Al-Asadi, H A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ajiya, M; Hitam, S; Saripan, M I; Mahdi, M A
2010-10-11
We develop a theoretical model that can be used to predict stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold in optical fibers that arises through the effect of Brillouin pump recycling technique. Obtained simulation results from our model are in close agreement with our experimental results. The developed model utilizes single mode optical fiber of different lengths as the Brillouin gain media. For 5-km long single mode fiber, the calculated threshold power for SBS is about 16 mW for conventional technique. This value is reduced to about 8 mW when the residual Brillouin pump is recycled at the end of the fiber. The decrement of SBS threshold is due to longer interaction lengths between Brillouin pump and Stokes wave.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csikai, J.
1981-01-01
Owing to technical reasons, most of the data for fast neutron-induced reactions were measured at 14 MeV and the free parameters in nuclear reaction models have been determined at this energy. The discrepancies between experiment and theory are often due to the unmeasured or unreliable experimental data; therefore, it is important to survey the present techniques used for the measurement of total, elastic, nonelastic and partial nonelastic [(n,xn); (n,x charged); (n,f); (n,γ)] cross sections for 14 MeV neutrons. Systematics in the data as well as theoretical and semi-empirical models are also outlined. (author)
Frayer, Dorothy A.; Klausmeier, Herbert J.
Research has shown that a behavior may be acquired through observing and imitating a model. A behavior which has already been acquired may be inhibited, disinhibited, or elicited by observing and imitating. A definition of imitation is given, and the effects of imitation on learning and performance are summarized. Research on factors which affect…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jahn, K.
1983-01-01
A model of the monopoloidal and axisymmetric spot with the untwisted configuration of the magnetic field is considered and the influence of the magnetic field on the gas is described with the assumption that the magnetic field partially inhibits convective-energy transport. Series of starspot models have been computed for a zero-age main sequence star of one solar mass. Models are described by three free parameters: the total magnetic flux, the effective temperature of the spot and the position of the spot bottom. Obtained models of small spots can be compared with sunspot and there is a satisfactory agreement between our results and observations. (author)
Theoretical and phenomological models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1984-01-01
In the previous lectures, a Z(N) model of the confinement-deconfinement phase transition was presented. Such a model satisfactorily accounts for the qualitative features of this transition and the effects of fermions when they are included. This model does lack a simple physical intuitive picture of the transition. There has been a recent development of such an intuitive physical picture by Feynman and Patel. This picture utilizes a flux-tube model of the confinement-deconfinement transition. Such a picture may not only be regarded as a concrete realization of strong coupling expansions on the lattice, but may also be viewed as a representation of the successful string model phenomenology of high energy physics
Franchise Business Model: Theoretical Insights
Levickaitė, Rasa; Reimeris, Ramojus
2010-01-01
The article is based on literature review, theoretical insights, and deals with the topic of franchise business model. The objective of the paper is to analyse peculiarities of franchise business model and its developing conditions in Lithuania. The aim of the paper is to make an overview on franchise business model and its environment in Lithuanian business context. The overview is based on international and local theoretical insights. In terms of practical meaning, this article should be re...
Theoretical models for supernovae
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.
1981-01-01
The results of recent numerical simulations of supernova explosions are presented and a variety of topics discussed. Particular emphasis is given to (i) the nucleosynthesis expected from intermediate mass (10sub solar less than or equal to M less than or equal to 100 Msub solar) Type II supernovae and detonating white dwarf models for Type I supernovae, (ii) a realistic estimate of the γ-line fluxes expected from this nucleosynthesis, (iii) the continued evolution, in one and two dimensions, of intermediate mass stars wherein iron core collapse does not lead to a strong, mass-ejecting shock wave, and (iv) the evolution and explosion of vary massive stars M greater than or equal to 100 Msub solar of both Population I and III. In one dimension, nuclear burning following a failed core bounce does not appear likely to lead to a supernova explosion although, in two dimensions, a combination of rotation and nuclear burning may do so. Near solar proportions of elements from neon to calcium and very brilliant optical displays may be created by hypernovae, the explosions of stars in the mass range 100 M/sub solar/ to 300 M/sub solar/. Above approx. 300 M/sub solar/ a black hole is created by stellar collapse following carbon ignition. Still more massive stars may be copious producers of 4 He and 14 N prior to their collapse on the pair instability
Field theoretic extensions of TDHF techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, D.K.
1979-01-01
A possible extension of time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) techniques to relativistic quantum field theories is discussed. A set of extended TDHF equations which incorporates naturally relativistic kinematics and treats the mesons, the effects of which are in ordinary TDHF represented by a nonindependent mean field, as independent dynamical degrees of freedom. In a simple model field theory in one space and one time dimension the extended TDHF equations are solved analytically for certain static field configurations and numerically for the time-dependent scattering configuration. Qualitative features of the scattering solutions as observed in preliminary numerical studies are discussed, and the conclusion is reached by mentioning a number of problems for further research. 22 references
Modeling business processes: theoretical and practical aspects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.V. Dubininа
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The essence of process-oriented enterprise management has been examined in the article. The content and types of information technology have been analyzed in the article, due to the complexity and differentiation of existing methods, as well as the specificity of language, terminology of the enterprise business processes modeling. The theoretical aspects of business processes modeling have been reviewed and the modern traditional modeling techniques received practical application in the visualization model of retailers activity have been studied in the article. In the process of theoretical analysis of the modeling methods found that UFO-toolkit method that has been developed by Ukrainian scientists due to it systemology integrated opportunities, is the most suitable for structural and object analysis of retailers business processes. It was designed visualized simulation model of the business process "sales" as is" of retailers using a combination UFO-elements with the aim of the further practical formalization and optimization of a given business process.
Analysis of triethylenediamine by theoretical techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mancuso, J.; McEachern, R.J.
1997-03-01
Triethylenediamine (TEDA) was modeled to illustrate the utility of modem computational methods. The software used was HyperChem 4.5 for Silicon Graphics workstations. The semiempirical method PM3 (Parametric Method 3) was used for all calculations. The formation and structure of the methyl-TEDA iodide salt and the electron-donor-acceptor complex between TEDA and iodomethane were examined. The infrared vibrational frequencies of TEDA were determined, and the mean deviation between calculated and experimental frequencies was found to be ±59 cm -1 . As a test of the accuracy of PM3, the heat of formation for various compounds, as well as various reaction enthalpies were calculated. The absolute unsigned error of standard enthalpies for 28 compounds was found to be ±6 kcal/mol. Average unsigned error of reaction enthalpies was found to be ±31 kcal/mol. Carbon-substituted TEDA analogs were modeled and studied in terms of their reaction enthalpies to see if these improved the efficiency of the reaction between TEDA and iodomethane. Trimethylsilyl and 2-siliconeopentyl substituted TEDA analogs were found to have reaction enthalpies significantly lower than TEDA, by 14 kcal/mol and 12 kcal/mol respectively. Such substituted TEDA molecules may well have enhanced performance in trapping methyl iodide. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carton, Ann-Katherine; Ullberg, Christer; Lindman, Karin; Acciavatti, Raymond; Francke, Tom; Maidment, Andrew D. A.
2010-01-01
Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) iodine contrast-enhanced x-ray imaging of the breast has been shown to identify cancers that would otherwise be mammographically occult. In this article, theoretical modeling was performed to obtain optimally enhanced iodine images for a photon-counting digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system using a DE acquisition technique. Methods: In the system examined, the breast is scanned with a multislit prepatient collimator aligned with a multidetector camera. Each detector collects a projection image at a unique angle during the scan. Low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) projection images are acquired simultaneously in a single scan by covering alternate collimator slits with Sn and Cu filters, respectively. Sn filters ranging from 0.08 to 0.22 mm thickness and Cu filters from 0.11 to 0.27 mm thickness were investigated. A tube voltage of 49 kV was selected. Tomographic images, hereafter referred to as DBT images, were reconstructed using a shift-and-add algorithm. Iodine-enhanced DBT images were acquired by performing a weighted logarithmic subtraction of the HE and LE DBT images. The DE technique was evaluated for 20-80 mm thick breasts. Weighting factors, w t , that optimally cancel breast tissue were computed. Signal-difference-to-noise ratios (SDNRs) between iodine-enhanced and nonenhanced breast tissue normalized to the square root of the mean glandular dose (MGD) were computed as a function of the fraction of the MGD allocated to the HE images. Peak SDNR/√(MGD) and optimal dose allocations were identified. SDNR/√(MGD) and dose allocations were computed for several practical feasible system configurations (i.e., determined by the number of collimator slits covered by Sn and Cu). A practical system configuration and Sn-Cu filter pair that accounts for the trade-off between SDNR, tube-output, and MGD were selected. Results: w t depends on the Sn-Cu filter combination used, as well as on the breast thickness; to optimally cancel 0
New techniques for subdivision modelling
BEETS, Koen
2006-01-01
In this dissertation, several tools and techniques for modelling with subdivision surfaces are presented. Based on the huge amount of theoretical knowledge about subdivision surfaces, we present techniques to facilitate practical 3D modelling which make subdivision surfaces even more useful. Subdivision surfaces have reclaimed attention several years ago after their application in full-featured 3D animation movies, such as Toy Story. Since then and due to their attractive properties an ever i...
Theoretical models of DNA flexibility
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dršata, Tomáš; Lankaš, Filip
2013-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 4 (2013), s. 355-363 ISSN 1759-0876 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics simulations * base pair level * indirect readout Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 9.041, year: 2013
Parameters and error of a theoretical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.; Swiatecki, W.
1986-09-01
We propose a definition for the error of a theoretical model of the type whose parameters are determined from adjustment to experimental data. By applying a standard statistical method, the maximum-likelihoodlmethod, we derive expressions for both the parameters of the theoretical model and its error. We investigate the derived equations by solving them for simulated experimental and theoretical quantities generated by use of random number generators. 2 refs., 4 tabs
The confusion technique untangled: its theoretical rationale and preliminary classification.
Otani, A
1989-01-01
This article examines the historical development of Milton H. Erickson's theoretical approach to hypnosis using confusion. Review of the literature suggests that the Confusion Technique, in principle, consists of a two-stage "confusion-restructuring" process. The article also attempts to categorize several examples of confusion suggestions by seven linguistic characteristics: (1) antonyms, (2) homonyms, (3) synonyms, (4) elaboration, (5) interruption, (6) echoing, and (7) uncommon words. The Confusion Technique is an important yet little studied strategy developed by Erickson. More work is urged to investigate its nature and properties.
Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
De Chiffre, Leonardo
This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...
A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann
2016-01-01
characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...
Mathematical modelling techniques
Aris, Rutherford
1995-01-01
""Engaging, elegantly written."" - Applied Mathematical ModellingMathematical modelling is a highly useful methodology designed to enable mathematicians, physicists and other scientists to formulate equations from a given nonmathematical situation. In this elegantly written volume, a distinguished theoretical chemist and engineer sets down helpful rules not only for setting up models but also for solving the mathematical problems they pose and for evaluating models.The author begins with a discussion of the term ""model,"" followed by clearly presented examples of the different types of mode
Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lasrado, Lester Allan
Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...
Theoretical Models, Assessment Frameworks and Test Construction.
Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline
1997-01-01
Reviews the usefulness of proficiency models influencing second language testing. Findings indicate that several factors contribute to the lack of congruence between models and test construction and make a case for distinguishing between theoretical models. Underscores the significance of an empirical, contextualized and structured approach to the…
Desublimation process: verification and applications of a theoretical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eby, R.S.
1979-01-01
A theoretical model simulating the simultaneous heat and mass transfer which takes place during the desublimation of a gas to a solid is presented. Desublimer column loading profiles to experimentally verify the model were obtained using a gamma scintillation technique. The data indicate that, if the physical parameters of the desublimed frost material are known, the model can accurately predict the desublimation phenomenon. The usefulness of the model in different engineering applications is also addressed
Theoretical modelling of quantum circuit systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stiffell, Peter Barry
2002-01-01
The work in this thesis concentrates on the interactions between circuit systems operating in the quantum regime. The main thrust of this work involves the use of a new model for investigating the way in which different components in such systems behave when coupled together. This is achieved by utilising the matrix representation of quantum mechanics, in conjunction with a number of other theoretical techniques (such as Wigner functions and entanglement entropies). With these tools in place it then becomes possible to investigate and review different quantum circuit systems. These investigations cover systems ranging from simple electromagnetic (cm) field oscillators in isolation to coupled SQUID rings in more sophisticated multi-component arrangements. Primarily, we look at the way SQUID rings couple to em fields, and how the ring-field interaction can be mediated by the choice of external flux, Φ x , applied to the SQUID ring. A lot of interest is focused on the transfer of energy between the system modes. However, we also investigate the statistical properties of the system, including squeezing, entropy and entanglement. Among the phenomena uncovered in this research we note the ability to control coupling in SQUID rings via the external flux, the capacity for entanglement between quantum circuit modes, frequency conversions of photons, flux squeezing and the existence of Schroedinger Cat states. (author)
Theoretical models for recombination in expanding gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avron, Y.; Kahane, S.
1978-09-01
In laser isotope separation of atomic uranium, one is confronted with the theoretical problem of estimating the concentration of thermally ionized uranium atoms. To investigate this problem theoretical models for recombination in an expanding gas and in the absence of local thermal equilibrium have been constructed. The expansion of the gas is described by soluble models of the hydrodynamic equation, and the recombination by rate equations. General results for the freezing effect for the suitable ranges of the gas parameters are obtained. The impossibility of thermal equilibrium in expanding two-component systems is proven
Some Model Theoretic Remarks on Bass Modules
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Momtahan
2011-09-01
Full Text Available We study Bass modules, Bass rings, and related concepts from a model theoretic point of view. We observe that the class of Bass modules (over a fixed ring is not stable under elementary equivalence. We observe that under which conditions the class of Bass rings are stable under elementary equivalence.
Hybrid quantum teleportation: A theoretical model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; Yoshikawa, Jun-ichi; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2014-12-04
Hybrid quantum teleportation – continuous-variable teleportation of qubits – is a promising approach for deterministically teleporting photonic qubits. We propose how to implement it with current technology. Our theoretical model shows that faithful qubit transfer can be achieved for this teleportation by choosing an optimal gain for the teleporter’s classical channel.
N-barN interaction theoretical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loiseau, B.
1991-12-01
In the framework of antinucleon-nucleon interaction theoretical models, our present understanding on the N-barN interaction is discussed, either from quark- or/and meson- and baryon-degrees of freedom, by considering the N-barN annihilation into mesons and the N-barN elastic and charge-exchange scattering. (author) 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs
A theoretical model of multielectrode DBR lasers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pan, Xing; Olesen, Henning; Tromborg, Bjarne
1988-01-01
A theoretical model for two- and three-section tunable distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers is presented. The static tuning properties are studied in terms of threshold current, linewidth, oscillation frequency, and output power. Regions of continuous tuning for three-section DBR lasers...
Theoretical aspects of the optical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahaux, C.
1980-01-01
We first recall the definition of the optical-model potential for nucleons and the physical interpretation of the main related quantities. We then survey the recent theoretical progress towards a reliable calculation of this potential. The present limitations of the theory and some prospects for future developments are outlined. (author)
A field theoretic model for static friction
Mahyaeh, I.; Rouhani, S.
2013-01-01
We present a field theoretic model for friction, where the friction coefficient between two surfaces may be calculated based on elastic properties of the surfaces. We assume that the geometry of contact surface is not unusual. We verify Amonton's laws to hold that friction force is proportional to the normal load.This model gives the opportunity to calculate the static coefficient of friction for a few cases, and show that it is in agreement with observed values. Furthermore we show that the ...
Hybrid rocket engine, theoretical model and experiment
Chelaru, Teodor-Viorel; Mingireanu, Florin
2011-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to build a theoretical model for the hybrid rocket engine/motor and to validate it using experimental results. The work approaches the main problems of the hybrid motor: the scalability, the stability/controllability of the operating parameters and the increasing of the solid fuel regression rate. At first, we focus on theoretical models for hybrid rocket motor and compare the results with already available experimental data from various research groups. A primary computation model is presented together with results from a numerical algorithm based on a computational model. We present theoretical predictions for several commercial hybrid rocket motors, having different scales and compare them with experimental measurements of those hybrid rocket motors. Next the paper focuses on tribrid rocket motor concept, which by supplementary liquid fuel injection can improve the thrust controllability. A complementary computation model is also presented to estimate regression rate increase of solid fuel doped with oxidizer. Finally, the stability of the hybrid rocket motor is investigated using Liapunov theory. Stability coefficients obtained are dependent on burning parameters while the stability and command matrixes are identified. The paper presents thoroughly the input data of the model, which ensures the reproducibility of the numerical results by independent researchers.
Modelling in Accounting. Theoretical and Practical Dimensions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teresa Szot-Gabryś
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Accounting in the theoretical approach is a scientific discipline based on specific paradigms. In the practical aspect, accounting manifests itself through the introduction of a system for measurement of economic quantities which operates in a particular business entity. A characteristic of accounting is its flexibility and ability of adaptation to information needs of information recipients. One of the main currents in the development of accounting theory and practice is to cover by economic measurements areas which have not been hitherto covered by any accounting system (it applies, for example, to small businesses, agricultural farms, human capital, which requires the development of an appropriate theoretical and practical model. The article illustrates the issue of modelling in accounting based on the example of an accounting model developed for small businesses, i.e. economic entities which are not obliged by law to keep accounting records.
Lansey, Eli
Optical or photonic metamaterials that operate in the infrared and visible frequency regimes show tremendous promise for solving problems in renewable energy, infrared imaging, and telecommunications. However, many of the theoretical and simulation techniques used at lower frequencies are not applicable to this higher-frequency regime. Furthermore, technological and financial limitations of photonic metamaterial fabrication increases the importance of reliable theoretical models and computational techniques for predicting the optical response of photonic metamaterials. This thesis focuses on aperture array metamaterials. That is, a rectangular, circular, or other shaped cavity or hole embedded in, or penetrating through a metal film. The research in the first portion of this dissertation reflects our interest in developing a fundamental, theoretical understanding of the behavior of light's interaction with these aperture arrays, specifically regarding enhanced optical transmission. We develop an approximate boundary condition for metals at optical frequencies, and a comprehensive, analytical explanation of the physics underlying this effect. These theoretical analyses are augmented by computational techniques in the second portion of this thesis, used both for verification of the theoretical work, and solving more complicated structures. Finally, the last portion of this thesis discusses the results from designing, fabricating and characterizing a light-splitting metamaterial.
A theoretical model on surface electronic behavior: Strain effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin, W.G.; Shaw, D.
2009-01-01
Deformation from mechanical loading can affect surface electronic behavior. Surface deformation and electronic behavior can be quantitatively expressed using strain and work function, respectively, and their experimental relationship can be readily determined using the Kelvin probing technique. However, the theoretical correlation between work function and strain has been unclear. This study reports our theoretical exploration, for the first time, of the effect of strain on work function. We propose a simple electrostatic action model by considering the effect of a dislocation on work function of a one-dimensional lattice and further extend this model to the complex conditions for the effect of dislocation density. Based on this model, we established successfully a theoretical correlation between work function and strain.
Theoretical models of neutron emission in fission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madland, D.G.
1992-01-01
A brief survey of theoretical representations of two of the observables in neutron emission in fission is given, namely, the prompt fission neutron spectrum N(E) and the average prompt neutron multiplicity bar v p . Early representations of the two observables are presented and their deficiencies are discussed. This is followed by summaries and examples of recent theoretical models for the calculation of these quantities. Emphasis is placed upon the predictability and accuracy of the new models. In particular, the dependencies of N(E) and bar v p upon the fissioning nucleus and its excitation energy are treated. Recent work in the calculation of the prompt fission neutron spectrum matrix N(E,E n ), where E n is the energy of the neutron inducing fission, is then discussed. Concluding remarks address the current status of our ability to calculate these observables with confidence, the direction of future theoretical efforts, and limititations to current and future calculations. Finally, recommendations are presented as to which model should be used currently and which model should be pursued in future efforts
Simple theoretical models for composite rotor blades
Valisetty, R. R.; Rehfield, L. W.
1984-01-01
The development of theoretical rotor blade structural models for designs based upon composite construction is discussed. Care was exercised to include a member of nonclassical effects that previous experience indicated would be potentially important to account for. A model, representative of the size of a main rotor blade, is analyzed in order to assess the importance of various influences. The findings of this model study suggest that for the slenderness and closed cell construction considered, the refinements are of little importance and a classical type theory is adequate. The potential of elastic tailoring is dramatically demonstrated, so the generality of arbitrary ply layup in the cell wall is needed to exploit this opportunity.
Theoretical aspects of spatial-temporal modeling
Matsui, Tomoko
2015-01-01
This book provides a modern introductory tutorial on specialized theoretical aspects of spatial and temporal modeling. The areas covered involve a range of topics which reflect the diversity of this domain of research across a number of quantitative disciplines. For instance, the first chapter provides up-to-date coverage of particle association measures that underpin the theoretical properties of recently developed random set methods in space and time otherwise known as the class of probability hypothesis density framework (PHD filters). The second chapter gives an overview of recent advances in Monte Carlo methods for Bayesian filtering in high-dimensional spaces. In particular, the chapter explains how one may extend classical sequential Monte Carlo methods for filtering and static inference problems to high dimensions and big-data applications. The third chapter presents an overview of generalized families of processes that extend the class of Gaussian process models to heavy-tailed families known as alph...
Empathy and child neglect: a theoretical model.
De Paul, Joaquín; Guibert, María
2008-11-01
To present an explanatory theory-based model of child neglect. This model does not address neglectful behaviors of parents with mental retardation, alcohol or drug abuse, or severe mental health problems. In this model parental behavior aimed to satisfy a child's need is considered a helping behavior and, as a consequence, child neglect is considered as a specific type of non-helping behavior. The central hypothesis of the theoretical model presented here suggests that neglectful parents cannot develop the helping response set to care for their children because the observation of a child's signal of need does not lead to the experience of emotions that motivate helping or because the parents experience these emotions, but specific cognitions modify the motivation to help. The present theoretical model suggests that different typologies of neglectful parents could be developed based on different reasons that parents might not to experience emotions that motivate helping behaviors. The model can be helpful to promote new empirical studies about the etiology of different groups of neglectful families.
Surface physics theoretical models and experimental methods
Mamonova, Marina V; Prudnikova, I A
2016-01-01
The demands of production, such as thin films in microelectronics, rely on consideration of factors influencing the interaction of dissimilar materials that make contact with their surfaces. Bond formation between surface layers of dissimilar condensed solids-termed adhesion-depends on the nature of the contacting bodies. Thus, it is necessary to determine the characteristics of adhesion interaction of different materials from both applied and fundamental perspectives of surface phenomena. Given the difficulty in obtaining reliable experimental values of the adhesion strength of coatings, the theoretical approach to determining adhesion characteristics becomes more important. Surface Physics: Theoretical Models and Experimental Methods presents straightforward and efficient approaches and methods developed by the authors that enable the calculation of surface and adhesion characteristics for a wide range of materials: metals, alloys, semiconductors, and complex compounds. The authors compare results from the ...
Theoretical models for supercritical fluid extraction.
Huang, Zhen; Shi, Xiao-Han; Jiang, Wei-Juan
2012-08-10
For the proper design of supercritical fluid extraction processes, it is essential to have a sound knowledge of the mass transfer mechanism of the extraction process and the appropriate mathematical representation. In this paper, the advances and applications of kinetic models for describing supercritical fluid extraction from various solid matrices have been presented. The theoretical models overviewed here include the hot ball diffusion, broken and intact cell, shrinking core and some relatively simple models. Mathematical representations of these models have been in detail interpreted as well as their assumptions, parameter identifications and application examples. Extraction process of the analyte solute from the solid matrix by means of supercritical fluid includes the dissolution of the analyte from the solid, the analyte diffusion in the matrix and its transport to the bulk supercritical fluid. Mechanisms involved in a mass transfer model are discussed in terms of external mass transfer resistance, internal mass transfer resistance, solute-solid interactions and axial dispersion. The correlations of the external mass transfer coefficient and axial dispersion coefficient with certain dimensionless numbers are also discussed. Among these models, the broken and intact cell model seems to be the most relevant mathematical model as it is able to provide realistic description of the plant material structure for better understanding the mass-transfer kinetics and thus it has been widely employed for modeling supercritical fluid extraction of natural matters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tesla coil theoretical model and experimental verification
Voitkans, Janis; Voitkans, Arnis
2014-01-01
Abstract – In this paper a theoretical model of a Tesla coil operation is proposed. Tesla coil is described as a long line with distributed parameters in a single-wired format, where the line voltage is measured against electrically neutral space. It is shown that equivalent two-wired scheme can be found for a single-wired scheme and already known long line theory can be applied to a Tesla coil. Formulas for calculation of voltage in a Tesla coil by coordinate and calculation of resonance fre...
A Game Theoretic Model of Thermonuclear Cyberwar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soper, Braden C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-08-23
In this paper we propose a formal game theoretic model of thermonuclear cyberwar based on ideas found in [1] and [2]. Our intention is that such a game will act as a first step toward building more complete formal models of Cross-Domain Deterrence (CDD). We believe the proposed thermonuclear cyberwar game is an ideal place to start on such an endeavor because the game can be fashioned in a way that is closely related to the classical models of nuclear deterrence [4–6], but with obvious modifications that will help to elucidate the complexities introduced by a second domain. We start with the classical bimatrix nuclear deterrence game based on the game of chicken, but introduce uncertainty via a left-of-launch cyber capability that one or both players may possess.
eudiometric theoretic eudiometric theoretic-approach to modelling
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
2016-01-01
Jan 1, 2016 ... 2 DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY, EDO STATE NIGERIA ... phenomenon of chemical adsorption and desorption of DO at molecular level in a .... Again, few authors have applied linear regression in .... Our goal in modelling is to replicate this natural.
Multiscale modeling of complex materials phenomenological, theoretical and computational aspects
Trovalusci, Patrizia
2014-01-01
The papers in this volume deal with materials science, theoretical mechanics and experimental and computational techniques at multiple scales, providing a sound base and a framework for many applications which are hitherto treated in a phenomenological sense. The basic principles are formulated of multiscale modeling strategies towards modern complex multiphase materials subjected to various types of mechanical, thermal loadings and environmental effects. The focus is on problems where mechanics is highly coupled with other concurrent physical phenomena. Attention is also focused on the historical origins of multiscale modeling and foundations of continuum mechanics currently adopted to model non-classical continua with substructure, for which internal length scales play a crucial role.
A theoretical model of water and trade
Dang, Qian; Konar, Megan; Reimer, Jeffrey J.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Lin, Xiaowen; Zeng, Ruijie
2016-03-01
Water is an essential input for agricultural production. Agriculture, in turn, is globalized through the trade of agricultural commodities. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model that emphasizes four tradeoffs involving water-use decision-making that are important yet not always considered in a consistent framework. One tradeoff focuses on competition for water among different economic sectors. A second tradeoff examines the possibility that certain types of agricultural investments can offset water use. A third tradeoff explores the possibility that the rest of the world can be a source of supply or demand for a country's water-using commodities. The fourth tradeoff concerns how variability in water supplies influences farmer decision-making. We show conditions under which trade liberalization affect water use. Two policy scenarios to reduce water use are evaluated. First, we derive a target tax that reduces water use without offsetting the gains from trade liberalization, although important tradeoffs exist between economic performance and resource use. Second, we show how subsidization of water-saving technologies can allow producers to use less water without reducing agricultural production, making such subsidization an indirect means of influencing water use decision-making. Finally, we outline conditions under which riskiness of water availability affects water use. These theoretical model results generate hypotheses that can be tested empirically in future work.
SOME THEORETICAL MODELS EXPLAINING ADVERTISING EFFECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed other models that are the main subject of this research, which explains how and why persuasive communication works, to understand why some approaches are effective and others are not.
Theoretical model of polar cap auroral arcs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kan, J.R.; Burke, W.J.; USAF, Bedford, MA)
1985-01-01
A theory of the polar cap auroral arcs is proposed under the assumption that the magnetic field reconnection occurs in the cusp region on tail field lines during northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Requirements of a convection model during northward IMF are enumerated based on observations and fundamental theoretical considerations. The theta aurora can be expected to occur on the closed field lines convecting sunward in the central polar cap, while the less intense regular polar cap arcs can occur either on closed or open field lines. The dynamo region for the polar cap arcs is required to be on closed field lines convecting tailward in the plasma sheet which is magnetically connected to the sunward convection in the central polar cap. 43 references
Anticipatory Cognitive Systems: a Theoretical Model
Terenzi, Graziano
This paper deals with the problem of understanding anticipation in biological and cognitive systems. It is argued that a physical theory can be considered as biologically plausible only if it incorporates the ability to describe systems which exhibit anticipatory behaviors. The paper introduces a cognitive level description of anticipation and provides a simple theoretical characterization of anticipatory systems on this level. Specifically, a simple model of a formal anticipatory neuron and a model (i.e. the τ-mirror architecture) of an anticipatory neural network which is based on the former are introduced and discussed. The basic feature of this architecture is that a part of the network learns to represent the behavior of the other part over time, thus constructing an implicit model of its own functioning. As a consequence, the network is capable of self-representation; anticipation, on a oscopic level, is nothing but a consequence of anticipation on a microscopic level. Some learning algorithms are also discussed together with related experimental tasks and possible integrations. The outcome of the paper is a formal characterization of anticipation in cognitive systems which aims at being incorporated in a comprehensive and more general physical theory.
Determination of cognitive development: postnonclassical theoretical model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irina N. Pogozhina
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop a postnonclassical cognitive processes content determination model in which mental processes are considered as open selfdeveloping, self-organizing systems. Three types of systems (dynamic, statistical, developing were analysed and compared on the basis of the description of the external and internal characteristics of causation, types of causal chains (dependent, independent and their interactions, as well as the nature of the relationship between the elements of the system (hard, probabilistic, mixed. Mechanisms of open non-equilibrium nonlinear systems (dissipative and four dissipative structures emergence conditions are described. Determination models of mental and behaviour formation and development that were developed under various theoretical approaches (associationism, behaviorism, gestaltism, psychology of intelligence by Piaget, Vygotsky culture historical approach, activity approach and others are mapped on each other as the models that describe behaviour of the three system types mentioned above. The development models of the mental sphere are shown to be different by the following criteria: 1 allocated determinants amount; 2 presence or absence of the system own activity that results in selecting the model not only external, but also internal determinants; 3 types of causal chains (dependent-independent-blended; 4 types of relationships between the causal chain that ultimately determines the subsequent system determination type as decisive (a tough dynamic pattern or stochastic (statistical regularity. The continuity of postnonclassical, classical and non-classical models of mental development determination are described. The process of gradual refinement, complexity, «absorption» of the mental determination by the latter models is characterized. The human mental can be deemed as the functioning of the open developing non-equilibrium nonlinear system (dissipative. The mental sphere is
Theoretical model of the SOS effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darznek, S A; Mesyats, G A; Rukin, S N; Tsiranov, S N [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Division, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Institute of Electrophysics
1997-12-31
Physical principles underlying the operation of semiconductor opening switches (SOS) are highlighted. The SOS effect occurs at a current density of up to 60 kA/cm{sup 2} in silicon p{sup +}-p-n-n{sup +} structures filled with residual electron-hole plasma. Using a theoretical model developed for plasma dynamic calculations, the mechanism by which current passes through the structure at the stage of high conduction and the processes that take place at the stage of current interruption were analyzed. The dynamics of the processes taking place in the structure was calculated with allowance for both diffusive and drift mechanisms of carrier transport. In addition, two recombination types, viz. recombination via impurities and impact Auger recombination, were included in the model. The effect of the structure on the pumping-circuit current and voltage was also taken into account. The real distribution of the doped impurity in the structure and the avalanche mechanism of carrier multiplication were considered. The results of calculations of a typical SOS are presented. The dynamics of the electron-hole plasma is analyzed. It is shown that the SOS effect represents a qualitatively new mechanism of current interruption in semiconductor structures. (author). 4 figs., 7 refs.
Information-Theoretic Perspectives on Geophysical Models
Nearing, Grey
2016-04-01
practice of science (except by Gong et al., 2013, whose fundamental insight is the basis for this talk), and here I offer two examples of practical methods that scientists might use to approximately measure ontological information. I place this practical discussion in the context of several recent and high-profile experiments that have found that simple out-of-sample statistical models typically (vastly) outperform our most sophisticated terrestrial hydrology models. I offer some perspective on several open questions about how to use these findings to improve our models and understanding of these systems. Cartwright, N. (1983) How the Laws of Physics Lie. New York, NY: Cambridge Univ Press. Clark, M. P., Kavetski, D. and Fenicia, F. (2011) 'Pursuing the method of multiple working hypotheses for hydrological modeling', Water Resources Research, 47(9). Cover, T. M. and Thomas, J. A. (1991) Elements of Information Theory. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience. Cox, R. T. (1946) 'Probability, frequency and reasonable expectation', American Journal of Physics, 14, pp. 1-13. Csiszár, I. (1972) 'A Class of Measures of Informativity of Observation Channels', Periodica Mathematica Hungarica, 2(1), pp. 191-213. Davies, P. C. W. (1990) 'Why is the physical world so comprehensible', Complexity, entropy and the physics of information, pp. 61-70. Gong, W., Gupta, H. V., Yang, D., Sricharan, K. and Hero, A. O. (2013) 'Estimating Epistemic & Aleatory Uncertainties During Hydrologic Modeling: An Information Theoretic Approach', Water Resources Research, 49(4), pp. 2253-2273. Jaynes, E. T. (2003) Probability Theory: The Logic of Science. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Nearing, G. S. and Gupta, H. V. (2015) 'The quantity and quality of information in hydrologic models', Water Resources Research, 51(1), pp. 524-538. Popper, K. R. (2002) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Routledge. Van Horn, K. S. (2003) 'Constructing a logic of plausible inference: a guide to cox's theorem
Experimental and theoretical requirements for fuel modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gatesoupe, J.P.
1979-01-01
From a scientific point of view it may be considered that any event in the life of a fuel pin under irradiation should be perfectly well understood and foreseen from that deterministic point of view, the whole behaviour of the pin maybe analysed and dismantled with a specific function for every component part and each component part related to one basic phenomenon which can be independently studied on pure physical grounds. When extracted from the code structure the subroutine is studied for itself by specialists who try to keep as close as possible to the physics involved in the phenomenon; that often leads to an impressive luxury in details and a subsequent need for many unavailable input data. It might seem more secure to follow that approach since it tries to be firmly based on theoretical grounds. One should think so if the phenomenological situation in the pin were less complex than it is. The codes would not be adequate for off-normal operating conditions since for the accidental transient conditions the key-phenomena would not be the same as for steady-state or slow transient conditions. The orientation given to fuel modelling is based on our two main technological constraints which are: no fuel melting; no cladding failure; no excessive cladding deformation. In this context, the only relevant models are those which have a significant influence on the maximum temperatures in the fuel or on the cladding damage hence the selection between key models and irrelevant models which will next be done. A rather pragmatic view is kept on codification with a special focus on a few determinant aspects of fuel behaviour and no attention to models which are nothing but decorative. Fuel modeling is merely considered as a link between experimental knowledge; it serves as a guide for further improvements in fuel design and as so happens to be quite useful. On this basis the main lacks in of fuel behaviour is described. These are mainly concerning: thermal transfer through
QOS and Control-Theoretic Techniques for Intrusion Tolerance
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ye, Nong
2004-01-01
...), even in the face of intrusions. This report examines two host-based resources, a router and a web server, and presents simulated models of modifications that can be made to these resources to make them QoS-capable...
Graph-theoretic techniques for web content mining
Schenker, Adam; Bunke, Horst; Last, Mark
2005-01-01
This book describes exciting new opportunities for utilizing robust graph representations of data with common machine learning algorithms. Graphs can model additional information which is often not present in commonly used data representations, such as vectors.
Boundary representation modelling techniques
2006-01-01
Provides the most complete presentation of boundary representation solid modelling yet publishedOffers basic reference information for software developers, application developers and users Includes a historical perspective as well as giving a background for modern research.
How prayer heals: a theoretical model.
Levin, J S
1996-01-01
This article presents a theoretical model that outlines various possible explanations for the healing effects of prayer. Four classes of mechanisms are defined on the basis of whether healing has naturalistic or supernatural origins and whether it operates locally or nonlocally. Through this framework, most of the currently proposed hypotheses for understanding absent healing and other related phenomena-hypotheses that invoke such concepts as subtle energy, psi, consciousness, morphic fields, and extended mind-are shown to be no less naturalistic than the Newtonian, mechanistic forces of allopathic biomedicine so often derided for their materialism. In proposing that prayer may heal through nonlocal means according to mechanisms and theories proposed by the new physics, Dossey is almost alone among medical scholars in suggesting the possible limitations and inadequacies of hypotheses based on energies, forces, and fields. Yet even such nonlocal effects can be conceived of as naturalistic; that is, they are explained by physical laws that may be unbelievable or unfamiliar to most physicians but that are nonetheless becoming recognized as operant laws of the natural universe. The concept of the supernatural, however, is something altogether different, and is, by definition, outside of or beyond nature. Herein may reside an either wholly or partly transcendent Creator-God who is believed by many to heal through means that transcend the laws of the created universe, both its local and nonlocal elements, and that are thus inherently inaccessible to and unknowable by science. Such an explanation for the effects of prayer merits consideration and, despite its unprovability by medical science, should not be dismissed out of hand.
Assessing a Theoretical Model on EFL College Students
Chang, Yu-Ping
2011-01-01
This study aimed to (1) integrate relevant language learning models and theories, (2) construct a theoretical model of college students' English learning performance, and (3) assess the model fit between empirically observed data and the theoretical model proposed by the researchers of this study. Subjects of this study were 1,129 Taiwanese EFL…
Theoretical Tinnitus framework: A Neurofunctional Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iman Ghodratitoostani
2016-08-01
personality biases toward evaluative conditioning combined with a cognitive-emotional negative appraisal of stimuli such as the case of people with present hypochondria. We acknowledge that the projected Neurofunctional tinnitus model does not cover all tinnitus variations and patients. To support our model, we present evidence from several studies using neuroimaging, electrophysiology, brain lesion, and behavioral techniques
Theoretical Tinnitus Framework: A Neurofunctional Model.
Ghodratitoostani, Iman; Zana, Yossi; Delbem, Alexandre C B; Sani, Siamak S; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Sanchez, Tanit G
2016-01-01
associated with aversive stimuli similar to abnormal neural activity in generating the phantom sound. Cognitive and emotional reactions depend on general personality biases toward evaluative conditioning combined with a cognitive-emotional negative appraisal of stimuli such as the case of people with present hypochondria. We acknowledge that the projected Neurofunctional Tinnitus Model does not cover all tinnitus variations and patients. To support our model, we present evidence from several studies using neuroimaging, electrophysiology, brain lesion, and behavioral techniques.
Theoretical modelling of nuclear waste flows - 16377
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adams, J.F.; Biggs, S.R.; Fairweather, M.; Njobuenwu, D.; Yao, J.
2009-01-01
A large amount of nuclear waste is stored in tailings ponds as a solid-liquid slurry, and liquid flows containing suspensions of solid particles are encountered in the treatment and disposal of this waste. In processing this waste, it is important to understand the behaviour of particles within the flow in terms of their settling characteristics, their propensity to form solid beds, and the re-suspension characteristics of particles from a bed. A clearer understanding of such behaviour would allow the refinement of current approaches to waste management, potentially leading to reduced uncertainties in radiological impact assessments, smaller waste volumes and lower costs, accelerated clean-up, reduced worker doses, enhanced public confidence and diminished grounds for objection to waste disposal. Mathematical models are of significant value in nuclear waste processing since the extent of characterisation of wastes is in general low. Additionally, waste processing involves a diverse range of flows, within vessels, ponds and pipes. To investigate experimentally all waste form characteristics and potential flows of interest would be prohibitively expensive, whereas the use of mathematical models can help to focus experimental studies through the more efficient use of existing data, the identification of data requirements, and a reduction in the need for process optimisation in full-scale experimental trials. Validated models can also be used to predict waste transport behaviour to enable cost effective process design and continued operation, to provide input to process selection, and to allow the prediction of operational boundaries that account for the different types and compositions of particulate wastes. In this paper two mathematical modelling techniques, namely Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES), have been used to investigate particle-laden flows in a straight square duct and a duct with a bend. The flow solutions provided by
Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eccles Martin P
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of
Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models.
Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie
2012-10-17
In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays) of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM). We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT), a measure of Implementation Intentions (II), and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures) and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior) by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources) were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of the five surveys. For the predictor variables
K. Sridhar Moorthy's Theoretical Modelling in Marketing - A Review ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
K. Sridhar Moorthy's Theoretical Modelling in Marketing - A Review. ... Modelling has become a visible tool in many disciplines including marketing and several marketing models have ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Modelling in Accounting. Theoretical and Practical Dimensions
Teresa Szot -Gabryś
2010-01-01
Accounting in the theoretical approach is a scientific discipline based on specific paradigms. In the practical aspect, accounting manifests itself through the introduction of a system for measurement of economic quantities which operates in a particular business entity. A characteristic of accounting is its flexibility and ability of adaptation to information needs of information recipients. One of the main currents in the development of accounting theory and practice is to cover by economic...
Expanding Panjabi's stability model to express movement: a theoretical model.
Hoffman, J; Gabel, P
2013-06-01
Novel theoretical models of movement have historically inspired the creation of new methods for the application of human movement. The landmark theoretical model of spinal stability by Panjabi in 1992 led to the creation of an exercise approach to spinal stability. This approach however was later challenged, most significantly due to a lack of favourable clinical effect. The concepts explored in this paper address and consider the deficiencies of Panjabi's model then propose an evolution and expansion from a special model of stability to a general one of movement. It is proposed that two body-wide symbiotic elements are present within all movement systems, stability and mobility. The justification for this is derived from the observable clinical environment. It is clinically recognised that these two elements are present and identifiable throughout the body in different joints and muscles, and the neural conduction system. In order to generalise the Panjabi model of stability to include and illustrate movement, a matching parallel mobility system with the same subsystems was conceptually created. In this expanded theoretical model, the new mobility system is placed beside the existing stability system and subsystems. The ability of both stability and mobility systems to work in harmony will subsequently determine the quality of movement. Conversely, malfunction of either system, or their subsystems, will deleteriously affect all other subsystems and consequently overall movement quality. For this reason, in the rehabilitation exercise environment, focus should be placed on the simultaneous involvement of both the stability and mobility systems. It is suggested that the individual's relevant functional harmonious movements should be challenged at the highest possible level without pain or discomfort. It is anticipated that this conceptual expansion of the theoretical model of stability to one with the symbiotic inclusion of mobility, will provide new understandings
Survey of semantic modeling techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, C.L.
1975-07-01
The analysis of the semantics of programing languages was attempted with numerous modeling techniques. By providing a brief survey of these techniques together with an analysis of their applicability for answering semantic issues, this report attempts to illuminate the state-of-the-art in this area. The intent is to be illustrative rather than thorough in the coverage of semantic models. A bibliography is included for the reader who is interested in pursuing this area of research in more detail.
Modeling of alkynes: synthesis and theoretical properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renato Rosseto
2003-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we present the synthesis and simulation of alkynes derivatives. Semiempirical calculations were carried out for the ground and first excited states, including the spectroscopic properties of the absorption and emission (fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra by INDO/S-CI and DNdM-INDO/S-CI methods with geometries fully optimized by PM3/CI. The fact that the theoretical spectra are in accord with the experimental absorption spectra gives us a new possible approach on how structure modifications could affect the non-linear optical properties of alkynes.
Information Theoretic Tools for Parameter Fitting in Coarse Grained Models
Kalligiannaki, Evangelia; Harmandaris, Vagelis; Katsoulakis, Markos A.; Plechac, Petr
2015-01-01
We study the application of information theoretic tools for model reduction in the case of systems driven by stochastic dynamics out of equilibrium. The model/dimension reduction is considered by proposing parametrized coarse grained dynamics
EUDIOMETRIC THEORETIC-APPROACH TO MODELLING THE ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The mathematical physics underlying the adsorption and subsequent desorption of dissolved oxygen (DO) in a water body subject to effluent loading had ... of hat matrix and bootstrapping techniques to study the phenomenon of chemical adsorption and desorption of DO at molecular level in a polluted waterbody has not ...
POSITIVE LEADERSHIP MODELS: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND RESEARCH
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Blanch, Francisco Gil
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The objective of this article is twofold; firstly, we establish the theoretical boundaries of positive leadership and the reasons for its emergence. It is related to the new paradigm of positive psychology that has recently been shaping the scope of organizational knowledge. This conceptual framework has triggered the development of the various forms of positive leadership (i.e. transformational, servant, spiritual, authentic, and positive. Although the construct does not seem univocally defined, these different types of leadership overlap and share a significant affinity. Secondly, we review the empirical evidence that shows the impact of positive leadership in organizations and we highlight the positive relationship between these forms of leadership and key positive organizational variables. Lastly, we analyse future research areas in order to further develop this concept.
How faith heals: a theoretical model.
Levin, Jeff
2009-01-01
This paper summarizes theoretical perspectives from psychology supportive of a healing effect of faith. First, faith is defined as a congruence of belief, trust, and obedience in relation to God or the divine. Second, evidence for a faith-healing association is presented, empirically and in theory. To exemplify religiously sanctioned affirmation of such a connection, selected passages are cited from the Jewish canon attesting to biblical and rabbinic support for a faith factor in longevity, disease risk, mental health and well-being, disease prevention, and healing. Third, reference to theories of hope, learned optimism, positive illusions, and opening up or disclosure, and to theory and research on psychoneuroimmunology and placebos, demonstrates that contemporary psychology can accommodate a healing power of faith. This is summarized in a typology of five hypothesized mechanisms underlying a faith-healing association, termed behavioral/conative, interpersonal, cognitive, affective, and psychophysiological. Finally, implications are discussed for the rapprochement of religion and medicine.
Theoretical study on optical model potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim Hung Gi.
1984-08-01
The optical model potential of non-local effect on the rounded edge of the potential is derived. On the basis of this potential the functional form of the optical model potential, the energy dependence and relationship of its parameters, and the dependency of the values of the parameters on energy change are shown in this paper. (author)
Theoretical Models of Neutrino Mixing Recent Developments
Altarelli, Guido
2009-01-01
The data on neutrino mixing are at present compatible with Tri-Bimaximal (TB) mixing. If one takes this indication seriously then the models that lead to TB mixing in first approximation are particularly interesting and A4 models are prominent in this list. However, the agreement of TB mixing with the data could still be an accident. We discuss a recent model based on S4 where Bimaximal mixing is instead valid at leading order and the large corrections needed to reproduce the data arise from the diagonalization of charged leptons. The value of $\\theta_{13}$ could distinguish between the two alternatives.
Modeling Organizational Design - Applying A Formalism Model From Theoretical Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Fabac
2008-06-01
Full Text Available Modern organizations are exposed to diverse external environment influences. Currently accepted concepts of organizational design take into account structure, its interaction with strategy, processes, people, etc. Organization design and planning aims to align this key organizational design variables. At the higher conceptual level, however, completely satisfactory formulation for this alignment doesn’t exist. We develop an approach originating from the application of concepts of theoretical physics to social systems. Under this approach, the allocation of organizational resources is analyzed in terms of social entropy, social free energy and social temperature. This allows us to formalize the dynamic relationship between organizational design variables. In this paper we relate this model to Galbraith's Star Model and we also suggest improvements in the procedure of the complex analytical method in organizational design.
From theoretical model to practical use:
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjørk, Ida Torunn; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Carsten Munch
2013-01-01
involving both the creation and application of knowledge in several phases. The case presented in this paper is the translation of the Model of Practical Skill Performance into education and practice. Advantages and problems with the use of this model and its adaptation and tailoring to local contexts...... of the model and to tailor the implementation of knowledge to the users. Implications for nursing. This article illustrates the need for enduring collaboration between stakeholders to promote the process of knowledge translation. Translation of research knowledge into practice is a time-consuming process...... that is enhanced when appropriate support is given by leaders in the involved facilities. Conclusion. Knowledge translation is a time-consuming and collaborative endeavour. On the basis of our experience we advocate the implementation and use of a conceptual framework for the entire process of knowledge...
