WorldWideScience

Sample records for techniques testing strategies

  1. BNFL decommissioning strategy and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the range of reactor decommissioning projects being managed by BNFL, both on its own sites and for other client organizations in the UK and abroad. It also describes the decommissioning strategies and techniques that have been developed by BNFL and adopted in order to carry out this work

  2. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  3. Dating technique tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes

  4. Test techniques for fracture mechanics testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    Test methods for fracture mechanics tests are described. Two groups of techniques are distinguished: Those for measurement of stable crack growth and those for determination of the loading parameters. (orig.) [de

  5. Flight Test Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    the airframe for col1A 300 jauges pour un essal d𔄀preuve a ground "proof test" with a 0.8 charge, au sol A charge 0,8 recalant ce modile ; to update...the model. 200 among these 200 de ces jauges ont 6t6 cibl~es bonnes gauges had been wired to be "airworthy", de vol mats le domaine de vol a 4t6 but

  6. Sterility test by radiometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruq, Muhammad

    1980-01-01

    Sterility test of pharmaceuticals can be carried out by the application of pharmacopoeia and radiometric technique. In Indonesia the application of pharmacopoeia technique is carried out through liquid germination for aerobacteria and for fungus and yeast. Radiometric technique is applied to autotrop and heterotrop bacteria. (SMN)

  7. A Strategy Modelling Technique for Financial Services

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, Bernd; Winter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Strategy planning processes often suffer from a lack of conceptual models that can be used to represent business strategies in a structured and standardized form. If natural language is replaced by an at least semi-formal model, the completeness, consistency, and clarity of strategy descriptions can be drastically improved. A strategy modelling technique is proposed that is based on an analysis of modelling requirements, a discussion of related work and a critical analysis of generic approach...

  8. Strategies for online test security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Leigh; Morgan, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    As online courses continue to increase, maintaining academic integrity in student evaluation is a challenge. The authors review several strategies, with varying degrees of cost and technology, to improve test security in the online classroom.

  9. Imaging techniques for ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These seminar proceedings contain 16 lectures on the following topics: 1. From imaging to quantification - ultrasound methods in medical diagnostics; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array - classical applications and recent developments in ultrasonic imaging; 3. Innovative ultrasonic imaging methods in research and application; 4. Industrial ultrasonic testing of fibre-reinforced structures of complex geometry; 5. Visualisation of crack tips in the inspection of wheel set shafts with longitudinal boreholes as a means of avoiding unnecessary wheel set changes; 6. Areal analysis of the propagation of Lamb waves on curved, anisotropic structures; 7. High-resolution representation in immersion technique testing; 8. Variants in generating images from phased array measurement data - practical examples involving copper, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic and other materials; 9. GIUM - an unconventional method of microstructure imaging using ultrasonic stimulation and laser vibrometry scanning; 10. Innovative air-ultrasonic testing concepts for improved imaging; 11. Use of imaging methods for improving the quality of test results from nondestructive testing; 12. Modelling and visualisation of EMUS stimulation for transducer optimisation; 13. Use of SAFT in the manufacture of energy conversion machines; 14. Ultrasonic imaging tests for improved defect characterisation during weld seam inspection on longitudinally welded large-diameter pipes; 15. SAFT reconstruction for testing austenitic weld seams and dissimilar metal weld seams for transverse cracks; 16. Imaging-based optimisation method for quantitative ultrasonic testing of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welded joints with determination and utilisation of their elastic properties. One contribution has been abstracted separately. [de

  10. Testing philosophy and simulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtbecker, H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews past and present testing philosophies and simulation techniques in the field of structure loading and response studies. The main objective of experimental programmes in the past was to simulate a hypothetical energy release with explosives and to deduce the potential damage to a reactor from the measured damage to the model. This approach was continuously refined by improving the instrumentation of the models, by reproducing the structures as faithful as possible and by developing new explosive charges. This paper presents an analysis of the factors which are expected to have an influence on the validity of the results e.g. strain rate effects and the use of water instead of sodium. More recently the discussion of a whole series of accidents in the probabilistic accident analysis and the intention to compare different reactor designs has revealed the need to develop and validate computer codes. Consequently experimental programmes have been started in which the primary aim is not to test a specific reactor but to validate codes. This paper shows the principal aspects of this approach and discusses first results. (Auth.)

  11. Field Testing of Geophysical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    influence drainage and groundwater movement in the surrounding area. Presumably, the direction of groundwater movement is to the north and out of the...applicable. Specifically, these additional techniques are: e Audio magneto- telluric (AMT) resistivity * Electromagnetics a Ground-probing radar Both

  12. Environmental testing techniques for electronics and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Testing Techniques for Electronics and Materials reviews environmental testing techniques for evaluating the performance of electronic equipment, components, and materials. Environmental test planning, test methods, and instrumentation are described, along with the general environmental conditions under which equipment must operate. This book is comprised of 15 chapters and begins by explaining why environmental testing is necessary and describing the environment in which electronics must operate. The next chapter considers how an environmental test plan is designed; the methods

  13. Natural language processing techniques for automatic test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural language processing techniques for automatic test questions generation using discourse connectives. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... Journal of Computer Science and Its Application.

  14. Test Concept for Advanced Oxidation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Mortensen, Lars

    advanced on-site oxidation tests. The remediation techniques included are electrochemical oxidation, photochemical/photocatalytic oxidation, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, permanganate, and persulfate among others. A versatile construction of the mobile test unit makes it possible to combine different...

  15. Efficiency of radon reduction techniques and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Monchecourt, D.

    2000-01-01

    Radon is a lung carcinogen recognized by the World Health Organisation and it is present in dwellings. In France, the first actions to measure the exposition of the population were made in 1982, and the first national recommendation was published in 1999. In parallel, information booklets on radon and possible actions to lower its concentration in house were made available to the public. The aim of this study was to test the economic feasibility of different methods to reduce radon level in housing. The first step was to identify the cost and the radon reduction rate of different methods, all based on insulation or ventilation of the buildings. Using the data of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), we selected six measures and combined them to obtain a total of twenty potential solutions. We also used the 'duration' model of the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation committee (BEIR VI) to determine the probability of dying from a cancer associated to a fixed exposure to radon. Knowing this information, it was possible to make cost-efficiency analysis on our data and thus keep six interesting methods. Combining these results with the value of human life of the human capital approach we could find what was the most interesting method to apply for a known level of radon and a specific duration of exposure in a house. In given house, for each level of initial exposure, a cost benefit approach allowed to determine if one, or several techniques, or none, is worthwhile to apply. In favorable cases (i.e : easily remediable houses), and with a figure for the price of human life of about 0,9 MEuro, actions should be undertaken at levels as low as 80 Bq.m -3 . As we know the radon distribution in France, the second step was to see what would be the effects on this distribution if all inhabitants used the optimal approach against their radon exposure defined by our function. Thus, overall costs and overall risks could be computed. However, in public health issues, the

  16. Radio Ranging Techniques to test Relativistic Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Cowsik, R.

    1999-01-01

    It is suggested that modern techniques of radio ranging when applied to study the motion of the Moon, can improve the accuracy of tests of relativistic gravitation obtained with currently operating laser ranging techniques. Other auxillary information relevant to the Solar system would also emerge from such a study.

  17. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  18. Magnetic Nondestructive Testing Techniques of Constructional Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Er-gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel is a kind of ferromagnetic material, which is extensively applied in such fields as buildings, bridges, railways, machines and lifeline engineering etc. Those engineering structures built of constructional steel will unavoidably experience some damages during their service lifetime, thus which will influence the distribution regularity of internal forces in structures, result in over-stresses, cause the local failure of structures, and even lead to collapse of the whole structure. Therefore, it is a pressing topic to study how to directly evaluate the real-time stressed states of structural members, damages and steel characteristics in present structural health monitoring and diagnosing fields. And the achievements of this research will be of theoretical significance and of application value of engineering. This paper summarizes varieties of new magnetic nondestructive testing techniques used in constructional steel, respectively investigates the testing principles, characteristics and application for the magnetic Barkhausen noise technique, magnetic acoustic emission technique, magnetic flux leakage technique, magnetic memory technique and magnetic absorption technique, and points out the problems present in the application of these new techniques to actual testing and the further research objective.

  19. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyatman Suyatman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the students and to know the distribution of strategies used by the students to answer the Vocabulary test of Reading Comprehension of the TOEFL. The researcher used descriptive qualitative research. The subject was twelve students. The instrument was questionnaire that consisted of thirty questions. Data analyzes technique was by using mean score. The result of the research showed that; (1 students used all strategies to answer the vocabulary test of reading comprehension of TOEFL. (2 the most strategies used by the students was ‘Looking for contextual clues to the meaning of unknown words.(3 the least strategy used by the students to answer vocabulary test was ‘Developing a new vocabulary study system, and (4 the distribution of the strategy number 1 was 3.88,strategy number 2 was 3.61, number 3 was 2.94, number four was 2.91, strategy number 5 was3.88, strategy number six was 3.47, strategy number seven was 3.69, strategy number eight was 3.02, strategy number nine was 3.00 and the last strategy was 3.13.

  20. Nuclear forensics: strategies and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Rafael C.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Pestana, Rafael C.B.

    2013-01-01

    The development of nuclear forensics as a field of science arose in response to international demand for methods to investigate the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. After being seized, unknown nuclear material is collected and analyzed by a set of analytical methods. The fingerprints of these materials can be identified and further used during the investigations. Data interpretation is an extensive process aiming to validate the hypotheses made by the experts, and can help confirm the origin of seized nuclear materials at the end of the process or investigation. This work presents the set of measures and analytical methods that have been inherited by nuclear forensics from several fields of science. The main characteristics of these methods are evaluated and the analytical techniques employed to determine the fingerprint of nuclear materials are described. (author)

  1. High-voltage test and measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hauschild, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    It is the intent of this book to combine high-voltage (HV) engineering with HV testing technique and HV measuring technique. Based on long-term experience gained by the authors as lecturer and researcher as well as member in international organizations, such as IEC and CIGRE, the book will reflect the state of the art as well as the future trends in testing and diagnostics of HV equipment to ensure a reliable generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. The book is intended not only for experts but also for students in electrical engineering and high-voltage engineering.

  2. Improvements in skin-testing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Warner W

    2006-01-01

    Allergy skin testing is the primary modality used in the diagnosis of allergic diseases and guides development of treatment and avoidance plans. The goal of the Allergist is to skin test the appropriate population with a device and technique that minimizes pain while maximizing sensitivity and specificity. The debate involving the use of intradermal versus skin-prick testing in the diagnosis of aeroallergy has been long lasting. Past and present medical literature will be reviewed, establishing the lack of diagnostic use of intradermal testing in the setting of aeroallergy. New skin devices continue to be developed with a trend toward production of multidevices. Performance characteristics of various skin test devices will be reviewed with an emphasis on sensitivity, specificity, and variability of skin-prick testing devices. Significant statistical differences exist between all devices tested and reported in the literature. Whether these statistical differences equate to clinical differences is not known. With this review the practicing allergist should carefully evaluate multiple different devices and choose a device that suits their practice needs. In addition, allergists must ensure that technicians are sufficiently trained on the correct use of their device and should conduct continuing education to ensure that proper skin testing techniques are being used in their practice. Finally, the use of skin testing in pediatrics will be reviewed with a focus on safety. Care should be taken when skin testing infants < or = 6 months of age, especially in the setting of eczema and a family history of atopy.

  3. Building a successful board-test strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Scheiber, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Written in a clear and thoughtful style, Building a Successful Board-Test Strategy, Second Edition offers an integrated approach to the complicated process of developing the test strategies most suited to a company's profile and philosophy. This book also provides comprehensive coverage of the specifics of electronic test equipment as well as those broader issues of management and marketing that shape a manufacturer's ""image of quality.""In this new edition, the author adds still more ""war stories,"" relevant examples from his own experience, which will guide his readers in their dec

  4. Thermal property testing technique on micro specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Tetsuya; Kishimoto, Isao; Taketoshi, Naoyuki

    2000-01-01

    This study aims at establishment of further development on some testing techniques on the nuclear advanced basic research accumulated by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology for ten years. For this purpose, a technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of less than 3 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness of micro specimen and technology to test heat diffusion ratio at micro area of less than 1 mm in area along cross section of less than 10 mm in diameter of column specimen were developed to contribute to common basic technology supporting the nuclear power field. As a result, as an element technology to test heat diffusion ratio and specific heat capacity of the micro specimen, a specimen holding technique stably to hold a micro specimen with 3 mm in diameter could be developed. And, for testing the specific heat capacity by using the laser flush differential calorimetry, a technique to hold two specimen of 5 mm in diameter at their proximities was also developed. In addition, by promoting development of thermal property data base capable of storing thermal property data obtained in this study and with excellent workability in this 1998 fiscal year a data in/out-put program with graphical user interface could be prepared. (G.K.)

  5. LHC Magnet Tests Operational Techniques and Empowerment for Successful Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Chohan, V; Priestnall, K; Pirotte, F; Veyrunes, E; Ali, N; Awale, P; Bahuguna, S; Bhunia, U; Chauhan, V; Dixit, M; Gore, J; John, J; Kandaswamy, E; Kasbekar, A; Kashyap, P; Kasliwal, A; Kulkarni, C; Laddha, A; Malhotra, S; Mascarenhas, M; Mishra, J; Motiwala, P; Nair, K; Narayanan, R; Padmakumar, S; Pagare, A; Peruppayikkad, D; Raghunathan, S; Rao, S; Roy, D; Sharma, S; Shimjith, S; Singh, S; Sonnis, S; Sridhar, S; Surendran, P; Tikaria, A

    2007-01-01

    The LHC magnet tests operation team developed various innovative techniques, particularly since early 2004, to complete the superconductor magnet tests by Feb. 2007. Overall and cryogenic priority handling, rapid on-bench thermal cycling, rule-based goodness evaluation on round-the-clock basis, multiple, mashed web systems are some of these techniques applied with rigour for successful tests completion in time. This paper highlights these operation empowerment tools which had a pivotal role for success. A priority handling method was put in place to enable maximum throughput from twelve test benches, having many different constraints. For the cryogenics infrastructure, it implied judicious allocation of limited resources to the benches. Rapid On-Bench Thermal Cycle was a key strategy to accelerate magnets tests throughput, saving time and simplifying logistics. First level magnet appraisal was developed for 24 hr decision making so as to prepare a magnet further for LHC or keep it on standby. Web based system...

  6. An Author's Storyboard Technique as a Prewriting Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Suzanne L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an author's storyboard technique which elementary school students used as a prewriting strategy to roughly sketch out stories on the storyboard frames. Suggests that the technique helps students to plan and organize their stories and helps reluctant writers find the motivation to write. (SR)

  7. Vacuum leak test technique of JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminaga, Atsushi; Arai, Takashi; Kodama, Kozo; Sasaki, Noboru; Saidoh, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    Since a vacuum vessel of JT-60 is very large (167 m 3 ) and is combined with many components, such as magnetic coils, neutral beam injection systems and RF heating systems, etc., the position of leak testing exceeds 700. The two kind of techniques for vacuum leak test used in JT-60 has been described. Firstly the probe helium gas can be fed remotely in the three-dimensionally sectioned 54 regions of the JT-60 torus. The leak test was very rapidly performed by using this method. Secondly the helium detector system has been modified by the additional installation of the cryopump, which reduced the background level of the deuterium gas. The sensitivity of vacuum leak test with the cryopump was two orders of magnitude larger than that of without it. The examples of the performed vacuum leak test are stated. The vacuum leaks during experiments were 9 times. They were caused by thermal strain and plasma discharge. The vacuum leaks just after maintenance are 36 times which mainly caused by mis-installation. (author)

  8. Development for advanced materials and testing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishinuma, Akimichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Recent studies using a JMTR and research reactors of JRR-2 and JRR-3 are briefly summarized. Small specimen testing techniques (SSTT) required for an effective use of irradiation volume and also irradiated specimens have been developed focussing on tensile test, fatigue test, Charpy test and small punch test. By using the small specimens of 0.1 - several mm in size, similar values of tensile and fatigue properties to those by standard size specimens can be taken, although the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) depends strongly on Charpy specimen size. As for advanced material development, R and D about low activation ferritic steels have been done to investigate irradiation response. The low activation ferritic steel, so-called F82H jointly-developed by JAERI and NKK for fusion, has been confirmed to have good irradiation resistance within a limited dose and now selected as a standard material in the fusion material community. It is also found that TiAi intermetallic compounds, which never been considered for nuclear application in the past, have an excellent irradiation resistance under an irradiation condition. Such knowledge can bring about a large expectation for developing advanced nuclear materials. (author)

  9. Large Liquid Rocket Testing: Strategies and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.; Hebert, Bartt J.

    2005-01-01

    development, the appropriate plan and strategy must be put in place at the outset of the development effort. A deferment of this test planning, or inattention to strategy, will compromise the ability of the development program to achieve its systems reliability requirements and/or its development milestones. It is important for the government leadership and support team, as well as the vehicle and propulsion development team, to give early consideration to this aspect of space propulsion and space transportation work.

  10. [Strategy for molecular testing in pulmonary carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Tixier, Lucie; Perrot, Loïc; Cayre, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the analysis of theranostic molecular markers is central in the management of lung cancer. As those tumors are diagnosed in two third of the cases at an advanced stage, molecular screening is frequently performed on "small samples". The screening strategy starts by an accurate histopathological characterization, including on biopsies or cytological specimens. WHO 2015 provided a new classification for small biopsy and cytology, defining categories such as non-small cell carcinoma (NSCC), favor adenocarcinoma (TTF1 positive), or favor squamous cell carcinoma (p40 positive). Only the NSCC tumors, non-squamous, are eligible to molecular testing. A strategy aiming at tissue sparing for the small biopsies has to be organized. Tests corresponding to available drugs are prioritized. Blank slides will be prepared for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization based tests such as ALK. DNA will then be extracted for the other tests, EGFR mutation screening first associated or not to KRAS. Then, the emerging biomarkers (HER2, ROS1, RET, BRAF…) as well as potentially other markers in case of clinical trials, can been tested. The spread of next generation sequencing technologies, with a very sensitive all-in-one approach will allow the identification of minority clones. Eventually, the development of liquid biopsies will provide the opportunity to monitor the apparition of resistance clones during treatment. This non-invasive approach allows patients with a contraindication to perform biopsy or with non-relevant biopsies to access to molecular screening. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Antiphospholipid Syndrome Laboratory Testing and Diagnostic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortel, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is diagnosed in patients with recurrent thromboembolic events and/or pregnancy loss in the presence of persistent laboratory evidence for antiphospholipid antibodies. Diagnostic tests for the detection of antiphospholipid antibodies include laboratory assays that detect anticardiolipin antibodies, lupus anticoagulants, and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies. These assays have their origins beginning more than sixty years ago, with the identification of the biologic false positive test for syphilis, the observation of ‘circulating anticoagulants’ in certain patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, the identification of cardiolipin as a key component in the serologic test for syphilis, and the recognition and characterization of a ‘cofactor’ for antibody binding to phospholipids. Although these assays have been used clinically for many years, there are still problems with the accurate diagnosis of patients with this syndrome. For example, lupus anticoagulant testing can be difficult to interpret in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy, but most patients with a thromboembolic event will already be anticoagulated before the decision to perform the tests has been made. In addition to understanding limitations of the assays, clinicians also need to be aware of which patients should be tested and not obtain testing on patients unlikely to have APS. New tests and diagnostic strategies are in various stages of development and should help improve our ability to accurately diagnose this important clinical disorder. PMID:22473619

  12. A Fractual Mechanical Testing and Design Strategy for FRC Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    1999-01-01

    A unified testing and design strategy for fibre reinforced concrete structures is summarised. The strategy is based on fracture mechanical concepts. Emphasis is placed on material characterisation and testing specifications.......A unified testing and design strategy for fibre reinforced concrete structures is summarised. The strategy is based on fracture mechanical concepts. Emphasis is placed on material characterisation and testing specifications....

  13. Intercomparison test of various aerosol measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.; Hassa, C.; Jordan, S.

    1984-01-01

    At the suggestion of the CONT group (Containment Loading and Response), which is a subgroup of the Safety Working Group of the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee, a group of experts undertook a comparison of the techniques of sodium aerosol measurement used in various laboratories in the EC. The following laboratories took part in the exercise: CEN-Mol (Belgium), CEA-Cadarache (France), CEA-Fontenay-aux-Roses (France), KfK-Karlsruhe (Federal Republic of Germany), ENEA-Bologna (Italy), and UKAEA-Winfrith (United Kingdom). The objective of the aerosol measurement workshop was to assess the applicability and reliability of specific aerosol measuring instruments. Measurements performed with equipment from the participating laboratories were evaluated using a standard procedure. This enabled an estimate of the accuracy of the experimental data to be provided for the verification of aerosol codes. Thus these results can be used as input for the physical modelling of aerosol behaviour, and the work reported here is a contribution to the definition of the radioactive source term for severe accidents in LMFBRs. The aerosol experts participating in the exercise agreed to concentrate on the techniques of measuring aerosol particle size distributions. The tests were performed at the FAUNA test facility using the aerosol loop. A sodium spray fire, which provides a continuous aerosol source of variable concentration, was produced under open-loop conditions in this facility. Although the primary objective of the workshop was to determine the particle size distributions of the aerosols, measurements of the sodium mass concentration were also made

  14. Development of testing techniques for mine fan performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zheng-yan; JIANG Shu-guang; PENG Dan-ren

    2006-01-01

    Three progressive stages of testing techniques are elaborated, which are entirely manual operating, taking separate instruments testing and computer program controlling. The testing method and principle are detailed based on the testing process for meteorological parameters, air pressure, air quality and rotating velocity. And every testing technique is analyzed. Finally, the technique outlook is viewed. All this plays a leading role in development of the testing techniques.

  15. Laboratory testing of closure cap repair techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Moridis, G.; Tuck, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Landfill design requires a low permeability closure cap as well as a low permeability liner. The Savannah River Site, in South Carolina, has approximately 85 acres of mixed waste landfills covered with compacted kaolin clay. Maintaining low permeability of the clay cap requires both that the permeability of the compacted clay itself remain low and that the integrity of the barrier be maintained. Barrier breaches typically result from penetration by roots or animals, and especially cracks caused by uneven settling or desiccation. In this study, clay layers, 0.81 m in diameter and 7.6 cm thick, were compacted in 7 lysimeters to simulate closure caps. The hydraulic conductivity of each layer was measured, and the compacted clay layers (CCL's) were cracked by drying. Then various repair techniques were applied and the effectiveness of each repair was assessed by remeasuring the hydraulic conductivity. Finally the repaired CCL was again dried and measured to determine how the repair responded to the conditions that caused the original failure. For a full report of this investigation see Persoff et al. Six repair techniques have been tested, four of which involve the use of injectable barrier liquids colloidal silica (CS) and polysiloxane (PSX) described below: (I) covering the crack with a bentonite geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), (ii) recompaction of new kaolinite at STD+3 moisture content joined to existing kaolinite that had dried and shrunk, (iii) direct injection of colloidal silica to a crack, (iv) injection of colloidal silica (CS) to wells in an overlying sand layer, (v) direct injection of polysiloxane to a crack, and (vi), injection of polysiloxane (PSX) to wells in an overlying soil layer

  16. Linking human factors to corporate strategy with cognitive mapping techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Greig, Michael; Salustri, Filippo A; Neumann, W Patrick

    2012-01-01

    For human factors (HF) to avoid being considered of "side-car" status, it needs to be positioned within the organization in such a way that it affects business strategies and their implementation. Tools are needed to support this effort. This paper explores the feasibility of applying a technique from operational research called cognitive mapping to link HF to corporate strategy. Using a single case study, a cognitive map is drawn to reveal the complex relationships between human factors and achieving an organization's strategic goals. Analysis of the map for central concepts and reinforcing loops enhances understanding that can lead to discrete initiatives to facilitate integration of HF. It is recommended that this technique be used with senior managers to understand the organizations` strategic goals and enhance understanding of the potential for HF to contribute to the strategic goals.

  17. Strategy Development through Interview Technique from Narrative Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryger, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the successful strategy formulation process of a new purchasing department at an international engineering group. Design/methodology/approach: The strategy formulation was co-created by the department manager and employees at a storytelling...... workshop, facilitated with interview technique from narrative therapy, and later authorized by the business area director. The organizational intervention preceded the scholarly inquiry. Findings: Employees’ retrospective storytelling about working at the company enabled them to formulate a joint mission...... statement using words and expressions from their own stories. Prospective storytelling enabled them to formulate a joint medium- and long-term vision and a corresponding action plan. This paper proposes interview technique from narrative therapy as a new practice-oriented strategic management tool and calls...

  18. 4. International colloquium on nondestructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The different papers about non destructive testing (ultrasonic testing, eddy current testing, radiography etc...) are presented. The colloquium deals particularly with utilization in the nuclear field for quality of materials, quality control, improvement of performances or automation [fr

  19. Progress and Strategies for Testing of Materials for Solar Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah

    2017-04-25

    Accelerated testing is key to confident launch of a new product. However, for new products like solar panels, the best approach is not always clear. The challenge for materials manufacturers is that test times can be long. Also, small-coupon testing may not predict the behavior in the full-size module, but testing of the full-size module is too expensive. As a result, solar panel test standards like IEC 61215 are useful, but are not sufficient. Material manufacturers have needed to define their own test protocols. This presentation will review some historical data (e.g., data show that manufacturers are making great progress toward reducing encapsulant discoloration) and describe advances in material testing (for example, new techniques are being demonstrated on how to more quantitatively assess adhesion, detect tendency for delamination, and understand how encapsulant properties affect other properties like cracking of cells). The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force has been researching climate-specific weathering tests toward the goal of defining international standards that would simplify qualification and quality assurance testing for materials. The status of these tests and the strategies for how to organize these standards to best meet the needs of the industry will be discussed.

  20. THE PUZZLE TECHNIQUE, COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY TO IMPROVE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.ª José Mayorga Fernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This  article  presents  an  innovative  experience  carried  out  in  the  subject Pedagogical Bases of Special Education, a 4.5 credit core subject taught at the second year of the Degree in Physical Education Teacher Training (to be extinguish, based on the use of a methodological strategic in accordance with the new demands of the EEES. With the experience we pursue a double purpose: firstly, to present the technique of jigsaw or puzzle as a useful methodological strategy for university learning and, on the other hand, to show whether this strategy improves students results. Comparing the results with students previous year results shows that the performance of students who participated in the innovative experience has improved considerably, increasing their motivation and involvement towards the task.

  1. Testing and development strategy for the tank waste remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddick, G.W.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides a strategy for performing radioactive (hot) and nonradioactive testing to support processing tank waste. It evaluates the need for hot pilot plant(s) to support pretreatment and other processing functions and presents a strategy for performing hot test work. A strategy also is provided for nonradioactive process and equipment testing. The testing strategy supports design, construction, startup, and operation of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) facilities

  2. Testing and development strategy for the tank waste remediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddick, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a strategy for performing radioactive (hot) and nonradioactive testing to support processing tank waste. It evaluates the need for hot pilot plant(s) to support pretreatment and other processing functions and presents a strategy for performing hot test work. A strategy also is provided for nonradioactive process and equipment testing. The testing strategy supports design, construction, startup, and operation of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) facilities

  3. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); MacKinnon, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heath, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herrick, Courtney G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gardner, W. Payton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jang, Je-Hun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Daley, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freifeld, Barry M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spane, Frank A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  4. A Secure Test Technique for Pipelined Advanced Encryption Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Youhua; Togawa, Nozomu; Yanagisawa, Masao; Ohtsuki, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we presented a Design-for-Secure-Test (DFST) technique for pipelined AES to guarantee both the security and the test quality during testing. Unlike previous works, the proposed method can keep all the secrets inside and provide high test quality and fault diagnosis ability as well. Furthermore, the proposed DFST technique can significantly reduce test application time, test data volume, and test generation effort as additional benefits.

  5. Testing of statistical techniques used in SYVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalrymple, G.; Edwards, H.; Prust, J.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the SYVAC (SYstems Variability Analysis Code) output adopted four techniques to provide a cross comparison of their performance. The techniques used were: examination of scatter plots; correlation/regression; Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks; comparison of cumulative distribution functions and risk estimates between sub-ranges of parameter values. The analysis was conducted for the case of a single nuclide chain and was based mainly on simulated dose after 500,000 years. The results from this single SYVAC case showed that site parameters had the greatest influence on dose to man. The techniques of correlation/regression and Kruskal-Wallis were both successful and consistent in their identification of important parameters. Both techniques ranked the eight most important parameters in the same order when analysed for maximum dose. The results from a comparison of cdfs and risks in sub-ranges of the parameter values were not entirely consistent with other techniques. Further sampling of the high dose region is recommended in order to improve the accuracy of this method. (author)

  6. Model techniques for testing heated concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental techniques are described which may be used in the laboratory to measure strains of model concrete structures representing to scale actual structures of any shape or geometry, operating at elevated temperatures, for which time-dependent creep and shrinkage strains are dominant. These strains could be used to assess the distribution of stress in the scaled structure and hence to predict the actual behaviour of concrete structures used in nuclear power stations. Similar techniques have been employed in an investigation to measure elastic, thermal, creep and shrinkage strains in heated concrete models representing to scale parts of prestressed concrete pressure vessels for nuclear reactors. (author)

  7. Mechanical system diagnostics using vibration testing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, Catherine D.; Raju, P. K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The 'Cepstrum' technique of vibration-path identification allows the recovery of the transfer function of a system with little knowledge as to its excitation force, by means of a mathematical manipulation of the system output in conjunction with subtraction of part of the output and suitable signal processing. An experimental program has been conducted to evaluate the usefulness of this technique in the cases of simple, cantilever-beam and free-free plate structures as well as in that of a complex mechanical system. On the basis of the transfer functions thus recovered, it was possible to evaluate the shifts in the resonance frequencies of a structure due to the presence of defects.

  8. The Rorschach: projective technique or psychometric test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, E; Reznikoff, M; Moreland, K L

    1995-04-01

    Various approaches to the Rorschach Technique are described in terms of the idiographic-nomothetic axis and the perceptual-content axis. It is suggested that it is most productive to view the Rorschach as a projective tool, with perceptual scoring a secondary factor. Current efforts at objectification of the Rorschach are not seen as useful as efforts to enhance its projective qualities. Some possible ways are discussed in which the projective value of the instrument can be maximized.

  9. NDE Techniques Used in PARENT Open Round Robin Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-11-05

    This is a draft technical letter report for NRC client describing the NDE techniques used in the open testing portion of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT).

  10. Reading Test-taking Strategies in General Training IELTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vahede Nosrati

    2015-01-01

    The significance of gaining a better understanding of how test-taking strategies are used has been recognized by researchers. Considering this fact, this study aimed at investigating the test-taking strategies which were employed by IELTS candidates in reading comprehension test. Besides, it tried to take into account the differences among strategies used for different tasks. In order to gather data, two instruments were employed: the think-aloud protocol, and an IELTS reading test. The obtai...

  11. Hacking with Kali practical penetration testing techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Broad, James

    2013-01-01

    Hacking with Kali introduces you the most current distribution of the de facto standard tool for Linux pen testing. Starting with use of the Kali live CD and progressing through installation on hard drives, thumb drives and SD cards, author James Broad walks you through creating a custom version of the Kali live distribution. You'll learn how to configure networking components, storage devices and system services such as DHCP and web services. Once you're familiar with the basic components of the software, you'll learn how to use Kali through the phases of the penetration testing lifecycle

  12. Report on COTECH test procedure and characterization techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    that need to be attained for successful characterization of the planned demonstrators and it deals with the material characterization and prototype testing for the COTECH demonstrators. The summary of this report includes:  General description of COTECH industrial demonstrators  COTECH materials...... and material characterization techniques  Characterization techniques of the COTECH demonstrators  Functionality and lifecycle testing of the COTECH demonstrators Besides the general introduction and conclusion each section of the report is dedicated to the characterization techniques and test procedure.......Characterization techniques and test procedure requirements for innovative self-ligating dental brackets (EO) Section 5.Characterization techniques and test procedure requirements for smart diagnostic chips comprising a microfluidic channel system (GBO) Section 6.Characterization techniques and test procedure...

  13. Testing techniques in nuclear, petroleum and metallurgic industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The nondestructive testing techniques by ultrasonic waves, eddy currents, acoustic emission used by Intercontrole (a CEA's affiliated firm in nuclear petrochemical, and engineering site measurements) are presented [fr

  14. Reading Test-Taking Strategies in General Training IELTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Vahede

    2015-01-01

    The significance of gaining a better understanding of how test-taking strategies are used has been recognized by researchers. Considering this fact, this study aimed at investigating the test-taking strategies which were employed by IELTS candidates in reading comprehension test. Besides, it tried to take into account the differences among…

  15. A pilot study to evaluate an efficient testing strategy for surveillance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Control strategies for schistosomiasis depend on the understanding of the population specific magnitude of the infection. We present pilot results of a testing strategy suggested by theoretical statistical investigation that lowers cost yet retains similar accuracy profile as the standard Kato-Katz technique.

  16. Strategy for Alternative Occupant Volume Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-20

    This paper describes plans for a series of quasi-static : compression tests of rail passenger equipment. These tests are : designed to evaluate the strength of the occupant volume under : static loading conditions. The research plan includes a detail...

