMXT) and proton therapy (IMPT) as well as proton beam therapy (PT) based on passive scattering. Planning target volumes (PTVs) included primary tumor and pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were analyzed for the PTV and various organs at risk (OARs) (rectal wall, bladder, small bowel, colon, femoral heads, and kidneys). In addition dose conformity, dose inhomogeneity and overall volumes of 50% isodoses were assessed. Results: all plans were comparable concerning PTV parameters. Large differences between photon and proton techniques were seen in volumes of the 50% isodoses and conformity indices. DVH for colon and small bowel were significantly improved with PT and IMPT compared to IMXT, with D{sub mean} reductions of 50-80%. Doses to kidneys and femoral heads could also be substantially reduced with PT and IMPT. Sparing of rectum and bladder was superior with protons as well but less pronounced. Conclusion: proton beam RT has significant potential to improve treatment related side effects in the bowel compared to photon beam RT in patients with advanced cervix carcinoma. (orig.)

  20. Assessment of improved organ at risk sparing for advanced cervix carcinoma utilizing precision radiotherapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, D.; Georg, P.; Hillbrand, M.; Poetter, R.; Mock, U.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the potential benefit of proton therapy and photon based intensity-modulated radiotherapy in comparison to 3-D conformal photon radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in locally advanced cervix cancer. Patients and methods: in five patients with advanced cervix cancer 3D-CRT (four-field box) was compared with intensity modulated photon (IMXT) and proton therapy (IMPT) as well as proton beam therapy (PT) based on passive scattering. Planning target volumes (PTVs) included primary tumor and pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) were analyzed for the PTV and various organs at risk (OARs) (rectal wall, bladder, small bowel, colon, femoral heads, and kidneys). In addition dose conformity, dose inhomogeneity and overall volumes of 50% isodoses were assessed. Results: all plans were comparable concerning PTV parameters. Large differences between photon and proton techniques were seen in volumes of the 50% isodoses and conformity indices. DVH for colon and small bowel were significantly improved with PT and IMPT compared to IMXT, with D mean reductions of 50-80%. Doses to kidneys and femoral heads could also be substantially reduced with PT and IMPT. Sparing of rectum and bladder was superior with protons as well but less pronounced. Conclusion: proton beam RT has significant potential to improve treatment related side effects in the bowel compared to photon beam RT in patients with advanced cervix carcinoma. (orig.)

  1. Developing techniques for the utilization of Planctomycetes as producers of bioactive molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Jeske

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Planctomycetes are conspicuous, ubiquitous, environmentally important bacteria. They can attach to various surfaces in aquatic habitats and form biofilms. Their unique FtsZ-independent budding cell division mechanism is associated with slow growth and doubling times from six hours up to one month. Despite this putative disadvantage in the struggle to colonize surfaces, Planctomycetes are frequently associated with aquatic phototrophic organisms such as diatoms, cyanobacteria or kelp, whereby Planctomycetes can account for up to 50 % of the biofilm-forming bacterial population. Consequently, Planctomycetes were postulated to play an important role in carbon utilization, for example as scavengers after phototrophic blooms. However, given their observed slow growth, such findings are surprising since other faster- growing heterotrophs tend to colonize similar ecological niches. Accordingly, Planctomycetes were suspected to produce antibiotics for habitat protection in response to the attachment on phototrophs. Recently, we demonstrated their genomic potential to produce nonribosomal peptides, polyketides, bacteriocins, and terpenoids that might have antibiotic activities. In this study, we describe the development of a pipeline that consists of tools and procedures to cultivate Planctomycetes for the production of antimicrobial compounds in a chemically- defined medium and a procedure to chemically mimic their interaction with bacteria such as for example Cyanobacteria. We evaluated and adjusted screening assays to allow the hunt for planctomycetal antibiotics. As proof of principle, we demonstrate antimicrobial activities of planctomycetal extracts from Planctopirus limnophila DSM 3776, Rhodopirellula baltica DSM 10527, and the recently isolated strain Pan216. By combining UV/Vis and high resolution mass spectrometry data from High-Performance Liquid Chromatography fractionations with growth inhibition of indicator strains, we were able to assign

  2. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jessica S Veysey; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer) and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools). Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding populations of pool

  3. An Experimental Test of Buffer Utility as a Technique for Managing Pool-Breeding Amphibians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Veysey Powell

    Full Text Available Vegetated buffers are used extensively to manage wetland-dependent wildlife. Despite widespread application, buffer utility has not been experimentally validated for most species. To address this gap, we conducted a six-year, landscape-scale experiment, testing how buffers of different widths affect the demographic structure of two amphibian species at 11 ephemeral pools in a working forest of the northeastern U.S. We randomly assigned each pool to one of three treatments (i.e., reference, 100m buffer, 30m buffer and clearcut to create buffers. We captured all spotted salamanders and wood frogs breeding in each pool and examined the impacts of treatment and hydroperiod on breeding-population abundance, sex ratio, and recapture rate. The negative effects of clearcutting tended to increase as forest-buffer width decreased and be strongest for salamanders and when other stressors were present (e.g., at short-hydroperiod pools. Recapture rates were reduced in the 30m, but not 100m, treatment. Throughout the experiment for frogs, and during the first year post-cut for salamanders, the predicted mean proportion of recaptured adults in the 30m treatment was only 62% and 40%, respectively, of that in the reference treatment. Frog sex ratio and abundance did not differ across treatments, but salamander sex ratios were increasingly male-biased in both cut treatments. By the final year, there were on average, only about 40% and 65% as many females predicted in the 100m and 30m treatments, respectively, compared to the first year. Breeding salamanders at short-hydroperiod pools were about 10% as abundant in the 100m versus reference treatment. Our study demonstrates that buffers partially mitigate the impacts of habitat disturbance on wetland-dependent amphibians, but buffer width and hydroperiod critically mediate that process. We provide the first experimental evidence showing that 30-m-wide buffers may be insufficient for maintaining resilient breeding

  4. Effect of applying wheat stubble on preservation and utilization of n-fertilizer by 15N trace technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xinyu; Zhang Yumei; Xiang Hua; Hu Jisheng

    1991-10-01

    By using 15 N trace technique, the effect of applying wheat stubble on the preservation and utilization rate of 15 N- ammonium sulphate have been studied. The abundance of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 fertilizer was 8.92%. After three years pot test and field plot test, the results showed that the yields with ' 15 N+mulching' and ' 15 N+incorporating' treated were increased by 5.4∼30.0% for spring wheat and millet(pot test), and 18∼23% for winter wheat and summer corn(field plot test), as compared with only ' 15 N' treatment. The results of 15 N-fertilizer labelled tests showed that the utilization rates of 15 N-fertilizer treated by ' 15 N+mulching' for cropping seasons were 57.8%, 65.8%, 36.6% and 8.5% respectively. These were increased 3.7%, 10.2%, 21.5% and 2.8% as compared with only ' 15 N' treatment. Comparing with only ' 15 N'treatment, the N leached off by percolation water was decreasing 50%, the loss of N caused by volatilization was decreasing 30.3% and the N in humus was increasing 21.1%. All of these proved that the applying of wheat stubble in different mode would adjust and control the activation of microbe in the soil, and the preservation and utilization rate of fertilizer in the soul would be increased

  5. The utilization of cranial models created using rapid prototyping techniques in the development of models for navigation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waran, V; Pancharatnam, Devaraj; Thambinayagam, Hari Chandran; Raman, Rajagopal; Rathinam, Alwin Kumar; Balakrishnan, Yuwaraj Kumar; Tung, Tan Su; Rahman, Z A

    2014-01-01

    Navigation in neurosurgery has expanded rapidly; however, suitable models to train end users to use the myriad software and hardware that come with these systems are lacking. Utilizing three-dimensional (3D) industrial rapid prototyping processes, we have been able to create models using actual computed tomography (CT) data from patients with pathology and use these models to simulate a variety of commonly performed neurosurgical procedures with navigation systems. To assess the possibility of utilizing models created from CT scan dataset obtained from patients with cranial pathology to simulate common neurosurgical procedures using navigation systems. Three patients with pathology were selected (hydrocephalus, right frontal cortical lesion, and midline clival meningioma). CT scan data following an image-guidance surgery protocol in DIACOM format and a Rapid Prototyping Machine were taken to create the necessary printed model with the corresponding pathology embedded. The ability in registration, planning, and navigation of two navigation systems using a variety of software and hardware provided by these platforms was assessed. We were able to register all models accurately using both navigation systems and perform the necessary simulations as planned. Models with pathology utilizing 3D rapid prototyping techniques accurately reflect data of actual patients and can be used in the simulation of neurosurgical operations using navigation systems. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-05-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references.

  7. Human ketone body production and utilization studied using tracer techniques: Regulation by free fatty acids, insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, U.; Lustenberger, M.; Mueller-Brand, J.G.; Gerber, P.P.; Stauffacher, W.

    1989-01-01

    Ketone body concentrations fluctuate markedly during physiological and pathological conditions. Tracer techniques have been developed in recent years to study production, utilization, and the metabolic clearance rate of ketone bodies. This review describes data on the roles of insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones in the regulation of ketone body kinetics. The data indicate that insulin lowers ketone body concentrations by three independent mechanisms: first, it inhibits lipolysis, and thus lowers free fatty acid availability for ketogenesis; second, it restrains ketone body production within the liver; third, it enhances peripheral ketone body utilization. To assess these effects in humans in vivo, experimental models were developed to study insulin effects with controlled concentrations of free fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and ketone bodies. Presently available data also support an important role of catecholamines in increasing ketone body concentrations. Evidence was presented that norepinephrine increases ketogenesis not only by stimulating lipolysis, and thus releasing free fatty acids, but also by increasing intrahepatic ketogenesis. Thyroid hormone availability was associated with lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone body concentrations after an overnight fast were only modestly elevated in hyperthyroidism resulting from increased peripheral ketone body clearance. There was a significant correlation between serum triiodothyronine levels and the ketone body metabolic clearance rate. Thus, ketone body homeostasis in human subjects resulted from the interaction of hormones such as insulin, catecholamines, and thyroid hormones regulating lipolysis, intrahepatic ketogenesis, and peripheral ketone body utilization. 58 references

  8. Utilization of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring and Evaluation of Solo Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Gunawan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is an application of remote sensing technology for monitoring and evaluation of watershed management, which was conducted is Solo Watershed, Central and East Java. The research objectives were 1 to investigate the capability of photomorphic analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Themmatic Mapper (ETM + imagery as the basic for analyzes of landforms, landuse, and morphometry of the land surface; 2 to calculate the overland flow – peak discharge and erosion – sediment yield as indicators of land degradation of the area; 3 to use the indicators as set of instrument for monitoring and evaluation of watershed management. In this study, visual interpretation by means of on-screen digilization of the digital imagery was carried out in order to identify and to delineate land parameters using photomorphic approach. Based on the photomorphic analysis, several image – based parameters such as relief topography, physical soil characteristic, litho – stratigraphy, and vegetation cover were integrated with other themati maps in a geographic information system (GIS environment. Estimation of overland flow (C based on Cook methods (1942 and calculation of peak disccharge (Qmax based on rational method (Qmax = C. I. A were applied. Meanwhile, estimation of surface erosion was carried out using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, A = R. K. L. S. CP. The sediment yield (Sy was estimated using seddiment delivery ratio ( SDR based on the following formula: Sy = [A + (25% x A] x SDR. Both pairs of C – Qmax and A – Sy, were utilized as the basis for monitoring and evaluation of the watershed. The combination of C – Qmax and A – Sy were also used as the basis for selection of stream gauge setting / AWLR within particular sub – catchment. It was found that the photomorphic analysis is only color/tone, slope aspects, pattern, and texture, unit boundaries between volcanic – origin landscape (Wilis volcanic complex and folded

  9. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY FOR DIRECT REPAIR OF LUMBAR SPONDYLOLYSIS BY UTILIZING INTRAOPERATIVE NAVIGATION AND MICROENDOSCOPIC TECHNIQUES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Zhengfeng; Li, Changqing; Zheng, Wenjie

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the effectiveness of direct screw repair for lumbar spondylolysis by using intraoperative O-arm based navigation and microendoscopic techniques. Between February 2012 and May 2014, 11 consecutive patients with lumbar spondylolysis were treated with Buck's procedure by the aid of intraoperative O-arm based navigation and minimally invasive approach. The debridement and autograft of pars interarticularis defects was performed under microendoscopy. There were 7 males and 4 females, with an average age of 28.4 years (range, 19 - 47 years) and an average disease duration of 10.5 months (range, 8-23 months); no nerve symptoms or signs of lower limb was observed. The radiological examinations showed single level bilateral lumbar spondylolysis without obvious disc degeneration, lumbar instability, or spondylolisthesis. Isthmic injury located at L4 in 2 cases and at L5 in 9 cases. Of 11 patients, 7 were rated as grade 2 disc degeneration, and 4 as grade 3 disc degeneration according to the modified Pfirrmann classification system. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and complications were recorded. The fluoroscopic examinations were performed to assess defect repair and screw position. Visual analogue scale (VAS) score was used to evaluate the improvement of low back pain. The average operation time was 147.6 minutes (range, 126-183 minutes). The average blood loss was 54.9 mL (range, 40-85 mL). Primary healing of incision was obtained. There was no complication of nerve root injury, dural tear, or infection. Three patients had pain at donor site postoperatively, and pain disappeared within 3 weeks. The average follow-up duration was 15.7 months (range, 10-23 months). VAS score of low back pain was significantly decreased from preoperative 7.1 ± 2.3 to 1.8 ± 0.4 at last follow-up (t = 13.42, P = 0.01). Of 22 isthmic bone grafting, bilateral isthmic bony fusion was achieved in 7 patients and unilateral isthmic bony fusion in 3 patients at 6-10 months

  10. Recently-developed neutron activation analysis techniques utilizing the University of California at Irvine TRIGA Mark I reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Chambless, D.; Cortes T, E.; DeLancey, K.; Garzonov, E.; Miller, D.A.; Miller, G.E.; Purcell, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine (UCI) 250 kW TRIGA Mark I reactor is used extensively for neutron activation analysis (NAA) studies. These particularly include basic technique studies and application studies in the fields of environmental pollution, crime investigation, archaeology, oceanography, and geochemistry. In recent NAA studies at UCI, a number of techniques have been developed which considerably improve the usefulness of such a research reactor for NAA work, and which should be of interest and use to others. Six of these techniques will be described in further detail in the full paper. They are as follows: development and use of (1) an automated high-precision rapid transfer system for instrumental NAA measurements with induced activities having half lives as short as 0.5 second, (2) an automated measurement system and computer program for making accurate dead-time corrections under conditions where the Ge(Li) spectrometer deadtime is changing rapidly during the counting period, (3) a technique to minimize the loss of mercury from samples during reactor irradiation via the use of dry-ice-packed, vented TRIGA rotary rack tubes, (4) a technique for compacting powdered samples, by pre-irradiation treatment with a solution of paraffin in carbon disulfide, to provide reproducible irradiation and counting geometries, (5) a method utilizing hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) as a pre-irradiation treatment material for removal of sodium from aqueous and wet-ashed samples, and (6) a computerized system for predicting in advance of activation, from approximate known elemental compositions, the total counting rate, deadtime, spectrum shape, principal photopeaks, and approximate actual lower limits of instrumental NAA detection of designated elements for any selected irradiation and decay times. (author)

  11. Marine biogeochemistry of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)

  12. Online estimation of radionuclide transportation in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Jing Zhang; Li-Sheng Hu

    2017-01-01

    Transportation evaluation of the radionuclide waste discharged from nuclear power plants is an essential licensing issue, especially for inland sites. Basically, the dynamics of radionuclide transportation are nonlinear and time-varying. Motivated by its time-consuming computation, the work proposed an online estimation method for the radionuclide waste in water surface. After extracting the nonlinearity of factors influencing radionuclide transportation, the method utilizes transfer function and generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity models to perform deterministic and probabilistic estimations. It turns out that, the resulting predictions show high accuracy and can optimize the online discharge management of radioactive waste for nuclear power plants. (author)

  13. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  14. Choice of radionuclide for antibody labelling: new perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, D.K.; Dass, S.

    1983-01-01

    The expanding horizons of labelled antibody techniques in diagnostic imaging or assay, therapy and research and the availabilities of monoclonal antibodies is resulting in a demand for suitable radionuclides as antibody labels. An outline is given of the different criteria for choosing an appropriate radionuclide for labelling an antibody depending on its particular field of use. The requirements of procedures for firmly linking radionuclides to antibodies are also given. (U.K.)

  15. Rest and exercise radionuclide angiography for diagnosis in chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rest and exercise radionuclide angiography is frequently employed for the diagnosis of chest pain syndromes. Its value and limitations in this regard have been well studied, but proper utilization of the technique requires an understanding of five critical concepts: (1) Radionuclide angiography is superior to treadmill exercise testing and probably equivalent to thallium scintigraphy, although the published series did not use current methods. (2) The true specificity of radionuclide angiography is about 80%, intermediate between the early optimistic estimates and the later pessimistic ones. (3) The peak exercise ejection fraction is the preferred test parameter for diagnosis, although exercise hemodynamics, symptoms, and electrocardiographic changes should also be considered. (4) Although radionuclide angiography is clearly helpful for noninvasive diagnosis, significant numbers of patients will continue to fall in an uncertain category. (5) The proper application of the technique requires recognition of its limitations and careful attention to technical details. When properly applied, this modality can make an important contribution to clinical decision making. 58 references

  16. Development and evaluation of in vivo monitoring techniques of high energy radionuclides in the lungs in emergency situations; Desenvolvimento e avaliação de técnicas de monitoração in vivo de radionuclídeos de alta energia nos pulmões em situações de emergência

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J.Q.; Lucena, E.A.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M., E-mail: jquince@bolsista.ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisão de Dosimetria. Laboratório de Monitoração in vivo

    2017-07-01

    Emergency situations in nuclear power plants involving the release of radioactive materials require the use of monitoring techniques for individuals exposed to risks of radionuclide incorporation. Such techniques should provide rapid results and provide sufficient sensitivity for the detection of activities that result in internal doses consistent with exposure limits. A wide variety of radionuclides can be identified and quantified by means of in vivo monitoring techniques in the human body and their availability is of great importance in remediation actions. This work presents the development and validation of an in vivo monitoring method for the evaluation of inhaled radionuclide incorporation. The monitoring system, consisting of an 8 x 4 NaI (Tl) detector installed on the IRD Whole-Body Counter, was calibrated with a chest and lung simulator type LLNL containing {sup 152}Eu. The detection efficiencies corresponding to the most intense photon energies of {sup 152}Eu were calculated and a calibration curve in the range of 100 to 1400 keV was obtained. From this curve, the detection efficiencies, the minimum detectable activities and the detectable minimum effective doses corresponding to the most relevant radionuclides in the case of a radioactive pen-releasing accident were calculated. The technique presents adequate sensitivity for in vivo monitoring in such situations, being able to detect activities that result in effective doses committed below 1 mSv, considering the most probable scenarios of internal exposure.

  17. Method and apparstus for determining random coincidence count rate in a scintillation counter utilizing the coincidence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the reliable determination of a random coincidence count attributable to chance coincidences of single-photon events which are each detected in only a single detector of a scintillation counter utilizing two detectors in a coincidence counting technique are described. A firstdelay device is employed to delay output pulses from one detector, and then the delayed signal is compared with the undelayed signal from the other detector in a coincidence circuit, to obtain an approximate random coincidence count. The output of the coincidence circuit is applied to an anti-coincidence circuit, where it is corrected by elimination of pulses coincident with, and attributable to, conventionally detected real coincidences, and by elimination of pulses coincident with, and attributable to, real coincidences that have been delayed by a second delay device having the same time parameter as the first. 8 claims

  18. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  19. Report of the 2. research coordination meeting on development of generator technologies for therapeutic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this CRP are to evaluate various generator and concentration technologies for 188 W- 188 Re, 99 Mo- 99 mTc and 90 Sr- 90 Y generators, to optimize generator fabrication and use, to standardize quality control techniques for the eluted radionuclides and to provide standardized procedures to participating laboratories. The following issues will be addressed during the CRP. - Development of reproducible methodologies for the preparation of 188 W- 188 Re, 99 Mo- 99 mTc and 90 Sr- 90 Y generators. - Development and evaluation of chromatography adsorbents (Zr/Ti composites) having higher binding capacities and demonstration of their utility in the preparation of column generators for 188 Re and 99 mTc. - Comparison and optimization of technologies for post elution concentration of 188 Re and 99 mTc in order to improve the radioactive concentration. - Development of quality control techniques and specifications for generator eluted therapeutic radionuclides

  20. Measurements of the Backstreaming Proton IONS in the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) Diode Utilizing Copper Activation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarakis, Michael; Cuneo, Michael; Fournier, Sean; Johnston, Mark; Kiefer, Mark; Leckbee, Joshua; Simpson, Sean; Renk, Timothy; Webb, Timothy; Bennett, Nichelle

    2016-10-01

    The results presented here were obtained with an SMP diode mounted at the front high voltage end of the 8-10-MV RITS Self-Magnetically Insulated Transmission Line (MITL) voltage adder. Our experiments had two objectives: first, to measure the contribution of the back-streaming proton currents emitted from the anode target, and second, to evaluate the energy of those ions and hence the actual Anode-Cathode (A-K) gap voltage. The accelerating voltage quoted in the literature is estimated utilizing para-potential flow theories. Thus, it is interesting to have another independent measurement of the A-K voltage. We have measured the back-streaming protons emitted from the anode and propagating through a hollow cathode tip for various diode configurations and different techniques of target cleaning treatment, namely, heating at very high temperatures with DC and pulsed current, with RF plasma cleaning, and with both plasma cleaning and heating. We have also evaluated the A-K gap voltage by energy filtering techniques. Sandia is operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE NNSA under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  2. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  3. Foodstuffs, radionuclides, monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisikov, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination of water and food stuffs as a result of the Chernobyl accident and permissible contents of 90 Sr and 137 Cs are considered in brief. A method of radiation monitoring of food stuffs and water for the radionuclides mentioned is suggested. The method permits employment of the simplest and cheapest radiometric equipment for analysis, whole the high degree of radionuclide concentration using fiber sorbents permits using the instrumentation without expensive shields against external radiation. A description of ion-exchange unit for radiation monitoring of liquid samples of food stuffs or water, is provided [ru

  4. Generator for radionuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisner, P.S.; Forrest, T.R.F.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides a radionuclide generator of the kind in which a parent radionuclide, adsorbed on a column of particulate material, generates a daughter radionuclide which is periodically removed from the column. This invention is particularly concerned with technetium generators using single collection vials. The generator comprises a column, a first reservoir for the eluent, a second reservoir to contain the volume of eluent required for a single elution, and means connecting the first reservoir to the second reservoir and the second reservoir to the column. Such a generator is particularly suitable for operation by vacuum elution

  5. Determination of radionuclides in discharged water from gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of radionuclides concentrations in discharged water from gold processing into the environment of Bogoso (Ghana) were determined using radioanalytical techniques. Radioactivity screening was first carried out to identify physical and chemical processing stages that might be concentrating the radionuclides.

  6. Radionuclide exercise ventriculography and levels of workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchank, S.