Dark energy observational evidence and theoretical models
Novosyadlyj, B; Shtanov, Yu; Zhuk, A
2013-01-01
The book elucidates the current state of the dark energy problem and presents the results of the authors, who work in this area. It describes the observational evidence for the existence of dark energy, the methods and results of constraining of its parameters, modeling of dark energy by scalar fields, the space-times with extra spatial dimensions, especially Kaluza---Klein models, the braneworld models with a single extra dimension as well as the problems of positive definition of gravitational energy in General Relativity, energy conditions and consequences of their violation in the presence of dark energy. This monograph is intended for science professionals, educators and graduate students, specializing in general relativity, cosmology, field theory and particle physics.
Theoretical modelling of carbon deposition processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marsh, G.R.; Norfolk, D.J.; Skinner, R.F.
1985-01-01
Work based on capsule experiments in the BNL Gamma Facility, aimed at elucidating the chemistry involved in the formation of carbonaceous deposit on CAGR fuel pin surfaces is described. Using a data-base derived from capsule experiments together with literature values for the kinetics of the fundamental reactions, a chemical model of the gas-phase processes has been developed. This model successfully reproduces the capsule results, whilst preliminary application to the WAGR coolant circuit indicates the likely concentration profiles of various radical species within the fuel channels. (author)
Theoretical Modelling of Intercultural Communication Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariia Soter
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The definition of the concepts of “communication”, “intercultural communication”, “model of communication” are analyzed in the article. The basic components of the communication process are singled out. The model of intercultural communication is developed. Communicative, behavioral and complex skills for optimal organization of intercultural communication, establishment of productive contact with a foreign partner to achieve mutual understanding, searching for acceptable ways of organizing interaction and cooperation for both communicants are highlighted in the article. It is noted that intercultural communication through interaction between people affects the development of different cultures’ aspects.
Classical solutions of some field theoretic models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakrzewski, W.J.
1982-01-01
In recent years much attention has been paid to simpler fields theories, so chosen that they possess several properties of nonabelian gauge theories. They preserve the conformal invariance of the action and one can define the topological charge for them. They possess nontrivial solutions to the equations of motion. The perturbation theory based on the fluctuations around each solution is characterized by asymptotic freedom. A model called CP sup(n-1) is presented and some models which are its natural generalizations are discussed. (M.F.W.)
Delusions of reference: a new theoretical model.
Startup, Mike; Bucci, Sandra; Langdon, Robyn
2009-03-01
Although delusions of reference are one of the most common psychotic symptoms, they have been the focus of little research, possibly because they have been considered to be integral to persecutory delusions. Evidence has now emerged that there are two kinds of delusion of reference. One of these, referential delusions of communication, which involves beliefs that others are communicating in subtle, nonverbal ways, is the focus of this paper. We present a new model designed to account for the four crucial aspects of the phenomenology of these delusions: (1) that neutral stimuli are experienced as having personal significance; (2) that the neutral stimuli are experienced as communicating a message nonverbally; (3) that the content of the message concerns the self; (4) that the experience of a self-referent communication is believed rather than being dismissed as implausible. We used PsycINFO and Scopus, using the term "delusion* of reference", to search for publications with a bearing on our model. The amount of research we found that was designed to test aspects of this model is small but other published research appears to provide some support for its various steps. Much of this research was not explicitly intended to provide an account of delusions of reference but its relevance nevertheless seems clear. There is preliminary support for the plausibility of our model but much additional research is needed. We conclude by summarising what we consider to be the main desiderata.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Behroozi, Peter S.; Busha, Michael T.; Wechsler, Risa H.
2011-01-01
We develop a theoretical framework that combines measurements of galaxy-galaxy lensing, galaxy clustering, and the galaxy stellar mass function in a self-consistent manner. While considerable effort has been invested in exploring each of these probes individually, attempts to combine them are still in their infancy. These combinations have the potential to elucidate the galaxy-dark matter connection and the galaxy formation physics responsible for it, as well as to constrain cosmological parameters and to test the nature of gravity. In this paper, we focus on a theoretical model that describes the galaxy-dark matter connection based on standard halo occupation distribution techniques. Several key modifications enable us to extract additional parameters that determine the stellar-to-halo mass relation and to simultaneously fit data from multiple probes while allowing for independent binning schemes for each probe. We construct mock catalogs from numerical simulations to investigate the effects of sample variance and covariance for each probe. Finally, we analyze how trends in each of the three observables impact the derived parameters of the model. In particular, we investigate various features of the observed galaxy stellar mass function (low-mass slope, 'plateau', knee, and high-mass cutoff) and show how each feature is related to the underlying relationship between stellar and halo mass. We demonstrate that the observed 'plateau' feature in the stellar mass function at M * ∼ 2 x 10 10 M sun is due to the transition that occurs in the stellar-to-halo mass relation at M h ∼ 10 12 M sun from a low-mass power-law regime to a sub-exponential function at higher stellar mass.
Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models
Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; MacLennan, Graeme; Bonetti, Debbie; Glidewell, Liz; Pitts, Nigel B; Steen, Nick; Thomas, Ruth; Walker, Anne; Johnston, Marie
2012-01-01
Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of...
Voronoi cell patterns: Theoretical model and applications
González, Diego Luis; Einstein, T. L.
2011-11-01
We use a simple fragmentation model to describe the statistical behavior of the Voronoi cell patterns generated by a homogeneous and isotropic set of points in 1D and in 2D. In particular, we are interested in the distribution of sizes of these Voronoi cells. Our model is completely defined by two probability distributions in 1D and again in 2D, the probability to add a new point inside an existing cell and the probability that this new point is at a particular position relative to the preexisting point inside this cell. In 1D the first distribution depends on a single parameter while the second distribution is defined through a fragmentation kernel; in 2D both distributions depend on a single parameter. The fragmentation kernel and the control parameters are closely related to the physical properties of the specific system under study. We use our model to describe the Voronoi cell patterns of several systems. Specifically, we study the island nucleation with irreversible attachment, the 1D car-parking problem, the formation of second-level administrative divisions, and the pattern formed by the Paris Métro stations.
Theoretical modeling of diluted antiferromagnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pozo, J; Elgueta, R; Acevedo, R
2000-01-01
Some magnetic properties of a Diluted Antiferromagnetic System (DAFS) are studied. The model of the two sub-networks for antiferromagnetism is used and a Heisenberg Hamiltonian type is proposed, where the square operators are expressed in terms of boson operators with the approach of spin waves. The behavior of the diluted system's fundamental state depends basically on the competition effect between the anisotropy field and the Weiss molecular field. The approach used allows the diluted system to be worked for strong anisotropies as well as when these are very weak
An introduction to game-theoretic modelling
Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike
2000-01-01
This is an introduction to game theory and applications with an emphasis on self-discovery from the perspective of a mathematical modeller. The book deals in a unified manner with the central concepts of both classical and evolutionary game theory. The key ideas are illustrated throughout by a wide variety of well-chosen examples of both human and non-human behavior, including car pooling, price fixing, food sharing, sex allocation and competition for territories or oviposition sites. There are numerous exercises with solutions.
A Rational Model In Theoretical Genetics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl Javorszky
2008-07-01
Full Text Available This model connects information processing in biological organisms with methods and concepts used in classical, technical information processing. The central concept shows copying and regulatory interaction between a logical sequence consisting of triplets and the amount of constituents of a set. The basic mathematical model of information processing within a biological cell has been worked out. The cell in the model copies its present state into a sequence and reads it off the sequence. The sequence comes in triplets and is not one sequence but appears in two almost identical varieties. We treat consecutive and contemporary assemblies of information carrying media as equally suited to contain information. Methods used so far utilised the consecutive property of media, while in biology one observes the concurrent existence of specific realisations of possibilities. Genetics connects the two approaches by using an interplay between consecutively (sequentially ordered logical markers (the DNA and the state of the set engulfing the DNA. Several mathematical tools have been evolved to assemble an interface between sequentially ordered carriers and the same number of carriers if they arrive contemporaneously. Using linguistic theory and formal logic one concludes that measurement(s on a cell are a (set of logical sentence(s relating to an assembly of n objects with group structures among each other. We linearise and count all possible group relations on a set of n objects and introduce the concept of multidimensional partitions hitherto left undefined. We introduce the concept of a maximally structured set by establishing an upper limit to the information carrying capacity of n objects used commutatively and sequentially at the same time (like genetics does. The copying and re-copying mechanism which is the core matter with genetics appears in the model as differing transmission efficiency coefficients of media if the media are used once sequentially
Advanced Atmospheric Ensemble Modeling Techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buckley, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Chiswell, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kurzeja, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Maze, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Viner, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Werth, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2017-09-29
Ensemble modeling (EM), the creation of multiple atmospheric simulations for a given time period, has become an essential tool for characterizing uncertainties in model predictions. We explore two novel ensemble modeling techniques: (1) perturbation of model parameters (Adaptive Programming, AP), and (2) data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter, EnKF). The current research is an extension to work from last year and examines transport on a small spatial scale (<100 km) in complex terrain, for more rigorous testing of the ensemble technique. Two different release cases were studied, a coastal release (SF6) and an inland release (Freon) which consisted of two release times. Observations of tracer concentration and meteorology are used to judge the ensemble results. In addition, adaptive grid techniques have been developed to reduce required computing resources for transport calculations. Using a 20- member ensemble, the standard approach generated downwind transport that was quantitatively good for both releases; however, the EnKF method produced additional improvement for the coastal release where the spatial and temporal differences due to interior valley heating lead to the inland movement of the plume. The AP technique showed improvements for both release cases, with more improvement shown in the inland release. This research demonstrated that transport accuracy can be improved when models are adapted to a particular location/time or when important local data is assimilated into the simulation and enhances SRNL’s capability in atmospheric transport modeling in support of its current customer base and local site missions, as well as our ability to attract new customers within the intelligence community.
Theoretical model for plasma opening switch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, L.
1980-07-01
The theory of an explosive plasma switch is developed and compared with the experimental results of Pavlovskii and work at Sandia. A simple analytic model is developed, which predicts that such switches may achieve opening times of approximately 100 ns. When the switching time is limited by channel mixing it scales as t = C(m d 0 )/sup 1/2/P 0 2 P/sub e//sup -5/2/ where m is the foil mass per unit area, d 0 the channel thickness and P 0 the channel pressure (at explosive breakout), P/sub e/ the explosive pressure, C a constant of order 10 for c.g.s. units. Thus faster switching times may be achieved by minimizing foil mass and channel pressure, or increasing explosive product pressure, with the scaling exponents as shown suggesting that changes in pressures would be more effective
Xu, Kunshan; Qiu, Xingqi; Tian, Xiaoshuai
2018-01-01
The metal magnetic memory testing (MMMT) technique has been extensively applied in various fields because of its unique advantages of easy operation, low cost and high efficiency. However, very limited theoretical research has been conducted on application of MMMT to buried defects. To promote study in this area, the equivalent magnetic charge method is employed to establish a self-magnetic flux leakage (SMFL) model of a buried defect. Theoretical results based on the established model successfully capture basic characteristics of the SMFL signals of buried defects, as confirmed via experiment. In particular, the newly developed model can calculate the buried depth of a defect based on the SMFL signals obtained via testing. The results show that the new model can successfully assess the characteristics of buried defects, which is valuable in the application of MMMT in non-destructive testing.
Theoretical models for the muon spectrum at sea level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Monem, M.S.; Benbrook, J.R.; Osborne, A.R.; Sheldon, W.R.
1975-01-01
The absolute vertical cosmic ray muon spectrum is investigated theoretically. Models of high energy interactions (namely, Maeda-Cantrell (MC), Constant Energy (CE), Cocconi-Koester-Perkins (CKP) and Scaling Models) are used to calculate the spectrum of cosmic ray muons at sea level. A comparison is made between the measured spectrum and that predicted from each of the four theoretical models. It is concluded that the recently available measured muon differential intensities agree with the scaling model for energies less than 100 GeV and with the CKP model for energies greater than 200 GeV. The measured differential intensities (Abdel-Monem et al.) agree with scaling. (orig.) [de
Theoretical studies of Anderson impurity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glossop, M.T.
2000-01-01
A Local Moment Approach (LMA) is developed for single-particle excitations of a symmetric single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) with a soft-gap hybridization vanishing at the Fermi level, Δ I ∝ vertical bar W vertical bar r with r > 0, and for the generic asymmetric case of the 'normal' (r = 0) SIAM. In all cases we work within a two-self-energy description with local moments introduced explicitly from the outset, and in which single-particle excitations are coupled dynamically to low-energy transverse spin fluctuations. For the soft-gap symmetric SIAM, the resultant theory is applicable on all energy scales, and captures both the spin-fluctuation regime of strong coupling (large-U), as well as the weak coupling regime where it is perturbatively exact for those r-domains in which perturbation theory in U is non-singular. While the primary emphasis is on single-particle dynamics, the quantum phase transition between strong coupling (SC) and local moment (LM) phases can also be addressed directly; for the spin-fluctuation regime in particular a number of asymptotically exact results are thereby obtained, notably for the behaviour of the critical U c (r) separating SC/LM states and the Kondo scale w m (r) characteristic of the SC phase. Results for both single-particle spectra and SG/LM phase boundaries are found to agree well with recent numerical renormalization group (NRG) studies; and a number of further testable predictions are made. Single-particle spectra are examined systematically for both SC and LM states; in particular, for all 0 ≤ r 0 SC phase which, in agreement with conclusions drawn from recent NRG work, may be viewed as a non-trivial but natural generalization of Fermi liquid physics. We also reinvestigate the problem via the NRG in light of the predictions arising from the LMA: all are borne out and excellent agreement is found. For the asymmetric single impurity Anderson model (ASIAM) we establish general conditions which must be satisfied
Theoretical modelling of actinide spectra in solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danilo, Cecile
2009-01-01
The framework of this PhD is the interpretation of Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion experiments performed on solvated U"4"+, NpO_2"+ and PuO_2"2"+, which all have a f"2 configuration. Unexpectedly the two actinyl ions have a much higher relaxivity than U"4"+,. One possible explanation is that the electronic relaxation rate is faster for Uranium(IV) than for the actinyl ions. We address this problem by exploring the electronic spectrum of the three compounds in gas phase and in solution with a two-step SOCI (Spin-Orbit Configuration-Interaction) method. The influence of electron correlation (treated in the first step) and spin-orbit relaxation effects (considered in the second step) has been discussed thoroughly. Solvent effects have been investigated as well. Another issue that has been questioned is the accuracy of Density Functional Theory for the study of actinide species. This matter has been discussed by comparing its performance to wave-function based correlated methods. The chemical problem chosen was the water exchange in [UO_2"2"+ (H_2O)_5]. We looked at the associative and at the dissociative mechanisms using a model with one additional water in the second hydration sphere. The last part of the thesis dealt with the spectroscopy of coordinated Uranyl(V). Absorption spectrum of Uranyl(V) with various ligands has been recorded. The first sharp absorption bands in the Near-Infrared region were assigned to the Uranium centered 5f-5f transitions, but uncertainties remained for the assignment of transitions observed in the Visible region. We computed the spectra of naked UO_2"+ and [UO_2(CO_3)_3]"5"- to elucidate the spectral changes induced by the carbonate ligands. (author) [fr
Dynamics in Higher Education Politics: A Theoretical Model
Kauko, Jaakko
2013-01-01
This article presents a model for analysing dynamics in higher education politics (DHEP). Theoretically the model draws on the conceptual history of political contingency, agenda-setting theories and previous research on higher education dynamics. According to the model, socio-historical complexity can best be analysed along two dimensions: the…
Theoretical Bound of CRLB for Energy Efficient Technique of RSS-Based Factor Graph Geolocation
Kahar Aziz, Muhammad Reza; Heriansyah; Saputra, EfaMaydhona; Musa, Ardiansyah
2018-03-01
To support the increase of wireless geolocation development as the key of the technology in the future, this paper proposes theoretical bound derivation, i.e., Cramer Rao lower bound (CRLB) for energy efficient of received signal strength (RSS)-based factor graph wireless geolocation technique. The theoretical bound derivation is crucially important to evaluate whether the energy efficient technique of RSS-based factor graph wireless geolocation is effective as well as to open the opportunity to further innovation of the technique. The CRLB is derived in this paper by using the Fisher information matrix (FIM) of the main formula of the RSS-based factor graph geolocation technique, which is lied on the Jacobian matrix. The simulation result shows that the derived CRLB has the highest accuracy as a bound shown by its lowest root mean squared error (RMSE) curve compared to the RMSE curve of the RSS-based factor graph geolocation technique. Hence, the derived CRLB becomes the lower bound for the efficient technique of RSS-based factor graph wireless geolocation.
Modeling theoretical uncertainties in phenomenological analyses for particle physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charles, Jerome [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Universite de Toulon, CPT UMR 7332, Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Descotes-Genon, Sebastien [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Niess, Valentin [CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 6533, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, Aubiere Cedex (France); Silva, Luiz Vale [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay Cedex (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Saclay, Groupe de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); J. Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2017-04-15
The determination of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model (and its extensions) is often limited by the presence of statistical and theoretical uncertainties. We present several models for the latter uncertainties (random, nuisance, external) in the frequentist framework, and we derive the corresponding p values. In the case of the nuisance approach where theoretical uncertainties are modeled as biases, we highlight the important, but arbitrary, issue of the range of variation chosen for the bias parameters. We introduce the concept of adaptive p value, which is obtained by adjusting the range of variation for the bias according to the significance considered, and which allows us to tackle metrology and exclusion tests with a single and well-defined unified tool, which exhibits interesting frequentist properties. We discuss how the determination of fundamental parameters is impacted by the model chosen for theoretical uncertainties, illustrating several issues with examples from quark flavor physics. (orig.)
A Simple theoretical model for 63Ni betavoltaic battery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ZUO, Guoping; ZHOU, Jianliang; KE, Guotu
2013-01-01
A numerical simulation of the energy deposition distribution in semiconductors is performed for 63 Ni beta particles. Results show that the energy deposition distribution exhibits an approximate exponential decay law. A simple theoretical model is developed for 63 Ni betavoltaic battery based on the distribution characteristics. The correctness of the model is validated by two literature experiments. Results show that the theoretical short-circuit current agrees well with the experimental results, and the open-circuit voltage deviates from the experimental results in terms of the influence of the PN junction defects and the simplification of the source. The theoretical model can be applied to 63 Ni and 147 Pm betavoltaic batteries. - Highlights: • The energy deposition distribution is found following an approximate exponential decay law when beta particles emitted from 63 Ni pass through a semiconductor. • A simple theoretical model for 63 Ni betavoltaic battery is constructed based on the exponential decay law. • Theoretical model can be applied to the betavoltaic batteries which radioactive source has a similar energy spectrum with 63 Ni, such as 147 Pm
K. Sridhar Moorthy's Theoretical Modelling in Marketing - A Review
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Toshiba
experimental design for theoretical modelling of sales force compensation is vivid and ... different from the concept of a model in decision support systems and behavioural .... ―refers to the fact that people may not optimize.‖ This, of course, is.
Computational and Game-Theoretic Approaches for Modeling Bounded Rationality
L. Waltman (Ludo)
2011-01-01
textabstractThis thesis studies various computational and game-theoretic approaches to economic modeling. Unlike traditional approaches to economic modeling, the approaches studied in this thesis do not rely on the assumption that economic agents behave in a fully rational way. Instead, economic
A theoretical model for predicting neutron fluxes for cyclic Neutron ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A theoretical model has been developed for prediction of thermal neutron fluxes required for cyclic irradiations of a sample to obtain the same activity previously used for the detection of any radionuclide of interest. The model is suitable for radiotracer production or for long-lived neutron activation products where the ...
Theoretical methods and models for mechanical properties of soft biomaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhonggang Feng
2017-06-01
Full Text Available We review the most commonly used theoretical methods and models for the mechanical properties of soft biomaterials, which include phenomenological hyperelastic and viscoelastic models, structural biphasic and network models, and the structural alteration theory. We emphasize basic concepts and recent developments. In consideration of the current progress and needs of mechanobiology, we introduce methods and models for tackling micromechanical problems and their applications to cell biology. Finally, the challenges and perspectives in this field are discussed.
New Theoretical Analysis of the LRRM Calibration Technique for Vector Network Analyzers
Purroy Martín, Francesc; Pradell i Cara, Lluís
2001-01-01
In this paper, a new theoretical analysis of the four-standards line-reflect-reflect-match (LRRM) vector network-analyzer (VNA) calibration technique is presented. As a result, it is shown that the reference-impedance (to which the LRRM calibration is referred) cannot generally be defined whenever nonideal standards are used. Based on this consideration, a new algorithm to determine the on-wafer match standard is proposed that improves the LRRM calibration accuracy. Experimental verification ...
Theoretical investigations of the new Cokriging method for variable-fidelity surrogate modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zimmermann, Ralf; Bertram, Anna
2018-01-01
Cokriging is a variable-fidelity surrogate modeling technique which emulates a target process based on the spatial correlation of sampled data of different levels of fidelity. In this work, we address two theoretical questions associated with the so-called new Cokriging method for variable fidelity...
Theoretical Relevance of Neuropsychological Data for Connectionist Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Iza
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The symbolic information-processing paradigm in cognitive psychology has met a growing challenge from neural network models over the past two decades. While neuropsychological
evidence has been of great utility to theories concerned with information processing, the real question is, whether the less rigid connectionist models provide valid, or enough, information
concerning complex cognitive structures. In this work, we will discuss the theoretical implications that neuropsychological data posits for modelling cognitive systems.
Experimental and theoretical contributions to X-ray phase-contrast techniques for medical imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diemoz, P.C.
2011-01-01
Several X-ray phase-contrast techniques have recently been developed. Unlike conventional X-ray methods, which measure the absorption properties of the tissues, these techniques derive contrast also from the modulation of the phase produced by the sample. Since the phase shift can be significant even for small details characterized by weak or absent absorption, the achievable image contrast can be greatly increased, notably for the soft biological tissues. These methods are therefore very promising for applications in the medical domain. The aim of this work is to contribute to a deeper understanding of these techniques, in particular propagation-based imaging (PBI), analyzer-based imaging (ABI) and grating interferometry (GIFM), and to study their potential and the best practical implementation for medical imaging applications. An important part of this work is dedicated to the use of mathematical algorithms for the extraction, from the acquired images, of quantitative sample information (the absorption, refraction and scattering sample properties). In particular, five among the most known algorithms based on the geometrical optics approximation have been theoretically analysed and experimentally compared, in planar and tomographic modalities, by using geometrical phantoms and human bone-cartilage and breast samples. A semi-quantitative method for the acquisition and reconstruction of tomographic images in the ABI and GIFM techniques has also been proposed. The validity conditions are analyzed in detail and the method, enabling a considerable simplification of the imaging procedure, has been experimentally checked on phantoms and human samples. Finally, a theoretical and experimental comparison of the PBI, ABI and GIFM techniques is presented. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these techniques are discussed. The results obtained from this analysis can be very useful for determining the most adapted technique for a given application. (author)
A theoretical model of semi-elliptic surface crack growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shi Kaikai
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A theoretical model of semi-elliptic surface crack growth based on the low cycle strain damage accumulation near the crack tip along the cracking direction and the Newman–Raju formula is developed. The crack is regarded as a sharp notch with a small curvature radius and the process zone is assumed to be the size of cyclic plastic zone. The modified Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren (HRR formulations are used in the presented study. Assuming that the shape of surface crack front is controlled by two critical points: the deepest point and the surface point. The theoretical model is applied to semi-elliptic surface cracked Al 7075-T6 alloy plate under cyclic loading, and five different initial crack shapes are discussed in present study. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is obtained.
A Comparative of business process modelling techniques
Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Waworuntu, J.
2016-04-01
In this era, there is a lot of business process modeling techniques. This article is the research about differences of business process modeling techniques. For each technique will explain about the definition and the structure. This paper presents a comparative analysis of some popular business process modelling techniques. The comparative framework is based on 2 criteria: notation and how it works when implemented in Somerleyton Animal Park. Each technique will end with the advantages and disadvantages. The final conclusion will give recommend of business process modeling techniques that easy to use and serve the basis for evaluating further modelling techniques.
Theoretical models for development competence of health protection and promotion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cesnaviciene J.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The competence of health protection and promotion are mentioned in various legislative documents that regulate areas of education and health policy. The researches on health conditions of Lithuania Country's population disclosed the deteriorating health status of the society, even of the children. It has also been found that the focus on health education is not adequate. The number of National and International health programmes have been realized and educational methodological tools prepared in Lithuania, however the insufficient attention to the health promotion models is been noticed. The objectiveof this article is to discuss the theoretical models used in health education field. The questions to be answered: what theoretical models are used in order to development competence of health protection and promotion? Who does employ particular models? What are the advantages of various models? What conceptions unite and characterize theoretical models? The analysis of scientific literature revealed the number of diverse health promotion model; however none of them is dominant. Some of the models focus on intrapersonal, others on interpersonal or community level but in general they can be distinguished as cognitive – behavioural models which are characterized by three main conceptions: 1 the healthy living is determined by the perceived health related knowledge: what is known and understood would influence the behaviour; 2 the knowledge in healthy living field is essential but insufficient condition for behaviour change; 3 the great influence to healthy living life style is done by perception, motivation, skills and habits as well as social environment. These are the components that are typical to all theoretical models and that reflect the hole of the conditions influencing healthy living.
Theoretical modeling and experimental analyses of laminated wood composite poles
Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Vijaya Gopu; Chung Y. Hse
2005-01-01
Wood laminated composite poles consist of trapezoid-shaped wood strips bonded with synthetic resin. The thick-walled hollow poles had adequate strength and stiffness properties and were a promising substitute for solid wood poles. It was necessary to develop theoretical models to facilitate the manufacture and future installation and maintenance of this novel...
Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner
2011-01-01
Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…
Organizational Learning and Product Design Management: Towards a Theoretical Model.
Chiva-Gomez, Ricardo; Camison-Zornoza, Cesar; Lapiedra-Alcami, Rafael
2003-01-01
Case studies of four Spanish ceramics companies were used to construct a theoretical model of 14 factors essential to organizational learning. One set of factors is related to the conceptual-analytical phase of the product design process and the other to the creative-technical phase. All factors contributed to efficient product design management…
Organizational Resilience: The Theoretical Model and Research Implication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao Lei
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Organizations are all subject to a diverse and ever changing and uncertain environment. Under this situation organizations should develop a capability which can resist the emergency and recover from the disruption. Base on lot of literature, the paper provides the main concept of organizational resilience; construct the primary theoretical model and some implications for management.
On a Graphical Technique for Evaluating Some Rational Expectations Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders R.
2011-01-01
Campbell and Shiller (1987) proposed a graphical technique for the present value model, which consists of plotting estimates of the spread and theoretical spread as calculated from the cointegrated vector autoregressive model without imposing the restrictions implied by the present value model....... In addition to getting a visual impression of the fit of the model, the purpose is to see if the two spreads are nevertheless similar as measured by correlation, variance ratio, and noise ratio. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give a general definition of spread...
Testing a theoretical model of clinical nurses' intent to stay.
Cowden, Tracy L; Cummings, Greta G
2015-01-01
Published theoretical models of nurses' intent to stay (ITS) report inconsistent outcomes, and not all hypothesized models have been adequately tested. Research has focused on cognitive rather than emotional determinants of nurses' ITS. The aim of this study was to empirically verify a complex theoretical model of nurses' ITS that includes both affective and cognitive determinants and to explore the influence of relational leadership on staff nurses' ITS. The study was a correlational, mixed-method, nonexperimental design. A subsample of the Quality Work Environment Study survey data 2009 (n = 415 nurses) was used to test our theoretical model of clinical nurses' ITS as a structural equation model. The model explained 63% of variance in ITS. Organizational commitment, empowerment, and desire to stay were the model concepts with the strongest effects on nurses' ITS. Leadership practices indirectly influenced ITS. How nurses evaluate and respond to their work environment is both an emotional and rational process. Health care organizations need to be cognizant of the influence that nurses' feelings and views of their work setting have on their intention decisions and integrate that knowledge into the development of retention strategies. Leadership practices play an important role in staff nurses' perceptions of the workplace. Identifying the mechanisms by which leadership influences staff nurses' intentions to stay presents additional focus areas for developing retention strategies.
Model selection and inference a practical information-theoretic approach
Burnham, Kenneth P
1998-01-01
This book is unique in that it covers the philosophy of model-based data analysis and an omnibus strategy for the analysis of empirical data The book introduces information theoretic approaches and focuses critical attention on a priori modeling and the selection of a good approximating model that best represents the inference supported by the data Kullback-Leibler information represents a fundamental quantity in science and is Hirotugu Akaike's basis for model selection The maximized log-likelihood function can be bias-corrected to provide an estimate of expected, relative Kullback-Leibler information This leads to Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and various extensions and these are relatively simple and easy to use in practice, but little taught in statistics classes and far less understood in the applied sciences than should be the case The information theoretic approaches provide a unified and rigorous theory, an extension of likelihood theory, an important application of information theory, and are ...
Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Cébron
Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.
Experimental and theoretical study of magnetohydrodynamic ship models.
Cébron, David; Viroulet, Sylvain; Vidal, Jérémie; Masson, Jean-Paul; Viroulet, Philippe
2017-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ships represent a clear demonstration of the Lorentz force in fluids, which explains the number of students practicals or exercises described on the web. However, the related literature is rather specific and no complete comparison between theory and typical small scale experiments is currently available. This work provides, in a self-consistent framework, a detailed presentation of the relevant theoretical equations for small MHD ships and experimental measurements for future benchmarks. Theoretical results of the literature are adapted to these simple battery/magnets powered ships moving on salt water. Comparison between theory and experiments are performed to validate each theoretical step such as the Tafel and the Kohlrausch laws, or the predicted ship speed. A successful agreement is obtained without any adjustable parameter. Finally, based on these results, an optimal design is then deduced from the theory. Therefore this work provides a solid theoretical and experimental ground for small scale MHD ships, by presenting in detail several approximations and how they affect the boat efficiency. Moreover, the theory is general enough to be adapted to other contexts, such as large scale ships or industrial flow measurement techniques.
Towards a theoretical model on medicines as a health need.
Vargas-Peláez, Claudia Marcela; Soares, Luciano; Rover, Marina Raijche Mattozo; Blatt, Carine Raquel; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje; Rossi Buenaventura, Francisco Augusto; Restrepo, Luis Guillermo; Latorre, María Cristina; López, José Julián; Bürgin, María Teresa; Silva, Consuelo; Leite, Silvana Nair; Mareni Rocha, Farias
2017-04-01
Medicines are considered one of the main tools of western medicine to resolve health problems. Currently, medicines represent an important share of the countries' healthcare budget. In the Latin America region, access to essential medicines is still a challenge, although countries have established some measures in the last years in order to guarantee equitable access to medicines. A theoretical model is proposed for analysing the social, political, and economic factors that modulate the role of medicines as a health need and their influence on the accessibility and access to medicines. The model was built based on a narrative review about health needs, and followed the conceptual modelling methodology for theory-building. The theoretical model considers elements (stakeholders, policies) that modulate the perception towards medicines as a health need from two perspectives - health and market - at three levels: international, national and local levels. The perception towards medicines as a health need is described according to Bradshaw's categories: felt need, normative need, comparative need and expressed need. When those different categories applied to medicines coincide, the patients get access to the medicines they perceive as a need, but when the categories do not coincide, barriers to access to medicines are created. Our theoretical model, which holds a broader view about the access to medicines, emphasises how power structures, interests, interdependencies, values and principles of the stakeholders could influence the perception towards medicines as a health need and the access to medicines in Latin American countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Improved theoretical model of InN optical properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira da Silva, A.; Chubaci, J.F.D.; Matsuoka, M.; Freitas, J.A. Jr.; Tischler, J.G.; Baldissera, G.; Persson, C.
2014-01-01
The optical properties of InN are investigated theoretically by employing the projector augmented wave (PAW) method within Green's function and the screened Coulomb interaction approximation (GW o ). The calculated results are compared to previously reported calculations which use local density approximation combined with the scissors-operator approximation. The results of the present calculation are compared with reported values of the InN bandgap and with low temperature near infrared luminescence measurements of InN films deposited by a modified Ion Beam Assisted Deposition technique. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Recent evolution of theoretical models in inner shell photoionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Combet Farnoux, F.
1978-01-01
This paper is a brief review of various atomic theoretical models recently developed to calculate photoionization cross sections in the low energy range (from the far ultraviolet to the soft X ray region). For both inner and outer shells concerned, we emphasize the necessity to go beyond the independent particle models by means of the introduction of correlation effects in both initial and final states. The basic physical ideas of as elaborated models as Random Phase Approximation with exchange, Many Body Perturbation Theory and R matrix Theory are outlined and summarized. As examples, the results of some calculations are shown and compared with experiment
Information Theoretic Tools for Parameter Fitting in Coarse Grained Models
Kalligiannaki, Evangelia
2015-01-07
We study the application of information theoretic tools for model reduction in the case of systems driven by stochastic dynamics out of equilibrium. The model/dimension reduction is considered by proposing parametrized coarse grained dynamics and finding the optimal parameter set for which the relative entropy rate with respect to the atomistic dynamics is minimized. The minimization problem leads to a generalization of the force matching methods to non equilibrium systems. A multiplicative noise example reveals the importance of the diffusion coefficient in the optimization problem.
Validation of theoretical models through measured pavement response
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ullidtz, Per
1999-01-01
mechanics was quite different from the measured stress, the peak theoretical value being only half of the measured value.On an instrumented pavement structure in the Danish Road Testing Machine, deflections were measured at the surface of the pavement under FWD loading. Different analytical models were...... then used to derive the elastic parameters of the pavement layeres, that would produce deflections matching the measured deflections. Stresses and strains were then calculated at the position of the gauges and compared to the measured values. It was found that all analytical models would predict the tensile...
Modeling and design techniques for RF power amplifiers
Raghavan, Arvind; Laskar, Joy
2008-01-01
The book covers RF power amplifier design, from device and modeling considerations to advanced circuit design architectures and techniques. It focuses on recent developments and advanced topics in this area, including numerous practical designs to back the theoretical considerations. It presents the challenges in designing power amplifiers in silicon and helps the reader improve the efficiency of linear power amplifiers, and design more accurate compact device models, with faster extraction routines, to create cost effective and reliable circuits.
Theoretical Modeling of Rock Breakage by Hydraulic and Mechanical Tool
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongxiang Jiang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Rock breakage by coupled mechanical and hydraulic action has been developed over the past several decades, but theoretical study on rock fragmentation by mechanical tool with water pressure assistance was still lacking. The theoretical model of rock breakage by mechanical tool was developed based on the rock fracture mechanics and the solution of Boussinesq’s problem, and it could explain the process of rock fragmentation as well as predicating the peak reacting force. The theoretical model of rock breakage by coupled mechanical and hydraulic action was developed according to the superposition principle of intensity factors at the crack tip, and the reacting force of mechanical tool assisted by hydraulic action could be reduced obviously if the crack with a critical length could be produced by mechanical or hydraulic impact. The experimental results indicated that the peak reacting force could be reduced about 15% assisted by medium water pressure, and quick reduction of reacting force after peak value decreased the specific energy consumption of rock fragmentation by mechanical tool. The crack formation by mechanical or hydraulic impact was the prerequisite to improvement of the ability of combined breakage.
Theoretical model for plasma expansion generated by hypervelocity impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming; Zhang, Dongjiang; Long, Renrong; Chen, Li; Huang, Fenglei; Gong, Zizheng
2014-01-01
The hypervelocity impact experiments of spherical LY12 aluminum projectile diameter of 6.4 mm on LY12 aluminum target thickness of 23 mm have been conducted using a two-stage light gas gun. The impact velocity of the projectile is 5.2, 5.7, and 6.3 km/s, respectively. The experimental results show that the plasma phase transition appears under the current experiment conditions, and the plasma expansion consists of accumulation, equilibrium, and attenuation. The plasma characteristic parameters decrease as the plasma expands outward and are proportional with the third power of the impact velocity, i.e., (T e , n e ) ∝ v p 3 . Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model on the plasma expansion is developed and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data
Theoretical model for plasma expansion generated by hypervelocity impact
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn; Zhang, Dongjiang; Long, Renrong; Chen, Li; Huang, Fenglei [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Gong, Zizheng [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Reliability and Environment Engineering, Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering, Beijing 100094 (China)
2014-09-15
The hypervelocity impact experiments of spherical LY12 aluminum projectile diameter of 6.4 mm on LY12 aluminum target thickness of 23 mm have been conducted using a two-stage light gas gun. The impact velocity of the projectile is 5.2, 5.7, and 6.3 km/s, respectively. The experimental results show that the plasma phase transition appears under the current experiment conditions, and the plasma expansion consists of accumulation, equilibrium, and attenuation. The plasma characteristic parameters decrease as the plasma expands outward and are proportional with the third power of the impact velocity, i.e., (T{sub e}, n{sub e}) ∝ v{sub p}{sup 3}. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model on the plasma expansion is developed and the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental data.
Performability Modelling Tools, Evaluation Techniques and Applications
Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.
1990-01-01
This thesis deals with three aspects of quantitative evaluation of fault-tolerant and distributed computer and communication systems: performability evaluation techniques, performability modelling tools, and performability modelling applications. Performability modelling is a relatively new
Optical Kerr effect in graphene: Theoretical analysis of the optical heterodyne detection technique
Savostianova, N. A.; Mikhailov, S. A.
2018-04-01
Graphene is an atomically thin two-dimensional material demonstrating strong optical nonlinearities, including harmonics generation, four-wave mixing, Kerr, and other nonlinear effects. In this paper we theoretically analyze the optical heterodyne detection (OHD) technique of measuring the optical Kerr effect (OKE) in two-dimensional crystals and show how to relate the quantities measured in such experiments with components of the third-order conductivity tensor σαβ γ δ (3 )(ω1,ω2,ω3) of the two-dimensional crystal. Using results of a recently developed quantum theory of the third-order nonlinear electrodynamic response of graphene, we analyze the frequency, charge carrier density, temperature, and other dependencies of the OHD-OKE response of this material. We compare our results with a recent OHD-OKE experiment in graphene and find good agreement between the theory and experiment.
Sound transmission through lightweight double-leaf partitions: theoretical modelling
Wang, J.; Lu, T. J.; Woodhouse, J.; Langley, R. S.; Evans, J.
2005-09-01
This paper presents theoretical modelling of the sound transmission loss through double-leaf lightweight partitions stiffened with periodically placed studs. First, by assuming that the effect of the studs can be replaced with elastic springs uniformly distributed between the sheathing panels, a simple smeared model is established. Second, periodic structure theory is used to develop a more accurate model taking account of the discrete placing of the studs. Both models treat incident sound waves in the horizontal plane only, for simplicity. The predictions of the two models are compared, to reveal the physical mechanisms determining sound transmission. The smeared model predicts relatively simple behaviour, in which the only conspicuous features are associated with coincidence effects with the two types of structural wave allowed by the partition model, and internal resonances of the air between the panels. In the periodic model, many more features are evident, associated with the structure of pass- and stop-bands for structural waves in the partition. The models are used to explain the effects of incidence angle and of the various system parameters. The predictions are compared with existing test data for steel plates with wooden stiffeners, and good agreement is obtained.
Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics
Petrini, Carlo
2010-01-01
The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided. PMID:20195441
Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Petrini
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The article is divided into three sections: (i an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations; (ii a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks; and (iii a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided.
A theoretical model of the M87 jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falle, S.A.E.G.; Wilson, M.J.
1985-01-01
This paper describes a theoretical model of the knots in the M87 jet based on the idea that it is a steady fluid jet propagating through a non-uniform atmosphere. It is argued that knots D, E and F can be explained by the jet being underexpanded as it emerges from the central source, while knot A is due to reconfinement of the jet. Very high resolution numerical calculations are used to show that good agreement with the observed positions of the knots can be obtained with reasonable jet parameters and an atmosphere consistent with the X-ray observations. (author)
Improving statistical reasoning theoretical models and practical implications
Sedlmeier, Peter
1999-01-01
This book focuses on how statistical reasoning works and on training programs that can exploit people''s natural cognitive capabilities to improve their statistical reasoning. Training programs that take into account findings from evolutionary psychology and instructional theory are shown to have substantially larger effects that are more stable over time than previous training regimens. The theoretical implications are traced in a neural network model of human performance on statistical reasoning problems. This book apppeals to judgment and decision making researchers and other cognitive scientists, as well as to teachers of statistics and probabilistic reasoning.
Tesla Coil Theoretical Model and its Experimental Verification
Voitkans Janis; Voitkans Arnis
2014-01-01
In this paper a theoretical model of Tesla coil operation is proposed. Tesla coil is described as a long line with distributed parameters in a single-wire form, where the line voltage is measured across electrically neutral space. By applying the principle of equivalence of single-wire and two-wire schemes an equivalent two-wire scheme can be found for a single-wire scheme and the already known long line theory can be applied to the Tesla coil. A new method of multiple re...
Exploring patient satisfaction predictors in relation to a theoretical model.
Grøndahl, Vigdis Abrahamsen; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Karlsson, Ingela; Appelgren, Jari; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil
2013-01-01
The aim is to describe patients' care quality perceptions and satisfaction and to explore potential patient satisfaction predictors as person-related conditions, external objective care conditions and patients' perception of actual care received ("PR") in relation to a theoretical model. A cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected using one questionnaire combining questions from four instruments: Quality from patients' perspective; Sense of coherence; Big five personality trait; and Emotional stress reaction questionnaire (ESRQ), together with questions from previous research. In total, 528 patients (83.7 per cent response rate) from eight medical, three surgical and one medical/surgical ward in five Norwegian hospitals participated. Answers from 373 respondents with complete ESRQ questionnaires were analysed. Sequential multiple regression analysis with ESRQ as dependent variable was run in three steps: person-related conditions, external objective care conditions, and PR (p person-related conditions) explained 51.7 per cent of the ESRQ variance. Step 2 (external objective care conditions) explained an additional 2.4 per cent. Step 3 (PR) gave no significant additional explanation (0.05 per cent). Steps 1 and 2 contributed statistical significance to the model. Patients rated both quality-of-care and satisfaction highly. The paper shows that the theoretical model using an emotion-oriented approach to assess patient satisfaction can explain 54 per cent of patient satisfaction in a statistically significant manner.
An Emerging Theoretical Model of Music Therapy Student Development.
Dvorak, Abbey L; Hernandez-Ruiz, Eugenia; Jang, Sekyung; Kim, Borin; Joseph, Megan; Wells, Kori E
2017-07-01
Music therapy students negotiate a complex relationship with music and its use in clinical work throughout their education and training. This distinct, pervasive, and evolving relationship suggests a developmental process unique to music therapy. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to create a theoretical model of music therapy students' developmental process, beginning with a study within one large Midwestern university. Participants (N = 15) were music therapy students who completed one 60-minute intensive interview, followed by a 20-minute member check meeting. Recorded interviews were transcribed, analyzed, and coded using open and axial coding. The theoretical model that emerged was a six-step sequential developmental progression that included the following themes: (a) Personal Connection, (b) Turning Point, (c) Adjusting Relationship with Music, (d) Growth and Development, (e) Evolution, and (f) Empowerment. The first three steps are linear; development continues in a cyclical process among the last three steps. As the cycle continues, music therapy students continue to grow and develop their skills, leading to increased empowerment, and more specifically, increased self-efficacy and competence. Further exploration of the model is needed to inform educators' and other key stakeholders' understanding of student needs and concerns as they progress through music therapy degree programs. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
Theoretical modeling of critical temperature increase in metamaterial superconductors
Smolyaninov, Igor; Smolyaninova, Vera
Recent experiments have demonstrated that the metamaterial approach is capable of drastic increase of the critical temperature Tc of epsilon near zero (ENZ) metamaterial superconductors. For example, tripling of the critical temperature has been observed in Al-Al2O3 ENZ core-shell metamaterials. Here, we perform theoretical modelling of Tc increase in metamaterial superconductors based on the Maxwell-Garnett approximation of their dielectric response function. Good agreement is demonstrated between theoretical modelling and experimental results in both aluminum and tin-based metamaterials. Taking advantage of the demonstrated success of this model, the critical temperature of hypothetic niobium, MgB2 and H2S-based metamaterial superconductors is evaluated. The MgB2-based metamaterial superconductors are projected to reach the liquid nitrogen temperature range. In the case of an H2S-based metamaterial Tc appears to reach 250 K. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant DMR-1104676 and the School of Emerging Technologies at Towson University.
A Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Siphon Breaking Phenomenon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In; Seo, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Keung Koo; Yoon, Juhyeon
2014-01-01
A siphon phenomenon or siphoning often refers to the movement of liquid from a higher elevation to a lower one through a tube in an inverted U shape (whose top is typically located above the liquid surface) under the action of gravity, and has been used in a variety of reallife applications such as a toilet bowl and a Greedy cup. However, liquid drainage due to siphoning sometimes needs to be prevented. For example, a siphon breaker, which is designed to limit the siphon effect by allowing the gas entrainment into a siphon line, is installed in order to maintain the pool water level above the reactor core when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs in an open-pool type research reactor. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon. In this paper, a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon is developed. It is shown that the present model predicts well the fundamental features of the siphon breaking phenomenon and undershooting height
A Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Siphon Breaking Phenomenon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In; Seo, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Keung Koo; Yoon, Juhyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
A siphon phenomenon or siphoning often refers to the movement of liquid from a higher elevation to a lower one through a tube in an inverted U shape (whose top is typically located above the liquid surface) under the action of gravity, and has been used in a variety of reallife applications such as a toilet bowl and a Greedy cup. However, liquid drainage due to siphoning sometimes needs to be prevented. For example, a siphon breaker, which is designed to limit the siphon effect by allowing the gas entrainment into a siphon line, is installed in order to maintain the pool water level above the reactor core when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs in an open-pool type research reactor. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon. In this paper, a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon is developed. It is shown that the present model predicts well the fundamental features of the siphon breaking phenomenon and undershooting height.
Physics of human cooperation: experimental evidence and theoretical models
Sánchez, Angel
2018-02-01
In recent years, many physicists have used evolutionary game theory combined with a complex systems perspective in an attempt to understand social phenomena and challenges. Prominent among such phenomena is the issue of the emergence and sustainability of cooperation in a networked world of selfish or self-focused individuals. The vast majority of research done by physicists on these questions is theoretical, and is almost always posed in terms of agent-based models. Unfortunately, more often than not such models ignore a number of facts that are well established experimentally, and are thus rendered irrelevant to actual social applications. I here summarize some of the facts that any realistic model should incorporate and take into account, discuss important aspects underlying the relation between theory and experiments, and discuss future directions for research based on the available experimental knowledge.
Three General Theoretical Models in Sociology: An Articulated ?(Disunity?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thaís García-Pereiro
2015-01-01
Full Text Available After merely a brief, comparative reconstruction of the three most general theoretical models underlying contemporary Sociology (atomic, systemic, and fluid it becomes necessary to review the question about the unity or plurality of Sociology, which is the main objective of this paper. To do so, the basic terms of the question are firstly updated by following the hegemonic trends in current studies of science. Secondly the convergences and divergences among the three models discussed are shown. Following some additional discussion, the conclusion is reached that contemporary Sociology is not unitary, and need not be so. It is plural, but its plurality is limited and articulated by those very models. It may therefore be portrayed as integrated and commensurable, to the extent that a partial and unstable (disunity may be said to exist in Sociology, which is not too far off from what happens in the natural sciences.
Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P; Kosloff, Ronnie
2006-01-01
We theoretically investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose, a perturbative model for light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85 Rb 2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find that optimized pulse shapes may maximize the formation of ground state molecules in a specific vibrational state at a pump-dump delay time for which unshaped pulses lead to a minimum of the formation rate. Compared to the maximum formation rate obtained for unshaped pulses at the optimum pump-dump delay, the optimized pulses lead to a significant improvement of about 40% for the target level population. Since our model yields the spectral amplitudes and phases of the optimized pulses, the results are directly applicable in pulse shaping experiments
The theoretical aspects of UrQMD & AMPT models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saini, Abhilasha, E-mail: kashvini.abhi@gmail.com [Research Scholar, Department of Physics, Suresh Gyan vihar University, Jaipur (India); Bhardwaj, Sudhir, E-mail: sudhir.hep@gmail.com [Assistant professor, Govt. College of Engineering & Technology, Bikaner (India)
2016-05-06
The field of high energy physics is very challenging in carrying out theories and experiments to unlock the secrets of heavy ion collisions and still not cracked and solved completely. There are many theoretical queries; some may be due to the inherent causes like the non-perturbative nature of QCD in the strong coupling limit, also due to the multi-particle production and evolution during the heavy ion collisions which increase the complexity of the phenomena. So for the purpose of understanding the phenomena, variety of theories and ideas are developed which are usually implied in the form of Monte-Carlo codes. The UrQMD model and the AMPT model are discussed here in detail. These methods are useful in modeling the nuclear collisions.
Accuracy Analysis of a Box-wing Theoretical SRP Model
Wang, Xiaoya; Hu, Xiaogong; Zhao, Qunhe; Guo, Rui
2016-07-01
For Beidou satellite navigation system (BDS) a high accuracy SRP model is necessary for high precise applications especially with Global BDS establishment in future. The BDS accuracy for broadcast ephemeris need be improved. So, a box-wing theoretical SRP model with fine structure and adding conical shadow factor of earth and moon were established. We verified this SRP model by the GPS Block IIF satellites. The calculation was done with the data of PRN 1, 24, 25, 27 satellites. The results show that the physical SRP model for POD and forecast for GPS IIF satellite has higher accuracy with respect to Bern empirical model. The 3D-RMS of orbit is about 20 centimeters. The POD accuracy for both models is similar but the prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model is more than doubled. We tested 1-day 3-day and 7-day orbit prediction. The longer is the prediction arc length, the more significant is the improvement. The orbit prediction accuracy with the physical SRP model for 1-day, 3-day and 7-day arc length are 0.4m, 2.0m, 10.0m respectively. But they are 0.9m, 5.5m and 30m with Bern empirical model respectively. We apply this means to the BDS and give out a SRP model for Beidou satellites. Then we test and verify the model with Beidou data of one month only for test. Initial results show the model is good but needs more data for verification and improvement. The orbit residual RMS is similar to that with our empirical force model which only estimate the force for along track, across track direction and y-bias. But the orbit overlap and SLR observation evaluation show some improvement. The remaining empirical force is reduced significantly for present Beidou constellation.
Graph theoretical model of a sensorimotor connectome in zebrafish.
Stobb, Michael; Peterson, Joshua M; Mazzag, Borbala; Gahtan, Ethan
2012-01-01
Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes) of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron) varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome.
Graph theoretical model of a sensorimotor connectome in zebrafish.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Stobb
Full Text Available Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns (connectomes of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience. The best quantitative approach to analyzing connectome data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success. We present a graph theoretical model of the posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway in zebrafish. The model includes 2,616 neurons and 167,114 synaptic connections. Model neurons represent known cell types in zebrafish larvae, and connections were set stochastically following rules based on biological literature. Thus, our model is a uniquely detailed computational representation of a vertebrate connectome. The connectome has low overall connection density, with 2.45% of all possible connections, a value within the physiological range. We used graph theoretical tools to compare the zebrafish connectome graph to small-world, random and structured random graphs of the same size. For each type of graph, 100 randomly generated instantiations were considered. Degree distribution (the number of connections per neuron varied more in the zebrafish graph than in same size graphs with less biological detail. There was high local clustering and a short average path length between nodes, implying a small-world structure similar to other neural connectomes and complex networks. The graph was found not to be scale-free, in agreement with some other neural connectomes. An experimental lesion was performed that targeted three model brain neurons, including the Mauthner neuron, known to control fast escape turns. The lesion decreased the number of short paths between sensory and motor neurons analogous to the behavioral effects of the same lesion in zebrafish. This model is expandable and can be used to organize and interpret a growing database of information on the zebrafish connectome.
Theoretical approach to the WWER core thermomechanical modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Likhatchev, Y.; Troyanov, V.; Folomeev, V.; Demishonkov, A.
2003-01-01
The paper presents studies on the analysis of root causes of fuel assembly bowing under operating conditions; developing of a methodology for fuel assemblies thermomechanical simulation; developing of a calculation technique for thermomechanical modelling of the fuel assemblies bowing in operational conditions. Some examples of calculation results are given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1987-08-01
The large eddy concept in turbulent modeling and techniques for direct simulation are discussed. A review of turbulence modeling is presented along with physical and numerical aspects and applications. A closure model for turbulent flows is presented and routes to chaos by quasi-periodicity are discussed. Theoretical aspects of transition to turbulence by space/time intermittency are covered. The application to interpretation of experimental results of fractal dimensions and connection of spatial temporal chaos are reviewed. Simulation of hydrodynamic flow by using cellular automata is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vladislav V. Bulgakov
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Features of training in higher educational institutions of system of EMERCOM of Russia demand introduction of the new educational techniques and the technical means directed on intensification of educational process, providing an opportunity of preparation of cadets at any time in the independent mode and improving quality of their theoretical knowledge. The authors have developed a structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets using information and communication technologies. The proposed structural and methodological model that includes elements to stimulate and enhance cognitive activity, allows you to generate the trajectory of theoretical training of cadets for the entire period of study at the University, to organize a systematic independent work, objective, current and final control of theoretical knowledge. The structural and methodological model for improving the level of theoretical training consists of three main elements: the base of theoretical questions, functional modules "teacher" and "cadet". The basis of the structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is the base of theoretical issues, developed in all disciplines specialty 20.05.01 – fire safety. The functional module "teacher" allows you to create theoretical questions of various kinds, edit questions and delete them from the database if necessary, as well as create tests and monitor their implementation. The functional module "cadet" provides ample opportunities for theoretical training through independent work, testing for current and final control, the implementation of the game form of training in the form of a duel, as well as for the formation of the results of the cadets in the form of statistics and rankings. Structural and methodical model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is implemented in practice in the form of a multi-level automated system
NMR relaxation induced by iron oxide particles: testing theoretical models.
Gossuin, Y; Orlando, T; Basini, M; Henrard, D; Lascialfari, A; Mattea, C; Stapf, S; Vuong, Q L
2016-04-15
Superparamagnetic iron oxide particles find their main application as contrast agents for cellular and molecular magnetic resonance imaging. The contrast they bring is due to the shortening of the transverse relaxation time T 2 of water protons. In order to understand their influence on proton relaxation, different theoretical relaxation models have been developed, each of them presenting a certain validity domain, which depends on the particle characteristics and proton dynamics. The validation of these models is crucial since they allow for predicting the ideal particle characteristics for obtaining the best contrast but also because the fitting of T 1 experimental data by the theory constitutes an interesting tool for the characterization of the nanoparticles. In this work, T 2 of suspensions of iron oxide particles in different solvents and at different temperatures, corresponding to different proton diffusion properties, were measured and were compared to the three main theoretical models (the motional averaging regime, the static dephasing regime, and the partial refocusing model) with good qualitative agreement. However, a real quantitative agreement was not observed, probably because of the complexity of these nanoparticulate systems. The Roch theory, developed in the motional averaging regime (MAR), was also successfully used to fit T 1 nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion (NMRD) profiles, even outside the MAR validity range, and provided a good estimate of the particle size. On the other hand, the simultaneous fitting of T 1 and T 2 NMRD profiles by the theory was impossible, and this occurrence constitutes a clear limitation of the Roch model. Finally, the theory was shown to satisfactorily fit the deuterium T 1 NMRD profile of superparamagnetic particle suspensions in heavy water.
A Theoretical Model for Meaning Construction through Constructivist Concept Learning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Badie, Farshad
The central focus of this Ph.D. research is on ‘Logic and Cognition’ and, more specifically, this research covers the quintuple (Logic and Logical Philosophy, Philosophy of Education, Educational Psychology, Cognitive Science, Computer Science). The most significant contributions of this Ph.D. di...... of ‘learning’, ‘mentoring’, and ‘knowledge’ within learning and knowledge acquisition systems. Constructivism as an epistemology and as a model of knowing and, respectively as a theoretical model of learning builds up the central framework of this research........D. dissertation are conceptual, logical, terminological, and semantic analysis of Constructivist Concept Learning (specifically, in the context of humans’ interactions with their environment and with other agents). This dissertation is concerned with the specification of the conceptualisation of the phenomena...
Delayed hydride cracking: theoretical model testing to predict cracking velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mieza, Juan I.; Vigna, Gustavo L.; Domizzi, Gladys
2009-01-01
Pressure tubes from Candu nuclear reactors as any other component manufactured with Zr alloys are prone to delayed hydride cracking. That is why it is important to be able to predict the cracking velocity during the component lifetime from parameters easy to be measured, such as: hydrogen concentration, mechanical and microstructural properties. Two of the theoretical models reported in literature to calculate the DHC velocity were chosen and combined, and using the appropriate variables allowed a comparison with experimental results of samples from Zr-2.5 Nb tubes with different mechanical and structural properties. In addition, velocities measured by other authors in irradiated materials could be reproduced using the model described above. (author)
Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.
1985-01-01
Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate 12 C(α,γ) 16 O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs
Category-theoretic models of algebraic computer systems
Kovalyov, S. P.
2016-01-01
A computer system is said to be algebraic if it contains nodes that implement unconventional computation paradigms based on universal algebra. A category-based approach to modeling such systems that provides a theoretical basis for mapping tasks to these systems' architecture is proposed. The construction of algebraic models of general-purpose computations involving conditional statements and overflow control is formally described by a reflector in an appropriate category of algebras. It is proved that this reflector takes the modulo ring whose operations are implemented in the conventional arithmetic processors to the Łukasiewicz logic matrix. Enrichments of the set of ring operations that form bases in the Łukasiewicz logic matrix are found.
Theoretical model of intravascular paramagnetic tracers effect on tissue relaxation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G
2006-01-01
The concentration of MRI tracers cannot be measured directly by MRI and is commonly evaluated indirectly using their relaxation effect. This study develops a comprehensive theoretical model to describe the transverse relaxation in perfused tissue caused by intravascular tracers. The model takes...... into account a number of individual compartments. The signal dephasing is simulated in a semianalytical way by embedding Monte Carlo simulations in the framework of analytical theory. This approach yields a tool for fast, realistic simulation of the change in the transverse relaxation. The results indicate...... with bulk blood. The enhancement of relaxation in tissue is due to the contrast in magnetic susceptibility between blood vessels and parenchyma induced by the presence of paramagnetic tracer. Beyond the perfusion measurements, the results can be applied to quantitation of functional MRI and to vessel size...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cosgrove, C.M.
1980-01-01
We investigate the precise interrelationships between several recently developed solution-generating techniques capable of generating asymptotically flat gravitational solutions with arbitrary multipole parameters. The transformations we study in detail here are the Lie groups Q and Q of Cosgrove, the Hoenselaers--Kinnersley--Xanthopoulos (HKX) transformations and their SL(2) tensor generalizations, the Neugebauer--Kramer discrete mapping, the Neugebauer Baecklund transformations I 1 and I 2 , the Harrison Baecklund transformation, and the Belinsky--Zakharov (BZ) one- and two-soliton transformations. Two particular results, among many reported here, are that the BZ soliton transformations are essentially equivalent to Harrison transformations and that the generalized HKX transformation may be deduced as a confluent double soliton transformation. Explicit algebraic expressions are given for the transforms of the Kinnersley--Chitre generating functions under all of the above transformations. In less detail, we also study the Kinnersley--Chitre β transformations, the non-null HKX transformations, and the Hilbert problems proposed independently by Belinsky and Zakharov, and Hauser and Ernst. In conclusion, we describe the nature of the exact solutions constructible in a finite number of steps with the available methods
Pragmatic impact of workplace ostracism: toward a theoretical model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amer Ali Al-Atwi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to extend the ostracism literature by exploring the pragmatic impact of ostracism on performance. Design/methodology/approach - Ostracism workplace, social relations and empowerment structures are discussed. The paper then develops a theoretical framework that explains why and under what conditions workplace ostracism undermines employees’ performance. The author proposes that empowerment structures mediate the link between ostracism and in-role and extra-role performance. In addition, it was proposed that relational links buffer the negative relationship between ostracism and empowerment structures on performance and weaken the negative indirect effect of ostracism on performance. Findings - The theoretical arguments provide support for the model showing that empowerment structures mediate the relationship between ostracism and performance, and the mediation effect only occurred when external links were high but not when external links were low. Originality/value - The author has expanded the extant literature by answering recent calls for research exploring the pragmatic impact of workplace ostracism where past research has typically focused solely on the psychological impacts such as psychological needs.
Tesla Coil Theoretical Model and its Experimental Verification
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Voitkans Janis
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a theoretical model of Tesla coil operation is proposed. Tesla coil is described as a long line with distributed parameters in a single-wire form, where the line voltage is measured across electrically neutral space. By applying the principle of equivalence of single-wire and two-wire schemes an equivalent two-wire scheme can be found for a single-wire scheme and the already known long line theory can be applied to the Tesla coil. A new method of multiple reflections is developed to characterize a signal in a long line. Formulas for calculation of voltage in Tesla coil by coordinate and calculation of resonance frequencies are proposed. The theoretical calculations are verified experimentally. Resonance frequencies of Tesla coil are measured and voltage standing wave characteristics are obtained for different output capacities in the single-wire mode. Wave resistance and phase coefficient of Tesla coil is obtained. Experimental measurements show good compliance with the proposed theory. The formulas obtained in this paper are also usable for a regular two-wire long line with distributed parameters.
Probabilistic evaluation of process model matching techniques
Kuss, Elena; Leopold, Henrik; van der Aa, Han; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Reijers, Hajo A.
2016-01-01
Process model matching refers to the automatic identification of corresponding activities between two process models. It represents the basis for many advanced process model analysis techniques such as the identification of similar process parts or process model search. A central problem is how to
Model Checking Markov Chains: Techniques and Tools
Zapreev, I.S.
2008-01-01
This dissertation deals with four important aspects of model checking Markov chains: the development of efficient model-checking tools, the improvement of model-checking algorithms, the efficiency of the state-space reduction techniques, and the development of simulation-based model-checking
On a Numerical and Graphical Technique for Evaluating some Models Involving Rational Expectations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders Rygh
Campbell and Shiller (1987) proposed a graphical technique for the present value model which consists of plotting the spread and theoretical spread as calculated from the cointegrated vector autoregressive model. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give...
On a numerical and graphical technique for evaluating some models involving rational expectations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren; Swensen, Anders Rygh
Campbell and Shiller (1987) proposed a graphical technique for the present value model which consists of plotting the spread and theoretical spread as calculated from the cointegrated vector autoregressive model. We extend these techniques to a number of rational expectation models and give...
Theoretical Models of Deliberative Democracy: A Critical Analysis
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Tutui Viorel
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract: My paper focuses on presenting and analyzing some of the most important theoretical models of deliberative democracy and to emphasize their limits. Firstly, I will mention James Fishkin‟s account of deliberative democracy and its relations with other democratic models. He differentiates between four democratic theories: competitive democracy, elite deliberation, participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Each of these theories makes an explicit commitment to two of the following four “principles”: political equality, participation, deliberation, nontyranny. Deliberative democracy is committed to political equality and deliberation. Secondly, I will present Philip Pettit‟s view concerning the main constraints of deliberative democracy: the inclusion constraint, the judgmental constraint and the dialogical constraint. Thirdly, I will refer to Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson‟s conception regarding the “requirements” or characteristics of deliberative democracy: the reason-giving requirement, the accessibility of reasons, the binding character of the decisions and the dynamic nature of the deliberative process. Finally, I will discuss Joshua Cohen‟s “ideal deliberative procedure” which has the following features: it is free, reasoned, the parties are substantively equal and the procedure aims to arrive at rationally motivated consensus. After presenting these models I will provide a critical analysis of each one of them with the purpose of revealing their virtues and limits. I will make some suggestions in order to combine the virtues of these models, to transcend their limitations and to offer a more systematical account of deliberative democracy. In the next four sections I will take into consideration four main strategies for combining political and epistemic values (“optimistic”, “deliberative”, “democratic” and “pragmatic” and the main objections they have to face. In the concluding section
Examining Asymmetrical Relationships of Organizational Learning Antecedents: A Theoretical Model
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Ery Tri Djatmika
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Global era is characterized by highly competitive advantage market demand. Responding to the challenge of rapid environmental changes, organizational learning is becoming a strategic way and solution to empower people themselves within the organization in order to create a novelty as valuable positioning source. For research purposes, determining the influential antecedents that affect organizational learning is vital to understand research-based solutions given for practical implications. Accordingly, identification of variables examined by asymmetrical relationships is critical to establish. Possible antecedent variables come from organizational and personal point of views. It is also possible to include a moderating one. A proposed theoretical model of asymmetrical effects of organizational learning and its antecedents is discussed in this article.
Theoretical model for cavitation erosion prediction in centrifugal pump impeller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rayan, M.A.; Mahgob, M.M.; Mostafa, N.H.
1990-01-01
Cavitation is known to have great effects on pump hydraulic and mechanical characteristics. These effects are mainly described by deviation in pump performance, increasing vibration and noise level as well as erosion of blade and casing materials. In the present work, only the hydrodynamic aspect of cavitation was considered. The efforts were directed toward the study of cavitation inception, cavity mechanics and material erosion in order to clarify the macrohydrodynamic aspects of cavitation erosive wear in real machines. As a result of this study, it was found that cavitation damage can be predicted from model data. The obtained theoretical results show good agreement with the experimental results obtained in this investigation and with results of some other investigations. The application of the findings of this work will help the design engineer in predicting the erosion rate, according to the different operating conditions. (author)
Theoretical temperature model with experimental validation for CLIC Accelerating Structures
AUTHOR|(CDS)2126138; Vamvakas, Alex; Alme, Johan
Micron level stability of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) components is one of the main requirements to meet the luminosity goal for the future $48 \\,km$ long underground linear accelerator. The radio frequency (RF) power used for beam acceleration causes heat generation within the aligned structures, resulting in mechanical movements and structural deformations. A dedicated control of the air- and water- cooling system in the tunnel is therefore crucial to improve alignment accuracy. This thesis investigates the thermo-mechanical behavior of the CLIC Accelerating Structure (AS). In CLIC, the AS must be aligned to a precision of $10\\,\\mu m$. The thesis shows that a relatively simple theoretical model can be used within reasonable accuracy to predict the temperature response of an AS as a function of the applied RF power. During failure scenarios or maintenance interventions, the RF power is turned off resulting in no heat dissipation and decrease in the overall temperature of the components. The theoretica...
Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov model: a theoretical and numerical perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul, S.
2012-01-01
This work is devoted to the theoretical and numerical study of Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) theory for attractive quantum systems, which is one of the main methods in nuclear physics. We first present the model and its main properties, and then explain how to get numerical solutions. We prove some convergence results, in particular for the simple fixed point algorithm (sometimes called Roothaan). We show that it converges, or oscillates between two states, none of them being a solution. This generalizes to the HFB case previous results of Cances and Le Bris for the simpler Hartree-Fock model in the repulsive case. Following these authors, we also propose a relaxed constraint algorithm for which convergence is guaranteed. In the last part of the thesis, we illustrate the behavior of these algorithms by some numerical experiments. We first consider a system where the particles only interact through the Newton potential. Our numerical results show that the pairing matrix never vanishes, a fact that has not yet been proved rigorously. We then study a very simplified model for protons and neutrons in a nucleus. (author)
Modeling opinion dynamics: Theoretical analysis and continuous approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinasco, Juan Pablo; Semeshenko, Viktoriya; Balenzuela, Pablo
2017-01-01
Highlights: • We study a simple model of persuasion dynamics with long range pairwise interactions. • The continuous limit of the master equation is a nonlinear, nonlocal, first order partial differential equation. • We compute the analytical solutions to this equation, and compare them with the simulations of the dynamics. - Abstract: Frequently we revise our first opinions after talking over with other individuals because we get convinced. Argumentation is a verbal and social process aimed at convincing. It includes conversation and persuasion and the agreement is reached because the new arguments are incorporated. Given the wide range of opinion formation mathematical approaches, there are however no models of opinion dynamics with nonlocal pair interactions analytically solvable. In this paper we present a novel analytical framework developed to solve the master equations with non-local kernels. For this we used a simple model of opinion formation where individuals tend to get more similar after each interactions, no matter their opinion differences, giving rise to nonlinear differential master equation with non-local terms. Simulation results show an excellent agreement with results obtained by the theoretical estimation.
A theoretical intellectual capital model applied to cities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Luis Alfaro Navarro
2013-06-01
Full Text Available New Management Information Systems (MIS are necessary at local level as the main source of wealth creation. Therefore, tools and approaches that provide a full future vision of any organization should be a strategic priority for economic development. In this line, cities are “centers of knowledge and sources of growth and innovation” and integrated urban development policies are necessary. These policies support communication networks and optimize location structures as strategies that provide opportunities for social and democratic participation for the citizens. This paper proposes a theoretical model to measure and evaluate the cities intellectual capital that allows determine what we must take into account to make cities a source of wealth, prosperity, welfare and future growth. Furthermore, local intellectual capital provides a long run vision. Thus, in this paper we develop and explain how to implement a model to estimate intellectual capital in cities. In this sense, our proposal is to provide a model for measuring and managing intellectual capital using socio-economic indicators for cities. These indicators offer a long term picture supported by a comprehensive strategy for those who occupy the local space, infrastructure for implementation and management of the environment for its development.
A Production Model for Construction: A Theoretical Framework
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Ricardo Antunes
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The building construction industry faces challenges, such as increasing project complexity and scope requirements, but shorter deadlines. Additionally, economic uncertainty and rising business competition with a subsequent decrease in profit margins for the industry demands the development of new approaches to construction management. However, the building construction sector relies on practices based on intuition and experience, overlooking the dynamics of its production system. Furthermore, researchers maintain that the construction industry has no history of the application of mathematical approaches to model and manage production. Much work has been carried out on how manufacturing practices apply to construction projects, mostly lean principles. Nevertheless, there has been little research to understand the fundamental mechanisms of production in construction. This study develops an in-depth literature review to examine the existing knowledge about production models and their characteristics in order to establish a foundation for dynamic production systems management in construction. As a result, a theoretical framework is proposed, which will be instrumental in the future development of mathematical production models aimed at predicting the performance and behaviour of dynamic project-based systems in construction.
Advanced structural equation modeling issues and techniques
Marcoulides, George A
2013-01-01
By focusing primarily on the application of structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in example cases and situations, this book provides an understanding and working knowledge of advanced SEM techniques with a minimum of mathematical derivations. The book was written for a broad audience crossing many disciplines, assumes an understanding of graduate level multivariate statistics, including an introduction to SEM.
Theoretical models for asteroseismology of DA white dwarf stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bradley, P.A. [XTA, MS B220, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
1996-09-01
Because white dwarfs are the most common end state of stellar evolution, determining their internal structure will yield many clues about the final stages of stellar evolution and the physics of matter under extreme conditions. We present the results of our parametric survey of evolutionary models of compositionally stratified white dwarfs with hydrogen surface layers (DA white dwarfs) and provide a comprehensive set of theoretical {ital g}-mode pulsation periods for comparison to observations of pulsating DA white dwarfs. This survey complements the previous survey of helium atmosphere (DB) white dwarf periods of Bradley, Winget, & Wood. We show how to use the periods of low-overtone and/or trapped modes to constrain the internal structure of pulsating DA white dwarfs by utilizing their sensitivity to the total stellar mass and the location of the hydrogen/helium transition zone. We use G117-B15A as an example to demonstrate the potential of our models for asteroseismology; we suggest that G117-B15A has a mass of 0.55 {ital M}{sub {circle_dot}} and a hydrogen layer mass of {approx_equal}1.5{times}10{sup {minus}4} {ital M}{sub {asterisk}}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}
posttraumatic stress disorder: a theoretical model of the hyperarousal subtype
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Stewart Weston
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a frequent and distressing mental disorder, about which much remains to be learned. It is a heterogeneous disorder; the hyperarousal subtype (about 70% of occurrences and simply termed PTSD in this paper is the topic of this article, but the dissociative subtype (about 30% of occurrences and likely involving quite different brain mechanisms is outside its scope. A theoretical model is presented that integrates neuroscience data on diverse brain regions known to be involved in PTSD, and extensive psychiatric findings on the disorder. Specifically, the amygdala is a multifunctional brain region that is crucial to PTSD, and processes peritraumatic hyperarousal on grounded cognition principles to produce hyperarousal symptoms. Amygdala activity also modulates hippocampal function, which is supported by a large body of evidence, and likewise amygdala activity modulates several brainstem regions, visual cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC, to produce diverse startle, visual, memory, numbing, anger, and recklessness symptoms. Additional brain regions process other aspects of peritraumatic responses to produce further symptoms. These contentions are supported by neuroimaging, neuropsychological, neuroanatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral evidence. Collectively, the model offers an account of how responses at the time of trauma are transformed into an extensive array of the 20 PTSD symptoms that are specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition. It elucidates the neural mechanisms of a specific form of psychopathology, and accords with the Research Domain Criteria framework
Strengthening Theoretical Testing in Criminology Using Agent-based Modeling.
Johnson, Shane D; Groff, Elizabeth R
2014-07-01
The Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency ( JRCD ) has published important contributions to both criminological theory and associated empirical tests. In this article, we consider some of the challenges associated with traditional approaches to social science research, and discuss a complementary approach that is gaining popularity-agent-based computational modeling-that may offer new opportunities to strengthen theories of crime and develop insights into phenomena of interest. Two literature reviews are completed. The aim of the first is to identify those articles published in JRCD that have been the most influential and to classify the theoretical perspectives taken. The second is intended to identify those studies that have used an agent-based model (ABM) to examine criminological theories and to identify which theories have been explored. Ecological theories of crime pattern formation have received the most attention from researchers using ABMs, but many other criminological theories are amenable to testing using such methods. Traditional methods of theory development and testing suffer from a number of potential issues that a more systematic use of ABMs-not without its own issues-may help to overcome. ABMs should become another method in the criminologists toolbox to aid theory testing and falsification.
Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Modeling of Nanosilica Activity in Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han-Seung Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents experimental investigations and theoretical modeling of the hydration reaction of nanosilica blended concrete with different water-to-binder ratios and different nanosilica replacement ratios. The developments of chemically bound water contents, calcium hydroxide contents, and compressive strength of Portland cement control specimens and nanosilica blended specimens were measured at different ages: 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. Due to the pozzolanic reaction of nanosilica, the contents of calcium hydroxide in nanosilica blended pastes are considerably lower than those in the control specimens. Compared with the control specimens, the extent of compressive strength enhancement in the nanosilica blended specimens is much higher at early ages. Additionally, a blended cement hydration model that considers both the hydration reaction of cement and the pozzolanic reaction of nanosilica is proposed. The properties of nanosilica blended concrete during hardening were evaluated using the degree of hydration of cement and the reaction degree of nanosilica. The calculated chemically bound water contents, calcium hydroxide contents, and compressive strength were generally consistent with the experimental results.
Hospital nurses' wellbeing at work: a theoretical model.
Utriainen, Kati; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Kyngäs, Helvi
2015-09-01
To develop a theoretical model of hospital nurses' wellbeing at work. The concept of wellbeing at work is presented without an exact definition and without considering different contents. A model was developed in a deductive manner and empirical data collected from nurses (n = 233) working in a university hospital. Explorative factor analysis was used. The main concepts were: patients' experience of high-quality care; assistance and support among nurses; nurses' togetherness and cooperation; fluent practical organisation of work; challenging and meaningful work; freedom to express diverse feelings in the work community; well-conducted everyday nursing; status related to the work itself; fair and supportive leadership; opportunities for professional development; fluent communication with other professionals; and being together with other nurses in an informal way. Themes included: collegial relationships; enhancing high-quality patient care; supportive and fair leadership; challenging, meaningful and well organised work; and opportunities for professional development. Object-dependent wellbeing was supported. Managers should focus on strengthening the positive aspect of wellbeing at work, focusing on providing fluently organised work practices, fair and supportive leadership and togetherness while allowing nurses to implement their own ideas and promote the experience of meaningfulness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A theoretical model for analysing gender bias in medicine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Johansson Eva E
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract During the last decades research has reported unmotivated differences in the treatment of women and men in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. There is an ongoing discussion on how to avoid such gender bias. We developed a three-step-theoretical model to understand how gender bias in medicine can occur and be understood. In this paper we present the model and discuss its usefulness in the efforts to avoid gender bias. In the model gender bias is analysed in relation to assumptions concerning difference/sameness and equity/inequity between women and men. Our model illustrates that gender bias in medicine can arise from assuming sameness and/or equity between women and men when there are genuine differences to consider in biology and disease, as well as in life conditions and experiences. However, gender bias can also arise from assuming differences when there are none, when and if dichotomous stereotypes about women and men are understood as valid. This conceptual thinking can be useful for discussing and avoiding gender bias in clinical work, medical education, career opportunities and documents such as research programs and health care policies. Too meet the various forms of gender bias, different facts and measures are needed. Knowledge about biological differences between women and men will not reduce bias caused by gendered stereotypes or by unawareness of health problems and discrimination associated with gender inequity. Such bias reflects unawareness of gendered attitudes and will not change by facts only. We suggest consciousness-rising activities and continuous reflections on gender attitudes among students, teachers, researchers and decision-makers.
A theoretical model for analysing gender bias in medicine.
Risberg, Gunilla; Johansson, Eva E; Hamberg, Katarina
2009-08-03
During the last decades research has reported unmotivated differences in the treatment of women and men in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. There is an ongoing discussion on how to avoid such gender bias. We developed a three-step-theoretical model to understand how gender bias in medicine can occur and be understood. In this paper we present the model and discuss its usefulness in the efforts to avoid gender bias. In the model gender bias is analysed in relation to assumptions concerning difference/sameness and equity/inequity between women and men. Our model illustrates that gender bias in medicine can arise from assuming sameness and/or equity between women and men when there are genuine differences to consider in biology and disease, as well as in life conditions and experiences. However, gender bias can also arise from assuming differences when there are none, when and if dichotomous stereotypes about women and men are understood as valid. This conceptual thinking can be useful for discussing and avoiding gender bias in clinical work, medical education, career opportunities and documents such as research programs and health care policies. Too meet the various forms of gender bias, different facts and measures are needed. Knowledge about biological differences between women and men will not reduce bias caused by gendered stereotypes or by unawareness of health problems and discrimination associated with gender inequity. Such bias reflects unawareness of gendered attitudes and will not change by facts only. We suggest consciousness-rising activities and continuous reflections on gender attitudes among students, teachers, researchers and decision-makers.
Theoretical Modelling Methods for Thermal Management of Batteries
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Bahman Shabani
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The main challenge associated with renewable energy generation is the intermittency of the renewable source of power. Because of this, back-up generation sources fuelled by fossil fuels are required. In stationary applications whether it is a back-up diesel generator or connection to the grid, these systems are yet to be truly emissions-free. One solution to the problem is the utilisation of electrochemical energy storage systems (ESS to store the excess renewable energy and then reusing this energy when the renewable energy source is insufficient to meet the demand. The performance of an ESS amongst other things is affected by the design, materials used and the operating temperature of the system. The operating temperature is critical since operating an ESS at low ambient temperatures affects its capacity and charge acceptance while operating the ESS at high ambient temperatures affects its lifetime and suggests safety risks. Safety risks are magnified in renewable energy storage applications given the scale of the ESS required to meet the energy demand. This necessity has propelled significant effort to model the thermal behaviour of ESS. Understanding and modelling the thermal behaviour of these systems is a crucial consideration before designing an efficient thermal management system that would operate safely and extend the lifetime of the ESS. This is vital in order to eliminate intermittency and add value to renewable sources of power. This paper concentrates on reviewing theoretical approaches used to simulate the operating temperatures of ESS and the subsequent endeavours of modelling thermal management systems for these systems. The intent of this review is to present some of the different methods of modelling the thermal behaviour of ESS highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each approach.
Verification of Orthogrid Finite Element Modeling Techniques
Steeve, B. E.
1996-01-01
The stress analysis of orthogrid structures, specifically with I-beam sections, is regularly performed using finite elements. Various modeling techniques are often used to simplify the modeling process but still adequately capture the actual hardware behavior. The accuracy of such 'Oshort cutso' is sometimes in question. This report compares three modeling techniques to actual test results from a loaded orthogrid panel. The finite element models include a beam, shell, and mixed beam and shell element model. Results show that the shell element model performs the best, but that the simpler beam and beam and shell element models provide reasonable to conservative results for a stress analysis. When deflection and stiffness is critical, it is important to capture the effect of the orthogrid nodes in the model.
A Strategy Modelling Technique for Financial Services
Heinrich, Bernd; Winter, Robert
2004-01-01
Strategy planning processes often suffer from a lack of conceptual models that can be used to represent business strategies in a structured and standardized form. If natural language is replaced by an at least semi-formal model, the completeness, consistency, and clarity of strategy descriptions can be drastically improved. A strategy modelling technique is proposed that is based on an analysis of modelling requirements, a discussion of related work and a critical analysis of generic approach...
Empirical STORM-E Model. [I. Theoretical and Observational Basis
Mertens, Christopher J.; Xu, Xiaojing; Bilitza, Dieter; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III
2013-01-01
Auroral nighttime infrared emission observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite is used to develop an empirical model of geomagnetic storm enhancements to E-region peak electron densities. The empirical model is called STORM-E and will be incorporated into the 2012 release of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI). The proxy for characterizing the E-region response to geomagnetic forcing is NO+(v) volume emission rates (VER) derived from the TIMED/SABER 4.3 lm channel limb radiance measurements. The storm-time response of the NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER is sensitive to auroral particle precipitation. A statistical database of storm-time to climatological quiet-time ratios of SABER-observed NO+(v) 4.3 lm VER are fit to widely available geomagnetic indices using the theoretical framework of linear impulse-response theory. The STORM-E model provides a dynamic storm-time correction factor to adjust a known quiescent E-region electron density peak concentration for geomagnetic enhancements due to auroral particle precipitation. Part II of this series describes the explicit development of the empirical storm-time correction factor for E-region peak electron densities, and shows comparisons of E-region electron densities between STORM-E predictions and incoherent scatter radar measurements. In this paper, Part I of the series, the efficacy of using SABER-derived NO+(v) VER as a proxy for the E-region response to solar-geomagnetic disturbances is presented. Furthermore, a detailed description of the algorithms and methodologies used to derive NO+(v) VER from SABER 4.3 lm limb emission measurements is given. Finally, an assessment of key uncertainties in retrieving NO+(v) VER is presented
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling: ensuring continued growth and future leadership.
Nishiura, Hiroshi; Rietman, Edward A; Wu, Rongling
2013-07-11
Theoretical biology encompasses a broad range of biological disciplines ranging from mathematical biology and biomathematics to philosophy of biology. Adopting a broad definition of "biology", Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling, an open access journal, considers original research studies that focus on theoretical ideas and models associated with developments in biology and medicine.
A Game-Theoretic Model of Marketing Skin Whiteners.
Mendoza, Roger Lee
2015-01-01
Empirical studies consistently find that people in less developed countries tend to regard light or "white" skin, particularly among women, as more desirable or superior. This is a study about the marketing of skin whiteners in these countries, where over 80 percent of users are typically women. It proceeds from the following premises: a) Purely market or policy-oriented approaches toward the risks and harms of skin whitening are cost-inefficient; b) Psychosocial and informational factors breed uninformed and risky consumer choices that favor toxic skin whiteners; and c) Proliferation of toxic whiteners in a competitive buyer's market raises critical supplier accountability issues. Is intentional tort a rational outcome of uncooperative game equilibria? Can voluntary cooperation nonetheless evolve between buyers and sellers of skin whiteners? These twin questions are key to addressing the central paradox in this study: A robust and expanding buyer's market, where cheap whitening products abound at a high risk to personal and societal health and safety. Game-theoretic modeling of two-player and n-player strategic interactions is proposed in this study for both its explanatory and predictive value. Therein also lie its practical contributions to the economic literature on skin whitening.
Finite element methods for engineering sciences. Theoretical approach and problem solving techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaskalovic, J. [Ariel University Center of Samaria (Israel); Pierre and Marie Curie (Paris VI) Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Jean le Rond d' Alembert
2008-07-01
This self-tutorial offers a concise yet thorough grounding in the mathematics necessary for successfully applying FEMs to practical problems in science and engineering. The unique approach first summarizes and outlines the finite-element mathematics in general and then, in the second and major part, formulates problem examples that clearly demonstrate the techniques of functional analysis via numerous and diverse exercises. The solutions of the problems are given directly afterwards. Using this approach, the author motivates and encourages the reader to actively acquire the knowledge of finite- element methods instead of passively absorbing the material, as in most standard textbooks. The enlarged English-language edition, based on the original French, also contains a chapter on the approximation steps derived from the description of nature with differential equations and then applied to the specific model to be used. Furthermore, an introduction to tensor calculus using distribution theory offers further insight for readers with different mathematical backgrounds. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Navarro Ahumada, Gustavo Adolfo
2001-01-01
This thesis discusses the general problem of the radiation-matter interaction in the case of a family of crystals known as elpasolites, which belong to the spatial group FM3M(O 5 H ). These systems present complications, from a theoretical as well as experimental point of view. The study was carried out in stoichiometric elpasolite type systems, characterized by empirical formulas of the general type Cs2NaLnCl 6 where Ln is a lanthanide of the first series of internal transition with electronic configurations for the trivalent state (Ln +3 ) of the form ∫ 1 → ∫ 13 . An analysis of the atomic spectra for these gaseous phase ions shows a diversity of permitted states, due to relativistic and non relativistic effects. Systems with positive trivalent lanthanide ions of the form Dy 3+ (∫ 9 ), Ho 3+ (∫ 10 ) y Er 3+ (∫ 11 ) have been selected at the level of the stoichiometric elpasolites and are characterized by complex energetic spectra. A careful experimental study of the emission states suggests that the elpasolite of Er 3+ is interesting, and its study is very relevant. The assignments and identifications of the peaks, during absorption as well as during emission, are more precise for the configuration Er 3+ , and careful studies show that fluorescence between terminal states with the rule of selection for the total orbital angular momentum:ΔJ = 6 is observed for this system. A declining cascade that can reasonably explain the unsuspected related spectral intensity, in the order of 10-9, is presented and suggested although a value was predicted for the electric dipolar force of lesser than 4 orders of magnitude what was observed. This problem is discussed and a mechanism is proposed for spectral intensities associated with two emissions characterized by ΔJ = 4 (electric hexadecapole) and ΔJ = 2 (electric cuadrupole). The laboratory tests made, include synthesis by solid state reactions of Dy 3+ and Ho 3+ , type elpasolites, structural characterization
Audiovisual Rehabilitation in Hemianopia: A Model-Based Theoretical Investigation.
Magosso, Elisa; Cuppini, Cristiano; Bertini, Caterina
2017-01-01
stimuli into short-latency saccades, possibly moving the stimuli into visual detection regions. The retina-SC-extrastriate circuit is related to restitutive effects: visual stimuli can directly elicit visual detection with no need for eye movements. Model predictions and assumptions are critically discussed in view of existing behavioral and neurophysiological data, forecasting that other oculomotor compensatory mechanisms, beyond short-latency saccades, are likely involved, and stimulating future experimental and theoretical investigations.
Model techniques for testing heated concrete structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stefanou, G.D.
1983-01-01
Experimental techniques are described which may be used in the laboratory to measure strains of model concrete structures representing to scale actual structures of any shape or geometry, operating at elevated temperatures, for which time-dependent creep and shrinkage strains are dominant. These strains could be used to assess the distribution of stress in the scaled structure and hence to predict the actual behaviour of concrete structures used in nuclear power stations. Similar techniques have been employed in an investigation to measure elastic, thermal, creep and shrinkage strains in heated concrete models representing to scale parts of prestressed concrete pressure vessels for nuclear reactors. (author)
Inference of ICF Implosion Core Mix using Experimental Data and Theoretical Mix Modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welser-Sherrill, L.; Haynes, D.A.; Mancini, R.C.; Cooley, J.H.; Tommasini, R.; Golovkin, I.E.; Sherrill, M.E.; Haan, S.W.
2009-01-01
The mixing between fuel and shell materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosion cores is a current topic of interest. The goal of this work was to design direct-drive ICF experiments which have varying levels of mix, and subsequently to extract information on mixing directly from the experimental data using spectroscopic techniques. The experimental design was accomplished using hydrodynamic simulations in conjunction with Haan's saturation model, which was used to predict the mix levels of candidate experimental configurations. These theoretical predictions were then compared to the mixing information which was extracted from the experimental data, and it was found that Haan's mix model performed well in predicting trends in the width of the mix layer. With these results, we have contributed to an assessment of the range of validity and predictive capability of the Haan saturation model, as well as increased our confidence in the methods used to extract mixing information from experimental data.
GSTARS computer models and their applications, part I: theoretical development
Yang, C.T.; Simoes, F.J.M.
2008-01-01
GSTARS is a series of computer models developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation for alluvial river and reservoir sedimentation studies while the authors were employed by that agency. The first version of GSTARS was released in 1986 using Fortran IV for mainframe computers. GSTARS 2.0 was released in 1998 for personal computer application with most of the code in the original GSTARS revised, improved, and expanded using Fortran IV/77. GSTARS 2.1 is an improved and revised GSTARS 2.0 with graphical user interface. The unique features of all GSTARS models are the conjunctive use of the stream tube concept and of the minimum stream power theory. The application of minimum stream power theory allows the determination of optimum channel geometry with variable channel width and cross-sectional shape. The use of the stream tube concept enables the simulation of river hydraulics using one-dimensional numerical solutions to obtain a semi-two- dimensional presentation of the hydraulic conditions along and across an alluvial channel. According to the stream tube concept, no water or sediment particles can cross the walls of stream tubes, which is valid for many natural rivers. At and near sharp bends, however, sediment particles may cross the boundaries of stream tubes. GSTARS3, based on FORTRAN 90/95, addresses this phenomenon and further expands the capabilities of GSTARS 2.1 for cohesive and non-cohesive sediment transport in rivers and reservoirs. This paper presents the concepts, methods, and techniques used to develop the GSTARS series of computer models, especially GSTARS3. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.
Numerical modeling techniques for flood analysis
Anees, Mohd Talha; Abdullah, K.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Piah, Abd. Rahni Mt.; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Syakir, M. I.; Mohd. Omar, A. K.
2016-12-01
Topographic and climatic changes are the main causes of abrupt flooding in tropical areas. It is the need to find out exact causes and effects of these changes. Numerical modeling techniques plays a vital role for such studies due to their use of hydrological parameters which are strongly linked with topographic changes. In this review, some of the widely used models utilizing hydrological and river modeling parameters and their estimation in data sparse region are discussed. Shortcomings of 1D and 2D numerical models and the possible improvements over these models through 3D modeling are also discussed. It is found that the HEC-RAS and FLO 2D model are best in terms of economical and accurate flood analysis for river and floodplain modeling respectively. Limitations of FLO 2D in floodplain modeling mainly such as floodplain elevation differences and its vertical roughness in grids were found which can be improve through 3D model. Therefore, 3D model was found to be more suitable than 1D and 2D models in terms of vertical accuracy in grid cells. It was also found that 3D models for open channel flows already developed recently but not for floodplain. Hence, it was suggested that a 3D model for floodplain should be developed by considering all hydrological and high resolution topographic parameter's models, discussed in this review, to enhance the findings of causes and effects of flooding.
Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, Moiz; Yousefi, Siavash; Xing, Lei; Xiang, Liangzhong
2015-01-01
Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1–10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3–30 × 10 6 per pulse, with 30–800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. Conclusions: The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton-acoustic range
Theoretical detection threshold of the proton-acoustic range verification technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmad, Moiz; Yousefi, Siavash; Xing, Lei, E-mail: lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Xiang, Liangzhong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019-1101 (United States)
2015-10-15
Purpose: Range verification in proton therapy using the proton-acoustic signal induced in the Bragg peak was investigated for typical clinical scenarios. The signal generation and detection processes were simulated in order to determine the signal-to-noise limits. Methods: An analytical model was used to calculate the dose distribution and local pressure rise (per proton) for beams of different energy (100 and 160 MeV) and spot widths (1, 5, and 10 mm) in a water phantom. In this method, the acoustic waves propagating from the Bragg peak were generated by the general 3D pressure wave equation implemented using a finite element method. Various beam pulse widths (0.1–10 μs) were simulated by convolving the acoustic waves with Gaussian kernels. A realistic PZT ultrasound transducer (5 cm diameter) was simulated with a Butterworth bandpass filter with consideration of random noise based on a model of thermal noise in the transducer. The signal-to-noise ratio on a per-proton basis was calculated, determining the minimum number of protons required to generate a detectable pulse. The maximum spatial resolution of the proton-acoustic imaging modality was also estimated from the signal spectrum. Results: The calculated noise in the transducer was 12–28 mPa, depending on the transducer central frequency (70–380 kHz). The minimum number of protons detectable by the technique was on the order of 3–30 × 10{sup 6} per pulse, with 30–800 mGy dose per pulse at the Bragg peak. Wider pulses produced signal with lower acoustic frequencies, with 10 μs pulses producing signals with frequency less than 100 kHz. Conclusions: The proton-acoustic process was simulated using a realistic model and the minimal detection limit was established for proton-acoustic range validation. These limits correspond to a best case scenario with a single large detector with no losses and detector thermal noise as the sensitivity limiting factor. Our study indicated practical proton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, A.M.; Timon, V.; Cubero, J. J.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Gutierrez-Nebot, L.; Martinez, J. J.; Romero, C.; Labajo, M.; Melon, A.; Barrios, I.
2013-01-01
New data about the physico-chemical, microstructural and crystal-chemical properties of the mineral paligorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Caceres, Spain) were obtained by a combination of experimental techniques (XRD, FRX, FTIR, TG-DSC, SEM and chemical analyses), as well as geometry optimization by means of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). This study demonstrates the applicability of the mixed theoretical-experimental work to characterize and understand the properties of clay minerals used in technological applications and environmental remediation. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez, A.M.; Timon, V.; Cubero, J. J.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Gutierrez-Nebot, L.; Martinez, J. J.; Romero, C.; Labajo, M.; Melon, A.; Barrios, I.
2013-10-01
New data about the physico-chemical, microstructural and crystal-chemical properties of the mineral paligorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Caceres, Spain) were obtained by a combination of experimental techniques (XRD, FRX, FTIR, TG-DSC, SEM and chemical analyses), as well as geometry optimization by means of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). This study demonstrates the applicability of the mixed theoretical-experimental work to characterize and understand the properties of clay minerals used in technological applications and environmental remediation. (Author)
Fatigue behavior of ULTIMETRTM alloy: Experiment and theoretical modeling
Jiang, Liang
ULTIMETRTM alloy is a commercial Co-26Cr-9Ni (weight percent) superalloy, which possesses excellent resistance to both wear and corrosion. In order to extend the structural applications of this alloy and improve the fundamental understanding of the fatigue damage mechanisms, stress- and strain-controlled fatigue tests were performed at various temperatures and in different environments. The stress- and strain-life data were developed for the structural design and engineering applications of this material. Fractographic studies characterized the crack-initiation and propagation behavior of the alloy. Microstructure evolution during fatigue was revealed by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Specifically, it was found that the metastable face-centered-cubic structure of this alloy in the as-received condition could be transformed into a hexagonal-close-packed structure either under the action of plastic deformation at room temperature, or due to the aging and cyclic deformation at intermediate temperatures. This interesting observation constructed a sound basis for the alloy development. The dominant mechanisms, which control the fatigue behavior of ULTIMET alloy, were characterized. High-speed, high-resolution infrared (IR) thermography, as a non-contact, full-field, and nondestructive technique, was used to characterize the damage during fatigue. The temperature variations during each fatigue cycle, which were due to the thermal-elastic-plastic effect, were observed and related to stress-strain analyses. The temperature evolution during fatigue manifested the cumulative fatigue damage process. A constitutive model was developed to predict thermal and mechanical responses of ULTIMET alloy subjected to cyclic deformation. The predicted cyclic stress-strain responses and temperature variations were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. In addition, a fatigue life prediction model was developed
Optimal pacing strategy: from theoretical modelling to reality in 1500-m speed skating.