  17. A TOTAL MANUFACTURING SOLUTIONS TECHNIQUE TO SELECT APPROPRIATE IMPROVEMENT STRATEGY: CASE STUDY OF A FOOTWEAR FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Ethiopia is promoting the manufacturing sector to join the global market in a large scale. Due to its comparative advantages, the Ethiopian leather and leather products industry have been given due attention. To fully utilize such advantages, the country shifted its export items from hides/skins to footwear products. Nevertheless, the performance of the leather sector in general and footwear sub-sector in particular is far below the desired standards. The improvement strategies applied hitherto were mainly to tackle a small portion of their total problems. If the Ethiopian footwear companies have to become globally competitive, their entire business spectrum has to be assessed and appropriate improvement strategies must be selected. In this research, we used a Total manufacturing solutions (TMS technique to identify areas of improvement and improvement strategy of one of Ethiopian footwear companies. For this purpose, we conducted two surveys using structured questionnaire. The first survey was to test the TMS technique against the context of footwear industry. The result proved that the original TMS model can be used to measure the performance of footwear companies. The second survey was done to identify company's total problems, map its current position and select appropriate improvement strategy. The result revealed that the company has company-wide problems and its current position is a plodder. For plodders which have company-wide problems, the improvement strategy must include aggressive application of BPR; and the implementation of best practices to develop workers skills that encourages networking and promotion, a market-led manufacturing strategy, employee involvement and team work cultures. According to the findings of this research, we suggested that a BPR technique followed by a continuous improvement programme could be an appropriate improvement strategy for this company. The company requires long-term improvement

  18. Ultrasonic testing technique for users in practical application. Pt. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsepius, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    In the present, eighth part of ultrasonic testing technique for users in practical application, the two methods 1) testing by gap coupling and 2) testing by the dipping technique are treated. By the first method the probe is clamped in a holding device in such manner that a water-filled gap remains between probe and surface. Through this gap the sonic signal gets into the specimen without mechanical contact between probe and specimen taking place. By the dipping technique testing is performed in a tank filled with water, the probe being guided over the specimen under water. (RW) [de

  19. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  20. In-situ thermal testing program strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    In the past year the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has implemented a new Program Approach to the licensing process. The Program Approach suggests a step-wise approach to licensing in which the early phases will require less site information than previously planned and necessitate a lesser degree of confidence in the longer-term performance of the repository. Under the Program Approach, the thermal test program is divided into two principal phases: (1) short-term in situ tests (in the 1996 to 2000 time period) and laboratory thermal tests to obtain preclosure information, parameters, and data along with bounding information for postclosure performance; and (2) longer-term in situ tests to obtain additional data regarding postclosure performance. This effort necessitates a rethinking of the testing program because the amount of information needed for the initial licensing phase is less than previously planned. This document proposes a revised and consolidated in situ thermal test program (including supporting laboratory tests) that is structured to meet the needs of the Program Approach. A customer-supplier model is used to define the Project data needs. These data needs, along with other requirements, were then used to define a set of conceptual experiments that will provide the required data within the constraints of the Program Approach schedule. The conceptual thermal tests presented in this document represent a consolidation and update of previously defined tests that should result in a more efficient use of Project resources. This document focuses on defining the requirements and tests needed to satisfy the goal of a successful license application in 2001, should the site be found suitable

  1. Listening Strategies of L2 Learners with Varied Test Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the strategies that EFL students used and how they adjusted these strategies in response to various listening test tasks. The test tasks involved four forms of listening support: previewing questions, repeated input, background information preparation, and vocabulary instruction. Twenty-two participants were enlisted and…

  2. Contribution of phased array technique to automation in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, A.; Schenk, G.; Moehrle, W.; Wuestenberg, H.; Rathgeb, W.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrasonic tests on complicated geometries often require expensive manipulator technique. To guarantee certain information from tests, the control of the manipulator must be matched to the acoustic boundary conditions. In the past and today, complex manipulators were and are being developed and used with tests on such geometries. The results of the measurements with group radiator technique in the bottom hole area or on ducts, showed that the manipulators can be simplified, particularly with regard to their degrees of freedom, e.g.: doing without the axis of rotation to set the angle of squint in testing ducts, without thereby narrowing the test area. In the bottom hole test, it was found that by using the group radiator technique, the test area is expanded, evaluation is simplified and coupling can be ensured. (orig.) [de

  3. Ultrasonic creeping wave test technique for dissimilar metal weld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jianzhong; Shang Junmin; Yan Zhi; Yuan Guanghua; Zhang Guofeng

    2009-01-01

    To solve the problem encountered in the defect inspection of the surface and near-surface of dissimilar metal weld effectively, a new ultrasonic creeping wave test technique is developed. In this paper, the test technique and its experimental verification are mainly described. The verification results show that linear defect, which is similar to the defect found in liquid penetrant test, on the surface and near-surface of dissimilar metal weld can be detected effectively, by using ultrasonic creeping wave test technique. And the depth, length and height of the defect can be determined easily. The effective covering depth of ultrasonic creeping wave test technique will reach 0-9 mm. Meanwhile, the planar defect, with equivalent area more than 3 mm 2 , existed in welds can be detected efficiently. So, accurate measurement, which self height dimension of planar defect is above 2 mm, will be realized. (authors)

  4. Digital circuit testing a guide to DFT and other techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Francis C

    1991-01-01

    Recent technological advances have created a testing crisis in the electronics industry--smaller, more highly integrated electronic circuits and new packaging techniques make it increasingly difficult to physically access test nodes. New testing methods are needed for the next generation of electronic equipment and a great deal of emphasis is being placed on the development of these methods. Some of the techniques now becoming popular include design for testability (DFT), built-in self-test (BIST), and automatic test vector generation (ATVG). This book will provide a practical introduction to

  5. Reading Test-taking Strategies in General Training IELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahede Nosrati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The significance of gaining a better understanding of how test-taking strategies are used has been recognized by researchers. Considering this fact, this study aimed at investigating the test-taking strategies which were employed by IELTS candidates in reading comprehension test. Besides, it tried to take into account the differences among strategies used for different tasks. In order to gather data, two instruments were employed: the think-aloud protocol, and an IELTS reading test. The obtained data were analyzed and interpreted qualitatively by the researcher. The findings indicated that candidates employed 15 different strategies which were categorized in 3 stages, pre-reading, reading, and post-reading stages. Furthermore, it was revealed that test-takers used certain strategies differently, depending on the type of the task. The findings provide a better understanding of strategy use among IELTS candidates and help teachers to improve their approaches toward teaching and learning goals. Keywords: Test-taking Strategy, Test-taker, Reading Comprehension, Language Learning Strategy, IELTS

  6. Pectus bar removal: surgical technique and strategy to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Pectus bar removal is the final stage of the procedure for minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. Based on our experience with one of the largest scale data, we would like to address the important issues in pectus bar removal, such as appropriate duration of bar maintenance, techniques for bar removal, and strategies to avoid complications. Between September 1999 and August 2015, we operated on 2,553 patients with pectus excavatum and carinatum using pectus bars for a minimally invasive approach. Among them, 1,821 patients (71.3%) underwent pectus bar removal as a final stage of pectus deformity repair, and their data were analyzed retrospectively to identify the outcomes and adverse effects of the pectus bar removal procedure. The mean age of the patients was 9.13 years (range, 16 months to 44 years) and the male to female ratio was 3.55. The study is approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB), the ethical committee of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The IRB has exempted the informed consent from every patient in this study due to this is a retrospective chart review without revealing any patients' personal data. Our technique involved straightening of the bar in a supine position. The overall mean duration of pectus bar maintenance was 2.57 years (range, 4 months to 14 years). The mean duration was 2.02 years (range, 4 months to 7 years) for children under 12 years, 2.99 years (range, 7 months to 9 years) for teenagers aged 12-20 years, and 3.53 years (range, 3 months to 14 years) for adults over 20 years. Forty-eight patients (2.6%) underwent bar removal more than 5 years after bar insertion and 58 patients (3.2%) underwent bar removal earlier than initially planned. The most common adverse reaction after bar removal was wound seroma including infection (43 patients, 2.36%). Recurrence after bar removal occurred in nine patients (0.49%), and seven of these required redo repair (0.38%). Pectus bar removal is a safe and straightforward procedure with a

  7. Pie technique of LWR fuel cladding fracture toughness test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Shinya; Usami, Koji; Nakata, Masahito; Fukuda, Takuji; Numata, Masami; Kizaki, Minoru; Nishino, Yasuharu

    2006-01-01

    Remote-handling techniques were developed by cooperative research between the Department of Hot Laboratories in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd. (NFI) for evaluating the fracture toughness on irradiated LWR fuel cladding. The developed techniques, sample machining by using the electrical discharge machine (EDM), pre-cracking by fatigue tester, sample assembling to the compact tension (CT) shaped test fixture gave a satisfied result for a fracture toughness test developed by NFL. And post-irradiation examination (PIE) using the remote-handling techniques were carried out to evaluate the fracture toughness on BWR spent fuel cladding in the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF). (author)

  8. Strategy for the hemocompatibility testing of microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braune, S; Basu, S; Kratz, K; Johansson, J Bäckemo; Reinthaler, M; Lendlein, A; Jung, F

    2016-01-01

    Polymer-based microparticles are applied as non-thrombogenic or thrombogenic materials in a wide variety of intra- or extra-corporeal medical devices. As demanded by the regulatory agencies, the hemocompatibility of these blood contacting biomaterials has to be evaluated in vitro to ensure that the particle systems appropriately fulfill the envisioned function without causing undesired events such as thrombosis or inflammation. Currently described in vitro assays for hemocompatibility testing of particles comprise tests with different single cell types (e.g. erythrocytes or leukocytes), varying concentrations/dilutions of the used blood cells or whole blood, which are not standardized.Here, we report about an in vitro dynamic test system for studying the hemocompatibility of polymeric microparticles utilizing fresh human whole blood from apparently healthy subjects, collected and processed under standardized conditions. Spherical poly(ether imide) microparticles with an average diameter of 140±30 μm were utilized as model systems. Reported as candidate materials for the removal of uremic toxins, these microparticles are anticipated to facilitate optimal flow conditions in a dialyzer with minimal backflow and blood cell damage. Pristine (PEI) and potassium hydroxide (PEI-KOH) functionalized microparticles exhibited similarly nanoporous surfaces (PEI: ØExternal pore = 90±60 nm; PEI-KOH ØExternal pore = 150±130 nm) but varying water wettabilities (PEI: θadv = 112±10° PEI-KOH θadv = 60±2°). The nanoporosity of the microparticle surfaces allows the exchange of toxic solutes from blood towards the interconnective pores in the particle core, while an immigration of the substantially larger blood cells is inhibited.Sterilized PEI microparticles were incorporated -air-free -in a syringe-based test system and exposed to whole blood for 60 minutes under gentle agitation. Thereafter, thrombi formation on the particles surfaces were analyzed

  9. Environmental remediation. Strategies and techniques for cleaning radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W. Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Actions for a cleaner and safety environment have risen on social and political agendas in recent years. They include efforts to remediate contaminated sites posing a radiological risk to humans and the surrounding environment. Radiological risks can result from a variety of nuclear and non-nuclear activities. They include: nuclear or radiological accidents; nuclear weapons production and testing; poor radioactive waste management and disposal practices; industrial manufacturing involving radioactive materials; conventional mining and milling of ores and other production processes, e.g. oil and gas production, resulting in enhanced concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs). The IAEA has developed a comprehensive programme directed at the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. The programme collates and distributes knowledge about contaminated sites; appropriate methods for their characterization; assessment of their potential environmental and radiological impact; and applicable methods for their clean-up, following internationally recommended safety criteria. The overall resources, and which are technologically less advanced, to focus their efforts and chose appropriate strategies for the abatement or removal of exposure to radiation. An important aspect is the intention to 'close the loop' in the nuclear fuel cycle in the interests of sustainable energy development including nuclear power

  10. Test Information Targeting Strategies for Adaptive Multistage Testing Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecht, Richard M.; Burgin, William

    Adaptive multistage testlet (MST) designs appear to be gaining popularity for many large-scale computer-based testing programs. These adaptive MST designs use a modularized configuration of preconstructed testlets and embedded score-routing schemes to prepackage different forms of an adaptive test. The conditional information targeting (CIT)…

  11. Slim hole drilling and testing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Garg, Sabodh K.; Goranson, Colin

    2017-12-01

    The financial and geologic advantages of drilling slim holes instead of large production wells in the early stages of geothermal reservoir assessment has been understood for many years. However, the practice has not been fully embraced by geothermal developers. We believe that the reason for this is that there is a poor understanding of testing and reservoir analysis that can be conducted in slim holes. In addition to reservoir engineering information, coring through the cap rock and into the reservoir provides important data for designing subsequent production well drilling and completion. Core drilling requires significantly less mud volume than conventional rotary drilling, and it is typically not necessary to cure lost circulation zones (LCZ). LCZs should be tested by either production or injection methods as they are encountered. The testing methodologies are similar to those conducted on large-diameter wells; although produced and/or injected fluid volumes are much less. Pressure, temperature and spinner (PTS) surveys in slim holes under static conditions can used to characterize temperature and pressure distribution in the geothermal reservoir. In many cases it is possible to discharge slim holes and obtain fluid samples to delineate the geochemical properties of the reservoir fluid. Also in the latter case, drawdown and buildup data obtained using a downhole pressure tool can be employed to determine formation transmissivity and well properties. Even if it proves difficult to discharge a slim hole, an injection test can be performed to obtain formation transmissivity. Given the discharge (or injection) data from a slimhole, discharge properties of a large-diameter well can be inferred using wellbore modeling. Finally, slim hole data (pressure, temperature, transmissivity, fluid properties) together with reservoir simulation can help predict the ability of the geothermal reservoir to sustain power production.

  12. An improved technique for oral administration of solutions of test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicut intravenous cannula as an improvised oral cannula to administer solutions of drugs and test substances to experimental rats. Techniques of handling and manipulating the rat with the goal of having the eosophagus as straight as possible ...

  13. Ninja hacking unconventional penetration testing tactics and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelm, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ever thought of using the time-tested tactics and techniques of the ancient ninja to understand the mind of today's ninja, the hacker? As a penetration tester or security consultant you no doubt perform tests both externally and internally for your clients that include both physical and technical tests. Throw traditional pen testing methods out the window for now and see how thinking and acting like a ninja can actually grant you quicker and more complete access to a company's assets. Get in before the hacker does with these unorthodox techniques. Use all of the tools that the ninja has: di

  14. FPGA based mixed-signal circuit novel testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouros, Sotirios; Vassios, Vassilios; Papakostas, Dimitrios; Hristov, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circuits fault detection techniques, especially on modern mixed-signal circuits, are evolved and customized around the world to meet the industry needs. The paper presents techniques used on fault detection in mixed signal circuits. Moreover, the paper involves standardized methods, along with current innovations for external testing like Design for Testability (DfT) and Built In Self Test (BIST) systems. Finally, the research team introduces a circuit implementation scheme using FPGA

  15. Surface crack testing - state of technique and trends in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Seminar contains 12 lectures on the following subjects: State of technique in magnetic powder testing (K. Goebbels); Recognisability of faults and probability of faults in surface crack testing (W. Morgner); Requirements for picture processing systems for proving and assessing crack indications (M. Stadthaus); Possibilities and limits of automatic crack recognition in magnetic powder testing (V. Deutsch); Development of equipment for eddy current testing (M. Junger); Signal processing - a way of improving the recognisability of faults in eddy current testing (R. Becker); Methods of testing steel products for surface faults and their practical limits of fault recognisability (D. Thiery); Surface crack testing in pipe manufacture (R. Pawelletz); Surface crack testing in powerstation construction (L. v. Bernus); Trends in automation in surface crack testing (G. Maier); Eddy current testing in engine construction (E. Dickhaut); Eddy current testing in aircraft repair (F. Schur). (orig.) [de

  16. Technique for unit testing of safety software verification and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Duo; Zhang Liangju; Feng Junting

    2008-01-01

    The key issue arising from digitalization of the reactor protection system for nuclear power plant is how to carry out verification and validation (V and V), to demonstrate and confirm the software that performs reactor safety functions is safe and reliable. One of the most important processes for software V and V is unit testing, which verifies and validates the software coding based on concept design for consistency, correctness and completeness during software development. The paper shows a preliminary study on the technique for unit testing of safety software V and V, focusing on such aspects as how to confirm test completeness, how to establish test platform, how to develop test cases and how to carry out unit testing. The technique discussed here was successfully used in the work of unit testing on safety software of a digital reactor protection system. (authors)

  17. Defect detection in conducting materials using eddy current testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorentz force eddy current testing (LET is a novel nondestructive testing technique which can be applied preferably to the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic moving conductors. The LET is compared (similar testing conditions with the classical eddy current testing (ECT. Numerical FEM simulations have been performed to analyze the measurements as well as the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic conductors. The results are compared with measurements to test the feasibility of defect identification. Finally, the use of LET measurements to estimate of the electrical conductors under test are described as well.

  18. Twitch interpolation technique in testing of maximal muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, P M; Nørregaard, J; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1993-01-01

    The aim was to study the methodological aspects of the muscle twitch interpolation technique in estimating the maximal force of contraction in the quadriceps muscle utilizing commercial muscle testing equipment. Six healthy subjects participated in seven sets of experiments testing the effects...

  19. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  20. A Closer Look at Chinese EFL Learners' Test-Wiseness Strategies in Reading Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiyan, Miao; Rilong, Liu

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the relationship of test-takers' use of test-wiseness strategies to Chinese EFL learners' reading test performance. A test-wiseness questionnaire was administered immediately after the final achievement test to probe into how learners thought while completing the reading section of the test. It was found…

  1. Using the noninformative families in family-based association tests : A powerful new testing strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, C; DeMeo, D; Silverman, EK; Weiss, ST; Laird, NM

    2003-01-01

    For genetic association studies with multiple phenotypes, we propose a new strategy for multiple testing with family-based association tests (FBATs). The strategy increases the power by both using all available family data and reducing the number of hypotheses tested while being robust against

  2. Specificity and sensitivity assessment of selected nasal provocation testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Krzych-Fałta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal provocation testing involves an allergen-specific local reaction of the nasal mucosa to the administered allergen. Aim: To determine the most objective nasal occlusion assessment technique that could be used in nasal provocation testing. Material and methods : A total of 60 subjects, including 30 patients diagnosed with allergy to common environmental allergens and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled into the study. The method used in the study was a nasal provocation test with an allergen, with a standard dose of a control solution and an allergen (5,000 SBU/ml administered using a calibrated atomizer into both nostrils at room temperature. Early-phase nasal mucosa response in the early phase of the allergic reaction was assessed via acoustic rhinometry, optical rhinometry, nitric oxide in nasal air, and tryptase levels in the nasal lavage fluid. Results : In estimating the homogeneity of the average values, the Levene’s test was used and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted for all the methods used for assessing the nasal provocation test with an allergen. Statistically significant results were defined for p < 0.05. Of all the objective assessment techniques, the most sensitive and characteristic ones were the optical rhinometry techniques (specificity = 1, sensitivity = 1, AUC = 1, PPV = 1, NPV = 1. Conclusions : The techniques used showed significant differences between the group of patients with allergic rhinitis and the control group. Of all the objective assessment techniques, those most sensitive and characteristic were the optical rhinometry.

  3. A test of the domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Yang, Minji; Lim, Robert H; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lin, Li-Ling; Grome, Rebekah E; Farrell, Jerome A; Blackmon, Sha'kema

    2013-01-01

    Acculturation literature has evolved over the past several decades and has highlighted the dynamic ways in which individuals negotiate experiences in multiple cultural contexts. The present study extends this literature by testing M. J. Miller and R. H. Lim's (2010) domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis-that individuals might use different acculturation strategies (i.e., assimilated, bicultural, separated, and marginalized strategies; J. W. Berry, 2003) across behavioral and values domains-in 3 independent cluster analyses with Asian American participants. Present findings supported the domain-specific acculturation strategy hypothesis as 67% to 72% of participants from 3 independent samples using different strategies across behavioral and values domains. Consistent with theory, a number of acculturation strategy cluster group differences emerged across generational status, acculturative stress, mental health symptoms, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Study limitations and future directions for research are discussed.

  4. Ultrasonic testing using time of flight diffraction technique (TOFD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram Shahzad; Ahmad Mirza Safeer Ahmad; Muhammad Asif Khan

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the ultrasonic testing using Time Flight Diffraction (TOFD) Technique for welded samples having different types and sizes of defects. TOFD is a computerized ultrasonic system, able to scan, store and evaluate indications in terms of location, through thickness and length in a more easy and convenient. Time of Flight Diffraction Technique (TOFD) is more fast and easy technique for ultrasonic testing as we can examine a weld i a single scan along the length of the weld with two probes known as D-scan. It shows the image of the complete weld with the defect information. The examinations were performed on carbon steel samples used for ultrasonic testing using 70 degree probes. The images for different type of defects were obtained. (author)

  5. RAMI strategies in the IFMIF Test Facilities design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abal, Javier, E-mail: javier.abal@upc.edu [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Dies, Javier [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Arroyo, José Manuel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bargalló, Enric [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Casal, Natalia; García, Ángela [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martínez, Gonzalo; Tapia, Carlos; De Blas, Alfredo [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We have implemented fault tolerant design strategies so that the strong availability requirements are met. • The evolution to the present design of the signal and cooling lines inside the TTC has also been compared. • The RAMI analyses have demonstrated a strong capability in being a complementary tool in the design of IFMIF Test Facilities. -- Abstract: In this paper, a RAMI analysis of the different stages in Test Facilities (TF) design is described. The comparison between the availability results has been a milestone not only to evaluate the major unavailability contributors in the updates but also to implement fault tolerant design strategies when possible. These strategies encompass a wide range of design activities: from the definition of degraded modes of operation in the Test Facilities to specific modifications in the test modules in order to guarantee their fail safe operation.

  6. RAMI strategies in the IFMIF Test Facilities design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abal, Javier; Dies, Javier; Arroyo, José Manuel; Bargalló, Enric; Casal, Natalia; García, Ángela; Martínez, Gonzalo; Tapia, Carlos; De Blas, Alfredo; Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We have implemented fault tolerant design strategies so that the strong availability requirements are met. • The evolution to the present design of the signal and cooling lines inside the TTC has also been compared. • The RAMI analyses have demonstrated a strong capability in being a complementary tool in the design of IFMIF Test Facilities. -- Abstract: In this paper, a RAMI analysis of the different stages in Test Facilities (TF) design is described. The comparison between the availability results has been a milestone not only to evaluate the major unavailability contributors in the updates but also to implement fault tolerant design strategies when possible. These strategies encompass a wide range of design activities: from the definition of degraded modes of operation in the Test Facilities to specific modifications in the test modules in order to guarantee their fail safe operation

  7. Characteristics of patients with internal diseases who use relaxation techniques as a coping strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav; Paul, Anna

    2013-10-01

    To assess sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics of patients with internal diseases who use relaxation techniques as a coping strategy. Cross-sectional analysis among patients with internal diseases. Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine at an academic teaching hospital in Germany. Prior use of relaxation techniques (e.g. meditation, autogenic training), perceived benefit, and perceived harm. Potential predictors of relaxation techniques use (sociodemographic characteristics, health behavior, internal medicine diagnosis, general health status, mental health, satisfaction, and health locus of control) were tested using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of 2486 participants, 1075 (43.2%) reported to have used relaxation techniques, 648 (60.3%) reported benefits, and 11 (1.0%) reported harms. Use of relaxation techniques was independently associated with female gender (Odds ratio [OR]=1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.08-1.89), higher education (OR=1.32; 95%CI=1.03-1.71), fibromyalgia (OR=1.78; 95%CI=1.22-2.61), and internal health locus of control (OR=1.27; 95%CI=1.01-1.60). Use of relaxation techniques was negatively associated with age below 30 (OR=0.32; 95%CI=0.20-0.52) or above 64 (OR=0.65; 95%CI=0.49-0.88), full-time employment (OR=0.75; 95%CI=0.57-0.98), current smoking (OR=0.72; 95%CI=0.54-0.95), osteoarthritis (OR=0.51; 95%CI=0.34-0.77), rheumatic arthritis (OR=0.59; 95%CI=0.37-0.93), good to excellent health status (OR=0.70; 95%CI=0.52-0.96), and high life satisfaction (OR=0.78; 95%CI=0.62-0.98). In a German sample of patients with internal diseases, relaxation techniques were used as a coping strategy by about 43%. Users were more likely to be middle-aged, female, well-educated, diagnosed with fibromyalgia, not smoking, not full-time employed, and not to have a good health status or high life satisfaction. A high internal health locus of control predicted relaxation techniques use. Considering health locus of control

  8. Microwave Cold-Testing Techniques for the NLC

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, G B

    1996-01-01

    The R and D program for the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) includes the development of microwave techniques for testing X-band accelerating structures at different stages of design, manufacturing and assembly. During the design phase, short stacks were built and tested to finalize dimensions. Cell by cell measurements were performed on the NLCTA injector cells as a microwave quality control (QC) after manufacturing. The two injector sections were tuned using a moveable plunger and tested using a semiautomated system of bead-pull. Using this perturbation technique, we were able to map the amplitude and phase of the electric field on the axis throughout the assembled structures under traveling-wave conditions.

  9. Microwave Cold-Testing Techniques for the NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, Gordon B

    2003-01-01

    The R and D program for the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) includes the development of microwave techniques for testing X-band accelerating structures at different stages of design, manufacturing and assembly. During the design phase, short stacks were built and tested to finalize dimensions. Cell by cell measurements were performed on the NLCTA injector cells as a microwave quality control (QC) after manufacturing. The two injector sections were tuned using a moveable plunger and tested using a semiautomated system of bead-pull. Using this perturbation technique, we were able to map the amplitude and phase of the electric field on the axis throughout the assembled structures under traveling-wave conditions

  10. Effective colonoscopy training techniques: strategies to improve patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papanikolaou IS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ioannis S Papanikolaou,1 Pantelis S Karatzas,2 Lazaros T Varytimiadis,2 Athanasios Tsigaridas,2 Michail Galanopoulos,2 Nikos Viazis,2 Dimitrios G Karamanolis21Hepato-gastroenterology Unit, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University General Hospital, University of Athens, 2Gastroenterology Department, Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Colonoscopy has substantially evolved during the last 20 years and many different training techniques have been developed in order to improve the performance of endoscopists. The most known are mechanical simulators, virtual reality simulators, computer-simulating endoscopy, magnetic endoscopic imaging, and composite and explanted animal organ simulators. Current literature generally indicates that the use of simulators improves performance of endoscopists and enhances safety of patients, especially during the initial phase of training. Moreover, newer endoscopes and imaging techniques such as high-definition colonoscopes, chromocolonoscopy with dyes spraying, and third-eye retroscope have been incorporated in everyday practice, offering better visualization of the colon and detection of polyps. Despite the abundance of these different technological features, training devices are not widely used and no official guideline or specified training algorithm or technique for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy has been evolved. In this review, we present the most important training methods currently available and evaluate these using existing literature. We also try to propose a training algorithm for novice endoscopists.Keywords: endoscopy, colonoscopy, teaching techniques, simulator, endoscopists, colon, polyps

  11. Testing and assessment strategies, including alternative and new approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Otto A.

    2003-01-01

    The object of toxicological testing is to predict possible adverse effect in humans when exposed to chemicals whether used as industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals or pesticides. Animal models are predominantly used in identifying potential hazards of chemicals. The use of laboratory animals raises...... ethical concern. However, irrespective of animal welfare it is an important aspect of the discipline of toxicology that the primary object is human health. The ideal testing and assessment strategy is simple to use all the available test methods and preferably more in laboratory animal species from which...... uses and of the absence of health problems involved with their use. Thus, the regulatory toxicology is a cocktail of science and pragmatism added a crucial concern for animal welfare. Test methods are most often used in a testing sequence as bricks in a testing strategy. The main key driving forces...

  12. Fuzzy Cognitive Map for Software Testing Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Larkman , Deane; Mohammadian , Masoud; Balachandran , Bala; Jentzsch , Ric

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper discusses a framework to assist test managers to evaluate the use of AI techniques as a potential tool in software testing. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) are employed to evaluate the framework and make decision analysis easier. A what-if analysis is presented that explores the general application of the framework. Simulations are performed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. The framework proposed is innovative and it assists managers in making e...

  13. GMOtrack: generator of cost-effective GMO testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Petra Krau; Gruden, Kristina; Morisset, Dany; Lavrac, Nada; Stebih, Dejan; Rotter, Ana; Zel, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Commercialization of numerous genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has already been approved worldwide, and several additional GMOs are in the approval process. Many countries have adopted legislation to deal with GMO-related issues such as food safety, environmental concerns, and consumers' right of choice, making GMO traceability a necessity. The growing extent of GMO testing makes it important to study optimal GMO detection and identification strategies. This paper formally defines the problem of routine laboratory-level GMO tracking as a cost optimization problem, thus proposing a shift from "the same strategy for all samples" to "sample-centered GMO testing strategies." An algorithm (GMOtrack) for finding optimal two-phase (screening-identification) testing strategies is proposed. The advantages of cost optimization with increasing GMO presence on the market are demonstrated, showing that optimization approaches to analytic GMO traceability can result in major cost reductions. The optimal testing strategies are laboratory-dependent, as the costs depend on prior probabilities of local GMO presence, which are exemplified on food and feed samples. The proposed GMOtrack approach, publicly available under the terms of the General Public License, can be extended to other domains where complex testing is involved, such as safety and quality assurance in the food supply chain.

  14. Alternative containment integrity test methods, an overview of possible techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to develop and analyze alternative methods for testing of containment integrity. The study is focused on techniques for continuously monitoring containment integrity to provide rapid detection of existing leaks, thus providing greater certainty of the integrity of the containment at any time. The study is also intended to develop techniques applicable to the currently required Type A integrated leakage rate tests. A brief discussion of the range of alternative methods currently being considered is presented. The methods include applicability to all major containment types, operating and shutdown plant conditions, and quantitative and qualitative leakage measurements. The techniques are analyzed in accordance with the current state of knowledge of each method. The bulk of the techniques discussed are in the conceptual stage, have not been tested in actual plant conditions, and are presented here as a possible future direction for evaluating containment integrity. Of the methods considered, no single method provides optimum performance for all containment types. Several methods are limited in the types of containment for which they are applicable. The results of the study to date indicate that techniques for continuous monitoring of containment integrity exist for many plants and may be implemented at modest cost

  15. Wide Panel Testing Technique for Evaluating Repair Weld Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Patrick R.; Bynum, Julian E.; Shah, Sandeep R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a new tensile testing technique for evaluating the overall effect of a repair weld on the strength of a welded joint. Previously, repair weld strengths have been evaluated using one-inch width tensile specimens, but this technique does not capture all of the effects that result from a repair. The new technique involves testing of "wide panel" tensile specimens which contain the full length of a repair weld within a longer initial weld, allowing the specimen to capture the combined effects of residual stresses, local strength degradation, and load redistribution around a repair. The development of strains in the repair area of standard aluminum alloy specimens and new high-performance aluminum-lithium alloy specimens was observed and evaluated using photoelastic material. The results of this evaluation show an increased sensitivity to repair welding residual stresses in the aluminum-lithium alloy specimens.

  16. Improved self-reliance shearing interferometric technique for collimation testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingshan; Li, Guohua; Wang, Zhaobing; Jing, Yaling; Li, Yi

    1995-06-01

    Self-reference single plate shearing interferometric technique used for collimation testing of light beams are briefly reviewed. Two improved configurations of this self-reference interferometry with an inclined screen and matched half-field interferograms are described in detail. Sensitivity of these configurations is analyzed and compared with that of the existing ones.

  17. Advanced Marketing Core Curriculum. Test Items and Assessment Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clifton L.; And Others

    This document contains duties and tasks, multiple-choice test items, and other assessment techniques for Missouri's advanced marketing core curriculum. The core curriculum begins with a list of 13 suggested textbook resources. Next, nine duties with their associated tasks are given. Under each task appears one or more citations to appropriate…

  18. Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

    2011-02-10

    Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

  19. Strategies in edge plasma simulation using adaptive dynamic nodalization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, A.; Weimann, G.; Kamelander, G.

    2003-01-01

    A wide span of steady-state and transient edge plasma processes simulation problems require accurate discretization techniques and can then be treated with Finite Element (FE) and Finite Volume (FV) methods. The software used here to meet these meshing requirements is a 2D finite element grid generator. It allows to produce adaptive unstructured grids taking into consideration the flux surface characteristics. To comply with the common mesh handling features of FE/FV packages, some options have been added to the basic generation tool. These enhancements include quadrilateral meshes without non-regular transition elements obtained by substituting them by transition constructions consisting of regular quadrilateral elements. Furthermore triangular grids can be created with one edge parallel to the magnetic field and modified by the basic adaptation/realignment techniques. Enhanced code operation properties and processing capabilities are expected. (author)

  20. Biological Small Angle Scattering: Techniques, Strategies and Tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Barnali [University at Buffalo (SUNY); Muñoz, Inés G. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas Madrid, Madrid, Spain; Urban, Volker S. [ORNL; Qian, Shuo [ORNL

    2017-12-01

    This book provides a clear, comprehensible and up-to-date description of how Small Angle Scattering (SAS) can help structural biology researchers. SAS is an efficient technique that offers structural information on how biological macromolecules behave in solution. SAS provides distinct and complementary data for integrative structural biology approaches in combination with other widely used probes, such as X-ray crystallography, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Mass spectrometry and Cryo-electron Microscopy. The development of brilliant synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) beam lines has increased the number of researchers interested in solution scattering. SAS is especially useful for studying conformational changes in proteins, highly flexible proteins, and intrinsically disordered proteins. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) with neutron contrast variation is ideally suited for studying multi-component assemblies as well as membrane proteins that are stabilized in surfactant micelles or vesicles. SAS is also used for studying dynamic processes of protein fibrillation in amyloid diseases, and pharmaceutical drug delivery. The combination with size-exclusion chromatography further increases the range of SAS applications.The book is written by leading experts in solution SAS methodologies. The principles and theoretical background of various SAS techniques are included, along with practical aspects that range from sample preparation to data presentation for publication. Topics covered include techniques for improving data quality and analysis, as well as different scientific applications of SAS. With abundant illustrations and practical tips, we hope the clear explanations of the principles and the reviews on the latest progresses will serve as a guide through all aspects of biological solution SAS.The scope of this book is particularly relevant for structural biology researchers who are new to SAS. Advanced users of the technique will find it helpful for

  1. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Monmasson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

  2. Effective colonoscopy training techniques: strategies to improve patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Karatzas, Pantelis S; Varytimiadis, Lazaros T; Tsigaridas, Athanasios; Galanopoulos, Michail; Viazis, Nikos; Karamanolis, Dimitrios G

    2016-01-01

    Colonoscopy has substantially evolved during the last 20 years and many different training techniques have been developed in order to improve the performance of endoscopists. The most known are mechanical simulators, virtual reality simulators, computer-simulating endoscopy, magnetic endoscopic imaging, and composite and explanted animal organ simulators. Current literature generally indicates that the use of simulators improves performance of endoscopists and enhances safety of patients, especially during the initial phase of training. Moreover, newer endoscopes and imaging techniques such as high-definition colonoscopes, chromocolonoscopy with dyes spraying, and third-eye retroscope have been incorporated in everyday practice, offering better visualization of the colon and detection of polyps. Despite the abundance of these different technological features, training devices are not widely used and no official guideline or specified training algorithm or technique for lower gastrointestinal endoscopy has been evolved. In this review, we present the most important training methods currently available and evaluate these using existing literature. We also try to propose a training algorithm for novice endoscopists.

  3. New Technique for Cryogenically Cooling Small Test Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Karen M.; Henderson, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Convective heat removal techniques to rapidly cool small test articles to Earth-Moon L2 temperatures of 77 K were accomplished through the use of liquid nitrogen (LN2). By maintaining a selected pressure range on the saturation curve, test articles were cooled below the LN2 boiling point at ambient pressure in less than 30 min. Difficulties in achieving test pressures while maintaining the temperature tolerance necessitated a modification to the original system to include a closed loop conductive cold plate and cryogenic shroud

  4. Techniques for Automated Testing of Lola Industrial Robot Language Parser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Lutovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of parsing execution directly affects the accuracy of semantic analysis, optimization and object code generation. Therefore, parser testing represents the basis of compiler testing. It should include tests for correct and expected, but also for unexpected and invalid cases. Techniques for testing the parser, as well as algorithms and tools for test sentences generation, are discussed in this paper. The methodology for initial testing of a newly developed compiler is proposed. Generation of negative test sentences by modifying the original language grammar is described. Positive and negative test cases generated by Grow, Purdom’s algorithm with and without length control, CDRC-P algorithm and CDRC-P algorithm with length control are applied to the testing of L-IRL robot programming language. For this purpose two different tools for generation of test sentences are used. Based on the presented analysis of possible solutions, the appropriate method can be chosen for testing the parser for smaller grammars with many recursive rules.

  5. Integrated testing strategies can be optimal for chemical risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raseta, Marko; Pitchford, Jon; Cussens, James; Doe, John

    2017-08-01

    There is an urgent need to refine strategies for testing the safety of chemical compounds. This need arises both from the financial and ethical costs of animal tests, but also from the opportunities presented by new in-vitro and in-silico alternatives. Here we explore the mathematical theory underpinning the formulation of optimal testing strategies in toxicology. We show how the costs and imprecisions of the various tests, and the variability in exposures and responses of individuals, can be assembled rationally to form a Markov Decision Problem. We compute the corresponding optimal policies using well developed theory based on Dynamic Programming, thereby identifying and overcoming some methodological and logical inconsistencies which may exist in the current toxicological testing. By illustrating our methods for two simple but readily generalisable examples we show how so-called integrated testing strategies, where information of different precisions from different sources is combined and where different initial test outcomes lead to different sets of future tests, can arise naturally as optimal policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a liquid filter testing technique using radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Surender; Ramarathinam, K.; Khan, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    Efficient removal of suspended matter from liquids was always in demand in industries as a process requirement for the recovery of suspended materials. In nuclear industry the filters are required to remove fine suspended matter from water in reactors, effluent treatment plants, fuel reprocessing plants etc. The filters are used to maintain clarity and to limit the activity level to a minimum. In effluent treatment plants low level liquid waste is discharged to the environment after removing active suspended matter by filters. Various type of liquid filters are available in the market to meet the demands of different industries. These filters must be evaluated for their removal effectiveness for particulate matter from liquids. The filters are evaluated using several techniques like gravimetric analysis, turbidity measurement, direct counting of particles using optical and electronic instruments etc. All the techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. Counting of radioactive particles using radiation counters is a simple and sensitive technique. It involves the neutron activation of selected test powders which are dispersed in the liquid and led through the test filter; the up-stream and down-stream concentrations are measured using GM counter. This technique was found to be consistent and reproducible in the low, middle and high ranges of efficiency. Selection of a test powder, its activation and use for evaluating liquid filters are dealt with. (auth.)