    1982-01-01

    The wealth of useful information made available from the utilization of radionuclide cardiological investigations by non-invasive means is outlined and reasons for investigating results obtained under conditions of increased heart workload are explained. The lack of an accepted protocol for the determination of exercise levels is noted. A format for obtaining increasing heart loads dependent on increasing pulse rate is offered, with justification. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography examinations can be conducted which are simple, reproducible and allow appropriate levels of stress in patients who can benefit from such investigations

  7. General program for the advancement of the radionuclide technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The 'General Program for the Advancement of the Radionuclide Technology' was elaborated in 1978 by the 'Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Foerderung der Radionuklidtechnik' (AFR) (Association for the Promotion of Radionuclide Technology). In addition to an inventory of the major applications of radionuclide technology, this General Program includes a comprehensive description of tasks relating to the central topics of raw materials, environment, technology and materials, health and nutrition, scientific developments of radionuclide technology. The 'General Program for the Advancement of the Radionuclide Technology' serves inter alia as a basis of evaluation in opinions on funding applications filed with the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT) with respect to the provision of advanced techniques involving radionuclides for industrial application. (orig.) [de

  8. Dosimetry of incorporated transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loessner, V.

    1983-01-01

    Modern in vivo and in vitro techniques for detecting transuranic radionuclides within the human body are described with special emphasis on multiparameter measuring methods developed at the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection. Furthermore, problems related to calibration and interpretation of measuring data are discussed and new methods presented for the calculation of committed dose equivalents on the basis of data from ICRP Publication 30. Also included is an introductory chapter on radiobiological fundamentals of intake, translocation and metabolism of these nuclides. (author)

  9. Utilization of the Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation Technique for Characterization and Verification of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trahan, Alexis Chanel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-27

    New nondestructive assay techniques are sought to better characterize spent nuclear fuel. One of the NDA instruments selected for possible deployment is differential die-away self-interrogation (DDSI). The proposed DDSI approach for spent fuel assembly assay utilizes primarily the spontaneous fission and (α, n) neutrons in the assemblies as an internal interrogating radiation source. The neutrons released in spontaneous fission or (α,n) reactions are thermalized in the surrounding water and induce fission in fissile isotopes, thereby creating a measurable signal from isotopes of interest that would be otherwise difficult to measure. The DDSI instrument employs neutron coincidence counting with 3He tubes and list-mode-based data acquisition to allow for production of Rossi-alpha distributions (RADs) in post-processing. The list-mode approach to data collection and subsequent construction of RADs has expanded the analytical possibilities, as will be demonstrated throughout this thesis. One of the primary advantages is that the measured signal in the form of a RAD can be analyzed in its entirety including determination of die-away times in different time domains. This capability led to the development of the early die-away method, a novel leakage multiplication determination method which is tested throughout the thesis on different sources in simulation space and fresh fuel experiments. The early die-away method is a robust, accurate, improved method of determining multiplication without the need for knowledge of the (α,n) source term. The DDSI technique and instrument are presented along with the many novel capabilities enabled by and discovered through RAD analysis. Among the new capabilities presented are the early die-away method, total plutonium content determination, and highly sensitive missing pin detection. Simulation of hundreds of different spent and fresh fuel assemblies were used to develop the analysis algorithms and the techniques were tested on a

  10. Doppler echography and utilization of intravenous echo enhancer in the follow-up of hepato carcinoma with percutaneous radiological techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forner, J.; Flored de la Torre, M.; Senis, C.; Lozano de Arnilla, M. C.; Ferrer, S.; Celma, M. I.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the utilization of Doppler ultrasound scan in conjunction with echographic enhancer in the follow-up of hepato carcinomas treated by means of radiological intervention techniques. We treated 20 hepatic nodules diagnosed with hepato carcinoma either by means of chemo embolization or percutaneously (either injection of acetic acid or radio-frequency thermo-ablation). Doppler ultrasound scan was performed before and after the treatment by means of sectorial and convex multifrequency probes. Evaluated were the absence, presence and degree of vascularisation, as well as its distribution and characteristics. In all cases, a contrast-en-handed spiral CT was performed. Both studies served as a pattern for comparison before and after treatment. In post-treatment enhanced-echo-Doppler controls of the 18 patients treated with acetic acid, vascularisation was not demonstrated in 7 cases, peripheral vascularisation was detected in 4 cases, perforation vascularisation in another four, and central vascularisation was detected in 3 cases. Contrast-enhanced spiral CT demonstrated superimposed findings, except in one cases, in which the spiral CT detected central capitation of the nodule.With enhanced echo-Doppler, peripheral vascularisation was detected. In both nodules treated by means of radio-frequency thermo ablation, there was detected neither vascularisation in the echo-Doppler nor captation of contrast media in the CT. Doppler ultrasound scan is a good method of follow-up for treated hepato carcinomas. The utilization of echoenhancers increases its ability to detect vascularization it being comparable to that of contrast-enhanced CT. As such, Doppler ultrasound scan together with echoenhancers can help us both in the selection of treatment and evaluation of therapeutic response. (Author) 35 refs

  11. Radionuclides in analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tousset, J.

    1984-01-01

    Applications of radionuclides in analytical chemistry are reviewed in this article: tracers, radioactive sources and activation analysis. Examples are given in all these fields and it is concluded that these methods should be used more widely [fr

  12. Radionuclide Basics: Iodine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Radionuclide Basics: Iodine Iodine (chemical symbol I) is a chemical element. ... in the environment Iodine sources Iodine and health Iodine in the Environment All 37 isotopes of iodine ...

  13. Abscess detection with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclide studies may aid in the diagnosis and localization of intra-abdominal infections. Despite the introduction of new radiographic and ultrasound methods, there are several clinical situations in which radionuclide scans have proved useful. Those include detection of postoperative intra-abdominal abscess, evaluation of liver abscess, differentiation between pancreatic pseudocyst or abscess, evaluation of fever of unknown origin, and evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Each clinical situation is discussed separately here

  14. Value of sonomammography utilizing color Doppler technique in qualification of breast cancer patients for sentinel node identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, P.; Wadowska-Jaszczynska, K.; Krysztopowicz, W.; Przybylska, P.; Wisniowski, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Sentinel node identification has become a standard procedure in the management of breast cancer. This procedure requires involvement of a multidisciplinary team and is rather costly. Ultrasonography (USG) of axillary lymph nodes is a method that gives hope for improving the quality of qualification of patients for the procedure. Eighty patients with grade I and II breast cancers underwent sentinel node identification followed by axillary lymphadenectomy. Pre-operative ultrasonography was employed to assess axillary lymph nodes, using the morphological and vascular characteristics as predictors of the presence of lymph node metastases. Sensitivity of sentinel node identification reached 89.3%, specificity - 100%, positive predictive value - 100%, negative predictive value - 93.5%, percentage of false negative results - 10.7%. Sensitivity of USG reached 68.75 %, and specificity - 70.31%. In the group of patients in whom the sentinel node was identified, the sensitivity of the method was 69.23 %, and specificity - 72.41%. Preoperative axillary lymph node ultrasonography in breast cancer patients, utilizing color Doppler technique, allows better selection of patients for sentinel node identification procedure. (author)

  15. An investigation into the application of modern heuristic optimisation techniques to problems in power and processing utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahal, Keshav Prasad

    2000-01-01

    The work contained in this thesis demonstrates that there is a significant requirement for the development and application of new optimisation techniques for solving industrial scheduling problems, in order to achieve a better schedule with significant economic and operational impact. An investigation of how modern heuristic approaches, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA), fuzzy logic and hybrids of these techniques, may be developed, designed and implemented appropriately for solving short term and long term NP-hard scheduling problems that exist in electric power utilities and process facilities. GA and SA based methods are developed for generator maintenance scheduling using a novel integer encoding and appropriate GA and SA operators. Three hybrid approaches (an inoculated GA, a GA/SA and a GA with fuzzy logic) are proposed in order to improve the solution performance, and to take advantage of any flexibilities inherent in the problem. Five different GA-based approaches are investigated for solving the generation scheduling problem. Of those, a knowledge-based hybrid GA approach achieves better solutions in a shorter computational time. This approach integrates problem specific knowledge, heuristic dispatch calculation and linear programming within the GA-framework. The application of a GA-based methodology is proposed for the scheduling of storage tanks of a water treatment facility. The proposed approach is an integration of a GA and a heuristic rule-base. The GA string considers the tank allocation problem, and the heuristic approach solves the rate determination problems within the framework of the GA. For optimising the schedule of operations of a bulk handling port facility, a generic modelling tool is developed characterising the operational and maintenance activities of the facility. A GA-based approach is integrated with the simulation software for optimising the scheduling of operations of the facility. Each of these approaches is

  16. Performance evaluation of spectral deconvolution analysis tool (SDAT) software used for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz Biegalski, K.M.; Biegalski, S.R.; Haas, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) software was developed to improve counting statistics and detection limits for nuclear explosion radionuclide measurements. SDAT utilizes spectral deconvolution spectroscopy techniques and can analyze both β-γ coincidence spectra for radioxenon isotopes and high-resolution HPGe spectra from aerosol monitors. Spectral deconvolution spectroscopy is an analysis method that utilizes the entire signal deposited in a gamma-ray detector rather than the small portion of the signal that is present in one gamma-ray peak. This method shows promise to improve detection limits over classical gamma-ray spectroscopy analytical techniques; however, this hypothesis has not been tested. To address this issue, we performed three tests to compare the detection ability and variance of SDAT results to those of commercial off- the-shelf (COTS) software which utilizes a standard peak search algorithm. (author)

  17. Dosimetry in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccabona, G.

    2001-01-01

    While it is known that therapeutic effects of radionuclides are due to absorbed radiation dose and to radiosensitivity, individual dosimetry in 'Gy' is practiced rarely in clinical Nuclear Medicine but 'doses' are described in 'mCi' or 'MBq', which is only indirectly related to 'Gy' in the target. To estimate 'Gy', the volume of the target, maximum concentration of the radiopharmaceutical in it and residence time should be assessed individually. These parameters can be obtained usually only with difficulty, involving possibly also quantitative SPET or PET, modern imaging techniques (sonography, CT, MRT), substitution of y- or positron emitting radiotracers for β - emitting radiopharmaceuticals as well as whole-body distribution studies. Residence time can be estimated by obtaining data on biological half-life of a comparable tracer and transfer of these data in the physical characteristics of the therapeutic agent. With all these possibilities for gross dosimetry the establishment of a dose-response-relation should be possible. As distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in lesions is frequently inhomogenous and microdosimetric conditions are difficult to assess in vivo as yet, it could be observed since decades that empirically set, sometimes 'fixed' doses (mCi or MBq) can also be successful in many diseases. Detailed dosimetric studies, however, are work- and cost-intensive. Nevertheless, one should be aware at a time when more sophisticated therapeutic possibilities in Nuclear Medicine arise, that we should try to estimate radiation dose (Gy) in our new methods even as differences in individual radiosensitivity cannot be assessed yet and studies to define individual radiosensitivity in lesions should be encouraged. (author)

  18. Activities of research-reactor-technology project in FNCA from FY2005 to FY2007. Sharing neutronics calculation technique for core management and utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    RRT project (Research-Reactor-Technology Project) was carried out with the theme of 'sharing neutronics calculation technique for core management and utilization of research reactors' in the framework of FNCA (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) from FY2005 to FY2007. The objective of the project was to improve and equalize the level of neutronics calculation technique for the reactor core management among participating countries to assure the safe and stable operation of research reactors and the promotion of the effective utilization. Neutronics calculation codes, namely SRAC code system and MVP code, were adopted as common codes. Participating countries succeeded in applying the common codes to analyzing the core of each domestic research reactor. Some participating countries succeeded in applying the common codes to analyzing for utilization of own research reactors. Activities of RRT project have improved and equalized the level of neutronics calculation technique among participating countries. (author)

  19. Granulometric analysis of sediments containing transuranic radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.; Additon, M.K.

    1980-11-01

    A dry sieving technique using a sonic sifter was selected for the granulometric analysis of sediment samples containing radionuclide contamination. A sieve facility was established in the 234-5Z building for this purpose. Fifty-two contaminated sediment samples from the 216-Z-1A crib were sieved in the facility at a rate of two to four samples per day with no major problems. A comparison of particle size and radionuclide concentration indicated that there is no obvious benefit to particle size separation as a means of sediment decontamination, though an economic analysis will have to be conducted before a final decision can be made

  20. Radionuclide fixation mechanisms in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1991-01-01

    In the safety evaluation of the radioactive waste disposal in geological environment, the mass balance equation for radionuclide migration is given. The sorption of radionuclides by geological formations is conventionally represented by the retardation of the radionuclides as compared with water movement. In order to quantify the sorption of radionuclides by rocks and sediments, the distribution ratio is used. In order to study quantitatively the long term behavior of waste radionuclides in geological environment, besides the distribution ratio concept in short term, slower radionuclide retention reaction involving mineral transformation should be considered. The development of microspectroscopic method for long term reaction path modeling, the behavior of iron during granite and water interaction, the reduction precipitation of radionuclides, radionuclide migration pathways, and the representative scheme of radionuclide migration and fixation in rocks are discussed. (K.I.)

  1. SU-F-T-427: Utilization and Evaluation of Diagnostic CT Imaging with MAR Technique for Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M; Foster, R; Parks, H; Pankuch, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to utilize and evaluate diagnostic CT-MAR technique for radiation therapy treatment planning. Methods: A Toshiba-diagnostic-CT acquisition with SEMAR(Single-energy-MAR)-algorism was performed to make the metal-artifact-reduction (MAR) for patient treatment planning. CT-imaging datasets with and without SEMAR were taken on a Catphan-phantom. Two sets of CT-numbers were calibrated with the relative electron densities (RED). A tissue characterization phantom with Gammex various simulating material rods was used to establish the relationship between known REDs and corresponding CT-numbers. A GE-CT-sim acquisition was taken on the Catphan for comparison. A patient with bilateral hip arthroplasty was scanned in the radiotherapy CT-sim and the diagnostic SEMAR-CT on a flat panel. The derived SEMAR images were used as a primary CT dataset to create contours for the target, critical-structures, and for planning. A deformable registration was performed with VelocityAI to track voxel changes between SEMAR and CT-sim images. The SEMAR-CT images with minimal artifacts and high quality of geometrical and spatial integrity were employed for a treatment plan. Treatment-plans were evaluated based on deformable registration of SEMAR-CT and CT-sim dataset with assigned CT-numbers in the metal artifact regions in Eclipse v11 TPS. Results: The RED and CT-number relationships were consistent for the datasets in CT-sim and CT’s with and without SEMAR. SEMAR datasets with high image quality were used for PTV and organ delineation in the treatment planning process. For dose distribution to the PTV through the DVH analysis, the plan using CT-sim with the assigned CT-number showed a good agreement to those on deformable CT-SEMAR. Conclusion: A diagnostic-CT with MAR-algorithm can be utilized for radiotherapy treatment planning with CT-number calibrated to the RED. Treatment planning comparison and DVH shows a good agreement in the PTV and critical organs between

  2. Radionuclides in radiation-induced bystander effect; may it share in radionuclide therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widel, M

    2017-01-01

    For many years in radiobiology and radiotherapy predominated the conviction that cellular DNA is the main target for ionizing radiation, however, the view has changed in the past 20 years. Nowadays, it is assumed that not only directed (targeted) radiation effect, but also an indirect (non-targeted) effect may contribute to the result of radiation treatment. Non-targeted effect is relatively well recognized after external beam irradiation in vitro and in vivo, and comprises such phenomena like radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE), genomic instability, adaptive response and abscopal (out of field) effect. These stress-induced and molecular signaling mediated phenomena appear in non-targeted cells as variety responses resembling that observed in directly hit cells. Bystander effects can be both detrimental and beneficial in dependence on dose, dose-rate, cell type, genetic status and experimental condition. Less is known about radionuclide-induced non-targeted effects in radionuclide therapy, although, based on characteristics of the radionuclide radiation, on experiments in vitro utilizing classical and 3-D cell cultures, and preclinical study on animals it seems obvious that exposure to radionuclide is accompanied by various bystander effects, mostly damaging, less often protective. This review summarizes existing data on radionuclide induced bystander effects comprising radionuclides emitting beta- and alpha-particles and Auger electrons used in tumor radiotherapy and diagnostics. So far, separation of the direct effect of radionuclide decay from crossfire and bystander effects in clinical targeted radionuclide therapy is impossible because of the lack of methods to assess whether, and to what extent bystander effect is involved in human organism. Considerations on this topic are also included.

  3. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 240 Pu, and 3 H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay

  4. Utility of γH2AX as a molecular marker of DNA double-strand breaks in nuclear medicine: applications to radionuclide therapy employing auger electron-emitting isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Li-Jeen; Orlowski, Christian; Ververis, Katherine; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    There is an intense interest in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for cancer therapy. In particular, radiopharmaceuticals which involve targeting radionuclides specifically to cancer cells with the use of monoclonal antibodies (radioimmunotherapy) or peptides (targeted radiotherapy) are being widely investigated. For example, the ultra-short range Auger electron-emitting isotopes, which are discussed in this review, are being considered in the context of DNAtargeted radiotherapy. The efficient quantitative evaluation of the levels of damage caused by such potential radiopharmaceuticals is required for assessment of therapeutic efficacy and determination of relevant doses for successful treatment. The DNA double-strand break surrogate marker, γH2AX, has emerged as a useful biomonitor of damage and thus effectiveness of treatment, offering a highly specific and sensitive means of assessment. This review will cover the potential applications of γH2AX in nuclear medicine, in particular radionuclide therapy.

  5. Radioactivity: radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.E.; Baratta, E.J.; Jelinek, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The results are summarized of the analysis for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, ruthenium-106, and potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, in samples of total diet and selected import commodities in the foods compliance program of the Food and Drug Administration. On the basis of the radionuclide intake guidelines established by the Federal Radiation Council (FRC), the low content of radionuclides found in the total diet samples for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 demonstrates the need for surveillance only at the present level. The low levels of radionuclides found in a limited number of edible imported commodities indicate that their contribution to the total diet would not increase the levels of these radionuclides above those recommended for only periodic surveillance by the FRC. The potassium levels, determined from potassium-40 activity, found in meats and fish agree with the value for normal muscle tissue for the reference man reported by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. Of the other commodities, nuts contained the highest levels, while sugar, beverages, and processed foods contained the lowest levels of potassium. Although cesium and potassium are chemical analogs with similar metabolic properties, because of their variable content in some leafy samples as a result of surface contamination, a correlation between cesium-137 levels and the cesium-137-to-potassium ratio was inconclusive

  6. Radionuclide diagnosis of pulmonary capillary protein leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, H.; Sturm, J.A.; Schober, O.; Nerlich, M.L.; Kant, C.J.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary extravascular albumin extra-vasation in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome can be quantified with radionuclide techniques. While imaging procedures with a computerized gamma camera will allow reproducible ROIs, this will be the main limitation in nonimaging measurements with small scintillation probes. Repeated positioning by one operator results in a mean spatial variation of position of about 2 cm and a variation in count rate of 25%. For the estimation of PCPL the small probes must be positioned under scintigraphic control. Under these conditions the results of both techniques are identical. The upper limit of normal was estimated to be 1 x E-5/sec. The standard deviation abnormal measurements was about 10%. The pulmonary capillary protein leakage can be quantified by radionuclide techniques with good accuracy, using the combination of imaging and nonimaging techniques. (orig.) [de

  7. EANM 2012 guidelines for radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taieb, D.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Hindie, E.; Guillet, B.A.; Neumann, H.P.; Walz, M.K.; Opocher, G.; de Herder, W.W.; Boedeker, C.C.; de Krijger, R.R.; Chiti, A.; Al-Nahhas, A.; Pacak, K.; Rubello, D.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Radionuclide imaging of phaeochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) involves various functional imaging techniques and approaches for accurate diagnosis, staging and tumour characterization. The purpose of the present guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in

  8. Biomass selection for biosorption study of 226 Ra and 137 Cd radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Wilson Cervi da

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of this work was to verify the potentialities to apply the biosorption technique to synthetic and real solution containing 226 Ra and 137 Cs, utilizing the seaweed Sargassum sp. and the microorganisms Penicillium sp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Monoraphidium sp. Indeed, the screening of the most effective biomass to remove the radionuclides was also a central objective. 226 Ra was selected due to its high radiotoxicity and the fact that it can be assimilated and incorporated by living organism through substitution og Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ , two essential nutrients. On the other hand, the selection of 137 Cs, a radionuclide of medium toxicity, was due to its mobility in the environment, which increases the possibility to be assimilated by the organisms as the essential nutrients Na + and K + . (author)

  9. Determination of radionuclides for river sediment CRM with HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jinbo; Hao Runlong; Tang Zhenxin

    1994-01-01

    The authors described the method and results for determination of seven radionuclides: 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 60 Co and 137 Cs in the river sediment Certified Reference Material (CRM) using a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The accuracy and reliability of measurement results were improved through varieties of techniques, which include: precise calibration of the gamma-ray spectrometer, coincidence summing correction and interference peak correction, two kinds of peak analysis methods (TPA and function fit), and utilization of as many as possible characteristic gamma-rays. Present measurement results for the seven radionuclides were in agreement with the verification results of the CRM with 1 σ or 2σ uncertainty, and its relative deviation were in the range of +1.0%--6.5%

  10. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article

  11. Radionuclide behavior at underground environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Phil Soo; Park, Chung Kyun; Keum, Dong Kwon; Cho, Young Hwan; Kang, Moon Ja; Baik, Min Hoon; Hahn, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Soo

    2003-04-01

    This study of radionuclide behavior at underground environment has been carried out as a part of the study of high-level waste disposal technology development. Therefore, the main objectives of this project are constructing a data-base and producing data for the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste, and verification of the objectivity of the assessment through characterization of the geochemical processes and experimental validation of the radionuclide migration. This project is composed of 6 subjects such as data production required for safety assessments, sorption properties and mechanisms, nuclide migration in the fractured rock, colloid formation and migration, nuclide speciation in deep geological environments, and total evaluation of geochemical behaviors considering multi-factors. The various results from the this project can be applicable to the preliminary safety and performance assessments of the established disposal concept for a future high-level radioactive waste repository. Providing required data and technical basis for assessment methodologies could be a direct application of the results. In a long-term view, the results can also be utilized as a technical background for the establishment of government policy for high-level radioactive waste disposal

  12. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  13. Radionuclides in foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains data on the levels of radionuclides in the UK foodchain. Most data derive from monitoring programmes that exist around nuclear sites, and in some cases date back to the 1960s. Some comparative data from site operator and government-run programmes are included. Data from monitoring undertaken after the Chernobyl accident are summarised. General monitoring of the foodchain for both artificial and natural radionuclides, and the results of relevant government-sponsored research are also described. The report includes basic information on radioactivity in the environment, radiation protection standards and describes what measures are taken to routinely monitor the foodchain and assess public risk. (Author)

  14. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  15. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  16. Radionuclide deposition control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the deposition, on to the surfaces of reactor components, of the radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from a liquid stream containing the radionuclides. The method consists of disposing a getter material (nickel) in the liquid stream, and a non-getter material (tantalum, tungsten or molybdenum) as a coating on the surfaces where deposition is not desired. The process is described with special reference to its use in the coolant circuit in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. (U.K.)