Hettinga, F J; De Koning, J J; Schmidt, L J I; Wind, N A C; Macintosh, B R; Foster, C
2011-01-01
Athletes are trained to choose the pace which is perceived to be correct during a specific effort, such as the 1500-m speed skating competition. The purpose of the present study was to "override" self-paced (SP) performance by instructing athletes to execute a theoretically optimal pacing profile. Seven national-level speed-skaters performed a SP 1500-m which was analysed by obtaining velocity (every 100 m) and body position (every 200 m) with video to calculate total mechanical power output. Together with gross efficiency and aerobic kinetics, obtained in separate trials, data were used to calculate aerobic and anaerobic power output profiles. An energy flow model was applied to SP, simulating a range of pacing strategies, and a theoretically optimal pacing profile was imposed in a second race (IM). Final time for IM was ∼2 s slower than SP. Total power distribution per lap differed, with a higher power over the first 300 m for IM (637.0 (49.4) vs 612.5 (50.0) W). Anaerobic parameters did not differ. The faster first lap resulted in a higher aerodynamic drag coefficient and perhaps a less effective push-off. Experienced athletes have a well-developed performance template, and changing pacing strategy towards a theoretically optimal fast start protocol had negative consequences on speed-skating technique and did not result in better performance.
Determining Student Competency in Field Placements: An Emerging Theoretical Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Twyla L. Salm
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a qualitative case study that explores how twenty-three field advisors, representing three human service professions including education, nursing, and social work, experience the process of assessment with students who are struggling to meet minimum competencies in field placements. Five themes emerged from the analysis of qualitative interviews. The field advisors primary concern was the level of professional competency achieved by practicum students. Related to competency were themes concerned with the field advisor's role in being accountable and protecting the reputation of his/her profession as well as the reputation of the professional program affiliated with the practicum student's professional education. The final theme – teacher-student relationship –emerged from the data, both as a stand-alone and global or umbrella theme. As an umbrella theme, teacher-student relationship permeated each of the other themes as the participants interpreted their experiences of the process of assessment through the mentor relationships. A theoretical model was derived from these findings and the description of the model is presented. Cet article décrit une étude de cas qualitative qui explore comment vingt-trois conseillers de stages, représentant trois professions de services sociaux comprenant l’éducation, les soins infirmiers et le travail social, ont vécu l’expérience du processus d’évaluation avec des étudiants qui ont des difficultés à acquérir les compétences minimales durant les stages. Cinq thèmes ont été identifiés lors de l’analyse des entrevues qualitatives. La préoccupation principale des conseillers de stages était le niveau de compétence professionnelle acquis par les stagiaires. Les thèmes liés à la compétence étaient le rôle des conseillers de stages dans leur responsabilité pour protéger la réputation de leur profession ainsi que la réputation d’un programme professionnel
Marrella, Alessandra; Aiello, Maurizio; Quarto, Rodolfo; Scaglione, Silvia
2016-10-01
Porous multiphase scaffolds have been proposed in different tissue engineering applications because of their potential to artificially recreate the heterogeneous structure of hierarchically complex tissues. Recently, graded scaffolds have been also realized, offering a continuum at the interface among different phases for an enhanced structural stability of the scaffold. However, their internal architecture is often obtained empirically and the architectural parameters rarely predetermined. The aim of this work is to offer a theoretical model as tool for the design and fabrication of functional and structural complex graded scaffolds with predicted morphological and chemical features, to overcome the time-consuming trial and error experimental method. This developed mathematical model uses laws of motions, Stokes equations, and viscosity laws to describe the dependence between centrifugation speed and fiber/particles sedimentation velocity over time, which finally affects the fiber packing, and thus the total porosity of the 3D scaffolds. The efficacy of the theoretical model was tested by realizing engineered graded grafts for osteochondral tissue engineering applications. The procedure, based on combined centrifugation and freeze-drying technique, was applied on both polycaprolactone (PCL) and collagen-type-I (COL) to test the versatility of the entire process. A functional gradient was combined to the morphological one by adding hydroxyapatite (HA) powders, to mimic the bone mineral phase. Results show that 3D bioactive morphologically and chemically graded grafts can be properly designed and realized in agreement with the theoretical model. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2286-2297. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Structural Modeling Using "Scanning and Mapping" Technique
Amos, Courtney L.; Dash, Gerald S.; Shen, J. Y.; Ferguson, Frederick; Noga, Donald F. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
Supported by NASA Glenn Center, we are in the process developing a structural damage diagnostic and monitoring system for rocket engines, which consists of five modules: Structural Modeling, Measurement Data Pre-Processor, Structural System Identification, Damage Detection Criterion, and Computer Visualization. The function of the system is to detect damage as it is incurred by the engine structures. The scientific principle to identify damage is to utilize the changes in the vibrational properties between the pre-damaged and post-damaged structures. The vibrational properties of the pre-damaged structure can be obtained based on an analytic computer model of the structure. Thus, as the first stage of the whole research plan, we currently focus on the first module - Structural Modeling. Three computer software packages are selected, and will be integrated for this purpose. They are PhotoModeler-Pro, AutoCAD-R14, and MSC/NASTRAN. AutoCAD is the most popular PC-CAD system currently available in the market. For our purpose, it plays like an interface to generate structural models of any particular engine parts or assembly, which is then passed to MSC/NASTRAN for extracting structural dynamic properties. Although AutoCAD is a powerful structural modeling tool, the complexity of engine components requires a further improvement in structural modeling techniques. We are working on a so-called "scanning and mapping" technique, which is a relatively new technique. The basic idea is to producing a full and accurate 3D structural model by tracing on multiple overlapping photographs taken from different angles. There is no need to input point positions, angles, distances or axes. Photographs can be taken by any types of cameras with different lenses. With the integration of such a modeling technique, the capability of structural modeling will be enhanced. The prototypes of any complex structural components will be produced by PhotoModeler first based on existing similar
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alvaro Ruíz-Baltazar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this research, the adsorption capacity of Ag nanoparticles on natural zeolite from Oaxaca is presented. In order to describe the adsorption mechanism of silver nanoparticles on zeolite, experimental adsorption models for Ag ions and Ag nanoparticles were carried out. These experimental data obtained by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique were compared with theoretical models such as Lagergren first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion. Correlation factors R2 of the order of 0.99 were observed. Analysis by transmission electron microscopy describes the distribution of the silver nanoparticles on the zeolite outer surface. Additionally, a chemical characterization of the material was carried out through a dilution process with lithium metaborate. An average value of 9.3 in the Si/Al ratio was observed. Factors such as the adsorption behavior of the silver ions and the Si/Al ratio of the zeolite are very important to support the theoretical models and establish the adsorption mechanism of Ag nanoparticles on natural zeolite.
Theoretical Modeling of the Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Activity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Novák, Vít; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Bouř, Petr
2012-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 1714-1720 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/11/0105; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : vibrational spectroscopy * absolute-configuration * silver electrode * spectra * scattering * pyridine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.389, year: 2012
Models of Educational Attainment: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique
Byrne, D. S.; And Others
1973-01-01
Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)
A new theoretical model for scattering of electrons by molecules. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peixoto, E.M.A.; Mu-tao, L.; Nogueira, J.C.
1975-01-01
A new theoretical model for electron-molecule scattering is suggested. The e-H 2 scattering is studied and the superiority of the new model over the commonly used Independent Atom Model (IAM) is demonstrated. Comparing theoretical and experimental data for 40keV electrons scattered by H 2 utilizing the new model, its validity is proved, while Partial Wave and First Born calculations, employing the Independent Atom Model, strongly deviated from the experiment [pt
Zhumasheva, Anara; Zhumabaeva, Zaida; Sakenov, Janat; Vedilina, Yelena; Zhaxylykova, Nuriya; Sekenova, Balkumis
2016-01-01
The current study focuses on the research topic of creating a theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses. In order to examine specific features of the theoretical model of development of information competence among students enrolled in elective courses, we performed an analysis of…
Theoretical model of gravitational perturbation of current collector axisymmetric flow field
Walker, John S.; Brown, Samuel H.; Sondergaard, Neal A.
1990-05-01
Some designs of liquid-metal current collectors in homopolar motors and generators are essentially rotating liquid-metal fluids in cylindrical channels with free surfaces and will, at critical rotational speeds, become unstable. An investigation at David Taylor Research Center is being performed to understand the role of gravity in modifying this ejection instability. Some gravitational effects can be theoretically treated by perturbation techniques on the axisymmetric base flow of the liquid metal. This leads to a modification of previously calculated critical-current-collector ejection values neglecting gravity effects. The purpose of this paper is to document the derivation of the mathematical model which determines the perturbation of the liquid-metal base flow due to gravitational effects. Since gravity is a small force compared with the centrifugal effects, the base flow solutions can be expanded in inverse powers of the Froude number and modified liquid-flow profiles can be determined as a function of the azimuthal angle. This model will be used in later work to theoretically study the effects of gravity on the ejection point of the current collector.
Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jirauschek, Christian [Institute for Nanoelectronics, Technische Universität München, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Kubis, Tillmann [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue University, 207 S Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
2014-03-15
Quantum cascade lasers are unipolar semiconductor lasers covering a wide range of the infrared and terahertz spectrum. Lasing action is achieved by using optical intersubband transitions between quantized states in specifically designed multiple-quantum-well heterostructures. A systematic improvement of quantum cascade lasers with respect to operating temperature, efficiency, and spectral range requires detailed modeling of the underlying physical processes in these structures. Moreover, the quantum cascade laser constitutes a versatile model device for the development and improvement of simulation techniques in nano- and optoelectronics. This review provides a comprehensive survey and discussion of the modeling techniques used for the simulation of quantum cascade lasers. The main focus is on the modeling of carrier transport in the nanostructured gain medium, while the simulation of the optical cavity is covered at a more basic level. Specifically, the transfer matrix and finite difference methods for solving the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation and Schrödinger-Poisson system are discussed, providing the quantized states in the multiple-quantum-well active region. The modeling of the optical cavity is covered with a focus on basic waveguide resonator structures. Furthermore, various carrier transport simulation methods are discussed, ranging from basic empirical approaches to advanced self-consistent techniques. The methods include empirical rate equation and related Maxwell-Bloch equation approaches, self-consistent rate equation and ensemble Monte Carlo methods, as well as quantum transport approaches, in particular the density matrix and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The derived scattering rates and self-energies are generally valid for n-type devices based on one-dimensional quantum confinement, such as quantum well structures.
Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers
Jirauschek, Christian; Kubis, Tillmann
2014-03-01
Quantum cascade lasers are unipolar semiconductor lasers covering a wide range of the infrared and terahertz spectrum. Lasing action is achieved by using optical intersubband transitions between quantized states in specifically designed multiple-quantum-well heterostructures. A systematic improvement of quantum cascade lasers with respect to operating temperature, efficiency, and spectral range requires detailed modeling of the underlying physical processes in these structures. Moreover, the quantum cascade laser constitutes a versatile model device for the development and improvement of simulation techniques in nano- and optoelectronics. This review provides a comprehensive survey and discussion of the modeling techniques used for the simulation of quantum cascade lasers. The main focus is on the modeling of carrier transport in the nanostructured gain medium, while the simulation of the optical cavity is covered at a more basic level. Specifically, the transfer matrix and finite difference methods for solving the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation and Schrödinger-Poisson system are discussed, providing the quantized states in the multiple-quantum-well active region. The modeling of the optical cavity is covered with a focus on basic waveguide resonator structures. Furthermore, various carrier transport simulation methods are discussed, ranging from basic empirical approaches to advanced self-consistent techniques. The methods include empirical rate equation and related Maxwell-Bloch equation approaches, self-consistent rate equation and ensemble Monte Carlo methods, as well as quantum transport approaches, in particular the density matrix and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The derived scattering rates and self-energies are generally valid for n-type devices based on one-dimensional quantum confinement, such as quantum well structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourgeois, D.J. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)
2008-07-01
Heavy oil has a high viscosity and a low API gravity rating. Since it is difficult to get a fluid of this nature to flow, enhanced oil recovery techniques are required to extract the oil from the reservoir. Thermal recovery strategies such as steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam injection stimulation (CSS) can be used. These techniques involve injecting steam into a formation which heats up the fluid in place decreasing its viscosity and allowing it to flow into the producing well bore. In order to maximize hydrocarbon recovery from this type of geological environment, the placement of the horizontal production well bore relative to the base of the reservoir is important. In conventional oil and gas plays, well placement methods involving directional deep resistivity logging while drilling (DDR-LWD) measurements to map formation contacts while drilling have enabled wells to be placed relative to formation boundaries. This paper discussed a study that presented some theoretical resistivity inversion and forward modeling results generated from a three-dimensional geocellular model to confirm that this evolving DDR-LWD technology may be applicable to western Canada's Athabasca heavy oil drilling environments. The paper discussed the effect of well bore position, thermal recovery, and pro-active well placement. Resistivity modeling work flow was also presented. It was concluded that being able to drill a horizontal production well relative to the base of the formation could help minimize abandoned oil ultimately leading to better recovery. 4 refs., 8 figs.
Ponten, S.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Hillebrand, A.; Stam, C.J.
2010-01-01
We investigated the relationship between structural network properties and both synchronization strength and functional characteristics in a combined neural mass and graph theoretical model of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Thirty-two neural mass models (NMMs), each representing the lump activity
Proposal of a theoretical model for the practical nurse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dolores Abril Sabater
2010-01-01
Full Text Available AIM: To determine which model of nursing is proposed by care professionals and the reason for their choice. METHOD: cross-sectional, descriptive study design. The main variable: Nursing Models and Theories. As secondary variables were collected: age, gender, years of work experience, nursing model of basic training, and course/s related. We used a self-elaborated, anonymous questionnaire, passed between April - May, 2006. Not random sample.RESULTS: 546 nurses were invited, answered 205. 38 % response rate. Virginia Henderson was the more selected model (33%, however, 42% left the question blank, 12% indicated that they wanted to work under the guidance of a model. They selected a specifically model: Knowledge of the model to their training, standardization in other centers, the characteristics of the model itself and identification with its philosophy. They are not decided by a model by ignorance, lack of time and usefulness. CONCLUSIONS: The model chosen mostly for their daily work was Virginia Henderson model, so that knowledge of a model is the main reason for their election. Professionals who choose not to use the model in their practice realize offers and calling for resources, besides to explain the lack of knowledge on this topic. To advance the nursing profession is necessary that nurse is thought over widely on the abstract concepts of the theory in our context.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank Hubenthal
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The morphology of small gold particles prepared by Volmer–Weber growth on sapphire substrates have been investigated by two different characterization techniques. First, by non-extensive atomic force microscopy (AFM in combination with optical spectroscopy and modeling of the optical properties using a theoretical model, recently developed in our group. Second, by extensive transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Comparing the results obtained with both techniques demonstrate that for small gold nanoparticles within the quasistatic limit, the morphological properties can be precisely determined by an appropriate theoretical modeling of the optical properties in combination with simple AFM measurements. The apparent mean axial ratio of the nanoparticles, i.e., the axial ratio that corresponds to the center frequency of the ensemble plasmon resonance, is obtained easily from the extinction spectrum. The mean size is determined by the nanoparticle number density and the amount of deposited material, measured by AFM and a quartz micro balance, respectively. To extract the most probable axial ratio of the nanoparticle ensemble, i.e., the axial ratio that corresponds to the most probable nanoparticle size in the ensemble, we apply the new theoretical model, which allows to extract the functional dependence of the nanoparticle shape on its size. The morphological parameters obtained with this procedure will be afterwards compared to extensive TEM measurements. The results obtained with both techniques yield excellent agreement. For example, the lateral dimensions of the nanoparticles after deposition of 15.2 × 1015 atoms/cm2 of gold has been compared. While a mean lateral diameter of (13 ± 2 nm has been extracted from AFM, optical spectroscopy and modeling, a value of (12 ± 2 nm is derived from TEM. The consistency of the results demonstrate the precision of our new model. Moreover, since our theoretical model allows to extract the functional
A theoretical compartment model for antigen kinetics in the skin
Römgens, A.M.; Bader, D.L.; Bouwstra, J.A.; Oomens, C.W.J.
2016-01-01
The skin is a promising location for vaccination with its abundant population of antigen capturing and presenting cells. The development of new techniques, such as the use of microneedles, can facilitate the delivery of vaccines into the skin. In recent years, many different types of microneedle
Business model reconfiguration in green construction: A theoretical perspective
Abuzeinab, Amal; Arif, Mohammed
2013-01-01
PhD study Business models describe the business logic of a particular company and green business model is when a company changes part(s) of its business model and thereby both captures economic value and reduces the ecological footprint in a life-cycle perspective. In this paper, business model literature is reviewed with the intention of promoting learning to understand the economic complexity of environmental sustainability in the construction context. Although the green construction lit...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann
2016-01-01
Despite being widely accepted and applied across research domains, maturity models have been criticized for lacking academic rigor, especially methodologically rigorous and empirically grounded or tested maturity models are quite rare. Attempting to close this gap, we adopt a set-theoretic approach...... and evaluate some of arguments presented by previous conceptual focused social media maturity models....... by applying the Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) technique to derive maturity stages and stage boundaries conditions. The ontology is to view stages (boundaries) in maturity models as a collection of necessary condition. Using social media maturity data, we demonstrate the strength of our approach...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vazquez Villa, A.; Delgado Atencio, J. A.; Vazquez y Montiel, S.; Cunill Rodriguez, M.; Martinez Rodriguez, A. E.; Ramos, J. Castro; Villanueva, A.
2010-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive low coherent interferometric technique that provides cross-sectional images of turbid media. OCT is based on the classical Michelson interferometer where the mirror of the reference arm is oscillating and the signal arm contains a biological sample. In this work, we analyzed theoretically the heterodyne optical signal adopting the so called extended Huygens-Fresnel principle (EHFP). We use simulated OCT images with known optical properties to test an algorithm developed by ourselves to recover the scattering coefficient and we recovered the scattering coefficient with a relative error less than 5% for noisy signals. In addition, we applied this algorithm to OCT images from phantoms of known optical properties; in this case curves were indistinguishable. A revision of the validity of the analytical model applied to our system should be done.
A graph theoretical perspective of a drug abuse epidemic model
Nyabadza, F.; Mukwembi, S.; Rodrigues, B. G.
2011-05-01
A drug use epidemic can be represented by a finite number of states and transition rules that govern the dynamics of drug use in each discrete time step. This paper investigates the spread of drug use in a community where some users are in treatment and others are not in treatment, citing South Africa as an example. In our analysis, we consider the neighbourhood prevalence of each individual, i.e., the proportion of the individual’s drug user contacts who are not in treatment amongst all of his or her contacts. We introduce parameters α∗, β∗ and γ∗, depending on the neighbourhood prevalence, which govern the spread of drug use. We examine how changes in α∗, β∗ and γ∗ affect the system dynamics. Simulations presented support the theoretical results.
Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.
Medina, Marelyn
2002-01-01
A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.
Deferred Action: Theoretical model of process architecture design for emergent business processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patel, N.V.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available E-Business modelling and ebusiness systems development assumes fixed company resources, structures, and business processes. Empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that company resources and structures are emergent rather than fixed. Planning business activity in emergent contexts requires flexible ebusiness models based on better management theories and models . This paper builds and proposes a theoretical model of ebusiness systems capable of catering for emergent factors that affect business processes. Drawing on development of theories of the ‘action and design’class the Theory of Deferred Action is invoked as the base theory for the theoretical model. A theoretical model of flexible process architecture is presented by identifying its core components and their relationships, and then illustrated with exemplar flexible process architectures capable of responding to emergent factors. Managerial implications of the model are considered and the model’s generic applicability is discussed.
Adaptive supervision: a theoretical model for social workers.
Latting, J E
1986-01-01
Two models of leadership styles are prominent in the management field: Blake and Mouton's managerial Grid and Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Model. Much of the research on supervisory styles in social work has been based on the former. A recent public debate between the two sets of theorists suggests that both have strengths and limitations. Accordingly, an adaptive model of social work supervision that combines elements of both theories is proposed.
A theoretical model of ultrasonic examination of smooth flat cracks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chapman, R.K.; Coffey, J.M.
1984-01-01
This chapter proposes a mathematical model which combines approximate descriptions of the defect, the defect-sound interaction, and the transmission and reception of the sound by the probes, all in a framework of the component geometry. Topics considered include scattering from cracks, a model of the probe beam, the geometry of the inspection, and extensions of the model using generalized ray theory. The objective is to devise a practical, yet accurate and reliable model for the overall inspection process which can be readily adapted to different inspection geometries and conditions, and which does not involve an inordinate amount of computing time
The theoretical foundations for size spectrum models of fish communities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Farnsworth, K.D.
2016-01-01
Size spectrum models have emerged from 40 years of basic research on how body size determines individual physiology and structures marine communities. They are based on commonly accepted assumptions and have a low parameter set, which make them easy to deploy for strategic ecosystem oriented impact...... assessment of fisheries. We describe the fundamental concepts in size-based models about food encounter and the bioenergetics budget of individuals. Within the general framework three model types have emerged that differs in their degree of complexity: the food-web, the trait-based and the community model...
Hydrophobic ampersand hydrophilic: Theoretical models of solvation for molecular biophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pratt, L.R.; Tawa, G.J.; Hummer, G.; Garcia, A.E.; Corcelli, S.A.
1996-01-01
Molecular statistical thermodynamic models of hydration for chemistry and biophysics have advanced abruptly in recent years. With liquid water as solvent, salvation phenomena are classified as either hydrophobic or hydrophilic effects. Recent progress in treatment of hydrophilic effects have been motivated by continuum dielectric models interpreted as a modelistic implementation of second order perturbation theory. New results testing that perturbation theory of hydrophilic effects are presented and discussed. Recent progress in treatment of hydrophobic effects has been achieved by applying information theory to discover models of packing effects in dense liquids. The simplest models to which those ideas lead are presented and discussed
Using Graph and Vertex Entropy to Compare Empirical Graphs with Theoretical Graph Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tomasz Kajdanowicz
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Over the years, several theoretical graph generation models have been proposed. Among the most prominent are: the Erdős–Renyi random graph model, Watts–Strogatz small world model, Albert–Barabási preferential attachment model, Price citation model, and many more. Often, researchers working with real-world data are interested in understanding the generative phenomena underlying their empirical graphs. They want to know which of the theoretical graph generation models would most probably generate a particular empirical graph. In other words, they expect some similarity assessment between the empirical graph and graphs artificially created from theoretical graph generation models. Usually, in order to assess the similarity of two graphs, centrality measure distributions are compared. For a theoretical graph model this means comparing the empirical graph to a single realization of a theoretical graph model, where the realization is generated from the given model using an arbitrary set of parameters. The similarity between centrality measure distributions can be measured using standard statistical tests, e.g., the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test of distances between cumulative distributions. However, this approach is both error-prone and leads to incorrect conclusions, as we show in our experiments. Therefore, we propose a new method for graph comparison and type classification by comparing the entropies of centrality measure distributions (degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality. We demonstrate that our approach can help assign the empirical graph to the most similar theoretical model using a simple unsupervised learning method.
A Theoretical Study of Subsurface Drainage Model Simulation of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow model, the SEAWAT model, was used to assess the influence of subsurface drain spacing, evapotranspiration and irrigation water quality on salt concentration at the base of the root zone, leaching and drainage in salt affected irrigated land. The study was carried out ...
The Interval Market Model in Mathematical Finance : Game Theoretic Methods
Bernhard, P.; Engwerda, J.C.; Roorda, B.; Schumacher, J.M.; Kolokoltsov, V.; Saint-Pierre, P.; Aubin, J.P.
2013-01-01
Toward the late 1990s, several research groups independently began developing new, related theories in mathematical finance. These theories did away with the standard stochastic geometric diffusion “Samuelson” market model (also known as the Black-Scholes model because it is used in that most famous
Nonlinear local electrovascular coupling. I: A theoretical model.
Riera, Jorge J; Wan, Xiaohong; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Kawashima, Ryuta
2006-11-01
Here we present a detailed biophysical model of how brain electrical and vascular dynamics are generated within a basic cortical unit. The model was obtained from coupling a canonical neuronal mass and an expandable vasculature. In this proposal, we address several aspects related to electroencephalographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging data fusion: (1) the impact of the cerebral architecture (at different physical levels) on the observations; (2) the physiology involved in electrovascular coupling; and (3) energetic considerations to gain a better understanding of how the glucose budget is used during neuronal activity. The model has three components. The first is the canonical neural mass model of three subpopulations of neurons that respond to incoming excitatory synaptic inputs. The generation of the membrane potentials in the somas of these neurons and the electric currents flowing in the neuropil are modeled by this component. The second and third components model the electrovascular coupling and the dynamics of vascular states in an extended balloon approach, respectively. In the first part we describe, in some detail, the biophysical model and establish its face validity using simulations of visually evoked responses under different flickering frequencies and luminous contrasts. In a second part, a recursive optimization algorithm is developed and used to make statistical inferences about this forward/generative model from actual data. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Experimental observations and theoretical models for beam-beam phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kheifets, S.
1981-03-01
The beam-beam interaction in storage rings exhibits all the characteristics of nonintegrable dynamical systems. Here one finds all kinds of resonances, closed orbits, stable and unstable fixed points, stochastic layers, chaotic behavior, diffusion, etc. The storage ring itself being an expensive device nevertheless while constructed and put into operation presents a good opportunity of experimentally studying the long-time behavior of both conservative (proton machines) and nonconservative (electron machines) dynamical systems - the number of bunch-bunch interactions routinely reaches values of 10/sup 10/-10/sup 11/ and could be increased by decreasing the beam current. At the same time the beam-beam interaction puts practical limits for the yield of the storage ring. This phenomenon not only determines the design value of main storage ring parameters (luminosity, space charge parameters, beam current), but also in fact prevents many of the existing storage rings from achieving design parameters. Hence, the problem has great practical importance along with its enormous theoretical interest. A brief overview of the problem is presented.
Experimental observations and theoretical models for beam-beam phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kheifets, S.
1981-03-01
The beam-beam interaction in storage rings exhibits all the characteristics of nonintegrable dynamical systems. Here one finds all kinds of resonances, closed orbits, stable and unstable fixed points, stochastic layers, chaotic behavior, diffusion, etc. The storage ring itself being an expensive device nevertheless while constructed and put into operation presents a good opportunity of experimentally studying the long-time behavior of both conservative (proton machines) and nonconservative (electron machines) dynamical systems - the number of bunch-bunch interactions routinely reaches values of 10 10 -10 11 and could be increased by decreasing the beam current. At the same time the beam-beam interaction puts practical limits for the yield of the storage ring. This phenomenon not only determines the design value of main storage ring parameters (luminosity, space charge parameters, beam current), but also in fact prevents many of the existing storage rings from achieving design parameters. Hence, the problem has great practical importance along with its enormous theoretical interest. A brief overview of the problem is presented
Rigorous theoretical derivation of lumped models to transmission line systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Jixiang
2012-01-01
By virtue of the negative electric parameter concept, i.e. negative lumped resistance, inductance, conductance and capacitance (N-RLGC), the lumped equivalent models of transmission line systems, including the circuit model, two-port π-network and T-network, are given. We start from the N-segment-ladder-like equivalent networks composed distributed parameters, and achieve the input impedance in the form of a continued fraction. Utilizing the continued fraction theory, the expressions of input impedance are obtained under three kinds of extreme cases, i.e. the load impedances are equal to zero, infinity and characteristic impedance, respectively. When the number of segment N is limited to infinity, they are transformed to lumped elements. Comparison between the distributed model and lumped model of transmission lines, the expression of tanh γd, which is the key term in the transmission line equations, are obtained by RLGC, furthermore, according to input admittance, admittance matrix and ABCD matrix of transmission lines, the lumped equivalent circuit models, π-networks and T-networks have been given. The models are verified in the frequency and time domain, respectively, showing that the models are accurate and efficient. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Behavioral models as theoretical frames to analyze the business objective
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hernán Alonso Bafico
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper examines Pfeffer’s Models of Behavior and connects each of them with attributes of the definition of the firm’s objective, assumed as the maximization of the sustainable, long term valor of the residual claims.Each of the five models of behavior (rational, social, moral, retrospective and cognitive contributes to the decision making and goal setting processes with its particular and complementary elements. From those assuming complete rationality and frictionless markets, to the models emphasizing the role of ethical positions, and the presence of perceptive and cognitive mechanisms. The analysis highlights the main contributions of critical theories and models of behavior, underlining their focus on non-traditional variables, regarded as critical inputs for goal setting processes and designing alternative executive incentive schemes. The explicit consideration of those variables does not indicate the need for a new definition of corporate objective. The maximization of the long term value of the shareholders’ claims still defines the relevant objective function of the firm, remaining as the main yardstick of corporate performance.Behavioral models are recognized as important tools to help managers direct their attention to long term strategies. In the last part, we comment on the relationship between the objective function and behavioral models, from the practitioners’ perspective.Key words: Firm Objectives, Behavioral Models, Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Jie
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Groundwater is a main natural factor impacting the subgrade structure, and it plays a significant role in the stability of the subgrade. In this paper, the analytical solution of the subgrade moisture variations considering groundwater fluctuations is derived based on Richards’ equation. Laboratory subgrade model is built, and three working cases are performed in the model to study the capillary action of groundwater at different water tables. Two types of antidrainage materials are employed in the subgrade model, and their anti-drainage effects are discussed. Moreover, numerical calculation is conducted on the basis of subgrade model, and the calculate results are compared with the experimental measurements. The study results are shown. The agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is good. Capillary action is obvious when the groundwater table is rising. As the groundwater table is falling, the moisture decreases in the position of the subgrade near the water table and has no variations in the subgrade where far above the table. The anti-drainage effect of the sand cushion is associated with its thickness and material properties. New waterproofing and drainage material can prevent groundwater entering the subgrade effectively, and its anti-drainage effect is good.
Supersymmetric field-theoretic models on a supermanifold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franco, D.H.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fisica Teorica, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Polito, Caio M.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas
2003-04-01
We propose an extension of some structural aspects that have successfully been applied in the development of the theory of quantum fields propagating on a general spacetime manifold so as to include superfield models on a super manifold. (author)
Theoretical performance model for single image depth from defocus.
Trouvé-Peloux, Pauline; Champagnat, Frédéric; Le Besnerais, Guy; Idier, Jérôme
2014-12-01
In this paper we present a performance model for depth estimation using single image depth from defocus (SIDFD). Our model is based on an original expression of the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) in this context. We show that this model is consistent with the expected behavior of SIDFD. We then study the influence on the performance of the optical parameters of a conventional camera such as the focal length, the aperture, and the position of the in-focus plane (IFP). We derive an approximate analytical expression of the CRB away from the IFP, and we propose an interpretation of the SIDFD performance in this domain. Finally, we illustrate the predictive capacity of our performance model on experimental data comparing several settings of a consumer camera.
A theoretical model for gas permeability in a composite membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serrano, D. A
2009-01-01
We present in this work an analytical expression for permeability in a two-layer composite membrane, which was derived assuming the same hypothesis as those of Adzumi model for permeability in a homogeneous membrane. Whereas in Adzumi model permeability shows a linear dependence on the mean pressure, our model for a composite membrane related permeability to pressure through a rather complex expression, which covers the whole range of flow, from molecular-Knudsen to viscous-Poiseuille regimes. The expression obtained for permeability contained information of membrane structural properties as pore size, porosity and thickness of each layer, as well as gas nature and operational conditions. Our two-layer-model expression turns into Adzumi formula when the structure of the layers approach to each other. [es
Exactly solvable field-theoretical model with tachyons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barashenkov, I.V.; Getmanov, B.S.; Kovtun, V.E.
1988-01-01
Explicit soliton solutions describing the inelastic interaction between sub- and superluminal particles are found within the framework of a new integrable model of relativistic classical field theory. The corresponding energies are nonnegative irrespective of the choice of reference frame
Theoretical tornado vortex model for nuclear plant design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, C.N.; Barnett, R.O.; Burdette, E.G.
1977-01-01
A simplified tornado vortex model is defined using fluid dynamics theory. Beginning with the Navier-Stokes equations of motion for an incompressible fluid and simpifying in a way consistent with a tornado wind field, develops the well-known cyclostrophic wind equation referred to by Hoecker and another equation which defines the tangential velocity profile. Together, they define a simplified tornado vertex model of which the Rankine and Hoecker vortices are special cases. Practical implications of the results obtained are discussed. (Auth.)
Theoretical cell alteration model in the context of carcinogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walsh, P.J.
1976-01-01
A model incorporating cell survival and alteration is used to discuss the general nature of cellular response to a toxic agent. Cell division and repair are discussed as regards their influence on dose-response relationships to bone-seeking radionuclides. The application of the model in its present form to specific biologic end points depends on the assumption that such end points are the result of some initial alteration
Theoretical model for ultracold molecule formation via adaptive feedback control
Poschinger, Ulrich; Salzmann, Wenzel; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Koch, Christiane P.; Kosloff, Ronnie
2006-01-01
We investigate pump-dump photoassociation of ultracold molecules with amplitude- and phase-modulated femtosecond laser pulses. For this purpose a perturbative model for the light-matter interaction is developed and combined with a genetic algorithm for adaptive feedback control of the laser pulse shapes. The model is applied to the formation of 85Rb2 molecules in a magneto-optical trap. We find for optimized pulse shapes an improvement for the formation of ground state molecules by more than ...
Theoretic models for recommendation and implementation of assistive technology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Cristina de Jesus Alves
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The latest international researches seek to understand the factors affecting the successful use of assistive technology devices through studies regarding the assessments systematizing; abandonment of devices; or theoric models that consider the aspects of those devices implementation. In Brazil the researches are focused on developing new technologies and there are still not sufficient studies related to the successful use of devices and ways of assistive technology implementation. Objective: To identify conceptual models used for indication and implementation of assistive technology devices. Method: Literature review. The survey was conducted in six databases: CINAHAL, Eric, GALE, LILACS, MEDLINE e PsycInfo. A critical analysis described by Grant and Booth was used. Results: There are no records of a Brazilian survey and among 29 selected articles, 17 conceptual models used in the area of AT were found; of these, 14 were specific to AT. The results showed that the new conceptual models of TA are under development and the conceptual model “Matching Person and Technology – MPT” was the most mentioned. Conclusion: We can observe that the practices related to TA area in international context shows a correlation with conceptual models, thus, we hope this study might have the capacity to contribute for the propagation of this precepts at national level
Design theoretic analysis of three system modeling frameworks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDonald, Michael James
2007-05-01
This paper analyzes three simulation architectures from the context of modeling scalability to address System of System (SoS) and Complex System problems. The paper first provides an overview of the SoS problem domain and reviews past work in analyzing model and general system complexity issues. It then identifies and explores the issues of vertical and horizontal integration as well as coupling and hierarchical decomposition as the system characteristics and metrics against which the tools are evaluated. In addition, it applies Nam Suh's Axiomatic Design theory as a construct for understanding coupling and its relationship to system feasibility. Next it describes the application of MATLAB, Swarm, and Umbra (three modeling and simulation approaches) to modeling swarms of Unmanned Flying Vehicle (UAV) agents in relation to the chosen characteristics and metrics. Finally, it draws general conclusions for analyzing model architectures that go beyond those analyzed. In particular, it identifies decomposition along phenomena of interaction and modular system composition as enabling features for modeling large heterogeneous complex systems.
Anticipation in stuttering: A theoretical model of the nature of stutter prediction.
Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A; Davidow, Jason H
2015-06-01
The fact that some people who stutter have the ability to anticipate a stuttering moment is essential for several theories of stuttering and important for maximum effectiveness of many currently used treatment techniques. The "anticipation effect," however, is poorly understood despite much investigation into this phenomenon. In the present paper, we combine (1) behavioral evidence from the stuttering-anticipation literature, (2) speech production models, and (3) models of error detection to propose a theoretical model of anticipation. Integrating evidence from theories such as Damasio's Somatic Marker Hypothesis, Levelt's Perceptual Monitoring Theory, Guenther's The Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model, Postma's Covert Repair Hypothesis, among others, our central thesis is that the anticipation of a stuttering moment occurs as an outcome of the interactions between previous learning experiences (i.e., learnt associations between stuttered utterances and any self-experienced or environmental consequence) and error monitoring. Possible neurological mechanisms involved in generating conscious anticipation are also discussed, along with directions for future research. The reader will be able to: (a) describe historical theories that explain how PWS may learn to anticipate stuttering; (b) state some traditional sources of evidence of anticipation in stuttering; (c) describe how PWS may be sensitive to the detection of a stuttering; (d) state some of the neural correlates that may underlie anticipation in stuttering; and (e) describe some of the possible utilities of incorporating anticipation into stuttering interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A game-theoretical model of private power production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xing, W.; Wu, F.F.
2001-01-01
Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)
A game-theoretical model of private power production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xing, W.; Wu, F.F. [University of Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
2001-03-01
Private power production has sprung up all over the world. The build-operate-transfer (BOT) arrangement has emerged as one of the most important options for private power production, especially in developing countries with rapidly growing demand and financial shortages. Based on oligopoly theory, the paper proposes a Stackelberg game model between a BOT investor and an electric utility whereby they can negotiate a long-term energy contract. Asymmetric pricing schemes are taken into account such that a host utility purchases electricity from a BOT company at its ''avoided cost'', and sells its electricity to end users at its ''average cost''. Our Stackelberg game model is transferred into a two-level optimization problem, and then solved by an iterative algorithm. The game model is demonstrated by an illustrative example. (author)
Fluidelastic instability in a flexible Weir: A theoretical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aita, S.; Gibert, R.J.
1986-01-01
A new type fluidelastic instability was discovered during the hot tests of Superphenix LMFBR. This instability is due to the fluid discharge, over a flexible weir shell which separates two of these fluid sheets (the feeding and restitution collectors). An analytical nonlinear model was realised. The flow and force sources at the top of the collectors are described and projected on the modal basis of the system formed by the collectors and the weir shell. Simplified formulas were extracted allowing a practical prediction of the stability. More generally, the complete model can be used to estimate the vibratory level when a steady state is reached by the effect of nonlinearities. Computer calculation for such a model are made with OSCAR code, part of CASTEM 2000 finite element computer system. (author)
Theoretical modeling of electron mobility in superfluid {sup 4}He
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aitken, Frédéric; Bonifaci, Nelly [G2ELab-GreEn-ER, Equipe MDE, 21 Avenue des Martyrs, CS 90624, 38031 Grenoble Cedex 1 (France); Haeften, Klaus von [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Eloranta, Jussi, E-mail: Jussi.Eloranta@csun.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University at Northridge, 18111 Nordhoff St., Northridge, California 91330 (United States)
2016-07-28
The Orsay-Trento bosonic density functional theory model is extended to include dissipation due to the viscous response of superfluid {sup 4}He present at finite temperatures. The viscous functional is derived from the Navier-Stokes equation by using the Madelung transformation and includes the contribution of interfacial viscous response present at the gas-liquid boundaries. This contribution was obtained by calibrating the model against the experimentally determined electron mobilities from 1.2 K to 2.1 K along the saturated vapor pressure line, where the viscous response is dominated by thermal rotons. The temperature dependence of ion mobility was calculated for several different solvation cavity sizes and the data are rationalized in the context of roton scattering and Stokes limited mobility models. Results are compared to the experimentally observed “exotic ion” data, which provides estimates for the corresponding bubble sizes in the liquid. Possible sources of such ions are briefly discussed.
Theoretical modeling of transport barriers in helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toda, S.; Itoh, K.; Ohyabu, N.
2008-10-01
A unified transport modelling to explain electron Internal Transport Barriers (e-ITB) in helical plasmas and Internal Diffusion Barriers (IDB) observed in Large Helical Device (LHD) is proposed. The e-ITB can be predicted with the effect of zonal flows to obtain the e-ITB in the low collisional regime when the radial variation of the particle anomalous diffusivity is included. Transport analysis in this article can newly show that the particle fuelling induces the IDB formation when this unified transport modelling is used in the high collisional regime. The density limit for the IDB in helical plasmas is also examined including the effect of the radiation loss. (author)
Theoretical models of drivers behavior on the road
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcin Piotr Biernacki
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Understanding of mechanisms and factors responsible for the driver behavior on the road is the subject of ongoing interest to transportation psychologists, occupational doctors and engineers. Models of driver behavior are a key point for the understanding the mechanisms and factors which may cause limitations to the optimal functioning on the road. They also systematize knowledge about the factors responsible for the behavior of the driver and thus constitute a starting point for formulating empirical or diagnostic hypotheses. The aim of this study is to present models of driver behavior from the descriptive and functional perspectives. Med Pr 2017;68(3:401–411
A survey of game-theoretic models of cooperative advertising
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Steffen; Zaccour, G.
2014-01-01
environments. We also find that the work on static models is quite homogeneous, in the sense that most papers employ the same basic consumer demand specification and address the same situations of vertical integration and noncooperative games with simultaneous or sequential actions. The work on dynamic...
An Alternative Theoretical Model for Economic Reforms in Africa ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper offers an alternative model for economic reforms in Africa. It proposes that Africa can still get on the pathway of sustained economic growth if economic reforms can focus on a key variable, namely, the price of non-tradables. Prices of non-tradables are generally less in Africa than in advanced economies, and the ...
Self-organized quantum rings : Physical characterization and theoretical modeling
Fomin, V.M.; Gladilin, V.N.; Devreese, J.T.; Koenraad, P.M.; Fomin, V.M.
2014-01-01
An adequate modeling of the self-organized quantum rings is possible only on the basis of the modern characterization of those nanostructures.We discuss an atomic-scale analysis of the indium distribution of self-organized InGaAs quantum rings (QRs). The analysis of the shape, size and composition
Theoretical models in the development of advertising for food products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Stacey, Julia
2005-01-01
the advertisement influences the target may serve as creative inspiration and as a common frame of reference for those involved in the development of advertisements. The means-end-chain model says that an advertisement is effective by connecting the product's attributes (means) and the target's personal values...
Voronoi Cell Patterns: theoretical model and application to submonolayer growth
González, Diego Luis; Einstein, T. L.
2012-02-01
We use a simple fragmentation model to describe the statistical behavior of the Voronoi cell patterns generated by a homogeneous and isotropic set of points in 1D and in 2D. In particular, we are interested in the distribution of sizes of these Voronoi cells. Our model is completely defined by two probability distributions in 1D and again in 2D, the probability to add a new point inside an existing cell and the probability that this new point is at a particular position relative to the preexisting point inside this cell. In 1D the first distribution depends on a single parameter while the second distribution is defined through a fragmentation kernel; in 2D both distributions depend on a single parameter. The fragmentation kernel and the control parameters are closely related to the physical properties of the specific system under study. We apply our model to describe the Voronoi cell patterns of island nucleation for critical island sizes i=0,1,2,3. Experimental results for the Voronoi cells of InAs/GaAs quantum dots are also described by our model.
Theoretical models for ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation in nonlinear metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, Shuangchun; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Dai, Xiaoyu; Tang, Zhixiang; Su, Wenhua; Fan, Dianyuan
2007-01-01
A metamaterial (MM) differs from an ordinary optical material mainly in that it has a dispersive magnetic permeability and offers greatly enhanced design freedom to alter the linear and nonlinear properties. This makes it possible for us to control the propagation of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses at will. Here we report on generic features of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse propagation and demonstrate the controllability of both the linear and nonlinear parameters of models for pulse propagation in MMs. First, we derive a generalized system of coupled three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equations (NLSEs) suitable for few-cycle pulse propagation in a MM with both nonlinear electric polarization and nonlinear magnetization. The coupled equations recover previous models for pulse propagation in both ordinary material and a MM under the same conditions. Second, by using the coupled NLSEs in the Drude dispersive model as an example, we identify the respective roles of the dispersive electric permittivity and magnetic permeability in ultrashort pulse propagation and disclose some additional features of pulse propagation in MMs. It is shown that, for linear propagation, the sign and magnitude of space-time focusing can be controlled through adjusting the linear dispersive permittivity and permeability. For nonlinear propagation, the linear dispersive permittivity and permeability are incorporated into the nonlinear magnetization and nonlinear polarization, respectively, resulting in controllable magnetic and electric self-steepening effects and higher-order dispersively nonlinear terms in the propagation models
A Game-Theoretic Model for Distributed Programming by Contract
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Anders Starcke; Hvitved, Tom; Filinski, Andrzej
2009-01-01
We present an extension of the programming-by-contract (PBC) paradigm to a concurrent and distributed environment. Classical PBC is characterized by absolute conformance of code to its specification, assigning blame in case of failures, and a hierarchical, cooperative decomposition model – none...
Simple Brownian diffusion an introduction to the standard theoretical models
Gillespie, Daniel T
2013-01-01
Brownian diffusion, the motion of large molecules in a sea of very many much smaller molecules, is topical because it is one of the ways in which biologically important molecules move about inside living cells. This book presents the mathematical physics that underlies the four simplest models of Brownian diffusion.
A theoretical Markov chain model for evaluating correctional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper a stochastic method is applied in the study of the long time effect of confinement in a correctional institution on the behaviour of a person with criminal tendencies. The approach used is Markov chain, which uses past history to predict the state of a system in the future. A model is developed for comparing the ...
Workshop IV – Cosmology-theoretical models/alternative scenarios ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S D Maharaj presented a talk entitled 'Some Einstein–Maxwell models with spherical sym- ... ber of spatial dimensions in the universe may be a variable and considered a ... the probability density of the de Sitter minisuperspace in 3-space as ...
Theoretical foundations: Formalized temporal models for hyperlinked multimedia documents
B. Meixner (Britta)
2018-01-01
textabstractConsistent linking and accurate synchronization of multimedia elements in hypervideos or multimedia documents are essential to provide a good quality of experience to viewers. Temporal models are needed to define relationships and constraints between multimedia elements and create an
A theoretical design for learning model addressing the networked society
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Levinsen, Karin; Nielsen, Janni; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
2010-01-01
The transition from the industrial to the networked society produces contradictions that challenges the educational system and force it to adapt to new conditions. In a Danish virtual Master in Information and Communication Technologies and Learning (MIL) these contradictions appear as a field of...... which enables students to develop Networked Society competencies and maintain progression in the learning process also during the online periods. Additionally we suggest that our model contributes to the innovation of a networked society's design for learning....... is continuously decreasing. We teach for deep learning but are confronted by students' cost-benefit strategies when they navigate through the study programme under time pressure. To meet these challenges a Design for Learning Model has been developed. The aim is to provide a scaffold that ensures students......' acquisition of the subject matter within a time limit and at a learning quality that support their deep learning process during a subsequent period of on-line study work. In the process of moving from theory to application the model passes through three stages: 1) Conceptual modelling; 2) Orchestration, and 3...
Model United Nations and Deep Learning: Theoretical and Professional Learning
Engel, Susan; Pallas, Josh; Lambert, Sarah
2017-01-01
This article demonstrates that the purposeful subject design, incorporating a Model United Nations (MUN), facilitated deep learning and professional skills attainment in the field of International Relations. Deep learning was promoted in subject design by linking learning objectives to Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001) four levels of knowledge or…
Toward a Theoretical Model of Employee Turnover: A Human Resource Development Perspective
Peterson, Shari L.