  7. A Method to Test Model Calibration Techniques: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron; Polly, Ben; Neymark, Joel

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a method for testing model calibration techniques. Calibration is commonly used in conjunction with energy retrofit audit models. An audit is conducted to gather information about the building needed to assemble an input file for a building energy modeling tool. A calibration technique is used to reconcile model predictions with utility data, and then the 'calibrated model' is used to predict energy savings from a variety of retrofit measures and combinations thereof. Current standards and guidelines such as BPI-2400 and ASHRAE-14 set criteria for 'goodness of fit' and assume that if the criteria are met, then the calibration technique is acceptable. While it is logical to use the actual performance data of the building to tune the model, it is not certain that a good fit will result in a model that better predicts post-retrofit energy savings. Therefore, the basic idea here is that the simulation program (intended for use with the calibration technique) is used to generate surrogate utility bill data and retrofit energy savings data against which the calibration technique can be tested. This provides three figures of merit for testing a calibration technique, 1) accuracy of the post-retrofit energy savings prediction, 2) closure on the 'true' input parameter values, and 3) goodness of fit to the utility bill data. The paper will also discuss the pros and cons of using this synthetic surrogate data approach versus trying to use real data sets of actual buildings.

  8. Strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana – Julieta Josan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.

  9. Large Field Photogrammetry Techniques in Aircraft and Spacecraft Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center is a 240 ft. high A-frame structure which is used for full-scale crash testing of aircraft and rotorcraft vehicles. Because the LandIR provides a unique capability to introduce impact velocities in the forward and vertical directions, it is also serving as the facility for landing tests on full-scale and sub-scale Orion spacecraft mass simulators. Recently, a three-dimensional photogrammetry system was acquired to assist with the gathering of vehicle flight data before, throughout and after the impact. This data provides the basis for the post-test analysis and data reduction. Experimental setups for pendulum swing tests on vehicles having both forward and vertical velocities can extend to 50 x 50 x 50 foot cubes, while weather, vehicle geometry, and other constraints make each experimental setup unique to each test. This paper will discuss the specific calibration techniques for large fields of views, camera and lens selection, data processing, as well as best practice techniques learned from using the large field of view photogrammetry on a multitude of crash and landing test scenarios unique to the LandIR.

  10. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  11. Test-Taking Strategies in L2 Assessment: The Test of English for International Communication Speaking Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny

    2016-08-01

    This research explored the test-taking strategies associated with the Test of English for International Communication Speaking Test (TOEIC-S) and their relationship with test performance. Capitalizing on two sets of TOEIC-S and a custom-made strategy inventory, the researcher collected data from a total of 215 Taiwanese English learners consisting of 84 males and 131 females with an average age of 20.1 years (SD = 2.6). Quantitative data analysis gave rise to three major findings. First, TOEIC-S test-taking strategy use constituted a multi-faceted construct that involved multiple types of strategic behaviors. Second, these strategic behaviors matched those allowing test-takers to communicate both in real life and in the workplace. Third, communication strategy use and cognitive strategy use both contributed significantly to TOEIC-S performance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. An Effective Strategy to Build Up a Balanced Test Suite for Spectrum-Based Fault Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During past decades, many automated software faults diagnosis techniques including Spectrum-Based Fault Localization (SBFL have been proposed to improve the efficiency of software debugging activity. In the field of SBFL, suspiciousness calculation is closely related to the number of failed and passed test cases. Studies have shown that the ratio of the number of failed and passed test case has more significant impact on the accuracy of SBFL than the total number of test cases, and a balanced test suite is more beneficial to improving the accuracy of SBFL. Based on theoretical analysis, we proposed an PNF (Passed test cases, Not execute Faulty statement strategy to reduce test suite and build up a more balanced one for SBFL, which can be used in regression testing. We evaluated the strategy making experiments using the Siemens program and Space program. Experiments indicated that our PNF strategy can be used to construct a new test suite effectively. Compared with the original test suite, the new one has smaller size (average 90% test case was reduced in experiments and more balanced ratio of failed test cases to passed test cases, while it has the same statement coverage and fault localization accuracy.

  13. Welding techniques development of CLAM steel for Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Chunjing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China)], E-mail: lcj@ipp.ac.cn; Huang Qunying; Wu Qingsheng; Liu Shaojun [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Lei Yucheng [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, 212013 (China); Muroga, Takeo; Nagasaka, Takuya [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Jifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Zhang Jianxun [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shanxi, 710049 (China); Li Jinglong [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shanxi, 710072 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Fabrication techniques for Test Blanket Module (TBM) with CLAM are being under development. Effect of surface preparation on the HIP diffusion bonding joints was studied and good joints with Charpy impact absorbed energy close to that of base metal have been obtained. The mechanical properties test showed that effect of HIP process on the mechanical properties of base metal was little. Uniaxial diffusion bonding experiments were carried out to study the effect of temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties. And preliminary experiments on Electron Beam Welding (EBW), Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding and Laser Beam Welding (LBW) were performed to find proper welding techniques to assemble the TBM. In addition, the thermal processes assessed with a Gleeble thermal-mechanical machine were carried out as well to assist the fusion welding research.

  14. Development status of ultrasonic test techniques for cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Yoshito

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing has been thought to be difficult to apply to cast stainless steel which is used as the material for the main coolant pipes in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). An ultrasonic testing technique using large aperture twin crystal transducers was developed in INSS for application to inspection of the main coolant pipes. The method was evaluated in an application to detect circumferential and axial defects in the cast stainless steel pipes. It was found that (1) the defects could be detected which had a depth that was so small that their evaluation was not required; and (2) depth sizing and length sizing of detected defects were also possible. (author)

  15. Improved Nanomechanical Test Techniques for Surface Engineered Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Goodes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and implementation of a wide range of innovative nanomechanical test techniques to solve tribological problems in applications as diverse as biomedical and automotive are described in this review. For improved wear resistance and durability, the importance of understanding the system response rather than the coating-only properties is emphasized. There are many applications involving mechanical contact where the key to understanding the problem is to test at higher load and to combine reliable measurements taken across different length scales using both nano- and micro-indentation and related wear measurement techniques which more closely simulate contact conditions to fully understand the mechanical behaviour and hence deliver improved application performance. Results are presented with the NanoTest platform for applications for biomedical devices and surface engineering of lightweight alloys for the automotive industry. By combining results with different techniques it is possible to postulate predictive design rules – based on the elastic and plastic deformation energies involved in contact - to aid the reliable optimisation of mechanical properties in the various contact situations in the different applications.

  16. Impact of Laboratory Test Use Strategies in a Turkish Hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Meriç Yılmaz

    Full Text Available Eliminating unnecessary laboratory tests is a good way to reduce costs while maintain patient safety. The aim of this study was to define and process strategies to rationalize laboratory use in Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital (ANH and calculate potential savings in costs.A collaborative plan was defined by hospital managers; joint meetings with ANHTA and laboratory professors were set; the joint committee invited relevant staff for input, and a laboratory efficiency committee was created. Literature was reviewed systematically to identify strategies used to improve laboratory efficiency. Strategies that would be applicable in local settings were identified for implementation, processed, and the impact on clinical use and costs assessed for 12 months.Laboratory use in ANH differed enormously among clinics. Major use was identified in internal medicine. The mean number of tests per patient was 15.8. Unnecessary testing for chloride, folic acid, free prostate specific antigen, hepatitis and HIV testing were observed. Test panel use was pinpointed as the main cause of overuse of the laboratory and the Hospital Information System test ordering page was reorganized. A significant decrease (between 12.6-85.0% was observed for the tests that were taken to an alternative page on the computer screen. The one year study saving was equivalent to 371,183 US dollars.Hospital-based committees including laboratory professionals and clinicians can define hospital based problems and led to a standardized approach to test use that can help clinicians reduce laboratory costs through appropriate use of laboratory tests.

  17. Towards an alternative testing strategy for nanomaterials used in nanomedicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dusinska, M; Boland, S; Saunders, M

    2015-01-01

    In spite of recent advances in describing the health outcomes of exposure to nanoparticles (NPs), it still remains unclear how exactly NPs interact with their cellular targets. Size, surface, mass, geometry, and composition may all play a beneficial role as well as causing toxicity. Concerns...... towards alternative testing strategies for hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials, highlighting the adaptation of standard methods demanded by the special physicochemical features of nanomaterials and bioavailability studies. The work has assessed a broad range of toxicity tests, cell models and NP...... types and concentrations taking into account the inherent impact of NP properties and the effects of changes in experimental conditions using well-characterized NPs. The results of the studies have been used to generate recommendations for a suitable and robust testing strategy which can be applied...

  18. Hypothesis testing in students: Sequences, stages, and instructional strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshman, David; Thompson, Pat A.

    Six sequences in the development of hypothesis-testing conceptions are proposed, involving (a) interpretation of the hypothesis; (b) the distinction between using theories and testing theories; (c) the consideration of multiple possibilities; (d) the relation of theory and data; (e) the nature of verification and falsification; and (f) the relation of truth and falsity. An alternative account is then provided involving three global stages: concrete operations, formal operations, and a postformal metaconstructivestage. Relative advantages and difficulties of the stage and sequence conceptualizations are discussed. Finally, three families of teaching strategy are distinguished, which emphasize, respectively: (a) social transmission of knowledge; (b) carefully sequenced empirical experience by the student; and (c) self-regulated cognitive activity of the student. It is argued on the basis of Piaget's theory that the last of these plays a crucial role in the construction of such logical reasoning strategies as those involved in testing hypotheses.

  19. Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleniuk, P.; Kasampalis, V.; Cosmo, M. Di; Nisbet, D.; Todd, B.; Uznański, S.

    2017-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary scan test platform and the first results from exploitation of the test system. This paper reports on the test software, hardware design and test strategy applied for a number of devices that has resulted in maximizing test coverage and minimizing test design effort.

  20. Fracture toughness testing on ferritic alloys using the electropotential technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Wire, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Fracture toughness measurements as done conventionally require large specimens (5 x 5 x 2.5 cm) which would be prohibitively expensive to irradiate over the fluence and temperature ranges required for first wall design. To overcome this difficulty a single specimen technique for J intergral fracture toughness measurements on miniature specimens (1.6 cm OD x 0.25 cm thick) was developed. Comparisons with specimens three times as thick show that the derived J/sub 1c/ is constant, validating the specimen for first wall applications. The electropotential technique was used to obtain continuous crack extension measurements, allowing a ductile fracture resistence curve to be constructed from a single specimen. The irradiation test volume required for fracture toughness measurements using both miniature specimens and single specimen J measurements was reduced a factor of 320, making it possible to perform a systematic exploration of irradiation temperature and dose variables as required for qualification of HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo base metal and welds for first wall application. Fracture toughness test results for HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo from 25 to 539 0 C are presented to illustrate the single specimen technique

  1. Collaborative testing as a learning strategy in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandahl, Sheryl S

    2010-01-01

    A primary goal of nursing education is to prepare nurses to work collaboratively as members of interprofessional health care teams on behalf of patients. Collaborative testing is a collaborative learning strategy used to foster knowledge development, critical thinking in decision making, and group processing skills. This study incorporated a quasi-experimental design with a comparison group to examine the effect of collaborative testing as a learning strategy on student learning and retention of course content as well as group process skills and student perceptions of their learning and anxiety. The setting was a baccalaureate nursing program; the sample consisted of two groups of senior students enrolled in Medical-Surgical Nursing II. Student learning, as measured by unit examination scores, was greater for students taking examinations collaboratively compared to individually. Retention of course content, as measured by final examination scores, was not greater for students taking examinations collaboratively compared to individually. Student perceptions were overwhelmingly positive, with students reporting increased learning as a result of the collaborative testing experiences. Despite the lack of data to support increased retention, collaborative testing may be a learning strategy worth implementing in nursing education. Students reported more positive interactions and collaboration with their peers, skills required by the professional nurse.

  2. DSCu/SS joining techniques development and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Satoshi; Hatano, Toshihisa; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1998-01-01

    Joining techniques of alumina dispersion strengthened copper alloy (DSCu) and type 316L stainless steel (SS) has been investigated aiming at applying to the fabrication of the ITER first wall/blanket. As the joining method, Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) of solid plates and/or blocks has been pursued. By a screening test including HIP temperatures of 980-1050degC, it was concluded that the HIP temperature of 1050degC would be optimum for the simultaneous HIPping of DSCu/DSCu, DSCu/SS and SS/SS. With DSCu/SS joint specimens HIPped at 1050degC, tensile, impact, fatigue, crack propagation, and fracture toughness tests were performed as well as mechanical test of structural model with one SS circular tube embedded. Typically, the properties of the joints were almost the same as those of DSCu or SS base metal with the same heat treatment of the HIP process, thus good joints were obtained, though parts of properties were decreased at elevated test temperature. Typical results of the mechanical test of structural mode indicated that a crack initiated at the inner surface of the SS tube under cyclic operation, and the lifetime of the first wall structure could be evaluated by existing SS fatigue data. Two HIPped first wall panel mock-ups were successfully fabricated with built-in coolant tubes: one was 300 mm long and the other 800 mm long. The former was thermo-mechanically tested with high heat fluxes corresponding to the ITER operation conditions. The mock-up showed good heat removal performance during the high heat flux tests. In addition, there were no cracks and delaminations found at HIPped interfaces by microscopic observation after all tests. Ultrasonic testing have been tried as a non-destructive examination method, and detectable defect size at SS/SS, DSCu/DSCu and DSCu/SS joint interfaces were estimated. (author)

  3. Dynamic Mechanical Testing Techniques for Cortical and Cancellous Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, Trevor

    2017-06-01

    Bone fracture typically occurs as an impact loading event (sporting accidents, vehicle collisions), the simulation of which requires in-depth understanding of dynamic bone behavior. Bone is a natural composite material with a complex multi length-scale hierarchical microstructure. At a macroscopic level, it is classified into hard/compact cortical bone and soft/spongy cancellous (trabecular) bone, though both are low-impedance materials relative to steels. Cortical bone is predominant in long bones, while in complex bone geometries (joints, flat bones) a cancellous bone core supports a thin cortical shell. Bone has primarily been studied at quasi-static strain rates (ɛ˙ failure, with interrupted quasi-static tests revealing a strong microstructure dependence. However, bone specimens are typically destroyed during dynamic tests, leading to a lack of dynamic microstructural damage investigations. In this paper, a short overview of dynamic bone testing is presented to give context to the challenges of testing low impedance, strain-rate dependent, non-linear, visco-elastic-brittle materials. Recent state-of-the-art experimental developments in dynamic bone testing are reviewed, with emphasis on pulse shaping, momentum trapping and ISR testing. These techniques allow for dynamic bone testing at small strains and near-constant strain rates with intact specimen recovery. The results are compared to those obtained with varying strain rate tests. Interrupted dynamic test results with microstructural analysis of the recovered specimens are presented and discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the experimental and modeling challenges that lie ahead in the field of dynamic bone behavior. The financial assistance of the National Research Foundation and the University of Cape Town towards this research is hereby acknowledged. Opinions expressed and conclusions arrived at are those of the author alone.

  4. Factors Affecting Result in Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK Level 6: Reading Section and Preparation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryanti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese Proficiency Test (HSK is an internationally standardized exam which tests and rates Chinese language proficiency. The highest level in this test is level 6. The writing part of the test consists of 3 (three parts, namely, (1 listening, (2 reading, (3 writing. Furthermore, the reading part is made of 4 components. Level 6 of this test implies a high degree of difficulty. This paper specifically looked on how to prepare effectively for participants to be able to work on the reading part in order to achieve best result. This article used the methods of literature review and observational study as well as field research and would also incorporate the author’s personal experience in taking the test into recommending strategies for doing the reading part in a level 6 HSK test. Finally, research suggested several techniques and tips that might assist participants in achieving maximum scores in handling the reading part of level 6 HSK test.

  5. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques. 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Non-destructive testing methods (NDT), by their very nature, allow components to be fully examined for properties or flaws without interfering with their usefulness. This grouping of inspection methods has grown from a handful of primitive techniques practised by artists to a widely known discipline which is an essential part of quality control, largely as a result of the standards demanded by the nuclear and aerospace industries. Recognizing the need for an international publication of NDT training syllabi, the IAEA Consultants Meeting on ''Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel'' (Milan, 20-21 May 1986), recommended that the Agency publish the guidelines developed by Regional Working Group of the Latin America and Caribbean project. It was first issued in English in 1987 and has now been re-edited in English and Spanish and enlarged by the addition of programmes for other techniques

  6. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    Non-destructive testing methods (NDT), by their very nature, allow components to be fully examined for properties or flaws without interfering with their usefulness. This grouping of inspection methods has grown from a handful of primitive techniques practised by artists to a widely known discipline which is an essential part of quality control, largely as a result of the standards demanded by the nuclear and aerospace industries. Recognizing the need for an international publication of NDT training syllabi, the IAEA Consultants Meeting on ''Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel'' (Milan, 20-21 May 1986), recommended that the Agency publish the guidelines developed by Regional Working Group of the Latin America and Caribbean project. It was first issued in English in 1987 and has now been re-edited in English and Spanish and enlarged by the addition of programmes for other techniques

  7. Development of immunotoxicity testing strategies for immunomodulatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Thomas T; Evans, Ellen W

    2012-01-01

    The ICH S8 immunotoxicity testing guideline for human pharmaceuticals was published in 2006 and was intended to provide guidance for assessing the immunotoxicity potential of low-molecular-weight drugs that are not intended to alter the immune system. For drugs intended to modulate the immune system, immunotoxicity testing strategies are generally developed on a case-by-case approach since the targets, intended patient population, and mechanisms of action of the test compound will determine the type of testing needed. Some of the general principles of ICH S8, however, may be applied to immunotoxicity testing strategies for immunomodulatory drugs. A weight-of-evidence approach using factors discussed in ICH S8 in concert with an assessment of the potential value of additional immunotoxicity testing should be considered. For most situations, immunotoxicity studies with immunomodulatory compounds evaluate off-target effects on the immune system and exaggerated pharmacology. The potential use of data from these studies and considerations such as translatability to humans are discussed.

  8. An equipment test for grading lumber by transverse vibration technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rodrigo Carreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the great variability of its mechanical properties, the rational use of lumber for structural purposes is directly conditioned to its grading. There are several techniques available for grading structural lumber. The most relevant one is the transverse vibration technique which obtained reliable results in non-destructive evaluation of lumber. The purpose of this work is to present the bases for the mechanical grading of lumber and the results of the calibration test of the frst transverse vibration equipment developed in Brazil. In this research 30 beams of cupiúba (Goupia glabra with nominal dimensions of 5 cm X 10 cm X 300 cm, were used. The tests were accomplished at the Wood and Timber Structures Laboratory (LaMEM of the University of São Paulo (USP. The results showed a strong correlation between the elasticity modulus measured by the static bending test and the one obtained with the transverse vibration equipment, showing the high reliability of the vibration method for the grading of structural lumber. A determination coeffcient (R² of 0.896 was obtained with the Brazilian equipment, showing that it can be used in the grading of lumber.

  9. Accelerated Testing Methodology in Constant Stress-Rate Testing for Advanced Structural Ceramics: A Preloading Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Huebert, Dean; Bartlett, Allen; Choi, Han-Ho

    2001-01-01

    Preloading technique was used as a means of an accelerated testing methodology in constant stress-rate (dynamic fatigue) testing for two different brittle materials. The theory developed previously for fatigue strength as a function of preload was further verified through extensive constant stress-rate testing for glass-ceramic and CRT glass in room temperature distilled water. The preloading technique was also used in this study to identify the prevailing failure mechanisms at elevated temperatures, particularly at lower test rates in which a series of mechanisms would be associated simultaneously with material failure, resulting in significant strength increase or decrease. Two different advanced ceramics including SiC whisker-reinforced composite silicon nitride and 96 wt% alumina were used at elevated temperatures. It was found that the preloading technique can be used as an additional tool to pinpoint the dominant failure mechanism that is associated with such a phenomenon of considerable strength increase or decrease.

  10. Fuel bundle examination techniques for the Phebus fission product test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.Y.; Clement, B.; Hardt, P. von der

    1996-01-01

    The paper develops the non-destructive examinations, with a special emphasis on transmission tomography, performed in the Phebus facility, using a linear accelerator associated with a line scan camera based on PCD components. This particular technique enabled the high level of penetration to be obtained, necessary for this high density application. Spatial resolution is not far from the theoretical limit and the density resolution is often adequate. This technique permitted: 1) to define beforehand the cuts on a precise basis, avoiding a long step-by-step choice as in previous in-pile tests; 2) to determine, at an early stage, mass balance, material relocations (in association with axial gamma spectrometry), and FP distribution, as an input into re-calculations of the bundle events. However, classical cuttings, periscopic visual examinations, macrographies, micrographies and EPMA analyses remain essential to give oxidation levels (in the less degraded zones), phase aspect and composition, to distinguish between materials of identical density, and, if possible, to estimate temperatures. Oxidation resistance of sensors (thermocouples or ultrasonic thermometers) is also traced. The EPMA gives access to the molten material chemical analyses, especially in the molten fuel blockage area. The first results show that an important part of the fuel bundle melted (which was one of the objectives of this test) and that the degradation level is close to TIMI-2 with a molten plug under a cavity surrounded by an uranium-rich crust. In lower and upper areas fuel rods are less damaged. Complementaries between these examination techniques and between international teams involved will be major advantages in the Phebus FPT0 test comprehension. 3 refs, 9 figs

  11. Isotope techniques in non-destructive testing of dynamic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gursharan; Pant, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    A few applications of gamma scanning and radiotracer techniques for Non-destructive Testing (NDT) of dynamic systems in chemical and petrochemical industries are briefly discussed in this paper. Examples of gamma scanning inspections carried out for troubleshooting of various types of columns such as vacuum, extraction, separator and rectifier, with trays and packed beds and having diameters from 1 meter to 8.4 meters are given. Radiotracer applications for Residence Time Distribution (RTD) studies on different systems like an aniline production reactor in a chemical industry and a laboratory scale solid-liquid fluidized bed column are mentioned. (author)

  12. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  13. Testing of reactor fuel materials using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The tests presented here apply to: the quantitative determination of uranium in the core of fuel element plates by the detection of the number of neutrons produced in photo induced reactions in uranium; the determination of 235 U proportion in uranium dioxide samples, in the form of uranyl nitrate, by the technique of the detection of tracks produced by fission fragments and in pellet samples by passive gamma spectrometry and the checking of uranium homogenization distribution in fuel plates and uranium dioxide pellets. (Author) [pt

  14. Strategy for the development of EU Test Blanket Systems instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderoni, P., E-mail: Pattrick.Calderoni@f4e.europa.eu; Ricapito, I.; Poitevin, Y.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • We developed a strategy for the development of instrumentation for EU ITER TBSs. • TBSs instrumentation functions: safety, operation and scientific mission. • Described activities are in support of ITER design review process. -- Abstract: The instrumentation of the HCLL and HCPB Test Blanket System is fundamental in ensuring that ITER safety and operational requirements are satisfied as well as in enabling the scientific mission of the TBM program. It carries out three essential functions: (i) safety, intended as compliance with ITER requirements toward public and workers protection; (ii) system control, intended as compliance with ITER operational requirements and investment protection; and (iii) scientific mission, intended as validating technology and predictive tools for blanket concepts relevant to fusion energy systems. This paper describes the strategy for instrumentation development by providing details of the following five steps to be implemented in procured activities in the short to mid-term (3–4 years): (i) provide mapping of sensors requirements based on critical review of preliminary design data; (ii) develop functional specifications for TBS sensors based on the analysis of operative conditions in the various ITER buildings in which they are located; (iii) assess availability of commercial sensors against developed specifications; (iv) develop prototypes when no available solution is identified; and (v) perform single effect tests for the most critical solicitations and post-test examination of commercial products and prototypes. Examples of technology assessment in two technical areas are included to reinforce and complement the strategy description.

  15. Subsurface barrier demonstration test strategy and performance specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    This document was developed to help specify a major demonstration test project of subsurface barrier systems supporting the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The document focuses discussion on requirements applicable to demonstration of three subsurface barrier concepts: (1) Injected Material, (2) Cryogenic, and (3) Desiccant. Detailed requirements are provided for initial qualification of a technology proposal followed by the pre-demonstration and demonstration test requirements and specifications. Each requirement and specification is accompanied by a discussion of the rationale for it. The document also includes information on the Hanford Site tank farms and related data; the related and currently active technology development projects within the DOE's EM-50 Program; and the overall demonstration test strategy. Procurement activities and other preparations for actual demonstration testing are on hold until a decision is made regarding further development of subsurface barriers. Accordingly, this document is being issued for information only

  16. Cyber Security Test Strategy for Non-safety Display System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Han Seong; Kim, Hee Eun

    2016-01-01

    Cyber security has been a big issue since the instrumentation and control (I and C) system of nuclear power plant (NPP) is digitalized. A cyber-attack on NPP should be dealt with seriously because it might cause not only economic loss but also the radioactive material release. Researches on the consequences of cyber-attack onto NPP from a safety point of view have been conducted. A previous study shows the risk effect brought by initiation of event and deterioration of mitigation function by cyber terror. Although this study made conservative assumptions and simplifications, it gives an insight on the effect of cyber-attack. Another study shows that the error on a non-safety display system could cause wrong actions of operators. According to this previous study, the failure of the operator action caused by a cyber-attack on a display system might threaten the safety of the NPP by limiting appropriate mitigation actions. This study suggests a test strategy focusing on the cyber-attack on the information and display system, which might cause the failure of operator. The test strategy can be suggested to evaluate and complement security measures. Identifying whether a cyber-attack on the information and display system can affect the mitigation actions of operator, the strategy to obtain test scenarios is suggested. The failure of mitigation scenario is identified first. Then, for the test target in the scenario, software failure modes are applied to identify realistic failure scenarios. Testing should be performed for those scenarios to confirm the integrity of data and to assure effectiveness of security measures

  17. Cyber Security Test Strategy for Non-safety Display System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Han Seong [Joongbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Eun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Cyber security has been a big issue since the instrumentation and control (I and C) system of nuclear power plant (NPP) is digitalized. A cyber-attack on NPP should be dealt with seriously because it might cause not only economic loss but also the radioactive material release. Researches on the consequences of cyber-attack onto NPP from a safety point of view have been conducted. A previous study shows the risk effect brought by initiation of event and deterioration of mitigation function by cyber terror. Although this study made conservative assumptions and simplifications, it gives an insight on the effect of cyber-attack. Another study shows that the error on a non-safety display system could cause wrong actions of operators. According to this previous study, the failure of the operator action caused by a cyber-attack on a display system might threaten the safety of the NPP by limiting appropriate mitigation actions. This study suggests a test strategy focusing on the cyber-attack on the information and display system, which might cause the failure of operator. The test strategy can be suggested to evaluate and complement security measures. Identifying whether a cyber-attack on the information and display system can affect the mitigation actions of operator, the strategy to obtain test scenarios is suggested. The failure of mitigation scenario is identified first. Then, for the test target in the scenario, software failure modes are applied to identify realistic failure scenarios. Testing should be performed for those scenarios to confirm the integrity of data and to assure effectiveness of security measures.

  18. Development of small specimen test techniques. Development of a remote controlled small punch testing apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmi, Masao; Saito, Junichi; Ooka, Norikazu; Jitsukawa, Shiro; Hishinuma, Akimichi; Umino, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    An accelerator-driven deuterium-lithium (d-Li) stripping reaction-type neutron source, such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) planned by the International Energy Agency is recognized as one of the most promising facility to obtain test environments of high-energy neutrons for fusion reactor materials development. The limitation on the available irradiation volume of the irradiation facility requires the development of the small specimen test techniques (SSTT). Application of SSTT to evaluate the degradation of various components in the light water reactor for the life extension is expected to be also quite beneficial. A remote-controlled testing machine for the Small Punch (SP) and miniaturized tensile tests was developed at the hot laboratory of the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The machine is designed for testing at temperatures ranging between 93 and 1,123 K to evaluate the temperature dependence of the strength of materials including the embrittlement at low temperatures and the softening at elevated temperatures. The tests are performed in a vacuum or in an inert gas environment. The machine has been installed in a hot cell and is being used for the round robin test program of the SP test method. The round robin test program is planned to identify the capability of the test method and to establish a standard test procedure. The configuration and the specifications of the test machine are introduced and the results of the SP tests are also shown. (author)

  19. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we......REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported...... present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo...

  20. Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing Techniques. 2013 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The IAEA promotes industrial applications of radiation technology, including non-destructive testing (NDT), through activities such as Technical Cooperation Projects (national and regional) and Coordinated Research Projects. Through this cooperation, Member States have initiated national programmes for the training and certification of NDT personnel. National certifying bodies have also been established based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. As part of these efforts, the IAEA has been actively involved in developing training materials. Consequently, IAEA-TECDOC-407, Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing Techniques, was published in 1987, then revised and expanded as IAEA-TECDOC-628 in 1991. Revisions of IAEA-TECDOC-628 were considered essential to meet the demands of end-user industries in Member States, and revised and expanded versions were issued in 2002 and 2008. These latter versions included work conducted by the International Committee for Non-Destructive Testing (ICNDT) and many national NDT societies. It is one of the publications referred to in ISO 9712:2005, Non-destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of Personnel, which in turn is an internationally accepted standard, revised as ISO 9712:2012, Non-destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel. This publication is an updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-628. The content of which has been revised following the changes of ISO 9712 converging with EN 473 and becoming EN ISO 9712:2012, based on the experience of experts and comments from end-user industries. The details of the topics on each subject have been expanded to include the latest developments in the respective methods. The incorporated changes will assist the end-user industries to update their NDT qualification and certification schemes and course materials. This publication, like the previous versions, will continue to play an important role in international harmonization

  1. Imaging techniques for ultrasonic testing; Bildgebende Verfahren fuer die Ultraschallpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    These seminar proceedings contain 16 lectures on the following topics: 1. From imaging to quantification - ultrasound methods in medical diagnostics; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array - classical applications and recent developments in ultrasonic imaging; 3. Innovative ultrasonic imaging methods in research and application; 4. Industrial ultrasonic testing of fibre-reinforced structures of complex geometry; 5. Visualisation of crack tips in the inspection of wheel set shafts with longitudinal boreholes as a means of avoiding unnecessary wheel set changes; 6. Areal analysis of the propagation of Lamb waves on curved, anisotropic structures; 7. High-resolution representation in immersion technique testing; 8. Variants in generating images from phased array measurement data - practical examples involving copper, carbon-fibre reinforced plastic and other materials; 9. GIUM - an unconventional method of microstructure imaging using ultrasonic stimulation and laser vibrometry scanning; 10. Innovative air-ultrasonic testing concepts for improved imaging; 11. Use of imaging methods for improving the quality of test results from nondestructive testing; 12. Modelling and visualisation of EMUS stimulation for transducer optimisation; 13. Use of SAFT in the manufacture of energy conversion machines; 14. Ultrasonic imaging tests for improved defect characterisation during weld seam inspection on longitudinally welded large-diameter pipes; 15. SAFT reconstruction for testing austenitic weld seams and dissimilar metal weld seams for transverse cracks; 16. Imaging-based optimisation method for quantitative ultrasonic testing of anisotropic inhomogeneous austenitic welded joints with determination and utilisation of their elastic properties. One contribution has been abstracted separately. [German] Dieser Seminarband enthaelt 16 Vortraege mit folgenden Themen: 1. Von der Bildgebung bis zur Quantifizierung - Ultraschallverfahren in der medizinischen Diagnostik; 2. SAFT, TOFD, Phased Array

  2. Application of Multivariable Statistical Techniques in Plant-wide WWTP Control Strategies Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores Alsina, Xavier; Comas, J.; Rodríguez-Roda, I.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the application of selected multivariable statistical techniques in plant-wide wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) control strategies analysis. In this study, cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) and discriminant...... analysis (DA) are applied to the evaluation matrix data set obtained by simulation of several control strategies applied to the plant-wide IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2). These techniques allow i) to determine natural groups or clusters of control strategies with a similar behaviour, ii......) to find and interpret hidden, complex and casual relation features in the data set and iii) to identify important discriminant variables within the groups found by the cluster analysis. This study illustrates the usefulness of multivariable statistical techniques for both analysis and interpretation...

  3. A survey on OFDM channel estimation techniques based on denoising strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallaviram Sure

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Channel estimation forms the heart of any orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM based wireless communication receiver. Frequency domain pilot aided channel estimation techniques are either least squares (LS based or minimum mean square error (MMSE based. LS based techniques are computationally less complex. Unlike MMSE ones, they do not require a priori knowledge of channel statistics (KCS. However, the mean square error (MSE performance of the channel estimator incorporating MMSE based techniques is better compared to that obtained with the incorporation of LS based techniques. To enhance the MSE performance using LS based techniques, a variety of denoising strategies have been developed in the literature, which are applied on the LS estimated channel impulse response (CIR. The advantage of denoising threshold based LS techniques is that, they do not require KCS but still render near optimal MMSE performance similar to MMSE based techniques. In this paper, a detailed survey on various existing denoising strategies, with a comparative discussion of these strategies is presented.

  4. Calibration techniques and strategies for the present and future LHC electromagnetic calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksa, M.

    2018-02-01

    This document describes the different calibration strategies and techniques applied by the two general purpose experiments at the LHC, ATLAS and CMS, and discusses them underlining their respective strengths and weaknesses from the view of the author. The resulting performances of both calorimeters are described and compared on the basis of selected physics results. Future upgrade plans for High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are briefly introduced and planned calibration strategies for the upgraded detectors are shown.

  5. Tests of a new axial sputtering technique in an ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2012-01-01

    Axial and radial sputtering techniques have been used over the years to create beams from an ECRIS at multiple accelerator facilities. Operational experience has shown greater beam production when using the radial sputtering method versus axial sputtering. At Argonne National Laboratory, previous work with radial sputtering has demonstrated that the position of the sputter sample relative to the plasma chamber wall influences sample drain current, beam production and charge state distribution. The possibility of the chamber wall acting as a ground plane which influences the sputtering of material has been considered, and an attempt has been made to mimic this possible ground plane effect with a coaxial sample introduced from the injection end. Results of these tests will be shown as well as comparisons of outputs using the two methods. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  6. Air leakage test of reactor hall using tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanqiu; Yang Liang; Yang Tongzai

    2011-01-01

    The leakage ratios of three related reactor halls were tested by sulfur hexafluoride gaseous tracer technique. Moreover, the accumulation intensities of leak gas and its retention time in some important working rooms, the crossroads of corridors and anteroom of the building were detected. The results show that the air leakage ratios of the three reactor halls are (7.30±0.16) x 10 -4 , (1.88±0.12) x 10 -4 and (2.07±0.07) x 10 -4 h -1 . The leak gas accumulates in all the detected working rooms fast, and the retention time to various rooms is about 5 h. The heaviest intensities are in the clothes change rooms on the first floor. However, the retention time to the crossroads and the anteroom is about 10 h, and the accumulation intensities are much small. (authors)

  7. Role of omics techniques in the toxicity testing of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore Fröhlich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology is regarded as a key technology of the twenty-first century. Despite the many advantages of nanotechnology it is also known that engineered nanoparticles (NPs may cause adverse health effects in humans. Reports on toxic effects of NPs relay mainly on conventional (phenotypic testing but studies of changes in epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome induced by NPs have also been performed. NPs most relevant for human exposure in consumer, health and food products are metal, metal oxide and carbon-based NPs. They were also studied quite frequently with omics technologies and an overview of the study results can serve to answer the question if screening for established targets of nanotoxicity (e.g. cell death, proliferation, oxidative stress, and inflammation is sufficient or if omics techniques are needed to reveal new targets. Regulated pathways identified by omics techniques were confirmed by phenotypic assays performed in the same study and comparison of particle types and cells by the same group indicated a more cell/organ-specific than particle specific regulation pattern. Between different studies moderate overlap of the regulated pathways was observed and cell-specific regulation is less obvious. The lack of standardization in particle exposure, in omics technologies, difficulties to translate mechanistic data to phenotypes and comparison with human in vivo data currently limit the use of these technologies in the prediction of toxic effects by NPs.