  17. Radionuclide examination in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streda, A.; Kolar, J.; Valesova, M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of twenty years of experience with the use of radionuclides in bone and articular rheumatic diseases indications for such examinations are summed up. The main advantage of the use of radionuclide methods is that they bring forward early diagnosis of tissue reconstruction which can thus be detected at the stage of microstructural changes. They also provide earlier and more reliable detection of the degree of the pathological process than is provided by X-ray examination. In some cases scintiscan may also be found useful as a method for following up the results of treatment of rheumatic diseases. (author)

  18. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  19. Expert system based radionuclide identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarnio, P.A.; Ala-Heikkil, J.J.; Hakulinen, T.T.; Nikkinen, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert system coupled with the gamma spectrum analysis system SAMPO has been developed for automating the qualitative identification of radionuclides as well as for determining the quantitative parameters of the spectrum components. The program is written in C-language and runs in various environments ranging from PCs to UNIX workstations. The expert system utilizes a complete gamma library with over 2600 nuclides and 80,000 lines, and a rule base of about fifty criteria including energies, relative peak intensities, genesis modes, half lives, parent-daughter relationships, etc. The rule base is furthermore extensible by the user. This is not an original contribution but a somewhat updated version of papers and reports previously published elsewhere. (author)

  20. Utilization of Innovations and Techniques of Educational Technology in Delivering of Educational Practicum and Its Impact on Increasing Academic Achievement among Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hatim G.

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the utilization of innovations and techniques of educational technology in teaching of educational practicum and its impact on increasing academic achievement among pre-service teachers. The study sample consisted of (60) pre-service teachers (student teachers) randomly selected from public middle and secondary…

  1. Technique for producing cardiac radionuclide motion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reese, I.C.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    Sequential frames of different portions of the cardiac cycle are gated into a minicomputer by using an EKG signal recorded onto digital tape simultaneously with imaging information. Serial display of these frames on the computer oscilloscope or projection of 35-mm half frames of these images provides a cardiac motion image with information content adequate for qualitatively assessing cardiac motion. (U.S.)

  2. Translating state-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques to clinical use: A systematic review of clinical studies utilizing DTI, MT, MWF, MRS, and fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan R. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: State-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques are emerging with great potential to improve the diagnosis and management of various spinal pathologies, but the current body of evidence has only showed limited clinical utility to date. Among these imaging tools DTI is the most mature, but further work is necessary to standardize and validate its use before it will be adopted in the clinical realm. Large, well-designed studies with a priori hypotheses, standardized acquisition methods, detailed clinical data collection, and robust automated analysis techniques are needed to fully demonstrate the potential of these rapidly evolving techniques.

  3. Production of radionuclides with generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.; Egamediev, S.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The radionuclide generator provides a convenient means for researchers and clinicians to obtain a source of radionuclides without dependence on nuclear facilities (nuclear reactor or cyclotron). It should be noted that radionuclide generator technique yields products of very high purity and it offers moreover the only possible way of obtaining very short-lived radionuclides for practical applications. Therefore at present radionuclide generators have found important uses in nuclear medicine. This talk reviews the development of preparation methods for radionuclide generators of current interest: 99 Mo- 99m Tc, 188 W- 188 Re and 68 Ge- 68 Ga. 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. 99m Tc is presently the most widely used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The reason for such a preeminent position of 99m Tc in clinical uses is its extremely favorable nuclear properties with γ-energy of 140 keV and short half-life of 6 hours. Chromatographic generator of 99 Mo- 99m Tc based on aluminium oxide using as eluent of isotonic saline solution, containing nitrate-ions has been produced in INP AS RU. However, the main disadvantage of this generator is that the eluent-saline solution contains some amount of nitrate-ions. Nitrate-ions added to maximize and stabilize 99m Tc yields would interfere with the chemical reactions which involve Sn(II) reduction of the pertechnetate ion and which are used subsequently in the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore we proposed the new method for preliminary treatment of aluminium oxide by the external gamma (Co-60) irradiation. It is found that the aluminium oxide has got electron-acceptor properties after gamma-irradiation. Adsorption of 99 Mo radionuclide as isopolymolybdate on gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide is very high and molybdenum is firmly retained. Adsorption capacity of gamma-irradiated aluminium oxide at pH 2-4 is 60-80 mg Mo per gram of Al 2 O 3 . The yields of 99m Tc from experimental generators remained high

  4. Miscellaneous applications of radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The procedures discussed in this chapter are either developmental, in limited clinical use, or frankly moribund. A number of radionuclide imaging techniques have proved disappointing when approached from a purely anatomic point of view. This is particularly evident to our colleagues with the explosive growth of the noninvasive imaging procedures, magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), CT, and ultrasound, and the introduction of the less invasive digital radiographic approach to vascular opacification, all of which are capable of providing exquisite anatomic or tissue detail beyond the reach of current or reasonably priced nuclear medicine imaging systems. Yet, most nuclear medicine procedures possess the unique advantage of portraying a physiologic function without interfering with that function. Moreover, the procedures can be employed under conditions of stress, which are likely to bring out pathophysiologic abnormalities that remain masked when unchallenged. Information concerning form without functional data has less meaning than both together. The physiologic information inherent in nuclear medicine imaging may often provide not only key diagnostic information but also illuminate a therapeutic trail. Yet, it is often slighted in favor of the anatomic quest. While mastery of the nuances of imaging details remains critical, radionuclide image interpretation must rest upon a firm physiologic foundation. For this reason, this chapter emphasizes the physiologic approach

  5. Sedimentary Processes. Quantification Using Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, J.; Lerche, I.

    2003-01-01

    The advent of radionuclide methods in geochronology has revolutionized our understanding of modern sedimentary processes in aquatic systems. This book examines the principles of the method and its use as a quantitative tool in marine geology, with emphasis on the Pb-210 method. The assumptions and consequences of models and their behaviour are described providing the necessary background to assess the advantages and trade-offs involved when choosing a particular model for application. One of the purposes of this volume is to disentangle the influences of complicating factors, such as sediment flux variations, post-depositional diffusion of radionuclides, and bio-irrigation of sediments, to arrive at sediment ages and to properly assess the attendant data uncertainty. Environmental impacts of chemical, nuclear, or other waste material are of concern in a variety of areas around the world today. A number of relevant examples are included, demonstrating how dating models are useful for determining sources of contaminants and interpreting their influence on the environment. The book is set at a level so that an able student or professional should have no difficulty in following the procedures and methods developed. Each chapter includes case histories showing the strengths and weaknesses of a given procedure with respect to a data example. Included with this volume is the computer source code of a new generation of modelling tools based on inverse numerical analysis techniques. This first generation of the modelling tool is included, along with detailed instructions and examples for its use, in an appendix

  6. Radionuclide production and radiopharmaceutical chemistry with BNL cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Wolf, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) radiopharmaceutical chemistry program focuses on production and utilization of radionuclides having a half-life of > 2 hr. However, a major portion of the BNL program is devoted to short-lived radionuclides, such as 11 C and 18 F. Activities encompassed in the program are classified into seven areas: cyclotron parameters, radiochemistry, design and rapid synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals and labeled compounds, radiotracer evaluation in animals, studies in humans, technology transfer, and several other areas

  7. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  8. Radionuclides deposition over Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourchet, M.; Magand, O.; Frezzotti, M.; Ekaykin, A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed and comprehensive map of the distribution patterns for both natural and artificial radionuclides over Antarctica has been established. This work integrates the results of several decades of international programs focusing on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides in snow and ice cores from this polar region. The mean value (37±20 Bq m -2 ) of 241 Pu total deposition over 28 stations is determined from the gamma emissions of its daughter 241 Am, presenting a long half-life (432.7 yrs). Detailed profiles and distributions of 241 Pu in ice cores make it possible to clearly distinguish between the atmospheric thermonuclear tests of the fifties and sixties. Strong relationships are also found between radionuclide data ( 137 Cs with respect to 241 Pu and 210 Pb with respect to 137 Cs), make it possible to estimate the total deposition or natural fluxes of these radionuclides. Total deposition of 137 Cs over Antarctica is estimated at 760 TBq, based on results from the 90-180 deg. East sector. Given the irregular distribution of sampling sites, more ice cores and snow samples must be analyzed in other sectors of Antarctica to check the validity of this figure

  9. Soil burden by radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.E.H.; Wenzel, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    Natural radioactivity - half-lifes and radiation type of man-made nuclides, radionuclide behaviour in soils, effects on soil condition and soil functions are described. The only mode of decontamination is by decay and thus primarily dependent on the half-life of nuclides

  10. Radionuclides in house dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Dodd, N J; Hammond, D J

    1985-04-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  11. Radionuclide body function imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1983-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan field imaging apparatus is claimed. It comprises: a plurality of highly focused closely laterally adjacent collimators arranged inwardly focused in an array which surrounds a scan field, each collimator being moveable relative to its adjacent collimator; means for rotating the array about the scan field and means for imparting travel to the collimators

  12. Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Johanna Sabine.

    2003-01-01

    The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated--therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129 Xe + for the determination of 129 I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass

  13. Bioaccumulation factors for radionuclides in freshwater biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderploeg, H.A.; Parzyck, D.C.; Wilcox, W.H.; Kercher, J.R.; Kaye, S.V.

    1975-11-01

    This report analyzes over 200 carefully selected papers to provide concise data sets and methodology for estimation of bioaccumulation factors for tritium and isotopes of strontium, cesium, iodine, manganese, and cobalt in major biotic components of freshwater environments. Bioaccumulation factors of different tissues are distinguished where significant differences occur. Since conditions in the laboratory are often unnatural in terms of chemical and ecological relationships, this review was restricted as far as possible to bioaccumulation factors determined for natural systems. Because bioaccumulation factors were not available for some shorter-lived radionuclides, a methodology for converting bioaccumulation factors of stable isotopes to those of shorter-lived radionuclides was derived and utilized. The bioaccumulation factor for a radionuclide in a given organism or tissue may exhibit wide variations among bodies of water that are related to differences in ambient concentrations of stable-element and carrier-element analogues. To account for these variations, simple models are presented that relate bioaccumulation factors to stable-element and carrier-element concentrations in water. The effects of physicochemical form and other factors in causing deviations from these models are discussed. Bioaccumulation factor data are examined in the context of these models, and bioaccumulation factor relations for the selected radionuclides are presented

  14. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, J.S.; Larson, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This new DOE proposal appropriately builds on past developments. The development and application of radionuclides for diagnosis, treatment and research has been a continuing concern for more than the past three decades. A brief description of this development and previous achievements was considered important in order to provide a frame of reference for the evolving program here. Earlier, the use of certain radionuclides, radon progeny and I-131 in particular, and also x-rays, had been developed by the work of such pioneers as Failla, Quimby and Marinelli. In 1952, at the instigation of Dr. C.P. Rhoads, Director of both Memorial Hospital and Sloan-Kettering Institute, the restoration of the Department of Physics and Biophysics was undertaken in response to a perceived need to promote the utilization of radionuclides and of high energy radiations for therapeutic, diagnostic and research purposes. This resulted in several research and developmental projects with close clinical collaboration in areas of radiation treatment; medical studies with radionuclides and labeled compounds; the diagnostic uses of x-rays; and some projects in surgery and other clinical areas. Aspects of some of these projects that have had some relevance for the evolving AEC-DOE projects are outlined briefly. 34 refs

  15. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U.S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed

  16. Preliminary Study on the Use of Radionuclides 137{sup C}s and 210{sup P}b and Spectro radiometry Techniques as Tools to Determine Soil Erosion State; Estudio Preliminar sobre el Uso de los Radionucleidos 137{sup C}s y 210{sup P}b y las Tecnicas de Espectrorradiometria como Herramientas para Determinar el Estado de Erosion de Suelos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Vegas, E.; Gasco Leonarte, C.; Schmid, T.; Suarez, J. A.; Rodriguez Rastrero, M.; Almorox Alonso, J.

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides are largely used as tools for studying and quantifying soil erosion. The global fallout of artificial radionuclides derived from weapons testing (1945-1970) was rapidly and firmly fixed in soil surface horizons. This allowed determining soil erosion by comparing 137{sup C}s inventories at individual sampling points with a reference inventory. This procedure is complemented with the 210{sup P}buns inventory calculation as an indicator of the local average of radionuclides deposition. Spectro radiometry is implemented to associate soil reflectance measurements to physical and chemical soil properties related to soil erosion processes obtained from laboratory analyses. The methodology applies both instrumental techniques in soil samples from a semiarid agricultural area near to Camarena (Toledo). The resulting inventories obtained for 137{sup C}s and 210{sup P}bexc are similar to the Spanish reference allowing comparation. Spectro radiometry results correlate well with soil properties measured in the laboratory and can be applied to determine these properties more quickly and easily, as well as for integration with gamma spectrometry results. This is a preliminary study to identify soils affected by erosion that is presented as a Master thesis of the Official Master Degree: {sup A}gro- Environmental Technology for a Sustainable Agriculture{sup ,} of the Technical University of Madrid - School of Agricultural Engineers (UPM-ETSI). Coherent and complimentary results are obtained applying both instrumental techniques within this agricultural area.. (Author)

  17. Radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    The sources of the presence of radionuclides in food are presented: natural radiation and artificial radiation. The transfer of radionuclides through food chains, intakes of radionuclides to the body with its partners effective doses and typical consumption of basic foods of a rural adult population are exposed as main topics. Also the radiation doses from natural sources and exposure to man by ingestion of contaminated food with radionuclides of artificial origin are shown. The contribution of the food ingestion to the man exposure depends on: characteristics of radionuclide, natural conditions, farming practices and eating habits of the population. The principal international organizations in charge of setting guide levels for radionuclides in food are mentioned: standards, rules and the monitoring. It establishes that a guide is necessary for the food monitoring; the alone CODEX ALIMENTARIUS is applicable to emergency situations and the generic action levels proposed by the CODEX not satisfy all needs (no guiding international levels for planned or existing situations such as NORM). There are handled mainly socio-economic and political aspects. Among the actions to be taken are: to assure a public comprehensive information over the risk evaluation in food; to reinforce the collaboration among the different international organizations (WHO, IAEA, ICRP, EC) in relation with the food of set; to give follow-up to the control of the drinkable water and NORM's presence in the food. In addition, it is possible to create the necessary mechanisms to reduce the number of irrelevant measures and bureaucratic useless steps (certificates); to promote the exchange between the different institutions involved in the topic of the food, with relation to the acquired experiences and learned lessons. Likewise, it might examine the possibility of a multidisciplinary approximation (radioactive and not radioactive pollutants); to elaborate a technical guide to assure the

  18. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  19. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  20. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  1. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement

  2. Research and development of power reactor technology supporting work, 3; Development of utility facility operation management technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    Demands on utility facilities for nuclear technology development are increasingly sophisticated and diversified. It is important to meet requirements of securing the reliability of utility supply and ensuring the safety of facility operation and maintenance by means of technical supporting, data supply and quick contingency responses. A New computer system to make practicable man-machine interface, real-time data acquisition and operation data centralization has been developed based on the knowledge. Obtained from data base information and operation experience for the purpose of operation efficiency and labor saving. (author).

  3. Use of nuclear techniques for mutation and selection of fungi for high protein yield utilizing carbon from inexpensive agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopulos, S.

    1976-12-01

    The report briefly describes work carried out on the following subjects: Determination of protein in fungal strains (including Fusarium and Aspergillus niger); induction and selection of mutants (Aspergillus niger) giving higher yields of biomass and/or higher protein content; ability of fungi (Candida tropicalis) to utilize water extracts of carob bean pods; growth of Fusarium monoliforme at the expense of carob sugars; the use of alternate oxidase-negative mutants (of Ustilago maydis), for better utilization of substrates for growth (electron transport pathways in reoxidation of reduced coenzymes); kinetics of batch and continuous cultivation of Fusarium moniliforme (cultivated on aqueous carob extracts)

  4. Radionuclide table. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, Jean; Perolat, J.-P.; Lagoutine, Frederic; Le Gallic, Yves.

    The evaluation of the following 29 radionuclides is presented: 22 Na, 24 Na, sup(24m)Na, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 58 Co, sup(58m)Co, 60 Co, sup(60m)Co, 75 Se, 103 Ru, sup(103m)Rh, sup(110m)Ag- 110 Ag, 109 Cd, 125 Sb, sup(125mTe), 125 I, 133 Xe, sup(133m)Xe, 131 Cs, 134 Cs, sup(134m)Cs, 139 Ce, 144 Ce- 144 Pr, 144 Pr, 169 Er, 186 Re, 203 Hg. The introduction contains a brief description of radioactive processes and the evaluation rules followed. The best values and associated uncertainties are given for each radionuclide for the major parameters of the decay scheme and the radiation intensities emitted, together with a decay table. Gamma, X-rays and sometimes conversion electron spectra are also provided [fr

  5. Radionuclide migration experiments related to an underground nuclear test: II. modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A.; Carle, S.F.; Smith, D.K.; Hudson, G.B.; Bruton, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The goal of this project is to improve our understanding of water and radionuclide migration in both saturated and unsaturated geologic media by coupling advanced simulation techniques, available characterization data, and radioanalytical measurements in the context of a remarkable field experiment. Between 1975 and 1991, groundwater was steadily pumped from a well adjacent to a 1965 underground test conducted in alluvium at the Nevada Test Site. The experiment was primarily conducted in order to elicit information on radionuclide migration through the saturated zone between the test and the well. The effluent was monitored. discharged to an unlined ditch, and allowed to infiltrate into the ground during flow towards a dry lake, about a kilometer away. The 16 years of pumping and infiltration created an unexpected second experiment in which the migration of the ditch effluent through the 200 meters of unsaturated media, back to the water table, could be studied. Pumping and effluent data are being utilized in conjunction with chemical measurements made in groundwater and a series of numerical models to better understand the movement of radionuclides in the system, both between the test and the well, and between the ditch and the water table. The release of radionuclides away from a testing area will be controlled by local groundwater flow rates, by their dissolution from solidified melt glass produced by the test, and by chemical sorption processes that retard their migration rates in chemically reactive geologic media. Only the more mobile and less reactive radionuclides (e.g.. tritium, 14 C, 36 Cl, 85 Kr, and 129 I) were measured in the well effluent. The movement of these radionuclides through the unsaturated media beneath the ditch will be affected additionally by the capillary nature of moisture movement under unsaturated conditions and by their interaction with and potential mass exchange with the gas (air) phase. Results of numerical simulations

  6. Radionuclides retention: from macroscopic to microscopic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoni, E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to determine the radionuclides' sorption constants on solid natural minerals, both thermodynamic and structural investigations, using spectroscopic techniques, are presented. The natural clays, that could be used as engineering barriers in the nuclear waste geological repository, are rather complex minerals. Therefore, in order to understand how these natural materials retain the radionuclides, it is necessary first to perform these studies on simple substrates such as single crystal, oxides and silicates, and then extrapolate the obtained results on the natural minerals. We examine in this paper the sorption processes of the hexavalent uranium on zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) and the trivalent curium on a natural clay (bentonite). The corresponding sorption curves are simulated using the results obtained with the following spectroscopic techniques: laser induced spectro-fluorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT). (authors)

  7. Sorption of radionuclides on a soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami

    1979-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes into the ground has been discussed, and this paper emphasized significance of the investigation for underground water flow and for the prediction of radionuclides through a stratified aquifer using column experiments to evaluate the internal radiation dose. Distributions and redistributions of radionuclides in a sandy layer were observed to identify the sorption model which predicts the behavior, and the underground water flow in the Plio-Pleistocene Osaka Group was investigated as an example, by mean of the measurement of 222 Rn concentration, the pumping technique and the tracer technique using the activation analysis. Then, the estimation of radioactive concentration in the underground water was worked out for the boundary condition of steady state inflow of liquid wastes and of which the 90 Sr are leached from the solidified body, moreover, the equation which easily evaluates the suitability of the disposal site was proposed. These approach may be useful for the actual site selection of radioactive wastes disposal. (author)

  8. Radionuclide co-precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.

    1987-12-01

    The thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of the minor components of the spent fuel matrix has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. Two different situations have been studied: Part I, the near field scenario, where the release and migration of the minor components is dependent on the solubility behaviour of UO 2 (s); Part II, the far field, where the solubility and transport of the radionuclides is related to the major geochemical processes occurring. (orig.)

  9. Radionuclide fate and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The studies reported here deal with the full range of contaminant behavior and fate, from the initial physicochemical factors that govern radionuclide availability in terrestrial and aquatic environments to studies of contaminant transport by biological means. By design, we focus more on the biologically and chemically mediated transport processes and food-chain pathways than on the purely physical forms of contaminant transport, such as transport by wind and water

  10. Radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki

    2001-01-01

    The concentration and accumulation of radionuclides in marine organisms were explained in this paper. Secular change of the radioactivity concentration of 137 Cs in seaweed in coastal area of Japan showed more than 5Bq/kg-fresh in the first half of 1960, but decreased less than 1 Bq/kg-fresh after then and attained to less than 0.1 Bq/kg-fresh in 1990s. However, the value increased a while in 1986, which indicated the effect of Chernobyl accident. The accident increased 137 Cs of shellfish near Japan. The concentration of 239+240 Pu was the lowest value in muscles of fish, but increased from 1.7 to 42.3 mBq/kg wet wt in seaweed in 1999. 99 Tc concentration of seaweed showed from 100 to 1000 times as much as that of seawater. Radionuclides in the Irish Sea are originated from Sellafield reprocessing plant. The concentration factors of macro-algae and surface water fish (IAEA,1985) were shown. Analytical results of U in 61 kinds of marine organs showed that the concentration was different in the part of organ. The higher concentration of U was observed in hard tissue of fish. The concentration factor was different between chemical substances with the same radionuclides. (S.Y.)

  11. Proficiency testing for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faanhof, A.; Kotze, O.; Louw, I.

    2010-01-01

    Proficiency testing in general is only useful when it suites a certain purpose. With regards to radionuclides basically three fields of interest can be identified: (I)Foodstuffs-Introduced in the early 1960's to monitor the fall-out of nuclear tests and eventually the pathway to foodstuffs fit for human consumption. The demand for analysis increased substantially after the Chernobyl accident. (II) Natural radioactivity-Associated with mining and mineral processing of uranium and thorium baring mineral resources throughout the world where the radionuclides from the natural uranium and thorium decay series are found to pose concern for professional and public exposure. (III) Artificial radioactivity-This category covers mostly the long-lived nuclides generated by nuclear fission of the fuel used in nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear bomb tests. All three categories require a specific approach for laboratories to test their ability to analyze specific radio nuclides of interest in a variety of matrices. In this lecture I will give a compiled overview of the required radioanalytical skills, analysis sensitivity needed and radionuclides of interest, with more specific emphasis on QAQC of water sources and the recommended monitoring approach. And provide information on available reference materials and organizations/institutes that provide regular exercises for participating laboratories. I will also briefly communicate on the advantages and disadvantages of ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation for test laboratories, which is these days a prerequisite in national and international trade especially where foodstuffs and mineral products are concerned.

  12. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  13. Environmental effects of energy production and utilization in the U. S. Volume 3. Techniques for controlling emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W. (comp.)