2004-01-01
This article sets forth the Organizational Model of Employee Persistence, influenced by traditional turnover models and a student attrition model. The model was developed to clarify the impact of organizational practices on employee turnover from a human resource development (HRD) perspective and provide a theoretical foundation for research on…
Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cameron, I.G.; Scorgie, G.C.
1970-01-01
Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained
Theoretical model of the early phases of an underground explosion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cameron, I G; Scorgie, G C [Atomic Weapons Research Establishment, Aldermaston, Berkshire (United Kingdom)
1970-05-01
Introduction In the early phases of the intense underground explosions contemplated in peaceful applications the rock near the explosive exhibits fluid behaviour; at great distances its behaviour can usefully be investigated in terms of linear elasticity; and at intermediate distances we think of a solid exhibiting various inelastic effects including cracking and tensile fracture. The present paper outlines a mathematical model that attempts to include in some degree the main features of this range of behaviour. A more detailed treatment than is given here, and its relationship to the work of others, is given in a paper by the authors. A computer program ATHENE has been written based on this model and its use is illustrated by examining some aspects of two types of explosions. One is a chemical explosion which eventually formed a crater and the other a nuclear explosion which remained wholly contained.
System of systems dependability – Theoretical models and applications examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bukowski, L.
2016-01-01
The aim of this article is to generalise the concept of 'dependability' in a way, that could be applied to all types of systems, especially the system of systems (SoS), operating under both normal and abnormal work conditions. In order to quantitatively assess the dependability we applied service continuity oriented approach. This approach is based on the methodology of service engineering and is closely related to the idea of resilient enterprise as well as to the concept of disruption-tolerant operation. On this basis a framework for evaluation of SoS dependability has been developed in a static as well as dynamic approach. The static model is created as a fuzzy logic-oriented advisory expert system and can be particularly useful at the design stage of SoS. The dynamic model is based on the risk oriented approach, and can be useful both at the design stage and for management of SoS. The integrated model of dependability can also form the basis for a new definition of the dependability engineering, namely as a superior discipline to reliability engineering, safety engineering, security engineering, resilience engineering and risk engineering. - Highlights: • A framework for evaluation of system of systems dependability is presented. • The model is based on the service continuity concept and consists of two parts. • The static part can be created as a fuzzy logic-oriented advisory expert system. • The dynamic, risk oriented part, is related to the concept of throughput chain. • A new definition of dependability engineering is proposed.
A coordination theoretic model for three level supply chains using ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
city in fashion industry (Lee & Rhee 2007); two period contract model in case of decentralized assembly system (Zou et al 2008); .... p: Price of product qr : Optimal quantity of retailer Q. ∗ sc: Optimal order quantity of supply chain. S(q): Expected sales at the end of period which can be defined as: S(q) = q(1 − F(q)) −. ∫ q. 0.
Theoretical modeling of infrared spectra of twinned lead zirconate
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dočekalová, Zuzana; Pasciak, Marek; Hlinka, Jiří
2017-01-01
Roč. 90, č. 1 (2017), s. 17-23 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : domains * IR spectroscopy * dielectric permittivity * lead zirconate * shell model * Born effective charge Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.060, year: 2016
Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues
Ming, LI; Shinn-Yi, CHOU
2016-01-01
The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254
Hybrid empirical--theoretical approach to modeling uranium adsorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, Larry C.; Grossman, Christopher; Fjeld, Robert A.; Coates, John T.; Elzerman, Alan W.
2004-01-01
An estimated 330 metric tons of U are buried in the radioactive waste Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An assessment of U transport parameters is being performed to decrease the uncertainty in risk and dose predictions derived from computer simulations of U fate and transport to the underlying Snake River Plain Aquifer. Uranium adsorption isotherms were measured for 14 sediment samples collected from sedimentary interbeds underlying the SDA. The adsorption data were fit with a Freundlich isotherm. The Freundlich n parameter is statistically identical for all 14 sediment samples and the Freundlich K f parameter is correlated to sediment surface area (r 2 =0.80). These findings suggest an efficient approach to material characterization and implementation of a spatially variable reactive transport model that requires only the measurement of sediment surface area. To expand the potential applicability of the measured isotherms, a model is derived from the empirical observations by incorporating concepts from surface complexation theory to account for the effects of solution chemistry. The resulting model is then used to predict the range of adsorption conditions to be expected in the vadose zone at the SDA based on the range in measured pore water chemistry. Adsorption in the deep vadose zone is predicted to be stronger than in near-surface sediments because the total dissolved carbonate decreases with depth
Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming LI
2018-06-01
Full Text Available The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balagyra, V.S.; Ryabka, P.M.
1999-01-01
For measuring the charged particle energy calculations of mean square angles of electron beam multiple Coulomb scattering at output combined accelerator target were undertaken according to seven theoretical models. Mollier method showed the best agreement with experiments
Theoretical Model for the Performance of Liquid Ring Pump Based on the Actual Operating Cycle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Si Huang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Liquid ring pump is widely applied in many industry fields due to the advantages of isothermal compression process, simple structure, and liquid-sealing. Based on the actual operating cycle of “suction-compression-discharge-expansion,” a universal theoretical model for performance of liquid ring pump was established in this study, to solve the problem that the theoretical models deviated from the actual performance in operating cycle. With the major geometric parameters and operating conditions of a liquid ring pump, the performance parameters such as the actual capacity for suction and discharge, shaft power, and global efficiency can be conveniently predicted by the proposed theoretical model, without the limitation of empiric range, performance data, or the detailed 3D geometry of pumps. The proposed theoretical model was verified by experimental performances of liquid ring pumps and could provide a feasible tool for the application of liquid ring pump.
Algebraic Specifications, Higher-order Types and Set-theoretic Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirchner, Hélène; Mosses, Peter David
2001-01-01
, and power-sets. This paper presents a simple framework for algebraic specifications with higher-order types and set-theoretic models. It may be regarded as the basis for a Horn-clause approximation to the Z framework, and has the advantage of being amenable to prototyping and automated reasoning. Standard......In most algebraic specification frameworks, the type system is restricted to sorts, subsorts, and first-order function types. This is in marked contrast to the so-called model-oriented frameworks, which provide higer-order types, interpreted set-theoretically as Cartesian products, function spaces...... set-theoretic models are considered, and conditions are given for the existence of initial reduct's of such models. Algebraic specifications for various set-theoretic concepts are considered....
Theoretical Basis for the CE-QUAL-W2 River Basin Model
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wells, Scott
2000-01-01
This report describes the theoretical development for CE-QUAL-W2, Version 3, that will allow the application of the model to entire water basins including multiple reservoirs, steeply sloping rivers, and estuaries...
A theoretical model for the control of an enforcement system on emissions of pollutants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villegas, Clara Ines
2005-01-01
A theoretical proposal for the development of an enforcement strategy is presented on this paper. The proposal guaranties full compliance of an emission charge system with self-report presence. The proposed models are static, and mostly based on those proposed by Strandlund and Chavez (2000) for a transferable permits system with self -report presence. Theoretical models were developed for three possible violations: self-report violation, maximum emission limits violation and payment violation. Based in theoretical results, a simulation was implemented with hypothetical data: 20 regulated firms with different marginal abatement cost functions. The variation in charge amount, Monitory costs, abatement cost, self-report value and total cost are analyzed, with each of the theoretical models under different scenarios. Our results show that the behavior of the different variables remains unchanged under the three static models, and that the only variations occur inside the scenarios. Our results can serve as a tool for the formulation and design of taxing systems
Accelerator simulation and theoretical modelling of radiation effects (SMoRE)
2018-01-01
This publication summarizes the findings and conclusions of the IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on accelerator simulation and theoretical modelling of radiation effects, aimed at supporting Member States in the development of advanced radiation-resistant structural materials for implementation in innovative nuclear systems. This aim can be achieved through enhancement of both experimental neutron-emulation capabilities of ion accelerators and improvement of the predictive efficiency of theoretical models and computer codes. This dual approach is challenging but necessary, because outputs of accelerator simulation experiments need adequate theoretical interpretation, and theoretical models and codes need high dose experimental data for their verification. Both ion irradiation investigations and computer modelling have been the specific subjects of the CRP, and the results of these studies are presented in this publication which also includes state-ofthe- art reviews of four major aspects of the project...
Imitative Modeling as a Theoretical Base for Instructing Language-Disordered Children
Courtright, John A.; Courtright, Illene C.
1976-01-01
A modification of A. Bandura's social learning theory (imitative modeling) was employed as a theoretical base for language instruction with eight language disordered children (5 to 10 years old). (Author/SBH)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mantsinen, M.
1999-01-01
Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mantsinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics
1999-06-01
Heating with electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is a well-established method for auxiliary heating of present-day tokamak plasmas and is envisaged as one of the main heating techniques for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and future reactor plasmas. In order to predict the performance of ICRF heating in future machines, it is important to benchmark present theoretical modelling with experimental results on present tokamaks. This thesis reports on development and experimental evaluation of theoretical models for ICRF heating at the Joint European Torus (JET). Several ICRF physics effects and scenarios have been studied. Direct importance to the ITER is the theoretical analysis of ICRF heating experiments with deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas. These experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of ICRF heating for auxiliary heating of reactor plasmas. In particular, scenarios with potential for good bulk ion heating and enhanced D-T fusion reactivity have been identified. Good bulk ion heating is essential for reactor plasmas in order to obtain a high ion temperature and a high fusion reactivity. In JET good bulk ion heating with ICRF waves has been achieved in high-performance discharges by adding ICRF heating to neutral beam injection. In these experiments, as in other JET discharges where damping at higher harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency takes place, so-called finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects play an important role. Due to FLR effects, the resonating ion velocity distribution function can have a strong influence on the power deposition. Evidence for this effect has been obtained from the third harmonic deuterium heating experiments. Because of FLR effects, the wave-particle interaction can also become weak at certain ion energies, which prevents resonating ions from reaching higher energies. When interacting with the wave, an ion receives not only a change in energy but also a change in
Measures of metacognition on signal-detection theoretic models.
Barrett, Adam B; Dienes, Zoltan; Seth, Anil K
2013-12-01
Analyzing metacognition, specifically knowledge of accuracy of internal perceptual, memorial, or other knowledge states, is vital for many strands of psychology, including determining the accuracy of feelings of knowing and discriminating conscious from unconscious cognition. Quantifying metacognitive sensitivity is however more challenging than quantifying basic stimulus sensitivity. Under popular signal-detection theory (SDT) models for stimulus classification tasks, approaches based on Type II receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves or Type II d-prime risk confounding metacognition with response biases in either the Type I (classification) or Type II (metacognitive) tasks. A new approach introduces meta-d': The Type I d-prime that would have led to the observed Type II data had the subject used all the Type I information. Here, we (a) further establish the inconsistency of the Type II d-prime and ROC approaches with new explicit analyses of the standard SDT model and (b) analyze, for the first time, the behavior of meta-d' under nontrivial scenarios, such as when metacognitive judgments utilize enhanced or degraded versions of the Type I evidence. Analytically, meta-d' values typically reflect the underlying model well and are stable under changes in decision criteria; however, in relatively extreme cases, meta-d' can become unstable. We explore bias and variance of in-sample measurements of meta-d' and supply MATLAB code for estimation in general cases. Our results support meta-d' as a useful measure of metacognition and provide rigorous methodology for its application. Our recommendations are useful for any researchers interested in assessing metacognitive accuracy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Theoretical modeling of the absorption spectrum of aqueous riboflavin
Zanetti-Polzi, Laura; Aschi, Massimiliano; Daidone, Isabella; Amadei, Andrea
2017-02-01
In this study we report the modeling of the absorption spectrum of riboflavin in water using a hybrid quantum/classical mechanical approach, the MD-PMM methodology. By means of MD-PMM calculations, with which the effect of riboflavin internal motions and of solvent interactions on the spectroscopic properties can be explicitly taken into account, we obtain an absorption spectrum in very good agreement with the experimental spectrum. In particular, the calculated peak maxima show a consistent improvement with respect to previous computational approaches. Moreover, the calculations show that the interaction with the environment may cause a relevant recombination of the gas-phase electronic states.
A theoretical study of a nickel SPND using Warren's model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahant, A.K.; Rao, P.S.; Misra, S.C.
1998-01-01
Various parameters for a nickel SPND viz. neutron and gamma sensitivity, their dependence on detector dimensions, effect of activity build up during irradiation in the reactor on neutron sensitivity and burn up have been calculated using an analytical model by Warren and Shah. The results show that the main component of neutron sensitivity is due to neutron-induced capture gamma rays (99.93%). Delayed β signal is negligible and signal due to external gamma rays constitute about 0.06%. Low gamma sensitivity to external gamma rays, negligible activity buildup and low burn up rate make it a very promising prompt SPND for power reactors. (orig.)
Theoretical Modeling of Various Spectroscopies for Cuprates and Topological Insulators
Basak, Susmita
Spectroscopies resolved highly in momentum, energy and/or spatial dimensions are playing an important role in unraveling key properties of wide classes of novel materials. However, spectroscopies do not usually provide a direct map of the underlying electronic spectrum, but act as a complex 'filter' to produce a 'mapping' of the underlying energy levels, Fermi surfaces (FSs) and excitation spectra. The connection between the electronic spectrum and the measured spectra is described as a generalized 'matrix element effect'. The nature of the matrix element involved differs greatly between different spectroscopies. For example, in angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) an incoming photon knocks out an electron from the sample and the energy and momentum of the photoemitted electron is measured. This is quite different from what happens in K-edge resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), where an X-ray photon is scattered after inducing electronic transitions near the Fermi energy through an indirect second order process, or in Compton scattering where the incident X-ray photon is scattered inelastically from an electron transferring energy and momentum to the scattering electron. For any given spectroscopy, the matrix element is, in general, a complex function of the phase space of the experiment, e.g. energy/polarization of the incoming photon and the energy/momentum/spin of the photoemitted electron in the case of ARPES. The matrix element can enhance or suppress signals from specific states, or merge signals of groups of states, making a good understanding of the matrix element effects important for not only a robust interpretation of the spectra, but also for ascertaining optimal regions of the experimental phase space for zooming in on states of the greatest interest. In this thesis I discuss a comprehensive scheme for modeling various highly resolved spectroscopies of the cuprates and topological insulators (TIs) where effects of matrix element, crystal
Theoretical models for MHD turbulence in the solar wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veltri, P.; Malara, F.
1997-01-01
The in situ measurements of velocity, magnetic field, density and temperature fluctuations performed in the solar wind have greatly improved our knowledge of MDH turbulence not only from the point of view of space physics but also from the more general point of view of plasma physics. These fluctuations which extend over a wide range of frequencies (about 5 decades), a fact which seems to be the signature of turbulent nonlinear energy cascade, display, mainly in the trailing edge of high-speed streams, a number of features characteristic of a self-organized situation: i) a high degree of correlation between magnetic and velocity field fluctuations, ii) a very low level of fluctuations in mass density and magnetic-field intensity, iii) a considerable anisotropy revealed by minimum variance analysis of the magnetic-field correlation tensor. Many fundamental processes in plasma physics, which were largely unknown or not understood before their observations in the solar wind, have been explained, by building up analytical models or performing numerical simulations. We discuss the most recent analytical theories and numerical simulations and outline the limits implicit in any analysis which consider the low-frequency solar-wind fluctuations as a superposition of linear modes. The characterization of low-frequency fluctuations during Alfvenic periods, which results from the models discussed, is finally presented
The theoretical modelling of aerosol behaviour within containment buildings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunbar, I.H.
1988-01-01
The modelling of the deposition of aerosol particles within the containment building plays an important part in determining the effectiveness of the building in reducing releases of activity following accidents. This paper describes attempts to ensure the accuracy of computer codes which model aerosol behaviour, with special reference to the code AEROSIM-M. Code intercomparisons have been used to test the reliability of the coding and the accuracy of the numerical methods. Those codes which assume that the particle size distribution is always lognormal give significantly different results from those which do not make this assumption but instead discretise the range of particle sizes. When the same physical assumptions are made, the predictions of different discrete codes are in reasonable agreement. In comparisons between an earlier version of AEROSIM and sodium fire experiments, the code achieved good agreement on the overall time-scale of deposition. An extensive set of tests of AEROSIM-M against experiments relevant to LWR conditions is underway. (author)
Theoretical model for calculation of molecular stopping power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Y.J.
1984-01-01
A modified local plasma model based on the work of Linhard-Winther, Bethe, Brown, and Walske is established. The Gordon-Kim's molecular charged density model is employed to obtain a formula to evaluate the stopping power of many useful molecular systems. The stopping power of H 2 and He gas was calculated for incident proton energy ranging from 100 KeV to 2.5 MeV. The stopping power of O 2 , N 2 , and water vapor was also calculated for incident proton energy ranging from 40 keV to 2.5 MeV. Good agreement with experimental data was obtained. A discussion of molecular effects leading to departure from Bragg's rule is presented. The equipartition rule and the effect of nuclear momentum recoiling in stopping power are also discussed in the appendix. The calculation procedure presented hopefully can easily be extended to include the most useful organic systems such as the molecules composed of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen which are useful in radiation protection field
A theoretical model of a liquid metal ion source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kingham, D.R.; Swanson, L.W.
1984-01-01
A model of liquid metal ion source (LMIS) operation has been developed which gives a consistent picture of three different aspects of LMI sources: (i) the shape and size of the ion emitting region; (ii) the mechanism of ion formation; (iii) properties of the ion beam such as angular intensity and energy spread. It was found that the emitting region takes the shape of a jet-like protrusion on the end of a Taylor cone with ion emission from an area only a few tens of A across, in agreement with recent TEM pictures by Sudraud. This is consistent with ion formation predominantly by field evaporation. Calculated angular intensities and current-voltage characteristics based on our fluid dynamic jet-like protrusion model agree well with experiment. The formation of doubly charged ions is attributed to post-ionization of field evaporated singly charged ions and an apex field strength of about 2.0 V A -1 was calculated for a Ga source. The ion energy spread is mainly due to space charge effects, it is known to be reduced for doubly charged ions in agreement with this post-ionization mechanism. (author)
Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Witt, Regina R.; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin
2016-01-01
Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of p...
4. Valorizations of Theoretical Models of Giftedness and Talent in Defining of Artistic Talent
Anghel Ionica Ona
2016-01-01
Artistic talent has been defined in various contexts and registers a variety of meanings, more or less operational. From the perspective of pedagogical intervention, it is imperative understanding artistic talent trough the theoretical models of giftedness and talent. So, the aim of the study is to realize a review of the most popular of the theoretical models of giftedness and talent, with identification of the place of artistic talent and the new meanings that artistic talent has in each on...
Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakshminarayana, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fagan, J.R. Jr. [Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)
1995-10-01
This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbo-machinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tensor. Penn State will lead the effort to make direct measurements of the momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors in high-speed multistage compressor flow field in the turbomachinery laboratory at Penn State. They will also process the data by both conventional and conditional spectrum analysis to derive momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors due to blade-to-blade periodic and aperiodic components, revolution periodic and aperiodic components arising from various blade rows and non-deterministic (which includes random components) correlations. The modeling results from this program will be publicly available and generally applicable to steady-state Navier-Stokes solvers used for turbomachinery component (compressor or turbine) flow field predictions. These models will lead to improved methodology, including loss and efficiency prediction, for the design of high-efficiency turbomachinery and drastically reduce the time required for the design and development cycle of turbomachinery.
Theoretical modelling of hot gas ingestion through turbine rim seals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Michael Owen
2012-12-01
The nozzle guide vanes create three-dimensional (3D variations in the distribution of pressure in the mainstream annulus and the turbine blades create unsteady effects. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD is both time-consuming and expensive for these 3D unsteady flows, and engine designers tend to use correlations or simple models to predict ingress. This paper describes the application of simple ‘orifice models’, the analytical solutions of which can be used to calculate the sealing effectiveness of turbine rim seals. The solutions agree well with available data for externally-induced ingress, where the effects of rotation are negligible, for rotationally-induced ingress, where the effects of the external flow are small, and for combined ingress, where the effects of both external flow and rotation are significant.
Theoretical modeling of 'REE's - novel ligand interaction' for waste management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singha, M.; Hareendran, K.N.; Pal, Sangita
2013-01-01
Many industrial wastewaters, starting from mining, milling, washing, regeneration, fabrication, operation, reprocessing etc contain valuable metal ions which are mostly present in lean concentration (1 ppm-100 ppb). These metals, especially heavy metals above the permissible limit are toxic and pose a major environmental hazard but are potentially economic and demand a recovery. Thus, the removal/recovery of these lean valuables is important and a technological challenge with respect to cost and safe disposal. In the present study, a neutron absorber (during nuclear reactor shut down) lanthanides e.g., gadolinium sorption was studied with a specially anchored sequestering agent in an extremely hydrophilic three dimensionally cross-linked matrix. In this regard, validation of Langmuir and Freundlich model and intra-molecular diffusion regarding 'Weber Morris' enlightens novel aspects of formation of hydrated sheath and easy diffusion of hydrated metal ion through micro-pores of gel-breathed resin. (author)
Theoretical models of Kapton heating in solar array geometries
Morton, Thomas L.
1992-01-01
In an effort to understand pyrolysis of Kapton in solar arrays, a computational heat transfer program was developed. This model allows for the different materials and widely divergent length scales of the problem. The present status of the calculation indicates that thin copper traces surrounded by Kapton and carrying large currents can show large temperature increases, but the other configurations seen on solar arrays have adequate heat sinks to prevent substantial heating of the Kapton. Electron currents from the ambient plasma can also contribute to heating of thin traces. Since Kapton is stable at temperatures as high as 600 C, this indicates that it should be suitable for solar array applications. There are indications that the adhesive sued in solar arrays may be a strong contributor to the pyrolysis problem seen in solar array vacuum chamber tests.
Theoretical modeling of cellular and dendritic solidification microstructures
Song, Younggil
In this dissertation, we use three-dimensional (3D) phase-field (PF) modeling to investigate (i) 3D solid-liquid interface dynamics observed in microgravity experiments, and (ii) array patterns in a thin-sample geometry. In addition, using the two-dimensional (2D) dendritic-needle-network (DNN) model, we explore (iii) secondary sidebranching dynamics. Recently, solidification experiments are carried out in the DSI (Directional Solidification Insert) of the DECLIC (Device for the study of Critical LIquids and Crystallization) facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Thus, the directional solidification experiments are achieved under limited convective currents, and the experimental observations reveal unique dynamics of 3D microstructure in a purely diffusive growth regime. In this directional solidification setup, a temperature field between heat sources could evolve due to two main factors: (i) heat transfer within an adiabatic zone and (ii) latent heat rejection at the interface. These two thermal effects are phenomenologically characterized using a time-dependent thermal shift. In addition, we could quantitatively account for these thermal factors using a numerical calculation of the evolution of temperature field. We introduce these phenomenological and quantitative thermal representations into the PF model. The performed simulations using different thermal descriptions are compared to the experimental measurements from the initial planar interface dynamics to the final spacing selection. The DECLIC-DSI experimental observations exhibit complex grain boundary (GB) dynamics between large grains with a small misorientation. In the observations, several large grains with a small misorientation with respect to the temperature gradient are formed during solidification. Specifically, at a convergent GB, a localized group of misoriented cells penetrates into a nearby grain, which yields the morphological instability of grain boundaries. Remarkably, while
Experimental study and theoretical modelling of two-phase flow in a converging diverging nozzle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selmer-Olsen, Stale
1991-01-01
A theoretical and experimental study of high quality two-phase flows in converging-diverging nozzles is presented. The main objectives are the prediction of critical (choked) flow rates and the evolution of characteristic parameters towards the nozzle outlet. First, a thorough analysis of available models shows the importance of a correct modelling of the mechanical and thermal interactions between the gas and liquid phases. As a second step, a purely dispersed flow model is considered. The solution algorithm which is utilized describes accurately the critical (choked) flow conditions as well as the topology of the solutions. The dispersed flow model accounts for effects on the gas flow rate of the upstream and the downstream pressures, the liquid flow rate and the nozzle geometry. The pressure profile along the nozzle and the location of the critical cross-section are also well predicted. The flow is shown to switch from critical to sub-critical when the liquid flow rate is increased, all other control parameters at the inlet and the outlet maintained. This new finding is interpreted as a result of the possible location of the critical cross-section anywhere in the diverging part of the nozzle. Moreover, the experiments show that the critical (choked) gas flow rate depends on the inlet configuration of gas/liquid. In the third step, a careful analysis of the data is used as a basis for proposing a new dispersed-annular flow model. This model accounts for the liquid flowing both as a liquid film and as entrained droplets in the core, non-developed flow is accounted for as well as flow separation in the diffuser. Finally, advanced local measuring techniques of pressure, film thickness and film velocity have been developed in the course of the work. In particular film thickness measurements allowed the development of the flow structure to be understood. (author) [fr
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tsai Min-Jen
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Digital watermarking techniques have been developed to protect the intellectual property. A digital watermarking system is basically judged based on two characteristics: security robustness and image quality. In order to obtain a robust visible watermarking in practice, we present a novel watermarking algorithm named adaptive content and contrast aware (ACOCOA, which considers the host image content and watermark texture. In addition, we propose a powerful security architecture against attacks for visible watermarking system which is based on game-theoretic approach that provides an equilibrium condition solution for the decision maker by studying the effects of transmission power on intensity and perceptual efficiency. The experimental results demonstrate that the feasibility of the proposed approach not only provides effectiveness and robustness for the watermarked images, but also allows the watermark encoder to obtain the best adaptive watermarking strategy under attacks.
Description of group-theoretical model of developed turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saveliev, V L; Gorokhovski, M A
2008-01-01
We propose to associate the phenomenon of stationary turbulence with the special self-similar solutions of the Euler equations. These solutions represent the linear superposition of eigenfields of spatial symmetry subgroup generators and imply their dependence on time through the parameter of the symmetry transformation only. From this model, it follows that for developed turbulent process, changing the scale of averaging (filtering) of the velocity field is equivalent to composition of scaling, translation and rotation transformations. We call this property a renormalization-group invariance of filtered turbulent fields. The renormalization group invariance provides an opportunity to transform the averaged Navier-Stokes equation over a small scale (inner threshold of the turbulence) to larger scales by simple scaling. From the methodological point of view, it is significant to note that the turbulent viscosity term appeared not as a result of averaging of the nonlinear term in the Navier-Stokes equation, but from the molecular viscosity term with the help of renormalization group transformation.
Opacity and noninear effects on theoretical BL Herculis models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodson, S.W.; Cox, A.N.; King, D.S.
1982-01-01
Linear and nonlinear pulsation models for BL Herculis variables have been constructed to investigate the resonance which seems to occur when the ratio of the second overtone (Pi 2 ) to fundamental (Pi 0 ) radial periods is near 0.5. This resonance is shown to affect the shapes of the light and velocity curves and produce bumps on either ascending or descending light just as far classical Cepheids. Linear theory predicts the resonance to occur at periods between 1.7 and 3.0 days for 0.55 M/sub sun/ and between 2.1 and 4.0 days for 0.75 M/sub sun/ stars at the red and blue edges, respectively, of the stability strip. These periods are rather independent of the composition and opacity tables. However, observations show the resonance to be about 1.7 days for all BL Her variables by noticing that the bump phase switches from descending to ascending light as the period increases. Nonlinear calculations indicate that the linear theory predictions of Pi 2 /Pi 0 are not reliable just at Pi 2 /Pi 0 = 0.5, and the predicted resonance occurs always at the proper period as observed
Scheydt, Stefan; Needham, Ian; Behrens, Johann
2017-01-01
Background: Within the scope of the research project on the subjects of sensory overload and stimulus regulation, a theoretical framework model of the nursing care of patients with sensory overload in psychiatry was developed. In a second step, this theoretical model should now be theoretically compressed and, if necessary, modified. Aim: Empirical verification as well as modification, enhancement and theoretical densification of the framework model of nursing care of patients with sensory overload in psychiatry. Method: Analysis of 8 expert interviews by summarizing and structuring content analysis methods based on Meuser and Nagel (2009) as well as Mayring (2010). Results: The developed framework model (Scheydt et al., 2016b) could be empirically verified, theoretically densificated and extended by one category (perception modulation). Thus, four categories of nursing care of patients with sensory overload can be described in inpatient psychiatry: removal from stimuli, modulation of environmental factors, perceptual modulation as well as help somebody to help him- or herself / coping support. Conclusions: Based on the methodological approach, a relatively well-saturated, credible conceptualization of a theoretical model for the description of the nursing care of patients with sensory overload in stationary psychiatry could be worked out. In further steps, these measures have to be further developed, implemented and evaluated regarding to their efficacy.
Theoretical modeling of electronic transport in molecular devices
Piccinin, Simone
simple two level model. Finally the transport properties of alkanethiol monolayers are analyzed by means of the local density of states at the Fermi energy: we find an exponential dependence of the current on the length of the chain, in quantitative agreement with the corresponding experiments.
de Jonge, J.; Dormann, C.; van den Tooren, M.; Näswall, K.; Hellgren, J.; Sverke, M.
2008-01-01
This chapter presents a recently developed theoretical model on jobrelated stress and performance, the so-called Demand-Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) model. The DISC model predicts in general that adverse health effects of high job demands can best be compensated for by matching job resources
Lise, W.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kuik, O.; Kemfert, C.; Ostling, R.; Heinzow, T.
2006-01-01
This paper develops a static computational game theoretic model. Illustrative results for the liberalising European electricity market are given to demonstrate the type of economic and environmental results that can be generated with the model. The model is empirically calibrated to eight
THEORETICAL FLOW MODEL THROUGH A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP USED FOR WATER SUPPLY IN AGRICULTURE IRRIGATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SCHEAUA Fanel Dorel
2017-05-01
motion of the rotor. A theoretical model for calculating the flow of the working fluid through the interior of a centrifugal pump model is presented in this paper as well as the numerical analysis on the virtual model performed with the ANSYS CFX software in order to highlight the flow parameters and flow path-lines that are formed during centrifugal pump operation.
A beginner's guide to writing the nursing conceptual model-based theoretical rationale.
Gigliotti, Eileen; Manister, Nancy N
2012-10-01
Writing the theoretical rationale for a study can be a daunting prospect for novice researchers. Nursing's conceptual models provide excellent frameworks for placement of study variables, but moving from the very abstract concepts of the nursing model to the less abstract concepts of the study variables is difficult. Similar to the five-paragraph essay used by writing teachers to assist beginning writers to construct a logical thesis, the authors of this column present guidelines that beginners can follow to construct their theoretical rationale. This guide can be used with any nursing conceptual model but Neuman's model was chosen here as the exemplar.
Scholz, Stefan; Graf von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias; Greiner, Wolfgang
2015-11-17
Regional differences in physician supply can be found in many health care systems, regardless of their organizational and financial structure. A theoretical model is developed for the physicians' decision on office allocation, covering demand-side factors and a consumption time function. To test the propositions following the theoretical model, generalized linear models were estimated to explain differences in 412 German districts. Various factors found in the literature were included to control for physicians' regional preferences. Evidence in favor of the first three propositions of the theoretical model could be found. Specialists show a stronger association to higher populated districts than GPs. Although indicators for regional preferences are significantly correlated with physician density, their coefficients are not as high as population density. If regional disparities should be addressed by political actions, the focus should be to counteract those parameters representing physicians' preferences in over- and undersupplied regions.
Application of a two fluid theoretical plasma transport model on current tokamak reactor designs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibrahim, E.; Fowler, T.K.
1987-06-01
In this work, the new theoretical transport models to TIBER II design calculations are described and the results are compared with recent experimental data in large tokamaks (TFTR, JET). Tang's method is extended to a two-fluid model treating ions and electrons separately. This allows for different ion and electron temperatures, as in recent low-density experiments in TFTR, and in the TIBER II design itself. The discussion is divided into two parts: (1) Development of the theoretical transport model and (2) calibration against experiments and application to TIBER II
Data assimilation techniques in modeling ocean processes
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mahadevan, R.; Fernandes, A.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.
are usually called data analysis or assimilation. These homogeneous fields are prerequisites for various practical applications and theoretical studies. The fields produced by an analysi the one hand, they must be close to the observations.... The practical usefulness of variational methods for meteorological problems are pointed out very early by Sasaki (1955, 1958), but in spite of that these methods have not been fully utilized. Probably, the complex mathematical technicality of these methods...
By-product mutualism and the ambiguous effects of harsher environments - A game-theoretic model
De Jaegher, Kris; Hoyer, Britta
2016-01-01
We construct two-player two-strategy game-theoretic models of by-product mutualism, where our focus lies on the way in which the probability of cooperation among players is affected by the degree of adversity facing the players. In our first model, cooperation consists of the production of a public
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lind, M.
2005-10-01
Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) has proven to be an effective modeling tool for reasoning about plant failure and control strategies and is currently exploited for operator support in diagnosis and on-line alarm analysis. Previous MFM research was focussed on representing goals and functions of process plants which generate, transform and distribute mass and energy. However, only a limited consideration has been given to the problems of modeling the control systems. Control functions are indispensable for operating any industrial plant. But modeling of control system functions has proven to be a more challenging problem than modeling functions of energy and mass processes. The problems were discussed by Lind and tentative solutions has been proposed but have not been investigated in depth until recently, partly due to the lack of an appropriate theoretical foundation. The purposes of the present report are to show that such a theoretical foundation for modeling goals and functions of control systems can be built from concepts and theories of action developed by Von Wright and to show how the theoretical foundation can be used to extend MFM with concepts for modeling control systems. The theoretical foundations has been presented in detail elsewhere by the present author without the particular focus on modeling control actions and MFM adopted here. (au)
Achievement Goals and Discrete Achievement Emotions: A Theoretical Model and Prospective Test
Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.
2006-01-01
A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lind, M. [Oersted - DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)
2005-10-01
Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) has proven to be an effective modeling tool for reasoning about plant failure and control strategies and is currently exploited for operator support in diagnosis and on-line alarm analysis. Previous MFM research was focussed on representing goals and functions of process plants which generate, transform and distribute mass and energy. However, only a limited consideration has been given to the problems of modeling the control systems. Control functions are indispensable for operating any industrial plant. But modeling of control system functions has proven to be a more challenging problem than modeling functions of energy and mass processes. The problems were discussed by Lind and tentative solutions has been proposed but have not been investigated in depth until recently, partly due to the lack of an appropriate theoretical foundation. The purposes of the present report are to show that such a theoretical foundation for modeling goals and functions of control systems can be built from concepts and theories of action developed by Von Wright and to show how the theoretical foundation can be used to extend MFM with concepts for modeling control systems. The theoretical foundations has been presented in detail elsewhere by the present author without the particular focus on modeling control actions and MFM adopted here. (au)
Expectancy-Violation and Information-Theoretic Models of Melodic Complexity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tuomas Eerola
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The present study assesses two types of models for melodic complexity: one based on expectancy violations and the other one related to an information-theoretic account of redundancy in music. Seven different datasets spanning artificial sequences, folk and pop songs were used to refine and assess the models. The refinement eliminated unnecessary components from both types of models. The final analysis pitted three variants of the two model types against each other and could explain from 46-74% of the variance in the ratings across the datasets. The most parsimonious models were identified with an information-theoretic criterion. This suggested that the simplified expectancy-violation models were the most efficient for these sets of data. However, the differences between all optimized models were subtle in terms both of performance and simplicity.
Cusack, Lynette; Smith, Morgan; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare S; Breen, Lauren J; Witt, Regina R; Rogers, Cath; Williams, Allison; Cross, Wendy; Cheung, Kin
2016-01-01
Building nurses' resilience to complex and stressful practice environments is necessary to keep skilled nurses in the workplace and ensuring safe patient care. A unified theoretical framework titled Health Services Workplace Environmental Resilience Model (HSWERM), is presented to explain the environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. The framework builds on a previously-published theoretical model of individual resilience, which identified the key constructs of psychological resilience as self-efficacy, coping and mindfulness, but did not examine environmental factors in the workplace that promote nurses' resilience. This unified theoretical framework was developed using a literary synthesis drawing on data from international studies and literature reviews on the nursing workforce in hospitals. The most frequent workplace environmental factors were identified, extracted and clustered in alignment with key constructs for psychological resilience. Six major organizational concepts emerged that related to a positive resilience-building workplace and formed the foundation of the theoretical model. Three concepts related to nursing staff support (professional, practice, personal) and three related to nursing staff development (professional, practice, personal) within the workplace environment. The unified theoretical model incorporates these concepts within the workplace context, linking to the nurse, and then impacting on personal resilience and workplace outcomes, and its use has the potential to increase staff retention and quality of patient care.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaojin Li
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Previous studies have investigated both structural and functional brain networks via graph-theoretical methods. However, there is an important issue that has not been adequately discussed before: what is the optimal theoretical graph model for describing the structural networks of human brain? In this paper, we perform a comparative study to address this problem. Firstly, large-scale cortical regions of interest (ROIs are localized by recently developed and validated brain reference system named Dense Individualized Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL to address the limitations in the identification of the brain network ROIs in previous studies. Then, we construct structural brain networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data. Afterwards, the global and local graph properties of the constructed structural brain networks are measured using the state-of-the-art graph analysis algorithms and tools and are further compared with seven popular theoretical graph models. In addition, we compare the topological properties between two graph models, namely, stickiness-index-based model (STICKY and scale-free gene duplication model (SF-GD, that have higher similarity with the real structural brain networks in terms of global and local graph properties. Our experimental results suggest that among the seven theoretical graph models compared in this study, STICKY and SF-GD models have better performances in characterizing the structural human brain network.
Structural modeling techniques by finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Yeong Jin; Kim, Geung Hwan; Ju, Gwan Jeong
1991-01-01
This book includes introduction table of contents chapter 1 finite element idealization introduction summary of the finite element method equilibrium and compatibility in the finite element solution degrees of freedom symmetry and anti symmetry modeling guidelines local analysis example references chapter 2 static analysis structural geometry finite element models analysis procedure modeling guidelines references chapter 3 dynamic analysis models for dynamic analysis dynamic analysis procedures modeling guidelines and modeling guidelines.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, L. H.; Hu, L.; Yang, S. J.; Wang, W. L.; Wei, B.
2016-01-01
The thermodynamic properties, including the density, volume expansion coefficient, ratio of specific heat to emissivity of intermetallic Ni 7 Zr 2 alloy, have been measured using the non-contact electrostatic levitation technique. These properties vary linearly with temperature at solid and liquid states, even down to the obtained maximum undercooling of 317 K. The enthalpy, glass transition, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and surface tension were obtained by using molecular dynamics simulations. Ni 7 Zr 2 has a relatively poor glass forming ability, and the glass transition temperature is determined as 1026 K. The inter-diffusivity of Ni 7 Zr 2 alloy fitted by Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann law yields a fragility parameter of 8.49, which indicates the fragile nature of this alloy. Due to the competition of increased thermodynamic driving force and decreased atomic diffusion, the dendrite growth velocity of Ni 7 Zr 2 compound exhibits double-exponential relationship to the undercooling. The maximum growth velocity is predicted to be 0.45 m s −1 at the undercooling of 335 K. Theoretical analysis reveals that the dendrite growth is a diffusion-controlled process and the atomic diffusion speed is only 2.0 m s −1
Jennings, Karen M
Using a nursing theoretical framework to understand, elucidate, and propose nursing research is fundamental to knowledge development. This article presents the Roy Adaptation Model as a theoretical framework to better understand individuals with anorexia nervosa during acute treatment, and the role of nursing assessments and interventions in the promotion of weight restoration. Nursing assessments and interventions situated within the Roy Adaptation Model take into consideration how weight restoration does not occur in isolation but rather reflects an adaptive process within external and internal environments, and has the potential for more holistic care.
Haeufle, D F B; Günther, M; Blickhan, R; Schmitt, S
2011-01-01
Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE), a parallel damper element (PDE), and a serial element (SE) exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, the contraction dynamics of this CE concept were analyzed in a numerical simulation of quick release experiments against different loads. A hyperbolic force-velocity relation was found. The results correspond to measurements of the contraction dynamics of a technical prototype. Deviations from the theoretical prediction could partly be explained by the low stiffness of the SE, which was modeled analog to the metal spring in the hardware prototype. The numerical model and hardware prototype together, are a proof of this CE concept and can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles. This opens up new vistas for the technical realization of natural movements with rehabilitation devices. © 2011 IEEE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woods, D.D.; Roth, E.M.
1986-01-01
This paper reviews the major theoretical literatures that are relevant to modeling human cognitive activities important to nuclear power plant safety. The traditions considered include control theory, communication theory, statistical decision theory, information processing models and symbolic processing models. The review reveals a gradual convergence towards models that incorporate elements from multiple traditions. Models from the control theory tradition have gradually evolved to include rich knowledge representations borrowed from the symbolic processing work. At the same time theorists in the symbolic processing tradition are beginning to grapple with some of the critical issues involved in modeling complex real world domain
Theoretical-empirical model of the steam-water cycle of the power unit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grzegorz Szapajko
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The diagnostics of the energy conversion systems’ operation is realised as a result of collecting, processing, evaluatingand analysing the measurement signals. The result of the analysis is the determination of the process state. It requires a usageof the thermal processes models. Construction of the analytical model with the auxiliary empirical functions built-in brings satisfyingresults. The paper presents theoretical-empirical model of the steam-water cycle. Worked out mathematical simulation model containspartial models of the turbine, the regenerative heat exchangers and the condenser. Statistical verification of the model is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barreto, Rafael C.; Perna, Allan F.N.; Narloch, Danielle C.; Del Claro, Flavia; Correa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.
2017-01-01
It was developed an improved theoretical model capable to estimate the radium concentration in building materials solely measuring the radon-222 concentration in a con ned atmosphere. This non-destructive technique is not limited by the size of the samples, and it intrinsically includes back diffusion. The resulting equation provides the exact solution for the concentration of radon-222 as a function of time and distance in one dimension. The effective concentration of radium-226 is a fit parameter of this equation. In order to reduce its complexity, this equation was simplified considering two cases: low diffusion in the building material compared to the air, and a building material initially saturated with radon-222. These simplified versions of the exact one dimension solution were used to t experimental data. Radon-222 concentration was continuously measured for twelve days with an AlphaGUARD TM detector, located at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics at Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR). This model was applied to two different materials: cement mortar and concrete, which results were respectively (15:7 ±8:3) Bq=kg and (10:5±2:4) Bq=kg for the radium-226 effective concentration. This estimation was confronted with the direct measurements of radium in the same materials (same sources) using gamma-ray spectrometry, fulfilled at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), which results were respectively (13:81±0:23) Bq=kg and (12:61±0:22) Bq=kg. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barreto, Rafael C.; Perna, Allan F.N.; Narloch, Danielle C.; Del Claro, Flavia; Correa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A., E-mail: baarreth@gmail.com, E-mail: allan_perna@hotmail.com, E-mail: daninarloch@hotmail.com, E-mail: aviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Departamento Academico de Fisica e Departamento Academico de Construcao Civil
2017-07-01
It was developed an improved theoretical model capable to estimate the radium concentration in building materials solely measuring the radon-222 concentration in a con ned atmosphere. This non-destructive technique is not limited by the size of the samples, and it intrinsically includes back diffusion. The resulting equation provides the exact solution for the concentration of radon-222 as a function of time and distance in one dimension. The effective concentration of radium-226 is a fit parameter of this equation. In order to reduce its complexity, this equation was simplified considering two cases: low diffusion in the building material compared to the air, and a building material initially saturated with radon-222. These simplified versions of the exact one dimension solution were used to t experimental data. Radon-222 concentration was continuously measured for twelve days with an AlphaGUARD{sup TM} detector, located at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics at Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR). This model was applied to two different materials: cement mortar and concrete, which results were respectively (15:7 ±8:3) Bq=kg and (10:5±2:4) Bq=kg for the radium-226 effective concentration. This estimation was confronted with the direct measurements of radium in the same materials (same sources) using gamma-ray spectrometry, fulfilled at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), which results were respectively (13:81±0:23) Bq=kg and (12:61±0:22) Bq=kg. (author)
BIOMEHANICAL MODEL OF THE GOLF SWING TECHNIQUE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milan Čoh
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Golf is an extremely complex game which depends on a number of interconnected factors. One of the most important elements is undoubtedly the golf swing technique. High performance of the golf swing technique is generated by: the level of motor abilities, high degree of movement control, the level of movement structure stabilisation, morphological characteristics, inter- and intro-muscular coordination, motivation, and concentration. The golf swing technique was investigated using the biomechanical analysis method. Kinematic parameters were registered using two synchronised high-speed cameras at a frequency of 2,000 Hz. The sample of subjects consisted of three professional golf players. The study results showed a relatively high variability of the swing technique. The maximum velocity of the ball after a wood swing ranged from 233 to 227 km/h. The velocity of the ball after an iron swing was lower by 10 km/h on average. The elevation angle of the ball ranged from 11.7 to 15.3 degrees. In the final phase of the golf swing, i.e. downswing, the trunk rotators play the key role.
Respirometry techniques and activated sludge models
Benes, O.; Spanjers, H.; Holba, M.
2002-01-01
This paper aims to explain results of respirometry experiments using Activated Sludge Model No. 1. In cases of insufficient fit of ASM No. 1, further modifications to the model were carried out and the so-called "Enzymatic model" was developed. The best-fit method was used to determine the effect of
Theoretical Assessment of the Impact of Climatic Factors in a Vibrio Cholerae Model.
Kolaye, G; Damakoa, I; Bowong, S; Houe, R; Békollè, D
2018-05-04
A mathematical model for Vibrio Cholerae (V. Cholerae) in a closed environment is considered, with the aim of investigating the impact of climatic factors which exerts a direct influence on the bacterial metabolism and on the bacterial reservoir capacity. We first propose a V. Cholerae mathematical model in a closed environment. A sensitivity analysis using the eFast method was performed to show the most important parameters of the model. After, we extend this V. cholerae model by taking account climatic factors that influence the bacterial reservoir capacity. We present the theoretical analysis of the model. More precisely, we compute equilibria and study their stabilities. The stability of equilibria was investigated using the theory of periodic cooperative systems with a concave nonlinearity. Theoretical results are supported by numerical simulations which further suggest the necessity to implement sanitation campaigns of aquatic environments by using suitable products against the bacteria during the periods of growth of aquatic reservoirs.
Theoretical results on the tandem junction solar cell based on its Ebers-Moll transistor model
Goradia, C.; Vaughn, J.; Baraona, C. R.
1980-01-01
A one-dimensional theoretical model of the tandem junction solar cell (TJC) with base resistivity greater than about 1 ohm-cm and under low level injection has been derived. This model extends a previously published conceptual model which treats the TJC as an npn transistor. The model gives theoretical expressions for each of the Ebers-Moll type currents of the illuminated TJC and allows for the calculation of the spectral response, I(sc), V(oc), FF and eta under variation of one or more of the geometrical and material parameters and 1MeV electron fluence. Results of computer calculations based on this model are presented and discussed. These results indicate that for space applications, both a high beginning of life efficiency, greater than 15% AM0, and a high radiation tolerance can be achieved only with thin (less than 50 microns) TJC's with high base resistivity (greater than 10 ohm-cm).
A theoretical model to describe progressions and regressions for exercise rehabilitation.
Blanchard, Sam; Glasgow, Phil
2014-08-01
This article aims to describe a new theoretical model to simplify and aid visualisation of the clinical reasoning process involved in progressing a single exercise. Exercise prescription is a core skill for physiotherapists but is an area that is lacking in theoretical models to assist clinicians when designing exercise programs to aid rehabilitation from injury. Historical models of periodization and motor learning theories lack any visual aids to assist clinicians. The concept of the proposed model is that new stimuli can be added or exchanged with other stimuli, either intrinsic or extrinsic to the participant, in order to gradually progress an exercise whilst remaining safe and effective. The proposed model maintains the core skills of physiotherapists by assisting clinical reasoning skills, exercise prescription and goal setting. It is not limited to any one pathology or rehabilitation setting and can adapted by any level of skilled clinician. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theoretical model simulations for the global Thermospheric Mapping Study (TMS) periods
Rees, D.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.