  8. Application of positron annihilation techniques in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Hui; Chen Zhiqiang; Jiang Jing; Xue Xudong; Wu Yichu; Liang Jianping; Liu Xiangbing; Wang Rongshan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The investigation of the material damage state is very important for industrial application. Most mechanical damage starts with a change in the microstructure of the material. Positron annihilation techniques are very sensitive probes for detecting defects and damage on an atomic scale in materials, which are of great concern in the engineering applications. Additionally they are apparatus of non-destruction, high-sensitivity and easy-use. Purpose: Our goal is to develop a system to exploit new non-destructive testing (NDT) methods using positron annihilation spectroscopy, a powerful tool to detect vacancy-type defects and their chemical environment. Methods: A positron NDT system was designed and constructed by modifying the 'sandwich structure' of sample-source-sample in conventional Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectrometers. Doppler broadening and positron lifetime spectra of a single sample can be measured and analyzed by subtracting the contribution of a reference sample. Results: The feasibility and reliability of positron NDT system have been tested by analyzing nondestructively deformation and damage caused by mechanical treatment or by irradiation of metal alloys. This system can be used for detecting defects and damage in thick or large-size samples, as well as for measuring the two-dimension distribution of defects in portable, sensitive, fast way. Conclusion: Positron NDT measurement shows changes in real atomic-scale defects prior to changes in the mechanical properties, which are detectable by other methods of NDT, such as ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. This system can be developed for use in both the laboratory and field in the future. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of test intervals strategies with a risk monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerman, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish nuclear power utility Oskarshamn Power Group (OKG), is investigating how the use of a risk monitor can facilitate and improve risk-informed decision-making at their nuclear power plants. The intent is to evaluate if risk-informed decision-making can be accepted. A pilot project was initiated and carried out in 2004. The project included investigating if a risk monitor can be used for optimising test intervals for diesel- and gas turbine generators with regard to risk level. The Oskarhamn 2 (O2), PSA Level 1 model was converted into a risk monitor using RiskSpectrum RiskWatcher (RSRW) software. The converted PSA model included the complete PSA model for the power operation mode. RSRW then performs a complete requantification for every analysis. Time dependent reliability data are taken into account, i.e. a shorter test interval will increases the components availability (possibility to e.g. start on demand). The converted O2 model was then used to investigate whether it would be possible to balance longer test intervals for diesel generators, gas turbine generators and high pressure injection system with shorter test intervals for the low pressure injection system, while maintaining a low risk level at the plant. The results show that a new mixture of test intervals can be implemented with only marginally changes in the risk calculated with the risk monitor model. The results indicate that the total number of test activities for the systems included in the pilot study could be reduced by 20% with a maintained level of risk. A risk monitor taking into account the impact from test intervals in availability calculations for components is well suited for evaluation of test interval strategies. It also enables the analyst to evaluate the risk level over a period of time including the impact the actual status of the plant may have on the risk level. (author)

  10. Recall strategies for the verbal fluency test in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Cardoso, J; Marosi-Holczberger, E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Yañez-Tellez, G; Chávez-Oliveros, M

    2014-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by inflammation and demyelination. It generates irreversible myelin changes, which in turn give rise to physical and cognitive disorders. The verbal fluency test (VF) has been shown to be a sensitive tool for detecting cognitive impairment in these patients. To compare quantitative and qualitative aspects of performance on semantic and phonological fluency tests between MS patients and healthy controls by analysing total words produced and strategies used (clusters and switching). We evaluated 46 patients with MS and 33 healthy controls using the VF test. The semantic VF task revealed no significant differences between groups; for the phonological task, patients demonstrated reduced word production (F [77]=2.286 P<.001) and poorer use of grouping strategies, resulting in more frequent switching (F [77]=3.808 P<.005). These results support using qualitative analysis for recall strategies, since the technique provides data about which components of the task are affected by brain damage. Clusters depend on the integrity of semantic memory, while switching has to do with developing effective search strategies, cognitive flexibility, and the ability to modify responses. Frontal lobe damage has been reported in MS, and this is consistent with results from the phonological VF test. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Sequentially optimized reconstruction strategy: A meta-strategy for perimetry testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Seda Kucur

    Full Text Available Perimetry testing is an automated method to measure visual function and is heavily used for diagnosing ophthalmic and neurological conditions. Its working principle is to sequentially query a subject about perceived light using different brightness levels at different visual field locations. At a given location, this query-patient-feedback process is expected to converge at a perceived sensitivity, such that a shown stimulus intensity is observed and reported 50% of the time. Given this inherently time-intensive and noisy process, fast testing strategies are necessary in order to measure existing regions more effectively and reliably. In this work, we present a novel meta-strategy which relies on the correlative nature of visual field locations in order to strongly reduce the necessary number of locations that need to be examined. To do this, we sequentially determine locations that most effectively reduce visual field estimation errors in an initial training phase. We then exploit these locations at examination time and show that our approach can easily be combined with existing perceived sensitivity estimation schemes to speed up the examinations. Compared to state-of-the-art strategies, our approach shows marked performance gains with a better accuracy-speed trade-off regime for both mixed and sub-populations.

  12. Integrated testing strategies for toxicity employing new and existing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2011-07-01

    We have developed individual, integrated testing strategies (ITS) for predicting the toxicity of general chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inhaled chemicals, and nanoparticles. These ITS are based on published schemes developed previously for the risk assessment of chemicals to fulfil the requirements of REACH, which have been updated to take account of the latest developments in advanced in chemico modelling and in vitro technologies. In addition, we propose an ITS for neurotoxicity, based on the same principles, for incorporation in the other ITS. The technologies are deployed in a step-wise manner, as a basis for decision-tree approaches, incorporating weight-of-evidence stages. This means that testing can be stopped at the point where a risk assessment and/or classification can be performed, with labelling in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory authority concerned, rather than following a checklist approach to hazard identification. In addition, the strategies are intelligent, in that they are based on the fundamental premise that there is no hazard in the absence of exposure - which is why pharmacokinetic modelling plays a key role in each ITS. The new technologies include the use of complex, three-dimensional human cell tissue culture systems with in vivo-like structural, physiological and biochemical features, as well as dosing conditions. In this way, problems of inter-species extrapolation and in vitro/in vivo extrapolation are minimised. This is reflected in the ITS placing more emphasis on the use of volunteers at the whole organism testing stage, rather than on existing animal testing, which is the current situation. 2011 FRAME.

  13. Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary

  14. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  15. A Diagnostic Technique for Formulating Market Strategies in Higher Education Based on Relative Competitive Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; Quazi, Hesan A.

    1994-01-01

    Importance-performance analysis, a marketing research technique using analysis of consumer attitudes toward salient product or service attributes, is found useful for colleges and universities in developing marketing strategies, particularly when competition is considered as an important dimension. Data are drawn from a survey of 252 students at 1…

  16. Investigation of energy management strategies for photovoltaic systems - An analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, R. C.; Eltimsahy, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Progress is reported in formulating energy management strategies for stand-alone PV systems, developing an analytical tool that can be used to investigate these strategies, applying this tool to determine the proper control algorithms and control variables (controller inputs and outputs) for a range of applications, and quantifying the relative performance and economics when compared to systems that do not apply energy management. The analysis technique developed may be broadly applied to a variety of systems to determine the most appropriate energy management strategies, control variables and algorithms. The only inputs required are statistical distributions for stochastic energy inputs and outputs of the system and the system's device characteristics (efficiency and ratings). Although the formulation was originally driven by stand-alone PV system needs, the techniques are also applicable to hybrid and grid connected systems.

  17. Estrogen receptor testing and 10-year mortality from breast cancer: A model for determining testing strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Naugler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy in the treatment of estrogen receptor (ER expressing breast carcinomas represents a major advance in personalized cancer treatment. Because there is no benefit (and indeed there is increased morbidity and mortality associated with the use of tamoxifen therapy in ER-negative breast cancer, its use is restricted to women with ER expressing cancers. However, correctly classifying cancers as ER positive or negative has been challenging given the high reported false negative test rates for ER expression in surgical specimens. In this paper I model practice recommendations using published information from clinical trials to address the question of whether there is a false negative test rate above which it is more efficacious to forgo ER testing and instead treat all patients with tamoxifen regardless of ER test results. Methods: I used data from randomized clinical trials to model two different hypothetical treatment strategies: (1 the current strategy of treating only ER positive women with tamoxifen and (2 an alternative strategy where all women are treated with tamoxifen regardless of ER test results. The variables used in the model are literature-derived survival rates of the different combinations of ER positivity and treatment with tamoxifen, varying true ER positivity rates and varying false negative ER testing rates. The outcome variable was hypothetical 10-year survival. Results: The model predicted that there will be a range of true ER rates and false negative test rates above which it would be more efficacious to treat all women with breast cancer with tamoxifen and forgo ER testing. This situation occurred with high true positive ER rates and false negative ER test rates in the range of 20-30%. Conclusions: It is hoped that this model will provide an example of the potential importance of diagnostic error on clinical outcomes and furthermore will give an example of how the effect of that

  18. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques. 2002 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a dynamic technology and progresses with time. Since the issuance of IAEA-TECDOC-628 in 1991, the technology has experienced numerous changes. Advancements in knowledge about the behaviour of materials have led to changes in the applicable NDT codes, standards and specifications. In addition, over the last ten years, as a result of extensive research and development activities worldwide, new NDT techniques and equipment have been developed which are accepted by engineering community. To accommodate the latest developments, modifications are required to training materials. The present publication is an updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-628. The modifications were made during an Advisory Group Meeting, held in Vienna from 25-29 June 2001. The content of the first edition of IAEA-TECDOC-628 has been revised based on the experience of the experts, as well as comments of the end-user industries. The time allotment for different topics has been changed without changing the total duration. The details of the topics on each subject have been expanded to include the latest developments in the individual fields. The incorporated changes will help end-the user industries to update their NDT qualification and certification schemes, and course material

  19. Comparison of CFD and Test Techniques for Cavitation Inception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Do Hwan; Park, Sung Keun; Lee, Sun Ki; Kim, Byung Kon

    2009-01-01

    Cavitation erosion on centrifugal pump impellers is a one of the fundamental factors that cause performance degradation and life shortening of the pumps. One approach to estimate the expected life of an impeller is to use sheet cavity length on the blade surface. While observing the cavity length is more suitable to accurately predict the impeller damage, it is not readily available in the field or on the test stand. Recently, the prediction of the cavity length by using commercial CFD codes has been tried by several authors. As an alternative to direct measure the cavity length of an impeller, a means of estimating cavity length of an impeller based on the relation of operating NPSH to that of 3% NPSH and inception NPSH was developed by Cooper. Although this method seems to be attractive, it is not easy to accurately estimate the inception NPSH without flow visualization. Some recent researchers has been paid attention to apply the high frequency Acoustic Emission(AE) technique to detect cavitation inception of pumps. As an effort to better estimate the cavity length without relying on flow visualization, CFD calculations and experiments were performed and then the results are compared in this study

  20. Controlled encoding strategies in memory tests in lithium patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, E; Karlick-Bolten, E

    1986-03-01

    The "levels of processing" theory (Craik and Lockhart) and "dual coding" theory (Paivio) provide new aspects for clinical memory research work. Therefore, an incidental learning paradigm on the basis of these two theoretical approaches was chosen to test aspects of memory performances with lithium therapy. Results of two experiments, with controlled non-semantic processing (rating experiment "comparison of size") and additive semantic processing (rating "living--non-living") indicate a slight reduction in recall (Fig. 1) and recognition performance (Fig. 2) in lithium patients. Effects on encoding strategies are of equal quality in patients and healthy subjects (Tab. 1, 2) but performance differs between both groups: poorer systematic benefit from within code repetitions ("word-word" items, "picture-picture" items) and dual coding (repeated variable item presentation "picture-word") is obtained. The less efficient encoding strategies in the speeded task are discussed with respect to cognitive rigidity and slowing of performance by emotional states. This investigation of so-called "memory deficits" with lithium is an attempt to explore impairments at an early stage of processing; the characterization of the perceptual cognitive analysis seems useful for further clinical research work on this topic.

  1. Putting it to the test : alternative exploration techniques seek recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, G.

    2005-06-01

    In the past, remote sensing techniques such as magnetic surveying, geochemical sampling and radiometric surveys, were efficient in hard rock mining exploration but were limited in hydrocarbon detection due to problems such as diurnal and weather variations. This article discussed some of the recent advances in technology that have been developed to overcome many of the drawbacks of older systems. Two Calgary-based companies are currently offering innovative and viable exploration alternatives. The Gore-Sorber module is the most accurate and comprehensive surface geochemical sampling technology currently available to the oil and gas industry. The testing module consists of 2 portions of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene polymer material sealed into a GORE-TEX sheath to prevent water and particle contamination. The module is then inserted into a shallow hole to a depth of 50 centimetres and left there for up to 2 weeks. The sample position is marked and surveyed. Over the course of the 2 weeks, volatile and semi-volatile soil gases in the C2-C15 range are absorbed into the material. The modules are analysed in mass spectrometers and gas chromatographs to determine zone and phase information. Advantages of the system include a reduction in soil contamination; the elimination of day-to-day fluctuations; and the fact that lab analysis allows for higher sensitivity. Costs are approximately $60,000 to $70,000 for an area of 16 square kilometres. Disadvantages include the inability to define the amount of hydrocarbons in place or their depth and the fact that proper field operation and collection of data by trained personnel is critical to the analysis process. The technique has been gaining in popularity in Canada as more exploration is directed towards environmentally sensitive frontier areas. Radiometric surveys record the gamma ray emissions of potassium, uranium and thorium as they decay radioactively. As hydrocarbons leak to the surface, they cause geochemical changes

  2. A characteristic study of CCF modeling techniques and optimization of CCF defense strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Chull

    2000-02-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs ) are among the major contributors to risk and core damage frequency (CDF ) from operating nuclear power plants (NPPs ). Our study on CCF focused on the following aspects : 1) a characteristic study on the CCF modeling techniques and 2) development of the optimal CCF defense strategy. Firstly, the characteristics of CCF modeling techniques were studied through sensitivity study of CCF occurrence probability upon system redundancy. The modeling techniques considered in this study include those most widely used worldwide, i.e., beta factor, MGL, alpha factor, and binomial failure rate models. We found that MGL and alpha factor models are essentially identical in terms of the CCF probability. Secondly, in the study for CCF defense, the various methods identified in the previous studies for defending against CCF were classified into five different categories. Based on these categories, we developed a generic method by which the optimal CCF defense strategy can be selected. The method is not only qualitative but also quantitative in nature: the selection of the optimal strategy among candidates is based on the use of analytic hierarchical process (AHP). We applied this method to two motor-driven valves for containment sump isolation in Ulchin 3 and 4 nuclear power plants. The result indicates that the method for developing an optimal CCF defense strategy is effective

  3. Numerical and physical testing of upscaling techniques for constitutive properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, S.A.; Tidwell, V.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper evaluates upscaling techniques for hydraulic conductivity measurements based on accuracy and practicality for implementation in evaluating the performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Analytical and numerical techniques are compared to one another, to the results of physical upscaling experiments, and to the results obtained on the original domain. The results from different scaling techniques are then compared to the case where unscaled point scale statistics are used to generate realizations directly at the flow model grid-block scale. Initital results indicate that analytical techniques provide upscaling constitutive properties from the point measurement scale to the flow model grid-block scale. However, no single analytic technique proves to be adequate for all situations. Numerical techniques are also accurate, but they are time intensive and their accuracy is dependent on knowledge of the local flow regime at every grid-block

  4. A three-stage strategy for optimal price offering by a retailer based on clustering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi-Kohan, N.; Shayesteh, E.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative strategy for optimal price offering to customers for maximizing the profit of a retailer is proposed. This strategy is based on load profile clustering techniques and includes three stages. For the purpose of clustering, an improved weighted fuzzy average K-means is proposed. Also, in this paper a new acceptance function for increasing the profit of the retailer is proposed. The new method is evaluated by implementation on a group of 300 customers of a 20 kV distribution network. (author)

  5. A three-stage strategy for optimal price offering by a retailer based on clustering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi-Kohan, N.; Shayesteh, E. [Islamic Azad University (Garmsar Branch), Garmsar (Iran); Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K. [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper, an innovative strategy for optimal price offering to customers for maximizing the profit of a retailer is proposed. This strategy is based on load profile clustering techniques and includes three stages. For the purpose of clustering, an improved weighted fuzzy average K-means is proposed. Also, in this paper a new acceptance function for increasing the profit of the retailer is proposed. The new method is evaluated by implementation on a group of 300 customers of a 20 kV distribution network. (author)

  6. Features of application of test techniques in selection and certification of personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levina E.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available this article investigates the problem of use of test techniques in the course of selection and certification of personnel, and also for detection of features of formation of social and psychological climate in small groups and labor collectives. The group dynamics including individual preferences of players in the choice of strategy of behavior in a conflict situation in definition of the most acceptable social role, in identification of the most constructive and effective type of the administrative decision has the special importance. The author of the article offers a set of the test methods allowing to define social and psychological type of the individual at a stage of staff recruitment and to reveal its individual behavioral preferences that can structurally influence on team work.

  7. RELIABILITY OF CERTAIN TESTS FOR EVALUATION OF JUDO TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Obadov

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 106 judokas. Assessment of the level of mastership of judo techniques was carried out by evaluation of fi ve competent studies. Each subject performed a technique three times and each performance was evaluated by the judges. In order to evaluate measurement of each technique, Cronbach’s coeffi cient of reliability  was calculated. During the procedure the subjects's results were also transformed to factor scores i.e. the results of each performer at the main component of evaluation in the fi ve studies. These factor scores could be used in the subsequent procedure of multivariant statistical analysis.

  8. Testing of Strategies for the Acceleration of the Cost Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponciroli, Roberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-31

    one. The component physical dynamics are represented through suitable ramp constraints, which considerably simplify the numerical solving. In order to test the capabilities of the proposed approach, in the present report, the dispatch problem only is tackled, i.e. a reference unit configuration is assumed, and each one of the N-R HES unit components is assumed to have a fixed installed capacity. As for the next steps, the main improvement will concern the operation strategy of the ES facility. In particular, in order to describe a more realistic battery commitment strategy, the ES operation will be regulated according to the electricity price forecasts.

  9. [Vision test device: possibilities and limits of LCD technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt; Brandl, H; Zrenner, E; Lund, O E

    1991-01-01

    An automatic visual acuity test examining visual acuity at 5 m distance is presented. An LCD screen with 400 x 640 pixel is used for graphic display. The Landolt rings are selected randomly. The test presented here complies well with the criteria of DIN 58220. Accuracy estimates for representation of the Landolt rings in raster graphics are discussed. With the method suggested, the testing of visual acuity, one of the most important tests in ophthalmological practice, is simplified and its reliability and results are improved. The method allows tests at short time intervals to trace the time dependency of visual acuity. Furthermore, the test may be delegated to support personnel.

  10. DC Microgrids–Part I: A Review of Control Strategies and Stabilization Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Lu, Xiaonan; Vasquez, Juan; Guerrero, Josep

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of control strategies, stability analysis, and stabilization techniques for dc microgrids (MGs). Overall control is systematically classified into local and coordinated control levels according to respective functionalities in each level. As opposed to local control, which relies only on local measurements, some line of communication between units needs to be made available in order to achieve the coordinated control. Depending on the communication method, three basic coordinated control strategies can be distinguished, i.e., decentralized, centralized, and distributed control. Decentralized control can be regarded as an extension of the local control since it is also based exclusively on local measurements. In contrast, centralized and distributed control strategies rely on digital communication technologies. A number of approaches using these three coordinated control strategies to achieve various control objectives are reviewed in this paper. Moreover, properties of dc MG dynamics and stability are discussed. This paper illustrates that tightly regulated point-of-load converters tend to reduce the stability margins of the system since they introduce negative impedances, which can potentially oscillate with lightly damped power supply input filters. It is also demonstrated that how the stability of the whole system is defined by the relationship of the source and load impedances, referred to as the minor loop gain. Several prominent specifications for the minor loop gain are reviewed. Finally, a number of active stabilization techniques are presented.

  11. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  12. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2–65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  13. Testing Model with "Check Technique" for Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cihat

    2016-01-01

    As the number, date and form of the written tests are structured and teacher-oriented, it is considered that it creates fear and anxiety among the students. It has been found necessary and important to form a testing model which will keep the students away from the test anxiety and allows them to learn only about the lesson. For this study,…

  14. Counseling about turbuhaler technique: needs assessment and effective strategies for community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheti, Iman A; Reddel, Helen K; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z

    2005-05-01

    Optimal effects of asthma medications are dependent on correct inhaler technique. In a telephone survey, 77/87 patients reported that their Turbuhaler technique had not been checked by a health care professional. In a subsequent pilot study, 26 patients were randomized to receive one of 3 Turbuhaler counseling techniques, administered in the community pharmacy. Turbuhaler technique was scored before and 2 weeks after counseling (optimal technique = score 9/9). At baseline, 0/26 patients had optimal technique. After 2 weeks, optimal technique was achieved by 0/7 patients receiving standard verbal counseling (A), 2/8 receiving verbal counseling augmented with emphasis on Turbuhaler position during priming (B), and 7/9 receiving augmented verbal counseling plus physical demonstration (C) (Fisher's exact test for A vs C, p = 0.006). Satisfactory technique (4 essential steps correct) also improved (A: 3/8 to 4/7; B: 2/9 to 5/8; and C: 1/9 to 9/9 patients) (A vs C, p = 0.1). Counseling in Turbuhaler use represents an important opportunity for community pharmacists to improve asthma management, but physical demonstration appears to be an important component to effective Turbuhaler training for educating patients toward optimal Turbuhaler technique.

  15. Does Teaching Mnemonics for Vocabulary Learning Make a Difference? Putting the Keyword Method and the Word Part Technique to the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested the effectiveness of the word part technique in comparison with the keyword method and self-strategy learning. One hundred and twenty-one Chinese year-one university students were randomly assigned to one of the three learning conditions: word part, keyword or self-strategy learning condition. Half of the target words…

  16. Price leadership strategy or branding strategy:an empirical test of indigenous Chinese exporters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effects of price leadership strategies and branding strategies on the export performance of indigenous Chinese exporters with a focus on developing country markets and developed country markets are examined based on the principles of strategy-environment co-alignment and marketing segmentation theory. Findings suggest that when focusing on developing country markets, the use of a branding strategy is more likely to enhance export performance. When focusing on developed country markets, neither the use o...

  17. Novel technique for reliability testing of silicon integrated circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Minh, P.; Wallinga, Hans; Woerlee, P.H.; van den Berg, Albert; Holleman, J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a simple, inexpensive technique with high resolution to identify the weak spots in integrated circuits by means of a non-destructive photochemical process in which photoresist is used as the photon detection tool. The experiment was done to localize the breakdown link of thin silicon

  18. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B H; Dam, J J.D. van; Delft, D R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  19. Microindentation hardness testing of coatings: techniques and interpretation of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, P. J.

    1986-09-01

    This paper addresses the problems and promises of micro-indentation testing of thin solid films. It has discussed basic penetration hardness testing philosophy, the peculiarities of low load-shallow penetration tests of uncoated metals, and it has compared coated with uncoated behavior so that some of the unique responses of coatings can be distinguished from typical hardness versus load behavior. As the uses of thin solid coatings with technological interest continue to proliferate, microindentation testing methodology will increasingly be challenged to provide useful tools for their characterization. The understanding of microindentation response must go hand-in-hand with machine design so that the capability of measurement precision does not outstrip our abilities to interpret test results in a meaningful way.

  20. Simulation and experimental tests of a real-time DPWM technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This control strategy is a simple and an easy technique generating the same switching ..... Inverter”, Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE ), IEEE, ... Minimize the Switching Loss”, Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Asia), ...

  1. Identification of Strategies to Facilitate Organ Donation among African Americans using the Nominal Group Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Gaston, Robert; Segev, Dorry L.; Mannon, Elinor C.; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives African Americans are disproportionately affected by ESRD, but few receive a living donor kidney transplant. Surveys assessing attitudes toward donation have shown that African Americans are less likely to express a willingness to donate their own organs. Studies aimed at understanding factors that may facilitate the willingness of African Americans to become organ donors are needed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A novel formative research method was used (the nominal group technique) to identify and prioritize strategies for facilitating increases in organ donation among church-attending African Americans. Four nominal group technique panel interviews were convened (three community and one clergy). Each community panel represented a distinct local church; the clergy panel represented five distinct faith-based denominations. Before nominal group technique interviews, participants completed a questionnaire that assessed willingness to become a donor; 28 African-American adults (≥19 years old) participated in the study. Results In total, 66.7% of participants identified knowledge- or education-related strategies as most important strategies in facilitating willingness to become an organ donor, a view that was even more pronounced among clergy. Three of four nominal group technique panels rated a knowledge-based strategy as the most important and included strategies, such as information on donor involvement and donation-related risks; 29.6% of participants indicated that they disagreed with deceased donation, and 37% of participants disagreed with living donation. Community participants’ reservations about becoming an organ donor were similar for living (38.1%) and deceased (33.4%) donation; in contrast, clergy participants were more likely to express reservations about living donation (33.3% versus 16.7%). Conclusions These data indicate a greater opposition to living donation compared with donation after one’s death

  2. Jsub(Ic)-testing of A-533 B - statistical evaluation of some different testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, F.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare statistically some different methods for the evaluation of fracture toughness of the nuclear reactor material A-533 B. Since linear elastic fracture mechanics is not applicable to this material at the interesting temperature (275 0 C), the so-called Jsub(Ic) testing method was employed. Two main difficulties are inherent in this type of testing. The first one is to determine the quantity J as a function of the deflection of the three-point bend specimens used. Three different techniques were used, the first two based on the experimentally observed input of energy to the specimen and the third employing finite element calculations. The second main problem is to determine the point when crack growth begins. For this, two methods were used, a direct electrical method and the indirect R-curve method. A total of forty specimens were tested at two laboratories. No statistically significant different results were obtained from the respective laboratories. The three methods of calculating J yielded somewhat different results, although the discrepancy was small. Also the two methods of determination of the growth initiation point yielded consistent results. The R-curve method, however, exhibited a larger uncertainty as measured by the standard deviation. The resulting Jsub(Ic) value also agreed well with earlier presented results. The relative standard deviation was of the order of 25%, which is quite small for this type of experiment. (author)

  3. Group techniques as a methodological strategy in acquiring teamwork abilities by college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Torres Martín

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available From the frame of the European Higher Education Space an adaptation of teaching-learning process is being promoted by means of the pedagogical renewal, introducing into the class a major number of active or participative methodologies in order to provide students with a major autonomy in said process. This requires taking into account the incorporation of basic skills within university curriculum, especially “teamwork”. By means of group techniques students can acquire interpersonal and cognitive skills, as well as abilities that will enable them to face different group situations throughout their academic and professional career. These techniques are necessary not only as a methodological strategy in the classroom, but also as a reflection instrument for students to assess their behavior in group, with an aim to modify conduct strategies that make that relationship with others influences their learning process. Hence the importance of this ability to sensitize students positively for collective work. Thus using the research-action method in the academic classroom during one semester and making systematic intervention with different group techniques, we manage to present obtained results by means of an analysis of the qualitative data, where the selected instruments are group discussion and personal reflection.

  4. Initial tests on in situ vitrification using electrode feeding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Bigelow, C.E.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test conducted to demonstrate the potential for electrode feeding in soils with a high concentration of metals. The engineering-scale test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in conducting treatability studies of the potential for applying ISV to the mixed transuranic waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area. The purpose of this test was to evaluate the effectiveness of both gravity fed and operator-controlled electrode feeding in reducing or eliminating many of the potential problems associated with fixed-electrode processing of soils with high concentrations of metal. Actual site soils from INEL were mixed with representative concentrations of carbon steel and stainless steel for this engineering-scale test. 18 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Gating techniques for ultrasonic thickness testing using flaw detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, P., E-mail: paul@hollowayndt.com [Holloway NDT & Engineering Inc., Georgetown, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to provide guidance on settings and methods, in particular the careful use of gating, to ensure accuracy of thickness testing on corroded steel and other metallic components. Specific applications include boiler tubes, tank floors, piping and vessels where the testing is performed from the OD or top surfaces, inspecting for metal loss due to corrosion on the opposite side. (author)

  6. Evaluation of pavement joint sealants :a new testing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Abo-Qudais, Saad A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method to evaluate the performance of sealants, used in rigid pavement joints, was developed. A special fixture was designed to transfer cyclic in-line deflection, applied by a testing machine, to cyclic normal and shear deflections on a sealant sandwiched between two-2 x 2 x 2 in. portland cement mortar cubes. The normal and shear deflections were applied simultaneously at a specific ratio controlled by the developed fixture. The new testing method simulates field ...

  7. Small Punch Test Techniques for Irradiated Materials in Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Sik; Ahn, S. B.; Oh, W. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Choo, Y. S.

    2006-06-01

    Detailed procedures of the small punch test including the apparatus, the definition of small punch-related parameters, and the interpretation of results were presented. The testing machine should have a capability of the compressive loading and unloading at a given deflection level. The small punch specimen holder consists of an upper and lower die and clamping screws. The clamped specimen is deformed by using ball or spherical head punch. Two type of specimens with a circular and a square shape were used. The irradiated small punch specimen is made from the undamaged portion of the broken CVN bars or prepared by the irradiation of the specimen fabricated from the fresh materials. The heating and cooling devices should have the capability of the temperature control within ±2 .deg. C for the target value during the test. Based on the load-deflection data obtained from the small punch test. the empirical correlation between the small punch related parameters and a tensile properties such as 0.2% yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, ductile-brittle transition temperature and creep properties determined from the standard test method is established and used to evaluate the mechanical properties of an irradiated materials. In addition, from the quantitative fractographic assessment of small punch test specimens, the relationship between the small punch energy and the quantity of ductile crack growth is obtained. Analytical formulations demonstrated good agreement with experimental load-deflection curves

  8. A New V2G Control Strategy for Load Factor Improvement Using Smoothing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANHOM, P.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new vehicle-to-grid (V2G control strategy for improving the load factor in the power network. To operate the proposed strategy, the available storage capacity of the PEVs’ batteries is considered as a battery energy storage system (BESS for charging and discharging an amount of power corresponding to the V2G power command. Due to the remarkable advantages of the technique so-called simple moving average, it is selected for applying in the proposed V2G control strategy. In this research, for investigating the load factor improvement, the essential data including the daily-load profiles with 7-day and 14-day periods are used for the 3 studied cases. These 3 studied cases present the power network with variation of the PEVs locations for describing the PEVs usage and charging or discharging behavior. The performance of the proposed strategy is simulated and verified by the MATPOWER software. The simulation results show that the load factors of the 3 studied cases are improved. Moreover, the encouragement of energy arbitrage for the PEVs owners is also discussed in this paper.

  9. Testing remotely operated module technique for Wackersdorf reprocessing plant at Lahde test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leister, P.; Schroeder, G.; Boehme, G.

    1986-01-01

    The FEMO technique represents a plant concept which makes it possible to carry out the repair of high and medium activity wet chemical stages of the process by remote handling without direct access by staff. For this purpose, the apparatus of this step of the process is arranged modularly in large cells, so that movable large handling devices such as cranes and manipulator systems can replace process components subject to wear via the process modules. The machine room of the former coal-fired power station Heyden I at Lahde was, after removal of the turbines and generators, converted to a hall in which the following test areas were accommodated: FEMO cell section with 10 positions for module, cell wall mock-up and wall penetration, module mounting area, module measuring position, workplace for service area, training position, welding position and FEMO control position. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Test description and preliminary pitot-pressure surveys for Langley Test Technique Demonstrator at Mach 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Joel L.; Ashby, George C., Jr.; Monta, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A propulsion/airframe integration experiment conducted in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel using a 16.8-in.-long version of the Langley Test Technique Demonstrator configuration with simulated scramjet propulsion is described. Schlieren and vapor screen visualization of the nozzle flow field is presented and correlated with pitot-pressure flow-field surveys. The data were obtained at nominal free-stream conditions of Re = 2.8 x 10 exp 6 and a nominal engine total pressure of 100 psia. It is concluded that pitot-pressure surveys coupled to schlieren and vapor-screen photographs, and oil flows have revealed flow features including vortices, free shear layers, and shock waves occurring in the model flow field.

  11. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J

    2016-12-01

    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  12. Direct comparison of unloading compliance and potential drop techniques in J-integral testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, J.J.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Single-specimen J-integral testing is performed commonly with the unloading compliance technique. Use of modern instrumentation techniques and powerful desktop computers have made this technique a standard. However, this testing technique is slow and tedious, with the loading rate fixed at a slow quasi-static rate. For these reasons the dc potential drop technique was investigated for crack length measurement during a J-integral test. For direct comparison, both unloading compliance and potential drop were used simultaneously during a J-integral test. The results showed good agreement between the techniques. However, the potential drop technique showed an offset in crack length due to plastic blunting processes. Taking this offset into account, J/sub Ic/ values calculated by both techniques compared well

  13. Work Strategies: The Development and Testing of a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    strategies (e.g., Craik & Lockhart , 1972); hemispheric process - -7 ing differences (e.g., Seamon & Gazzaniga, 1973); problem-solving strategies (e.g...Charness, N. (1931). Aging and skilled problem solving. 3ournal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 21-38. Craik , F. I. \\., & Lockhart , R. S...1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, L1, 671-684. 3ansereau, D. F., McDonald

  14. A Technique for Dynamic Corrosion Testing in Supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewen, Eric P.; Davis, Cliff B.; Shropshire, David E.; Weaver, Kevan

    2004-01-01

    An experimental apparatus for the investigation of the flow-assisted corrosion of potential fuel cladding and structural materials to be used on a fast reactor cooled by supercritical carbon dioxide has been designed. This experimental project is part of a larger research at the Department of Energy being lead by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to investigate the suitability of supercritical carbon dioxide for cooling a fast reactor designed to produce low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The INEEL once-through corrosion apparatus consists of two syringe pumps, a pre-heat furnace, a 1.3 meter long heated corrosion test section, and a gas measuring system. The gas flow rates, heat input, and operating pressure can be adjusted so that a controlled coolant flow rate, temperature, and oxygen potential are created within each of six test sections. The corrosion cell will test tubing that is commercially available in the U.S. and specialty coupons to temperatures up to 600 deg. C and a pressure of 20 MPa. The ATHENA computer code was used to estimate the fluid conditions in each of the six test sections during normal operation. (authors)

  15. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques: 2008 ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    This publication is a revision of IAEA-TECDOC-628/Rev.1 and provides the basic syllabus for systems for training and certification programmes of non-destructive testing (NDT) personnel in accordance with the requirements of international standard ISO 9712 (2005). The training guidelines developed to date have been used by Member States in formulating their national NDT programmes and to provide local end user industries with a skilled workforce. The present publication accommodates the latest advancements in technology and will continue to play an important role towards international harmonization in the field of NDT. This publication contains a body of knowledge for non-destructive testing. It was developed to provide guidelines for trainers, training organizations and certification bodies, detailing the subject matter and the content for each level of certification. It is general in nature but the contents of the training should be adapted to the needs, procedures, materials and products of the customer. The recommended training hours are consistent with the edition of the standard ISO 9712 in effect at the time of preparation. All formal training described in this publication contains a theoretical portion and a practical portion. Guidance is included on the range of equipment and materials needed for instruction in each method. There is a common core of material that is required by level 3 personnel in every method. This common material has been removed from the content for the particular method and included as a separate section. All training should end with an examination and can lead to a certification. Examination and certification are not covered by this publication, but detailed information about this can be found in ISO 9712. This publication is applicable for the following methods: eddy current testing, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing, radiographic testing, and ultrasonic testing. NDT methods are now widely used in civil engineering

  16. Techniques of the snubber testing in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Soon Sin; Kim, Byung Chul

    1994-05-01

    The performance of PSI/ISI is one of the important inspections which improve the safety, reliability and operability of nuclear power plant. Therefore, KAERI has performed the inspections for the safety-related piping systems, pressure vessel and support components of NPP by the NDT methods in accordance with the related technical codes and standards. ASME Sec.XI of 1989 requires to perform the visual inspection and functional test of snubbers in accordance with ASME/ANSI OM-Part 4 additionally. Especially, the inspection and functional test of heavy duty hydraulic snubbers attached to the steam generator and RC pump have also been added. The main role of snubbers protects the piping system and pressure vessel from the transient events such as water hammer and earthquake during operation. Throughout the analysis of the status of snubbers in NPP, the snubber failure cases in domestic and foreign countries, the requirements and technical standards of the inspection and test, problems of snubbers in NPP, and snubber reduction program, this report requires to follow the technical codes and standards for the inspection and functional test of snubbers now being insufficient in Korean NPP. As a following action, the safety verification analysis for the reliability of piping systems and components of NPP due to snubber failure causes will be studied, and also the snubber reduction program of NPP will simplify the control and maintenance of the expensive snubbers. The objective of this report is to provide the problems of snubber in Korean NPP and contribute to the integrity assurance of the piping systems and components by the inspection and test of snubbers. 17 figs., 9 tabs., 19 refs. (Author)

  17. LeRC rail accelerators: test designs and diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zana, L.M.; Kerslake, W.R.; Sturman, J.C.; Wang, S.Y.; Terdan, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of using rail accelerators for various in-space and to-space propulsion applications was investigated. A 1 meter, 24 sq mm bore accelerator was designed with the goal of demonstrating projectile velocities of 15 km/sec using a peak current of 200 kA. A second rail accelerator, 1 meter long with a 156.25 sq mm bore, was designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to permit visual observation of the plasma arc. A study of available diagnostic techniques and their application to the rail accelerator is presented. Specific topics of discussion include the use of interferometry and spectroscopy to examine the plasma armature as well as the use of optical sensors to measure rail displacement during acceleration. Standard diagnostics such as current and voltage measurements are also discussed. 15 references

  18. Testing strategies for digital picture processing of industrial X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, D.; Klatte, R.