    1976-06-14

    Technological, social, economic and political techniques for controlling emission are summarized for environmental pollutants introduced into air, water and land resources. Chemical, radiological and physical factors are discussed. (PCS)

  14. Optimization of mobile analysis of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaska, M.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on optimization of separation and determination of radionuclides which can be used in mobile or field analysis. Mentioned methods are part of procedures and methods of mobile radiometric laboratory which is being developed for Slovak Armed forces. The main principle of these methods is the separation of analytes using high performance liquid chromatography using both reverse phase liquid chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. Chromatography columns such as Dionex IonPack"("R") CS5A, Dionex IonPack"("R") CS3 and Hypersil"("R") BDS C18 have been used. For detection of stabile nuclides, conductivity detection and UV/VIS detection have been employed. Separation of alkali and alkali earth metals. transition metals and lanthanides has been optimized. Combination of chromatographic separation and flow scintillation analysis has been also studied. Radioactive isotopes "5"5Fe, "2"1"0Pb, "6"0Co, "8"5Sr and "1"3"4Cs have been chosen as analytes for nuclear detection techniques. Utilization of well-type and planar NaI(Tl) detector has been investigated together with cloud point extraction. For micelle mediated extraction two possible ligands have been studied - 8-hydroxyquinoline and ammonium pyrolidinedithiocarbamate. Recoveries of cloud point extraction were in range between 80 to 90%. This thesis is also focused on possible application of liquid scintillation analysis with cloud point extraction of analytes. Radioactive standard containing "5"5Fe, "2"1"0Pb, "6"0Co, "8"5Sr and "1"3"4Cs has been separated using liquid chromatography and fractions of individual isotopes have been collected, extracted using cloud point extraction and measured using liquid scintillation analysis. Finally, cloud point extraction coupled with ICP-MS have been studied. (author)

  15. Radionuclide migration in crystalline rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.

    2002-01-01

    first time in a series of experiments where the experimental arrangements enabled very low water flow rates. FTRANS, a modified numerical code that can simulate both groundwater flow and the transport of radionuclides in porous or fractured medium, was tested in order to interpret laboratory scale migration experiments. The code was able to interpret in-diffusion of calcium into altered tonalites. The elution curves of calcium for the altered tonalite fracture columns were explained adequately by the code when using parameters obtained from in-diffusion calculations. The K d -values for intact rock obtained on the basis of the fracture column experiments were one order of magnitude lower than the K d -values for crushed rock, indicating that batch experiments overestimate the retardation of sorbing radionuclides onto the rock matrices owing to the larger surface areas that are available. The greater sorption on altered tonalites was explained by the composition of the sorptive alteration minerals and the large specific surface areas. In this research, sodium, calcium and strontium were used as tracers in order to compare various experimental techniques. Experiments with relevant nuclear waste nuclides are needed to enable more detailed discussion of the differences in K d -values and the implication for performance assessment calculations. Data obtained from transport experiments conducted in well-defined laboratory conditions is the basis for the block scale and field experiments that are necessary to validate the radionuclide transport concept and to test the transferability of laboratory data to field conditions.(orig.)

  16. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  17. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  18. Radionuclide inventory calculation in VVER and BWR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhaddane, A.; Farkas, F.; Slugen, V.; Ackermann, L.; Schienbein, M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows different aspects in the radionuclide inventory determination. Precise determination of the neutron flux distribution, presented for a BRW reactor, is vital for the activation calculations. The precision can be improved utilizing variance reduction methods as importance treatment, weight windows etc. Direct calculation of the radionuclide inventory via Monte Carlo code is presented for a VVER reactor. Burn-up option utilized in this calculation appears to be proper for reactor internal components. However, it will not be probably effective outside the reactor core. Further calculations in this area are required to support the forth-set findings. (authors)

  19. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinakhom, F.; Mongkolphantha, S.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  20. Studies evaluating the applicability of utilizing the same concentration techniques for the detection of protozoan parasites and viruses in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kfir, R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available sample volume to about 101. This study shows that concentration techniques utilised for the isolation of enteric viruses can also be applied for the detection of protozoan parasites from water. This procedure allows for co-analysis of both viruses...

  1. Radionuclides concentration in foods in Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalina Laili; Muhamat Omar; Mohd Nahar Othman; Md Suhaimi Elias; Esther Philip, Mohd Zaidi Ibrahim; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Azmi Hassan

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of natural radionuclides (U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40) and artificial radionuclides (Cs-137) in fresh, dried and cooked foodstuffs from 30 major towns in Peninsular Malaysia were determined by gamma spectrometry system and Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique. A total of 232 samples representing a typical Malaysian community diet were analysed. The results showed that most of the samples contained only natural radionuclides. The percentage of radionuclides detected in the samples were found about 2% for U-238, 9% for Th-232, 49% for Ra-226, 77% for Ra-228, 99% for K-40 and 15% for Cs-137. The radionuclide concentrations were in the ranges of <6.1 - 29.3, <2.0 - 55.8, <0.1 - 34.4, <0.1 - 41, <0.1- 2552.3 and < 0.1 - 6.6 Bq/Kg dry weight for U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40 and Cs-137 respectively. The study revealed that most of the foodstuffs did not contain U-238. Lentils were found to contain significant concentration of Th-232 (4 - 49 Bq/kg) and can be considered as thorium accumulators. The concentrations of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in leafy vegetables were higher than the fruit and root vegetables. These data can be used as a reference for future food radioactivity monitoring. As edible mushroom and fern had high concentrations of Cs-137, indicating their high ability to accumulate Cs-137, they could be used as indicator plants in the event of radioactive fall outs

  2. Translating state-of-the-art spinal cord MRI techniques to clinical use: A systematic review of clinical studies utilizing DTI, MT, MWF, MRS, and fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allan R; Aleksanderek, Izabela; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Tarmohamed, Zenovia; Tetreault, Lindsay; Smith, Nathaniel; Cadotte, David W; Crawley, Adrian; Ginsberg, Howard; Mikulis, David J; Fehlings, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    A recent meeting of international imaging experts sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust (ISRT) and the Wings for Life Foundation identified 5 state-of-the-art MRI techniques with potential to transform the field of spinal cord imaging by elucidating elements of the microstructure and function: diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), magnetization transfer (MT), myelin water fraction (MWF), MR spectroscopy (MRS), and functional MRI (fMRI). However, the progress toward clinical translation of these techniques has not been established. A systematic review of the English literature was conducted using MEDLINE, MEDLINE-in-Progress, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify all human studies that investigated utility, in terms of diagnosis, correlation with disability, and prediction of outcomes, of these promising techniques in pathologies affecting the spinal cord. Data regarding study design, subject characteristics, MRI methods, clinical measures of impairment, and analysis techniques were extracted and tabulated to identify trends and commonalities. The studies were assessed for risk of bias, and the overall quality of evidence was assessed for each specific finding using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. A total of 6597 unique citations were identified in the database search, and after full-text review of 274 articles, a total of 104 relevant studies were identified for final inclusion (97% from the initial database search). Among these, 69 studies utilized DTI and 25 used MT, with both techniques showing an increased number of publications in recent years. The review also identified 1 MWF study, 11 MRS studies, and 8 fMRI studies. Most of the studies were exploratory in nature, lacking a priori hypotheses and showing a high (72%) or moderately high (20%) risk of bias, due to issues with study design, acquisition techniques, and analysis methods. The acquisitions for each technique varied widely across

  3. Chapter 2. Radionuclides in the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with role of radionuclides in the biosphere. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Natural radionuclides in biosphere; (2) Man-made radionuclides in the biosphere; (3) Ecologically important radionuclides; (4) Natural background; (5) Radiotoxicity and (6) Paths of transfer of radionuclides from the source to human

  4. Radionuclide diagnosis of emergency states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishmukhametov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Solution of emergency state radionuclide diagnostics from the technical point of view is provided by the application of the mobile quick-operating equipment in combination with computers, by the use of radionuclides with acceptable for emergency medicine characteristics and by development of radionuclide investigation data propcessing express-method. Medical developments include the study of acute disease and injury radioisotope semiotics, different indication diagnostic value determining, comparison of the results, obtained during radionuclide investigation, with clinicolaboratory and instrumental data, separation of methodical complex series

  5. History of medical radionuclide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ice, R D

    1995-11-01

    Radionuclide production for medical use originally was incidental to isotope discoveries by physicists and chemists. Once the available radionuclides were identified they were evaluated for potential medical use. Hevesy first used 32P in 1935 to study phosphorous metabolism in rats. Since that time, the development of cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and nuclear reactors have produced hundreds of radionuclides for potential medical use. The history of medical radionuclide production represents an evolutionary, interdisciplinary development of applied nuclear technology. Today the technology is represented by a mature industry and provides medical benefits to millions of patients annually.

  6. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  8. Datum maintenance of the main Egyptian geodetic control networks by utilizing Precise Point Positioning “PPP” technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Rabah

    2016-06-01

    To see how non-performing maintenance degrading the values of the HARN and NACN, the available HARN and NACN stations in the Nile Delta were observed. The Processing of the tested part was done by CSRS-PPP Service based on utilizing Precise Point Positioning “PPP” and Trimble Business Center “TBC”. The study shows the feasibility of Precise Point Positioning in updating the absolute positioning of the HARN network and its role in updating the reference frame (ITRF. The study also confirmed the necessity of the absent role of datum maintenance of Egypt networks.

  9. Investigation of the effects of external current systems on the MAGSAT data utilizing grid cell modeling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of modeling magnetic fields due to certain electrical currents flowing in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere was investigated. A method was devised to carry out forward modeling of the magnetic perturbations that arise from space currents. The procedure utilizes a linear current element representation of the distributed electrical currents. The finite thickness elements are combined into loops which are in turn combined into cells having their base in the ionosphere. In addition to the extensive field modeling, additional software was developed for the reduction and analysis of the MAGSAT data in terms of the external current effects. Direct comparisons between the models and the MAGSAT data are possible.

  10. Improved radionuclide method for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children (milk scan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.; Kirkpatrick, J.A.; Winter, H.S.; Treves, S.

    1979-01-01

    A radionuclide study using technetium-99m-labelled milk feeding is described for the detection of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children. A comparison of findings in 39 patients referred for both radiographic and radionuclide studies showed that barium studies were positive in 25.6% and radionuclide studies in 59% of cases, reflecting the sensitivity of the radionuclide technique. This technique is also physiological and allows prolonged patient monitoring. It is simple to perform and should prove useful in the evaluation of patients suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration

  11. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis

  12. Modifying radionuclide effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    This project involves a study of the relationship of physiological and environmental factors to the metabolism and effects of radionuclides. We have studied placental transfer and suckling as pathways of americium entry into the newborn or juvenile rat. Rats were injected intravenously with 5 μCi of 241 Am while nulliparous (30 days prior to mating), pregnant (day 19 of gestation), or lactating (1 day after parturition), and subsequent litters were killed to determine 241 Am retention. A deficit in reproductive performance was observed in the group injected before mating, as evidenced by reduced number and weight of offspring

  13. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  14. Sherlock Holmes for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzer, C.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of 2001 ARC Seibersdorf research has taken the management of the first worldwide certified laboratory to control the realization of the international Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Altogether there will be 16 CTBT certified laboratories worldwide; therefore a global network of radionuclides measurements stations and test laboratories as well as seismic, radiation and hydroacustic measurements stations is necessary . In the future air samples will be taken from these stations and analyzed in one of these certified laboratories, when appears the suspicion that an atomic test was carried out. (nevyjel)

  15. Classification of soil systems on the basis of transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to reference plants. Report of the final research coordination meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The IAEA Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection include the general requirement to keep all doses as low as reasonably achievable, taking account of economic and social considerations, within the overall constraint of individual dose limits. National and Regional authorities have to set release limits for radioactive effluent and also to establish contingency plans to deal with an uncontrolled release following an accident or terrorist activity. It is normal practice to assess radiation doses to man by means of radiological assessment models. In this context the IAEA published (1994), in cooperation with the International Union of Radioecologists (IUR), a Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments to facilitate such calculations. The obvious limitation of the Handbook is that the data on soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides are strictly relevant only to temperate climates. Therefore, the IAEA, together with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the IUR, conducted a coordinated research project (CRP), to obtain similar data in tropical and sub-tropical regions. A conclusion of this research was that some combinations of ecosystems and radionuclides do not behave as might be expected. A consultants meeting held in May 1998 produced a proposal for a CRP to address the issue of identifying such situations in temperate as well as tropical and sub-tropical conditions

  16. Study of the uniform corrosion of non alloy and stainless steels: combined utilization of acoustic emission and electrochemical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaubert, Lionel

    2004-01-01

    In chemical and petrochemical industry, uniform corrosion induces important economic and security disappointments. The mechanisms of this damaging corrosion mode are well understood, but methods for on-line detection are badly missing. Acoustic emission technique presents, to palliate this lack, potentialities that have been studied in an instrumented laboratory loop allowing the simulation of industrial uniform corrosion conditions. In acidic media, acoustic activity is related to the hydrogen evolution resulting from proton reduction; it is therefore well correlated to the damage severity. In neutral aerated media, the deposit formation of corrosion products is not very emissive. Yet, a specific study of frequency parameters allows detection of corrosion evolution, but in that case, the quantification of corrosion rate remains difficult. A subsidiary study confirms the technique applicability in the case of 'acidic' corrosion, even in very noisy conditions. (author) [fr

  17. Polarization spectroscopy of the sodium dimer utilizing a triple-resonance technique in the presence of argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Phillip; Horton, Timothy; McFarland, Jacob; Bayram, Burcin; Miami University Spectroscopy Team

    2015-05-01

    The collisional dynamics of molecular sodium in the 61Σg electronic state is under investigation using a triple resonance technique in the presence of argon. A continuous wave ring dye laser is used to populate specific rovibrational levels of the A1Σu electronic state. A pump-probe technique is then employed where the pump laser populates the 61Σg state, and the probe laser dumps the population to the B1Σu state. From this level, fluorescence is detected as the system decays to the X1Σg state. We measure the polarization of this signal in the presence of various argon pressures. We will present our current work as well as the processes involved in the experiment. Financial support from the National Science Foundation (Grant No. NSF-PHY-1309571) is gratefully acknowledged.

  18. Some techniques and results from high-pressure shock-wave experiments utilizing the radiation from shocked transparent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, R.G.; Fritz, J.N.

    1981-01-01

    It has been known for many years that some transparent materials emit radiation when shocked to high pressures. This property was used to determine the temperature of shocked fused and crystal quartz, which in turn allowed the thermal expansion of SiO 2 at high pressure and also the specific heat to be calculated. Once the radiative energy as a function of pressure is known for one material it is shown how this can be used to determine the temperature of other transparent materials. By the nature of the experiments very accurate shock velocities can be measured and hence high quality equation of state data obtained. Some techniques and results are presented on measuring sound velocities from symmetrical impact of nontransparent materials using radiation emitting transparent analyzers, and on nonsymmetrical impact experiments on transparent materials. Because of special requirements in the later experiments, techniques were developed that lead to very high-precision shock-wave data. Preliminary results, using these techniques are presented for making estimates of the melting region and the yield strength of some metals under strong shock conditions

  19. Potassium cardioplegia: early assessment by radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.J.; Born, M.; Feit, T.; Ebert, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    Left ventricular function was evaluated by single pass /sup 99m/Tc radionuclide ventriculography when potassium cardioplegia was combined with hypothermia. In 35 patients undergoing myocardial revascularization (3 CABG/patient) in which potassium cardioplegia at 4 0 C was used, no patient developed a myocardial infarction either by electrocardiogram or /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate imaging in the postoperative period. In 22 patients, aortic cross-clamp time was greater than 60 min, and the ejection fraction by the single pass radionuclide technique was 50% preoperatively and 53% postoperatively (NS). Wall motion in the single RAO view was not worse postoperatively. No patient required any inotropic agents in the immediate postoperative period. It appears that no significant ventricular impairment occurred in the immediate postoperative period (48 to 72 hours) when potassium cardioplegia combined with hypothermia was used for a 60-minute period

  20. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  1. Intervention procedures for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    As in the case of smoking and lung cancer, for large radionuclide releases, an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. On the other hand, we feel compelled to do something sensible after an accident even if the principal benefit of intervention may be to comfort the population at risk. Of course, for populations near the site of an accident, evacuation should be considered, but it is unreasonable to apply this measure to distant populations, e.g., large segments of the European community could not be moved about as we observe the shifting of a radioactive cloud in response to changing winds. If the radionuclides are delivered as particulates, bringing people indoors and employing primitive air filters can temporarily reduce exposures, but these stratagems are not very effective against gaseous or volatile elements. What, then, can be done for populations downwind of a radioactive release whose air, water, and/or food supply are, or are about to become contaminated? 5 refs

  2. The utility of ultrasonographic bone age determination in detecting growth disturbances; a comparative study with the conventional radiographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem; Arami, Sara [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghojazadeh, Morteza [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To test whether the conventional radiographic technique in determining bone age abnormalities can be replaced by ultrasonography. A total of 54 Caucasian subjects up to 7 years of age with clinically suspected growth problems underwent left hand and wrist radiographic and ultrasonographic bone age estimations with the use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The ultrasonographic scans targeted the ossification centers in the radius and ulna distal epiphysis, carpal bones, epiphyses of the first and third metacarpals, and epiphysis of the middle phalanx, as described in previous reports. The degree of agreement between the two sets of data, as well as the accuracy of the ultrasonographic method in detecting radiographically suggested bone age abnormities, was examined. The mean chronological age, radiographic bone age, and ultrasonographic bone age (all in months) were 41.96 ± 22.25, 26.68 ± 14.08, and 26.71 ± 13.50 in 28 boys and 43.62 ± 24.63, 30.12 ± 17.69, and 31.27 ± 18.06 in 26 girls, respectively. According to the Bland-Altman plot there was high agreement between the results of the two methods with only three outliers. The deviations in bone age from the chronological age taken by the two techniques had the same sign in all patients. Supposing radiography to be the method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of sonography in detecting growth abnormalities were all 100 % in males and 90.9, 100, 100, and 93.8 %, respectively, in females. The conventional radiographic technique for determining bone age abnormalities could be replaced by ultrasonography. (orig.)

  3. The ENSDF based radionuclide source for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    A utility for generating source code of the Source subroutine of MCNP (a general Monte Carlo NxParticle transport code) on the basis of ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) is described. The generated code performs statistical simulation of processes, accompanying radioactive decay of a chosen radionuclide through a specified decay branch, providing characteristics of emitted correlated particles on its output. At modeling the following processes are taken into account: emission of continuum energy electrons at beta - -decay to different exited levels of a daughter nucleus; annihilation photon emission accompanying beta + -decay; gamma-ray emission; emission of discrete energy electrons resulted from internal conversion process on atomic K- and L I,II,III -shells; K and LX-ray emission at single and double fluorescence, accompanying electron capture and internal conversion processes. Number of emitted particles, their types, energies and emission times are sampled according to characteristics of a decay scheme of a particular radionuclide as well as characteristics of atomic shells of mother and daughter nuclei. Angular correlations, calculated for a particular combination of nuclear level spins, mixing ratios and gamma-ray multipolarities, are taken into account at sampling of directional cosines of emitted gamma-rays. The paper contains examples of spectrometry system response simulation at measurements with real radionuclide sources. (authors)

  4. Utility of Indocyanine Green Video Angiography for Sylvian Fissure Dissection in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients - Sylvian ICG Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Nobuhisa; Ogawa, Yukari; Kinoshita, Keita; Satoh, Kohei; Takai, Hiroki; Hirai, Satoshi; Hara, Keijiro; Matsubara, Shunji; Uno, Masaaki

    2018-02-15

    Indocyanine green (ICG) emits fluorescence in the far-red domain under light excitation. ICG video angiography (ICG-VA) has been established as a useful method to evaluate blood flow in the operative field. We report the usefulness of ICG-VA for Sylvian fissure dissection in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subjects comprised 7 patients who underwent ICG-VA before opening the Sylvian fissure during neck clipping for ruptured cerebral aneurysm. We observed contrasted Sylvian veins before opening the Sylvian fissure using surgical microscopes. This procedure was termed "Sylvian ICG". We observed ICG fluorescence quickly in all cases. Sylvian veins that appeared unclear in the standard microscopic operative field covered with subarachnoid hemorrhage were extremely clearly depicted. These Sylvian ICG findings were helpful in identifying entry points and the dissecting course of the Sylvian fissure. At the time of clipping, no residual fluorescence from Sylvian ICG was present, and aneurysm clipping was not impeded. Sylvian ICG for SAH patients is a novel technique to facilitate dissection of the Sylvian fissure. We believe that this technique will contribute to improved safety of clipping surgery for ruptured aneurysms.

  5. Seminar on utilization of nuclear techniques in the agricultural research carried out in FONAIAP. Abstracts and lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero S, Alfredo

    1997-01-01

    The lectures included in this seminar are related to: development and evaluation of prophylactic methods to control the anaplasmosis and babesiosis (babesia bovis) in the livestock; the diagnosis of bovine basesiosis (babesia bovis) by means of the test of ELISA; validation of the kit ELISA (FAO, OIEA, PANAFTOSA) to determine antibodies against the virus of the foot and mouth disease; variability generation in sugar cane for resistance to mosaic viruses and rusts (puccinia melanocephala) by means of the cultivation of explants and irradiated callus; bioavailabilty of deposit phosphates in animal feeding; biological fixation of nitrogen in three tropical feed crops leguminous and its transfer to Brachiaria humidicola in association; unit of stable isotopic N 1 5 analysis; effect of the efficiency of N by use of different forms of fertilizer application in ground, evaluated by means of the isotopic technique and the N absorbed by the cultivation; application of progesterone and testosterone in the diagnose and control of reproduction in crossbreeds animal husbandry; advances in the monitoring of production systems in double purpose cattle raising in the area of Guayabal, Guarico State; aquatic investigations with nuclear energy techniques; development of the Venezuelan Edaphological Bibliographic Database [es

  6. Some parameters of radionuclide kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokof'ev, O.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Belen'kij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Numerical values of the rates of radionuclide absorption into, and elimination from, bovine organs were determined. Kinetic rate constants of radionuclides such as 89 Sr, 99 Mo, 131 I, 132 Tl, and 140 Be were calculated. The calculations were done for muscle, liver, and kidney

  7. Radionuclide - Soil Organic Matter Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars

    1985-01-01

    Interactions between soil organic matter, i.e. humic and fulvic acids, and radionuclides of primary interest to shallow land burial of low activity solid waste have been reviewed and to some extent studied experimentally. The radionuclides considered in the present study comprise cesium, strontium...

  8. Chapter 13. Radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with problems connected with using of radionuclides in medicine. Methods of treatment with using of radionuclides are reviewed. Chapter consists of next parts: (1) Remotion of thyroid gland; (2) Treatment of cerebrally tumour in nuclear reactor; (3) Artificial heart

  9. Study of silver-110M transfer mechanisms in freshwater. Conceiving and utilization of an experimental model of ecosystem and of a mathematical model to simulate the radionuclide through a trophic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.