Theoretical and semiempirical models of the solar UV/EUV and of the geomagnetic driving forces affecting the terrestrial mesosphere and thermosphere have been used to generate a series of representative numerical time-dependent and global models of the thermosphere, for the range of solar and geoamgnetic activity levels which occurred during the three Thermospheric Mapping Study periods. The simulations obtained from these numerical models are compared with observations, and with the results of semiempirical models of the thermosphere. The theoretical models provide a record of the magnitude of the major driving forces which affected the thermosphere during the study periods, and a baseline against which the actual observed structure and dynamics can be compared.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rojas-Trigos, J.B.; Marín, E.; Mansanares, A.M.; Cedeño, E.; Juárez-Gracia, G.; Calderón, A.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A model for photopyroelectric thermal characterization of fluids is presented. • A slanted detector configuration is considered with a finite measurement cell. • The mean temperature distribution in the photopyroelectric detector, as function of the beam spot position, is calculated. • The influence of the excitation beam spot size, the thermal diffusion length and size of the sample is discussed. • The high lateral resolution of the method observed in experiments is explain. - Abstract: This work presents an extended description about the theoretical aspects related to the generation of the photopyroelectric signal in a recently proposed wedge-like heat transmission detection configuration, which recreates the well-known Angstrom method (widely used for solid samples) for accurate thermal diffusivity measurement in gases and liquids. The presented model allows for the calculation of the temperature profile detected by the pyroelectric sensor as a function of the excitation beam position, and the study of the influence on it of several parameters, such as spot size, thermal properties of the absorber layer, and geometrical parameters of the measurement cell. Through computer simulations, it has been demonstrated that a narrow temperature distribution is created at the sensor surface, independently of the lateral diffusion of heat taking place at the sample's surface
Dobbs-Dixon, Ian
The explosion in the number of exoplanets detected to date has revealed a surprising diversity. When attempting to model this diversity, it is crucial to account for the uncertainties resulting from our limited knowledge of chemical, dynamical, and cloud formation processes in their atmospheres. Combining a retrieval technique with theorydriven models is a particularly promising way to address these processes and constrain a physically plausible atmospheric structure. In particular, a detailed micro-physical treatment of clouds and the longitudinal and latitudinal assessments of temperature and chemical profiles, have yet to be addressed in the field. Our team members are experts in radiative-hydrodynamic modeling (Dr. Ian DobbsDixon), cloud kinetics (Dr. Christiana Helling), retrievals and thermo-equilibrium chemistry (Dr. Jasmina Blecic), and observational diagnostics and predictions (Dr. Thomas Greene). The key goals of this proposal are to extend our understanding of the 3D atmospheric structure of gas-giant exoplanets by coupling state-of-the-art selfconsistent models together with a retrieval framework to 1) address cloud kinetics in retrievals, 2) assess 3D temperature and chemical structures in retrievals, 3) model a suite of well-observed planets within the framework of our models, and 4) make observational predictions for current and future NASA missions. To address these goals we have developed a number of tools: Drift-RHD, TEA, BART, and OBS. Drift-RHD solves both the 3D radiative-hydrodynamic equations and a time dependent kinetic cloud model. TEA, Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances, calculates abundances of chemical species present in the atmosphere. BART, a Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer code, is a statistical retrieval framework to explore the parameter space of atmospheric chemical abundances and thermal profiles. OBS is a suite of tools developed to simulate observations. Though these tools exist and have been utilized independently in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Fanea
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Neurological disorders represent major causes of lost years of healthy life and mortality worldwide. Development of their quantitative interdisciplinary in vivo evaluation is required. Compartment modeling (CM of brain data acquired in vivo using magnetic resonance imaging techniques with clinically available contrast agents can be performed to quantitatively assess brain perfusion. Transport of 1H spins in water molecules across physiological compartmental brain barriers in three different pools was mathematically modeled and theoretically evaluated in this paper and the corresponding theoretical compartment modeling of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI data was analyzed. The pools considered were blood, tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The blood and CSF data were mathematically modeled assuming continuous flow of the 1H spins in these pools. Tissue data was modeled using three CMs. Results in this paper show that transport across physiological brain barriers such as the blood to brain barrier, the extracellular space to the intracellular space barrier, or the blood to CSF barrier can be evaluated quantitatively. Statistical evaluations of this quantitative information may be performed to assess tissue perfusion, barriers' integrity, and CSF flow in vivo in the normal or disease-affected brain or to assess response to therapy.
Aquino, Katherine C.
2016-01-01
Disability is often viewed as an obstacle to postsecondary inclusion, but not a characteristic of student diversity. Additionally, current theoretical frameworks isolate disability from other student diversity characteristics. In response, a new conceptual framework, the Disability-Diversity (Dis)Connect Model (DDDM), was created to address…
Theoretical model of the density of states of random binary alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zekri, N.; Brezini, A.
1991-09-01
A theoretical formulation of the density of states for random binary alloys is examined based on a mean field treatment. The present model includes both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder and also short-range order. Extensive results are reported for various concentrations and compared to other calculations. (author). 22 refs, 6 figs
Theoretical modeling of a new structure of III-V tandem solar cells by ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
junction solar cell is theoretically investigated by optimizing the thickness of GaAs and GaInPandusing a new optical model to separate the junction between the two solar cell in order to solve problems of tunnel junction and difficulties of fabrication.
A Game-Theoretic Model of Grounding for Referential Communication Tasks
Thompson, William
2009-01-01
Conversational grounding theory proposes that language use is a form of rational joint action, by which dialog participants systematically and collaboratively add to their common ground of shared knowledge and beliefs. Following recent work applying "game theory" to pragmatics, this thesis develops a game-theoretic model of grounding that…
Predicting Freshman Persistence and Voluntary Dropout Decisions from a Theoretical Model.
Pascarella, Ernest T.; Terenzini, Patrick T.
1980-01-01
A five-scale instrument developed from a theoretical model of college attrition correctly identified the persistence/voluntary withdrawal decisions of 78.5 percent of 773 freshmen in a large, residential university. Findings showed that student relationships with faculty were particularly important. (Author/PHR)
El-Khouly, Fatma E; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Stroink, Thom; Hulleman, Esther; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Hendrikse, N Harry; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Sophie E M
2017-01-01
Despite decades of clinical trials for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), patient survival does not exceed 10% at two years post-diagnosis. Lack of benefit from systemic chemotherapy may be attributed to an intact bloodbrain barrier (BBB). We aim to develop a theoretical model including
Mumcu, Hayal Yavuz
2016-01-01
The purpose of this theoretical study is to explore the relationships between the concepts of using mathematics in the daily life, mathematical applications, mathematical modelling, and mathematical literacy. As these concepts are generally taken as independent concepts in the related literature, they are confused with each other and it becomes…
UAV State Estimation Modeling Techniques in AHRS
Razali, Shikin; Zhahir, Amzari
2017-11-01
Autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system is depending on state estimation feedback to control flight operation. Estimation on the correct state improves navigation accuracy and achieves flight mission safely. One of the sensors configuration used in UAV state is Attitude Heading and Reference System (AHRS) with application of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or feedback controller. The results of these two different techniques in estimating UAV states in AHRS configuration are displayed through position and attitude graphs.
Group theoretical construction of two-dimensional models with infinite sets of conservation laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D'Auria, R.; Regge, T.; Sciuto, S.
1980-01-01
We explicitly construct some classes of field theoretical 2-dimensional models associated with symmetric spaces G/H according to a general scheme proposed in an earlier paper. We treat the SO(n + 1)/SO(n) and SU(n + 1)/U(n) case, giving their relationship with the O(n) sigma-models and the CP(n) models. Moreover, we present a new class of models associated to the SU(n)/SO(n) case. All these models are shown to possess an infinite set of local conservation laws. (orig.)
Senin, Tatjana; Meyer, Thorsten
2018-01-22
Aim was to gather theoretical knowledge about self-determination and to develop a conceptual model for medical rehabilitation- which serves as a basis for discussion. We performed a literature research in electronic databases. Various theories and research results were adopted and transferred to the context of medical rehabilitation and into a conceptual model. The conceptual model of self-determination reflects on a continuum which forms of self-determination may be present in situations of medical rehabilitation treatments. The location on the continuum depends theoretically on the manifestation of certain internal and external factors that may influence each other. The model provides a first conceptualization of self-determination focusing on medical rehabilitation which should be further refined and tested empirically. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Agha Mohammad Ali Kermani, Mehrdad; Fatemi Ardestani, Seyed Farshad; Aliahmadi, Alireza; Barzinpour, Farnaz
2017-01-01
Influence maximization deals with identification of the most influential nodes in a social network given an influence model. In this paper, a game theoretic framework is developed that models a competitive influence maximization problem. A novel competitive influence model is additionally proposed that incorporates user heterogeneity, message content, and network structure. The proposed game-theoretic model is solved using Nash Equilibrium in a real-world dataset. It is shown that none of the well-known strategies are stable and at least one player has the incentive to deviate from the proposed strategy. Moreover, violation of Nash equilibrium strategy by each player leads to their reduced payoff. Contrary to previous works, our results demonstrate that graph topology, as well as the nodes' sociability and initial tendency measures have an effect on the determination of the influential node in the network.
Theoretical and Empirical Review of Asset Pricing Models: A Structural Synthesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saban Celik
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give a comprehensive theoretical review devoted to asset pricing models by emphasizing static and dynamic versions in the line with their empirical investigations. A considerable amount of financial economics literature devoted to the concept of asset pricing and their implications. The main task of asset pricing model can be seen as the way to evaluate the present value of the pay offs or cash flows discounted for risk and time lags. The difficulty coming from discounting process is that the relevant factors that affect the pay offs vary through the time whereas the theoretical framework is still useful to incorporate the changing factors into an asset pricing models. This paper fills the gap in literature by giving a comprehensive review of the models and evaluating the historical stream of empirical investigations in the form of structural empirical review.
Theoretical Modeling of Magnesium Ion Imprints in the Raman Scattering of Water
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kapitán, J.; Dračínský, Martin; Kaminský, Jakub; Benda, Ladislav; Bouř, Petr
2010-01-01
Roč. 114, č. 10 (2010), s. 3574-3582 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0732; GA AV ČR IAA400550702; GA AV ČR IAA400550701; GA ČR GPP208/10/P356 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * theoretical modelling * CPMD Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.603, year: 2010
Theoretical modelling of semiconductor surfaces microscopic studies of electrons and photons
Srivastava, G P
1999-01-01
The state-of-the-art theoretical studies of ground state properties, electronic states and atomic vibrations for bulk semiconductors and their surfaces by the application of the pseudopotential method are discussed. Studies of bulk and surface phonon modes have been extended by the application of the phenomenological bond charge model. The coverage of the material, especially of the rapidly growing and technologically important topics of surface reconstruction and chemisorption, is up-to-date and beyond what is currently available in book form. Although theoretical in nature, the book provides
A Primer on Theoretically Exploring the Field of Business Model Innovation
Gassmann, Oliver; Frankenberger, Karolin; Sauer, Roman
2017-01-01
Companies like Amazon, Uber, and Skype have become business strategy icons and the way they transformed industries can hardly be explained with classic strategy research. This article explores the topic of Business Model Innovation, which has become the cornerstone for the competitiveness of many successful firms, from a theoretical perspective. It gives an overview and introduction to the book "Exploring the Field of Business Model Innovation".
Bakanauskienė Irena; Baronienė Laura
2017-01-01
This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of investing entities in controlling the activities of an organisation and their results is noticeable. Based on scientific literature analysis, a concept of controlled conditions is formulated, and using a rational approach to the decision-making process, a model of the 11-steps decision-making process under controlled intervention is presented. Also, there have been u...
Redesigning Orientation in an Intensive Care Unit Using 2 Theoretical Models.
Kozub, Elizabeth; Hibanada-Laserna, Maribel; Harget, Gwen; Ecoff, Laurie
2015-01-01
To accommodate a higher demand for critical care nurses, an orientation program in a surgical intensive care unit was revised and streamlined. Two theoretical models served as a foundation for the revision and resulted in clear clinical benchmarks for orientation progress evaluation. The purpose of the project was to integrate theoretical frameworks into practice to improve the unit orientation program. Performance improvement methods served as a framework for the revision, and outcomes were measured before and after implementation. The revised orientation program increased 1- and 2-year nurse retention and decreased turnover. Critical care knowledge increased after orientation for both the preintervention and postintervention groups. Incorporating a theoretical basis for orientation has been shown to be successful in increasing the number of nurses completing orientation and improving retention, turnover rates, and knowledge gained.
Walsh, Matthew M; Gluck, Kevin A; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Jastrzembski, Tiffany; Krusmark, Michael
2018-03-02
The spacing effect is among the most widely replicated empirical phenomena in the learning sciences, and its relevance to education and training is readily apparent. Yet successful applications of spacing effect research to education and training is rare. Computational modeling can provide the crucial link between a century of accumulated experimental data on the spacing effect and the emerging interest in using that research to enable adaptive instruction. In this paper, we review relevant literature and identify 10 criteria for rigorously evaluating computational models of the spacing effect. Five relate to evaluating the theoretic adequacy of a model, and five relate to evaluating its application potential. We use these criteria to evaluate a novel computational model of the spacing effect called the Predictive Performance Equation (PPE). Predictive Performance Equation combines elements of earlier models of learning and memory including the General Performance Equation, Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational, and the New Theory of Disuse, giving rise to a novel computational account of the spacing effect that performs favorably across the complete sets of theoretic and applied criteria. We implemented two other previously published computational models of the spacing effect and compare them to PPE using the theoretic and applied criteria as guides. © 2018 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed
Decision support models for solid waste management: Review and game-theoretic approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karmperis, Athanasios C., E-mail: athkarmp@mail.ntua.gr [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece); Army Corps of Engineers, Hellenic Army General Staff, Ministry of Defence (Greece); Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.; Sotirchos, Anastasios [Sector of Industrial Management and Operational Research, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Athens (Greece)
2013-05-15
Highlights: ► The mainly used decision support frameworks for solid waste management are reviewed. ► The LCA, CBA and MCDM models are presented and their strengths, weaknesses, similarities and possible combinations are analyzed. ► The game-theoretic approach in a solid waste management context is presented. ► The waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework. ► Cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches to decision support for solid waste management are discussed. - Abstract: This paper surveys decision support models that are commonly used in the solid waste management area. Most models are mainly developed within three decision support frameworks, which are the life-cycle assessment, the cost–benefit analysis and the multi-criteria decision-making. These frameworks are reviewed and their strengths and weaknesses as well as their critical issues are analyzed, while their possible combinations and extensions are also discussed. Furthermore, the paper presents how cooperative and non-cooperative game-theoretic approaches can be used for the purpose of modeling and analyzing decision-making in situations with multiple stakeholders. Specifically, since a waste management model is sustainable when considering not only environmental and economic but also social aspects, the waste management bargaining game is introduced as a specific decision support framework in which future models can be developed.
Moving objects management models, techniques and applications
Meng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jiajie
2014-01-01
This book describes the topics of moving objects modeling and location tracking, indexing and querying, clustering, location uncertainty, traffic aware navigation and privacy issues as well as the application to intelligent transportation systems.
Materials and techniques for model construction
Wigley, D. A.
1985-01-01
The problems confronting the designer of models for cryogenic wind tunnel models are discussed with particular reference to the difficulties in obtaining appropriate data on the mechanical and physical properties of candidate materials and their fabrication technologies. The relationship between strength and toughness of alloys is discussed in the context of maximizing both and avoiding the problem of dimensional and microstructural instability. All major classes of materials used in model construction are considered in some detail and in the Appendix selected numerical data is given for the most relevant materials. The stepped-specimen program to investigate stress-induced dimensional changes in alloys is discussed in detail together with interpretation of the initial results. The methods used to bond model components are considered with particular reference to the selection of filler alloys and temperature cycles to avoid microstructural degradation and loss of mechanical properties.
A review of game-theoretic models of road user behaviour.
Elvik, Rune
2014-01-01
This paper reviews game-theoretic models that have been developed to explain road user behaviour in situations where road users interact with each other. The paper includes the following game-theoretic models: 1.A general model of the interaction between road users and their possible reaction to measures improving safety (behavioural adaptation).2.Choice of vehicle size as a Prisoners’ dilemma game.3.Speed choice as a co-ordination game.4.Speed compliance as a game between drivers and the police.5.Merging into traffic from an acceleration lane as a mixed-strategy game.6.Choice of level of attention in following situations as an evolutionary game.7.Choice of departure time to avoid congestion as variant of a Prisoners’ dilemma game.8.Interaction between cyclists crossing the road and car drivers.9.Dipping headlights at night well ahead of the point when glare becomes noticeable.10.Choice of evasive action in a situation when cars are on collision course. The models reviewed are different in many respects, but a common feature of the models is that they can explain how informal norms of behaviour can develop among road users and be sustained even if these informal norms violate the formal regulations of the traffic code. Game-theoretic models are not applicable to every conceivable interaction between road users or to situations in which road users choose behaviour without interacting with other road users. Nevertheless, it is likely that game-theoretic models can be applied more widely than they have been until now. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grundmann, U.; Rohde, U.; Naumann, B.
1985-01-01
Studies on theoretical simulation of the dynamic behaviour of the AST-500 type reactor primary coolant system are summarized. The first version of a dynamic model in the form of the DYNAST code is described. The DYNAST code is based on a one-dimensional description of the primary coolant circuit including core, draught stack, and intermediate heat exchanger, a vapour dome model, and the point model of neutron kinetics. With the aid of the steady-state computational part of the DYNAST code, studies have been performed on different steady-state operating conditions. Furthermore, some methodological investigations on generalization and improvement of the dynamic model are considered and results presented. (author)
Status of molten fuel coolant interaction studies and theoretical modelling work at IGCAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, P.B.; Singh, Om Pal; Singh, R.S.
1994-01-01
The status of Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction (MFCI) studies is reviewed and some of the important observations made are presented. A new model for MFCI that is developed at IGCAR by considering the various mechanisms in detail is described. The model is validated and compared with the available experimental data and theoretical work at different stages of its development. Several parametric studies that are carried using this model are described. The predictions from this model have been found to be satisfactory, considering the complexity of the MFCI. A need for more comprehensive and MFCI-specific experimental tests is brought out. (author)
Improving the theoretical foundations of the multi-mode transport model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H.; Redd, A.J.; Erba, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Weiland, J.; Strand, P.; Kinsey, J.E.; Scott, B.
1999-01-01
A new version of the Multi-Mode transport model, designated MMM98, is being developed with improved theoretical foundations, in an ongoing effort to predict the temperature and density profiles in tokamaks. For transport near the edge of the plasma, MMM98 uses a new model based on 3-D nonlinear simulations of drift Alfven mode turbulence. Flow shear stabilization effects have been added to the Weiland model for Ion Temperature Gradient and Trapped Electron Modes, which usually dominates in most of the plasma core. For transport near the magnetic axis at high beta, a new kinetic ballooning mode model has been constructed based on FULL stability code computations. (author)
Improving the theoretical foundations of the multi-mode transport model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H.; Redd, A.J.; Erba, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Weiland, J.; Strand, P.; Kinsey, J.E.; Scott, B.
2001-01-01
A new version of the Multi-Mode transport model, designated MMM98, is being developed with improved theoretical foundations, in an ongoing effort to predict the temperature and density profiles in tokamaks. For transport near the edge of the plasma, MMM98 uses a new model based on 3-D nonlinear simulations of drift Alfven mode turbulence. Flow shear stabilization effects have been added to the Weiland model for Ion Temperature Gradient and Trapped Electron Modes, which usually dominates in most of the plasma core. For transport near the magnetic axis at high beta, a new kinetic ballooning mode model has been constructed based on FULL stability code computations. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose Adilson de Castro
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We present a numerical simulation procedure for analyzing hydrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide gases injections mixed with pulverized coals within the tuyeres of blast furnaces. Effective use of H2 rich gas is highly attractive into the steelmaking blast furnace, considering the possibility of increasing the productivity and decreasing the specific emissions of carbon dioxide becoming the process less intensive in carbon utilization. However, the mixed gas and coal injection is a complex technology since significant changes on the inner temperature and gas flow patterns are expected, beyond to their effects on the chemical reactions and heat exchanges. Focusing on the evaluation of inner furnace status under such complex operation a comprehensive mathematical model has been developed using the multi interaction multiple phase theory. The BF, considered as a multiphase reactor, treats the lump solids (sinter, small coke, pellets, granular coke and iron ores, gas, liquids metal and slag and pulverized coal phases. The governing conservation equations are formulated for momentum, mass, chemical species and energy and simultaneously discretized using the numerical method of finite volumes. We verified the model with a reference operational condition using pulverized coal of 215 kg per ton of hot metal (kg thm−1. Thus, combined injections of varying concentrations of gaseous fuels with H2, O2 and CO2 are simulated with 220 kg thm−1 and 250 kg thm−1 coals injection. Theoretical analysis showed that stable operations conditions could be achieved with productivity increase of 60%. Finally, we demonstrated that the net carbon utilization per ton of hot metal decreased 12%.
Theoretical study of evaporation heat transfer in horizontal microfin tubes: stratified flow model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Honda, H; Wang, Y S [Kyushu Univ., Inst. for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)
2004-08-01
The stratified flow model of evaporation heat transfer in helically grooved, horizontal microfin tubes has been developed. The profile of stratified liquid was determined by a theoretical model previously developed for condensation in horizontal microfin tubes. For the region above the stratified liquid, the meniscus profile in the groove between adjacent fins was determined by a force balance between the gravity and surface tension forces. The thin film evaporation model was applied to predict heat transfer in the thin film region of the meniscus. Heat transfer through the stratified liquid was estimated by using an empirical correlation proposed by Mori et al. The theoretical predictions of the circumferential average heat transfer coefficient were compared with available experimental data for four tubes and three refrigerants. A good agreement was obtained for the region of Fr{sub 0}<2.5 as long as partial dry out of tube surface did not occur. (Author)
A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SUPPORTING OPEN SOURCE FRONT END INNOVATION THROUGH IDEA MANAGEMENT
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard, Annabeth
2013-01-01
to overcome these various challenges companies are looking for new models to support FEI. This theoretical paper explores in what way idea management may be applied as a tool in facilitation of front end innovation and how this facilitation may be captured in a conceptual model. First, I show through...... a literature study, how idea management and front end innovation are related and how they may support each other. Secondly, I present a theoretical model of how idea management may be applied in support of the open source front end of new product innovations. Thirdly, I present different venues of further...... exploration of active facilitation of open source front end innovation through idea management....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahlroth, S.
2001-01-01
This licentiate thesis tries to bridge the gap between the theoretical and the practical studies in the field of environmental accounting. In the paper, 1 develop an optimal control theory model for adjusting NDP for the effects Of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, and subsequently insert empirically estimated values. The model includes correction entries for the effects on welfare, real capital, health and the quality and quantity of renewable natural resources. In the empirical valuation study, production losses were estimated with dose-response functions. Recreational and other welfare values were estimated by the contingent valuation (CV) method. Effects on capital depreciation are also included. For comparison, abatement costs and environmental protection expenditures for reducing sulfur and nitrogen emissions were estimated. The theoretical model was then utilized to calculate the adjustment to NDP in a consistent manner.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlroth, S.
2001-01-01
This licentiate thesis tries to bridge the gap between the theoretical and the practical studies in the field of environmental accounting. In the paper, 1 develop an optimal control theory model for adjusting NDP for the effects Of SO 2 and NO x emissions, and subsequently insert empirically estimated values. The model includes correction entries for the effects on welfare, real capital, health and the quality and quantity of renewable natural resources. In the empirical valuation study, production losses were estimated with dose-response functions. Recreational and other welfare values were estimated by the contingent valuation (CV) method. Effects on capital depreciation are also included. For comparison, abatement costs and environmental protection expenditures for reducing sulfur and nitrogen emissions were estimated. The theoretical model was then utilized to calculate the adjustment to NDP in a consistent manner
Scott, Ros; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Manwaring, Gaye
2018-05-02
To explore the relationship between volunteering and the sustainability of UK voluntary hospices. A narrative literature review was conducted to inform the development of a theoretical model. Eight databases were searched: CINAHL (EBSCO), British Nursing Index, Intute: Health and Life Sciences, ERIC, SCOPUS, ASSIA (CSA), Cochrane Library and Google Scholar. A total of 90 documents were analysed. Emerging themes included the importance of volunteering to the hospice economy and workforce, the quality of services, and public and community support. Findings suggest that hospice sustainability is dependent on volunteers; however, the supply and retention of volunteers is affected by internal and external factors. A theoretical model was developed to illustrate the relationship between volunteering and hospice sustainability. It demonstrates the factors necessary for hospice sustainability and the reciprocal impact that these factors and volunteering have on each other. The model has a practical application as an assessment framework and strategic planning tool.
Theoretical Models of Protostellar Binary and Multiple Systems with AMR Simulations
Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Tokuda, Kazuki; Onishi, Toshikazu; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Saigo, Kazuya; Takakuwa, Shigehisa
2017-05-01
We present theoretical models for protostellar binary and multiple systems based on the high-resolution numerical simulation with an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code, SFUMATO. The recent ALMA observations have revealed early phases of the binary and multiple star formation with high spatial resolutions. These observations should be compared with theoretical models with high spatial resolutions. We present two theoretical models for (1) a high density molecular cloud core, MC27/L1521F, and (2) a protobinary system, L1551 NE. For the model for MC27, we performed numerical simulations for gravitational collapse of a turbulent cloud core. The cloud core exhibits fragmentation during the collapse, and dynamical interaction between the fragments produces an arc-like structure, which is one of the prominent structures observed by ALMA. For the model for L1551 NE, we performed numerical simulations of gas accretion onto protobinary. The simulations exhibit asymmetry of a circumbinary disk. Such asymmetry has been also observed by ALMA in the circumbinary disk of L1551 NE.
A theoretical model of job retention for home health care nurses.
Ellenbecker, Carol Hall
2004-08-01
Predicted severe nursing shortages and an increasing demand for home health care services have made the retention of experienced, qualified nursing staff a priority for health care organizations. The purpose of this paper is to describe a theoretical model of job retention for home health care nurses. The theoretical model is an integration of the findings of empirical research related to intent to stay and retention, components of Neal's theory of home health care nursing practice and findings from earlier work to develop an instrument to measure home health care nurses' job satisfaction. The theoretical model identifies antecedents to job satisfaction of home health care nurses. The antecedents are intrinsic and extrinsic job characteristics. The model also proposes that job satisfaction is directly related to retention and indirectly related to retention though intent to stay. Individual nurse characteristics are indirectly related to retention through intent to stay. The individual characteristic of tenure is indirectly related to retention through autonomy, as an intrinsic characteristic of job satisfaction, and intent to stay. The proposed model can be used to guide research that explores gaps in knowledge about intent to stay and retention among home health care nurses.
Model measurements for new accelerating techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aronson, S.; Haseroth, H.; Knott, J.; Willis, W.
1988-06-01
We summarize the work carried out for the past two years, concerning some different ways for achieving high-field gradients, particularly in view of future linear lepton colliders. These studies and measurements on low power models concern the switched power principle and multifrequency excitation of resonant cavities. 15 refs., 12 figs
Holley, W. R.; Chatterjee, A.
1996-01-01
We have developed a general theoretical model for the interaction of ionizing radiation with chromatin. Chromatin is modeled as a 30-nm-diameter solenoidal fiber comprised of 20 turns of nucleosomes, 6 nucleosomes per turn. Charged-particle tracks are modeled by partitioning the energy deposition between primary track core, resulting from glancing collisions with 100 eV or less per event, and delta rays due to knock-on collisions involving energy transfers >100 eV. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporates damages due to the following molecular mechanisms: (1) ionization of water molecules leading to the formation of OH, H, eaq, etc.; (2) OH attack on sugar molecules leading to strand breaks: (3) OH attack on bases; (4) direct ionization of the sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; (5) direct ionization of the bases. Our calculations predict significant clustering of damage both locally, over regions up to 40 bp and over regions extending to several kilobase pairs. A characteristic feature of the regional damage predicted by our model is the production of short fragments of DNA associated with multiple nearby strand breaks. The shapes of the spectra of DNA fragment lengths depend on the symmetries or approximate symmetries of the chromatin structure. Such fragments have subsequently been detected experimentally and are reported in an accompanying paper (B. Rydberg, Radiat, Res. 145, 200-209, 1996) after exposure to both high- and low-LET radiation. The overall measured yields agree well quantitatively with the theoretical predictions. Our theoretical results predict the existence of a strong peak at about 85 bp, which represents the revolution period about the nucleosome. Other peaks at multiples of about 1,000 bp correspond to the periodicity of the particular solenoid model of chromatin used in these calculations. Theoretical results in combination with experimental data on fragmentation spectra may help determine the consensus or average structure of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holley, W.R.; Chatterjee, A.
1996-01-01
We have developed a general theoretical model for the interaction of ionizing radiation with chromatin. Chromatin is modeled as a 30-nm-diameter solenoidal fiber composed of 20 turns of nucleosomes, 6 nucleosomes per turn. Charged-particle tracks are modeled by partitioning the energy deposition between primary track core, resulting from glancing collisions with 100 eV or less per event, and δ rays due to knock-on collisions involving energy transfers > 100 eV. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporates damages due to the following molecular mechanisms: (1) ionization of water molecules leading to the formation of circ OH, circ H, e aq , etc.; circ OH attack on sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; circ OH attack on bases; direct ionization of the sugar molecules leading to strand breaks; direct ionization of the bases. Our calculations predict significant clustering of damage both locally, over regions up to 40 hp and over regions extending to several kilobase pairs. A characteristic feature of the regional damage predicted by our model is the production of short fragments of DNA associated with multiple nearby strand breaks. Such fragments have subsequently been detected experimentally and are reported in an accompanying paper after exposure to both high- and low-LET radiation. The overall measured yields agree well quantitatively with the theoretical predictions. Our theoretical results predict the existence of a strong peak at about 85 bp, which represents the revolution period about the nucleosome. Other peaks at multiples of about 1,000 bp correspond to the periodicity of the particular solenoid model of chromatin used in these calculations. Theoretical results in combination with experimental data on fragmentation spectra may help determine the consensus or average structure of the chromatin fibers in mammalian DNA. 27 refs., 7 figs
Experimental control of Stewart's theoretical model of large amplitude moving striations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berge, G. van den; Vanmarcke, M.
1977-01-01
The longitudinal variation of the electron concentration in large amplitude moving striations, computed theoretically by Stewart, has been tested experimentally. The measurements are carried out by means of a sampling probe technique in the glow discharge of neon (I = 105 mA, 2R = 5.6 cm, p 0 = 0.79 torr) and of argon (I = 75 mA, 2R = 5.7 cm, p 0 = 0.46 torr). It is found that the measured dependence of the concentration is not consistent with the theory. (Auth.)
The Role of Flow Diagnostic Techniques in Fan and Open Rotor Noise Modeling
Envia, Edmane
2016-01-01
A principal source of turbomachinery noise is the interaction of the rotating and stationary blade rows with the perturbations in the airstream through the engine. As such, a lot of research has been devoted to the study of the turbomachinery noise generation mechanisms. This is particularly true of fan and open rotors, both of which are the major contributors to the overall noise output of modern aircraft engines. Much of the research in fan and open rotor noise has been focused on developing theoretical models for predicting their noise characteristics. These models, which run the gamut from the semi-empirical to fully computational ones, are, in one form or another, informed by the description of the unsteady flow-field in which the propulsors (i.e., the fan and open rotors) operate. Not surprisingly, the fidelity of the theoretical models is dependent, to a large extent, on capturing the nuances of the unsteady flowfield that have a direct role in the noise generation process. As such, flow diagnostic techniques have proven to be indispensible in identifying the shortcoming of theoretical models and in helping to improve them. This presentation will provide a few examples of the role of flow diagnostic techniques in assessing the fidelity and robustness of the fan and open rotor noise prediction models.
Measuring and Managing Value Co-Creation Process: Overview of Existing Theoretical Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monika Skaržauskaitė
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose — the article is to provide a holistic view on concept of value co-creation and existing models for measuring and managing it by conducting theoretical analysis of scientific literature sources targeting the integration of various approaches. Most important and relevant results of the literature study are presented with a focus on changed roles of organizations and consumers. This article aims at contributing theoretically to the research stream of measuring co-creation of value in order to gain knowledge for improvement of organizational performance and enabling new and innovative means of value creation. Design/methodology/approach. The nature of this research is exploratory – theoretical analysis and synthesis of scientific literature sources targeting the integration of various approaches was performed. This approach was chosen due to the absence of established theory on models of co-creation, possible uses in organizations and systematic overview of tools measuring/suggesting how to measure co-creation. Findings. While the principles of managing and measuring co-creation in regards of consumer motivation and involvement are widely researched, little attempt has been made to identify critical factors and create models dealing with organizational capabilities and managerial implications of value co-creation. Systematic analysis of literature revealed a gap not only in empirical research concerning organization’s role in co-creation process, but in theoretical and conceptual levels, too. Research limitations/implications. The limitations of this work as a literature review lies in its nature – the complete reliance on previously published research papers and the availability of these studies. For a deeper understanding of co-creation management and for developing models that can be used in real-life organizations, a broader theoretical, as well as empirical, research is necessary. Practical implications. Analysis of the
A probabilistic evaluation procedure for process model matching techniques
Kuss, Elena; Leopold, Henrik; van der Aa, Han; Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Reijers, Hajo A.
2018-01-01
Process model matching refers to the automatic identification of corresponding activities between two process models. It represents the basis for many advanced process model analysis techniques such as the identification of similar process parts or process model search. A central problem is how to
Theoretical Model of Pricing Behavior on the Polish Wholesale Fuel Market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bejger Sylwester
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we constructed a theoretical model of strategic pricing behavior of the players in a Polish wholesale fuel market. This model is consistent with the characteristics of the industry, the wholesale market, and the players. The model is based on the standard methodology of repeated games with a built-in adjustment to a focal price, which resembles the Import Parity Pricing (IPP mechanism. From the equilibrium of the game, we conclude that the focal price policy implies a parallel pricing strategic behavior on the market.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bakanauskienė Irena
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This article is intended to theoretically justify the decision-making process model for the cases, when active participation of investing entities in controlling the activities of an organisation and their results is noticeable. Based on scientific literature analysis, a concept of controlled conditions is formulated, and using a rational approach to the decision-making process, a model of the 11-steps decision-making process under controlled intervention is presented. Also, there have been unified conditions, describing the case of controlled interventions thus providing preconditions to ensure the adequacy of the proposed decision-making process model.
CO2 laser with modulated losses: Theoretical models and experiments in the chaotic regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pando L, C.L.; Meucci, R.; Ciofini, M.; Arecchi, F.T.
1993-04-01
We compare two different theoretical models for a CO 2 laser, namely the two-and four-level model, and show that the second one traces with much better accuracy the experimental behavior in the case of a chaotic dynamics due to time modulation of the cavity losses. Even though the two-level model provides a qualitative explanation of the chaotic dynamics, only the four-level one assures a quantitative fitting. We also show that, at the onset of chaos, the chaotic dynamics is low dimensional and can be described in terms of a noninvertible unidimensional map. (author). 12 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs
Developing a theoretical maintenance model for disordered eating in Type 1 diabetes.
Treasure, J; Kan, C; Stephenson, L; Warren, E; Smith, E; Heller, S; Ismail, K
2015-12-01
According to the literature, eating disorders are an increasing problem for more than a quarter of people with Type 1 diabetes and they are associated with accentuated diabetic complications. The clinical outcomes in this group when given standard eating disorder treatments are disappointing. The Medical Research Council guidelines for developing complex interventions suggest that the first step is to develop a theoretical model. To review existing literature to build a theoretical maintenance model for disordered eating in people with Type 1 diabetes. The literature in diabetes relating to models of eating disorder (Fairburn's transdiagnostic model and the dual pathway model) and food addiction was examined and assimilated. The elements common to all eating disorder models include weight/shape concern and problems with mood regulation. The predisposing traits of perfectionism, low self-esteem and low body esteem and the interpersonal difficulties from the transdiagnostic model are also relevant to diabetes. The differences include the use of insulin mismanagement to compensate for breaking eating rules and the consequential wide variations in plasma glucose that may predispose to 'food addiction'. Eating disorder symptoms elicit emotionally driven reactions and behaviours from others close to the individual affected and these are accentuated in the context of diabetes. The next stage is to test the assumptions within the maintenance model with experimental medicine studies to facilitate the development of new technologies aimed at increasing inhibitory processes and moderating environmental triggers. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brown Robert H
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bronchial thermoplasty is a novel technique designed to reduce an airway's ability to contract by reducing the amount of airway smooth muscle through controlled heating of the airway wall. This method has been examined in animal models and as a treatment for asthma in human subjects. At the present time, there has been little research published about how radiofrequency (RF energy and heat is transferred to the airways of the lung during bronchial thermoplasty procedures. In this manuscript we describe a computational, theoretical model of the delivery of RF energy to the airway wall. Methods An electro-thermal finite-element-analysis model was designed to simulate the delivery of temperature controlled RF energy to airway walls of the in vivo lung. The model includes predictions of heat generation due to RF joule heating and transfer of heat within an airway wall due to thermal conduction. To implement the model, we use known physical characteristics and dimensions of the airway and lung tissues. The model predictions were tested with measurements of temperature, impedance, energy, and power in an experimental canine model. Results Model predictions of electrode temperature, voltage, and current, along with tissue impedance and delivered energy were compared to experiment measurements and were within ± 5% of experimental averages taken over 157 sample activations. The experimental results show remarkable agreement with the model predictions, and thus validate the use of this model to predict the heat generation and transfer within the airway wall following bronchial thermoplasty. Conclusions The model also demonstrated the importance of evaporation as a loss term that affected both electrical measurements and heat distribution. The model predictions showed excellent agreement with the empirical results, and thus support using the model to develop the next generation of devices for bronchial thermoplasty. Our results suggest
Theoretical model for the mechanical behavior of prestressed beams under torsion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sérgio M.R. Lopes
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, a global theoretical model previously developed and validated by the authors for reinforced concrete beams under torsion is reviewed and corrected in order to predict the global behavior of beams under torsion with uniform longitudinal prestress. These corrections are based on the introduction of prestress factors and on the modification of the equilibrium equations in order to incorporate the contribution of the prestressing reinforcement. The theoretical results obtained with the new model are compared with some available results of prestressed concrete (PC beams under torsion found in the literature. The results obtained in this study validate the proposed computing procedure to predict the overall behavior of PC beams under torsion.
A Theoretical Bayesian Game Model for the Vendor-Retailer Relation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emil CRIŞAN
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We consider an equilibrated supply chain with two equal partners, a vendor and a retailer (also called newsboy type products supply chain. The actions of each partner are driven by profit. Given the fact that at supply chain level are specific external influences which affect the costs and concordant the profit, we use a game theoretic model for the situation, considering costs and demand. At theoretical level, symmetric and asymmetric information patterns are considered for this situation. There are at every supply chain’s level situations when external factors (such as inflation, raw-material rate influence the situation of each partner even if the information is well shared within the chain. The model we propose considers both the external factors and asymmetric information within a supply chain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, Suresh C.; Gupta, Neha
2015-01-01
A theoretical modeling for the catalyst-assisted growth of graphene sheet in the presence of plasma has been investigated. It is observed that the plasma parameters can strongly affect the growth and field emission properties of graphene sheet. The model developed accounts for the charging rate of the graphene sheet; number density of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms; various elementary processes on the surface of the catalyst nanoparticle; surface diffusion and accretion of ions; and formation of carbon-clusters and large graphene islands. In our investigation, it is found that the thickness of the graphene sheet decreases with the plasma parameters, number density of hydrogen ions and RF power, and consequently, the field emission of electrons from the graphene sheet surface increases. The time evolution of the height of graphene sheet with ion density and sticking coefficient of carbon species has also been examined. Some of our theoretical results are in compliance with the experimental observations
From theoretical stellar spectra to realistic models of the Milky Way : a never ending Odyssey
Ammon, Karin
2007-01-01
The last chapter is dedicated to the compilation of the results and the discussion about the success of - but also about the problems that have arisen during - and in part also survived - this work. The main goal of this thesis was, firstly, to convert the stellar parameters given by galaxy models into observables, and then to compare these theoretical stellar distributions in different viewing directions with real observational data to check, if it is possible to find a best-fitt...
Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis
Qu, Zu-Qing
2004-01-01
Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...
Control Theoretic Modeling and Generated Flow Patterns of a Fish-Tail Robot
Massey, Brian; Morgansen, Kristi; Dabiri, Dana
2003-11-01
Many real-world engineering problems involve understanding and manipulating fluid flows. One of the challenges to further progress in the area of active flow control is the lack of appropriate models that are amenable to control-theoretic studies and algorithm design and also incorporate reasonably realistic fluid dynamic effects. We focus here on modeling and model-verification of bio-inspired actuators (fish-fin type structures) used to control fluid dynamic artifacts that will affect speed, agility, and stealth of Underwater Autonomous Vehicles (UAVs). Vehicles using fish-tail type systems are more maneuverable, can turn in much shorter and more constrained spaces, have lower drag, are quieter and potentially more efficient than those using propellers. We will present control-theoretic models for a simple prototype coupled fluid and mechanical actuator where fluid effects are crudely modeled by assuming only lift, drag, and added mass, while neglecting boundary effects. These models will be tested with different control input parameters on an experimental fish-tail robot with the resulting flow captured with DPIV. Relations between the model, the control function choices, the obtained thrust and drag, and the corresponding flow patterns will be presented and discussed.
A theoretical model for prediction of deposition efficiency in cold spraying
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Changjiu; Li Wenya; Wang Yuyue; Yang Guanjun; Fukanuma, H.
2005-01-01
The deposition behavior of a spray particle stream with a particle size distribution was theoretically examined for cold spraying in terms of deposition efficiency as a function of particle parameters and spray angle. The theoretical relation was established between the deposition efficiency and spray angle. The experiments were conducted by measuring deposition efficiency at different driving gas conditions and different spray angles using gas-atomized copper powder. It was found that the theoretically estimated results agreed reasonably well with the experimental ones. Based on the theoretical model and experimental results, it was revealed that the distribution of particle velocity resulting from particle size distribution influences significantly the deposition efficiency in cold spraying. It was necessary for the majority of particles to achieve a velocity higher than the critical velocity in order to improve the deposition efficiency. The normal component of particle velocity contributed to the deposition of the particle under the off-nomal spray condition. The deposition efficiency of sprayed particles decreased owing to the decrease of the normal velocity component as spray was performed at off-normal angle
A Theoretically Consistent Framework for Modelling Lagrangian Particle Deposition in Plant Canopies
Bailey, Brian N.; Stoll, Rob; Pardyjak, Eric R.
2018-06-01
We present a theoretically consistent framework for modelling Lagrangian particle deposition in plant canopies. The primary focus is on describing the probability of particles encountering canopy elements (i.e., potential deposition), and provides a consistent means for including the effects of imperfect deposition through any appropriate sub-model for deposition efficiency. Some aspects of the framework draw upon an analogy to radiation propagation through a turbid medium with which to develop model theory. The present method is compared against one of the most commonly used heuristic Lagrangian frameworks, namely that originally developed by Legg and Powell (Agricultural Meteorology, 1979, Vol. 20, 47-67), which is shown to be theoretically inconsistent. A recommendation is made to discontinue the use of this heuristic approach in favour of the theoretically consistent framework developed herein, which is no more difficult to apply under equivalent assumptions. The proposed framework has the additional advantage that it can be applied to arbitrary canopy geometries given readily measurable parameters describing vegetation structure.
Meta-Theoretical Contributions to the Constitution of a Model-Based Didactics of Science
Ariza, Yefrin; Lorenzano, Pablo; Adúriz-Bravo, Agustín
2016-10-01
There is nowadays consensus in the community of didactics of science (i.e. science education understood as an academic discipline) regarding the need to include the philosophy of science in didactical research, science teacher education, curriculum design, and the practice of science education in all educational levels. Some authors have identified an ever-increasing use of the concept of `theoretical model', stemming from the so-called semantic view of scientific theories. However, it can be recognised that, in didactics of science, there are over-simplified transpositions of the idea of model (and of other meta-theoretical ideas). In this sense, contemporary philosophy of science is often blurred or distorted in the science education literature. In this paper, we address the discussion around some meta-theoretical concepts that are introduced into didactics of science due to their perceived educational value. We argue for the existence of a `semantic family', and we characterise four different versions of semantic views existing within the family. In particular, we seek to contribute to establishing a model-based didactics of science mainly supported in this semantic family.
Kumar, Abhishek; Clement, Shibu; Agrawal, V P
2010-07-15
An attempt is made to address a few ecological and environment issues by developing different structural models for effluent treatment system for electroplating. The effluent treatment system is defined with the help of different subsystems contributing to waste minimization. Hierarchical tree and block diagram showing all possible interactions among subsystems are proposed. These non-mathematical diagrams are converted into mathematical models for design improvement, analysis, comparison, storage retrieval and commercially off-the-shelf purchases of different subsystems. This is achieved by developing graph theoretic model, matrix models and variable permanent function model. Analysis is carried out by permanent function, hierarchical tree and block diagram methods. Storage and retrieval is done using matrix models. The methodology is illustrated with the help of an example. Benefits to the electroplaters/end user are identified. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The interrogation decision-making model: A general theoretical framework for confessions.
Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Madon, Stephanie
2017-02-01
This article presents a new model of confessions referred to as the interrogation decision-making model . This model provides a theoretical umbrella with which to understand and analyze suspects' decisions to deny or confess guilt in the context of a custodial interrogation. The model draws upon expected utility theory to propose a mathematical account of the psychological mechanisms that not only underlie suspects' decisions to deny or confess guilt at any specific point during an interrogation, but also how confession decisions can change over time. Findings from the extant literature pertaining to confessions are considered to demonstrate how the model offers a comprehensive and integrative framework for organizing a range of effects within a limited set of model parameters. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
EXCHANGE-RATES FORECASTING: EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING TECHNIQUES AND ARIMA MODELS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dezsi Eva
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Exchange rates forecasting is, and has been a challenging task in finance. Statistical and econometrical models are widely used in analysis and forecasting of foreign exchange rates. This paper investigates the behavior of daily exchange rates of the Romanian Leu against the Euro, United States Dollar, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Chinese Renminbi and the Russian Ruble. Smoothing techniques are generated and compared with each other. These models include the Simple Exponential Smoothing technique, as the Double Exponential Smoothing technique, the Simple Holt-Winters, the Additive Holt-Winters, namely the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model.
Grace, J.B.; Bollen, K.A.
2008-01-01
Structural equation modeling (SEM) holds the promise of providing natural scientists the capacity to evaluate complex multivariate hypotheses about ecological systems. Building on its predecessors, path analysis and factor analysis, SEM allows for the incorporation of both observed and unobserved (latent) variables into theoretically-based probabilistic models. In this paper we discuss the interface between theory and data in SEM and the use of an additional variable type, the composite. In simple terms, composite variables specify the influences of collections of other variables and can be helpful in modeling heterogeneous concepts of the sort commonly of interest to ecologists. While long recognized as a potentially important element of SEM, composite variables have received very limited use, in part because of a lack of theoretical consideration, but also because of difficulties that arise in parameter estimation when using conventional solution procedures. In this paper we present a framework for discussing composites and demonstrate how the use of partially-reduced-form models can help to overcome some of the parameter estimation and evaluation problems associated with models containing composites. Diagnostic procedures for evaluating the most appropriate and effective use of composites are illustrated with an example from the ecological literature. It is argued that an ability to incorporate composite variables into structural equation models may be particularly valuable in the study of natural systems, where concepts are frequently multifaceted and the influence of suites of variables are often of interest. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mardinoglu, Adil; Cregg, P.J.; Murphy, Kieran; Curtin, Maurice; Prina-Mello, Adriele
2011-01-01
The magnetisable stent assisted magnetic targeted drug delivery system in a physiologically stretched vessel is considered theoretically. The changes in the mechanical behaviour of the vessel are analysed under the influence of mechanical forces generated by blood pressure. In this 2D mathematical model a ferromagnetic, coiled wire stent is implanted to aid collection of magnetic drug carrier particles in an elastic tube, which has similar mechanical properties to the blood vessel. A cyclic mechanical force is applied to the elastic tube to mimic the mechanical stress and strain of both the stent and vessel while in the body due to pulsatile blood circulation. The magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions for multiple particles are included and agglomeration of particles is also modelled. The resulting collection efficiency of the mathematical model shows that the system performance can decrease by as much as 10% due to the effects of the pulsatile blood circulation. - Research highlights: →Theoretical modelling of magnetic drug targeting on a physiologically stretched stent-vessel system. →Cyclic mechanical force applied to mimic the mechanical stress and strain of both stent and vessel. →The magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions for multiple particles is modelled. →Collection efficiency of the mathematical model is calculated for different physiological blood flow and magnetic field strength.