    1986-01-01

    Digital picture processing for difficult inspection work in general involves long and complex processing and much computer time. An adequate testing strategy can considerably reduce the testing time, which is shown by the example of a strategy for automated radiographic testing of castings. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Teachers and Learners’ Perceptions of Applying Translation as a Method, Strategy, or Technique in an Iranian EFL Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mollaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that translation is an efficient means to teach/learn grammar, syntax, and lexis of a foreign language. Meanwhile, translation is good for beginners who do not still enjoy the critical level of proficiency in their target language for expression.  This study was conducted to examine the teachers and learners’ perceptions of employing translation in the foreign language classroom; i.e., the effects, merits, demerits, limitations, as well as its use as a method, strategy or technique. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze the data from graduate and undergraduate learners (n=56 and teachers (n=44, male and female, who responded to two questionnaires. Additionally, only the teachers were interviewed to gain richer insight into their perceptions and attitudes. According to the results of independent samples t-test, there was no significant difference between teachers and learners’ attitude to applying translation as a method, strategy, or technique in learning a foreign language.  Based on the interview results, some teachers believed that employing translation in the foreign language context was helpful but not constantly. They claimed that translation was only effective in teaching vocabulary and grammar apart from leaners’ proficiency level as it can clarify meaning. But some other teachers noted that mother tongue would interfere with learning foreign language; they considered translation as a time-consuming activity through which students cannot capture the exact meaning.

  20. Fixed Wing Performance. Theory and Flight Test Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    descent data by digital computer routines is common practice at both military and contractor test facilities. The Wautomatic data reduction process...inability to reach ruider pedals or foot controls , inability to fit through emergency egrean openlngs, etc. CONTROl. DESIGN Contiols must meot various...most important controls should be the easiest to reach and manipulate. Controls should never be located such that the hand or arm manipulating the

  1. Surface inspection technique with an eddy current testing array probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimizu, Akira; Endo, Hisashi; Tooma, Masahiro; Otani, Kenichi; Ouchi, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Isao; Nonaka, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    An eddy current testing (ECT) system has been developed for inspecting weld surfaces of components in the reactor pressure vessel of nuclear plants. The system can be applied to curved surfaces with an ECT array probe, it can discriminate flaws from other signal factors by using a combination of arrayed coils signal-phase. The system is applied to a mock-up of core internal components and the signal discrimination using the signal-phase clearly separated flaw and noise signals. (author)

  2. Field Test of Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus Polyphemus) Population Estimation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Web (WWW) at URL: http://www.cecer.army.mil ERDC/CERL TR-08-7 4 2 Field Tests The gopher tortoise is a species of conservation concern in the... ncv D ⎛ ⎞⎛ ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ (4) where: L = estimate of line length to be sampled b = dispersion parameter 2ˆ( )tcv D = desired coefficient of

  3. The Development of Leak Test Techniques by Means Helium Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigit Asmara Santa; Puradwi lsmu Wahyono; Deddy Haryanto; Joko Irianto; Ismu Handoyo

    2003-01-01

    The auxiliary vacuum tube used for helium leak detection has been designed. The aim is to increase measured leak test sensitivity of existing helium leak detection system from the level of 10 -3 ∼10 -5 standard cm 3 /second to 10 -8 ∼10 -10 standard cm 3 /second. The goals of installed auxiliary vacuum tube in the existing leak detection system are used for quality control test product of Fission Product Molybdenum (FPM) capsule and AgInCd safety control rod. The design requirements were established based on both of their quality control test requirement to assure their safety and reliability. The vacuum tube length was designed at least as long as 100 cm with 6 inch diameter and have leakage tightness till as low as 10 10 standard cm 3 /second. The temperature and pressure could be controlled up to 100 o C and negative pressure 10 inch Hg respectively. The vacuum tube was equipped with temperature controller system consisting of covered heater and installed 3 thermocouples which were evenly distributed along the length of tube. Pressure control system controls the inside pressure vacuum tube according to prior setpoint values. Vacuum tube temperature and pressure were controlled using combination of both prior its set-up temperature and pressure. Aluminum disks were installed at the end of covered heater used for cooling system and to protect heat hazard to operator. (author)

  4. Evolution of strategies to improve preclinical cardiac safety testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gintant, Gary; Sager, Philip T; Stockbridge, Norman

    2016-07-01

    The early and efficient assessment of cardiac safety liabilities is essential to confidently advance novel drug candidates. This article discusses evolving mechanistically based preclinical strategies for detecting drug-induced electrophysiological and structural cardiotoxicity using in vitro human ion channel assays, human-based in silico reconstructions and human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. These strategies represent a paradigm shift from current approaches, which rely on simplistic in vitro assays that measure blockade of the Kv11.1 current (also known as the hERG current or IKr) and on the use of non-human cells or tissues. These new strategies have the potential to improve sensitivity and specificity in the early detection of genuine cardiotoxicity risks, thereby reducing the likelihood of mistakenly discarding viable drug candidates and speeding the progression of worthy drugs into clinical trials.

  5. Strategies for Ground Based Testing of Manned Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jeff; Peacock, Mike; Gill, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Integrated testing (such as Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT)) is critical to reducing risks and minimizing problems encountered during assembly, activation, and on-orbit operation of large, complex manned spacecraft. Provides the best implementation of "Test Like You Fly:. Planning for integrated testing needs to begin at the earliest stages of Program definition. Program leadership needs to fully understand and buy in to what integrated testing is and why it needs to be performed. As Program evolves and design and schedules mature, continually look for suitable opportunities to perform testing where enough components are together in one place at one time. The benefits to be gained are well worth the costs.

  6. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, G.H. III [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Structural Dynamics Dept.

    1996-03-01

    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  7. The Application of Data Mining Techniques to Create Promotion Strategy for Mobile Phone Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, A. U.; Wibowo, K. S.; Dewantoro, H. F.

    2017-12-01

    The number of mobile shop is growing very fast in various regions in Indonesia including in Yogyakarta due to the increasing demand of mobile phone. This fact leads high competition among the mobile phone shops. In these conditions the mobile phone shop should have a good promotion strategy in order to survive in competition, especially for a small mobile phone shop. To create attractive promotion strategy, the companies/shops should know their customer segmentation and the buying pattern of their target market. These kind of analysis can be done using Data mining technique. This study aims to segment customer using Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering and know customer buying pattern using Association Rule Mining. This result conducted in a mobile shop in Sleman Yogyakarta. The clustering result shows that the biggest customer segment of the shop was male university student who come on weekend and from association rule mining, it can be concluded that tempered glass and smart phone “x” as well as action camera and waterproof monopod and power bank have strong relationship. This results that used to create promotion strategies which are presented in the end of the study.

  8. Testing - Smart strategy for safety and mission quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, George A.

    The paper is concerned with the need for a comprehensive test plan for the Space Station Freedom (SST) that would fully verify specification compliance and be based on an error budget. In particular, attention is given to some lessons learned from other NASA programs and the principal challenges for SSF testing, including phase C/D/E agreements, testing parameters, phase testing, and the human element. The importance of close teamwork between the NASA/Contractor systems engineers and assurance engineers is emphasized.

  9. Technique for Outdoor Test on Concentrating Photovoltaic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Sansoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor experimentation of solar cells is essential to maximize their performance and to assess utilization requirements and limits. More generally tests with direct exposure to the sun are useful to understand the behavior of components and new materials for solar applications in real working conditions. Insolation and ambient factors are uncontrollable but can be monitored to know the environmental situation of the solar exposure experiment. A parallel characterization of the photocells can be performed in laboratory under controllable and reproducible conditions. A methodology to execute solar exposure tests is proposed and practically applied on photovoltaic cells for a solar cogeneration system. The cells are measured with concentrated solar light obtained utilizing a large Fresnel lens mounted on a sun tracker. Outdoor measurements monitor the effects of the exposure of two multijunction photovoltaic cells to focused sunlight. The main result is the continuous acquisition of the V-I (voltage-current curve for the cells in different conditions of solar concentration and temperature of exercise to assess their behavior. The research investigates electrical power extracted, efficiency, temperatures reached, and possible damages of the photovoltaic cell.

  10. Training guidelines in non-destructive testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    With the conclusion in 1979 of a successful Agency executed UNDP project in Argentina, whose aim was the establishment of a national non-destructive testing centre, the Agency was asked by other countries in the Latin American and Caribbean Region to evaluate the possibility of transferring this success to the whole region. In 1982, with the financial cooperation of UNFSSTD and UNIDO, a regional project was started with the principal objective of assisting the countries in the region to reinforce autonomous NDT capability through regional cooperation. One essential component of this project has been the harmonization of training through the development and use of course syllabi by the 17 countries now participating in the project. To this end, a Regional Working Group was formed and one of its tasks is the development of these syllabi for the more common NDT methods. This publication is a collection of the training programmes elaborated to date which have so far been followed by some 10,000 persons in the region who have received training in NDT as a direct result of the project. These syllabi take into account the development work done by the International Committee for Non-destructive Testing and many national training programmes, and are meant to be an objective guide to assist in the formation of NDT personnel

  11. The Multiple Tasks Test: development and normal strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, B.R.; Valkenburg, V.V.; Slabbekoorn, M.; Willemsen, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneous challenge of posture and cognition ("dual tasks") may predict falls better than tests of isolated components of postural control. We describe a new balance test (the Multiple Tasks Test, MTT) which (1) is based upon simultaneous assessment of multiple (>2) postural components; (2)

  12. Five essential tests of market strategy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzzell, R.D.; George, S.S.; Leone, R.A.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes a diagnostic process for determining how well a utility's current market strategy meets the five key criteria and identifying areas requiring further attention. This process is based primarily on utility management and staff interviews but also examines existing information on customer perceptions of product/service offerings, utility and competitor characteristics, and other relevant issues

  13. Testing Strategies and Methodologies for the Max Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Dawn M.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked to develop an alternate, tower-less launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test in July 2009 of the "Max" launch abort system (MLAS) provided data critical to the design of future LASs, while demonstrating the Agency s ability to rapidly design, build and fly full-scale hardware at minimal cost in a "virtual" work environment. Limited funding and an aggressive schedule presented a challenge for testing of the complex MLAS system. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test was attributed to the project s systems engineering and integration process, which included: a concise definition of, and an adherence to, flight test objectives; a solid operational concept; well defined performance requirements, and a test program tailored to reducing the highest flight test risks. The testing ranged from wind tunnel validation of computational fluid dynamic simulations to component ground tests of the highest risk subsystems. This paper provides an overview of the testing/risk management approach and methodologies used to understand and reduce the areas of highest risk - resulting in a successful flight demonstration test.

  14. A Technique for Dynamic Corrosion Testing in Liquid Lead Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Eric Paul; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

    2001-04-01

    An experimental apparatus for the investigation of the flow-assisted dissolution and precipitation (corrosion) of potential fuel cladding and structural materials to be used in liquid lead alloy cooled reactors has been designed. This experimental project is part of a larger research effort between Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology to investigate the suitability of lead, lead-bismuth, and other lead alloys for cooling fast reactors designed to produce low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The INEEL forced convection corrosion cell consists of a small heated vessel with a shroud and gas flow system. The gas flow rates, heat input, and shroud and vessel dimensions have been adjusted so that a controlled coolant flow rate, temperature, and oxygen potential are created within the downcomer located between the shroud and vessel wall. The ATHENA computer code was used to design the experimental apparatus and estimate the fluid conditions. The corrosion cell will test steel that is commercially available in the U. S. to temperatures above 650oC.

  15. OPTIMAL STRATEGIES FOR REGIONAL CULTIVAR TESTING FOR VARIOUS CROPS

    OpenAIRE

    Kingwell, Ross S.

    1999-01-01

    Before a variety is released for adoption by farmers in a region it is subject to comparative field testing. An economic issue is how extensive and prolonged should be this field testing within the region; over how many locations, years and with what number of plot replications should testing occur? This paper addresses this issue for the main broadacre crops grown in Western Australia and shows through sensitivity analysis how robust are the findings for each crop type. Findings are contrast...

  16. Studies of brain and cognitive maturation through childhood and adolescence: a strategy for testing neurodevelopmental hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, B; Sweeney, J A

    2001-01-01

    Although neurodevelopmental models of schizophrenia are now widely accepted, there is minimal direct human evidence of dysmaturation in schizophrenia to support this theory. This is especially the case regarding maturational changes during late childhood and adolescence, which immediately precede the typical age of onset of the disorder. By integrating new noninvasive methods of functional magnetic resonance imaging with techniques of developmental cognitive neuroscience, it is now possible to begin systematic research programs to directly test hypotheses of neurodevelopmental abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this article, we describe strategies for characterizing developmental changes taking place during the critical period of adolescence that can elucidate dysmaturation processes in schizophrenia. We emphasize the need for studies characterizing normal development before examining at-risk or clinical populations, and the potential value of using neurobehavioral and neuroimaging approaches to directly characterize the dysmaturation associated with schizophrenia.

  17. Applications of NLP Techniques to Computer-Assisted Authoring of Test Items for Elementary Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao-Lin; Lin, Jen-Hsiang; Wang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The authors report an implemented environment for computer-assisted authoring of test items and provide a brief discussion about the applications of NLP techniques for computer assisted language learning. Test items can serve as a tool for language learners to examine their competence in the target language. The authors apply techniques for…

  18. Inappropriate Practices in Fitness Testing and Reporting: Alternative Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Davis, Summer; Kirk, T. Nicole; Haegele, Justin A.; Knott, Stephen E.

    2018-01-01

    Fitness education is becoming an integrated component for many physical education programs. As such, many physical educators conduct health-related fitness tests on a regular basis. Some states even mandate certain types of physical fitness tests to be administered and reported annually or by semester. Yet, inappropriate practices have been…

  19. Automated detection of test fixture strategies and smells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiler, M.S.; Van Deursen, A.; Storey, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Paper accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, IEEE Computer Society, 18-22 March 2013, ISBN 978-1-4673-5961-0, doi: 10.1109/ICST.2013.45 Designing automated tests is a challenging task. One important concern

  20. Design of a testing strategy using non-animal based test methods: lessons learnt from the ACuteTox project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Prieto, Pilar; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Stanzel, Sven

    2013-06-01

    In the framework of toxicology, a testing strategy can be viewed as a series of steps which are taken to come to a final prediction about a characteristic of a compound under study. The testing strategy is performed as a single-step procedure, usually called a test battery, using simultaneously all information collected on different endpoints, or as tiered approach in which a decision tree is followed. Design of a testing strategy involves statistical considerations, such as the development of a statistical prediction model. During the EU FP6 ACuteTox project, several prediction models were proposed on the basis of statistical classification algorithms which we illustrate here. The final choice of testing strategies was not based on statistical considerations alone. However, without thorough statistical evaluations a testing strategy cannot be identified. We present here a number of observations made from the statistical viewpoint which relate to the development of testing strategies. The points we make were derived from problems we had to deal with during the evaluation of this large research project. A central issue during the development of a prediction model is the danger of overfitting. Procedures are presented to deal with this challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Practical aspects of mutagenicity testing strategy: an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollapudi, B B; Krishna, G

    2000-11-20

    Genetic toxicology studies play a central role in the development and marketing of new chemicals for pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, and consumer use. During the discovery phase of product development, rapid screening tests that require minimal amounts of test materials are used to assist in the design and prioritization of new molecules. At this stage, a modified Salmonella reverse mutation assay and an in vitro micronucleus test with mammalian cell culture are frequently used for screening. Regulatory genetic toxicology studies are conducted with a short list of compounds using protocols that conform to various international guidelines. A set of four assays usually constitutes the minimum test battery that satisfies global requirements. This set includes a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an in vitro cytogenetic test with mammalian cell culture, an in vitro gene mutation assay in mammalian cell cultures, and an in vivo rodent bone marrow micronucleus test. Supplementary studies are conducted in certain instances either as a follow-up to the findings from this initial testing battery and/or to satisfy a regulatory requirement. Currently available genetic toxicology assays have helped the scientific and industrial community over the past several decades in evaluating the mutagenic potential of chemical agents. The emerging field of toxicogenomics has the potential to redefine our ability to study the response of cells to genetic damage and hence our ability to study threshold phenomenon.

  2. Strategies and techniques to enhance constructed wetland performance for sustainable wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Fan, Jinlin; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liang, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as an alternative to conventional technologies for wastewater treatment for more than five decades. Recently, the use of various modified CWs to improve treatment performance has also been reported in the literature. However, the available knowledge on various CW technologies considering the intensified and reliable removal of pollutants is still limited. Hence, this paper aims to provide an overview of the current development of CW strategies and techniques for enhanced wastewater treatment. Basic information on configurations and characteristics of different innovations was summarized. Then, overall treatment performance of those systems and their shortcomings were further discussed. Lastly, future perspectives were also identified for specialists to design more effective and sustainable CWs. This information is used to inspire some novel intensifying methodologies, and benefit the successful applications of potential CW technologies.

  3. Techniques and Strategies for Successfully Promote your Web/Mail Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Ciovica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We live in an unstable global market, where companies must deal with daily changes and respond quickly to the customer demands and deliver products faster at higher quality than ever. This speed is dictated especially by the competition between producers and their delivered services, products. Beside the quality, the producers must deal also with the product design which is becoming the one of the important factors after which customers choose and uses products. In what concerns the web design and web campaigns, the best factor in selling is the user interface and how they are attracts customers and visitors. In this article we describe the best techniques and strategies for a successfully promotion of a web site or web campaign.

  4. Application of Mind Map-based abstracting technique in pedagogical strategy for ESP teaching/learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Choporova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presents some theoretical and practical results of the abstracting practice carried out by the teachers and cadets of Voronezh Institute of the Ministry of Interior of Russia. The sources used in the experiment were of British and American origin, equally authentic, and were mainly of engineering content because of the cadets’ speciality. The main purpose of the experiment was focused on the primary source adequate abstract making as a product of a keen understanding of social and professional aspects, views, and anticipations of English-speaking nations. The authors analyzed a number of current approaches towards abstract making procedures and offered an original system of the education strategy by means of Mind Map building technique.

  5. Diagnostic test strategies in children at increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtman, Gea A.; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Norbruis, Obbe F.; Escher, Johanna C.; Walhout, Laurence C.; Kindermann, Angelika; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2017-01-01

    In children with symptoms suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who present in primary care, the optimal test strategy for identifying those who require specialist care is unclear. We evaluated the following three test strategies to determine which was optimal for referring children with

  6. Diagnostic test strategies in children at increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtman, Gea A.; Lisman-van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Norbruis, Obbe F.; Escher, Johanna C.; Walhout, Laurence C.; Kindermann, Angelika; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Berger, Marjolein Y.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In children with symptoms suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who present in primary care, the optimal test strategy for identifying those who require specialist care is unclear. We evaluated the following three test strategies to determine which was optimal for referring

  7. Diagnostic test strategies in children at increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Holtman (Gea A); Y. Lisman-van Leeuwen (Yvonne); B.J. Kollen (Boudewijn ); O.F. Norbruis (Obbe); J.C. Escher (Johanna); L.C. Walhout (Laurence); A. Kindermann; Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); P.F. van Rheenen (Patrick); M.Y. Berger (Marjolein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In children with symptoms suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who present in primary care, the optimal test strategy for identifying those who require specialist care is unclear. We evaluated the following three test strategies to determine which was optimal for

  8. An Investigation of the Learning Strategies as Bias Factors in Second Language Cloze Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajideh, Parviz; Yaghoubi-Notash, Massoud; Khalili, Abdolreza

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of the EFL students' learning strategies to the explanation of the variance in their results on language tests. More specifically, it examined the role of these strategies as bias factors in the results of English cloze tests. Based on this aim, first, 158 intermediate EFL learners were selected from…

  9. Strategies to introduce Data Management techniques into the German university curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söding, E.; Fleischer, D.

    2017-12-01

    Data Management is high on the agenda of the German Research Organizations and Universities. While many organizations have committed to high level data management plans, these plans are often loosely binding and not followed adequately. As a consequence, few practical concepts are in place, implementing a sustainable reliable processing, archiving and publication of research data. While many institutions struggle with the organizational level, at which data management is implemented, Students are educated and time is lost, teaching them relevance, techniques and strategies in dealing in a thoughtful and ahead looking manner with their research data. Within a new research project we are tackling this problem in a two-fold way. 1. we are involving technical university personnel, who are working in labs, producing scientific data, in data management processes. This requires teaching, analysis of lab practices and the development of applications for support. 2. We are developing new teaching material, in order to introduce such DM strategies into regular practical courses conducted in such labs, by starting small scale experiments on long term time series. These can be analyzed by student within practical courses, and will demonstrate the practical use of DM practices in the courses. While the focus is on natural science labs, we also strive to create material for other disciplines using e.g. text analysis techniques, in particular in linguistics and history. By doing so, we are touching not only the traditional data-heavy disciplines, but try to bridge responsibility for this task over several disciplines and faculties, in order to raise broad acceptance and recognition in the whole university for the benefits of structured Data Management plans in projects.

  10. Development of the transverse tensile and fracture toughness test techniques for spent fuel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. B.; Hong, K. P.; Jung, Y. H.; Seo, H. S.; Oh, W. H.; Yoo, B. O.; Kim, D. S.; Seo, K. S

    2001-12-01

    To define the cause of cladding damage which can take place during the operation of nuclear power plant and the storage through the degradation aspect of mechanical characteristics, the transverse tensile an fracture toughness test were developed in hot cell at IMEF(Irradiated Material Experiment Facility). The following hot cell techniques were developed. 1. The development of a jig and a specimen for transverse tensile test 2. The acquisition of a manufacturing technique for the transverse tensile specimen at hot cell 3. The acquisition of testing procedures and an analysis technque for the transverse tensile 4. The dimensional determination of an optimized fracture toughness specimen 5. The acquisition of manufacturing technique for the fracture toughness test specimen at the hot cell 6. The acquisition of testing procedures and analysis technique for the fracture toughness test (Multiple specimen method, DCPD method, Load ratio method)

  11. submitter Test strategies for industrial testers for converter controls equipment

    CERN Document Server

    Oleniuk, P; Kasampalis, V; Nisbet, D; Todd, B; Uznański, S

    2017-01-01

    Power converters and their controls electronics are key elements for the operation of the CERN accelerator complex, having a direct impact on its availability. To prevent early-life failures and provide means to verify electronics, a set of industrial testers is used throughout the converters controls electronics' life cycle. The roles of the testers are to validate mass production during the manufacturing phase and to provide means to diagnose and repair failed modules that are brought back from operation. In the converter controls electronics section of the power converters group in the technology department of CERN (TE/EPC/CCE), two main test platforms have been adopted: a PXI platform for mixed analogue-digital functional tests and a JTAG Boundary-Scan platform for digital interconnection and functional tests. Depending on the functionality of the device under test, the appropriate test platforms are chosen. This paper is a follow-up to results presented at the TWEPP 2015 conference, adding the boundary s...

  12. Effect of irrigation techniques and strategies on water footprint of growing crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    technique. This rank though changes in non-moisture limiting condition (wet year) drip performing better in reducing the WF of growing crops than sub-surface drip. It was observed that with all range of irrigation techniques, strategies and field management practices there is more room in reducing the WF of growing crops in loam than sandy-loam soil.

  13. Integrated Testing Strategy (ITS) - Opportunities to better use existing data and guide future testing in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The topic of Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) has attracted considerable attention, and not only because it is supposed to be a central element of REACH, the ambitious European chemical regulation effort. Although what ITSs are supposed to do seems unambiguous, i.e. speeding up hazard and risk assessment while reducing testing costs, not much has been said, except basic conceptual proposals, about the methodologies that would allow execution of these concepts. Although a pressing concern, the topic of ITS has drawn mostly general reviews, broad concepts, and the expression of a clear need for more research on ITS. Published research in the field remains scarce. Solutions for ITS design emerge slowly, most likely due to the methodological challenges of the task, and perhaps also to it its complexity and the need for multidisciplinary collaboration. Along with the challenge, ITS offer a unique opportunity to contribute to the Toxicology of the 21st century by providing frameworks and tools to actually implement 21st century toxicology data in the chemical management and decision making processes. Further, ITS have the potential to significantly contribute to a modernization of the science of risk assessment. Therefore, to advance ITS research we propose a methodical approach to their design and will discuss currently available approaches as well as challenges to overcome. To this end, we define a framework for ITS that will inform toxicological decisions in a systematic, transparent, and consistent way. We review conceptual requirements for ITS developed earlier and present a roadmap to an operational framework that should be probabilistic, hypothesis-driven, and adaptive. Furthermore, we define properties an ITS should have in order to meet the identified requirements and differentiate them from evidence synthesis. Making use of an ITS for skin sensitization, we demonstrate how the proposed ITS concepts can be implemented.

  14. Hydrogeologic testing strategy for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logsdon, M.J.; Verma, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    At the time of licensing for a proposed deep geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste, the Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to present and defend a complete licensing/performance assessment of the geologic repository system. As part of its responsibilities, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff will be required to perform an independent assessment of the groundwater flow system with respect to the technical criteria of 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 60. Specifically, the staff expects to use mathematical models to predict pre-emplacement and post-emplacement groundwater flow paths and travel times. These predictive assessments will be used to reach findings on compliance with the proposed EPA Standards (10 CFR 60.112), which apply to post-emplacement groundwater travel time along the path of likely radionuclide travel (10 CFR 60.113(2)). Predictive modeling of groundwater flow will require defensible conceptual models of the flow system, defensible boundary conditions, and defensible values of hydraulic parameters. The purpose fo this technical position is to provide guidance to DOE on an approach that the NRC staff considers acceptable in determining what hydrogeologic testing (including types of tests, scale of tests, and number of tests) at the Hanford site will be required to produce the hydraulic data necessary and sufficient to perform rigorous, quantitative modeling to support predictions of repository performance. 2 figures

  15. Pilot Test of an Innovative Interprofessional Education Assessment Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Michelle Christine

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test an innovative way of assessing students' teamwork skills in a controlled environment. Twenty-four second year students from Western University of Health Sciences (WesternU) participated in the experimental group and 22 third year students from WesternU participated in the control group. Students in the…

  16. A strategy for determination of test intervals of k-out-of-n multi-channel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.; Jiang, J.

    2007-01-01

    State space models for determination of the optimal test frequencies for k-out-of-n multi channel systems are developed in this paper. The analytic solutions for the optimal surveillance test frequencies are derived using the Markov process technique. The solutions show that an optimal test frequency which maximizes the target probability can be determined by decomposing the system states to 3 states based on the system configuration and success criteria. Examples of quantification of the state probabilities and the optimal test frequencies of a three-channel system and a four-channel system with different success criteria are presented. The strategy for finding the optimal test frequency developed in this paper can generally be applicable to any k-out-of-n multi-channel standby systems that involve complex testing schemes. (author)

  17. Adaptive and Qualitative Changes in Encoding Strategy With Experience: Evidence From the Test-Expectancy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners’ abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study–test cycles of the same test format, followed by a final critical cycle featuring either the expected or the unexpected test format. For final tests of both cued and free recall, participants who had expected that test format outperformed those who had not. This disordinal interaction, supported by recognition and self-report data, demonstrated not mere differences in effort based on anticipated test difficulty, but rather qualitative and appropriate differences in encoding strategies based on expected task demands. Participants also came to appropriately modulate metacognitive monitoring (Experiment 2) and study-time allocation (Experiment 3) across study–test cycles. Item and associative recognition performance, as well as self-report data, revealed shifts in encoding strategies across trials; these results were used to characterize and evaluate the different strategies that participants employed for cued versus free recall and to assess the optimality of participants’ metacognitive control of encoding strategies. Taken together, these data illustrate a sophisticated form of metacognitive control, in which learners qualitatively shift encoding strategies to match the demands of anticipated tests. PMID:22103783

  18. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease. PMID:25988157

  19. Module Testing Techniques for Nuclear Safety Critical Software Using LDRA Testing Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kwon-Ki; Kim, Do-Yeon; Chang, Hoon-Seon; Chang, Young-Woo; Yun, Jae-Hee; Park, Jee-Duck; Kim, Jae-Hack

    2006-01-01

    The safety critical software in the I and C systems of nuclear power plants requires high functional integrity and reliability. To achieve those requirement goals, the safety critical software should be verified and tested according to related codes and standards through verification and validation (V and V) activities. The safety critical software testing is performed at various stages during the development of the software, and is generally classified as three major activities: module testing, system integration testing, and system validation testing. Module testing involves the evaluation of module level functions of hardware and software. System integration testing investigates the characteristics of a collection of modules and aims at establishing their correct interactions. System validation testing demonstrates that the complete system satisfies its functional requirements. In order to generate reliable software and reduce high maintenance cost, it is important that software testing is carried out at module level. Module testing for the nuclear safety critical software has rarely been performed by formal and proven testing tools because of its various constraints. LDRA testing tool is a widely used and proven tool set that provides powerful source code testing and analysis facilities for the V and V of general purpose software and safety critical software. Use of the tool set is indispensable where software is required to be reliable and as error-free as possible, and its use brings in substantial time and cost savings, and efficiency

  20. Strategies for improving approximate Bayesian computation tests for synchronous diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcast, Isaac; Bagley, Justin C; Hickerson, Michael J

    2017-08-24

    Estimating the variability in isolation times across co-distributed taxon pairs that may have experienced the same allopatric isolating mechanism is a core goal of comparative phylogeography. The use of hierarchical Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) and coalescent models to infer temporal dynamics of lineage co-diversification has been a contentious topic in recent years. Key issues that remain unresolved include the choice of an appropriate prior on the number of co-divergence events (Ψ), as well as the optimal strategies for data summarization. Through simulation-based cross validation we explore the impact of the strategy for sorting summary statistics and the choice of prior on Ψ on the estimation of co-divergence variability. We also introduce a new setting (β) that can potentially improve estimation of Ψ by enforcing a minimal temporal difference between pulses of co-divergence. We apply this new method to three empirical datasets: one dataset each of co-distributed taxon pairs of Panamanian frogs and freshwater fishes, and a large set of Neotropical butterfly sister-taxon pairs. We demonstrate that the choice of prior on Ψ has little impact on inference, but that sorting summary statistics yields substantially more reliable estimates of co-divergence variability despite violations of assumptions about exchangeability. We find the implementation of β improves estimation of Ψ, with improvement being most dramatic given larger numbers of taxon pairs. We find equivocal support for synchronous co-divergence for both of the Panamanian groups, but we find considerable support for asynchronous divergence among the Neotropical butterflies. Our simulation experiments demonstrate that using sorted summary statistics results in improved estimates of the variability in divergence times, whereas the choice of hyperprior on Ψ has negligible effect. Additionally, we demonstrate that estimating the number of pulses of co-divergence across co-distributed taxon

  1. Soil Desiccation Techniques Strategies For Immobilization Of Deep Vadose Contaminants At The Hanford Central Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benecke, M.W.; Chronister, G.B.; Truex, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site where processes and technologies are being developed and tested for use in the on-going effort to remediate mobile contamination in the deep vadose zone, the area deep beneath the surface. Historically, contaminants were discharged to the soil along with significant amounts of water, which continues to drive contaminants deeper in the vadose zone toward groundwater. Soil desiccation is a potential in situ remedial technology well suited for the arid conditions and the thick vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Desiccation techniques could reduce the advance of contaminants by removing the pore water to slow the rate of contaminants movement toward groundwater. Desiccation technologies have the potential to halt or slow the advance of contaminants in unsaturated systems, as well as aid in reduction of contaminants from these same areas. Besides reducing the water flux, desiccation also establishes capillary breaks that would require extensive rewetting to resume pore water transport. More importantly, these techniques have widespread application, whether the need is to isolate radio nuclides or address chemical contaminant issues. Three different desiccation techniques are currently being studied at Hanford.

  2. AOF LTAO mode: reconstruction strategy and first test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberti, Sylvain; Kolb, Johann; Le Louarn, Miska; La Penna, Paolo; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Neichel, Benoit; Sauvage, Jean-François; Fusco, Thierry; Donaldson, Robert; Soenke, Christian; Suárez Valles, Marcos; Arsenault, Robin

    2016-07-01

    GALACSI is the Adaptive Optics (AO) system serving the instrument MUSE in the framework of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) project. Its Narrow Field Mode (NFM) is a Laser Tomography AO (LTAO) mode delivering high resolution in the visible across a small Field of View (FoV) of 7.5" diameter around the optical axis. From a reconstruction standpoint, GALACSI NFM intends to optimize the correction on axis by estimating the turbulence in volume via a tomographic process, then projecting the turbulence profile onto one single Deformable Mirror (DM) located in the pupil, close to the ground. In this paper, the laser tomographic reconstruction process is described. Several methods (virtual DM, virtual layer projection) are studied, under the constraint of a single matrix vector multiplication. The pseudo-synthetic interaction matrix model and the LTAO reconstructor design are analysed. Moreover, the reconstruction parameter space is explored, in particular the regularization terms. Furthermore, we present here the strategy to define the modal control basis and split the reconstruction between the Low Order (LO) loop and the High Order (HO) loop. Finally, closed loop performance obtained with a 3D turbulence generator will be analysed with respect to the most relevant system parameters to be tuned.

  3. Modeling Test and Treatment Strategies for Presymptomatic Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, James F.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Hayward, Rodney A.; Albin, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we developed a model of presymptomatic treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) after a screening diagnostic evaluation and explored the circumstances required for an AD prevention treatment to produce aggregate net population benefit. Methods Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to estimate outcomes in a simulated population derived from data on AD incidence and mortality. A wide variety of treatment parameters were explored. Net population benefit was estimated in aggregated QALYs. Sensitivity analyses were performed by individually varying the primary parameters. Findings In the base-case scenario, treatment effects were uniformly positive, and net benefits increased with increasing age at screening. A highly efficacious treatment (i.e. relative risk 0.6) modeled in the base-case is estimated to save 20 QALYs per 1000 patients screened and 221 QALYs per 1000 patients treated. Conclusions Highly efficacious presymptomatic screen and treat strategies for AD are likely to produce substantial aggregate population benefits that are likely greater than the benefits of aspirin in primary prevention of moderate risk cardiovascular disease (28 QALYS per 1000 patients treated), even in the context of an imperfect treatment delivery environment. PMID:25474698

  4. Applying modern psychometric techniques to melodic discrimination testing: Item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter M C; Collins, Tom; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-06-15

    Modern psychometric theory provides many useful tools for ability testing, such as item response theory, computerised adaptive testing, and automatic item generation. However, these techniques have yet to be integrated into mainstream psychological practice. This is unfortunate, because modern psychometric techniques can bring many benefits, including sophisticated reliability measures, improved construct validity, avoidance of exposure effects, and improved efficiency. In the present research we therefore use these techniques to develop a new test of a well-studied psychological capacity: melodic discrimination, the ability to detect differences between melodies. We calibrate and validate this test in a series of studies. Studies 1 and 2 respectively calibrate and validate an initial test version, while Studies 3 and 4 calibrate and validate an updated test version incorporating additional easy items. The results support the new test's viability, with evidence for strong reliability and construct validity. We discuss how these modern psychometric techniques may also be profitably applied to other areas of music psychology and psychological science in general.

  5. Simulation and experimental tests of a real-time DPWM technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This control strategy is a simple and an easy technique generating the same switching pattern as space vector modulation with less switching losses and reduced total harmonic distortion. The main motivation of the present paper is that the DPWM is not largely and deeply investigated and can present a serious alternative ...