    1990-10-01

    Uptake and retention of 110m Ag are quantified from laboratory studies carried out on an experimental freshwater ecosystem composed by two abiotic units, water and sediment, and by four trophic levels: primary producer (Scenedesmus obliquus), first order consumers (Daphnia magna, Gammarus pulex, Chrionomus sp.), second order consumer (Cyprinus carpio) and third order one (Salmo trutta). The chosen analytical process consists in expressing each transfer by a mathematical equation which formulation is based on a theoric analysis. Experiments allow to calibrate parameters of these equations for each unit of the food chain. All experimental data concerning 110m Ag uptake emphasize the radioprotection implications of this radioelement, because of the high values of the estimated radioecological parameters. On the basis of the results obtained, a determinist mathematical model has been conceived to simulate the radionuclide distribution in the food chain as a function of a chronic or acute contamination mode. Its application gives the development with time of the mean 110m Ag concentration values for each trophic level. The first approaches based on the analysis of the results of field studies, carried out on ecosystems affected by chronic pollution (Rhone river) or acute one (as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident), give to the model an important explicative and global predictive quality. The age of the fish, their dietary habits which vary according to the annual cycle of the prey species and with theirposition in the food chain, appear such as essential parameters. The trophic pathway is clearly predominant whatever the contamination mode and, explains, for acute exposure, why accumulation of 110m Ag can be prolonged for a long time after the surrounding environment contamination [fr

  10. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  11. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  12. Utilization of γ-irradiation technique on plant mutation breeding and plant growth regulation in Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Hirokatsu

    1997-01-01

    During about 30-years, we have developed γ-irradiation technique and breeding back pruning method for the study of mutation breeding of ornamental plants. As a result, we have made a wide variety of new mutant lines in chrysanthemum, narcissus, begonia rex, begonia iron cross, winter daphne, zelkova, sweet-scented oleander, abelia, kobus, and have obtained 7 plant patents. By the use of γ-irradiation to plant mutation breeding, we often observed that plants irradiated by low dose of γ-rays showed superior or inferior growth than the of non-irradiated plants. Now, we established the irradiation conditions of γ-rays for mutation breeding and growth of regulation in narcissus, tulip, Enkianthus perulatus Schneid., komatsuna, moyashi, african violet. In most cases, irradiation dose rate is suggested to be a more important factor to induce plant growth regulators than irradiation dose. (author)

  13. Optimization of CMOS image sensor utilizing variable temporal multisampling partial transfer technique to achieve full-frame high dynamic range with superior low light and stop motion capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Salman; Smith, Craig; Armstrong, Frank; Barnard, Gerrit; Schneider, Alex; Guidash, Michael; Vogelsang, Thomas; Endsley, Jay

    2018-03-01

    Differential binary pixel technology is a threshold-based timing, readout, and image reconstruction method that utilizes the subframe partial charge transfer technique in a standard four-transistor (4T) pixel CMOS image sensor to achieve a high dynamic range video with stop motion. This technology improves low light signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by up to 21 dB. The method is verified in silicon using a Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company's 65 nm 1.1 μm pixel technology 1 megapixel test chip array and is compared with a traditional 4 × oversampling technique using full charge transfer to show low light SNR superiority of the presented technology.

  14. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen

  15. Utilization of Geospatial Techniques for Extraction of Suitable River Islands for Construction of Eco-Friendly Tourism Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, K.

    2016-02-01

    In India, most of the rivers form big size natural islands due to change in its course. However, identification of suitable river island for construction of Eco-friendly parks/tourist destination is a very challenging task since these are exposed to river flooding. River islands which are least vulnerable to the impact of severe flooding can be a suitable place for construction of tourism destination such as eco-friendly Parks, Hotels etc. The study involves a two step approach viz. automatic extraction of river islands and model development for flood inundation mapping for extraction of eco-friendly tourism destinations. In this study, automatic extraction of the river islands has been carried out using knowledge based classification approach. The satellite data acquired by the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites sensors such as LISS-III and Cartosat-1 DEM have been used for analyses. In the first step, satellite imagery has been broadly categorized into 5 landuse/cover classes viz. Water, Sand, Islands, Settlements and Cropland. Extraction of such islands which remain unaffected during severe flooding has been accomplished with the flood inundation mapping which has been carried out in HEC-GeoRas with in GIS environment. The model utilizes the primary 4 inputs viz. geometry of the river (DEM, slope), time series data of water surface elevation, landuse/cover, and location of rain gauge station for flood inundation mapping. This paper also investigates the applicability of the eco-island concept to include protection of wetland, management of land-resources, sustainable use of natural resources and construction of ecological park/hotels. The output of the study will be very useful for Government authorities in stabilizing economy, and enhancing the tourism infrastructure in a better way.

  16. Radionuclide transverse section imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radioisotope scanning apparatus for use in nuclear medicine is described in detail. The apparatus enables the quantification and spatial location of the radioactivity in a body section of a patient to be determined with high sensitivity. It consists of an array of highly focussed collimators arranged such that adjacent collimators move in the same circumferential but opposite radial directions. The explicit movements of the gantry are described in detail and may be controlled by a general purpose computer. The use of highly focussed collimators allows both a reasonable solid angle of acceptance and also high target to background images; additionally, dual radionuclide pharmaceutical studies can be performed simultaneously. It is claimed that the high sensitivity of the system permits the early diagnosis of pathological changes and the images obtained show accurately the location and shape of physiological abnormalities. (UK)

  17. Radioactivity, radionuclides, radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Magill, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    RADIOACTIVITY – RADIONUCLIDES – RADIATION is suitable for a general audience interested in topical environmental and human health radiological issues such as radiation exposure in aircraft, food sterilisation, nuclear medicine, radon gas, radiation dispersion devices ("dirty bombs")… It leads the interested reader through the three Rs of nuclear science, to the forefront of research and developments in the field. The book is also suitable for students and professionals in the related disciplines of nuclear and radiochemistry, health physics, environmental sciences, nuclear and astrophysics. Recent developments in the areas of exotic decay modes (bound beta decay of ‘bare’ or fully ionized nuclei), laser transmutation, nuclear forensics, radiation hormesis and the LNT hypothesis are covered. Atomic mass data for over 3000 nuclides from the most recent (2003) evaluation are included.

  18. Deep sea radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanisch, G.; Vobach, M.

    1993-01-01

    Every year since 1979, either in sping or in summer, the fishing research vessel 'Walther Herwig' goes to the North Atlantic disposal areas of solid radioactive wastes, and, for comparative purposes, to other areas, in order to collect water samples, plankton and nekton, and, from the deep sea bed, sediment samples and benthos organisms. In addition to data on the radionuclide contents of various media, information about the plankton, nekton and benthos organisms living in those areas and about their biomasses could be gathered. The investigations are aimed at acquiring scientifically founded knowledge of the uptake of radioactive substances by microorganisms, and their migration from the sea bottom to the areas used by man. (orig.) [de

  19. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Jung Joon

    2004-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases

  20. Radionuclide reporter gene imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Jung Joon [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    Recent progress in the development of non-invasive imaging technologies continues to strengthen the role of molecular imaging biological research. These tools have been validated recently in variety of research models, and have been shown to provide continuous quantitative monitoring of the location(s), magnitude, and time-variation of gene expression. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, categories and the use of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technologies as they have been used in imaging cell trafficking, imaging gene therapy, imaging endogenous gene expression and imaging molecular interactions. The studies published to date demonstrate that reporter gene imaging technologies will help to accelerate model validation as well as allow for clinical monitoring of human diseases.

  1. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs

  2. Natural radionuclides in groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The 234 U and 230 Th radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10 4 to 10 5 in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas, and geothermal brine form the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na + and Cl - ions, and RaCl 2 is soluble in brines. 210 Pb is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The 234 U/ 230 Th ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. (author) 19 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Clinical Utility of Ultrasound Measurements of Plantar Fascia Width and Cross-Sectional AreaA Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi-Balogun, Adebisi; Rector, Michael

    2017-09-01

    We sought to develop a standardized protocol for ultrasound (US) measurements of plantar fascia (PF) width and cross-sectional area (CSA), which may serve as additional outcome variables during US examinations of both healthy asymptomatic PF and in plantar fasciopathy and determine its interrater and intrarater reliability. Ten healthy individuals (20 feet) were enrolled. Participants were assessed twice by two raters each to determine intrarater and interrater reliability. For each foot, three transverse scans of the central bundle of the PF were taken at its insertion at the medial calcaneal tubercle, identified in real time on the plantar surface of the foot, using a fine wire technique. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard errors of measurement (SEM), and limits of agreement (LOA) expressed as percentages of the mean. Reliability of PF width and CSA measurements was determined using PF width and CSA measurements from one sonogram measured once and the mean of three measurements from three sonograms each measured once. Ultrasound measurements of PF width and CSA showed a mean of 18.6 ± 2.0 mm and 69.20 ± 13.6 mm 2 respectively. Intra-reliability within both raters showed an ICC > 0.84 for width and ICC > 0.92 for CSA as well as a SEM% and LOA% < 10% for both width and CSA. Inter-rater reliability showed an ICC of 0.82 for width and 0.87 for CSA as well as a SEM% and LOA% < 10% for width and a SEM% < 10% and LOA% < 20% for CSA. Relative and absolute reliability within and between raters were higher when using the mean of three sonographs compared to one sonograph. Using this novel technique, PF CSA and width may be determined reliably using measurements from one sonogram or the mean of three sonograms. Measurement of PF CSA and width in addition to already established thickness and echogenicity measurements provides additional information on structural properties of the PF for clinicians and researchers in healthy

  4. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  5. Radionuclide calibrators performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, E.; Zeledon Fonseca, P.; Jimenez Cordero, M.

    2008-01-01

    Radionuclide calibrators are used to estimate accurately activity prior to administration to a patient, so it is very important that this equipment meets its performance requirements. The purpose of this paper is to compare the commercially available 'Calicheck' (Calcorp. Inc), used to assess linearity, versus the well-known source decay method, and also to show our results after performing several recommended quality control tests. The parameters that we wanted to evaluate were carried on using the Capintec CRC-15R and CRC-15 β radionuclide calibrators. The evaluated tests were: high voltage, display, zero adjust, background, reproducibility, source constancy, accuracy, precision and linearity. The first six tests were evaluated on the daily practice, here we analyzed the 2007 recorded data; and the last three were evaluated once a year. During the daily evaluation both calibrators performance were satisfactory comparing with the manufacture's requirements. The accuracy test show result within the ± 10% allowed for a field instrument. Precision performance is within the ± 1 % allowed. On the other hand, the linearity test shows that using the source decay method the relative coefficient is 0.9998, for both equipment and using the Calicheck the relative coefficient is 0.997. However, looking the percentage of error, during the 'Calicheck' test, its range goes from 0.0 % up to -25.35%, and using the source decay method, the range goes from 0.0 % up to -31.05 %, taking into account both instruments. Checking the 'Calicheck' results we can see that the results varying randomly, but using the source decay method the percentage of error increase as the source activity decrease. We conclude that both devices meet its manufactures requirements, in the case of the linearity using the decay method, decreasing the activity source, increasing the percentage of error, this may happen because of the equipment age. (author)

  6. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, M. Lee; Chidsey, Thomas Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced oil recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to about 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million bbl of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon dioxide-(CO-) flood 2 project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place in the Paradox basin within the Navajo Nation. The results of this project will be transferred to industry and other researchers through a petroleum extension service, creation of digital databases for distribution, technical workshops and seminars, field trips, technical presentations at national and regional professional meetings, and publication in newsletters and various technical or trade journals

  7. Current surgical treatment option, utilizing robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery in obese women with endometrial cancer: Farghalys technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghaly, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endometrial cancer is the most prevalent cancer of the female genital tract in North America. Minimally invasive laparoscopic-assisted surgery and panniculectomy in obese women with endometrial cancer are associated with an improved lymph node count, and lower rate of incisional complications than laparotomy. Methods: Technique for robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery for obese women with endometrial cancer is detailed. Results: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgical staging, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and panniculectomy allow us to avoid the use of postoperative pelvic radiation which is recommended in women with histopathology high-risk findings: deep myometrial invasion or high grade histology. The procedure has the advantage of three-dimensional vision, ergonomic, intuitive control, and wristed instrument that approximate the motion of the human hand. Conclusion: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgical staging, and panniculectomy in these patients are a safe, and effective alternative to laparoscopic, and laparotomy surgery. It is an ideal tool for performing the complex oncologic procedures encountered in endometrial cancer staging that requires delicate retroperitoneal, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, while maintaining the principles of oncologic surgery but in a minimally invasive fashion.

  8. Utilization of noise analysis technique for mechanical vibrations estimation in the ATUCHA1 and Embalse Argentine NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, V.H.; Wentzeis, L.M.; Guevara, M.; Moreno, C.; Pineyro, J.

    1996-01-01

    In Argentine, comprehensive noise measurements have been performed with the reactor instrumentation of the PHWR power plant Atucha I and Embalse. The Embalse reactor is a CANDU-600 (600 Mwe) type pressurized heavy water reactor. It's a heavy water moderator and heavy water cooled natural uranium fueled pressure tube system. Signal of vanadium and platinum type in core-self power neutron detectors of ex-core ion chambers and of a moderator pressure sensor have been recorded and analysed. The vibration of reactor internals as vertical and horizontal in-core neutron flux detectors units and the coolant channels systems, consisting of calandria and pressure tubes with fuel bundles, have been identified and monitored during normal reactor operation. Atucha I, is a PHWR reactor natural uranium fueled, and heavy water moderated and cooled. Neutron noise techniques using of ex-core ionization chambers and in-core Vanadium SPND's were implemented, among others, in order to produce early detection of anomalous vibrations in the reactor internals. Noise analysis was successfully performed to identify normal and peculiar vibrations in particular reactor internals. (author)

  9. Utilization of combined remote sensing techniques to detect environmental variables influencing malaria vector densities in rural West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambach Peter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The use of remote sensing has found its way into the field of epidemiology within the last decades. With the increased sensor resolution of recent and future satellites new possibilities emerge for high resolution risk modeling and risk mapping. Methods A SPOT 5 satellite image, taken during the rainy season 2009 was used for calculating indices by combining the image's spectral bands. Besides the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI other indices were tested for significant correlation against field observations. Multiple steps, including the detection of surface water, its breeding appropriateness for Anopheles and modeling of vector imagines abundance, were performed. Data collection on larvae, adult vectors and geographic parameters in the field, was amended by using remote sensing techniques to gather data on altitude (Digital Elevation Model = DEM, precipitation (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission = TRMM, land surface temperatures (LST. Results The DEM derived altitude as well as indices calculations combining the satellite's spectral bands (NDTI = Normalized Difference Turbidity Index, NDWI Mac Feeters = Normalized Difference Water Index turned out to be reliable indicators for surface water in the local geographic setting. While Anopheles larvae abundance in habitats is driven by multiple, interconnected factors - amongst which the NDVI - and precipitation events, the presence of vector imagines was found to be correlated negatively to remotely sensed LST and positively to the cumulated amount of rainfall in the preceding 15 days and to the Normalized Difference Pond Index (NDPI within the 500 m buffer zone around capture points. Conclusions Remotely sensed geographical and meteorological factors, including precipitations, temperature, as well as vegetation, humidity and land cover indicators could be used as explanatory variables for surface water presence, larval development and imagines

  10. Utility of single shot fast spin echo technique in evaluating pancreaticobiliary diseases: T2-weighted image and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byoung Wook; Kim, Myeong Jin; Chung, Jae Bok; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Dong Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Chung, Jae Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of T2-weighted imaging an MR cholangiopancreatography using the single shot fast spin-echo technique for evaluating pancreaticobiliary disease. Between March and July 1997, axial and coronal T2-weighted images(TE: 80-200 msec) and MR cholangiopancreatograms (TE: 800-1200 msec) were obtained in two ways [single slab (thickness: 30-50 mm) and multislice acquisition under chemical fat saturation] using SSFSE pulse sequencing in 131 cases of suspected pancreati-cobiliary disease. The accuracy of SSFSE MR imaging was assessed in 89 lesions of 74 patients [male, 48; female, 26; age range, 30-86 (mean, 59) years] confirmed surgicopathologically (50 lesions in 39 patients) and clinically (39 lesions in 35 patients). Two radiologists reviewed the MR images and diagnosis was determined by consensus. Correct diagnosis was confirmed in 84 of 89 lesions (94%). Seven lesions were falsely interpreted, false positive and false negative results accounting for two and five cases, respectively. Two pancreatic cancers were misdiagnosed as pancreatitis and a cancer of the proximal common bile duct(CBD) was interpreted as a distal CBD cancer. The sensitivity of SSFSE MR imaging for malignancy was 93 %. One CBD stone revealed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was not detected on MR images. In contrast, a stone in the CBD seen on MR images was not apparent on subsequent ERCP. Sensitivity and specificity for calculous disease were 96% and 99.7%, respectively. A benign stricture of the ampulla of Vater was falsely interpreted as normal, and correct diagnosis was possible in two falsely diagnosed cases when MR images were reviewed retrospectively. The combination of T2-weighted and cholangiographic images using SSFSE is an accurate method for diagnosing pancreatcobiliary diseases

  11. Genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected crops in low income food deficit countries through irradiation and related techniques. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    The majority of the world's food is produced from only a few crops, and yet many neglected and under-utilized crops are extremely important for food production in low income food deficit countries (LIFDCs). As the human population grows at an alarming rate in LIFDCs, food availability has declined and is also affected due to environmental factors, lack of improvement of local crop species, erosion of genetic diversity and dependence on a few crop species for food supply. Neglected crops are traditionally grown by farmers in their centres of origin or centres of diversity, where they are still important for the subsistence of local communities, and maintained by socio-cultural preferences and traditional uses. These crops remain inadequately characterised and, until very recently, have been largely ignored by research and conservation. Farmers are losing these crops because they are less competitive with improved major crop species. Radiation-induced mutation techniques have successfully been used that benefited the most genetic improvement of 'major crops' and their know-how have a great potential for enhancing the use of under-utilized and neglected species and speeding up their domestication and crop improvement. The FAO/IAEA efforts on genetic improvement of under-utilized and neglected species play a strategic role in complementing the work that is being carried out worldwide in their promotion. This CRP entitled Genetic Improvement of Under-utilized and Neglected Crops in LIFDCs through Irradiation and Related Techniques was initiated in 1998 with an overall objective to improve food security, enhance nutritional balance, and promote sustainable agriculture in LIFDCs. Specific objectives addressed major constraints to productivity of neglected and under-utilized crops by genetic improvement with radiation-induced mutations and biotechnology in order to enhance economic viability and sustain crop species diversity, and in future to benefit small farmers. This

  12. Monitoring radionuclides in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, T.; Matsuba, M.; Kurosawa, M.; Koyanagi, T.

    1990-01-01

    Concentration of stable elements corresponding to important radionuclides was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for various marine organisms to find indicator organisms for environmental monitoring. Both analytical techniques indicated linearity over a range of concentrations covering 2-4 orders of magnitude. Detection limits of elements by ICP-MS were 10 or 100 times higher than those of ICP-AES, although the precision and accuracy of ICP-MS was slightly inferior to that of ICP-AES. For quantitative analysis of elements with medium mass numbers (chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, etc.), matrix interferences in ICP-MS were caused mainly by overlaps of spectra from coexisting elements in biological samples. The presence of background ions from atmosphere, water, and argon plasma interfered with determination of some isotopes. Most elements of high mass number could not be determined by ICP-AES because of its poor detection limits, whereas ICP-MS indicated high sensitivity and low background for elements of interest. We used ICP-MS analysis to determine the specific accumulation of certain elements in organs or tissues of 30 marine organisms

  13. Radionuclides sorption in clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraky, G.; Lewis, C.; Hamlat, S.; Nollmann, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    The sorption behaviour of clay soils is examined through a parametric study of the distribution coefficient (Kd) for the radionuclides of interest, Cs and Sr. This work is a preliminary stage of the migration studies of these nuclides in a porous medium (ground of Ezeiza, Argentina) and the evaluation of radiologic impact of the removal of low and intermediate activity wastes in shallow trenches. The determination of Kd is performed by a static technique or batch. The phases are separated by centrifugation at 20000 g during 1 hour. The activity of supernatant solution of Cs-137 and Sr-85 is measured in a detecting system of I Na(Tl) well-type. Two types of parameters were changed: a) those related to the determination method: phase separation (centrifugation vs. centrifugation plus filtration); equilibrium period, ratio solid/liquid; b) those related to the geochemical system: pH of contact solution, carrier concentration, competitive ions, ionic strength, desorption. It was observed that the modification of parameters in the Kd-measurement does not change the order of magnitude of results. (Author)

  14. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quine, T.A.; Walling, D.

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphologists have shown increasing interest in environmental radionuclides since pioneering studies by Ritchie and McHenry in the USA and Campbell, Longmore and Loughran in Australia. Environmental radionuclides have attracted this interest because they provide geomorphologists with the means to trace sediment movement within the landscape. They, therefore, facilitate investigation of subjects at the core of geomorphology, namely the rates and patterns of landscape change. Most attention has been focussed on the artificial radionuclide caesium-137 ( 137 Cs) but more recently potential applications of the natural radionuclides lead-210 ( 210 Pb) and beryllium-7( 7 Be) have been investigated (Walling et al., 1995; Wallbrink and Murray, 1996a, 1996b). The origin, characteristics and applications of these radionuclides are summarised. These radionuclides are of value as sediment tracers because of three important characteristics: a strong affinity for sediment; a global distribution and the possibility of measurement at low concentration. Geomorphological applications of environmental radionuclides provide unique access to detailed qualitative data concerning landscape change over a range of timescales

  15. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Sweany, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-137 into inner egg contents. Manganese-54, cobalt-60, and zinc-65 were more abundant in inner egg contents than in egg shell. Cerium-144 was detected in egg shell but not in inner shell

  16. Radionuclide migration in water reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Toxicity degree and radiation effect of different radionuclides depend on multiple factors, whose interaction can strengthen or weaken the effects through the mechanism of nuclide accumulation by hydrobiontes. Stage of development of an aquatic organism, its age, mass and sex as well as lifetime and residence time of the organism in the given medium are of importance. The radionuclide build up depends on illumination, locale of the bioobject residence, on the residence nature. The concentration of radionuclides in aquatic organisms and bionts survival depend on a season, temperature of the residence medium, as well as salinity and mineral composition of water influence

  17. Effectiveness of direct and indirect radionuclide cystography in detecting vesicoureteral reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.; Kruglik, G.D.

    1976-01-01

    A modified of the direct radionuclide cystography technique to include filling, voiding, and postvoiding phases of the examination permitted a simulated comparison between direct and indirect radionuclide cystography. One hundred thirty-seven examples of reflux were documented with this technique. Of these, 96 instances of reflux (70 percent) were recorded during two or more phases and thus would have been detected by either technique. Twenty-nine examples (21 percent) were only detected during filling and thus would have been missed by the indirect radionuclide technique and by some roentgenographic techniques. Only 12 examples (9 percent) were detected during the voiding phase only. The modified direct method of radionuclide cystography, which continuously monitors the urinary tracts during filling, voiding, and postvoiding, is offered as the best current technique for assessing visicoureteral reflus

  18. The removal of radionuclides from foodstuffs during technological treatment and culinary processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perepelyatnikova, L.V.; Lazarev, N.M.; Ivanova, T.N.; Fedin, F.A.; Long, S.; Pollard, D.