Darmon, David
2018-03-01
In the absence of mechanistic or phenomenological models of real-world systems, data-driven models become necessary. The discovery of various embedding theorems in the 1980s and 1990s motivated a powerful set of tools for analyzing deterministic dynamical systems via delay-coordinate embeddings of observations of their component states. However, in many branches of science, the condition of operational determinism is not satisfied, and stochastic models must be brought to bear. For such stochastic models, the tool set developed for delay-coordinate embedding is no longer appropriate, and a new toolkit must be developed. We present an information-theoretic criterion, the negative log-predictive likelihood, for selecting the embedding dimension for a predictively optimal data-driven model of a stochastic dynamical system. We develop a nonparametric estimator for the negative log-predictive likelihood and compare its performance to a recently proposed criterion based on active information storage. Finally, we show how the output of the model selection procedure can be used to compare candidate predictors for a stochastic system to an information-theoretic lower bound.
Marasulov, Akhmat; Saipov, Amangeldi; ?rymbayeva, Kulimkhan; Zhiyentayeva, Begaim; Demeuov, Akhan; Konakbaeva, Ulzhamal; Bekbolatova, Akbota
2016-01-01
The aim of the study is to examine the methodological-theoretical construction bases for development mechanism of an integrated model for a specialist's training and teacher's conceptual-theoretical activity. Using the methods of generalization of teaching experience, pedagogical modeling and forecasting, the authors determine the urgent problems…
Theoretical and experimental stress analyses of ORNL thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder model 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwaltney, R.C.; Bolt, S.E.; Corum, J.M.; Bryson, J.W.
1975-06-01
The third in a series of four thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder models was tested, and the experimentally determined elastic stress distributions were compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a thin-shell finite-element analysis. The models are idealized thin-shell structures consisting of two circular cylindrical shells that intersect at right angles. There are no transitions, reinforcements, or fillets in the junction region. This series of model tests serves two basic purposes: the experimental data provide design information directly applicable to nozzles in cylindrical vessels; and the idealized models provide test results for use in developing and evaluating theoretical analyses applicable to nozzles in cylindrical vessels and to thin piping tees. The cylinder of model 3 had a 10 in. OD and the nozzle had a 1.29 in. OD, giving a d 0 /D 0 ratio of 0.129. The OD/thickness ratios for the cylinder and the nozzle were 50 and 7.68 respectively. Thirteen separate loading cases were analyzed. In each, one end of the cylinder was rigidly held. In addition to an internal pressure loading, three mutually perpendicular force components and three mutually perpendicular moment components were individually applied at the free end of the cylinder and at the end of the nozzle. The experimental stress distributions for all the loadings were obtained using 158 three-gage strain rosettes located on the inner and outer surfaces. The loading cases were also analyzed theoretically using a finite-element shell analysis developed at the University of California, Berkeley. The analysis used flat-plate elements and considered five degrees of freedom per node in the final assembled equations. The comparisons between theory and experiment show reasonably good agreement for this model. (U.S.)
Theoretical and experimental stress analyses of ORNL thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder model 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwaltney, R.C.; Bolt, S.E.; Bryson, J.W.
1975-06-01
The last in a series of four thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder models was tested, and the experimentally determined elastic stress distributions were compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a thin-shell finite-element analysis. The models in the series are idealized thin-shell structures consisting of two circular cylindrical shells that intersect at right angles. There are no transitions, reinforcements, or fillets in the junction region. This series of model tests serves two basic purposes: (1) the experimental data provide design information directly applicable to nozzles in cylindrical vessels, and (2) the idealized models provide test results for use in developing and evaluating theoretical analyses applicable to nozzles in cylindrical vessels and to thin piping tees. The cylinder of model 4 had an outside diameter of 10 in., and the nozzle had an outside diameter of 1.29 in., giving a d 0 /D 0 ratio of 0.129. The OD/thickness ratios were 50 and 20.2 for the cylinder and nozzle respectively. Thirteen separate loading cases were analyzed. For each loading condition one end of the cylinder was rigidly held. In addition to an internal pressure loading, three mutually perpendicular force components and three mutually perpendicular moment components were individually applied at the free end of the cylinder and at the end of the nozzle. The experimental stress distributions for each of the 13 loadings were obtained using 157 three-gage strain rosettes located on the inner and outer surfaces. Each of the 13 loading cases was also analyzed theoretically using a finite-element shell analysis developed at the University of California, Berkeley. The analysis used flat-plate elements and considered five degrees of freedom per node in the final assembled equations. The comparisons between theory and experiment show reasonably good agreement for this model. (U.S.)
The dynamics of the nuclear disassembly in a field-theoretical model at finite entropies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, J.; Strack, B.
1984-10-01
The expansion phase of a hot nuclear system as created in an energetic heavy-ion collision is calculated and discussed by a selfconsistent field-theoretical model. Dynamical instabilities arising during the expansion from strong fluctuations of the one-body density are included explicitely. First multiplicity distributions and mass spectra resulting from a series of numerical runs in a 2+1 dimensional model world are presented. The dependence of break-up dynamics both on the properties of the binding force and possible correlations in the initially compressed hot state are discussed. (orig.)
Software for energy modelling: a theoretical basis for improvements in the user interface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siu, Y.L.
1989-09-01
A philosophical critique of the relationships between theory, knowledge and practice for a range of existing energy modelling styles is presented. In particular, Habermas's ideas are invoked regarding the three spheres of cognitive interest (i.e. technical, practical and emancipatory) and three levels of understanding of knowledge, the construction of an 'ideal speech situation', and the theory of communicative competence and action. These are adopted as a basis for revealing shortcomings of a representative selection of existing computer-based energy modelling styles, and as a springboard for constructing a new theoretical approach. (author).
A theoretical and empirical evaluation and extension of the Todaro migration model.
Salvatore, D
1981-11-01
"This paper postulates that it is theoretically and empirically preferable to base internal labor migration on the relative difference in rural-urban real income streams and rates of unemployment, taken as separate and independent variables, rather than on the difference in the expected real income streams as postulated by the very influential and often quoted Todaro model. The paper goes on to specify several important ways of extending the resulting migration model and improving its empirical performance." The analysis is based on Italian data. excerpt
Seeling, Walter; Plischke, Max; de Bruin, Jeroen S; Schuh, Christian
2015-01-01
Immunosuppressive therapy is a risky necessity after a patient received a kidney transplant. To reduce risks, a knowledge-based system was developed that determines the right dosage of the immunosuppresive agent Tacrolimus. A theoretical model, to classify medication blood levels as well as medication adaptions, was created using data from almost 500 patients, and over 13.000 examinations. This model was then translated into an Arden Syntax knowledge base, and integrated directly into the hospital information system of the Vienna General Hospital. In this paper we give an overview of the construction and integration of such a system.
Team Resilience as a Second-Order Emergent State: A Theoretical Model and Research Directions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Clint Bowers
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Resilience has been recognized as an important phenomenon for understanding how individuals overcome difficult situations. However, it is not only individuals who face difficulties; it is not uncommon for teams to experience adversity. When they do, they must be able to overcome these challenges without performance decrements.This manuscript represents a theoretical model that might be helpful in conceptualizing this important construct. Specifically, it describes team resilience as a second-order emergent state. We also include research propositions that follow from the model.
THEORETICAL MODELING OF THE FEEDBACK STABILIZATION OF EXTERNAL MHD MODES IN TOROIDAL GEOMETRY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
CHANCE, M.S.; CHU, M.S.; OKABAYASHI, M.; TURNBULL, A.D.
2001-02-01
OAK-B135 A theoretical framework for understanding the feedback mechanism against external MHD modes has been formulated. Efficient computational tools--the GATO stability code coupled with a substantially modified VACUUM code--have been developed to effectively design viable feedback systems against these modes. The analysis assumed a thin resistive shell and a feedback coil structure accurately modeled in θ, with only a single harmonic variation in φ. Time constants and induced currents in the enclosing resistive shell are calculated. An optimized configuration based on an idealized model have been computed for the DIII-D device. Up to 90% of the effectiveness of an ideal wall can be achieved
Dou, Kaili; Yu, Ping; Deng, Ning; Liu, Fang; Guan, YingPing; Li, Zhenye; Ji, Yumeng; Du, Ningkai; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong
2017-12-06
Chronic disease patients often face multiple challenges from difficult comorbidities. Smartphone health technology can be used to help them manage their conditions only if they accept and use the technology. The aim of this study was to develop and test a theoretical model to predict and explain the factors influencing patients' acceptance of smartphone health technology for chronic disease management. Multiple theories and factors that may influence patients' acceptance of smartphone health technology have been reviewed. A hybrid theoretical model was built based on the technology acceptance model, dual-factor model, health belief model, and the factors identified from interviews that might influence patients' acceptance of smartphone health technology for chronic disease management. Data were collected from patient questionnaire surveys and computer log records about 157 hypertensive patients' actual use of a smartphone health app. The partial least square method was used to test the theoretical model. The model accounted for .412 of the variance in patients' intention to adopt the smartphone health technology. Intention to use accounted for .111 of the variance in actual use and had a significant weak relationship with the latter. Perceived ease of use was affected by patients' smartphone usage experience, relationship with doctor, and self-efficacy. Although without a significant effect on intention to use, perceived ease of use had a significant positive influence on perceived usefulness. Relationship with doctor and perceived health threat had significant positive effects on perceived usefulness, countering the negative influence of resistance to change. Perceived usefulness, perceived health threat, and resistance to change significantly predicted patients' intentions to use the technology. Age and gender had no significant influence on patients' acceptance of smartphone technology. The study also confirmed the positive relationship between intention to use
Dou, Kaili; Yu, Ping; Liu, Fang; Guan, YingPing; Li, Zhenye; Ji, Yumeng; Du, Ningkai; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong
2017-01-01
Background Chronic disease patients often face multiple challenges from difficult comorbidities. Smartphone health technology can be used to help them manage their conditions only if they accept and use the technology. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test a theoretical model to predict and explain the factors influencing patients’ acceptance of smartphone health technology for chronic disease management. Methods Multiple theories and factors that may influence patients’ acceptance of smartphone health technology have been reviewed. A hybrid theoretical model was built based on the technology acceptance model, dual-factor model, health belief model, and the factors identified from interviews that might influence patients’ acceptance of smartphone health technology for chronic disease management. Data were collected from patient questionnaire surveys and computer log records about 157 hypertensive patients’ actual use of a smartphone health app. The partial least square method was used to test the theoretical model. Results The model accounted for .412 of the variance in patients’ intention to adopt the smartphone health technology. Intention to use accounted for .111 of the variance in actual use and had a significant weak relationship with the latter. Perceived ease of use was affected by patients’ smartphone usage experience, relationship with doctor, and self-efficacy. Although without a significant effect on intention to use, perceived ease of use had a significant positive influence on perceived usefulness. Relationship with doctor and perceived health threat had significant positive effects on perceived usefulness, countering the negative influence of resistance to change. Perceived usefulness, perceived health threat, and resistance to change significantly predicted patients’ intentions to use the technology. Age and gender had no significant influence on patients’ acceptance of smartphone technology. The study also
Theoretical model for the UV disinfection system in the operating ward of PZU 'Filip Vtori'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilkov, Marjan
2010-01-01
Here we investigate the theoretical modeling of an UV disinfection system for the operating ward in PZU 'FILIP VTORI'. As nocosomial infections pose a serious threat to patients everywhere in the world, here the disinfection of the air and the surfaces is modeled and discussed. The surfaces are disinfected with direct illumination of open UV after hours system, UV curtains, overhead disinfection, floor disinfection and disinfection of the incoming air through the ventilation/air-condition system. From the results it can be seen that the concentrations of bacteria, fungi and viruses drop significantly which in turn should give a significant drop in a number of hospital acquired infections.(Author)
Theoretical thermal dosimetry produced by an annular phased array system in CT-based patient models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulsen, K.D.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Lynch, D.R.
1984-01-01
Theoretical calculations for the specific absorption rate (SAR) and the resulting temperature distributions produced by an annular phased array (APA) type system are made. The finite element numerical method is used in the formulation of both the electromagnetic (EM) and the thermal boundary value problems. A number of detailed patient models based on CT-scan data from the pelvic, visceral, and thoracic regions are generated to stimulate a variety of tumor locations and surrounding normal tissues. The SAR values from the EM solution are input into the bioheat transfer equation, and steady-rate temperature distributions are calculated for a wide variety of blood flow rates. Based on theoretical modeling, the APA shows no preferential heating of superficial over deep-seated tumors. However, in most cases satisfactory thermal profiles (therapeutic volume near 60%) are obtained in all three regions of the human trunk only for tumors with little or no blood flow. Unsatisfactory temperature patterns (therapeutic volume <50%) are found for tumors with moderate to high perfusion rates. These theoretical calculations should aid the clinician in the evaluation of the effectiveness of APA type devices in heating tumors located in the trunk region
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: rmutarelli@gmail.com, E-mail: aclima@ipen.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2015-07-01
Social responsibility has been one of the great discussions in institutional management, and that is an important variable in the strategy and performance of the institutions. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has worked for the development of environmental and social issues, converging mainly to the benefit of the population. The theory that guides the social responsibility practices is always difficult to measure for several reasons. One reason for this difficulty is that social responsibility involves a variety of issues that are converted in rights, obligations and expectations of different audiences that could be internal and external to the organization. In addition, the different understanding of the institutions about social and environmental issues is another source of complexity. Based on the study context including: the topic being researched, the chosen institute and the questions resulting from the research, the aim of this paper is to propose a theoretical model to describe and analyze the social responsibility of IPEN. The main contribution of this study is to develop a model that integrates the dimensions of social responsibility. These dimensions - also called constructs - are composed of indexes and indicators that were previously used in various contexts of empirical research, combined with the theoretical and conceptual review of social responsibility. The construction of the proposed theoretical model was based on the research of various methodologies and various indicators for measuring social responsibility. This model was statistically tested, analyzed, adjusted, and the end result is a consistent model to measure the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN. This work could also be applied to other institutions. Moreover, it may be improved and become a tool that will serve as a thermometer to measure social and environmental issues, and will support decision making in various management processes. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mutarelli, Rita de Cassia; Lima, Ana Cecilia de Souza; Sabundjian, Gaiane
2015-01-01
Social responsibility has been one of the great discussions in institutional management, and that is an important variable in the strategy and performance of the institutions. The Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) has worked for the development of environmental and social issues, converging mainly to the benefit of the population. The theory that guides the social responsibility practices is always difficult to measure for several reasons. One reason for this difficulty is that social responsibility involves a variety of issues that are converted in rights, obligations and expectations of different audiences that could be internal and external to the organization. In addition, the different understanding of the institutions about social and environmental issues is another source of complexity. Based on the study context including: the topic being researched, the chosen institute and the questions resulting from the research, the aim of this paper is to propose a theoretical model to describe and analyze the social responsibility of IPEN. The main contribution of this study is to develop a model that integrates the dimensions of social responsibility. These dimensions - also called constructs - are composed of indexes and indicators that were previously used in various contexts of empirical research, combined with the theoretical and conceptual review of social responsibility. The construction of the proposed theoretical model was based on the research of various methodologies and various indicators for measuring social responsibility. This model was statistically tested, analyzed, adjusted, and the end result is a consistent model to measure the perceived value of social responsibility of IPEN. This work could also be applied to other institutions. Moreover, it may be improved and become a tool that will serve as a thermometer to measure social and environmental issues, and will support decision making in various management processes. (author)
Transport simulations TFTR: Theoretically-based transport models and current scaling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redi, M.H.; Cummings, J.C.; Bush, C.E.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hahm, T.S.; Hill, K.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; Park, H.; Scott, S.D.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Tang, W.M.; Taylor, G.
1991-12-01
In order to study the microscopic physics underlying observed L-mode current scaling, 1-1/2-d BALDUR has been used to simulate density and temperature profiles for high and low current, neutral beam heated discharges on TFTR with several semi-empirical, theoretically-based models previously compared for TFTR, including several versions of trapped electron drift wave driven transport. Experiments at TFTR, JET and D3-D show that I p scaling of τ E does not arise from edge modes as previously thought, and is most likely to arise from nonlocal processes or from the I p -dependence of local plasma core transport. Consistent with this, it is found that strong current scaling does not arise from any of several edge models of resistive ballooning. Simulations with the profile consistent drift wave model and with a new model for toroidal collisionless trapped electron mode core transport in a multimode formalism, lead to strong current scaling of τ E for the L-mode cases on TFTR. None of the theoretically-based models succeeded in simulating the measured temperature and density profiles for both high and low current experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, W.J.
1987-04-01
Simple theoretical models have been developed which are suitable for predicting the thermal responses of irradiated research fuel elements of markedly different geometries when they are subjected to loss-of-coolant accident conditions. These models have been used to calculate temperature responses corresponding to various non-forced convective conditions. Comparisons between experimentally observed temperatures and calculated values have shown that a suitable value for surface thermal emissivity is 0.35; modelling of the fuel element beyond the region of the fuel plate needs to be included since these areas account for approximately 25 per cent of the thermal power dissipated; general agreement between calculated and experimental temperatures for both transient and steady-state conditions is good - the maximum discrepancy between calculated and experimental temperatures for a HIFAR Mark IV/V fuel element is ∼ 70 deg C, and for an Oak Ridge Reactor (ORR) box-type fuel element ∼ 30 deg C; and axial power distribution does not significantly affect thermal responses for the conditions investigated. Overall, the comparisons have shown that the models evolved can reproduce experimental data to a level of accuracy that provides confidence in the modelling technique and the postulated heat dissipation mechanisms, and that these models can be used to predict thermal responses of fuel elements in accident conditions that are not easily investigated experimentally
Does the U.S. exercise contagion on Italy? A theoretical model and empirical evidence
Cerqueti, Roy; Fenga, Livio; Ventura, Marco
2018-06-01
This paper deals with the theme of contagion in financial markets. At this aim, we develop a model based on Mixed Poisson Processes to describe the abnormal returns of financial markets of two considered countries. In so doing, the article defines the theoretical conditions to be satisfied in order to state that one of them - the so-called leader - exercises contagion on the others - the followers. Specifically, we employ an invariant probabilistic result stating that a suitable transformation of a Mixed Poisson Process is still a Mixed Poisson Process. The theoretical claim is validated by implementing an extensive simulation analysis grounded on empirical data. The countries considered are the U.S. (as the leader) and Italy (as the follower) and the period under scrutiny is very large, ranging from 1970 to 2014.
Theoretical spectral properties of PAHs: towards a detailed model of their photophysics in the ISM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malloci, Giuliano; Mulas, Giacomo; Porceddu, Ignazio
2005-01-01
In the framework of density functional theory (DFT) we computed the spectral properties of a total of about 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different charge states. From our complete atlas of PAHs, ranging in size from naphthalene (C 10 H 8 ) to dicoronylene (C 48 H 20 ), we present here a sample of results concerning both ground-state and excited-state properties. Our theoretical results are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. This makes them particularly precious when the latter are not easily obtainable, as is often the case for the highly reactive radicals and ions of such species. In another paper (Mulas et al., same volume) we show that our theoretical results can be reliably used to model the behaviour of these molecules in astrophysical environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Jun; You Bo; Li Xin; Cui Juan
2007-01-01
To accurately measure temperatures, a novel temperature sensor based on a quartz tuning fork resonator has been designed. The principle of the quartz tuning fork temperature sensor is that the resonant frequency of the quartz resonator changes with the variation in temperature. This type of tuning fork resonator has been designed with a new doubly rotated cut work at flexural vibration mode as temperature sensor. The characteristics of the temperature sensor were evaluated and the results sufficiently met the target of development for temperature sensor. The theoretical model for temperature sensing has been developed and built. The sensor structure was analysed by finite element method (FEM) and optimized, including tuning fork geometry, tine electrode pattern and the sensor's elements size. The performance curve of output versus measured temperature is given. The results from theoretical analysis and experiments indicate that the sensor's sensitivity can reach 60 ppm 0 C -1 with the measured temperature range varying from 0 to 100 0 C
Droplet size in flow: Theoretical model and application to polymer blends
Fortelný, Ivan; JÅ¯za, Josef
2017-05-01
The paper is focused on prediction of the average droplet radius, R, in flowing polymer blends where the droplet size is determined by dynamic equilibrium between the droplet breakup and coalescence. Expressions for the droplet breakup frequency in systems with low and high contents of the dispersed phase are derived using available theoretical and experimental results for model blends. Dependences of the coalescence probability, Pc, on system parameters, following from recent theories, is considered and approximate equation for Pc in a system with a low polydispersity in the droplet size is proposed. Equations for R in systems with low and high contents of the dispersed phase are derived. Combination of these equations predicts realistic dependence of R on the volume fraction of dispersed droplets, φ. Theoretical prediction of the ratio of R to the critical droplet radius at breakup agrees fairly well with experimental values for steadily mixed polymer blends.
INTRODUCTION: Theoretical Models as Mass Media Practice: Perspectives from the West
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Line
2007-01-01
What is journalism? How does it exist and why? How does journalism define itself and in what ways can we make use of looking theoretically at the practice of it? These were the central themes of our workshop; Theoretical Models as Mass Media Practice held at the ‘Minding the Gap’ conference...... an exceptional framework for understanding the workings of mass media while helping the press reflect over these workings too. In a time of change for the journalistic profession, when media convergence is growing; the media is marked by deregulation and fewer journalists are being asked to do more...... at Reuters Institute in May 2007, from which this collection of papers has been selected. As with the other workshops during the conference, the majority of our panellists were themselves once media practitioners. It is my opinion that this background and inside knowledge of the field in itself can provide...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-xin Yang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, based on the pressure blister test technique, a theoretical study on the synchronous characterization of surface and interfacial mechanical properties of thin-film/substrate systems with residual stress was presented, where the problem of axisymmetric deformation of a blistering film with initial stress was analytically solved and its closed-form solution was presented. The expressions to determine Poisson’s ratios, Young’s modulus, and residual stress of surface thin films were derived; the work done by the applied external load and the elastic energy stored in the blistering thin film were analyzed in detail and their expressions were derived; and the interfacial adhesion energy released per unit delamination area of thin-film/substrate (i.e., energy release rate was finally presented. The synchronous characterization technique presented here has theoretically made a big step forward, due to the consideration for the residual stress in surface thin films.
Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications
Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.
2013-08-01
3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3
Studying Economic Space: Synthesis of Balance and Game-Theoretic Methods of Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalia Gennadyevna Zakharchenko
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The article introduces questions about development of models used to study economic space. The author proposes the model that combines balance and game-theoretic methods for estimating system effects of economic agents’ interactions in multi-level economic space. The model is applied to research interactions between economic agents that are spatially heterogeneous within the Russian Far East. In the model the economic space of region is considered in a territorial dimension (the first level of decomposing space and also in territorial and product dimensions (the second level of decomposing space. The paper shows the mechanism of system effects formation that exists in the economic space of region. The author estimates system effects, analyses the real allocation of these effects between economic agents and identifies three types of local industrial markets: with zero, positive and negative system effects
Theoretical Framework and Model Design for Beautiful Countryside Construction in China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHENG Xiang-qun
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In the context of China today, the process of beautiful countryside construction mainly imitates the patterns of‘urbanization’construction. However, this approach leads to the loss of countryside characteristics and the separation of agricultural culture. Therefore, it's urgent to carry out research of the theoretical framework and model design for beautiful countryside construction. In this paper, based on the analysis of the beautiful countryside construction connotation, the basic theory of beautiful countryside construction was summarized in three aspects: rural complex ecosystem model, multi-functionality of rural model and sustainable development evaluation model. The basic idea of the beautiful countryside construction mode was studied. The design method of beautiful countryside construction mode was proposed in three levels: planning, scheming and evaluating. The research results might offer scientific reference for improving the scientific and operational nature of beautiful countryside construction.
Rolling force prediction for strip casting using theoretical model and artificial intelligence
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Guang-ming; LI Cheng-gang; ZHOU Guo-ping; LIU Zhen-yu; WU Di; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua
2010-01-01
Rolling force for strip casting of 1Cr17 ferritic stainless steel was predicted using theoretical model and artificial intelligence.Solution zone was classified into two parts by kiss point position during casting strip.Navier-Stokes equation in fluid mechanics and stream function were introduced to analyze the rheological property of liquid zone and mushy zone,and deduce the analytic equation of unit compression stress distribution.The traditional hot rolling model was still used in the solid zone.Neural networks based on feedforward training algorithm in Bayesian regularization were introduced to build model for kiss point position.The results show that calculation accuracy for verification data of 94.67% is in the range of+7.0%,which indicates that the predicting accuracy of this model is very high.
A theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort - Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote (aPMV)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Runming [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University (China); Li, Baizhan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment (Ministry of Education), Chongqing University (China); Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University (China); Liu, Jing [School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading (United Kingdom)
2009-10-15
This paper presents in detail a theoretical adaptive model of thermal comfort based on the ''Black Box'' theory, taking into account factors such as culture, climate, social, psychological and behavioural adaptations, which have an impact on the senses used to detect thermal comfort. The model is called the Adaptive Predicted Mean Vote (aPMV) model. The aPMV model explains, by applying the cybernetics concept, the phenomena that the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) is greater than the Actual Mean Vote (AMV) in free-running buildings, which has been revealed by many researchers in field studies. An Adaptive coefficient ({lambda}) representing the adaptive factors that affect the sense of thermal comfort has been proposed. The empirical coefficients in warm and cool conditions for the Chongqing area in China have been derived by applying the least square method to the monitored onsite environmental data and the thermal comfort survey results. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Du Preez
2003-10-01
Full Text Available This article is based on the conceptual theoretical model developed in Part 1 of this series of articles. The objective of this research is to identify female apparel consumer market segments on the basis of differentiating lifestyles, shopping orientation, cultural consciousness, store patronage and demographics. These profiles are discussed in full and the implications thereof for retailers, marketers and researchers are highlighted. A new conceptual model is proposed and recommendations are made for further research. Opsomming Hierdie artikel word gebaseer op die konseptuele teoretiese model wat reeds in Deel 1 van hierdie artikelreeks ontwikkel is. Die doel van hierdie navorsing is om marksegmente van vroue klere-kopers te identifiseer na aanleiding van hulle lewenstyle, kooporiëntasie, kulturele bewustheid, winkelvoorkeurgedrag en demografie. Hierdie profiele word volledig beskryf en die implikasies van die verskillende profiele vir kleinhandelaars, bemarkers en navorsers word uitgelig. ’n Nuwe konseptuele model word voorgestel en aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word gemaak.
Iseki, Ryuta
2004-12-01
This article reviewed research on construction of situation models during reading. To position variety of research in overall process appropriately, an unitary framework was devised in terms of three theories for on-line processing: resonance process, event-indexing model, and constructionist theory. Resonance process was treated as a basic activation mechanism in the framework. Event-indexing model was regarded as a screening system which selected and encoded activated information in situation models along with situational dimensions. Constructionist theory was considered to have a supervisory role based on coherence and explanation. From a view of the unitary framework, some problems concerning each theory were examined and possible interpretations were given. Finally, it was pointed out that there were little theoretical arguments on associative processing at global level and encoding text- and inference-information into long-term memory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kwon-Yeong; Kim, Moo Hwan; Kim, Moo Hwan
2008-01-01
A theoretical model was developed to investigate a steam condensation with a noncondensable gas in a horizontal tube. The heat transfer through the vapor/noncondensable gas mixture boundary layer consists of the sensible heat transfer and the latent heat transfer given up by the condensing vapor, and it must equal that from the condensate film to the tube wall. Therefore, the total heat transfer coefficient is given by the film, condensation and sensible heat transfer coefficients. The film heat transfer coefficients of the upper and lower portions of the tube were calculated separately from Rosson and Meyers (1965) correlation. The heat and mass transfer analogy was used to analyze the steam/noncondensable gas mixture boundary layer. Here, the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in the gas phase were modified to incorporate the effects of condensate film roughness, suction, and developing flow. The predictions of the theoretical model for the experimental heat transfer coefficients at the top and bottom of the tube were reasonable. The calculated heat transfer coefficients at the top of the tube were higher than those at the bottom of it, as experimental results. As the temperature potential at the top of tube was lower than that at the bottom of it, the heat fluxes at the upper and lower portions of the tube were similar to each other. Generally speaking, however, the model predictions showed a good agreement with experimental data. The new empirical correlation proposed by Lee and Kim (2008) for the vertical tube was applied to the condensation of steam/noncondensable mixture in a horizontal tube. Nusselt theory and Chato correlation were used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients at top and bottom of the horizontal tube, respectively. The predictions of the new empirical correlation were good and very similar with the theoretical model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scialdone, Onofrio; Guarisco, Chiara; Galia, Alessandro
2011-01-01
The electrochemical oxidation of organics in water performed in micro reactors on boron doped diamond (BDD) anode was investigated both theoretically and experimentally in order to find the influence of various operative parameters on the conversion and the current efficiency CE of the process. The electrochemical oxidation of formic acid (FA) was selected as a model case. High conversions for a single passage of the electrolytic solution inside the cell were obtained by operating with proper residence times and low distances between cathode and anode. The effect of initial concentration, flow rate and current density was investigated in detail. Theoretical predictions were in very good agreement with experimental results for both mass transfer control, oxidation reaction control and mixed kinetic regimes in spite of the fact that no adjustable parameters was used. Mass transfer process was successfully modelled by considering for simplicity a constant Sh number (e.g., a constant mass transfer coefficient k m ) for a process performed with no high values of the current intensity to minimize the effect of the gas bubbling on the flowdynamic pattern. For mixed kinetic regimes, two different modelling approaches were used. In the first one, the oxidation of organics at BDD was assumed to be mass transfer controlled and to occur with an intrinsic 100% CE when applied current density is higher than the limiting current density. In the second case, the CE of the process was modelled assuming that the competition between organic and water oxidation depends only on the electrodic material and on the nature and the concentration of the organic. In the latter case a better agreement between experimental data and theoretical predictions was observed.
Schuwirth, Nele; Reichert, Peter
2013-02-01
For the first time, we combine concepts of theoretical food web modeling, the metabolic theory of ecology, and ecological stoichiometry with the use of functional trait databases to predict the coexistence of invertebrate taxa in streams. We developed a mechanistic model that describes growth, death, and respiration of different taxa dependent on various environmental influence factors to estimate survival or extinction. Parameter and input uncertainty is propagated to model results. Such a model is needed to test our current quantitative understanding of ecosystem structure and function and to predict effects of anthropogenic impacts and restoration efforts. The model was tested using macroinvertebrate monitoring data from a catchment of the Swiss Plateau. Even without fitting model parameters, the model is able to represent key patterns of the coexistence structure of invertebrates at sites varying in external conditions (litter input, shading, water quality). This confirms the suitability of the model concept. More comprehensive testing and resulting model adaptations will further increase the predictive accuracy of the model.
Theoretical Hill-type muscle and stability: numerical model and application.
Schmitt, S; Günther, M; Rupp, T; Bayer, A; Häufle, D
2013-01-01
The construction of artificial muscles is one of the most challenging developments in today's biomedical science. The application of artificial muscles is focused both on the construction of orthotics and prosthetics for rehabilitation and prevention purposes and on building humanoid walking machines for robotics research. Research in biomechanics tries to explain the functioning and design of real biological muscles and therefore lays the fundament for the development of functional artificial muscles. Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from simple mechanical components. In this contribution, this theoretical yet biomechanical model is transferred to a numerical model and applied for presenting a proof-of-concept of a functional artificial muscle. Additionally, this validated theoretical model is used to determine force-velocity relations of different animal species that are based on the literature data from biological experiments. Moreover, it is shown that an antagonistic muscle actuator can help in stabilising a single inverted pendulum model in favour of a control approach using a linear torque generator.
Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Peres, Karen Glazer; Nedel, Fúlvio Borges
2007-01-01
The epidemiological literature has been limited by the absence of a theoretical framework reflecting the complexity of causal mechanisms for the occurrence of health phenomena / disease conditions. In the field of oral epidemiology, such lack of theory also prevails, since dental caries the leading topic in oral research has been often studied through a biological and reductionist viewpoint. One of the most important consequences of dental caries is dental pain (odontalgia), which has received little attention in studies with sophisticated theoretical models and powerful designs to establish causal relationships. The purpose of this study is to review the scientific literature on the determinants of odontalgia and to discuss theories proposed for the explanation of the phenomenon. Conceptual models and emerging theories on the social determinants of oral health are revised, in an attempt to build up links with the bio-psychosocial pain model, proposing a more elaborate causal model for odontalgia. The framework suggests causal pathways between social structure and oral health through material, psychosocial and behavioral pathways. Aspects of the social structure are highlighted in order to relate them to odontalgia, stressing their importance in discussions of causal relationships in oral health research.
Young, Kimberly S.; Brand, Matthias
2017-01-01
Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA) fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model. PMID:29104555
A utility-theoretic model for QALYs and willingness to pay.
Klose, Thomas
2003-01-01
Despite the widespread use of quality-adjusted life years (QALY) in economic evaluation studies, their utility-theoretic foundation remains unclear. A model for preferences over health, money, and time is presented in this paper. Under the usual assumptions of the original QALY-model, an additive separable presentation of the utilities in different periods exists. In contrast to the usual assumption that QALY-weights do solely depend on aspects of health-related quality of life, wealth-standardized QALY-weights might vary with the wealth level in the presented extension of the original QALY-model resulting in an inconsistent measurement of QALYs. Further assumptions are presented to make the measurement of QALYs consistent with lifetime preferences over health and money. Even under these strict assumptions, QALYs and WTP (which also can be defined in this utility-theoretic model) are not equivalent preference-based measures of the effects of health technologies on an individual level. The results suggest that the individual WTP per QALY can depend on the magnitude of the QALY-gain as well as on the disease burden, when health influences the marginal utility of wealth. Further research seems to be indicated on this structural aspect of preferences over health and wealth and to quantify its impact. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lin, L.; Luo, X.; Qin, F.; Yang, J.
2018-03-01
As one of the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels in a combustion-heated wind tunnel, water vapor may condense during the rapid expansion process, which will lead to a complex two-phase flow inside the wind tunnel and even change the design flow conditions at the nozzle exit. The coupling of the phase transition and the compressible flow makes the estimation of the condensation effects in such wind tunnels very difficult and time-consuming. In this work, a reduced theoretical model is developed to approximately compute the nozzle-exit conditions of a flow including real-gas and homogeneous condensation effects. Specifically, the conservation equations of the axisymmetric flow are first approximated in the quasi-one-dimensional way. Then, the complex process is split into two steps, i.e., a real-gas nozzle flow but excluding condensation, resulting in supersaturated nozzle-exit conditions, and a discontinuous jump at the end of the nozzle from the supersaturated state to a saturated state. Compared with two-dimensional numerical simulations implemented with a detailed condensation model, the reduced model predicts the flow parameters with good accuracy except for some deviations caused by the two-dimensional effect. Therefore, this reduced theoretical model can provide a fast, simple but also accurate estimation of the condensation effect in combustion-heated hypersonic tunnels.
Young, Kimberly S; Brand, Matthias
2017-01-01
Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013). This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA) fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kimberly S. Young
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Although, it is not yet officially recognized as a clinical entity which is diagnosable, Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD has been included in section III for further study in the DSM-5 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2013. This is important because there is increasing evidence that people of all ages, in particular teens and young adults, are facing very real and sometimes very severe consequences in daily life resulting from an addictive use of online games. This article summarizes general aspects of IGD including diagnostic criteria and arguments for the classification as an addictive disorder including evidence from neurobiological studies. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, this paper examines the use of one recently proposed model, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE model, for inspiring future research and for developing new treatment protocols for IGD. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework that explains symptoms of Internet addiction by looking at interactions between predisposing factors, moderators, and mediators in combination with reduced executive functioning and diminished decision making. Finally, the paper discusses how current treatment protocols focusing on Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Internet addiction (CBT-IA fit with the processes hypothesized in the I-PACE model.
Theoretical Hill-Type Muscle and Stability: Numerical Model and Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Schmitt
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The construction of artificial muscles is one of the most challenging developments in today’s biomedical science. The application of artificial muscles is focused both on the construction of orthotics and prosthetics for rehabilitation and prevention purposes and on building humanoid walking machines for robotics research. Research in biomechanics tries to explain the functioning and design of real biological muscles and therefore lays the fundament for the development of functional artificial muscles. Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from simple mechanical components. In this contribution, this theoretical yet biomechanical model is transferred to a numerical model and applied for presenting a proof-of-concept of a functional artificial muscle. Additionally, this validated theoretical model is used to determine force-velocity relations of different animal species that are based on the literature data from biological experiments. Moreover, it is shown that an antagonistic muscle actuator can help in stabilising a single inverted pendulum model in favour of a control approach using a linear torque generator.
A P-value model for theoretical power analysis and its applications in multiple testing procedures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fengqing Zhang
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Power analysis is a critical aspect of the design of experiments to detect an effect of a given size. When multiple hypotheses are tested simultaneously, multiplicity adjustments to p-values should be taken into account in power analysis. There are a limited number of studies on power analysis in multiple testing procedures. For some methods, the theoretical analysis is difficult and extensive numerical simulations are often needed, while other methods oversimplify the information under the alternative hypothesis. To this end, this paper aims to develop a new statistical model for power analysis in multiple testing procedures. Methods We propose a step-function-based p-value model under the alternative hypothesis, which is simple enough to perform power analysis without simulations, but not too simple to lose the information from the alternative hypothesis. The first step is to transform distributions of different test statistics (e.g., t, chi-square or F to distributions of corresponding p-values. We then use a step function to approximate each of the p-value’s distributions by matching the mean and variance. Lastly, the step-function-based p-value model can be used for theoretical power analysis. Results The proposed model is applied to problems in multiple testing procedures. We first show how the most powerful critical constants can be chosen using the step-function-based p-value model. Our model is then applied to the field of multiple testing procedures to explain the assumption of monotonicity of the critical constants. Lastly, we apply our model to a behavioral weight loss and maintenance study to select the optimal critical constants. Conclusions The proposed model is easy to implement and preserves the information from the alternative hypothesis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pagonis, V.; Chen, R.; Kitis, G.
2006-01-01
The pre-dose technique in thermoluminescence (TL) is used for dating archaeological ceramics and for accident dosimetry. During routine applications of this technique, the sensitisation of the quartz samples is measured as a function of the annealing temperature, yielding the so-called thermal activation characteristic (TAC). The measurement of multiple TACs and the study of the effect of UV-radiation on the TL sensitivity of quartz are important analytical and diagnostic tools. In this paper, it is shown that a modified Zimmerman model for quartz can successfully model the experimental steps undertaken during a measurement of multiple TACs. (authors)
Circuit oriented electromagnetic modeling using the PEEC techniques
Ruehli, Albert; Jiang, Lijun
2017-01-01
This book provides intuitive solutions to electromagnetic problems by using the Partial Eelement Eequivalent Ccircuit (PEEC) method. This book begins with an introduction to circuit analysis techniques, laws, and frequency and time domain analyses. The authors also treat Maxwell's equations, capacitance computations, and inductance computations through the lens of the PEEC method. Next, readers learn to build PEEC models in various forms: equivalent circuit models, non orthogonal PEEC models, skin-effect models, PEEC models for dielectrics, incident and radiate field models, and scattering PEEC models. The book concludes by considering issues like such as stability and passivity, and includes five appendices some with formulas for partial elements.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Staub, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders; Outters, Nils [Golder Associates AB, Uppsala (Sweden)
2002-05-01
In the purpose of studying the possibilities of a Deep Repository for spent fuel, the Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is currently planning for Site Investigations. Data collected from these Site Investigations are interpreted and analysed to achieve the full Site Description, which is built up of models from all the disciplines that are considered of importance for the Site Description. One of these models is the Rock Mechanical Descriptive Model,which would be developed for any site in hard crystalline rock, and is a combination and evaluation of the characterisation of rock mass by means of empirical relationships and a theoretical approach based on numerical modelling. The present report describes the theoretical approach. The characterisation of the mechanical properties of the rock mass, viewed as a unit consisting of intact rock and fractures, is achieved by numerical simulations with following input parameters: initial stresses, fracture geometry, distribution of rock mechanical properties, such as deformation and strength parameters, for the intact rock and for the fractures. The numerical modelling was performed with the two-dimensional code UDEC, and the rock block models were generated from 2D trace sections extracted from the 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. Assumptions and uncertainties related to the set-up of the model are considered. The numerical model was set-up to simulate a plain strain-loading test. Different boundary conditions were applied on the model for simulating stress conditions (I) in the undisturbed rock mass, and (II) at the proximity of a tunnel. In order to assess the reliability of the model sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some rock block models for defining the dependency of mechanical properties to in situ stresses, the influence of boundary conditions, rock material and joint constitutive models used to simulate the behaviour of intact rock and fractures, domain size and anisotropy. To
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staub, Isabelle; Fredriksson, Anders; Outters, Nils
2002-05-01
In the purpose of studying the possibilities of a Deep Repository for spent fuel, the Swedish Nuclear and Fuel Management Company (SKB) is currently planning for Site Investigations. Data collected from these Site Investigations are interpreted and analysed to achieve the full Site Description, which is built up of models from all the disciplines that are considered of importance for the Site Description. One of these models is the Rock Mechanical Descriptive Model,which would be developed for any site in hard crystalline rock, and is a combination and evaluation of the characterisation of rock mass by means of empirical relationships and a theoretical approach based on numerical modelling. The present report describes the theoretical approach. The characterisation of the mechanical properties of the rock mass, viewed as a unit consisting of intact rock and fractures, is achieved by numerical simulations with following input parameters: initial stresses, fracture geometry, distribution of rock mechanical properties, such as deformation and strength parameters, for the intact rock and for the fractures. The numerical modelling was performed with the two-dimensional code UDEC, and the rock block models were generated from 2D trace sections extracted from the 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model. Assumptions and uncertainties related to the set-up of the model are considered. The numerical model was set-up to simulate a plain strain-loading test. Different boundary conditions were applied on the model for simulating stress conditions (I) in the undisturbed rock mass, and (II) at the proximity of a tunnel. In order to assess the reliability of the model sensitivity analyses have been conducted on some rock block models for defining the dependency of mechanical properties to in situ stresses, the influence of boundary conditions, rock material and joint constitutive models used to simulate the behaviour of intact rock and fractures, domain size and anisotropy. To
[Intestinal lengthening techniques: an experimental model in dogs].
Garibay González, Francisco; Díaz Martínez, Daniel Alberto; Valencia Flores, Alejandro; González Hernández, Miguel Angel
2005-01-01
To compare two intestinal lengthening procedures in an experimental dog model. Intestinal lengthening is one of the methods for gastrointestinal reconstruction used for treatment of short bowel syndrome. The modification to the Bianchi's technique is an alternative. The modified technique decreases the number of anastomoses to a single one, thus reducing the risk of leaks and strictures. To our knowledge there is not any clinical or experimental report that studied both techniques, so we realized the present report. Twelve creole dogs were operated with the Bianchi technique for intestinal lengthening (group A) and other 12 creole dogs from the same race and weight were operated by the modified technique (Group B). Both groups were compared in relation to operating time, difficulties in technique, cost, intestinal lengthening and anastomoses diameter. There were no statistical difference in the anastomoses diameter (A = 9.0 mm vs. B = 8.5 mm, p = 0.3846). Operating time (142 min vs. 63 min) cost and technique difficulties were lower in group B (p anastomoses (of Group B) and intestinal segments had good blood supply and were patent along their full length. Bianchi technique and the modified technique offer two good reliable alternatives for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. The modified technique improved operating time, cost and technical issues.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
NJOMO WANDJI, Wilfried
2017-01-01
levels are targeted: existence, location, and severity. The proposed algorithm is analytically developed from the dynamics theory and the virtual energy principle. Some computational techniques are proposed for carrying out computations, including discretization, integration, derivation, and suitable...
Theoretical cytotoxicity models for combined exposure of cells to different radiations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, B.R.
1981-01-01
Theoretical cytotoxicity models for predicting cell survival after sequential or simultaneous exposure of cells to high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation are discussed. Major findings are that (1) ordering of sequential exposures can influence the level of cell killing achieved; (2) synergism is unimportant at low doses; (3) effects at very low doses should be additive; (4) use of the conventional relative biological effectiveness approach for predicting combined effects of different radiations is unnecessary at very low doses and can lead to overestimation of risk at moderate and high doses
Theoretical model for a background noise limited laser-excited optical filter for doubled Nd lasers
Shay, Thomas M.; Garcia, Daniel F.
1990-01-01
A simple theoretical model for the calculation of the dependence of filter quantum efficiency versus laser pump power in an atomic Rb vapor laser-excited optical filter is reported. Calculations for Rb filter transitions that can be used to detect the practical and important frequency-doubled Nd lasers are presented. The results of these calculations show the filter's quantum efficiency versus the laser pump power. The required laser pump powers required range from 2.4 to 60 mW/sq cm of filter aperture.
Use of Graph-Theoretic Models in Technological Preparation of Assembly Plant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Franzevich Yurchik
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The article examines the existing ways of describing the structural and technological properties of the product in the process of building and repair. It turned out that the main body of work on the preparation process of assembling production uses graph-theoretic model of the product. It is shown that, in general, the structural integrity of many-form connections and relations on the set of components that can not be adequately described by binary structures, such as graphs, networks or trees.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dymski, T.C.
1976-01-01
For high energy scattering of pseudoscalar particles on spin 1 / 2 particles, the transition amplitude (for a given signature) is constructed as an infinite sum over spin of boson exchange graphs of the Feynman type, each of which has impact parameters up to some value R completely removed. This amplitude is advanced as a field theoretic realization of the nondiffractive component of Harari's dual absorption model. Comparing with π/sup +-/p→π/sup +-/p and π - p→π 0 n data shows that the imaginary parts of both helicity amplitudes are excellent, for either signature
Theoretical modeling of the feedback stabilization of external MHD modes of toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chance, M.S.; Chu, M.S.; Okabayashi, M.
2001-01-01
A theoretical framework for understanding the feedback mechanism against external MHD modes has been formulated. Efficient computational tools - the GATO stability code coupled with a substantially modified VACUUM code - have been developed to effectively design viable feedback systems against these modes. The analysis assumed a thin resistive shell and a feedback coil structure accurately modeled in θ, with only a single harmonic variation in φ. An optimized configuration and placement of the feedback and sensor coils as well as the time constants and induced currents in the enclosing resistive shell have been computed for the DIII-D device. Up to 90% of the effectiveness of an ideal wall can be achieved. (author)
Lin, S H; Sahai, R; Eyring, H
1971-04-01
A theoretical model for the accumulation of pesticides in soil has been proposed and discussed from the viewpoint of heterogeneous reaction kinetics with a basic aim to understand the complex nature of soil processes relating to the environmental pollution. In the bulk of soil, the pesticide disappears by diffusion and a chemical reaction; the rate processes considered on the surface of soil are diffusion, chemical reaction, vaporization, and regular pesticide application. The differential equations involved have been solved analytically by the Laplace-transform method.