  6. Managing the Testing Process Practical Tools and Techniques for Managing Hardware and Software Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Black, Rex

    2011-01-01

    New edition of one of the most influential books on managing software and hardware testing In this new edition of his top-selling book, Rex Black walks you through the steps necessary to manage rigorous testing programs of hardware and software. The preeminent expert in his field, Mr. Black draws upon years of experience as president of both the International and American Software Testing Qualifications boards to offer this extensive resource of all the standards, methods, and tools you'll need. The book covers core testing concepts and thoroughly examines the best test management practices

  7. Strategies for Solving Potential Problems Associated with Laboratory Diffusion and Batch Experiments - Part 1: An Overview of Conventional Test Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.; Takeda, M.; Nakajima, H.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory diffusion testing as well as batch experiments are well established and widely adopted techniques for characterizing the diffusive and adsorptive properties of geological, geotechnical, and synthetic materials in both scientific and applied fields, including geological disposal of radioactive waste. Although several types of diffusion test, such as the through- diffusion test, in-diffusion test, out-diffusion test, and column test, are currently available, different methods may have different advantages and disadvantages. In addition, traditional methods may have limitations, such as the need for relatively long test times, cumbersome test procedures, and the possibility of errors due to differences between analytical assumptions and actual test conditions. Furthermore, traditional batch experiments using mineral powders are known to overestimate the sorption coefficient. In part 1 of this report, we present a brief overview of laboratory diffusion and batch experiments. The advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and/or potential problems associated with individual tests were compared and summarized. This comprehensive report will provide practical references for reviewing the results obtained from relevant experiments, especially from the viewpoint of regulation. To solve and/or eliminate the potential problems associated with conventional methods, and to obtain the diffusion coefficient and rock capacity factor from a laboratory test both rapidly and accurately, part 2 of this study discusses possible strategies involving the development of rigorous solutions to some relevant test methods, and sensitivity analyses for the related tests that may be helpful to judge the accuracy of the two parameters to be determined from individual tests. (authors)

  8. A new strategy of fingertip reattachment: sequential use of microsurgical technique and pocketing of composite graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K S; Eo, S R; Kim, D Y; Lee, S Y; Cho, B H

    2001-01-01

    Many methods have been used to reattach amputated fingertips. Of these methods, microsurgery has been accepted as the procedure of choice because the defining characteristic of a microsurgically replanted finger is that its surival in the recipient bed is predicated on functioning intravascular circulation. Although considerable progress has been made in the techniques for microvascular replantation of amputated fingers, the replantation of an amputated fingertip is difficult because digital arteries branch into small arteries. This is in addition to digital veins that run from both sides of the nail bed to the median dorsal sides, which are difficult to separate from the immobile soft tissue. Furthermore, even with the most technically skilled microsurgeon, replantation failure often occurs, especially in severe injury cases. Therefore, the technique is not the only protection against failure, and a new strategy of fingertip reattachment is needed. From March of 1997 to December of 1999, 12 fingers of 11 patients with zone 1 or zone 2 fingertip amputations that were reattached microsurgically but were compromised were deepithelialized, reattached, and then inserted into the abdominal pocket. All had been complete amputations with crushing injuries. Approximately 3 weeks later, the fingers were depocketed and covered with a skin graft. Of the 12 fingers, 7 survived completely and 3 had partial necrosis on less than one-third the volume of the amputated part. The complete survival rate was approximately 58 percent. The results of the above 10 fingers were satisfactory from both functional and cosmetic aspects. The authors believe that this high success rate was achieved because the deepithelialized finger pulp was placed in direct contact with the deep abdominal fascia, which was equipped with plentiful vascularity, not subcutaneous fat. In addition, the pocketing was performed promptly before necrosis of the compromised fingertip occurred. From the results of this

  9. Challenges, Strategies and Techniques for International Training in Technology for Cultural Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Almagro Vidal, A.

    2013-07-01

    , Jordan, Argentina, United Arab Emirates, United States of America and around 20 other countries. These strategies deal with establishing methodologies and guiding principles for the selection of technologies, highlighting successful illustrated examples, levelling uneven educational bases and gaining access to expertise. The authors have developed these strategies and techniques to appeal, engage and succeed with such diverse groups - to encourage the participants to cooperate on a common goal and overcome specific challenges while embracing the technology and thinking critically about its appropriate application for the conservation of cultural heritage in their home countries. Other strategies include setting norms that respect the various cultures and differing levels of technology education, offering voluntary sessions for more advanced and ambitious participants, finding and then adopting natural leaders as co-instructors and offering a mix of sessions including standard lectures combined with field and laboratory exercises and distance learning. This methodology and strategies have proven to be successful as the participants have provided positive evaluations months and/or years after the courses, implemented their own courses using the materials and methods and have established a strong, sustainable network related to this topic.

  10. A new strategy for wear and corrosion measurements using ion beam based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudu, D.; Popa, V.; Racolta, P.M.; Voiculescu, Dana

    2001-01-01

    An efficient and precise method for wear testing is Thin Layer Activation (TLA), which is based on the production of a thin layer of radioisotopes in the component surface by bombardment with a charged particle beam. These radioisotopes decay by emitting a characteristic gamma radiation that can be detected with thallium activated sodium iodide NaI(Tl) detectors. Since the material loss due to wear or corrosion is directly proportional to the loss in radioactivity of the activated surface, the wear/corrosion can be monitored in real time. Alternatively, the increase of the activity of the removed material debris collected in an oil bath of engine or in a filter also gives a measure of wear. The application of TLA and UTLA (ultra TLA - by recoil implantation) techniques presupposes establishing the optimum working and measuring conditions for the following steps: irradiation, post irradiation, and 'in situ' measurements. Having in view the diversity of components subjected to wear or corrosion to TLA-based investigations, dedicated beam lines for in-air or vacuum irradiation and translating/rotating target holders were developed by the U-120 Cyclotron of IFIN-HH. The modified IFIN-HH U-120 cyclotron from Bucharest is a classical variable energy machine that can accelerate protons up to 14 MeV, deuterons up to 13.5 MeV, and alpha particles up to 27 MeV. At this machine, TLA has mainly been used for studies of various parts of running machines on test benches such as piston - rings and linear cylinders. Also lubricant characterization studies were conducted here. The main advantage of TLA compared to conventional techniques for wear measurements is its ability to perform continuous in situ wear measurements of engine components, such as cylinder liners and piston rings, without the need to dismantle the components investigated. In addition high wear sensitivity and resolution of wear down to nano meters dimensions is guaranteed. Although the level of activity used in

  11. Measurement techniques and instruments suitable for life-prediction testing of photovoltaic arrays. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, G.T.; Sliemers, F.A.; Deringer, G.C.; Wood, V.E.; Wilkes, K.E.; Gaines, G.B.; Carmichael, D.C.

    1978-01-15

    The validation of a service life of 20 years for low-cost photovoltaic arrays must be accomplished through accelerated life-prediction tests. A methodology for such tests has been developed in a preceding study. The results discussed consist of the initial identification and assessment of all known measurement techniques and instruments that might be used in these life-prediction tests. Array failure modes, relevant materials property changes, and primary degradation mechanisms are discussed as a prerequisite to identifying suitable measurement techniques and instruments. Candidate techniques and instruments are identified on the basis of extensive reviews of published and unpublished information. These methods are organized in six measurement categories--chemical, electrical, optical, thermal, mechanical, and ''other physicals''. Using specified evaluation criteria, the most promising techniques and instruments for use in life-prediction tests of arrays are then selected. These recommended techniques and their characteristics are described. Recommendations are made regarding establishment of the adequacy, particularly with respect to precision, of the more fully developed techniques for this application, and regarding the experimental evaluation of promising developmental techniques. Measurement needs not satisfied by presently available techniques/instruments are also identified.

  12. The verification tests of residual radioactivity measurement and assessment techniques for buildings and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozawa, T.; Ishikura, T.; Yoshimura, Yukio; Nakazawa, M.; Makino, S.; Urayama, K.; Kawasaki, S.

    1996-01-01

    According to the standard procedure for decommissioning a commercial nuclear power plant (CNPP) in Japan, controlled areas will be released for unrestricted use before the dismantling of a reactor building. If manual survey and sampling techniques were applied to measurement for unrestricted release on and in the extensive surface of the building, much time and much specialized labor would be required to assess the appropriateness of the releasing. Therefore the authors selected the following three techniques for demonstrating reliability and applicability of the techniques for CNPPs: (1) technique of assessing radioactive concentration distribution on the surface of buildings (ADB); (2) technique of assessing radioactive permeation distribution in the concrete structure of buildings (APB); (3) technique of assessing radioactive concentration distribution in soil (ADS). These tests include the techniques of measuring and assessing very low radioactive concentration distribution on the extensive surfaces of buildings and the soil surrounding of a plant with automatic devices. Technical investigation and preliminary study of the verification tests were started in 1990. In the study, preconditions were clarified for each technique and the performance requirements were set up. Moreover, simulation models have been constructed for several feasible measurement method to assess their performance in terms of both measurement test and simulation analysis. Fundamental tests have been under way using small-scale apparatuses since 1994

  13. Characteristics of test anxiety among medical students and congruence of strategies to address it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Encandela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students may experience test anxiety associated with ‘high stakes’ exams, such as Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination. Methods: We collected qualitative responses about test anxiety at three points in time from 93 second-year medical students engaged in studying for and taking Step 1. Results: Causes of test anxiety as reported by students were related to negative self-talk during preparation for the exam. Effects of anxiety had to do with emotional well-being, cognitive functioning, and physical well-being. Strategies included socializing with others and a variety of cognitive and physical approaches. Comparison of individuals’ strategies with causes and effects showed some congruence, but substantial incongruence between the types of strategies chosen and the reported causes and effects of test anxiety. Discussion: Students’ adoption of a ‘menu’ of strategies rather than one or two carefully selected strategies suggest inefficiencies that might be addressed by interventions, such as advisor-directed conversations with students and incorporating student self-assessment and strategies for managing anxiety within courses on test-taking. Such interventions are in need of further study. An annotated list of evidence-based strategies would be helpful to students and educators. Most important, test anxiety should be viewed by medical educators as a ‘real’ experience, and students would benefit from educator support.

  14. Automated Testing Techniques for Event-Driven and Dynamically Typed Software Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Christoffer Quist

    techniques to address each of the challenges. We present a new methodology that extends the error detection capabilities of existing, manually written Android test suites. In the context of JavaScript web applications, we present practical race detectors for detecting AJAX and initialization races......, and a technique that can prevent event race errors by restricting the nondeterminism. Finally, we present a notion of test completeness for dynamic languages, along with a hybrid static/dynamic analysis framework that approximates test completeness, and demonstrate the usefulness of test completeness facts...

  15. The Role of Alternative Testing Strategies in Environmental Risk Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Hjorth, Rune; Holden, Patricia; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Colman, Ben; Grieger, Khara; Hendren, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Within toxicology there is a pressure to find new test systems and organisms to replace, reduce and refine animal testing. In nanoecotoxicology the need for alternative testing strategies (ATS) is further emphasized as the validity of tests and risk assessment practices developed for dissolved chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized whole organism animal testing is still considered the gold standard for environmental risk assessment. Advancing risk analysis of engineered nanomater...

  16. Technique for ultrasonic testing of austenitic steel weldments of NPP components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantukh, V.M.; Grebennik, V.S.; Kordinov, E.V.; Kesler, N.A.; Shchedrin, I.F.

    1987-01-01

    Special literature on ultrasonic testing of weldments of austenitic steel is analysed. Technique for ultrasonic testing of the ring and longitudinal butt welded joints of NPP components without reinforcing bead removal is described. Special converter design and fabrication practice are described. Results of experimental check of the developed testing technology and its application during NNPs' mounting and operation are presented. Results of ultrasonic and X-ray testing are compared

  17. TOXICITY TESTING IN THE 21ST CENTURY: A VISION AND A STRATEGY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krewski, D.; Acosta, D.; Andersen, M.

    2010-01-01

    With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal ...

  18. Teaching Study Skills and Test-Taking Strategies to Elementary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.; Taylor-Ferreira, Jill C.

    1999-01-01

    Presents and evaluates a pilot program to reduce test anxiety and related social-evaluative concerns. The Testbusters program teaches effective study habits, study skills, and test-taking strategies for children in grades 4 through 7. Results indicate that Testbusters decreased general levels of test anxiety and improved overall grade point…

  19. Adaptive and Qualitative Changes in Encoding Strategy with Experience: Evidence from the Test-Expectancy Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason R.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated learners' abilities to adaptively and qualitatively accommodate their encoding strategies to the demands of an upcoming test. Stimuli were word pairs. In Experiment 1, test expectancy was induced for either cued recall (of targets given cues) or free recall (of targets only) across 4 study-test cycles of the same…

  20. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  1. Listening Strategies in the L2 Classroom: More Practice, Less Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte-de-Hanna, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the history of listening strategies development from the first studies on strategies used by L2 learners to the most current studies specific to L2 listening, and how this theory can be incorporated into classroom teaching that fosters practice, not testing. This paper also examines the type of needs analysis and diagnostic…

  2. Development of Software and Strategies for Battery Management System Testing on HIL Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleischer, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Barreras, Jorge Varela

    2016-01-01

    of complexity of the tests, the higher the demands for ad hoc development of SW and strategies. With regard to the latter, there is not a universal definition and there are different points of view. Therefore different strategies may be followed, which can be classified into many different ways according...

  3. Selected hydraulic test analysis techniques for constant-rate discharge tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spane, F.A. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The constant-rate discharge test is the principal field method used in hydrogeologic investigations for characterizing the hydraulic properties of aquifers. To implement this test, the aquifer is stressed by withdrawing ground water from a well, by using a downhole pump. Discharge during the withdrawal period is regulated and maintained at a constant rate. Water-level response within the well is monitored during the active pumping phase (i.e., drawdown) and during the subsequent recovery phase following termination of pumping. The analysis of drawdown and recovery response within the stress well (and any monitored, nearby observation wells) provides a means for estimating the hydraulic properties of the tested aquifer, as well as discerning formational and nonformational flow conditions (e.g., wellbore storage, wellbore damage, presence of boundaries, etc.). Standard analytical methods that are used for constant-rate pumping tests include both log-log type-curve matching and semi-log straight-line methods. This report presents a current ''state of the art'' review of selected transient analysis procedures for constant-rate discharge tests. Specific topics examined include: analytical methods for constant-rate discharge tests conducted within confined and unconfined aquifers; effects of various nonideal formation factors (e.g., anisotropy, hydrologic boundaries) and well construction conditions (e.g., partial penetration, wellbore storage) on constant-rate test response; and the use of pressure derivatives in diagnostic analysis for the identification of specific formation, well construction, and boundary conditions

  4. Techniques to eliminate nuclear weapons testing infrastructure at former Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, I.E.; Kovalev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    It was at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site where for the first time in the world the nuclear weapons testing infrastructure elimination was put into practice. Fundamentally new procedures for blasting operations have been developed by specialists of the Kazakh State Research and Production Center of Blasting Operations (KSCBO), National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC) and Degelen Enterprise to enhance reliability and provide safety during elimination of various objects and performance of large-scale experiments. (author)

  5. Site characterization and validation - equipment design and techniques used in single borehole hydraulic testing, simulated drift experiment and crosshole testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.C.; Sehlstedt, M.

    1991-10-01

    This report describes the equipment and techniques used to investigate the variation of hydrogeological parameters within a fractured crystalline rock mass. The testing program was performed during stage 3 of the site characterization and validation programme at the Stripa mine in Sweden. This programme used a multidisciplinary approach, combining geophysical, geological and hydrogeological methods, to determine how groundwater moved through the rock mass. The hydrogeological work package involved three components. Firstly, novel single borehole techniques (focused packer testing) were used to determine the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and head along individual boreholes. Secondly, water was abstracted from boreholes which were drilled to simulate a tunnel (simulated drift experiment). Locations and magnitudes of flows were measured together with pressure responses at various points in the SCV rock mass. Thirdly, small scale crosshole tests, involving detailed interference testing, were used to determine the variability of hydrogeological parameters within previously identified, significant flow zones. (au)

  6. Mycoplasma testing of cell substrates and biologics: Review of alternative non-microbiological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokhov, Dmitriy V; Graham, Laurie J; Brorson, Kurt A; Chizhikov, Vladimir E

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasmas, particularly species of the genera Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma, are known to be occasional microbial contaminants of cell cultures that produce biologics. This presents a serious concern regarding the risk of mycoplasma contamination for research laboratories and commercial facilities developing and manufacturing cell-derived biological and biopharmaceutical products for therapeutic use. Potential undetected contamination of these products or process intermediates with mycoplasmas represents a potential safety risk for patients and a business risk for producers of biopharmaceuticals. To minimize these risks, monitoring for adventitious agents, such as viruses and mycoplasmas, is performed during the manufacture of biologics produced in cell culture substrates. The "gold standard" microbiological assay, currently recommended by the USP, EP, JP and the US FDA, for the mycoplasma testing of biologics, involves the culture of viable mycoplasmas in broth, agar plates and indicator cells. Although the procedure enables highly efficient mycoplasma detection in cell substrates and cell-derived products, the overall testing strategy is time consuming (a minimum of 28 days) and requires skilled interpretation of the results. The long time period required for these conventional assays does not permit their use for products with short shelf-lives or for timely 'go/no-go' decisions during routine in-process testing. PCR methodology has existed for decades, however PCR based and other alternative methods for mycoplasma detection have only recently been considered for application to biologics manufacture. The application of alternative nucleic acid-based, enzyme-based and/or recombinant cell-culture methods, particularly in combination with efficient sample preparation procedures, could provide advantages over conventional microbiological methods in terms of analytical throughput, simplicity, and turnaround time. However, a challenge to the application of alternative

  7. Alternative Testing Strategies for Nanomaterials: State of the Science and Considerations for Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, K J

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry has warranted equal progress in the nanotoxicology and risk assessment fields. In vivo models have traditionally been used to determine human and environmental risk for chemicals; however, the use of these tests has limitations, and there are global appeals to develop reliable alternatives to animal testing. Many have investigated the use of alternative (nonanimal) testing methods and strategies have quickly developed and resulted in the generation of large toxicological data sets for numerous nanomaterials (NMs). Due to the novel physicochemical properties of NMs that are related to surface characteristics, the approach toward toxicity test development has distinct considerations from traditional chemicals, bringing new requirements for adapting these approaches for NMs. The methodical development of strategies that combine multiple alternative tests can be useful for predictive NM risk assessment and help screening-level decision making. This article provides an overview of the main developments in alternative methods and strategies for reducing uncertainty in NM risk assessment, including advantages and disadvantages of in vitro, ex vivo, and in silico methods, and examples of existing comprehensive strategies. In addition, knowledge gaps are identified toward improvements for experimental and strategy design, specifically highlighting the need to represent realistic exposure scenarios and to consider NM-specific concerns such as characterization, assay interferences, and standardization. Overall, this article aims to improve the reliability and utility of alternative testing methods and strategies for risk assessment of manufactured NMs. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Multidimensional Test Assembly Based on Lagrangian Relaxation Techniques. Research Report 98-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    In this paper, a mathematical programming approach is presented for the assembly of ability tests measuring multiple traits. The values of the variance functions of the estimators of the traits are minimized, while test specifications are met. The approach is based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques and provides good results for the two…

  9. Proof-testing strategies induced by dangerous detected failures of safety-instrumented systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yiliu; Rausand, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Some dangerous failures of safety-instrumented systems (SISs) are detected almost immediately by diagnostic self-testing as dangerous detected (DD) failures, whereas other dangerous failures can only be detected by proof-testing, and are therefore called dangerous undetected (DU) failures. Some items may have a DU- and a DD-failure at the same time. After the repair of a DD-failure is completed, the maintenance team has two options: to perform an insert proof test for DU-failure or not. If an insert proof test is performed, it is necessary to decide whether the next scheduled proof test should be postponed or performed at the scheduled time. This paper analyzes the effects of different testing strategies on the safety performance of a single channel of a SIS. The safety performance is analyzed by Petri nets and by approximation formulas and the results obtained by the two approaches are compared. It is shown that insert testing improves the safety performance of the channel, but the feasibility and cost of the strategy may be a hindrance to recommend insert testing. - Highlights: • Identify the tests induced by detected failures. • Model the testing strategies following DD-failures. • Propose analytical formulas for effects of strategies. • Simulate and verify the proposed models.

  10. Implementing a Standardized Social Networks Testing Strategy in a Low HIV Prevalence Jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Casey; Kahn, Danielle; Broaddus, Michelle; Dougherty, Jacob; Elderbrook, Megan; Vergeront, James; Westergaard, Ryan

    2018-05-15

    Alternative HIV testing strategies are needed to engage individuals not reached by traditional clinical or non-clinical testing programs. A social networks recruitment strategy, in which people at risk for or living with HIV are enlisted and trained by community-based agencies to recruit individuals from their social, sexual, or drug-using networks for HIV testing, demonstrates higher positivity rates compared to other non-clinical recruitment strategies in some jurisdictions. During 2013-2015, a social networks testing protocol was implemented in Wisconsin to standardize an existing social networks testing program. Six community-based, non-clinical agencies with multiple sites throughout the state implemented the protocol over the 2-year period. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected. The new positivity rate (0.49%) through social networks testing did not differ from that of traditional counseling, testing, and referral recruitment methods (0.48%). Although social networks testing did not yield a higher new positivity rate compared to other testing strategies, it proved to be successful at reaching high risk individuals who may not otherwise engage in HIV testing.

  11. Training Guidelines in Non-Destructive Testing Techniques: Manual for Visual Testing at Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in the promotion of non-destructive testing (NDT) technology for many decades. The prime reason for this interest has been the need for stringent quality control standards for safe operation of nuclear as well as other industrial installations. The IAEA has successfully executed a number of projects, including technical cooperation projects (national and regional) and coordinated research projects, in which NDT was an important part. Through these projects, a large number of persons have been trained in numerous Member States, leading to the establishment of national certifying bodies responsible for training and certification of NDT personnel. Consequently a state of self-sufficiency in this area of technology has been achieved in many of these States. All along there has been a realization of the need to have well established training guidelines and related books, in order, first, to guide IAEA experts involved in this training programme and, second, to achieve some level of international uniformity and harmonization of training materials and consequent competence of NDT personnel. The syllabuses for training courses have been published in the form of TECDOC publications. The first was IAEA-TECDOC-407 (1987), which contained syllabuses for the five basic NDT methods: liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, eddy current testing, radiographic testing and ultrasonic testing. To accommodate advancements in NDT technology, later versions of this publication were issued in 1991, 2002 and 2008, with the current version being IAEA-TECDOC- 628/Rev.2 (2008), which includes additional and more advanced NDT methods. The next logical step was to compile textbooks and training manuals in accordance with these syllabuses. Manuals on liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, radiographic, ultrasonic and eddy current testing have already been published in the Training Course Series. These play a vital role in

  12. Effectiveness comparison of partially executed t-way test suite based generated by existing strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rozmie R.; Ahmad, Mohd Zamri Zahir; Ali, Mohd Shaiful Aziz Rashid; Zakaria, Hasneeza Liza; Rahman, Md. Mostafijur

    2015-05-01

    Consuming 40 to 50 percent of software development cost, software testing is one of the most resource consuming activities in software development lifecycle. To ensure an acceptable level of quality and reliability of a typical software product, it is desirable to test every possible combination of input data under various configurations. Due to combinatorial explosion problem, considering all exhaustive testing is practically impossible. Resource constraints, costing factors as well as strict time-to-market deadlines are amongst the main factors that inhibit such consideration. Earlier work suggests that sampling strategy (i.e. based on t-way parameter interaction or called as t-way testing) can be effective to reduce number of test cases without effecting the fault detection capability. However, for a very large system, even t-way strategy will produce a large test suite that need to be executed. In the end, only part of the planned test suite can be executed in order to meet the aforementioned constraints. Here, there is a need for test engineers to measure the effectiveness of partially executed test suite in order for them to assess the risk they have to take. Motivated by the abovementioned problem, this paper presents the effectiveness comparison of partially executed t-way test suite generated by existing strategies using tuples coverage method. Here, test engineers can predict the effectiveness of the testing process if only part of the original test cases is executed.

  13. Deep diving odontocetes foraging strategies and their prey field as determined by acoustic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorli, Giacomo

    Deep diving odontocetes, like sperm whales, beaked whales, Risso's dolphins, and pilot whales are known to forage at deep depths in the ocean on squid and fish. These marine mammal species are top predators and for this reason are very important for the ecosystems they live in, since they can affect prey populations and control food web dynamics through top-down effects. The studies presented in this thesis investigate deep diving odontocetes. foraging strategies, and the density and size of their potential prey in the deep ocean using passive and active acoustic techniques. Ecological Acoustic Recorders (EAR) were used to monitor the foraging activity of deep diving odontocetes at three locations around the world: the Josephine Seamount High Sea Marine Protected Area (JHSMPA), the Ligurian Sea, and along the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii. In the JHSMPA, sperm whales. and beaked whales. foraging rates do not differ between night-time and day-time. However, in the Ligurian Sea, sperm whales switch to night-time foraging as the winter approaches, while beaked whales alternate between hunting mainly at night, and both at night and at day. Spatial differences were found in deep diving odontocetes. foraging activity in Hawaii where they forage most in areas with higher chlorophyll concentrations. Pilot whales (and false killer whales, clustered together in the category "blackfishes") and Risso's dolphins forage mainly at night at all locations. These two species adjust their foraging activity with the length of the night. The density and size of animals living in deep sea scattering layers was studied using a DIDSON imaging sonar at multiple stations along the Kona coast of Hawaii. The density of animals was affected by location, depth, month, and the time of day. The size of animals was influenced by station and month. The DIDSON proved to be a successful, non-invasive technique to study density and size of animals in the deep sea. Densities were found to be an

  14. Conceptual design and testing strategy of a dual functional lithium-lead test blanket module in ITER and EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A dual functional lithium-lead (DFLL) test blanket module (TBM) concept has been proposed for testing in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in China to demonstrate the technologies of the liquid lithium-lead breeder blankets with emphasis on the balance between the risks and the potential attractiveness of blanket technology development. The design of DFLL-TBM concept has the flexibility of testing both the helium-cooled quasi-static lithium-lead (SLL) blanket concept and the He/PbLi dual-cooled lithium-lead (DLL) blanket concept. This paper presents an effective testing strategy proposed to achieve the testing target of SLL and DLL DEMO blankets relevant conditions, which includes three parts: materials R and D and small-scale out-of-pile mockups testing in loops, middle-scale TBMs pre-testing in EAST and full-scale consecutive TBMs testing corresponding to different operation phases of ITER during the first 10 years. The design of the DFLL-TBM concept and the testing strategy ability to test TBMs for both blanket concepts in sequence and or in parallel for both ITER and EAST are discussed

  15. A new strategy for snow-cover mapping using remote sensing data and ensemble based systems techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, S.; Chokmani, K.; De Sève, D.

    2012-04-01

    The snow cover plays an important role in the hydrological cycle of Quebec (Eastern Canada). Consequently, evaluating its spatial extent interests the authorities responsible for the management of water resources, especially hydropower companies. The main objective of this study is the development of a snow-cover mapping strategy using remote sensing data and ensemble based systems techniques. Planned to be tested in a near real-time operational mode, this snow-cover mapping strategy has the advantage to provide the probability of a pixel to be snow covered and its uncertainty. Ensemble systems are made of two key components. First, a method is needed to build an ensemble of classifiers that is diverse as much as possible. Second, an approach is required to combine the outputs of individual classifiers that make up the ensemble in such a way that correct decisions are amplified, and incorrect ones are cancelled out. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of ensemble systems to snow-cover mapping using remote sensing data. The chosen classifier is a sequential thresholds algorithm using NOAA-AVHRR data adapted to conditions over Eastern Canada. Its special feature is the use of a combination of six sequential thresholds varying according to the day in the winter season. Two versions of the snow-cover mapping algorithm have been developed: one is specific for autumn (from October 1st to December 31st) and the other for spring (from March 16th to May 31st). In order to build the ensemble based system, different versions of the algorithm are created by varying randomly its parameters. One hundred of the versions are included in the ensemble. The probability of a pixel to be snow, no-snow or cloud covered corresponds to the amount of votes the pixel has been classified as such by all classifiers. The overall performance of ensemble based mapping is compared to the overall performance of the chosen classifier, and also with ground observations at meteorological

  16. Transition from blastomere to trophectoderm biopsy: comparing two preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Lluc; Parriego, Mònica; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta; Arroyo, Gemma; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Coroleu, Bonaventura; Vidal, Francesca; Veiga, Anna

    2018-05-25

    SummaryShortly after the implementation of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) techniques for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A), the discussion about the transition from day 3 to blastocyst stage biopsy was initiated. Trophectoderm biopsy with CCS is meant to overcome the limitations of cleavage-stage biopsy and single-cell analysis. The aim of this study was to assess the results obtained in our PGT-A programme after the implementation of this new strategy. Comparisons between the results obtained in 179 PGT-A cycles with day 3 biopsy (D+3) and fresh embryo transfer, and 204 cycles with trophectoderm biopsy and deferred (frozen-thawed) embryo transfer were established. Fewer embryos were biopsied and a higher euploidy rate was observed in the trophectoderm biopsy group. No differences in implantation (50.3% vs. 61.4%) and clinical pregnancy rate per transfer (56.1% vs. 65.3%) were found. Although the mean number of euploid embryos per cycle did not differ between groups (1.5 ± 1.7 vs. 1.7 ± 1.8), the final number of euploid blastocysts available for transfer per cycle was significantly higher in the trophectoderm biopsy group (1.1 ± 1.3 vs. 1.7 ± 1.8). This factor led to an increased cumulative live birth rate in this last group (34.1% vs. 44.6%). Although both strategies can offer good results, trophectoderm biopsy offers a more robust diagnosis and the intervention is less harmful for the embryos so more euploid blastocysts are finally available for transfer and/or vitrification.

  17. Updating of actual technique for ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless materials and welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, P.O.; Pers-Anderson, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    The technique for ultrasonic testing of stainless austenitic steels and weldings has been studied and it has been brought to the latest standard. Many problems exist when testing, the most serious being the occurence of false indications and the damping of energy. Laboratory tests show that the detectors with transversal sound waves should be used for plane defects. Best results were achieved with a 45 degrees detector. (GB)

  18. Adaptation and Implementation of Predictive Maintenance Technique with Nondestructive Testing for Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gye Jo; Jung, Nam Gun

    2010-01-01

    Many forces are pressuring utilities to reduce operating and maintenance costs without cutting back on reliability or availability. Many utility managers are re-evaluating maintenance strategies to meet these demands. To utilities how to reduce maintenance costs and extent the effective operating life of equipment, predictive maintenance technique can be adapted. Predictive maintenance had three types program which are in-house program, engineering company program and mixed program. We can approach successful predictive maintenance program with 'smart trust' concept

  19. Technique Comparison of the Fracture Toughness Tests for Irradiated Fuel Claddings in a Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sangbok; Kim, Dosik; Jung, Yanghong; Choo, Yongsun; Ryu, Wooseog

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of a fracture toughness in a fuel cladding is a important factor to restrict the operation safety in nuclear power plants. The fracture properties of claddings were traditionally measured through a rubber bung test, a burst test, etc. Those results were the qualitative fracture characteristics, and could not be used as design or operation safety evaluation data. We need to evaluate the quantitative characteristics of claddings under normal operation and in accidents. The application of a fracture mechanics concept in testing a fuel cladding is restricted by the cladding geometry and creating the correct stress-state conditions. The geometry of claddings does not meet the requirement of the ASTM Standards for a specimen configuration and an applied load. The specimen may be produced from previously flattened claddings, but the flattening causes some uncertainties in the results due to changes in the microstructure of the material and a new distribution of the internal stresses. Therefore many efforts have been devoted to developing new test techniques, to quantify the fracture characteristics of claddings. Researchers from JAEA and NFI in Japan, Studsvik Company Ltd in Sweden, IAEA in Australia, and KAERI in Korea have independently developed fracture test techniques. This study is designed to review the independently developed techniques and to compare of their merits. Finally we shall apply the other techniques to upgrade our developing techniques

  20. Effectiveness of a Test-Taking Strategy on Achievement in Essay Tests for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, William J.; Hughes, Charles; Kapelski, Cory; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted to ascertain if an essay-writing strategy was effective at improving the achievement on essay tests for 7th- and 8th-grade students with reading and writing disabilities. Students were assigned via a stratified random sample to treatment or control group. Student scores were also compared to students without learning…

  1. Decision making about healthcare-related tests and diagnostic test strategies. Paper 2: a review of methodological and practical challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustafa, Reem A.; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Cheung, Adrienne; Prediger, Barbara; Brozek, Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick; Garg, Amit X.; Lelgemann, Monika; Büehler, Diedrich; Schünemann, Holger J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In this first of a series of five articles, we provide an overview of how and why healthcare-related tests and diagnostic strategies are currently applied. We also describe how our findings can be integrated with existing frameworks for making decisions that guide the use of

  2. Accelerated test techniques for micro-circuits: Evaluation of high temperature (473 k - 573 K) accelerated life test techniques as effective microcircuit screening methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The application of high temperature accelerated test techniques was shown to be an effective method of microcircuit defect screening. Comprehensive microcircuit evaluations and a series of high temperature (473 K to 573 K) life tests demonstrated that a freak or early failure population of surface contaminated devices could be completely screened in thirty two hours of test at an ambient temperature of 523 K. Equivalent screening at 398 K, as prescribed by current Military and NASA specifications, would have required in excess of 1,500 hours of test. All testing was accomplished with a Texas Instruments' 54L10, low power triple-3 input NAND gate manufactured with a titanium- tungsten (Ti-W), Gold (Au) metallization system. A number of design and/or manufacturing anomalies were also noted with the Ti-W, Au metallization system. Further study of the exact nature and cause(s) of these anomalies is recommended prior to the use of microcircuits with Ti-W, Au metallization in long life/high reliability applications. Photomicrographs of tested circuits are included.

  3. How'd they do it? Malingering strategies on symptom validity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jing Ee; Slick, Daniel J; Strauss, Esther; Hultsch, David F

    2002-12-01

    Twenty-five undergraduate students were instructed to feign believable impairment following a brain injury from a car accident and 27 students were told to perform like they had recovered from such an injury. Three forced-choice tests, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT), and Word Memory Test (WMT) were given. Test-taking strategies were evaluated by means of a questionnaire given at the end of the test session. The results revealed that all the tasks differentiated between groups. Using conventional cut-scores, the WMT proved most efficient while the VSVT captured the most participants in the definitive below-chance category. Individuals instructed to feign injury were more likely to prepare prior to the experiment, with feigning of memory loss as the most frequently reported strategy. Regardless, preparation effort did not translate into believable performance on the tests.

  4. Developing test for experimental study: the effectiveness of hedwig strategy in english education department universitas brawijaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devinta Puspita Ratri

    2017-04-01

    Having a big number of students in content subject of a language class is a challenge for teacher since it is quite difficult to accommodate students’ critical thinking and active participation at the same time. Therefore, Hedwig strategy is aimed to give room for students to explore themselves and get involved in the materials delivered in the class. Furthermore, by having group and regroup to deliver message in Hedwig strategy, students are forced to be active participated in classroom activities. The idea of Hedwig strategy is inspired by Jigsaw and Think-Pair-Share which have existed before. To know whether Hedwig strategy is effectively applied in content subject in large language class, it is proposed to do quasi experimental study with one class as an experimental group and one class as a control group. The experimental group is treated by using Hedwig strategy. Prior to the experimental study, it is performed research and development to develop the test for pre-test and post-test. For that reason, the research problem is what test is valid and reliable for an experimental study on the effectiveness of Hedwig strategy for the 4th semester students in Language Teaching Methodology class in English Education Department Universitas Brawijaya. This research reports half of the whole plan where the researchers developed test for pre-test and posttest to measure students’ improvement in understanding Language Teaching Methodology. In short, the test developed in this study will be used to carry out experimental study as pre-test and post-test

  5. Test-Taking Strategies and Task-based Assessment: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Barati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effect of task-based assessment on the type and frequency of test-taking strategies that three proficiency groups of Iranian adult EFL learners used when completing the First Certificate in English FCE reading paper. A total of 70 EFL university undergraduates (53 females and 17 males took part in the main phase of this study. They were divided into three proficiency groups: high, intermediate, and low. A set of Chi-square analyses was used to explore the type and frequency of test-taking strategies used by participants. The results suggested that the intermediate group test takers used the strategies significantly different after completing each task (sub-test in the FCE reading paper. However, the high and low proficient test takers› use of strategies was only significant after completing the third task of the FCE reading paper. The findings also revealed that a pattern could be drawn of the type of strategies used by the three proficiency groups who participated in this study. Nonetheless, such a pattern shifted at times depending on the ability of the test takers and/or the task under study.