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data on the efficiency of industrial and domestic processing techniques of plant and animal products, which reduce radionuclides content foodstuffs, are summarized. Methods, which provide the greatest decrease of radionuclides content in the final products with minimum losses of nutritional value, were identified

  19. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  20. Artificial radionuclides in soil, flora and fauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Sources and ways of soil contamination by radionuclides, as well as the main regularities of radionuclide behaviour in soils, are discussed. Ways of radionuclide uptake by plants are discussed in detail, since radionuclide contamination of vegetation, and agricultural plants and pastures in particular, is one of the main factors, determining sanitary value of environmental contamination by radioactive substances

  1. Assessment of litter prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in preweaned piglets utilizing an antemortem tracheobronchial mucus collection technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Karriker, Locke; Main, Rodger; Christianson, Eric; Marsteller, Thomas; Hammen, Kristin; Bates, Jessica; Thomas, Paul; Ellingson, Josh; Harmon, Karen; Abate, Sarah; Crawford, Kimberly

    2015-09-01

    The swine industry currently lacks validated antemortem methods of detecting baseline herd prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. The focus of our study was to evaluate alternative antemortem detection techniques and to determine baseline litter prevalence in preweaned pig populations utilizing the selected technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Preliminary data was analyzed on weaned piglets with evidence of respiratory disease (n = 32). Five sample types (antemortem nasal swab, tracheobronchial mucus, postmortem deep airway swab, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung tissue) were collected from each pig. Individual samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae using qPCR. Compared to nasal swabs, tracheobronchial mucus demonstrated higher test sensitivity (P hyopneumoniae. Two out of 180 litters revealed a positive result (1.1%). Individual qPCR assays were run on the samples collected from sow farm 4. Five out of 30 samples revealed a positive result (16.7%). Tracheobronchial mucus collection in combination with qPCR is a sensitive antemortem sampling technique that can be used to estimate the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in preweaned pigs, thus providing insight into the infection dynamics across the entire farrow-to-finish process. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. Study of radionuclides speciation with biological molecules of interest by spectrometric techniques; Etude de la speciation des radionucleides avec les molecules d'interet biologique par approche spectrometrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenco, V

    2007-07-15

    Mechanisms of complexation and accumulation of the radionuclides at the cellular and molecular level are complex and poorly known because the studies on these subjects are scarce. Within the framework of this thesis, we studied the interactions of these cations with biological molecules of interest. We chose to focus on an actinide: uranium (VI) as well as europium as an analogue of trivalent actinides. The selected biological molecules are the phyto-chelatins: their role is to protect cells against intrusions from nonessential heavy metals (thus toxic). These proteins are likely to be implied in the mechanisms of sequestration of radionuclides in living organisms. However, their structure is complex, this is why, in order to better include/understand their reactivity, we extended our studies to lower entities which constitute them (amino acid: glycine, glutamic acid and cysteine; polypeptides: glutathione reduced and oxidized forms). In particular, we determined solution speciation (stoichiometry, structure) as well as the complexing constants associated with the formation with these species. These studies were undertaken by Time Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence (TRLIF), Electro-Spray-Mass Spectrometry (ES-MS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infra-Rouge spectroscopy (FTIR) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (EXAFS).The determination of the complexation constants enabled us to conclude that the complexing capacity of these molecules with respect to radionuclides was moderate (log{sub 10}K{sub 1} {<=} 3, pH 3 or 6), the formed species are mononuclear with only one ligand molecule (1:1). The interaction is performed via oxygenated (hard) groups. The direct complexation of europium with phyto-chelatins at acidic pH was studied jointly by TRLIF and ES-MS. The complexing capacity of these molecules is much higher than that of GSH from which they result. The interaction of europium with metallothioneins is, on the contrary

  3. Radionuclide imaging in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, C.A.; Robinson, R.G.; Hinthorn, D.R.; Liu, C.

    1978-01-01

    Eight patients with herpes simplex encephalitis among the 10 cases diagnosed at the University of Kansas Medical Center from 1966 to 1976 were studied with /sup 99m/Tc early in their diagnostic work-up. The images were unilaterally positive in the temporal lobe area in all 8 patients. Radionuclide studies can suggest herpes simplex as the specific etiology in cases of encephalitis and can also indicate the best site for brain biopsy to confirm the diagnosis by fluorescent antibody techniques. Appropriate antiviral therapy should be instituted as soon as possible to alter the course of this destructive form of viral encephalitis

  4. Optimization of monitoring sewage with radionuclide contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    Recommendations on optimization of monitoring contaminated sewage aimed at enviromental protection agxinst radioactive contamination at minimum cost are presented. The way of selecting water sampling technique depends on water composition stability and flow rate. Depending on the type of radionuclide distribution in the sewage one can estimate minimum frequency of sampling or number of samples sufficient for assuring reliability of the conclusion on the excess or non-excess of permissible radioactive contamination levels, as well as analysis assigned accuracy. By irregular contaminated sewage-discharge and possibility of short-term releases of different form and duration, sampling should be accomplished through automatic devices of continuons or periodic operation

  5. Radionuclide measurements using resonantly enhanced collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, T.J.; Bushaw, B.A.; Gerke, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes development of a laser-enhanced collisional ionization method for direct radionuclide measurements that are independent of radioactive decay. The technique uses two nitrogen-laser-pumped dye lasers to selectively excite the target isotope to an electronic state near the ionization threshold. The excited actinide atoms then undergo collisions with a buffer gas and are efficiently ionized. The resulting ions can be detected by conventional methods. The attributes of this approach include highly sensitive isotope analysis with relatively inexpensive lasers and a simple vacuum system. 9 refs., 3 figs

  6. Radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, O.; Ruth, C.; Samanek, M.

    1990-01-01

    The use of radionuclide methods in pediatric cardiology is discussed for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial function and perfusion, regional lung perfusion and ventilation, and for measuring central and peripheral hemodynamics. (H.W.). 16 refs

  7. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  8. Radionuclides in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.; Schmidt, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Radionuclides in the Food Chain reviews past experience in meeting the challenge of radionuclide contamination of foodstuffs and water sources and, in the wake of the reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island, presents current concepts and programs relating to measurement, surveillance, effects, risk management, evaluation guidelines, and control and regulatory activities. This volume, based on a symposium sponsored by the International Life Sciences Institute in association with the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, which brought together both radiation experts and food industry policymakers, examines such vital topics as structural problems in large-scale crisis-managment systems; dose assessment from man-made sources; international recommendations on radiation protection; airborne contamination, as well as aquatic and soilborne radionuclides; food-chain contamination from testing nuclear devices; long-term health effects of radionuclides in food and water supplies; and use of mathematical models in risk assessment and management. (orig.)

  9. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houseworth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  10. Surface diffusion of sorbed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bond, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Surface diffusion has in the past been invoked to explain rates of radionuclide migration which were greater than those predicted. Results were generally open to interpretation but the possible existence of surface diffusion, whereby sorbed radionuclides could potentially migrate at much enhanced rates, necessitated investigation. In this work through-diffusion experiments have shown that although surface diffusion does exist for some nuclides, the magnitude of the phenomenon is not sufficient to affect repository safety assessment modelling. (author)

  11. Radionuclide migration in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, M [Ingenieurgesellschaft Bonnenberg und Drescher, Juelich (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10/sup -3/) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10/sup -2/) and one tenth (10/sup -1/) that of T respectively.

  12. Radionuclide migration in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unplanned releases from a nuclear installation - e.g., leakage from a storage tank or other incident - can result in the escape of contaminants such as U, Pu, Cs, Sr, T etc. Nuclide transport through the ground is governed by characteristics of the subsurface hydrology and the specific nuclides under consideration. Unsaturated soil layers result in a transport rate so low as to negligible. Radionuclides reaching the ground water are assumed to endanger human life because of potential uncontrolled ingestion. The most dangerous nuclides are long-lived and not absorbed, or very poorly absorbed, in the soil. During migration of nuclides through saturated soil layers, the concentration can be reduced by dilution. Preliminary results indicate that tritium is spread with ground water velocity. Its concentration can be reduced only by diffusion, dispersion and radioactive decay. Alpha-emitters are strongly retained velocities of alpha-emitters are approximately one thousandth (10 -3 ) that of T. Transport velocities of Cs and Sr are approximately one hundreth (10 -2 ) and one tenth (10 -1 ) that of T respectively. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  14. Radionuclides migration or isolation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulhoat, P.; Grambow, B.; Simoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    After 20 years of research, the chemical behaviour of actinides and fission products in nuclear waste disposal environments is much better understood. Consistent thermodynamic data have been gathered and allow much more accurate previsions. Through the considerable development of analytical spectroscopy, including time resolved laser fluorescence and X ray absorption, a better understanding of the chemical reactivity (complexation, sorption) of actinides and fission products at a molecular scale has been possible. Chemically reducing conditions are found in most selected disposal host rock formations, generally chosen for their high sorption capacity (clays); such conditions favour the chemical confinement of most radionuclides through precipitation or sorption. Low permeability host rocks participate to this confinement, as convective fluxes are lower than diffusive fluxes. The most recent performance assessment exercises have taken into account the recent progress of knowledge in the chemical evolution of the near field. They show that the dose rates at the outlet are far lower than existing recommendations for normal and most altered evolution scenarios. (authors)

  15. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific

  16. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  17. Radionuclides in sewage sludge and problems of use and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.; Tiefenbrunner, F.; Dierich, M.P.; Brunner, P.

    1987-01-01

    In a sewage plant with radioactive contaminated sewage an accumulation of radionuclide in the sewage sludge was to be found. The specific activities are in inverse proportion to the water content of the sewage sludge, the dehydrated sewage sludge shows the highest specific activities. These enriched radionuclides seem to be absorbed from the sludge. Yet they can be utilized by plants. This was demonstrated in experiments with Trifolium repens and Secale cereale, where the rate of absorption amounted 15-33% (inCi/kg dry weight plant:nCi/kg dry weight soil X 100) (transfer factors). This is why fertilization with radioactive contaminated sewage sludge seems to cause problems. In further experiments an extraction of radionuclides from ashed sewage sludge was shown. By acidifying the mobile phasis an increase in radioactivity in the eluated fractions was achieved. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Inclusion of radionuclides absorption by sediments in the RIVLAK program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, O.; Moreira, J.M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The RIVLAK code solves the one-dimensional transport equation for radionuclide concentrations within a water body for routine and accidental releases of liquid effluents. The principal phenomena considered in the RIVLAK code are advection by the water body flow, longitudinal and transversal diffusion, and radioactive decay. This work incorporates the interaction between radionuclides and suspended or bed sediments to the RIVLAK code. An approximate equation for the radionuclide concentration in an effective sediment is included in the code with explicit terms for adsorption and desorption from the water to the effective sediment. The modified RIVLAK code is utilized for estimating the radionuclide concentration from release experiments in the Clinch river. The original code overestimates the Cs concentration downstream by approximately two orders of magnitude. The modified version predicts the Cs concentration with few percents, and underestimates its longitudinal dispersion by about 35%. The special care needed with parameters such as the radionuclide diffusion coefficient in the water, and the adsorption and desorption coefficients are discussed. (author)

  19. Sorbent application on the base of chitosan for radionuclides separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivarciova, L.

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste contains enormous amounts of radionuclides, which pollute the environment and can cause serious chemical and radiological toxicity threats to lower and higher living organism. Alternative process for the removal of heavy metal ions and radionuclides is sorption, which utilizes various certain natural materials of biological origin. Amino-polysaccharide-based sorbents e.g. chitosan represent suitable materials for binding of metal oxo-anion species because of numerous functional groups -OH and -NH_2 because of their suitable H-bond donor and acceptor sites. The sorbents on the base chitosan prepared through chemical modification were used for removal and separation certain radionuclides from aqueous media. The aim of this work was the study of physicochemical properties of prepared sorbents. The specific surface of sorbents was characterized with BET methods. Point of zero charge was identified with potentiometric titration. The size of particles and shape of sorbents were determined by scanning electron microscope. The sorption experiments for selected radionuclides were conducted under static and dynamic conditions. The effect of various parameters on the sorption "9"9"mTc, "6"0Co and the effect of pH on the separation of radionuclide mixture in the solution were studied. (author)

  20. Experience utilizing a 3.7 MeV tandem cascade accelerator (TCA) for PET radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.; Gaehle, G.; Dence, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    A 3.7 MeV TCA was installed at Washington University in the Spring of 1993 for evaluation as a PET isotope production accelerator. The accelerator was installed in a specially designed suite consisting of the accelerator room, a open-quotes hot labclose quotes and a open-quotes cold labclose quotes. The accelerator has been utilized routinely for PET isotope production since it's installation. Although the major radionuclide produced utilizing the TCA is oxygen-15, techniques for the production of fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 have been developed. The novel techniques used to produce usable quantities of these latter two isotopes will be discussed

  1. Functional integrity of lacrimal drainage apparatus by radionuclide dacryocystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadambi, Vivek; Victor Williams, B.

    1989-01-01

    30 patients with epiphora and related complaints were investigated by radionuclide dacrocystography. It was possible to do this procedure easily in all age groups. The site of block in the lacrimal system could be accurately determined by this non-invasive technique. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Nuclear reactions and radionuclides in the study of fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, H.; Sueki, K.; Sato, W.; Akiyama, K.

    2000-01-01

    Radiochemical techniques have been applied in various ways to the study of fullerenes and metallofullerenes for the past several years, and they have provided invaluable information pertaining to the stability, structures, and formation of the novel carbon material. This paper reviews those experimental results that have fully shown the usefullness and uniqueness of radionuclides demonstrated in the field of fullerene science. (author)

  3. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by means of GIS techniques. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work ...

  4. LASL models for environmental transport of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, A.F.; Smith, W.J.; Johnson, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory has been developing techniques for evaluating the adequacy of shallow land radioactive disposal sites to contain disposed radionuclides. This report discusses developments in applying a Biological Transport Model to simulate the cycling of plutonium in pinyon-juniper, and ponderosa pine forest ecosystems through serial stage developments using plant growth dynamics created in the model

  5. The investigation of radionuclides distributions in beach sand by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (GISPI) was employed to determine the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides on various beaches in and around Saldanha Bay, located on the West Coast of South Africa. Several mathematical techniques were applied to obtain GIS overlay that could be ...

  6. Analytical methods for radionuclides in liquid and solid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlet, J.

    1983-01-01

    This lecture describes in vitro techniques for the radiochemical determination and dosimetry of radionuclides in the body that have been metabolized and are in the circulatory system. Measurements are made in the excretions and other body specimens such as blood, perspiration, hair, exhaled air, and tissue. 13 references, 4 tables

  7. Broadband Utilization of Eigenvalue Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kus

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of signal processing problems are concerned with estimating unknown parameters from sensor array measurement. This paper presents simple algorithm for estimating spatio-temporal spectrum of signals received by passive array derivated from MUSIC algorithm, based on eigenstructure of covariance matrices of received signals. Some simulation results are presented.

  8. External exposure from airborne radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Shielding factors have been calculated by the point kernel method by Riso National Laboratory for indoor residences in selected European single-family and multistory houses and outdoor residences in built-up urban areas. Parametric variations (thickness of outer and inner walls, floors and roofs) have been performed to identify the most important factors responsible for affording protection indoors against plume gamma radiation. Recommendations have been made for representative shielding factors. G S F considers three types of buildings: a house of prefabricated parts, a two storey semi-detached house, and a houseblock in two different urban surroundings. The calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo photon transport code SAM-CE. Shielding factors are calculated for the living rooms, basements and outside locations of the buildings. In France a representative sample of about twenty dwellings is defined in each of the 31 French 'departements' where a survey on housing characteristics has been conducted. Using Monte-Carlo techniques the shielding factors are calculated in these houses. The shielding factor distribution for a radionuclide is summarized in each 'departement' by a conservative average and by the two extreme values: the worst shielded apartment and the best one's. Furthermore two experimental campaigns have been made to validate the computer codes. These results are discussed not only according to the respective calculation method, but also to the considered housing characteristics. The differences which come from the methods are not negligible, but they are small compared to those which come from the housing characteristics. For similar main house parameters, a relatively good agreement between the results from the different calculation methods is found

  9. Investigation on the chemically fixing technique of carbon dioxide utilizing solar energy; Taiyo energy riyo ni yoru nisanka tanso no kagakuteki koteika gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This report describes the results of effective fixing technique of CO2 by utilizing solar energy. First of all, the investigation was directed to the technique for synthesizing ethylene, hydrocarbons and alcohol by electrochemical reduction of CO2. The power required for this process is supplied by photovoltaic power generation. Development of excellent electrode catalyst is needed because the reduction of CO2 requires a high overvoltage. It is desirable to enhance the selectivity of the reaction for specific material and improve the transport process in the electrolytic cell. Next, designing of material and reaction of photocatalysts using semiconductor electrode and semiconductor particulate was examined. A semiconductor electrode made of FeS2 is inexpensive and has a high ability of collecting solar light. In the category of photocatalysis system, a photocatalytic system in which semiconductor particles are embedded in vesicle and a photpocatalyst based on potassium niobate are noteworthy. As biosystem, the method of reducing CO2 by calcareous algae which simultaneously advances fixing and calcification of CO2 by photosynthesis is noteworthy. 129 refs., 45 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate fertilizers, in particular rock phosphate, in Venezuela: I. phosphorus uptake, utilization and agronomic effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanova, E.; Salas, A.M.; Toro, M.

    2002-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of natural and modified rock phosphate using conventional and isotopic techniques in an acid soil from El Pao, Cojedes state, Venezuela, using maize and sorghum with the application of different phosphate fertilizers to measure dry matter production, P accumulated in plant, efficiency parameters using isotopic techniques or yield. Finally, commercial plots were established with the application of soluble P fertilizers and rock phosphate products to validate the results obtained in the field experiments. The results showed highly significant differences between partially acidulated rock phosphate, natural rock phosphate, and the check plot in dry matter production, and P accumulation in plant and grain yield. When the efficiency parameters were evaluated in microplots with 32 P-TSP at 60 days of plant growth, it confirmed results obtained in semi commercial plots where the P in the plant derived from the fertilizer was 46% with partially acidulated rock phosphate (PAR) and 14% with natural Riecito rock phosphate (RR). Utilization coefficients of P by the plants were 34.2 and 8.8% for both treatments, respectively. The Substitution relation parameter showed that just 0.8 kg of P of PAR or 3.1 kg P of RR was required to produce the same yield as 1 kg P of TSP. These results were further validated in 5 ha commercial plots using corn and sorghum. (author)

  11. Table of radionuclides (Vol. 5 - A = 22 to 244)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.; Chiste, V.; Dulieu, C.; Mougeot, X.; Browne, E.; Chechev, V.; Kuzmenko, N.; Kondev, F.; Luca, A.; Galan, M.; Arinc, A.; Huang, X.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph is one of several published in a series by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) on behalf of the Comite Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCRI), previously known as the Comite Consultatif pour les Etalons de Mesure des Rayonnements Ionisants (CCEMRI). The aim of this series of publications is to review topics that are of importance for the measurement of ionizing radiation and especially of radioactivity, in particular those techniques normally used by participants in international comparisons. It is hoped that these publications will prove to be useful reference volumes both for those who are already engaged in this field and for those who are approaching such measurements for the first time. The purpose of this monograph is to present the recommended values of nuclear and decay data for a wide range of radionuclides. Activity measurements for more than forty of these radionuclides have already been the subject of comparisons under the auspices of Section II of the CCRI. The material for this monograph is now covered in four volumes. The first two volumes contain the primary recommended data relating to half-lives, decay modes, x-rays, gamma-rays, electron emissions; alpha- and beta-particle transitions and emissions, and their uncertainties for a set of sixty-eight radionuclides: Volume 1 for those radionuclides with mass number up to and including 150, and Volume 2 for those radionuclides with mass number over 150. Volume 3 contains the equivalent data for twenty-six additional radionuclides and re-evaluations for 125 Sb and 153 Sm; Volume 4 contains the data for a further thirty-one radionuclides with re-evaluation for 226 Ra while the present Volume 5 includes 17 new radionuclide evaluations and 8 re-evaluations of previous data as identified in the contents page. The data have been collated and evaluated by an international working group (Decay Data Evaluation Project) led by the LNE-LNHB. The evaluators have agreed on the

  12. Recent Advances in Digital Coincidence Counting for Radionuclide Metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keightley, John; Bobin, Christophe; Bouchard, Jacques; Capogni, Marco; Loreti, Stefano; Roteta, Miguel

    2013-06-01

    The radioactivity measurement techniques developed within the EURAMET EMRP 'MetroFission' Joint Research Project, were aimed at performing on-site activity measurements at the primary standard level (4πβ-γ coincidence counting) for a wide range of radionuclides utilizing recent advances in high-speed digital sampling and digital signal processing. The state-of-the-art technology employed within this project provides up to 14-bit digitizer systems operating with sampling rates in the order of 10 8 to 10 9 samples-per-second, incorporating on-board FPGA devices, which greatly enhances the application of digital signal processing for the implementation of digital coincidence counting. These devices when coupled to suitable analysis software, demonstrate a significant improvement in the provision of primary standards of radioactivity. This manuscript provides a description of the systems employed, along with recommendations regarding optimization of the digital sampling of signals from photo-multiplier tubes and pre-amplifiers and compare the benefits of 'off-line' versus 'on-line' 4πβ-γ digital coincidence counting systems. (authors)

  13. Fast neutron activation analysis using short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.; Zemplen-Papp, E.

    1993-01-01

    Fast neutron activation analysis experiments were performed to investigate the analytical possibilities and prospective utilization of short-lived activation products. A rapid pneumatic transfer system for use with neutron generators has been installed and applied for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from ∼300 ms to 20 s. The transport time for samples of total mass of 1-4 g is between 130 and 160 ms for pressurized air of 0.1-0.4 MPa. The reproducibility of transport times is less than 2%. The employed method of correcting time-dependent counting losses is based on the virtual pulse generator principle. The measuring equipment consists of CAMAC modules and a special gating circuit. Typical time distributions of counting losses are presented. The same 14 elements were studied by the conventional activation method (single irradiation and single counting) by both a typical pneumatic transport system (run time 3 s) and the fast pneumatic transport facility. Furthermore, the influence of the cyclic activation technique on the elemental sensitivities was investigated. (author) 15 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Plant rhizosphere processes influencing the mobility of radionuclides in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, K.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1988-06-01

    Native vegetation associated with commercial low-level waste disposal sites has the potential for modifying the soil chemical environment over the long term and, consequently, affecting radionuclide mobility. These changes were assessed for coniferous and deciduous trees grown in lysimeter systems by examining their influence on soil solution chemistry using advanced analytical and geochemical modeling techniques. Our studies demonstrated the formation of highly mobile anionic radionuclide complexes with amino acids, peptides and organic acids originating from plant leaf litter and roots. The production of complexing agents was related to season and tree species, suggesting that vegetation management or exclusion may be appropriate after a site is closed

  15. Internal radiation dosimetry using nuclear medicine imaging in radionuclide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Min; Byun, Byun Hyun; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy has been an important field in nuclear medicine. In radionuclide therapy, relevant evaluation of internally absorbed dose is essential for the achievement of efficient and sufficient treatment of incurable disease, and can be accomplished by means of accurate measurement of radioactivity in body and its changes with time. Recently, the advances of nuclear medicine imaging and multi modality imaging processing techniques can provide chance of more accurate and easier measurement of the measures commented above, in cooperation of conventional imaging based approaches. In this review, basic concept for internal dosimetry using nuclear medicine imaging is summarized with several check points which should be considered in real practice

  16. Radionuclide imaging of the lower genitourinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, P.A.; Pjura, G.A.; Kin, E.E.; Brown, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    The major use of radionuclide cystography is in the management of children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Reflux is common, occurring in one-third to one-half of children with urinary tract infection. The significance of VUR lies in its associated symptoms and consequences, which include impaired renal growth and function, vague ill health, renal pain, and more importantly the development of reflux nephropathy, a significant cause of end-stage renal disease and hypertension in children. Although reflux may resolve spontaneously, particularly milder degrees of reflux, the age at which this may occur is unpredictable and repeated follow-up cystography over a number of years may be necessary. Therefore, it is important to minimize radiation to the child while providing accurate diagnostic information. This paper discusses how the technique of radionuclide cystography compares favorably with routine contrast voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in these respects, and in addition can provide quantitative information not obtained by radiographic techniques. Other indications may include screening siblings of patients known to have reflux, follow-up of antireflux surgery and occasionally screening for reflux in children who have had urinary tract infection

  17. The application of radionuclides in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.E.; Murray, I.P.C.; Sorby, P.J.; Hetherington, E.L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The authors of this article describe the history of nuclear medicine from its beginning at the end of the 19th century when radioactivity was discovered, basic considerations which describe briefly the properties of radionuclides with special reference to the ones which are suited to medical applications and in general terms the diagnostic techniques that are current. The article also includes a segment on the radionuclide technetium 99m, explaining why it is ideal for organ imaging and how it is utilised in a range of radiopharmaceuticals for investigations into many areas of the human body. The radiation risk to the patient, including tabulated radiation exposures for a few of the more common nuclear medicine studies, is dealt with. The article explains that a greater risk to life from not having the test performed is used as the criterion for justifying whether a nuclear medicine procedure is performed or not. The article finally describes the scope of the techniques and the areas of the body which are routinely examined and are exemplified with numerous illustrations. (J.R.)