Ding, Ya
2018-01-01
In recent years, many areas of China have been facing increasing problems of soil erosion and land degradation. Conservation tillage, with both economic and ecological benefits, provides a good avenue for Chinese farmers to conserve land as well as secure food production. However, the adoption rate of conservation tillage systems is very low in China. In this paper, the author constructs a theoretical model to explain a farmer’s adoption decision of conservation tillage. The goal is to investigate potential reasons behind the low adoption rate and explores alternative policy tools that can help improve a farmer’s incentive to adopt conservation tillage in China.
The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer Streiffer Mascaro
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another’s affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work.
A theoretical model of speed-dependent steering torque for rolling tyres
Wei, Yintao; Oertel, Christian; Liu, Yahui; Li, Xuebing
2016-04-01
It is well known that the tyre steering torque is highly dependent on the tyre rolling speed. In limited cases, i.e. parking manoeuvre, the steering torque approaches the maximum. With the increasing tyre speed, the steering torque decreased rapidly. Accurate modelling of the speed-dependent behaviour for the tyre steering torque is a key factor to calibrate the electric power steering (EPS) system and tune the handling performance of vehicles. However, no satisfactory theoretical model can be found in the existing literature to explain this phenomenon. This paper proposes a new theoretical framework to model this important tyre behaviour, which includes three key factors: (1) tyre three-dimensional transient rolling kinematics with turn-slip; (2) dynamical force and moment generation; and (3) the mixed Lagrange-Euler method for contact deformation solving. A nonlinear finite-element code has been developed to implement the proposed approach. It can be found that the main mechanism for the speed-dependent steering torque is due to turn-slip-related kinematics. This paper provides a theory to explain the complex mechanism of the tyre steering torque generation, which helps to understand the speed-dependent tyre steering torque, tyre road feeling and EPS calibration.
A Theoretical Model for Estimation of Yield Strength of Fiber Metal Laminate
Bhat, Sunil; Nagesh, Suresh; Umesh, C. K.; Narayanan, S.
2017-08-01
The paper presents a theoretical model for estimation of yield strength of fiber metal laminate. Principles of elasticity and formulation of residual stress are employed to determine the stress state in metal layer of the laminate that is found to be higher than the stress applied over the laminate resulting in reduced yield strength of the laminate in comparison with that of the metal layer. The model is tested over 4A-3/2 Glare laminate comprising three thin aerospace 2014-T6 aluminum alloy layers alternately bonded adhesively with two prepregs, each prepreg built up of three uni-directional glass fiber layers laid in longitudinal and transverse directions. Laminates with prepregs of E-Glass and S-Glass fibers are investigated separately under uni-axial tension. Yield strengths of both the Glare variants are found to be less than that of aluminum alloy with use of S-Glass fiber resulting in higher laminate yield strength than with the use of E-Glass fiber. Results from finite element analysis and tensile tests conducted over the laminates substantiate the theoretical model.
Theoretical and experimental stress analyses of ORNL thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder model 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwaltney, R.C.; Bolt, S.E.; Bryson, J.W.
1975-10-01
Model 2 in a series of four thin-shell cylinder-to-cylinder models was tested, and the experimentally determined elastic stress distributions were compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a thin-shell finite-element analysis. Both the cylinder and the nozzle of model 2 had outside diameters of 10 in., giving a d 0 /D 0 ratio of 1.0, and both had outside diameter/thickness ratios of 100. Sixteen separate loading cases in which one end of the cylinder was rigidly held were analyzed. An internal pressure loading, three mutually perpendicular force components, and three mutually perpendicular moment components were individually applied at the free end of the cylinder and at the end of the nozzle. In addition to these 13 loadings, 3 additional loads were applied to the nozzle (in-plane bending moment, out-of-plane bending moment, and axial force) with the free end of the cylinder restrained. The experimental stress distributions for each of the 16 loadings were obtained using 152 three-gage strain rosettes located on the inner and outer surfaces. All the 16 loading cases were also analyzed theoretically using a finite-element shell analysis. The analysis used flat-plate elements and considered five degrees of freedom per node in the final assembled equations. The comparisons between theory and experiment show reasonably good general agreement, and it is felt that the analysis would be satisfactory for most engineering purposes. (auth)
Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.; Schmidt, C. C.; Giglio, L.; Prins, E.
2009-12-01
The diurnal cycle of fire activity is crucial for accurate simulation of atmospheric effects of fire emissions, especially at finer spatial and temporal scales. Estimating diurnal variability in emissions is also a critical problem for construction of emissions estimates from multiple sensors with variable coverage patterns. An optimal diurnal emissions estimate will use as much information as possible from satellite fire observations, compensate known biases in those observations, and use detailed theoretical models of the diurnal cycle to fill in missing information. As part of ongoing improvements to the Fire Location and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) fire monitoring system, we evaluated several different methods of integrating observations with different temporal sampling. We used geostationary fire detections from WF_ABBA, fire detection data from MODIS, empirical diurnal cycles from TRMM, and simple theoretical diurnal curves based on surface heating. Our experiments integrated these data in different combinations to estimate the diurnal cycles of emissions for each location and time. Hourly emissions estimates derived using these methods were tested using an aerosol transport model. We present results of this comparison, and discuss the implications of our results for the broader problem of multi-sensor data fusion in fire emissions modeling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Milad Elyasi
2014-04-01
Full Text Available In the recent decade, studying the economic order quantity (EOQ models with imperfect quality has appealed to many researchers. Only few papers are published discussing EOQ models with imperfect items in a supply chain. In this paper, a two-echelon decentralized supply chain consisting of a manufacture and a supplier that both face just in time (JIT inventory problem is considered. It is sought to find the optimal number of the shipments and the quantity of each shipment in a way that minimizes the both manufacturer’s and the supplier’s cost functions. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first paper that deals with imperfect items in a decentralized supply chain. Thereby, three different game theoretical solution approaches consisting of two non-cooperative games and a cooperative game are proposed. Comparing the results of three different scenarios with those of the centralized model, the conclusions are drawn to obtain the best approach.
de Andrade, Rocelito Lopes; de Oliveira, Matheus Costa; Kohlrausch, Emerson Cristofer; Santos, Marcos José Leite
2018-05-01
This work presents a new and simple method for determining IPH (current source dependent on luminance), I0 (reverse saturation current), n (ideality factor), RP and RS, (parallel and series resistance) to build an electrical model for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The electrical circuit parameters used in the simulation and to generate theoretical curves for the single diode electrical model were extracted from I-V curves of assembled DSSCs. Model validation was performed by assembling five different types of DSSCs and evaluating the following parameters: effect of a TiO2 blocking/adhesive layer, thickness of the TiO2 layer and the presence of a light scattering layer. In addition, irradiance, temperature, series and parallel resistance, ideality factor and reverse saturation current were simulated.
Sutherland, Richard L.
2002-12-01
Polarization properties and electro-optical switching behavior of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (HPDLC) reflection and transmission gratings are studied. A theoretical model is developed that combines anisotropic coupled-wave theory with an elongated liquid-crystal-droplet switching model and includes the effects of a statistical orientational distribution of droplet-symmetry axes. Angle- and polarization-dependent switching behaviors of HPDLC gratings are elucidated, and the effects on dynamic range are described. A new type of electro-optical switching not seen in ordinary polymer-dispersed liquid crystals, to the best of the author's knowledge, is presented and given a physical interpretation. The model provides valuable insight to the physics of these gratings and can be applied to the design of HPDLC holographic optical elements.
Activity systems modeling as a theoretical lens for social exchange studies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ernest Jones
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The social exchange perspective seeks to acknowledge, understand and predict the dynamics of social interactions. Empirical research involving social exchange constructs have grown to be highly technical including confirmatory factor analysis to assess construct distinctiveness and structural equation modeling to assess construct causality. Each study seemingly strives to assess how underlying social exchange theoretic constructs interrelate. Yet despite this methodological depth and resultant explanatory and predictive power, a significant number of studies report findings that, once synthesized, suggest an underlying persistent threat of conceptual or construct validity brought about by a search for epistemological parsimony. Further, it is argued that a methodological approach that embraces inherent complexity such as activity systems modeling facilitates the search for simplified models while not ignoring contextual factors.
Farrokhabadi, A.; Mokhtari, J.; Koochi, A.; Abadyan, M.
2015-06-01
In this paper, the impact of the Casimir attraction on the electromechanical stability of nanowire-fabricated nanotweezers is investigated using a theoretical continuum mechanics model. The Dirichlet mode is considered and an asymptotic solution, based on path integral approach, is applied to consider the effect of vacuum fluctuations in the model. The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is employed to derive the nonlinear governing equation of the nanotweezers. The governing equations are solved by three different approaches, i.e. the modified variation iteration method, generalized differential quadrature method and using a lumped parameter model. Various perspectives of the problem, including the comparison with the van der Waals force regime, the variation of instability parameters and effects of geometry are addressed in present paper. The proposed approach is beneficial for the precise determination of the electrostatic response of the nanotweezers in the presence of Casimir force.
An experimental technique for the modelling of air flow movements in nuclear plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ainsworth, R.W.; Hallas, N.J.
1986-01-01
This paper describes an experimental technique developed at Harwell to model ventilation flows in plant at 1/5th scale. The technique achieves dynamic similarity not only for forced convection imposed by the plant ventilation system, but also for the interaction between natural convection (from heated objects) and forced convection. The use of a scale model to study flow of fluids is a well established technique, relying upon various criteria, expressed in terms of dimensionless numbers, to achieve dynamic similarity. For forced convective flows, simulation of Reynolds number is sufficient, but to model natural convection and its interaction with forced convection, the Rayleigh, Grashof and Prandtl numbers must be simulated at the same time. This paper describes such a technique, used in experiments on a hypothetical glove box cell to study the interaction between forced and natural convection. The model contained features typically present in a cell, such as a man, motor, stairs, glove box, etc. The aim of the experiment was to study the overall flow patterns, especially around the model man 'working' at the glove box. The cell ventilation was theoretically designed to produce a downward flow over the face of the man working at the glove box. However, the results have shown that the flow velocities produced an upwards flow over the face of the man. The work has indicated the viability of modelling simultaneously the forced and natural convection processes in a cell. It has also demonstrated that simplistic assumptions cannot be made about ventilation flow patterns. (author)
Modelling Technique for Demonstrating Gravity Collapse Structures in Jointed Rock.
Stimpson, B.
1979-01-01
Described is a base-friction modeling technique for studying the development of collapse structures in jointed rocks. A moving belt beneath weak material is designed to simulate gravity. A description is given of the model frame construction. (Author/SA)
Game Theoretic Modeling of Water Resources Allocation Under Hydro-Climatic Uncertainty
Brown, C.; Lall, U.; Siegfried, T.
2005-12-01
Typical hydrologic and economic modeling approaches rely on assumptions of climate stationarity and economic conditions of ideal markets and rational decision-makers. In this study, we incorporate hydroclimatic variability with a game theoretic approach to simulate and evaluate common water allocation paradigms. Game Theory may be particularly appropriate for modeling water allocation decisions. First, a game theoretic approach allows economic analysis in situations where price theory doesn't apply, which is typically the case in water resources where markets are thin, players are few, and rules of exchange are highly constrained by legal or cultural traditions. Previous studies confirm that game theory is applicable to water resources decision problems, yet applications and modeling based on these principles is only rarely observed in the literature. Second, there are numerous existing theoretical and empirical studies of specific games and human behavior that may be applied in the development of predictive water allocation models. With this framework, one can evaluate alternative orderings and rules regarding the fraction of available water that one is allowed to appropriate. Specific attributes of the players involved in water resources management complicate the determination of solutions to game theory models. While an analytical approach will be useful for providing general insights, the variety of preference structures of individual players in a realistic water scenario will likely require a simulation approach. We propose a simulation approach incorporating the rationality, self-interest and equilibrium concepts of game theory with an agent-based modeling framework that allows the distinct properties of each player to be expressed and allows the performance of the system to manifest the integrative effect of these factors. Underlying this framework, we apply a realistic representation of spatio-temporal hydrologic variability and incorporate the impact of
Theoretical models of the spin-dependent charge-carrier dynamics in metals and semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krauss, Michael
2010-01-01
This thesis is concerned with spin-dependent carrier dynamics in semiconductors and metals. We are especially interested in the dynamics on ultrashort timescales, which can be driven by ultrashort optical excitation, and use of a theoretical description in terms of the dynamical spin-density matrix. The first part of this thesis is concerned with spin-dependent carrier dynamics in bulk GaAs. For conduction electrons in GaAs, the most important mechanisms, by which an electron spin polarization can be destroyed, are the Dyakonov-Perel and Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanisms. For the Dyakonov-Perel effect, our treatment is the first calculation of the dynamics of the spindensity matrix for bulk GaAs. From our microsopic calculation, we extract spin-dephasing times. In particular, we can describe the dependence of the spin-dephasing time for a wide range of n-doping concentrations and explain the spin-dephasing dynamics in and out of the motional-narrowing regime. For the Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism, i.e., the exchange interaction of electronics with holes, approximate relaxation times for limiting cases were derived about 30 years ago. We show that these approaches provide an incomplete picture of spin relaxation, and are only valid for high or low densities, whereas the microscopic calculation is capable of explaining the electronic dynamics also for intermediate doping densities, which are most interesting for typical experiments. The spin-dependent hole dynamics in GaAs is much faster than that of electrons, because the p-like hole bands experience the spin-orbit interaction directly, rather than through the interaction with other bands. The resulting spin relaxation is sometimes referred to as an Elliott-Yafet mechanism. For the first time, we present results for the microscopic dynamics of this mechanism for holes in bulk GaAs, and we discuss the different results that may be obtained with different measurement techniques. We also analyze the importance of ''spin hot
Salomone, Horacio D.; Olivieri, Néstor A.; Véliz, Maximiliano E.; Raviola, Lisandro A.
2018-05-01
In the context of fluid mechanics courses, it is customary to consider the problem of a sphere falling under the action of gravity inside a viscous fluid. Under suitable assumptions, this phenomenon can be modelled using Stokes’ law and is routinely reproduced in teaching laboratories to determine terminal velocities and fluid viscosities. In many cases, however, the measured physical quantities show important deviations with respect to the predictions deduced from the simple Stokes’ model, and the causes of these apparent ‘anomalies’ (for example, whether the flow is laminar or turbulent) are seldom discussed in the classroom. On the other hand, there are various variable-mass problems that students tackle during elementary mechanics courses and which are discussed in many textbooks. In this work, we combine both kinds of problems and analyse—both theoretically and experimentally—the evolution of a system composed of a sphere pulled by a chain of variable length inside a tube filled with water. We investigate the effects of different forces acting on the system such as weight, buoyancy, viscous friction and drag force. By means of a sequence of mathematical models of increasing complexity, we obtain a progressive fit that accounts for the experimental data. The contrast between the various models exposes the strengths and weaknessess of each one. The proposed experience can be useful for integrating concepts of elementary mechanics and fluids, and is suitable as laboratory practice, stressing the importance of the experimental validation of theoretical models and showing the model-building processes in a didactic framework.
A pilot modeling technique for handling-qualities research
Hess, R. A.
1980-01-01
A brief survey of the more dominant analysis techniques used in closed-loop handling-qualities research is presented. These techniques are shown to rely on so-called classical and modern analytical models of the human pilot which have their foundation in the analysis and design principles of feedback control. The optimal control model of the human pilot is discussed in some detail and a novel approach to the a priori selection of pertinent model parameters is discussed. Frequency domain and tracking performance data from 10 pilot-in-the-loop simulation experiments involving 3 different tasks are used to demonstrate the parameter selection technique. Finally, the utility of this modeling approach in handling-qualities research is discussed.
Summary on several key techniques in 3D geological modeling.
Mei, Gang
2014-01-01
Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized.
Brian K. Via; chi L. So; Leslie H. Groom; Todd F. Shupe; michael Stine; Jan. Wikaira
2007-01-01
A theoretical model was built predicting the relationship between microfibril angle and lignin content at the Angstrom (A) level. Both theoretical and statistical examination of experimental data supports a square root transformation of lignin to predict microfibril angle. The experimental material used came from 10 longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)...
Dodd, Bucky J.
2013-01-01
Online course design is an emerging practice in higher education, yet few theoretical models currently exist to explain or predict how the diffusion of innovations occurs in this space. This study used a descriptive, quantitative survey research design to examine theoretical relationships between decision-making style and resistance to change…
Direct fit of a theoretical model of phase transition in oscillatory finger motions.
Newell, K.M.; Molenaar, P.C.M.
2003-01-01
This paper presents a general method to fit the Schoner-Haken-Kelso (SHK) model of human movement phase transitions directly to time series data. A robust variant of the extended Kalman filter technique is applied to the data of a single subject. The options of covariance resetting and iteration
Application of the Social Marketing Model to Unemployment Counseling: A Theoretical Perspective
Englert, Paul; Sommerville, Susannah; Guenole, Nigel
2009-01-01
A. R. Andreasen's (1995) social marketing model (SMM) is applied to structure feedback counseling for individuals who are unemployed. The authors discuss techniques used in commercial marketing and how they are equally applicable to solving societal problems; SMM and its application to social interventions; and structured feedback that moves a…
The custodially protected Randall-Sundrum model. Theoretical aspects and flavour phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanke, Monika
2009-01-01
Models with a warped extra dimension, so-called Randall-Sundrum models, provide an appealing solution to the gauge and flavour hierarchy problems of the Standard Model. After introducing the theoretical basics of such models, we concentrate on a specific model whose symmetry structure is extended to protect the T parameter and the Zb L anti b L coupling from large corrections. We introduce the basic action and discuss in detail effects of electroweak symmetry breaking and the flavour structure of the model. Then we analyse meson-antimeson mixing and rare decays that are affected by new tree level contributions from the Kaluza-Klein modes of the gauge bosons and from the Z boson in an important manner. After deriving analytic expressions for the most important K and B physics observables, we perform a global numerical analysis of the new effects in the model in question. We confirm the recent findings that a stringent constraint on the model is placed by CP-violation in K 0 - anti K 0 mixing. However, even for Kaluza-Klein particles in the reach of the LHC an agreement with all available data can be obtained without significant fine-tuning. We find possible large effects in either CP-violating effects in the B s - anti B s system or in the rare K decays, but not simultaneously. In any case the deviations from the Standard Model predictions in the rare B decays are small and difficult to measure. The specific pattern of new flavour effects allows to distinguish this model from other New Physics frameworks, which we demonstrate explicitly for the case of models with Minimal Flavour Violation and for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity. (orig.)
The custodially protected Randall-Sundrum model. Theoretical aspects and flavour phenomenology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blanke, Monika
2009-07-24
Models with a warped extra dimension, so-called Randall-Sundrum models, provide an appealing solution to the gauge and flavour hierarchy problems of the Standard Model. After introducing the theoretical basics of such models, we concentrate on a specific model whose symmetry structure is extended to protect the T parameter and the Zb{sub L} anti b{sub L} coupling from large corrections. We introduce the basic action and discuss in detail effects of electroweak symmetry breaking and the flavour structure of the model. Then we analyse meson-antimeson mixing and rare decays that are affected by new tree level contributions from the Kaluza-Klein modes of the gauge bosons and from the Z boson in an important manner. After deriving analytic expressions for the most important K and B physics observables, we perform a global numerical analysis of the new effects in the model in question. We confirm the recent findings that a stringent constraint on the model is placed by CP-violation in K{sup 0} - anti K{sup 0} mixing. However, even for Kaluza-Klein particles in the reach of the LHC an agreement with all available data can be obtained without significant fine-tuning. We find possible large effects in either CP-violating effects in the B{sub s} - anti B{sub s} system or in the rare K decays, but not simultaneously. In any case the deviations from the Standard Model predictions in the rare B decays are small and difficult to measure. The specific pattern of new flavour effects allows to distinguish this model from other New Physics frameworks, which we demonstrate explicitly for the case of models with Minimal Flavour Violation and for the Littlest Higgs model with T-parity. (orig.)
The Safety Culture Enactment Questionnaire (SCEQ): Theoretical model and empirical validation.
de Castro, Borja López; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M
2017-06-01
This paper presents the Safety Culture Enactment Questionnaire (SCEQ), designed to assess the degree to which safety is an enacted value in the day-to-day running of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The SCEQ is based on a theoretical safety culture model that is manifested in three fundamental components of the functioning and operation of any organization: strategic decisions, human resources practices, and daily activities and behaviors. The extent to which the importance of safety is enacted in each of these three components provides information about the pervasiveness of the safety culture in the NPP. To validate the SCEQ and the model on which it is based, two separate studies were carried out with data collection in 2008 and 2014, respectively. In Study 1, the SCEQ was administered to the employees of two Spanish NPPs (N=533) belonging to the same company. Participants in Study 2 included 598 employees from the same NPPs, who completed the SCEQ and other questionnaires measuring different safety outcomes (safety climate, safety satisfaction, job satisfaction and risky behaviors). Study 1 comprised item formulation and examination of the factorial structure and reliability of the SCEQ. Study 2 tested internal consistency and provided evidence of factorial validity, validity based on relationships with other variables, and discriminant validity between the SCEQ and safety climate. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) carried out in Study 1 revealed a three-factor solution corresponding to the three components of the theoretical model. Reliability analyses showed strong internal consistency for the three scales of the SCEQ, and each of the 21 items on the questionnaire contributed to the homogeneity of its theoretically developed scale. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) carried out in Study 2 supported the internal structure of the SCEQ; internal consistency of the scales was also supported. Furthermore, the three scales of the SCEQ showed the expected correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Chenghu; Li, Yaping
2017-01-01
Concept of reversible heat exchange process as the theoretical model of the cycle combined heat exchanger could be useful to determine thermodynamics characteristics and the limitation values in the isolated heat exchange system. In this study, the classification of the reversible heat exchange processes is presented, and with the numerical method, medium temperature variation tendency and the useful work production and usage in the whole process are investigated by the construction and solution of the mathematical descriptions. Various values of medium inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio are considered to analyze the effects of process parameters on the outlet temperature lift/drop. The maximum process work transferred from the Carnot cycle region to the reverse cycle region is also researched. Moreover, influence of the separating point between different sub-processes on temperature variation profile and the process work production are analyzed. In addition, the heat-exchange-enhancement-factor is defined to study the enhancement effect of the application of the idealized process in the isolated heat exchange system, and the variation degree of this factor with process parameters change is obtained. The research results of this paper can be a theoretical guidance to construct the cycle combined heat exchange process in the practical system. - Highlights: • A theoretical model of Cycle combined heat exchange process is proposed. • The classification of reversible heat exchange process are presented. • Effects of Inlet temperatures and heat capacity ratio on process are analyzed. • Process work transmission through the whole process is studied. • Heat-exchange-enhancement-factor can be a criteria to express the application effect of the idealized process.
Modeling of air-gap membrane distillation process: A theoretical and experimental study
Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem
2013-06-03
A one dimensional (1-D) air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) model for flat sheet type modules has been developed. This model is based on mathematical equations that describe the heat and mass transfer mechanisms of a single-stage AGMD process. It can simulate AGMD modules in both co-current and counter-current flow regimes. The theoretical model was validated using AGMD experimental data obtained under different operating conditions and parameters. The predicted water vapor flux was compared to the flux measured at five different feed water temperatures, two different feed water salinities, three different air gap widths and two MD membranes with different average pore sizes. This comparison showed that the model flux predictions are strongly correlated with the experimental data, with model predictions being within +10% of the experimentally determined values. The model was then used to study and analyze the parameters that have significant effect on scaling-up the AGMD process such as the effect of increasing the membrane length, and feed and coolant flow rates. The model was also used to analyze the maximum thermal efficiency of the AGMD process by tracing changes in water production rate and the heat input to the process along the membrane length. This was used to understand the gain in both process production and thermal efficiency for different membrane surface areas and the resultant increases in process capital and water unit cost. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
A theoretical model for predicting the Peak Cutting Force of conical picks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gao Kuidong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to predict the PCF (Peak Cutting Force of conical pick in rock cutting process, a theoretical model is established based on elastic fracture mechanics theory. The vertical fracture model of rock cutting fragment is also established based on the maximum tensile criterion. The relation between vertical fracture angle and associated parameters (cutting parameter and ratio B of rock compressive strength to tensile strength is obtained by numerical analysis method and polynomial regression method, and the correctness of rock vertical fracture model is verified through experiments. Linear regression coefficient between the PCF of prediction and experiments is 0.81, and significance level less than 0.05 shows that the model for predicting the PCF is correct and reliable. A comparative analysis between the PCF obtained from this model and Evans model reveals that the result of this prediction model is more reliable and accurate. The results of this work could provide some guidance for studying the rock cutting theory of conical pick and designing the cutting mechanism.
3D Modeling Techniques for Print and Digital Media
Stephens, Megan Ashley
In developing my thesis, I looked to gain skills using ZBrush to create 3D models, 3D scanning, and 3D printing. The models created compared the hearts of several vertebrates and were intended for students attending Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy. I used several resources to create a model of the human heart and was able to work from life while creating heart models from other vertebrates. I successfully learned ZBrush and 3D scanning, and successfully printed 3D heart models. ZBrush allowed me to create several intricate models for use in both animation and print media. The 3D scanning technique did not fit my needs for the project, but may be of use for later projects. I was able to 3D print using two different techniques as well.
A New ABCD Technique to Analyze Business Models & Concepts
Aithal P. S.; Shailasri V. T.; Suresh Kumar P. M.
2015-01-01
Various techniques are used to analyze individual characteristics or organizational effectiveness like SWOT analysis, SWOC analysis, PEST analysis etc. These techniques provide an easy and systematic way of identifying various issues affecting a system and provides an opportunity for further development. Whereas these provide a broad-based assessment of individual institutions and systems, it suffers limitations while applying to business context. The success of any business model depends on ...
A THEORETICAL MODEL OF SOCIO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT WORK PROCESSES FOR MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION TEAM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatyana Gennadevna Pronyushkina
2015-10-01
Full Text Available This article discusses the management of production team, in particular the developed theoretical model of socio-psychological support work processes for management of production team. The author of the research are formulated the purpose and objectives of social-psychological work on management of the production team. Developed in the study a theoretical model aimed at determining the conditions and the identification of features of effective management of the enterprise taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of its staff. Tasks include: definition of the main characteristics of the production team and their severity, the analysis of these characteristics and identifying opportunities for their transformation, development of recommendations for management of social-psychological work on effects on the characteristics of the collective enterprise.Practical study of the activities of a number of businesses have shown the need to improve socio-psychological support of management processes production team: introducing a social and psychological planning team and develop the practice of sociological research on the state of the team, to ensure the smoothing of relations between workers and management through periodic meetings, creations of conditions for feedback, maintaining healthy competition among team members.
Qian, Feng; Zhou, Wanlu; Kaluvan, Suresh; Zhang, Haifeng; Zuo, Lei
2018-04-01
Vibration energy harvesting has been extensively studied in recent years to explore a continuous power source for sensor networks and low-power electronics. Torsional vibration widely exists in mechanical engineering; however, it has not yet been well exploited for energy harvesting. This paper presents a theoretical model and an experimental validation of a torsional vibration energy harvesting system comprised of a shaft and a shear mode piezoelectric transducer. The piezoelectric transducer position on the surface of the shaft is parameterized by two variables that are optimized to obtain the maximum power output. The piezoelectric transducer can work in d 15 mode (pure shear mode), coupled mode of d 31 and d 33, and coupled mode of d 33, d 31 and d 15, respectively, when attached at different angles. Approximate expressions of voltage and power are derived from the theoretical model, which gave predictions in good agreement with analytical solutions. Physical interpretations on the implicit relationship between the power output and the position parameters of the piezoelectric transducer is given based on the derived approximate expression. The optimal position and angle of the piezoelectric transducer is determined, in which case, the transducer works in the coupled mode of d 15, d 31 and d 33.
Theoretical models to predict the mechanical behavior of thick composite tubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volnei Tita
2012-02-01
Full Text Available This paper shows theoretical models (analytical formulations to predict the mechanical behavior of thick composite tubes and how some parameters can influence this behavior. Thus, firstly, it was developed the analytical formulations for a pressurized tube made of composite material with a single thick ply and only one lamination angle. For this case, the stress distribution and the displacement fields are investigated as function of different lamination angles and reinforcement volume fractions. The results obtained by the theoretical model are physic consistent and coherent with the literature information. After that, the previous formulations are extended in order to predict the mechanical behavior of a thick laminated tube. Both analytical formulations are implemented as a computational tool via Matlab code. The results obtained by the computational tool are compared to the finite element analyses, and the stress distribution is considered coherent. Moreover, the engineering computational tool is used to perform failure analysis, using different types of failure criteria, which identifies the damaged ply and the mode of failure.
Mechanisms of plasma-assisted catalyzed growth of carbon nanofibres: a theoretical modeling
Gupta, R.; Sharma, S. C.; Sharma, R.
2017-02-01
A theoretical model is developed to study the nucleation and catalytic growth of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in a plasma environment. The model includes the charging of CNFs, the kinetics of the plasma species (neutrals, ions and electrons), plasma pretreatment of the catalyst film, and various processes unique to a plasma-exposed catalyst surface such as adsorption of neutrals, thermal dissociation of neutrals, ion induced dissociation, interaction between neutral species, stress exerted by the growing graphene layers and the growth of CNFs. Numerical calculations are carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the growth rate of CNFs decreases with the catalyst nanoparticle size. In addition, the effect of hydrogen on the catalyst nanoparticle size, CNF tip diameter, CNF growth rate, and the tilt angle of the graphene layers to the fiber axis are investigated. Moreover, it is also found that the length of CNFs increases with hydrocarbon number density. Our theoretical findings are in good agreement with experimental observations and can be extended to enhance the field emission characteristics of CNFs.
Photoluminescence of crystalline and disordered BTO:Mn powder: Experimental and theoretical modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurgel, M.F.C.; Espinosa, J.W.M.; Campos, A.B.; Rosa, I.L.V.; Joya, M.R.; Souza, A.G.; Zaghete, M.A.; Pizani, P.S.; Leite, E.R.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.
2007-01-01
Disordered and crystalline Mn-doped BaTiO 3 (BTO:Mn) powders were synthesized by the polymeric precursor method. After heat treatment, the nature of visible photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature in amorphous BTO:Mn was discussed, considering results of experimental and theoretical studies. X-ray diffraction (XRD), PL, and UV-vis were used to characterize this material. Rietveld refinement of the BTO:Mn from XRD data was used to built two models, which represent the crystalline BTO:Mn (BTO:Mn c ) and disordered BTO:Mn (BTO:Mn d ) structures. Theses models were analyzed by the periodic ab initio quantum mechanical calculations using the CRYSTAL98 package within the framework of density functional theory at the B3LYP level. The experimental and theoretical results indicated that PL is related with the degree of disorder in the BTO:Mn powders and also suggests the presence of localized states in the disordered structure
Theoretical study on the inverse modeling of deep body temperature measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi
2012-01-01
We evaluated the theoretical aspects of monitoring the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse modeling method. A two-dimensional model was built based on anatomical structure to simulate the human abdomen. By integrating biophysical and physiological information, the deep body temperature distribution was estimated from cutaneous surface temperature measurements using an inverse quasilinear method. Simulations were conducted with and without the heat effect of blood perfusion in the muscle and skin layers. The results of the simulations showed consistently that the noise characteristics and arrangement of the temperature sensors were the major factors affecting the accuracy of the inverse solution. With temperature sensors of 0.05 °C systematic error and an optimized 16-sensor arrangement, the inverse method could estimate the deep body temperature distribution with an average absolute error of less than 0.20 °C. The results of this theoretical study suggest that it is possible to reconstruct the deep body temperature distribution with the inverse method and that this approach merits further investigation. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Huajiao; An, Haizhong; Fang, Wei; Jiang, Meng
2017-01-01
The logistical issues surrounding the timing and transport of flowback generated by each shale gas well to the next is a big challenge. Due to more and more flowback being stored temporarily near the shale gas well and reused in the shale gas development, both transportation cost and storage cost are the heavy burden for the developers. This research proposed a theoretical cost optimization model to get the optimal flowback distribution solution for regional multi shale gas wells in a holistic perspective. Then, we used some empirical data of Marcellus Shale to do the empirical study. In addition, we compared the optimal flowback distribution solution by considering both the transportation cost and storage cost with the flowback distribution solution which only minimized the transportation cost or only minimized the storage cost. - Highlights: • A theoretical cost optimization model to get optimal flowback distribution solution. • An empirical study using the shale gas data in Bradford County of Marcellus Shale. • Visualization of optimal flowback distribution solutions under different scenarios. • Transportation cost is a more important factor for reducing the cost. • Help the developers to cut the storage and transportation cost of reusing flowback.
A Method to Test Model Calibration Techniques: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Judkoff, Ron; Polly, Ben; Neymark, Joel
2016-09-01
This paper describes a method for testing model calibration techniques. Calibration is commonly used in conjunction with energy retrofit audit models. An audit is conducted to gather information about the building needed to assemble an input file for a building energy modeling tool. A calibration technique is used to reconcile model predictions with utility data, and then the 'calibrated model' is used to predict energy savings from a variety of retrofit measures and combinations thereof. Current standards and guidelines such as BPI-2400 and ASHRAE-14 set criteria for 'goodness of fit' and assume that if the criteria are met, then the calibration technique is acceptable. While it is logical to use the actual performance data of the building to tune the model, it is not certain that a good fit will result in a model that better predicts post-retrofit energy savings. Therefore, the basic idea here is that the simulation program (intended for use with the calibration technique) is used to generate surrogate utility bill data and retrofit energy savings data against which the calibration technique can be tested. This provides three figures of merit for testing a calibration technique, 1) accuracy of the post-retrofit energy savings prediction, 2) closure on the 'true' input parameter values, and 3) goodness of fit to the utility bill data. The paper will also discuss the pros and cons of using this synthetic surrogate data approach versus trying to use real data sets of actual buildings.
Modeling Techniques for a Computational Efficient Dynamic Turbofan Engine Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rory A. Roberts
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A transient two-stream engine model has been developed. Individual component models developed exclusively in MATLAB/Simulink including the fan, high pressure compressor, combustor, high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, plenum volumes, and exit nozzle have been combined to investigate the behavior of a turbofan two-stream engine. Special attention has been paid to the development of transient capabilities throughout the model, increasing physics model, eliminating algebraic constraints, and reducing simulation time through enabling the use of advanced numerical solvers. The lessening of computation time is paramount for conducting future aircraft system-level design trade studies and optimization. The new engine model is simulated for a fuel perturbation and a specified mission while tracking critical parameters. These results, as well as the simulation times, are presented. The new approach significantly reduces the simulation time.
Numerical model updating technique for structures using firefly algorithm
Sai Kubair, K.; Mohan, S. C.
2018-03-01
Numerical model updating is a technique used for updating the existing experimental models for any structures related to civil, mechanical, automobiles, marine, aerospace engineering, etc. The basic concept behind this technique is updating the numerical models to closely match with experimental data obtained from real or prototype test structures. The present work involves the development of numerical model using MATLAB as a computational tool and with mathematical equations that define the experimental model. Firefly algorithm is used as an optimization tool in this study. In this updating process a response parameter of the structure has to be chosen, which helps to correlate the numerical model developed with the experimental results obtained. The variables for the updating can be either material or geometrical properties of the model or both. In this study, to verify the proposed technique, a cantilever beam is analyzed for its tip deflection and a space frame has been analyzed for its natural frequencies. Both the models are updated with their respective response values obtained from experimental results. The numerical results after updating show that there is a close relationship that can be brought between the experimental and the numerical models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Utgikar, Vivek [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Sun, Xiaodong [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Christensen, Richard [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2016-12-29
The overall goal of the research project was to model the behavior of the advanced reactorintermediate heat exchange system and to develop advanced control techniques for off-normal conditions. The specific objectives defined for the project were: 1. To develop the steady-state thermal hydraulic design of the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX); 2. To develop mathematical models to describe the advanced nuclear reactor-IHX-chemical process/power generation coupling during normal and off-normal operations, and to simulate models using multiphysics software; 3. To develop control strategies using genetic algorithm or neural network techniques and couple these techniques with the multiphysics software; 4. To validate the models experimentally The project objectives were accomplished by defining and executing four different tasks corresponding to these specific objectives. The first task involved selection of IHX candidates and developing steady state designs for those. The second task involved modeling of the transient and offnormal operation of the reactor-IHX system. The subsequent task dealt with the development of control strategies and involved algorithm development and simulation. The last task involved experimental validation of the thermal hydraulic performances of the two prototype heat exchangers designed and fabricated for the project at steady state and transient conditions to simulate the coupling of the reactor- IHX-process plant system. The experimental work utilized the two test facilities at The Ohio State University (OSU) including one existing High-Temperature Helium Test Facility (HTHF) and the newly developed high-temperature molten salt facility.
Slater, Michael D
2006-01-01
While increasingly widespread use of behavior change theory is an advance for communication campaigns and their evaluation, such theories provide a necessary but not sufficient condition for theory-based communication interventions. Such interventions and their evaluations need to incorporate theoretical thinking about plausible mechanisms of message effect on health-related attitudes and behavior. Otherwise, strategic errors in message design and dissemination, and misspecified campaign logic models, insensitive to campaign effects, are likely to result. Implications of the elaboration likelihood model, attitude accessibility, attitude to the ad theory, exemplification, and framing are explored, and implications for campaign strategy and evaluation designs are briefly discussed. Initial propositions are advanced regarding a theory of campaign affect generalization derived from attitude to ad theory, and regarding a theory of reframing targeted health behaviors in those difficult contexts in which intended audiences are resistant to the advocated behavior or message.
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF THE FINANCIAL REPORTING MODEL: THEORETICAL STUDIES IN REVIEW
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Our paper analyzes the manner in which the financial reporting model evolved towards fair value accounting. After a brief introduction into the context of financial reporting at international level, the analysis focuses on the accounting model of fair value. This is done by synthesizing main studies in accounting research literature that analyze fair value accounting through a theoretical approach. The analysis being developed relies on literature review methodology. The main purpose of the developed analysis is to synthesize main pros and cons as being documented through accounting research literature. Our findings underline both the advantages and shortcomings of fair value accounting and of the recent mixed attribute in nowadays financial reporting practices. The concluding remarks synthesize the obtained results and possible future developments of our analysis.
Food addiction spectrum: a theoretical model from normality to eating and overeating disorders.
Piccinni, Armando; Marazziti, Donatella; Vanelli, Federica; Franceschini, Caterina; Baroni, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Cremone, Ivan Mirko; Veltri, Antonello; Dell'Osso, Liliana
2015-01-01
The authors comment on the recently proposed food addiction spectrum that represents a theoretical model to understand the continuum between several conditions ranging from normality to pathological states, including eating disorders and obesity, as well as why some individuals show a peculiar attachment to food that can become an addiction. Further, they review the possible neurobiological underpinnings of these conditions that include dopaminergic neurotransmission and circuits that have long been implicated in drug addiction. The aim of this article is also that at stimulating a debate regarding the possible model of a food (or eating) addiction spectrum that may be helpful towards the search of novel therapeutic approaches to different pathological states related to disturbed feeding or overeating.
The self-schema model: a theoretical approach to the self-concept in eating disorders.
Stein, K F
1996-04-01
Over the last several decades, the self-concept has been implicated as a important determinant of eating disorders (ED). Although considerable progress has been made, questions remain unanswered about the properties of self-concept that distinguish women with an ED from other populations, and mechanisms that link the self-concept to the disordered behaviors. Markus's self-schema model is presented as a theoretical approach to explore the role of the self-concept in ED. To show how the schema model can be integrated with existing work on the self-concept in ED, a framework is proposed that addresses the number, content, and accessibility of the self-schemas. More specifically, it is posited that a limited collection of positive self-schemas available in memory, in combination with a chronically and inflexibly accessible body-weight self-schema, lead to the disordered behaviors associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Theoretical modelling of electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vukmirovic, Nenad; Ikonic, Zoran; Savic, Ivana; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul
2006-01-01
A theoretical model describing the electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors, modelled as ideal quantum dot superlattices, is presented. The carrier wave functions and energy levels were evaluated using the strain dependent 8-band k.p Hamiltonian and used to calculate all intra- and inter-period transition rates due to interaction with phonons and electromagnetic radiation. The interaction with longitudinal acoustic phonons and electromagnetic radiation was treated perturbatively within the framework of Fermi's golden rule, while the interaction with longitudinal optical phonons was considered taking into account their strong coupling to electrons. The populations of energy levels were then found from a system of rate equations, and the electron current in the superlattice was subsequently extracted. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
A unified theoretical framework for mapping models for the multi-state Hamiltonian.
Liu, Jian
2016-11-28
We propose a new unified theoretical framework to construct equivalent representations of the multi-state Hamiltonian operator and present several approaches for the mapping onto the Cartesian phase space. After mapping an F-dimensional Hamiltonian onto an F+1 dimensional space, creation and annihilation operators are defined such that the F+1 dimensional space is complete for any combined excitation. Commutation and anti-commutation relations are then naturally derived, which show that the underlying degrees of freedom are neither bosons nor fermions. This sets the scene for developing equivalent expressions of the Hamiltonian operator in quantum mechanics and their classical/semiclassical counterparts. Six mapping models are presented as examples. The framework also offers a novel way to derive such as the well-known Meyer-Miller model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Destombes, Jean-Luc
1978-01-01
This research thesis mainly addresses the experimental and theoretical study of the hydroxyl radical, and the consequences of the obtained results in astrophysics which are studied with a model of pumping by the far infrared. After a recall of notions related to microwave spectroscopy and to molecular radio-astronomy, the author more particularly discusses different aspects of microwave spectroscopy in the interstellar environment and in laboratory. He also reviews different types of spectrometers for unsteady molecules. In the second part, he addresses issues related to the hydroxyl radical (OH): presentation of spectrometers, study of the reaction environment, study of the radical microwave spectrum, identification of transitions by frequency measurements. In the last parts, the author addresses some aspects of interstellar OH masers, and reports the application of some results to simple models of pumping by the far infra red
Theoretical modeling and experimental study on fatigue initiation life of 16MnR notched components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xiaogui; Gao Zengliang; Qiu Baoxiang; Jiang Yanrao
2010-01-01
In order to investigate the effects of notch geometry and loading conditions on the fatigue initiation life and fatigue fracture life of 16MnR material, fatigue experiments were conducted for both smooth rod specimens and notched rod specimens. The detailed elastic-plastic stress and strain responses were computed by the finite element software (ABAQUS) incorporating a robust cyclic plasticity model via a user subroutine UMAT. The obtained stresses and strains were applied to the multiaxial fatigue damage criterion to compute the fatigue damage induced by a loading cycle on the critical material plane. The fatigue initiation life was then obtained by the proposed theoretical model. The well agreement between the predicted results and the experiment data indicated that the fatigue initiation of notched components in the multiaxial stress state related to all the nonzero stress and strain quantities. (authors)
Theoretical modelling of electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vukmirovic, Nenad; Ikonic, Zoran; Savic, Ivana; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2006-07-01
A theoretical model describing the electron transport in InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors, modelled as ideal quantum dot superlattices, is presented. The carrier wave functions and energy levels were evaluated using the strain dependent 8-band k.p Hamiltonian and used to calculate all intra- and inter-period transition rates due to interaction with phonons and electromagnetic radiation. The interaction with longitudinal acoustic phonons and electromagnetic radiation was treated perturbatively within the framework of Fermi's golden rule, while the interaction with longitudinal optical phonons was considered taking into account their strong coupling to electrons. The populations of energy levels were then found from a system of rate equations, and the electron current in the superlattice was subsequently extracted. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Theoretical size distribution of fossil taxa: analysis of a null model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hughes Barry D
2007-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This article deals with the theoretical size distribution (of number of sub-taxa of a fossil taxon arising from a simple null model of macroevolution. Model New species arise through speciations occurring independently and at random at a fixed probability rate, while extinctions either occur independently and at random (background extinctions or cataclysmically. In addition new genera are assumed to arise through speciations of a very radical nature, again assumed to occur independently and at random at a fixed probability rate. Conclusion The size distributions of the pioneering genus (following a cataclysm and of derived genera are determined. Also the distribution of the number of genera is considered along with a comparison of the probability of a monospecific genus with that of a monogeneric family.
Theoretical model of two-phase drift flow on natural circulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xingtuan; Jiang Shengyao; Zhang Youjie
2002-01-01
Some expressions, such as sub-cooled boiling in the heating section, condensation near the riser inlet, flashing in the riser, and pressure balance in the steam-space, have been theoretically deduced from the physical model of 5 MW heating reactor test loop. The thermodynamics un-equilibrium etc have been considered too. A entire drift model with four equations has been formed, which can be applied to natural circulation system with low pressure and low steam quality. By means of introducing the concept of condensation layer, condensing of bubbles in the sub-cooled liquid has been formulated for the first time. The restrictive equations of the steam space pressure and liquid level have been offered. The equations can be solved by means of integral method, then by using Rung-Kutta-Verner method the final results is obtained
The structure and dynamics of cities urban data analysis and theoretical modeling
Barthelemy, Marc
2016-01-01
With over half of the world's population now living in urban areas, the ability to model and understand the structure and dynamics of cities is becoming increasingly valuable. Combining new data with tools and concepts from statistical physics and urban economics, this book presents a modern and interdisciplinary perspective on cities and urban systems. Both empirical observations and theoretical approaches are critically reviewed, with particular emphasis placed on derivations of classical models and results, along with analysis of their limits and validity. Key aspects of cities are thoroughly analyzed, including mobility patterns, the impact of multimodality, the coupling between different transportation modes, the evolution of infrastructure networks, spatial and social organisation, and interactions between cities. Drawing upon knowledge and methods from areas of mathematics, physics, economics and geography, the resulting quantitative description of cities will be of interest to all those studying and r...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Czoli Christine
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Physician-researchers are bound by professional obligations stemming from both the role of the physician and the role of the researcher. Currently, the dominant models for understanding the relationship between physician-researchers' clinical duties and research duties fit into three categories: the similarity position, the difference position and the middle ground. The law may be said to offer a fourth "model" that is independent from these three categories. These models frame the expectations placed upon physician-researchers by colleagues, regulators, patients and research participants. This paper examines the extent to which the data from semi-structured interviews with 30 physician-researchers at three major pediatric hospitals in Canada reflect these traditional models. It seeks to determine the extent to which existing models align with the described lived experience of the pediatric physician-researchers interviewed. Ultimately, we find that although some physician-researchers make references to something like the weak version of the similarity position, the pediatric-researchers interviewed in this study did not describe their dual roles in a way that tightly mirrors any of the existing theoretical frameworks. We thus conclude that either physician-researchers are in need of better training regarding the nature of the accountability relationships that flow from their dual roles or that models setting out these roles and relationships must be altered to better reflect what we can reasonably expect of physician-researchers in a real-world environment.
Toward a comprehensive, theoretical model of compassion fatigue: An integrative literature review.
Coetzee, Siedine K; Laschinger, Heather K S
2018-03-01
This study was an integrative literature review in relation to compassion fatigue models, appraising these models, and developing a comprehensive theoretical model of compassion fatigue. A systematic search on PubMed, EbscoHost (Academic Search Premier, E-Journals, Medline, PsycINFO, Health Source Nursing/Academic Edition, CINAHL, MasterFILE Premier and Health Source Consumer Edition), gray literature, and manual searches of included reference lists was conducted in 2016. The studies (n = 11) were analyzed, and the strengths and limitations of the compassion fatigue models identified. We further built on these models through the application of the conservation of resources theory and the social neuroscience of empathy. The compassion fatigue model shows that it is not empathy that puts nurses at risk of developing compassion fatigue, but rather a lack of resources, inadequate positive feedback, and the nurse's response to personal distress. By acting on these three aspects, the risk of developing compassion fatigue can be addressed, which could improve the retention of a compassionate and committed nurse workforce. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.