  6. Flight Flutter Testing of Rotary Wing Aircraft Using a Control System Oscillation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, J. G.; Viswanathan, S.; Matthys, C. G.

    1976-01-01

    A flight flutter testing technique is described in which the rotor controls are oscillated by series actuators to excite the rotor and airframe modes of interest, which are then allowed to decay. The moving block technique is then used to determine the damped frequency and damping variation with rotor speed. The method proved useful for tracking the stability of relatively well damped modes. The results of recently completed flight tests of an experimental soft-in-plane rotor are used to illustrate the technique. Included is a discussion of the application of this technique to investigation of the propeller whirl flutter stability characteristics of the NASA/Army XV-15 VTOL tilt rotor research aircraft.

  7. Fundamental and assessment of concrete structure monitoring by using acoustic emission technique testing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, M. S. M.; Ibrahim, M. H. W.; Shahidan, S.; Ghadzali, N. S.; Misri, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) technique is one of the non-destructive (NDT) testing, where it can be used to determine the damage of concrete structures such as crack, corrosion, stability, sensitivity, as structure monitoring and energy formed within cracking opening growth in the concrete structure. This article gives a comprehensive review of the acoustic emission (AE) technique testing due to its application in concrete structure for structural health monitoring (SHM). Assessment of AE technique used for structural are reviewed to give the perception of its structural engineering such as dam, bridge and building, where the previous research has been reviewed based on AE application. The assessment of AE technique focusing on basic fundamental of parametric and signal waveform analysis during analysis process and its capability in structural monitoring. Moreover, the assessment and application of AE due to its function have been summarized and highlighted for future references

  8. Regulating approaches to learning: Testing learning strategy convergences across a year at university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Luke K; Vermunt, Jan D

    2018-03-01

    Contemporary models of student learning within higher education are often inclusive of processing and regulation strategies. Considerable research has examined their use over time and their (person-centred) convergence. The longitudinal stability/variability of learning strategy use, however, is poorly understood, but essential to supporting student learning across university experiences. Develop and test a person-centred longitudinal model of learning strategies across the first-year university experience. Japanese university students (n = 933) completed surveys (deep and surface approaches to learning; self, external, and lack of regulation) at the beginning and end of their first year. Following invariance and cross-sectional tests, latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) was undertaken. Initial difference testing supported small but significant differences for self-/external regulation. Fit indices supported a four-group model, consistent across both measurement points. These subgroups were labelled Low Quality (low deep approaches and self-regulation), Low Quantity (low strategy use generally), Average (moderate strategy use), and High Quantity (intense use of all strategies) strategies. The stability of these groups ranged from stable to variable: Average (93% stayers), Low Quality (90% stayers), High Quantity (72% stayers), and Low Quantity (40% stayers). The three largest transitions presented joint shifts in processing/regulation strategy preference across the year, from adaptive to maladaptive and vice versa. Person-centred longitudinal findings presented patterns of learning transitions that different students experience during their first year at university. Stability/variability of students' strategy use was linked to the nature of initial subgroup membership. Findings also indicated strong connections between processing and regulation strategy changes across first-year university experiences. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  9. Voices of University Students with ADHD about Test-Taking: Behaviors, Needs, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofiesh, Nicole; Moniz, Erin; Bisagno, Joan

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the test-taking behavior, needs, and strategies of postsecondary students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), focus group comments from 17 university students with ADHD were analyzed. These comments formed the basis for a series of research studies that are in progress regarding test-taking and individuals…

  10. Strategies for Controlling Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin

    2004-01-01

    Choosing a strategy for controlling item exposure has become an integral part of test development for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study investigated the performance of six procedures for controlling item exposure in a series of simulated CATs under the generalized partial credit model. In addition to a no-exposure control baseline…

  11. Efficient strategies to find diagnostic test accuracy studies in kidney journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Thomas E; Ladhani, Maleeka; Mitchell, Ruth; Craig, Jonathan C; Webster, Angela C

    2015-08-01

    Nephrologists looking for quick answers to diagnostic clinical questions in MEDLINE can use a range of published search strategies or Clinical Query limits to improve the precision of their searches. We aimed to evaluate existing search strategies for finding diagnostic test accuracy studies in nephrology journals. We assessed the accuracy of 14 search strategies for retrieving diagnostic test accuracy studies from three nephrology journals indexed in MEDLINE. Two investigators hand searched the same journals to create a reference set of diagnostic test accuracy studies to compare search strategy results against. We identified 103 diagnostic test accuracy studies, accounting for 2.1% of all studies published. The most specific search strategy was the Narrow Clinical Queries limit (sensitivity: 0.20, 95% CI 0.13-0.29; specificity: 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-0.99). Using the Narrow Clinical Queries limit, a searcher would need to screen three (95% CI 2-6) articles to find one diagnostic study. The most sensitive search strategy was van der Weijden 1999 Extended (sensitivity: 0.95; 95% CI 0.89-0.98; specificity 0.55, 95% CI 0.53-0.56) but required a searcher to screen 24 (95% CI 23-26) articles to find one diagnostic study. Bachmann 2002 was the best balanced search strategy, which was sensitive (0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.94), but also specific (0.74, 95% CI 0.73-0.75), with a number needed to screen of 15 (95% CI 14-17). Diagnostic studies are infrequently published in nephrology journals. The addition of a strategy for diagnostic studies to a subject search strategy in MEDLINE may reduce the records needed to screen while preserving adequate search sensitivity for routine clinical use. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  12. Testing of a new prototype surgical stapler that automates the rollover sleeve technique for venous anastomoses

    OpenAIRE

    PATRICIA B CARROLL; WERVISTON DEFARIA; CARLOS GANDIA; MARIANA BERHO; EVANGELOS MISIAKOS; ANDREAS G TZAKIS

    2006-01-01

    The creation of successful vascular anastomoses is of primary importance in many surgical fields. Numerous attempts to automate this process have been made. These techniques have slowly gained acceptance, but their use is still limited. This report details feasibility testing of a new prototype stapler that automates the rollover sleeve technique for venous vascular anastomoses. Male and female mongrel dogs (n=7) (25-32 kg) were used. A segment of the right (n=5) or left (n=2) iliac vein was ...

  13. Multiple group radiator and hybrid test heads, possibilities of combining the array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de

  14. The Design and Development of Test Platform for Wheat Precision Seeding Based on Image Processing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Li , Qing; Lin , Haibo; Xiu , Yu-Feng; Wang , Ruixue; Yi , Chuijie

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The test platform of wheat precision seeding based on image processing techniques is designed to develop the wheat precision seed metering device with high efficiency and precision. Using image processing techniques, this platform gathers images of seeds (wheat) on the conveyer belt which are falling from seed metering device. Then these data are processed and analyzed to calculate the qualified rate, reseeding rate and leakage sowing rate, etc. This paper introduces t...

  15. Medium scale test study of chemical cleaning technique for secondary side of SG in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mengqin; Zhang Shufeng; Yu Jinghua; Hou Shufeng

    1997-08-01

    The medium scale test study of chemical cleaning technique for removing corrosion product (Fe 3 O 4 ) in secondary side of SG in PWR has been completed. The test has been carried out in a medium scale test loop. The medium scale test evaluated the effect of the chemical cleaning technique (temperature, flow rate, cleaning time, cleaning process), the state of corrosion product deposition on magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) solubility and safety of materials of SG in cleaning process. The inhibitor component of chemical cleaning agent has been improved by electrochemical linear polarization method, the effect of inhibitor on corrosion resistance of materials have been examined in the medium scale test loop, the most components of chemical cleaning agent have been obtained, the EDTA is main component in cleaning agent. The electrochemical method for monitor corrosion of materials during cleaning process has been completed in the laboratory. The study of the medium scale test of chemical cleaning technique have had the optimum chemical cleaning technique for remove corrosion product in SG secondary side of PWR. (9 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.)

  16. Black oil hydrate behavior : a comparison study of testing techniques : SINTEF Wheel and Multicell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, A.; Hjarbo, K.W. [SINTEF Material and Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Larsen, R.; Straume, E.O.; Hoiland, S. [SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway); Bracey, J.T. [BHP Billiton, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    SINTEF has developed a high pressure Multicell system to quickly screen possible inhibitor candidates for black oil systems in high pressure cells and loops. The hydrate self inhibiting properties of a black oil system were evaluated for gas/water and gas/water/oil systems at different water cuts. The oil system was then retested in a fluid flow loop system (Wheel). Different low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) were then screened in the Multicell system. The most promising inhibitors were tested further in the Wheel system. This paper presented the experimental results of these tests. The Multicell screening method allows 48 parallel low-volume samples to be compared simultaneously. The Wheel is suitable for more thorough testing of large-volume samples at harsh experimental conditions. Black oil samples were tested in this study using both techniques. Experiments were conducted to simulate shut-in and restart situations in a production line at field conditions. Both uninhibited oil and LDHI additives were tested. The Multicell was used to identify the critical water cut limit for uninhibited oil, and for screening the performance of the inhibitor for a large number of LDHIs at relevant conditions. The results from both testing techniques were found to be in good agreement. Both identified the same critical water cut limit. The Multicell technique was shown to be valuable for fast screening, testing and optimization of experimental conditions. However, the Wheel is needed for testing relevant flow behaviour of the systems. 1 ref., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Recruitment Techniques and Strategies in a Community-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Study of Men and Women of African Ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stacy N; Govindaraju, Swapamthi; Jackson, Brittany; Williams, Kimberly R; Christy, Shannon M; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Shibata, David; Roetzheim, Richard; Meade, Cathy D; Gwede, Clement K

    Recruiting ethnically diverse Black participants to an innovative, community-based research study to reduce colorectal cancer screening disparities requires multipronged recruitment techniques. This article describes active, passive, and snowball recruitment techniques, and challenges and lessons learned in recruiting a diverse sample of Black participants. For each of the three recruitment techniques, data were collected on strategies, enrollment efficiency (participants enrolled/participants evaluated), and reasons for ineligibility. Five hundred sixty individuals were evaluated, and 330 individuals were enrolled. Active recruitment yielded the highest number of enrolled participants, followed by passive and snowball. Snowball recruitment was the most efficient technique, with enrollment efficiency of 72.4%, followed by passive (58.1%) and active (55.7%) techniques. There were significant differences in gender, education, country of origin, health insurance, and having a regular physician by recruitment technique (p recruitment techniques should be employed to increase reach, diversity, and study participation rates among Blacks. Although each recruitment technique had a variable enrollment efficiency, the use of multipronged recruitment techniques can lead to successful enrollment of diverse Blacks into cancer prevention and control interventions.

  18. The scratch test - Different critical load determination techniques. [adhesive strength of thin hard coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekler, J.; Hintermann, H. E.; Steinmann, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different critical load determination techniques such as microscopy, acoustic emission, normal, tangential, and lateral forces used for scratch test evaluation of complex or multilayer coatings are investigated. The applicability of the scratch test to newly developed coating techniques, systems, and applications is discussed. Among the methods based on the use of a physical measurement, acoustic emission detection is the most effective. The dynamics ratio between the signals below and above the critical load for the acoustic emission (much greater than 100) is well above that obtained with the normal, tangential, and lateral forces. The present commercial instruments are limited in load application performance. A scratch tester able to apply accurate loads as low as 0.01 N would probably overcome most of the actual limitations and would be expected to extend the scratch testing technique to different application fields such as optics and microelectronics.

  19. Using the Think-Aloud Technique for Determining Different Reading Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshalinezhad, Ladan; Nikou, Farahnaz Reymani; Bonyadi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the reading strategies used by advanced and intermediate Persian EFL learners in both English and Persian reading comprehension texts. Based on the aims of the study reading comprehension texts were administered to the learners and their reading strategies in both English and Persian reading comprehension texts were examined…

  20. Agent based models for testing city evacuation strategies under a flood event as strategy to reduce flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Neiler; Sanchez, Arlex; Nokolic, Igor; Vojinovic, Zoran

    2016-04-01

    This research explores the uses of Agent Based Models (ABM) and its potential to test large scale evacuation strategies in coastal cities at risk from flood events due to extreme hydro-meteorological events with the final purpose of disaster risk reduction by decreasing human's exposure to the hazard. The first part of the paper corresponds to the theory used to build the models such as: Complex adaptive systems (CAS) and the principles and uses of ABM in this field. The first section outlines the pros and cons of using AMB to test city evacuation strategies at medium and large scale. The second part of the paper focuses on the central theory used to build the ABM, specifically the psychological and behavioral model as well as the framework used in this research, specifically the PECS reference model is cover in this section. The last part of this section covers the main attributes or characteristics of human beings used to described the agents. The third part of the paper shows the methodology used to build and implement the ABM model using Repast-Symphony as an open source agent-based modelling and simulation platform. The preliminary results for the first implementation in a region of the island of Sint-Maarten a Dutch Caribbean island are presented and discussed in the fourth section of paper. The results obtained so far, are promising for a further development of the model and its implementation and testing in a full scale city

  1. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), and by the industry organization Cosmetics Europe... products. Pesticides and other marketed chemicals, including cosmetic ingredients, are routinely tested for... sensitization. NICEATM collaboration with industry scientists to develop an open-source Bayesian network as an...

  2. Quality tools and techniques, EFQM experience and strategy formation. Is there any relationship? The particular case of Spanish service firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Revuelto-Taboada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the application of quality tools and techniques has been broadly covered by the specialist literature. To a lesser extent, the literature has analysed the strategic capability of the EFQM model, that is, its capacity to facilitate integrative (rational and emergent strategy formation processes. But, the study of how the application of this model may affect how firms apply quality tools and techniques remain unexplored. Taking this gap in the literature as a starting point, our research goal is threefold: first of all, we intend to study the relationship between the use of tools and techniques and the experience of a firm in the application of quality management and the EFQM Excellence Model; secondly, we have the intention of studying the extent to which quality tools and techniques may affect rationality and/or emergence in the strategy formation process; and thirdly, we try to analyse the effect of the experience in the use of the EFQM model on this relationship. We employed a quantitative research methodology to try to reach these goals. As a consequence, some interesting results have come up. As an example, the experience in the application of the EFQM model has a moderating effect on how companies use quality tools and techniques. Concretely, a great experience in the employment of this model make firms to apply quality tools and techniques in a more participative way combined with high levels of formalisation and planning. Also, some other conclusions and implications have been drawn up

  3. Fronto-orbital feminization technique. A surgical strategy using fronto-orbital burring with or without eggshell technique to optimize the risk/benefit ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villepelet, A; Jafari, A; Baujat, B

    2018-05-04

    The demand for facial feminization is increasing in transsexual patients. Masculine foreheads present extensive supraorbital bossing with a more acute glabellar angle, whereas female foreheads show softer features. The aim of this article is to describe our surgical technique for fronto-orbital feminization. The mask-lift technique is an upper face-lift. It provides rejuvenation by correcting collapsed features, and fronto-orbital feminization through burring of orbital rims and lateral canthopexies. Depending on the size of the frontal sinus and the thickness of its anterior wall, frontal remodeling is achieved using simple burring or by means of the eggshell technique. Orbital remodeling comprises a superolateral orbital opening, a reduction of ridges and a trough at the lateral orbital rim to support the lateral canthopexy. Frontal, corrugator and procerus myectomies, plus minimal scalp excision, complete the surgery. Our technique results in significant, natural-looking feminization. No complications were observed in our series of patients. The eggshell technique is an alternative to bone flap on over-pneumatized sinus. Fronto-orbital feminization fits into a wider surgical strategy. It can be associated to rhinoplasty, genioplasty, mandibular angle remodeling, face lift and laryngoplasty. Achieving facial feminization in 2 or 3 stages improves psychological and physiological tolerance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Is retrieval the key? Metamemory judgment and testing as learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdoğan, Elçin; Izaute, Marie; Danion, Jean-Marie; Vidailhet, Pierre; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    Re-reading is the most common learning strategy, albeit not a very efficient one. Testing is highly efficient, but not perceived by students as a learning strategy. Prospective judgment-of-learning (JOL) reflect the learner's impression of subsequently being able to retrieve the ongoing learning in a cued-recall task. Estimating JOL involves attempting to retrieve the information, as in testing. The few studies that have explored the potential mnemonic benefit of JOL have yielded contradictory results. Our aim was to compare JOL and testing with re-study and to examine the impact of these strategies according to the relative difficulty of the material (cue-target association strength) in two experiments. After a first encoding phase, participants re-studied, provided JOL, or took a test. Forty-eight hours later, they participated in a final cued-recall test, during which their confidence level judgments were collected. The main result was that delayed JOL behaved in the same way as testing, and both yielded better performances than re-study when material was of moderate difficulty. The easy or very difficult material revealed no differences between these strategies. JOL is proposed as an alternative to testing when faced with difficult material.

  5. Analysis of fresh fallout from Chinese tests by beta counting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Lalit, B.Y.; Shukla, V.K.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes beta counting techniques used in the analysis of fresh radioactive fallout samples from nuclear weapon tests. Fresh fallout samples have been collected by swiping the exposed portion of the engine covers of commercial aircrafts arriving at Bombay from New York after Chinese tests on September 26, 1976 and September 17, 1977. Activities of short-lived radionuclides such as Ag 111, Sr 89, Mo 99, U 237 and Np 239 were determined using these techniques. The results obtained from this analysis is discussed in brief in relation to the kind of fissile material, the extent of thermonuclear reaction in the weapon and the mode of detonation. (orig.) [de

  6. An evaluation testing technique of single event effect using Beam Blanking SEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, J; Hada, T; Pesce, A; Akutsu, T; Matsuda, S [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Igarashi, T; Baba, S

    1997-03-01

    Beam Blanking SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) testing technique has been applied to CMOS SRAM devices to evaluate the occurence of soft errors on memory cells. Cross-section versus beam current and LET curves derived from BBSEM and heavy ion testing technique, respectively, have been compared. A linear relation between BBSEM current and heavy ion LET has been found. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the application of focused pulsed electron beam could be a reliable, convenient and inexpensive tool to investigate the effects of heavy ions and high energy particles on memory devices for space application. (author)

  7. Strategy for phase 2 whole element furnace testing K West fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    A strategy was developed for the second phase of the whole element furnace testing of damaged fuel removed from the K West Basin. The Phase 2 testing can be divided into three groups covering oxidation of whole element in moist inert atmospheres, drying elements for post Cold Vacuum Drying staging tests, and drying additional K West elements to provide confirmation of the results from the first series of damaged K West fuel drying studies

  8. Training Guidelines in Non-Destructive Testing Techniques: Leak Testing at Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in the promotion of non-destructive testing (NDT) technology for many decades. The prime reason for this interest has been the need for stringent standards for quality assurance for safe operation of nuclear and other industrial installations. The IAEA successfully executed a number of programmes, including technical cooperation projects (national and regional) and coordinated research projects (CRPs), in which NDT was an important part. Through these programmes, a large number of personnel have been trained in Member States, leading to the establishment of national certifying bodies responsible for the training and certification of NDT personnel. Consequently, a state of self-sufficiency in this area of technology has been achieved in many Member States. All along there has been a realization of the need to have well established training guidelines, in order to orient the IAEA experts who were involved in training and certification programmes, and to achieve some level of international uniformity and harmonization of training materials and certification processes, and consequent competence of NDT personnel.

  9. Sensitivity of field tests, serological and molecular techniques for Plum Pox Virus detection in various tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca VIRŠČEK MARN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of field tests (AgriStrip  and Immunochromato, DAS-ELISA, two step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for Plum pox virus (PPV detection was tested in various tissues of apricot, peach, plum and damson plum trees infected with isolates belonging to PPV-D, PPV-M or PPV-Rec, the three strains present in Slovenia. Flowers of apricot and plum in full bloom proved to be a very good source for detection of PPV. PPV could be detected with all tested techniques in symptomatic parts of leaves in May and with one exception even in the beginning of August, but it was not detected in asymptomatic leaves using field tests, DAS-ELISA and partly also molecular techniques. PPV was detected only in some of the samples of asymptomatic parts of the leaves with symptoms and of stalks by field tests and DAS-ELISA. Infections were not detected in buds in August using field tests or DAS-ELISA. Field tests are useful for confirmation of the PPV infection in symptomatic leaves, but in tissues without symptoms DAS-ELISA should be combined or replaced by molecular techniques.

  10. Test plan for suitability assessment of five overcoring stress measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, E.C.; Rundle, T.A.; McCabe, W.M.; Kim, K.

    1982-08-01

    Tests are to be conducted at the Near-Surface Test Facility (NSTF) to assess the suitability of five overcoring techniques for in situ stress determination in a jointed basalt. The overcoring methods to be investigated use the following instrumentation to measure strain relief by overcoring a pilot borehole: USBM borehole deformation gage, CSIRO hollow inclusion stress cell, cast epoxy inclusion, the Lulea triaxial strain cell and the ''doorstopper'' biaxial strain cell. The tests are to provide data regarding the state of stress below the NSTF. This information is to be used in the evaluation of each method of overcoring. During the course of field testing, an attempt is to be made to adapt conventional overcoring techniques and analytical methods to the basalt medium. If overcoring stress determination in basalt is shown suitable, then additional studies will be identified to further adapt a technique for use at depth. In addition to the five overcoring techniques to be tested at the NSTF, stress measurements by Hydrofracturing are to be conducted to provide data for direct comparison with overcoring results. 16 refs., 18 figs

  11. More than friendship is required : an empirical test of cooperative firm strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pesämaa, Ossi; Hair Jr, Joseph F

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine a proposed six-construct theoretical model of factors influencing successful cooperative relationships and strategy development. Design/methodology/approach - A theoretical model of strategy development and cooperative relationships was tested. Qualitative research among key experts identified 15 successful regional tourism networks. Two successful cooperative networks were selected based on annual revenues. A sample of 254 small and mediu...

  12. Soil solution extraction techniques for microbial ecotoxicity testing: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensing, T; Preston, S; Strachan, N; Paton, G I

    2001-02-01

    The suitability of two different techniques (centrifugation and Rhizon sampler) for obtaining the interstitial pore water of soil (soil solution), integral to the ecotoxicity assessment of metal contaminated soil, were investigated by combining chemical analyses and a luminescence-based microbial biosensor. Two different techniques, centrifugation and Rhizon sampler, were used to extract the soil solution from Insch (a loamy sand) and Boyndie (a sandy loam) soils, which had been amended with different concentrations of Zn and Cd. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major anions (F- , CI-, NO3, SO4(2-)) and major cations (K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) in the soil solutions varied depending on the extraction technique used. Overall, the concentrations of Zn and Cd were significantly higher in the soil solution extracted using the centrifugation technique compared with that extracted using the Rhizon sampler technique. Furthermore, the differences observed between the two extraction techniques depended on the type of soil from which the solution was being extracted. The luminescence-based biosensor Escherichia coli HB101 pUCD607 was shown to respond to the free metal concentrations in the soil solutions and showed that different toxicities were associated with each soil, depending on the technique used to extract the soil solution. This study highlights the need to characterise the type of extraction technique used to obtain the soil solution for ecotoxicity testing in order that a representative ecotoxicity assessment can be carried out.

  13. Decision making about healthcare-related tests and diagnostic test strategies. Paper 2: a review of methodological and practical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Reem A; Wiercioch, Wojtek; Cheung, Adrienne; Prediger, Barbara; Brozek, Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick; Garg, Amit X; Lelgemann, Monika; Büehler, Diedrich; Schünemann, Holger J

    2017-12-01

    In this first of a series of five articles, we provide an overview of how and why healthcare-related tests and diagnostic strategies are currently applied. We also describe how our findings can be integrated with existing frameworks for making decisions that guide the use of healthcare-related tests and diagnostic strategies. We searched MEDLINE, references of identified articles, chapters in relevant textbooks, and identified articles citing classic literature on this topic. We provide updated frameworks for the potential roles and applications of tests with suggested definitions and practical examples. We also discuss study designs that are commonly used to assess tests' performance and the effects of tests on people's health. These designs include diagnostic randomized controlled trials and retrospective validation. We describe the utility of these and other currently suggested designs, which questions they can answer and which ones they cannot. In addition, we summarize the challenges unique to decision-making resulting from the use of tests. This overview highlights current challenges in the application of tests in decision-making in healthcare, provides clarifications, and informs the proposed solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive testing of austenitic and dissimilar welds in nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juengert, Anne; Dugan, Sandra; Homann, Tobias; Mitzscherling, Steffen; Prager, Jens; Pudovikov, Sergey; Schwender, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Austenitic stainless steel welds as well as dissimilar metal welds with nickel alloy filler material, used in safety relevant parts of nuclear power plants, still challenge the ultrasonic inspection. The weld material forms large oriented grains that lead, on the one hand, to high sound scattering and, on the other hand, to inhomogeneity and to the acoustic anisotropy of the weld structure. The ultrasonic wave fronts do not propagate linearly, as in ferritic weld joints, but along the curves, which depend on the specific grain structure of the weld. Due to the influence of these phenomena, it is difficult to analyze the inspection results and to classify the ultrasonic indications, which could be both from the weld geometry and from the material defects. A correct flaw sizing is not possible. In an ongoing research project, different techniques to improve the reliability of ultrasonic testing at these kinds of welds are investigated. In a first step (in the previous research project) two ultrasonic inspection techniques were developed and validated on plane test specimens with artificial and realistic flaws. In the ongoing project, these techniques are applied to circumferential pipe welds with longitudinal and transverse flaws. The technique developed at the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Germany uses a combination of ray tracing and synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). To investigate the unknown grain structure, the velocity distribution of weld-transmitting ultrasound waves is measured and used to model the weld by ray tracing. The second technique, developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP) in Germany, uses Sampling Phased Array (Full Matrix Capture) combined with the reverse phase matching (RPM) and the gradient elastic constant descent algorithm (GECDM). This inspection method is able to estimate the elastic constants of the columnar grains in the weld and offers an improvement of the

  15. Development of enclosure technique of tag gas for in-pile creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izaki, Toru; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Soroi, Masatoshi; Ito, Chikara

    2004-01-01

    Outline of the enclosure technique of tag gas for in-pile creep test is stated. In order to carry out in-pile creep test, the sample can enclose tag gas before the test and then the sample is inserted into MARICO-2 (Material Testing Rig with Temperature Control) in FBR 'JOYO' MK-III for the irradiation test. Outline of in-pile creep test using tag gas, enclosure system of tag gas, detection of a part of broken sample and identification of sample are explained. 126-, 128-, 129-, 131-, 132-, and 134-Xe are used as tag gases. The samples are identified by RIMS (Laser Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy) in ppt order. ODS ferritic steel will be tested by the method in the next step. (S.Y.)

  16. Maximising the clinical use of exercise gaseous exchange testing in children with repaired cyanotic congenital heart defects: the development of an appropriate test strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, A; Leung, M

    2000-04-01

    Implicit in deciding upon an exercise test strategy to elucidate cardiopulmonary function in children with congenital heart disease are appropriate application of gas exchange techniques and the significance of the data collected to the specific congenital heart disorder. Post-operative cardiopulmonary responses to exercise in cyanotic disorders are complex and, despite a large body of extant literature in paediatric patients, there has been much difficulty in achieving quality and consistency of data. Maximal oxygen uptake is widely recognised as the best single indicator of cardiopulmonary function and has therefore been the focus of most clinical exercise tests in children. Many children with various heart anomalies are able to exercise to maximum without adverse symptoms, and it is essential that test termination is based on the same criteria for these children. Choosing appropriate, valid indicators of maximum in children with congenital heart disease is beset by difficulties. Such maximal intensity exercise testing procedures have been challenged on the grounds that they do not give a good indication of cardiopulmonary function that is relevant to real life situations. Furthermore, they are prone to much interindividual variability and error in the definition of maximal exertion. Alternative strategies have been proposed which focus upon dynamic submaximal and kinetic cardiopulmonary responses, which are thought to be less dependent on maximal voluntary effort and more suited to the daily activity patterns of children. These methods are also not without problems. Variability in anaerobic threshold measurements and controversy regarding its physiological meaning have been debated. It is recommended that an appropriate cardiopulmonary exercise gas exchange test strategy, which provides clinically useful information for children with cyanotic congenital heart disease, should include both maximal and submaximal data. The inclusion of oxygen uptake kinetics and

  17. The perspectives of development of radiometric techniques for welded joints testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, V.A.; Dovzhenko, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    The perspectives of development of radiometric techniques in non-destructive testing are presented. The problems of computer tomography, radiometric introscopy, electrorentgenography (xeroradiography) are reviewed. The aspects of application of low-silver detectors are also analysed. The studies on the problems mentioned above will be continued in order to eliminate expensive radiographic films and having in mind making the testing process faster. The design of individual dosemeters is also demonstrated. (author)

  18. Low-Power Built-In Self-Test Techniques for Embedded SRAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyue-Kung Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of power consumption during parallel BIST of embedded memory cores is growing significantly. In order to alleviate this problem, a row bank-based precharge technique based on the divided wordline (DWL architecture is proposed for low-power testing of embedded SRAMs. The memory cell array is first divided into row banks. The effectiveness of the row bank-based precharge technique is due to the predictable address sequence during test. In low-power test mode, instead of precharging the entire memory array, only the current accessed row bank is precharged. This will result in significant power saving for the precharge circuitry. The precharge power can be reduced to 1/b of that of the traditional precharge techniques, where b denotes the number of row banks in the memory array. With simple transmission gates and inverters, the modified precharge control circuitry was also designed. The hardware overhead for implementing the low-power technique is almost negligible. Moreover, the corresponding BIST design to implement the low-power technique is almost the same as the conventional BIST designs. It is also notable that the inherent low-power characteristics of the DWL architecture can be preserved. According to experimental results, 48.9% power reduction can be achieved for a 256 × 256 bit-oriented SRAM. The memory is divided into 8 row banks. Moreover, if the number of row banks increases, the power saving will also increase.

  19. Optimal Sequential Diagnostic Strategy Generation Considering Test Placement Cost for Multimode Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigang Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sequential fault diagnosis is an approach that realizes fault isolation by executing the optimal test step by step. The strategy used, i.e., the sequential diagnostic strategy, has great influence on diagnostic accuracy and cost. Optimal sequential diagnostic strategy generation is an important step in the process of diagnosis system construction, which has been studied extensively in the literature. However, previous algorithms either are designed for single mode systems or do not consider test placement cost. They are not suitable to solve the sequential diagnostic strategy generation problem considering test placement cost for multimode systems. Therefore, this problem is studied in this paper. A formulation is presented. Two algorithms are proposed, one of which is realized by system transformation and the other is newly designed. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the effectiveness of the algorithms. A real-world system is also presented. All the results show that both of them have the ability to solve the diagnostic strategy generation problem, and they have different characteristics.

  20. Optimal Sequential Diagnostic Strategy Generation Considering Test Placement Cost for Multimode Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shigang; Song, Lijun; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Zheng; Yang, Yongmin

    2015-01-01

    Sequential fault diagnosis is an approach that realizes fault isolation by executing the optimal test step by step. The strategy used, i.e., the sequential diagnostic strategy, has great influence on diagnostic accuracy and cost. Optimal sequential diagnostic strategy generation is an important step in the process of diagnosis system construction, which has been studied extensively in the literature. However, previous algorithms either are designed for single mode systems or do not consider test placement cost. They are not suitable to solve the sequential diagnostic strategy generation problem considering test placement cost for multimode systems. Therefore, this problem is studied in this paper. A formulation is presented. Two algorithms are proposed, one of which is realized by system transformation and the other is newly designed. Extensive simulations are carried out to test the effectiveness of the algorithms. A real-world system is also presented. All the results show that both of them have the ability to solve the diagnostic strategy generation problem, and they have different characteristics. PMID:26457709

  1. Analysis of failure dependent test, repair and shutdown strategies for redundant trains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryasev, S.; Samanta, P.

    1994-09-01

    Failure-dependent testing implies a test of a redundant components (or trains) when failure of one component has been detected. The purpose of such testing is to detect any common cause failures (CCFs) of multiple components so that a corrective action such as repair or plant shutdown can be taken to reduce the residence time of multiple failures, given a failure has been detected. This type of testing focuses on reducing the conditional risk of CCFs. Formulas for calculating the conditional failure probability of a two train system with different test, repair and shutdown strategies are developed. A methodology is presented with an example calculation showing the risk-effectiveness of failure-dependent strategies for emergency diesel generators (EDGs) in nuclear power plants (NPPs)

  2. Management strategy evaluation of pheromone-baited trapping techniques to improve management of invasive sea lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Heather; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Johnson, Nicholas; Wagner, Michael C.; Szymanski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    We applied a management strategy evaluation (MSE) model to examine the potential cost-effectiveness of using pheromone-baited trapping along with conventional lampricide treatment to manage invasive sea lamprey. Four pheromone-baited trapping strategies were modeled: (1) stream activation wherein pheromone was applied to existing traps to achieve 10−12 mol/L in-stream concentration, (2) stream activation plus two additional traps downstream with pheromone applied at 2.5 mg/hr (reverse-intercept approach), (3) trap activation wherein pheromone was applied at 10 mg/hr to existing traps, and (4) trap activation and reverse-intercept approach. Each new strategy was applied, with remaining funds applied to conventional lampricide control. Simulating deployment of these hybrid strategies on fourteen Lake Michigan streams resulted in increases of 17 and 11% (strategies 1 and 2) and decreases of 4 and 7% (strategies 3 and 4) of the lakewide mean abundance of adult sea lamprey relative to status quo. MSE revealed performance targets for trap efficacy to guide additional research because results indicate that combining lampricides and high efficacy trapping technologies can reduce sea lamprey abundance on average without increasing control costs.

  3. Operation and maintenance of waste incinerators - A comparison of two techniques and strategies; Drift och underhaall av avfallsfoerbraenningsanlaeggningar - En jaemfoerelse av tvaa tekniker och strategier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Andreas [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Hoegskolan i Boraas, Boraas (Sweden); Niklasson, Fredrik [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden); Johnsson, Anders [Boraas Energi och Miljoe, Boraas (Sweden); Fredaeng, Julia [Dalkia, Stockholm (Sweden); Wettergren, Hans [Renova AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    This work has developed and demonstrated a simple method for comparison of operation and maintenance cost for various waste combustion techniques and plants. The principal of the method is to coarsely and initially divide cost into comparable posts. Post of specific interest is thereafter compared on a more detailed level. This procedure allows comparison with a modest consumption of time and effort. There is a lack of such comparison because of the effort needed to in detail compare the, often for each plant unique, selection of techniques and strategies. A consequence of the lack of comparisons is that success stories become invisible. The same can be said about common research needs. The demonstrated method visualizes the effects of various selections of techniques and strategies. It also points out bottlenecks for further improvement of the investigated units. The method has been simple to use and it is therefore considered as suitable to use in a larger investigation covering several waste combustion units. Thus, the project has accomplished its aims.

  4. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  5. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I. Module 26-3, Hydrostatic Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Rick; Espy, John

    This third in a series of seven modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques I describes the principles and practices associated with hydrostatic testing. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student,…

  6. Collaborative testing as a learning strategy in nursing education: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandahl, Sheryl S

    2009-01-01

    Nurses are important members of a patient's interprofessional health care team. A primary goal of nursing education is to prepare nursing professionals who can work collaboratively with other team members for the benefit of the patient. Collaborative learning strategies provide students with opportunities to learn and practice collaboration. Collaborative testing is a collaborative learning strategy used to foster knowledge development, critical thinking in decision-making, and group processing skills. This article reviews the theoretical basis for collaborative learning and research on collaborative testing in nursing education.

  7. Advanced power cycler with intelligent monitoring strategy of IGBT module under test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Blaabjerg, F.; Iannuzzo, F.

    2017-01-01

    and diode, which for the wear-out condition monitoring are presented. This advanced power cycler allows to perform power cycling test cost-effectively under conditions close to real power converter applications. In addition, an intelligent monitoring strategy for the separation of package-related wear......-out failure mechanisms has been proposed. By means of the proposed method, the wear-out failure mechanisms of an IGBT module can be separated without any additional efforts during the power cycling tests. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed monitoring strategy are also verified by experiments....