  18. Radionuclide studies in paediatric nephro-urology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy E-mail: amypiepsz@yahoo.com

    2002-08-01

    The main tool of radionuclide techniques applied to paediatric uro-nephrology is the quantitation of function, which is an information not easily obtained by other diagnostic modalities. The radiation burden is low. Drug sedation is only rarely needed, whatever the age of the patient. Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate can be obtained by means of an intravenous injection of Cr-51 EDTA and one or two blood samples. Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy is an accurate method for evaluation of regional cortical impairment during acute pyelonephritis and later on, for detection of permanent scarring. Tc-99m MAG3 renography is nowadays a well-standardized method for accurate estimation of the split renal function and of renal drainage with or without furosemide challenge. This technique is particularly indicated in uni- or bilateral uropathies with or without renal and/or ureteral dilatation. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography are two alternative modalities for X-ray MCUG. Their relative place in the strategy of management of vesicoureteral reflux is discussed.

  19. Radionuclide assessment of pulmonary microvascular permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, A.B.J. [Medical Intensive Care Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Free University Hospital, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-04-01

    The literature has been reviewed to evaluate the technique and clinical value of radionuclide measurements of microvascular permeability and oedema formation in the lungs. Methodology, modelling and interpretation vary widely among studies. Nevertheless, most studies agree on the fact that the measurement of permeability via pulmonary radioactivity measurements of intravenously injected radiolabelled proteins versus that in the blood pool, the so-called pulmonary protein transport rate (PTR), can assist the clinician in discriminating between permeability oedema of the lungs associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and oedema caused by an increased filtration pressure, for instance in the course of cardiac disease, i.e. pressure-induced pulmonary oedema. Some of the techniques used to measure PTR are also able to detect subclinical forms of lung microvascular injury not yet complicated by permeability oedema. This may occur after cardiopulmonary bypass and major vascular surgery, for instance. By paralleling the clinical severity and course of the ARDS, the PTR method may also serve as a tool to evaluate new therapies for the syndrome. Taken together, the currently available radionuclide methods, which are applicable at the bedside in the intensive care unit, may provide a gold standard for detecting minor and major forms of acute microvascular lung injury, and for evaluating the severity, course and response to treatment. (orig.). With 2 tabs.

  20. WE-G-BRA-07: Analyzing the Safety Implications of a Brachytherapy Process Improvement Project Utilizing a Novel System-Theory-Based Hazard-Analysis Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, A; Samost, A [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Viswanathan, A; Cormack, R; Damato, A [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute - Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the hazards in cervical-cancer HDR brachytherapy using a novel hazard-analysis technique, System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA). The applicability and benefit of STPA to the field of radiation oncology is demonstrated. Methods: We analyzed the tandem and ring HDR procedure through observations, discussions with physicists and physicians, and the use of a previously developed process map. Controllers and their respective control actions were identified and arranged into a hierarchical control model of the system, modeling the workflow from applicator insertion through initiating treatment delivery. We then used the STPA process to identify potentially unsafe control actions. Scenarios were then generated from the identified unsafe control actions and used to develop recommendations for system safety constraints. Results: 10 controllers were identified and included in the final model. From these controllers 32 potentially unsafe control actions were identified, leading to more than 120 potential accident scenarios, including both clinical errors (e.g., using outdated imaging studies for planning), and managerial-based incidents (e.g., unsafe equipment, budget, or staffing decisions). Constraints identified from those scenarios include common themes, such as the need for appropriate feedback to give the controllers an adequate mental model to maintain safe boundaries of operations. As an example, one finding was that the likelihood of the potential accident scenario of the applicator breaking during insertion might be reduced by establishing a feedback loop of equipment-usage metrics and equipment-failure reports to the management controller. Conclusion: The utility of STPA in analyzing system hazards in a clinical brachytherapy system was demonstrated. This technique, rooted in system theory, identified scenarios both technical/clinical and managerial in nature. These results suggest that STPA can be successfully used to analyze safety in

  1. WE-G-BRA-07: Analyzing the Safety Implications of a Brachytherapy Process Improvement Project Utilizing a Novel System-Theory-Based Hazard-Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, A; Samost, A; Viswanathan, A; Cormack, R; Damato, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the hazards in cervical-cancer HDR brachytherapy using a novel hazard-analysis technique, System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA). The applicability and benefit of STPA to the field of radiation oncology is demonstrated. Methods: We analyzed the tandem and ring HDR procedure through observations, discussions with physicists and physicians, and the use of a previously developed process map. Controllers and their respective control actions were identified and arranged into a hierarchical control model of the system, modeling the workflow from applicator insertion through initiating treatment delivery. We then used the STPA process to identify potentially unsafe control actions. Scenarios were then generated from the identified unsafe control actions and used to develop recommendations for system safety constraints. Results: 10 controllers were identified and included in the final model. From these controllers 32 potentially unsafe control actions were identified, leading to more than 120 potential accident scenarios, including both clinical errors (e.g., using outdated imaging studies for planning), and managerial-based incidents (e.g., unsafe equipment, budget, or staffing decisions). Constraints identified from those scenarios include common themes, such as the need for appropriate feedback to give the controllers an adequate mental model to maintain safe boundaries of operations. As an example, one finding was that the likelihood of the potential accident scenario of the applicator breaking during insertion might be reduced by establishing a feedback loop of equipment-usage metrics and equipment-failure reports to the management controller. Conclusion: The utility of STPA in analyzing system hazards in a clinical brachytherapy system was demonstrated. This technique, rooted in system theory, identified scenarios both technical/clinical and managerial in nature. These results suggest that STPA can be successfully used to analyze safety in

  2. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  3. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references

  4. Marine sediments as a sink, and contaminated sediments as a diffuse source of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Borretzen, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Marine sediments may act as a sink for radionuclides originating from atmospheric fallout (e.g. Chernobyl accident), for radionuclides in discharges from nuclear installations (e.g. Sellafield, UK) for river transported radionuclides, and radionuclides released from nuclear waste dumped at sea (e.g. fjords at Novaya Zemlya). In order to assess short and long term consequences of radionuclides entering the marine ecosystem, the role of sediments as a relatively permanent sink and the potential for contaminated sediments to act as a diffuse source should be focused. The retention of radionuclides in sediments will depend on the source term, i.e. the physico-chemical forms of radionuclides entering the system and on interactions with various sediment components. Radionuclides associated with particles or aggregating polymers are removed from the water phase by sedimentation, while sorption to surface sediment layers is of relevance for ionic radionuclide species including negatively charged colloids. With time, transformation processes will influence the mobility of radionuclides in sediments. The diffusion into mineral lattices will increase fixation, while the influence of for instance red/ox conditions and bio-erosion may mobilize radionuclides originally fixed in radioactive particles. Thus, information of radionuclides species, surface interactions, transformation processes and kinetics is essential for reducing the uncertainties in marine transfer models. Dynamic model experiments where chemically well defined tracers are added to a sea water-marine sediment system are useful for providing information on time dependent interactions and distribution coefficients. When combined with sequential extraction techniques, information on mobility and rate of fixation is subsequently attained. In the present work experimental results from the Irish Sea and the Kara Sea will be discussed

  5. Plant rhizosphere processes influencing radionuclide mobility in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Cowan, C.E.; McFadden, K.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1987-10-01

    Native vegetation associated with commercial low-level waste disposal sites has the potential for modifying the soil chemical environment over the long term and, consequently, the mobility of radionuclides. These effects were assessed for coniferous and hardwood tree species by using plants grown in lysimeter systems and examining their influence on soil solution chemistry using advanced analytical and geochemical modeling techniques. The study demonstrated formation of highly mobile anionic radionuclide complexes with amino acids, peptides, and organic acids originating from plant leaf litter and roots. The production of complexing agents was related to season and tree species, suggesting that vegetation management and exclusion may be appropriate after a site is closed. This research provides a basis for focusing on key complexing agents in future studies to measure critical affinity constants and to incorporate this information into mathematical models describing biological effects on radionuclide mobility. 26 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs

  6. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  7. Metrology of trace radionuclides in environment. Standardization and traceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmet, D.

    1999-01-01

    Widespread concern over radioactive substances in the environment regularly requires environmental and public health assessments. The credibility of an assessment will depend on the quality and reliability on measurement results that often are of paramount significance in the environmental domain. Those man made radionuclides present in the various environmental components of the French territory are however found at trace, even ultra-trace levels. This article gives an overview of standardization work and required reference materials and rules for measuring radionuclides in environmental matrices as well as the international and national systems to manage standardization and traceability. Some achievements as well as the many difficulties that the metrologist must overcome when using nuclear techniques to measure trace quantities of radionuclides are presented. (author)

  8. SCATTER: Source and Transport of Emplaced Radionuclides: Code documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longsine, D.E.

    1987-03-01

    SCATTER simulated several processes leading to the release of radionuclides to the site subsystem and then simulates transport via the groundwater of the released radionuclides to the biosphere. The processes accounted for to quantify release rates to a ground-water migration path include radioactive decay and production, leaching, solubilities, and the mixing of particles with incoming uncontaminated fluid. Several decay chains of arbitrary length can be considered simultaneously. The release rates then serve as source rates to a numerical technique which solves convective-dispersive transport for each decay chain. The decay chains are allowed to have branches and each member can have a different radioactive factor. Results are cast as radionuclide discharge rates to the accessible environment

  9. Radionuclide imaging with coded apertures and three-dimensional image reconstruction from focal-plane tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.T.

    1976-05-01

    Two techniques for radionuclide imaging and reconstruction have been studied;; both are used for improvement of depth resolution. The first technique is called coded aperture imaging, which is a technique of tomographic imaging. The second technique is a special 3-D image reconstruction method which is introduced as an improvement to the so called focal-plane tomography

  10. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  11. Sorption of radionuclides on London clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1989-02-01

    Techniques for studying the sorption of radionuclides on London clay have been investigated. This work involved the use of through-diffusion, in-diffusion, high-pressure convection and batch methods to study the sorption of iodide, strontium, caesium and americium. Through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods were found to be most useful for investigating weakly and moderately sorbing nuclides and give realistic values for sorptivity. The batch technique remains the most practical method of obtaining large quantities of data within a relatively short timescale but gives very high sorptivity values. It is however very useful for intercomparisons of nuclides or geological media. The in-diffusion method requires further refinement for use with strongly sorbing nuclides. Good agreement between through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods was obtained for the sorptivity of strontium, whilst trends observed for caesium by through-diffusion were confirmed by batch measurements. (author)

  12. Method of preparing radionuclide doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperus, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of preparing aliquot dosea of a tracer material useful in diagnostic nuclear medicine comprising: storing discrete quantities of a lyophilized radionuclide carrier in separate tubular containers from which air and moisture is excluded, selecting from the tubular containers a container in which is stored a carrier appropriate for a nuclear diagnostic test to be performed, interposing the selected container between the needle and the barrel of a hypodermic syringe, and drawing a predetermined amount of a liquid containing a radionuclide tracer in known concentration into the hypodermic syringe barrel through the hypodermic needle and through the selected container to dissolve the discrete quantity of lyophilized carrier therein to combine the carrier with the radionuclide tracer to form an aliquot dose of nuclear diagnostic tracer material, as needed

  13. Determination of Long-lived Radionuclides in the Environment using ICP-MS and AMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    ICP-MS and AMS have been widely used for the measurement of radionuclides, especially long-lived radionculides. The new progress, major advantages of these two techniques and their major applications for measurement of important radionculides are summarized.......ICP-MS and AMS have been widely used for the measurement of radionuclides, especially long-lived radionculides. The new progress, major advantages of these two techniques and their major applications for measurement of important radionculides are summarized....

  14. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of 223 Ra and 225 Ac, from a radionuclide ''cow'' of 227 Ac or 229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ''cow'' forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ''cow'' from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ''cow''. In one embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 227 Th and the product radionuclide is the 223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the 227 Ac and retains the 227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ''cow'' is the 229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a 225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the 225 Ac and the 225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the 229 Th and passes the 225 Ra/Ac. 8 figs

  15. Sorbents for waste water purification from radionuclides and other toxic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalone, R.F.; MakKlenason, L.Ts.

    1996-01-01

    The TRW firm (USA) developed the system for sorption and disposal of radionuclides, heavy metals and organic substances, based on utilization of carbon sorbents. The sorbent is produced through processing natural coal by alkali-salt solution and has a large specific pores surface (up to 1000 m 2 /g). The sorbent carboxyl ionogenic groups are able of absorbing heavy metals cations from waste waters. Sorption by uranium constituted 30 mg/l. The sorbent with absorbed substances may be burnt (it contains no sulfur) or delivered for vitrification. The volume of disposed materials constitutes in comparison with existing techniques for uranium isotopes 420000 : 1. The costs are reduced up to 0.26 doll/m 2 of reprocessed water. 2 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-cell scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of ion chromatography (IC) for radiochemical separations is a well established technique. IC is commonly used in routine environmental monitoring applications as well as in specialized research applications. Typical usage involves the separation of a single radionuclide from the non-radioactive constituents. During the past decade, a limited amount of research has been conducted using automated IC systems in actinide separation applications (e.g.). More recently, separation procedures for common non-gamma emitting activation and fission products were developed utilizing a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. In addition, a separation procedure for six common actinides has been developed using a HPLC system. These latter systems used on-line flow-cell detectors for quantification of the radioactive constituents of the effluent stream

  17. External tandem target system for efficient production of short-lived positron emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, K.; Dwyer, J.; Finn, R.; Sheh, Y.; Sinnreich, J.; Wooten, T.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in radiopharmaceutical chemistry allow the incorporation of short-lived, positron-emitting radionuclides into a variety of compounds which when used with a positron emission tomograph provide a means of monitoring physiological disorders by a standard technique. To effectively meet the increased ''in-house'' clinical demands while maintaining a production schedule, a tandem target was designed and has been installed for the simultaneous ''on-line'' preparation of oxygen-15 labelled compounds such as CO 2 15 , H 2 O 15 ; and nitrogen-13 labelled compounds such as 13 NH 3 , 13 N 2 O, and 13 N 2 . The processing time required for the synthesis of the nitrogen-13 products as compared to the essentially instantaneous formation of oxygen-15 labelled compounds has provided the necessary time delay for clinical utilization. The characterisitcs of this external tandem target system as well as the automation for the dual processing are presented

  18. The development of damage identification methods for buildings with image recognition and machine learning techniques utilizing aerial photographs of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohei, N.; Nakamura, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Naoichi, M.; Hiromitsu, T.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to get schematic information of the damage situation immediately after the earthquake utilizing photographs shot from an airplane in terms of the investigation and the decision-making for authorities. In case of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake, we have acquired more than 1,800 orthographic projection photographs adjacent to damaged areas. These photos have taken between April 16th and 19th by airplanes, then we have distinguished damages of all buildings with 4 levels, and organized as approximately 296,000 GIS data corresponding to the fundamental Geospatial data published by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. These data have organized by effort of hundreds of engineers. However, it is not considered practical for more extensive disasters like the Nankai Trough earthquake by only human powers. So, we have been developing the automatic damage identification method utilizing image recognition and machine learning techniques. First, we have extracted training data of more than 10,000 buildings which have equally damage levels divided in 4 grades. With these training data, we have been raster scanning in each scanning ranges of entire images, then clipping patch images which represents damage levels each. By utilizing these patch images, we have been developing discriminant models by two ways. One is a model using the Support Vector Machine (SVM). First, extract a feature quantity of each patch images. Then, with these vector values, calculate the histogram density as a method of Bag of Visual Words (BoVW), then classify borders with each damage grades by SVM. The other one is a model using the multi-layered Neural Network. First, design a multi-layered Neural Network. Second, input patch images and damage levels based on a visual judgement, and then, optimize learning parameters with error backpropagation method. By use of both discriminant models, we are going to discriminate damage levels in each patches, then create the image that shows

  19. Spectrometric control of radionuclides production parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, I.; Potarenko, A.; Yarochevich, O.; Hluboky, N.; Kerko, P.; Bogdanov, V.; Dyatel, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A radioactive preparations and sources are widely used all over the world for scientific, industrial and medical purposes. These preparations in Belarus are planned to produce by the Joint Belarussian-Russian Closed Joint Stock Company 'Isotope technologies' (CJSC IT). The company was created in 1998 by two leading scientific centers-SSI 'Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny' the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus and the State Center of Science of the Russian Federation 'Scientific research institute of nuclear reactors'. One of the mainstream directions in CJSC IT activities is production of radioactive preparations for the industrial and scientific application (such as 133 Ba, 109 Cd, 63 Ni, 60 Co) and for the medical purposes (such as 19 '2Ir, 60 Co). All radioactive preparations have a good export potential and adequate to modern technical and consumer requirements. X-γ spectrometric analysis of considered radioactive sources is one of the basic methods for quality control of radioactive sources. At present, we are developing x-γ spectrometric support of purification process from contaminating radionuclides of 109 Cd -γ preparation and 63 Ni - β preparation. Work on x-γ spectrometric quality control of 133 Ba preparation is carried out. The description of the used equipment is given. Techniques of contaminating radionuclides determination (contents ∼10 - '6 from activity of the basic radionuclide) are presented. Problems of the choice of geometry of measurements of sources with activity about 10 7 -10 9 Bq and possible sources of errors are discussed. (author)

  20. Prediction of radionuclide accumulation in main ecosystem components of NPP cooling water reservoirs and assessment of acceptable radionuclide disposal into water reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of prediction of radionuclide accumulation in ecosystem main components of NPP cooling water-reservoirs (CWR) and assessment of radionuclide acceptable disposal into water reservoir are considered. Two models are nessecary for the calculation technique: model of radionuclide migration and accumulation in CWR ecosystem components and calculation model of population dose commitment due to water consumption (at the public health approach to the normalization of the NPP radioactive effect on CWC) or calculation model of dose commitment on hydrocenosis components (at the ecological approach to the normalization). Analytical calculations and numerical calculation results in the model CWC, located in the USSR middle region, are presented

  1. Producing new radionuclides for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Arronax cyclotron, a new particle accelerator dedicated to the production of radionuclides for medicine and research has been commissioned in Nantes (France). Because of its unique features: an energy of 70 MeV and an intensity of 750 μA, Arronax will produce radionuclides that can not be produce in present cyclotrons. Among others it will produce Strontium-82 and Germanium-68 that are the precursors for Rubidium-82 and Gallium-68 respectively. 20 per cent of the research works will be dedicated to other domains like radioactive wastes, the radiation biological damage and the radiation damage on electronic devices. (A.C.)

  2. Radionuclide migration in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbreau, A.; Heremans, R.; Skytte Jensen, B.

    1980-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal into geological formation is based on the capacity of rocks to confine radioactivity for a long period of time. Radionuclide migration from the repository to the environment depends on different mechanisms and phenomena whose two main ones are groundwater flow and the retention and ion-exchange property of rocks. Many studies are underway presently in EEC countries concerning hydrodynamic characteristics of deep geological formations as well as in radionuclide retention capacity and modelling. Important results have already been achieved which show the complexity of some phenomena and further studies shall principally be developed taking into account real conditions of the repository and its environment

  3. Automatic alignment of radionuclide images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    The variability of the position, dimensions and orientation of a radionuclide image within the field of view of a gamma camera hampers attempts to analyse the image numerically. This paper describes a method of using a set of training images of a particular type, in this case right lateral brain images, to define the likely variations in the position, dimensions and orientation for that type of image and to provide alignment data for a program that automatically aligns new images of the specified type to a standard position, size and orientation. Examples are given of the use of this method on three types of radionuclide image. (author)

  4. Phytoremediation: role of terrestrial plants and aquatic macrophytes in the remediation of radionuclides and heavy metal contaminated soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Manchanda, V K

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power reactors are operating in 31 countries around the world. Along with reactor operations, activities like mining, fuel fabrication, fuel reprocessing and military operations are the major contributors to the nuclear waste. The presence of a large number of fission products along with multiple oxidation state long-lived radionuclides such as neptunium ((237)Np), plutonium ((239)Pu), americium ((241/243)Am) and curium ((245)Cm) make the waste streams a potential radiological threat to the environment. Commonly high concentrations of cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium ((90)Sr) are found in a nuclear waste. These radionuclides are capable enough to produce potential health threat due to their long half-lives and effortless translocation into the human body. Besides the radionuclides, heavy metal contamination is also a serious issue. Heavy metals occur naturally in the earth crust and in low concentration, are also essential for the metabolism of living beings. Bioaccumulation of these heavy metals causes hazardous effects. These pollutants enter the human body directly via contaminated drinking water or through the food chain. This issue has drawn the attention of scientists throughout the world to device eco-friendly treatments to remediate the soil and water resources. Various physical and chemical treatments are being applied to clean the waste, but these techniques are quite expensive, complicated and comprise various side effects. One of the promising techniques, which has been pursued vigorously to overcome these demerits, is phytoremediation. The process is very effective, eco-friendly, easy and affordable. This technique utilizes the plants and its associated microbes to decontaminate the low and moderately contaminated sites efficiently. Many plant species are successfully used for remediation of contaminated soil and water systems. Remediation of these systems turns into a serious problem due to various anthropogenic activities that have

  5. Wind Transport of Radionuclide- Bearing Dust, Peña Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, R.; Goodell, P. C.; Gill, T. E.; Arimoto, R.

    2007-05-01

    This investigation evaluates radionuclide fractionation during wind erosion of high-grade uranium ore storage piles at Peña Blanca (50km north of Chihuahua City), Chihuahua, Mexico. The aridity of the local environment promotes dust resuspension by high winds. Although active operations ceased in 1983, the Peña Blanca mining district is one of Mexico`s most important uranium ore reserves. The study site contains piles of high grade ore, left loose on the surface, and separated by the specific deposits from which they were derived (Margaritas, Nopal I, and Puerto I). Similar locations do not exist in the United States, since uranium mining sites in the USA have been reclaimed. The Peña Blanca site serves as an analog for the Yucca Mountain project. Dust deposition is collected at Peña Blanca with BSNE sediment catchers (Fryrear, 1986) and marble dust traps (Reheis, 1999). These devices capture windblown sediment; subsequently, the sample data will help quantify potentially radioactive short term field sediment loss from the repository surface and determine sediment flux. Aerosols and surface materials will be analyzed and radioactivity levels established utilizing techniques such as gamma spectroscopy. As a result, we will be able to estimate how much radionuclide contaminated dust is being transported or attached geochemically to fine grain soils or minerals (e.g., clays or iron oxides). The high-grade uranium-bearing material is at secular equilibrium, thus the entire decay series is present. Of resulting interest is not only the aeolian transport of uranium, but also of the other daughter products. These studies will improve our understanding of geochemical cycling of radionuclides with respect to sources, transport, and deposition. The results may also have important implications for the geosciences and homeland security, and potential applications to public health. Funding for this project is provided in part via a NSF grant to Arimoto.

  6. SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    SPECT quantification of regional radionuclide activities within the human body is affected by several physical and instrumental factors including attenuation of photons within the patient, Compton scattered events, the system's finite spatial resolution and object size, finite number of detected events, partial volume effects, the radiopharmaceutical biokinetics, and patient and/or organ motion. Furthermore, other instrumentation factors such as calibration of the center-of-rotation, sampling, and detector nonuniformities will affect the SPECT measurement process. These factors are described, together with examples of compensation methods that are currently available for improving SPECT quantification. SPECT offers the potential to improve in vivo estimates of absorbed dose, provided the acquisition, reconstruction, and compensation procedures are adequately implemented and utilized. 53 references, 2 figures

  7. A Green Desulfurization Technique: Utilization of Flue Gas SO2 to Produce H2 via a Photoelectrochemical Process Based on Mo-Doped BiVO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A green photoelectrochemical (PEC process with simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production has attracted an increasing attention. The proposed process uses flue gas SO2 to improve H2 production. The improvement of the efficiency of this process is necessary before it can become industrial viable. Herein, we reported a Mo modified BiVO4 photocatalysts for a simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production. And the PEC performance could be significantly improved with doping and flue gas removal. The evolution rate of H2 and removal of SO2 could be enhanced by almost three times after Mo doping as compared with pristine BiVO4. The enhanced H2 production and SO2 removal is attributed to the improved bulk charge carrier transportation after Mo doping, and greatly enhanced oxidation reaction kinetics on the photoanode due to the formation of SO32− after SO2 absorption by the electrolyte. Due to the utilization of SO2 to improve the production of H2, the proposed PEC process may become a profitable desulfurization technique.

  8. A green desulfurization technique: utilization of flue gas SO2 to produce H2 via a photoelectrochemical process based on Mo-doped BiVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Li, Kejian; Cheng, Hanyun; Zhang, Liwu

    2017-12-01

    A green photoelectrochemical (PEC) process with simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production has attracted an increasing attention. The proposed process uses flue gas SO2 to improve H2 production. The improvement of the efficiency of this process is necessary before it can become industrial viable. Herein, we reported a Mo modified BiVO4 photocatalysts for a simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production. And the PEC performance could be significantly improved with doping and flue gas removal. The evolution rate of H2 and removal of SO2 could be enhanced by almost 3 times after Mo doping as compared with pristine BiVO4. The enhanced H2 production and SO2 removal is attributed to the improved bulk charge carrier transportation after Mo doping, and greatly enhanced oxidation reaction kinetics on the photoanode due to the formation of SO32- after SO2 absorption by the electrolyte. Due to the utilization of SO2 to improve the production of H2, the proposed PEC process may become a profitable desulfurization technique.

  9. The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Lovatto, P A; Radünz Neto, J

    2014-09-01

    The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition.

  10. Determination of alpha radionuclides in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, L.; Matel, L.; Rosskopfova, O.

    2001-01-01

    In atmospheric water, external water and undercurrent the occurrence of radionuclides is usual. It is an important factor of quality of the environment. Plants ingest radionuclides from water and with they everyone. And it arises radioactivity infest food-chain. Radiotoxicity of this radionuclides is very deer sometimes. The sensitive radiochemical procedures for their determination are necessarily important. The poster presents the combined procedure used at our laboratory for determination of alpha radionuclides in biological samples. (authors)

  11. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  12. Sorption of radionuclides by tertiary clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.F.; Czurda, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The sorption capacity of different clay types for some metals (Co, Cs, Sr and Zn), occurring as common radionuclides in radioactive waste deposits, had been analysed by a static (batch technique) and a dynamic method (percolation tests, in which the driving force is a hydraulic gradient). Sorption capacity generally increased with an increasing pH of solution. A decrease of sorption capacity had been observed in the order Zn > Cs ≥ Co > Sr for the batch and Cs > Zn > Sr > Co for the percolation tests. Clay marls showed a distinctly higher sorption respectively retention capacity as pure clays. Sorption capacity depends on solution parameters like type and concentration of radionuclide, pH, salt concentration, etc., and on rock parameters like mineral content (e.g. swelling clay minerals and carbonates), organic material, rock pH, micro fabric, etc. A third parameter of great influence is the contact time between clay and solution. The adsorption isotherms reflect two different adsorption mechanisms: a very rapid adsorption (a few minutes) on the external surfaces of clay minerals and a slow adsorption process (weeks and longer), due to the diffusion of metal ions into the interlayer space of clay minerals. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Application of radionuclide ventriculography to cardiac screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J. Jr.; Milner, M.R.; Chandeysson, P.L.; Rodman, D.J.; Okin, P.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Screening asymptomatic individuals for latent coronary disease often requires sequential testing because exercise electrocardiography typically produces more false positive than true positive results in a population with a low prevalence of coronary disease. Cardiac scintigraphy is a technique that may be employed as a confirmatory test in lieu of coronary arteriography to further evaluate the significance of a positive exercise electrocardiogram. Radionuclide ventriculography was employed in 98 asymptomatic individuals who were considered to be at moderate risk of heart disease after risk factor analysis and exercise electrocardiography. Seventeen (17%) patients had an abnormal study and underwent cardiac catheterization. Seven had coronary artery disease, two had cardiomyopathy, and eight were normal. Eighty-one (83%) patients had a normal study. Because the sensitivity of radionuclide ventriculography is 63-80%, it was postulated that 2 to 5 individuals with disease were missed. Thus, from a population with an 11-14% prevalence of disease, two subsets were identified. A large subset in which a prevalence of 2-6% could be estimated was separated from a much smaller one in which a prevalence of approximately 50% was demonstrated

  14. Radionuclide exercise testing for coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beller, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    It is obvious that the indication and clinical applications of radionuclide stress testing have been expanded and that both techniques described in this article are useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive stress testing have been significantly enhanced by the introduction of these radionuclide approaches for detecting ischemia in patients with undiagnosed chest pain. High-risk patients with either stable CAD or recent myocardial infarction can be identified by the severity of the abnormal response elicited. Patients with multiple thallium defects, particularly of the redistribution type, appear to be at the highest risk for subsequent cardiac events. Similarly, patients with a greater than 10 per cent fall in ejection fraction with development of multiple wall motion abnormalities and an increase in end-systolic volume seem to be in a high risk subset. Further developments with single photon emission tomography and computer quantitation of thallium or ventriculographic images should make these tests even more reliable in obtaining useful information in patients with CAD. 34 references

  15. Stabilization of radionuclides applied in radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielcarski, M.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt of comprehensive treatment of problems connected with the production of sealed radiation sources is made. In the introductory part of this work the basic information and definitions are contained. The classification systems currently applied are discussed. Attention was paid to the main fields of application. The methods of stabilization of radionuclides used for preparing radiation sources are discussed. The results of own investigations are presented, comprising the adsorption of some radionuclides on anodic Al 2 O 3 layers, stabilization in glazes and enamels, and the preparation of radioactive ceramics. In the adsorption investigations, these problems were considered as predominant which could form the basis for technological solutions. The results obtained allowed to establish the most favourable conditions of performing the process of stabilization by the use of this technique. In the case of radioactive enamels, the effect of glass composition on the yield of ionization has been investigated. Lowering of the content of radioactive component with simultaneous preserving the useful ionization ability was considered as being important. The mechanism of the observed increase of ionization caused by some inactive glass components is discussed. As concerns radioactive ceramics, a simplified method for preparing the ceramic core of cesium-137 sources is presented. This synthesis is based on the thermal transformation of moulded zeolite pellets into radioactive pollucite. Practical usefulness of different methods for the stabilization is discussed with emphasis given to those elaborated and applied in Poland. 131 refs., 37 figs., 20 tabs. (author)

  16. Naturally occurring radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djujic, I.

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radionuclides are the major source of radiation exposure to humans. The principal way of natural radiation exposure is the inhalation of 222 Rn decay products (about 85% of the total). The remainder is equally divided between internally deposited radionuclides, cosmic and terrestrial sources. In the present study, the content of 40 K, 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 230 Th, 232 Th and 238 U in representative food samples (milk, pork, beef, potatoes, wheat and corn flour) and samples of different food items that do not represent entire national production but provide interesting additional data for approximative calculation of naturally occurring radionuclide intake is presented. Daily weight of food eaten, participation of food groups, as well as daily intake by food of mentioned naturally occurring radionuclides in the Serbian diet was obtained on the base of house hold budget surveys. The result obtained for daily intake estimates in mBq for Serbian population are 78.1 ( 40 K), 38.2( 210 Pb), 52.3( 226 Ra), 2.0( 230 Th) and 12.5( 238 U). (author)

  17. Radionuclide migration studies in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    In this work a brief description about retention and migration parameters of radionuclides in soil, including main methods to determine the distribution coefficient (K) are given. Some of several factors that can act on the migration are also mentioned. (author) [pt

  18. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  19. Status report on radionuclide transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    At the suggestion of the Federal Minstry of the Interior, in June 1978, a group of scientists from several institutions who are active in the field of radionuclide transfer or are interested in these problems got together. During the discussions of the work team, especially the transfer soil/plants was emphasized. Then the work team set up a status report on the transfer of the radionuclides relevant in the sense of the radiation protection act. The nuclides H 3 and C14, the isotopes of the Sr, J, and Cs, Tc99, the so-called corrosion nuclides Mn54, Fe59, co-isotopes and Zn65, and isotopes of Pu, Am, and Cm were regarded as important for a possible radiation exposition. Recent investigations revealed that also the natural radionuclides Ra226, Po210, and Pb210 should be covered by the investigations. The goal of this status report is to present the level of knowledge on the transfer of these radionuclides to man in a brief form, giving hints at the most important literature. It was requested by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, as fas as possible, to indicate transfer factors which are necessary for the radio-occology act to be decreed according to Para. 45 of the radiation protection act. Another goal of the report was to show the gap in the knowledge on the radio nuclide transfer. This was thought to help to create a basis for the decisions of the Federal Ministry concerning the support of other investigation projects in the field of transfer of radionuclides. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been initiated of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10 4 . In 1956 and 1958 considerable work was done on the accumulation and distribution of a variety of fission and activation products produced by nuclear tests in the Marshall Islands. Since then, studies, have largely been confined to a few radionuclides, and most of the work in the last twenty years has been done in the northern hemisphere. The authors participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. The authors were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides 7 Be, 40 K, and the U and Th series, and they believe that they have detected low levels of 144 Ce and 95 Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68 0 . Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  1. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristics of host rocks, secondary minerals, and fluids would affect the transport of radionuclides from a previously proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Minerals in the Yucca Mountain tuffs that are important for retarding radionuclides include clinoptilolite and mordenite (zeolites), clay minerals, and iron and manganese oxides and hydroxides. Water compositions along flow paths beneath Yucca Mountain are controlled by dissolution reactions, silica and calcite precipitation, and ion-exchange reactions. Radionuclide concentrations along flow paths from a repository could be limited by (1) low waste-form dissolution rates, (2) low radionuclide solubility, and (3) radionuclide sorption onto geological media.

  2. Differentiation between simple cyst and hepatic hemangioma utilizing T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with gradient-echo (b-FFE) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burim, Carolina Valente; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Pecci Neto, Luiz; Torlai, Fabiola Goda; Tiferes, Dario Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Objective: to establish the role of MRI T2-weighted sequences in the differentiation between simple cysts and hepatic hemangiomas. Materials and methods: a double-blinded, prospective, observational, cross sectional study evaluated 52 patients with 91 hepatic lesions (34 simple cysts and 57 hemangiomas) submitted to abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. The combined analysis of all sequences was considered as the golden-standard. TSE sequences with long echo trains and b-FFE sequences were subjectively analyzed by two independent observers for differentiating cysts from hemangiomas. The kappa test (κ) was utilized in the analysis of the methods accuracy and inter- and intra-observer agreement (p * ). Results: cysts and hemangiomas dimensions ranged respectively between 0.5 and 6.5 cm (mean 1.89 cm), and 0.8 and 11 cm (mean = 2.62 cm). The analysis of the sequences with long-TE and the golden-standard demonstrated a non-statistically significant agreement (k: 0.00-0.10). The agreement between the evaluation of the b-FFE sequence and the golden-standard ranged from substantial (κ: 0.62-0.71) to almost perfect (κ: 0.86) for both observers. The inter- and intra-observer agreement for the b-FFE sequence ranged from substantial (κ: 0.62-0.70) to almost perfect (κ: 0.85-0.91). Conclusion: T2-weighted images acquired with the b-FFE technique present a high accuracy and reproducibility in the differentiation between cysts and hepatic hemangiomas. (author)

  3. Radionuclide cycling in a Utah dairy farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.; Hawthorne, H.A.; Zellmer, S.D.

    1976-01-01

    Both detailed and summarized data are presented for 137 Cs and for 90 Sr which resulted from a study of the deposition of fallout radionuclides into a Utah dairy farm. In addition, mathematical models and statistical methods (including nonlinear least-squares techniques) were used to obtain estimates of key parameters for a compartmental model of the dynamics of 137 Cs transfers in the dairy system. Both the results of laboratory studies and field observations were used to derive the estimates and to construct functional relationships for the model. Two computer models were used to further analyze and evaluate consistency of the fallout-alfalfa-milk sequence of data. The results of this study are compared with two similar investigations (in Colorado and Michigan) and are used to examine earlier analyses of the general system studied. Extensive data tabulations are also presented

  4. Grading of vesicoureteral reflux by radionuclide cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fretzayas, A.; Karpathios, T.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-six children with urinary tract infection aged 6 months to 14 years (mean age 4 1/2 years) were studied sequentially using direct radionuclide (RNC) and conventional voiding cystourethrography (VCU). Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was detected equally well by both methods. Twenty-seven refluxing ureters were found by RNC, 23 by VCU and 22 by both methods. Radiologic grade of reflux may be determined approximately with the isotope technique from the volume of regurgitating urine und duration of reflux, at a much decreased radiation exposure. Residual urine was also measured by RNC and found to be higher in children with VUR. RNC is a reliable method for detecting and grading VUR and should effectively replace VCU as the follow-up examination of choice. (orig.)

  5. Radionuclide transfer from mother to embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, M.; Vasilache, R.A.; Scridon, R.; Toader, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    The transfer of radionuclides from mother to embryo is still a matter of high interest. Therefore, the relation was investigated between the amount of radionuclides in the embryo and the dietary intake of the mother, this for two scenarios: a recurrent intake of variable amounts of radionuclides, and a long-term intake of a relatively constant amount of radionuclides, the radionuclide being 137 Cs. In the first case, the amount of radionuclides present in the embryo increases with the age of the embryo and with the intake of the mother. In the second case, no correlation could be found between the age of the embryo and its radioactive content; only the correlation between the intake of the mother and the radionuclide content of the embryo remained. (A.K.)

  6. Stable isotopes as tracers for radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, A.; Bartolo, D. de; Cantone, M.C.; Zilker, T.; Greim, H.; Roth, P.; Werner, E.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of internal dose after incorporation of radionuclides requires as input data the knowledge of the uptake into the systemic circulation, the distribution and retention in selected organs, the excretion pathways. Realistic biokinetic models are needed for reliable estimates, correct interpretation of bioassay measurements, appropriate decision-making in radiological emergencies. For many radionuclides, however, the biokinetic models currently recommended are often generic, with very few specific parameters, due to the lack of experimental human data. The use of stable isotopes as tracers enables to determine important biokinetic parameters such as the fractional uptake, the clearance from the transfer compartment, the excretion patterns under experimentally controlled conditions. The subjects investigated are not exposed to any radiation risk, so this technique enables to obtain biokinetic information also for sensitive groups of the population, such as children or pregnant women, and to determine age- and gender-specific model parameters. Sophisticated analytical method, able to discriminate and quantitate different isotopes of the same element in complex matrices such as biological fluids, have to be purposely developed and optimized. Activation analysis and mass spectrometry are the most proper techniques of choice. Experiments were conducted with molybdenum, tellurium, ruthenium and zirconium. Activation analysis with protons, thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled mass spectrometry were employed for the determination of stable isotopes of these elements in blood plasma and urine samples. Several deviations from the predictions of the ICRP models were observed. For example, modifications to the current model for molybdenum have been suggested on the basis of these results. The dose coefficients to the target regions calculated with this proposed model are even of one order of magnitude different than the ICRP estimates

  7. Imprecision of dose predictions for radionuclides released to the atmosphere: an application of the Monte Carlo-simulation-technique for iodine transported via the pasture-cow-milk pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1979-01-01

    The shortcomings of using mathematical models to determine compliance with regulatory standards are discussed. Methods to determine the reliability of radiation assessment models are presented. Since field testing studies are impractical, a deficiency method, which analyzes the variability of input parameters and the impact of their variability on the predicted dose, is used. The Monte Carlo technique is one of these methods. This technique is based on statistical properties of the model output when input parameters inserted in the model are selected at random from a prescribed distribution. The one big assumption one must make is that the model is a correct formulation of reality. The Gaussian plume model for atmospheric transport of airborne effluents was used to study the pasture-cow-milk-man exposure pathway and the dose calculated from radioiodine ( 131 I) transported over this pathway

  8. Imprecision of dose predictions for radionuclides released to the atmosphere: an application of the Monte Carlo-simulation-technique for iodine transported via the pasture-cow-milk pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, G.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1979-01-01

    The shortcomings of using mathematical models to determine compliance with regulatory standards are discussed. Methods to determine the reliability of radiation assessment models are presented. Since field testing studies are impractical, a deficiency method, which analyzes the variability of input parameters and the impact of their variability on the predicted dose, is used. The Monte Carlo technique is one of these methods. This technique is based on statistical properties of the model output when input parameters inserted in the model are selected at random from a prescribed distribution. The one big assumption one must make is that the model is a correct formulation of reality. The Gaussian plume model for atmospheric transport of airborne effluents was used to study the pasture-cow-milk-man exposure pathway and the dose calculated from radioiodine (/sup 131/I) transported over this pathway. (DMC)

  9. Choice of radionuclides for radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNardo, S.J.; Jungerman, J.A.; DeNardo, G.L.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Cole, W.C.; Meares, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Innumerable questions need to be answered and obstacles overcome before radioimmunotherapy can be generally successful in cancer patients. Major developments have greatly enhanced the likelihood of success. The important development of appropriate radionuclides and radiochemistry for this therapy must be intimately linked with the biological and biochemical realities. All aspects must be considered, such as the specific nature of the antigenic target, the pharmacokinetics of the antibody fragment carrier, the capability of in vivo quantitation of tumor uptake and turnover time, as well as total body kinetics. With this knowledge, then, practical radiochemistry methods can be integrated with the suitable radionuclide choices, and production methods can be developed which will deliver effective and dependable products for patient therapy

  10. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  11. Applications of radionuclides in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, P.

    1955-01-01

    After a brief recall of a few concepts (mass number, charge and beams properties) and the description of used detectors (ionization chamber, Geiger-Mueller counter, scintillation counters), some radionuclides applications are described. In a first part, the well-developed applications are presented in three distinct groups: continuous applications such as β and γ gauges (determination hydrogen content of an hydrocarbon and content of an emulsion; discharge of static electricity), discontinuous applications such as radiography and autoradiography, wear or manufacture problems (distribution of a fungicide on tobacco) and finally, applications in research laboratories such as diffusion, exchange and solubility. It also describes the applications which are still in development such as the action of beams on matter (reticulation and degradation of polymers, monomers polymerisation, cold sterilization). In conclusion, few advices on the opportunity of such applications and the choice of the radionuclides are given. (M.P.)

  12. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestr, Christopher J.; North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY; Love, Charito

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  13. Radionuclide imaging of musculoskeletal infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestr, Christopher J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; E-mail: palestro@lij.edu; Love, Charito [North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset and New Hyde Park, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2007-09-15

    Radionuclide imaging studies are routinely used to evaluate patients suspected of having musculoskeletal infection. Three-phase bone imaging is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and very accurate in the setting of otherwise normal bone. Labeled leukocyte imaging should be used in cases of 'complicating osteomyelitis' such as prosthetic joint infection. This test also is useful in clinically unsuspected diabetic pedal osteomyelitis as well as in the neuropathic joint. It is often necessary, however, to perform complementary bone marrow imaging, to maximize the accuracy of labeled leukocyte imaging. In contrast to other regions in the skeleton, labeled leukocyte imaging is not useful for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis. At the moment, gallium is the preferred radionuclide procedure for this condition and is a useful adjunct to magnetic resonance imaging. FDG-PET likely will play an important role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal infection, especially spinal osteomyelitis, and may replace gallium imaging for this purpose. (author)

  14. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  15. Radionuclide cinematography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Sigel, H.; Geffers, H.; Bitter, F.; Meyer, G.; Kampmann, H.; Stauch, M.

    1976-01-01

    Radionuclide cinematography is described as a procedure making use of radiation-level variations above the heart after equipartitioning of sup(99m)Tc-labelled human serum albumin in the blood pool. Regional ventricular and vestibular variations are phase-shifted. This procedure permits delineation of aneurysmas with interphasic course, cicatrization of the cardiac wall not producing any cyclical variation. The study included normal subjects and 16 patients with full course infarction. Characteristic disturbances of motility distribution were found in all cases of scarred or aneurysmic alterations in the frontal and side walls of the left ventricle. The procedure was unable to detect two small infarction scars on the rear wall. The possibility of using radionuclide cinematography to prove coronary insufficiency as well as a comparison with other methods are discussed

  16. Radionuclide studies for malignant hepatic and splenic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.; Royal, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    For many years radionuclide studies have afforded an invaluable aid to clinicians for the detection and management of malignant tumors of the liver. Alternative methods for producing images of the liver are now available to the radiologist, and each technique has exhibited a variety of useful and limiting features. In an effort to clarify and guide choices about applications of all radiological techniques, our department recently developed a monograph describing algorithms for optimal use of all imaging modalities by referring physicians. The approach to detection of hepatic metastases illustrates in a correlative way applications of radioisotope imaging in such patients. As presented, the algorithm is neither identical to nor unlike those recommended or published elsewhere. This chapter reviews the major applications of radionuclide imaging for metastatic cancer of liver with close attention to the clinician's point of view

  17. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders

  18. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  19. Radionuclide 252Cf neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolevatov, Yu.I.; Trykov, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of radionuclide neutron sourses of 252 Cf base with the activity from 10 6 to 10 9 n/s have been investigated. Energetic distributions of neutrons and gamma-radiation have been presented. The results obtained have been compared with other data available. The hardness parameter of the neutron spectrum for the energy range from 3 to 15 MeV is 1.4 +- 0.02 MeV

  20. Radionuclide dispersion in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Amorim, E.S. do; Panetta, J.

    1979-05-01

    The instantaneous liberation of radionuclides in the atmosphere is studied in three dimensions, according to the formalism of the diffusion theory. The analytical solution, expose to gravitational and an atmospherical effects, is combined with the discretization of space and time in the calculation of levels of exposure. A typical inventory (for a PWR) was considered in the calculation of immersion doses, and the results permitted a comparative analysis among the different existing models. (Author) [pt