  8. The roles of encoding strategies and retrieval practice in test-expectancy effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kit W; Neely, James H

    2017-05-01

    We investigated whether expectations for different kinds of memory tests induce qualitatively different encoding strategies. In Experiment 1, participants studied four lists of words and after each list completed a cued-recall test that contained either all semantic or all orthographic cues so as to build up an expectancy for receiving the same type of test for the fifth critical study list. To rule out that the test-expectancy effects in Experiment 1 were due to differences in retrieval practice, in Experiment 2, participants received three practice tests each for both cue-types. Participants' test expectancy for all lists was induced by telling them before each list the type of cue they would receive for the upcoming study list. In both experiments, the critical test contained both expected and unexpected cues. In Experiment 1, participants who expected semantic cues had better recall to the semantic cues than to the orthographic cues and vice versa for those who expected orthographic cues. However, in Experiment 2, there was no effect of test expectancy. These findings suggest that the test-expectancy effects in Experiment 1 were due to more retrieval practice on the expected than unexpected tests rather than to qualitatively different test-expectancy-induced encoding strategies.

  9. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  10. Refinement of the wedge bar technique for compression tests at intermediate strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stander M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined development of the wedge-bar technique [1] for compression tests at intermediate strain rates is presented. The concept uses a wedge mechanism to compress small cylindrical specimens at strain rates in the order of 10s−1 to strains of up to 0.3. Co-linear elastic impact principles are used to accelerate the actuation mechanism from rest to test speed in under 300μs while maintaining near uniform strain rates for up to 30 ms, i.e. the transient phase of the test is less than 1% of the total test duration. In particular, a new load frame, load cell and sliding anvil designs are presented and shown to significantly reduce the noise generated during testing. Typical dynamic test results for a selection of metals and polymers are reported and compared with quasistatic and split Hopkinson pressure bar results.

  11. Observation of Eye Pattern on Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure Disk with Write-Strategy Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Hiroshi; Kikukawa, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji

    2004-07-01

    Pit-edge recording at a density of 150 nm pits and spaces is carried out on a super-resolution near-field structure (super-RENS) disk with a platinum oxide layer. Pits are recorded and read using a 635-nm-wavelength laser and an objective lens with a 0.6 numerical aperture. We arrange laser pulses to correctly record the pits on the disk by a write-strategy technique. The laser-pulse figure includes a unit time of 0.25 T and intensities of Pw1, Pw2 and Pw3. After recording pits of various lengths, the observation of an eye pattern is achieved despite a pit smaller than the resolution limit. Furthermore, the eye pattern maintains its shape even though other pits fill the adjacent tracks at a track density of 600 nm. The disk can be used as a pit-edge recording system through a write-strategy technique.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Genetic Testing Strategies for Lynch Syndrome in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Erh Chen

    Full Text Available Patients with Lynch syndrome (LS have a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC and other cancers. Genetic screening for LS among patients with newly diagnosed CRC aims to identify mutations in the disease-causing genes (i.e., the DNA mismatch repair genes in the patients, to offer genetic testing for relatives of the patients with the mutations, and then to provide early prevention for the relatives with the mutations. Several genetic tests are available for LS, such as DNA sequencing for MMR genes and tumor testing using microsatellite instability and immunohistochemical analyses. Cost-effectiveness analyses of different genetic testing strategies for LS have been performed in several studies from different countries such as the US and Germany. However, a cost-effectiveness analysis for the testing has not yet been performed in Taiwan. In this study, we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of four genetic testing strategies for LS described in previous studies, while population-specific parameters, such as the mutation rates of the DNA mismatch repair genes and treatment costs for CRC in Taiwan, were used. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios based on discounted life years gained due to genetic screening were calculated for the strategies relative to no screening and to the previous strategy. Using the World Health Organization standard, which was defined based on Taiwan's Gross Domestic Product per capita, the strategy based on immunohistochemistry as a genetic test followed by BRAF mutation testing was considered to be highly cost-effective relative to no screening. Our probabilistic sensitivity analysis results also suggest that the strategy has a probability of 0.939 of being cost-effective relative to no screening based on the commonly used threshold of $50,000 to determine cost-effectiveness. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first cost-effectiveness analysis for evaluating different genetic testing

  13. Immunotoxicity, genotoxicity and epigenetic toxicity of nanomaterials: New strategies for toxicity testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusinska, Maria; Tulinska, Jana; El Yamani, Naouale; Kuricova, Miroslava; Liskova, Aurelia; Rollerova, Eva; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Smolkova, Bozena

    2017-11-01

    The unique properties of nanomaterials (NMs) are beneficial in numerous industrial and medical applications. However, they could also induce unintended effects. Thus, a proper strategy for toxicity testing is essential in human hazard and risk assessment. Toxicity can be tested in vivo and in vitro; in compliance with the 3Rs, alternative strategies for in vitro testing should be further developed for NMs. Robust, standardized methods are of great importance in nanotoxicology, with comprehensive material characterization and uptake as an integral part of the testing strategy. Oxidative stress has been shown to be an underlying mechanism of possible toxicity of NMs, causing both immunotoxicity and genotoxicity. For testing NMs in vitro, a battery of tests should be performed on cells of human origin, either cell lines or primary cells, in conditions as close as possible to an in vivo situation. Novel toxicity pathways, particularly epigenetic modification, should be assessed along with conventional toxicity testing methods. However, to initiate epigenetic toxicity screens for NM exposure, there is a need to better understand their adverse effects on the epigenome, to identify robust and reproducible causal links between exposure, epigenetic changes and adverse phenotypic endpoints, and to develop improved assays to monitor epigenetic toxicity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Failure modes induced by natural radiation environments on DRAM memories: study, test methodology and mitigation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougerol, A.

    2011-05-01

    DRAMs are frequently used in space and aeronautic systems. Their sensitivity to cosmic radiations have to be known in order to satisfy reliability requirements for critical applications. These evaluations are traditionally done with particle accelerators. However, devices become more complex with technology integration. Therefore new effects appear, inducing longer and more expensive tests. There is a complementary solution: the pulsed laser, which triggers similar effects as particles. Thanks to these two test tools, main DRAM radiation failure modes were studied: SEUs (Single Event Upset) in memory blocks, and SEFIs (Single Event Functional Interrupt) in peripheral circuits. This work demonstrates the influence of test patterns on SEU and SEFI sensitivities depending on technology used. In addition, this study identifies the origin of the most frequent type of SEFIs. Moreover, laser techniques were developed to quantify sensitive surfaces of the different effects. This work led to a new test methodology for industry, in order to optimize test cost and efficiency using both pulsed laser beams and particle accelerators. Finally, a new fault tolerant technique is proposed: based on DRAM cell radiation immunity when discharged, this technique allows to correct all bits of a logic word. (author)

  15. Nuclear power plant personnel qualifications and training. TSORT: an automated technique to assign tasks to training strategies. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1984-10-01

    This report discusses TSORT, a technique to assist the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in evaluating whether training program developers have allocated nuclear power plant tasks to appropriate training strategies. The TSORT structure is presented including training categories selected, dimensions of task information considered, measurement metrics used, and a guide to application. TSORT is implemented as an automated software tool for an IBM-PC. It uses full color graphics and interactive menu selection to provide NRC with a variety of evaluation options including: rank ordering of training strategies reasonable for each task, rank ordering of tasks within strategies, and a variety of special analyses. The program code is also presented along with a comprehensive example of 20 realistic tasks illustrating each of 17 options available

  16. New test structures and techniques for measurement of mechanical properties of MEMS materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, William N., Jr.; Yuan, Bin; Vaidyanathan, Ranji; Edwards, Richard L.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents techniques and procedures for addressing the three major problems of mechanical testing of the thin films used in surface micromachined microelectromechanical systems--specimen handling, friction, and strain measurement. The polysilicon tensile specimens are fabricated with two supporting side strips on silicon wafers at the Microelectronic Center of North Carolina. The tensile specimen is released by etching away the wafer, and the two support strips are cut after the specimen is glued in the test machine. Friction is reduced by a linear air bearing in the load train, and strain is measured with a noncontacting technique based on laser interferometry between two gold lines on the tensile specimen. The Young's modulus of polysilicon is 170 +/- 7 GPa and the strength is 1.21 +/- 0.16 GPa from a series of 29 tests. preliminary measurements have been made of Poisson's ratio and the fatigue behavior, and an attempt is underway to measure the fracture toughness.

  17. FPGA Techniques Based New Hybrid Modulation Strategies for Voltage Source Inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, L. U.; Baskaran, J.; Elankurisil, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper corroborates three different hybrid modulation strategies suitable for single-phase voltage source inverter. The proposed method is formulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. The main tale of this proposed method is to optimize a specific performance criterion, such as minimization of the total harmonic distortion (THD), lower order harmonics, switching losses, and heat losses. The proposed method is articulated using fundamental switching and carrier based pulse width modulation methods. Thus, the harmonic pollution in the power system will be reduced and the power quality will be augmented with better harmonic profile for a target fundamental output voltage. The proposed modulation strategies are simulated in MATLAB r2010a and implemented in a Xilinx spartan 3E-500 FG 320 FPGA processor. The feasibility of these modulation strategies is authenticated through simulation and experimental results. PMID:25821852

  18. AN AMERICAN-BASED STUDY EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTICIPANTS’ DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILES AND ATTITUDES REGARDING BUSINESS OUTSOURCING TECHNIQUES AND STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Parmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The world is a global marketplace, however much inquiry has been created regarding American-based companies relocating departmental operations offshore to foreign territories. Keating (2012 indicated that popular areas for companies to reposition operations include customer service, information technology, and sales services. The main reason for moving offshore is to cut costs and to maximize on cheaper labor pools in the host country. There are cultural and language barriers that complicate matters, as well as, the media, as reported by Dobbs (2004 in the United States (U.S. brings supposition by broadcasting the jobs lost by U.S. employees, as well as, home country power diminishing by stronger global players rising and thriving, such as, Brazil, The Philippines, and Mexico. This study quantifiably examined the relationship between participants’ demographic profiles and attitudes regarding business outsourcing techniques and strategies utilizing the Chi-Square and Fisher’s Exact tests, to gain a greater understanding of what these American-based beliefs truly are, in relation to, the sample confined within this study. Areas of concern examined attitudes towards managers, as well as, the U.S. government, regarding engaging in business outsourcing endeavors, enforcing policies to keep jobs in America, operating with a global mindset, helping people in both the home and host countries, competence factors associated with the capabilities to head outsourcing efforts based upon gender, and the training needed to successfully move operations offshore, for example. Significant differences were found in all of the demographic variables of ethnicity, gender, number of children (e.g. family size, age, education level, marital status, and annual household income.

  19. The effects of emotion regulation on explicit memory depend on strategy and testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Marisa; Ponzio, Allison

    2013-12-01

    Although previous work has shown that emotion regulation strategies can influence memory, the mechanisms through which different strategies produce different memory outcomes are not well understood. We examined how two cognitive reappraisal strategies with similar elaboration demands but diverging effects on visual attention and emotional arousal influenced explicit memory for emotional stimuli and for the strategies used to evaluate the stimuli. At encoding, participants used reappraisal to increase and decrease the personal relevance of neutral and emotional pictures. In two experiments, recall accuracy was highest for emotional pictures featured on increase trials, intermediate for emotional pictures featured on look (respond naturally) trials, and lowest for emotional pictures featured on decrease trials. This recall pattern emerged after a short delay (15 min) and persisted over a longer delay (48 hr). Memory accuracy for the strategies used to evaluate the pictures showed a different pattern: Strategy memory was better for emotional pictures featured on decrease and increase trials than for pictures featured on look trials. Our findings show that the effects of emotion regulation on memory depend both on the particular strategy engaged and the particular aspect of memory being tested.

  20. Evaluation of deformation and fracture characteristics of nuclear reactor materials using ball indentation test technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, T. S.; Hong, J. H.; Lee, B. S.; Park, D. G.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Chi, S. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Kwon, D. I.; Lee, J. H.

    1998-05-01

    The present report describes the automated ball indentation test techniques and the results of their applications. The ball indentation test technique is an innovative method for evaluating the key mechanical properties from the indentation load-depth data. In the 1st chapter, the existing technique for evaluating basic deformation (tensile) properties is described in detail, and also the application result of the technique is presented. The through-thickness variations of mechanical properties in SA 508 C1.3 reactor pressure vessel steels were measured using an automated ball indentation (ABI) technique. In the 2nd chapter, a method under development, which is similar to that in the 1st chapter, is new method is based on the theoretical solutions rather than experimental relationships. The result of the application showed that the stress-strain curves of various metals were successfully determined with the method. In the 3rd chapter, a new theoretical model was proposed to estimate the fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the transition temperature region. The key concept of the model is that the indention energy to a critical load is related to the fracture energy of the material. The theory was applied to the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) base and weld metals. (author). 24 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  1. Leak testing of bubble-tight dampers using tracer gas techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagus, P.L. [Lagus Applied Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); DuBois, L.J. [Commonwealth Edison, Zion, IL (United States); Fleming, K.M. [NCS Corporation, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Recently tracer gas techniques have been applied to the problem of measuring the leakage across an installed bubble-tight damper. A significant advantage of using a tracer gas technique is that quantitative leakage data are obtained under actual operating differential pressure conditions. Another advantage is that leakage data can be obtained using relatively simple test setups that utilize inexpensive materials without the need to tear ducts apart, fabricate expensive blank-off plates, and install test connections. Also, a tracer gas technique can be used to provide an accurate field evaluation of the performance of installed bubble-tight dampers on a periodic basis. Actual leakage flowrates were obtained at Zion Generating Station on four installed bubble-tight dampers using a tracer gas technique. Measured leakage rates ranged from 0.01 CFM to 21 CFM. After adjustment and subsequent retesting, the 21 CFM damper leakage was reduced to a leakage of 3.8 CFM. In light of the current regulatory climate and the interest in Control Room Habitability issues, imprecise estimates of critical air boundary leakage rates--such as through bubble-tight dampers--are not acceptable. These imprecise estimates can skew radioactive dose assessments as well as chemical contaminant exposure calculations. Using a tracer gas technique, the actual leakage rate can be determined. This knowledge eliminates a significant source of uncertainty in both radioactive dose and/or chemical exposure assessments.

  2. [The quantitative testing of V617F mutation in gen JAK2 using pyrosequencing technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaeva, E A; Mironov, K O; Dribnokhodova, T E; Subbotina, E E; Bashmakova; Ol'hovskiĭ, I A; Shipulin, G A

    2014-11-01

    The somatic mutation V617F in gen JAK2 is a frequent cause of chronic myeloprolific diseases not conditioned by BCR/ABL mutation. The quantitative testing of relative percentage of mutant allele can be used in establishing severity of disease and its prognosis and in prescription of remedy inhibiting activity of JAK2. To quantitatively test mutation the pyrosequencing technique was applied. The developed technique permits detecting and quantitatively, testing percentage of mutation fraction since 7%. The "gray zone" is presented by samples with percentage of mutant allele from 4% to 7%. The dependence of expected percentage of mutant fraction in analyzed sample from observed value of signal is described by equation of line with regression coefficients y = - 0.97, x = -1.32 and at that measurement uncertainty consists ± 0.7. The developed technique is approved officially on clinical material from 192 patients with main forms of myeloprolific diseases not conditioned by BCR/ABL mutation. It was detected 64 samples with mautant fraction percentage from 13% to 91%. The developed technique permits implementing monitoring of therapy of myeloprolific diseases and facilitates to optimize tactics of treatment.

  3. Comparative testing of radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing and phased array advanced ultrasonic testing non destructive testing techniques in accordance with the AWS D1.5 bridge welding code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    A comprehensive body of non-destructive testing data was collected from steel bridge welds under real-world conditions in a fabricators shop. Three different non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques were used on each weld inspection, these being R...

  4. Development of Technique for Testing the Long-Term Stability of Silicon Microstrip Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosinov, A.V.; Maslov, N.I.; Naumov, S.V.; Ovchinnik, V.D.; Starodubtsev, A.F.; Vasiliev, G.P.; Yalovenko, V.I.; Bosisio, L.

    2006-01-01

    An automatic multi-channel set-up prototype for simultaneous testing of the Long-Term Stability (LTS) of more than ten detectors is described. The Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment will include about two thousand Double-sided Microstrip Detectors (DSMD). Efficient automatic measurement techniques are crucial for the LTS test, because the corresponding test procedure should be performed on each detector and requires long time, at least two days. By using special adapters for supporting and connecting the bare DSMDs, failing detectors can be screened out before module assembly, thus minimizing the cost. Automated probe stations developed for a special purpose or for microelectronics industry are used for measuring physical static DSMD characteristics and check good-to-bad elements ratio for DSMD. However, automated (or semi-automatic)test benches for studying LTS or testing DSMD long-term stability before developing a detecting module are absent

  5. Prediction of high level vibration test results by use of available inelastic analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmayer, C.H.; Park, Y.J.; Costello, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a cooperative study between the United States and Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan agreed to perform a test program that would subject a large scale piping model to significant plastic strains under excitation conditions much greater than the design condition for nuclear power plants. The objective was to compare the results of the tests with state-of-the-art analyses. Comparisons were done at different excitation levels from elastic to elastic-plastic to levels where cracking was induced in the test model. The program was called the high Level Vibration Test (HLVT). The HLVT was performed on the seismic table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center in Japan. The test model was constructed by modifying the 1/2.5 scale model of one loop of a PWR primary coolant system which was previously tested by NUPEC as part of their seismic proving test program. A comparison of various analysis techniques with test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values than in the overall response values. This prediction error is magnified as the plasticity in the test model increases. There is no significant difference in the peak responses between the simplified and the detailed analyses. A comparison between various detailed finite element model runs indicates that the material properties and plasticity modeling have a significant impact on the plastic strain responses under dynamic loading reversals. 5 refs., 12 figs

  6. Expanded HIV Testing Strategy Leveraging the Electronic Medical Record Uncovers Undiagnosed Infection Among Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsen, Uriel R; Cunningham, Chinazo O; Heo, Moonseong; Futterman, Donna C; Weiss, Jeffrey M; Zingman, Barry S

    2017-05-01

    Routine HIV testing of hospitalized patients is recommended, but few strategies to expand testing in the hospital setting have been described. We assessed the impact of an electronic medical record (EMR) prompt on HIV testing for hospitalized patients. We performed a pre-post study at 3 hospitals in the Bronx, NY. We compared the proportion of admissions of patients 21-64 years old with an HIV test performed, characteristics of patients tested, and rate of new HIV diagnoses made by screening while an EMR prompt recommending HIV testing was inactive vs. active. The prompt appeared for patients with no previous HIV test or a high-risk diagnosis after their last HIV test. Among 36,610 admissions while the prompt was inactive, 9.5% had an HIV test performed. Among 18,943 admissions while the prompt was active, 21.8% had an HIV test performed. Admission while the prompt was active was associated with increased HIV testing among total admissions [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.62 to 2.96], those without a previous HIV test (aOR 4.03, 95% CI: 3.70 to 4.40), and those with a previous negative test (aOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.37 to 1.68) (P diversification of patients tested, and an increase in diagnoses made by screening.

  7. Comparing interferometry techniques for multi-degree of freedom test mass readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isleif, Katharina-Sophie; Gerberding, Oliver; Mehmet, Moritz; Schwarze, Thomas S; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Laser interferometric readout systems with 1pm/Hz precision over long time scales have successfully been developed for LISA and LISA Pathfinder. Future gravitational physics experiments, for example in the fields of gravitational wave detection and geodesy, will potentially require similar levels of displacement and tilt readouts of multiple test masses in multiple degrees of freedom. In this article we compare currently available classic interferometry schemes with new techniques using phase modulations and complex readout algorithms. Based on a simple example we show that the new techniques have great potential to simplify interferometric readouts. (paper)

  8. Seismic qualification using digital signal processing/modal testing and finite element techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steedman, J.B.; Edelstein, A.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic procedure in which digital signal processing, modal testing and finite element techniques can be used to seismically qualify Class IE equipment for use in nuclear generating stations is presented. A new method was also developed in which measured transmissibility functions and Fourier transformation techniques were combined to compute instrument response spectra. As an illustrative example of the qualification method, the paper follows the qualification of a safety related Class IE Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Control Panel subjected to both seismic and hydrodynamic loading conditions

  9. The role of spent fuel test facilities in the fuel cycle strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S. T.; Gross, D. L.; Snyder, N. W.; Woods, W. D.

    1988-01-01

    Disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuels in the major industrialized countries may be categorized into two broad approaches: a once-through policy which will dispose of spent fuels and recycle fissile materials. Within reprocess spent fuels and recycle fissile materials. Within each policy, various technical, licensing, institutional and public issues exist. These issues tend to complicate the formulation of an effective and acceptable fuel cycle strategy which will meet various cost, schedule, and legislative constraints. This paper examines overall fuel cycle strategies from the viewpoint of these underlying technical issues and assesses the roles of spent fuel test facilities in the overall fuel cycles steps. Basic functions of such test facilities are also discussed. The main emphasis is placed on the once-through policy although the reprocessing / recycle policy is also discussed. Benefits of utilizing test facilities in the fuel cycle strategies are explored. The results indicate that substantial benefits may be obtained in terms of minimizing programmatic risks, increasing public confidence, and more effective utilization of overall budgetary resources by structuring and highlighting the test facilities as an important element in the overall strategy

  10. Integrated testing strategies (ITS) for bioaccumulation: hierarchical scheme of chemistrydriven modules and definition of applicability domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nendza, M.; Scheringer, M.; Strempel, S.

    2011-01-01

    The efficient assessment of the bioaccumulation potential of chemicals under REACH with integrated test strategies (ITS) requires multiple tools. Existing data have to be searched and information from chemical structures and physico-chemical properties need to be evaluated prior to considering to...

  11. Cognitive Learning Strategy as a Partial Effect on Major Field Test in Business Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was developed to determine if cognitive learning strategies improved standardized university business exam results. Previous studies revealed that factors such as prior ability, age, gender, and culture predicted a student's Major Field Test in Business (MFTB) score better than course content. The experiment control consisted of…

  12. Free recall test experience potentiates strategy-driven effects of value on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael S; Rissman, Jesse; Hovhannisyan, Mariam; Castel, Alan D; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2017-10-01

    People tend to show better memory for information that is deemed valuable or important. By one mechanism, individuals selectively engage deeper, semantic encoding strategies for high value items (Cohen, Rissman, Suthana, Castel, & Knowlton, 2014). By another mechanism, information paired with value or reward is automatically strengthened in memory via dopaminergic projections from midbrain to hippocampus (Shohamy & Adcock, 2010). We hypothesized that the latter mechanism would primarily enhance recollection-based memory, while the former mechanism would strengthen both recollection and familiarity. We also hypothesized that providing interspersed tests during study is a key to encouraging selective engagement of strategies. To test these hypotheses, we presented participants with sets of words, and each word was associated with a high or low point value. In some experiments, free recall tests were given after each list. In all experiments, a recognition test was administered 5 minutes after the final word list. Process dissociation was accomplished via remember/know judgments at recognition, a recall test probing both item memory and memory for a contextual detail (word plurality), and a task dissociation combining a recognition test for plurality (intended to probe recollection) with a speeded item recognition test (to probe familiarity). When recall tests were administered after study lists, high value strengthened both recollection and familiarity. When memory was not tested after each study list, but rather only at the end, value increased recollection but not familiarity. These dual process dissociations suggest that interspersed recall tests guide learners' use of metacognitive control to selectively apply effective encoding strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Design and validation of an ontology-driven animal-free testing strategy for developmental neurotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Ellen V S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Piersma, Aldert H

    2018-03-13

    Developmental neurotoxicity entails one of the most complex areas in toxicology. Animal studies provide only limited information as to human relevance. A multitude of alternative models have been developed over the years, providing insights into mechanisms of action. We give an overview of fundamental processes in neural tube formation, brain development and neural specification, aiming at illustrating complexity rather than comprehensiveness. We also give a flavor of the wealth of alternative methods in this area. Given the impressive progress in mechanistic knowledge of human biology and toxicology, the time is right for a conceptual approach for designing testing strategies that cover the integral mechanistic landscape of developmental neurotoxicity. The ontology approach provides a framework for defining this landscape, upon which an integral in silico model for predicting toxicity can be built. It subsequently directs the selection of in vitro assays for rate-limiting events in the biological network, to feed parameter tuning in the model, leading to prediction of the toxicological outcome. Validation of such models requires primary attention to coverage of the biological domain, rather than classical predictive value of individual tests. Proofs of concept for such an approach are already available. The challenge is in mining modern biology, toxicology and chemical information to feed intelligent designs, which will define testing strategies for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic test strategies in children at increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gea A Holtman

    Full Text Available In children with symptoms suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD who present in primary care, the optimal test strategy for identifying those who require specialist care is unclear. We evaluated the following three test strategies to determine which was optimal for referring children with suspected IBD to specialist care: 1 alarm symptoms alone, 2 alarm symptoms plus c-reactive protein, and 3 alarm symptoms plus fecal calprotectin.A prospective cohort study was conducted, including children with chronic gastrointestinal symptoms referred to pediatric gastroenterology. Outcome was defined as IBD confirmed by endoscopy, or IBD ruled out by either endoscopy or unremarkable clinical 12 month follow-up with no indication for endoscopy. Test strategy probabilities were generated by logistic regression analyses and compared by area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC and decision curves.We included 90 children, of whom 17 (19% had IBD (n = 65 from primary care physicians, n = 25 from general pediatricians. Adding fecal calprotectin to alarm symptoms increased the AUC significantly from 0.80 (0.67-0.92 to 0.97 (0.93-1.00, but adding c-reactive protein to alarm symptoms did not increase the AUC significantly (p > 0.05. Decision curves confirmed these patterns, showing that alarm symptoms combined with fecal calprotectin produced the diagnostic test strategy with the highest net benefit at reasonable threshold probabilities.In primary care, when children are identified as being at high risk for IBD, adding fecal calprotectin testing to alarm symptoms was the optimal strategy for improving risk stratification.

  15. Processing techniques for data from the Kuosheng Unit 1 shakedown safety-relief-valve tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Rompel, S.L.; Weaver, H.J.; Altenbach, T.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes techniques developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laobratory, Livermore, CA for processing original data from the Taiwan Power Company's Kuosheng MKIII Unit 1 Safety Relief Valve Shakedown Tests conducted in April/May 1981. The computer codes used, TPSORT, TPPLOT, and TPPSD, form a special evaluation system for treating the data from its original packed binary form to ordered, calibrated ASCII transducer files and then to production of time-history plots, numerical output files, and spectral analyses. Using the data processing techniques described, a convenient means of independently examining and analyzing a unique data base for steam condensation phenomena in the MARKIII wetwell is described. The techniques developed for handling these data are applicable to the treatment of similar, but perhaps differently structured, experiment data sets

  16. Project GRETE: evaluation of non destructive testing techniques for monitoring of material degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    The material aging of major critical components of nuclear installations due to in-service conditions may lead to a degradation of their mechanical characteristics. The early detection of material changes and their monitoring using innovative non destructive testing techniques would allow to plan actions in order to prevent the apparition of macroscopic damage (e.g. cracks). One major difficulty in using these particular techniques is to correlate the changes in the measured NDT signals to the microstructural changes in the material due to aging. This problem may be solved through careful microstructural examinations of the material damage. The objective of the project GRETE is to illustrate the potential use of NDT techniques for the monitoring of material degradation through two examples: neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel steel and thermal fatigue of piping. The purpose of this paper is to present the project and its programme of work. (author)

  17. Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling: A screening technique for plume definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolley, M.; Kappmeyer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling were used to define the extent of volatile organic compounds in ground water. The investigation indicated that the combination of the these techniques is effective for obtaining ground water samples for preliminary plume definition. HydroPunch samples can be collected in unconsolidated sediments and the analytical results obtained from these samples are comparable to those obtained from adjacent monitoring wells. This sampling method is a rapid and cost-effective screening technique for characterizing the extent of contaminant plumes in soft sediment environments. Use of this screening technique allowed monitoring wells to be located at the plume boundary, thereby reducing the number of wells installed and the overall cost of the plume definition program

  18. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. A test case based on data from the Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, John A

    2002-06-01

    In anticipation of the SKB Site Investigations for radioactive waste disposal, an approach has been developed for the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. This approach was tested by predicting the rock mechanics properties of a 600 m x 180 m x 120 m rock volume at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) using limited borehole data of the type typically obtained during a site investigation. These predicted properties were then compared with 'best estimate' properties obtained from a study of the test rock volume using additional information, mainly tunnel data. The exercise was known as the Test Case, and is the subject of this Report. Three modelling techniques were used to predict the rock properties: the 'empirical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using rock mass classification schemes and empirical correlation formulae; the 'theoretical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using numerical modelling techniques; and the 'stress approach' - the rock stress state was estimated using primary data and numerical modelling. These approaches are described separately and respectively. Following an explanation of the context for the Test Case within the strategy for developing the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model, conditions at the Aespoe HRL are described in Chapter 2. The Test Case organization and the suite of nine Protocols used to ensure that the work was appropriately guided and co-ordinated are described in Chapter 3. The methods for predicting the rock properties and the rock stress, and comparisons with the 'best estimate' properties of the actual conditions, are presented in Chapters 4 and 5. Finally, the conclusions from this Test Case exercise are given in Chapter 6. General recommendations for the management of this type of Test Case are also included

  19. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. A test case based on data from the Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John A (ed.) [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-01

    In anticipation of the SKB Site Investigations for radioactive waste disposal, an approach has been developed for the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. This approach was tested by predicting the rock mechanics properties of a 600 m x 180 m x 120 m rock volume at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) using limited borehole data of the type typically obtained during a site investigation. These predicted properties were then compared with 'best estimate' properties obtained from a study of the test rock volume using additional information, mainly tunnel data. The exercise was known as the Test Case, and is the subject of this Report. Three modelling techniques were used to predict the rock properties: the 'empirical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using rock mass classification schemes and empirical correlation formulae; the 'theoretical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using numerical modelling techniques; and the 'stress approach' - the rock stress state was estimated using primary data and numerical modelling. These approaches are described separately and respectively. Following an explanation of the context for the Test Case within the strategy for developing the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model, conditions at the Aespoe HRL are described in Chapter 2. The Test Case organization and the suite of nine Protocols used to ensure that the work was appropriately guided and co-ordinated are described in Chapter 3. The methods for predicting the rock properties and the rock stress, and comparisons with the 'best estimate' properties of the actual conditions, are presented in Chapters 4 and 5. Finally, the conclusions from this Test Case exercise are given in Chapter 6. General recommendations for the management of this type of Test Case are also included.

  20. Layer-splitting technique for testing the recursive scheme for multilayer shields gamma ray buildup factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhatib, Sari F.; Park, Chang Je; Jeong, Hae Yong; Lee, Yongdeok

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple formalism is suggested for the recursive approach and then it is used to produce buildup factors for certain multilayer shields. • The newly layer-splitting technique is implemented on the studied cases for testing the suggested formalism performance. • The buildup factors are generated using cubic polynomial fitting functions that are produced based on previous well-acknowledge data. - Abstract: This study illustrates the implementation of the newly suggested layer-splitting testing technique. This technique is introduced in order to be implemented in examining suggested formalisms for the recursive scheme (or iterative scheme). The recursive scheme is a concept used in treating and producing the gamma ray buildup factors in the case of multilayer shields. The layer-splitting technique simply enforces the scheme to treat a single layer of one material as two separated layers with similar characteristics. Thus it subjects the scheme to an abnormal definition of the multilayer shield that will test its performance in treating the successive layers. Thus, it will act as a method of verification for the approximations and assumptions taken in consideration. A simple formalism was suggested for the recursive scheme then the splitting technique was implemented on it. The results of implementing both the suggested formalism and the splitting technique are then illustrated and discussed. Throughout this study, cubic polynomial fitting functions were used to generate the data of buildup factors for the basic single-media that constitute the multilayer shields understudy. This study is limited to the cases of multiple shields consisting of repeated consecutive thin layers of lead–water and iron–water shields for 1 MeV gamma rays. The produced results of the buildup factor values through the implementation of the suggested formalism showed good consistency with the Monte Carlo simulation results of Lin and Jiang work. In the implementation of

  1. Use of Nuclear Techniques to Plan Sanitary Strategies in the Almendares River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Catasus, Judith; Borroto Portela, Jorge; Hernandez Garces, Anel; Santiago, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    The Almendares river, one of the most important water bodies of the Havana City, is very polluted. The analysis of parameters as dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium is very helpful for the studies aimed to the recovery of the river. There is a growing recognition around the word that the water quality models are very useful tools to plan sanitary strategies for the management of wastewater contamination to predict the effectiveness of control options to improve water quality to desired levels. In the present work, the advective, steady- state, one-dimensional Streeter and Phelps model, calibrated and validated was used to elaborate environment strategies to improve the water quality of the Almendares river. The use of the 99mTc and the Rodamina WT as tracers allowed determining the hydrodynamic parameters necessary for modelling purposes. (Author)

  2. In-pile creep test technique for zirconium alloys examination in BR-10 reactor channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevchikh, Yu.M.; Kruglov, A.S.; Troyanov, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation enhanced creep phenomenon was discovered in stainless steels as a specific physical process accompanying high-intensity neutron flux irradiation in fast reactors. IPPE is also experienced in irradiation creep test activities, studying different types of materials under irradiation in BR-10 fast reactor. Series of in-channel type test facilities were constructed and tested in BR-10 reactor's 'dry' channels in order to carry out full-scale instrumented examination regarded to in-pile creep behaviour of different reactor materials. As a result, a specific test technique, named 'Tensometric method', has been developed and experimentally proved to be power enough in order to investigate irradiation creep of materials right in situ under neutron irradiation. The main peculiarity of test facility, which is constructed to apply the tensometric method, consists in absence of any special deformation-measurement cell at all. The in-pile creep strain measurement technique developed at IPPE is based on the non-direct measurement of specimen's deformation (either linear tensile strain or angular twisting one), which directly affects the loaded draws' tension parameters. Starting from 1993, in-pile creep experiments to investigate in-reactor creep behaviour of E110 and E635 zirconium alloys were carried out in BR-10. Experimental results and data collected during more than 20-year of BR-10 in-reactor creep test experience can be assumed as a strong evidence that the tensometric technique is a powerful instrument, which can give a chance to study different irradiation effects on reactor materials directly under irradiation. (author)

  3. Parameters and definitions in applied technique quality test for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging system (NMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Zhikai; Zhao Lancai

    1999-08-01

    During the past two decades, medical diagnostic imaging technique has achieved dramatic development such as CT, MRI, PET, DSA and so on. The most striking examples of them are the application of X ray computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging in the field of medical diagnosis. It can be predicted that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will definitely have more widespread prospects of applications and play more and more important role in clinical diagnosis looking forward to the development of image diagnostic technique for 21 st century. The authors also present the measuring methods for some parameters. The parameters described can be used for reference by clinical diagnosticians, operators on MRI and medical physicists who engages in image quality assurance (QA) and control (QC) in performing MRI acceptance test and routine test

  4. Monitoring techniques of the western corn rootworm are the precursor to effective IPM strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemic, Darija; Mikac, Katarina M; Kozina, Antonela; Benitez, Hugo A; McLean, Christopher M; Bažok, Renata

    2016-02-01

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is economically the most important pest of maize in Croatia. To predict WCR adult population abundance and variability, traditional, genetic and morphometric monitoring of populations was conducted over time through each phase of the WCR invasion process in Croatia. Through traditional monitoring it was shown that WCR established their current population and reached economic densities after 14 years persisting in the study area. Regression-tree-based modelling showed that the best predictor of WCR adult abundance was the total amount of rainfall. Genetic monitoring indicated that genetic differentiation increased over time at the intrapopulation level, and morphometric monitoring indicated that wing morphotypes varied according to edaphic landscape changes. Traditional population metric surveys are important in WCR integrated pest management (IPM), as such surveys can be effectively used to predict population abundances. Novel-use monitoring techniques such as genetics and geometric morphometrics can be used to provide valuable information on variation within and among populations. The monitoring techniques presented herein provide sound data to assist in the understanding of both WCR ecology and population genetics and may provide more information than that currently available using traditional techniques (e.g. sticky traps), and as such these additional techniques should be written into IPM for WCR. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. New Strategies for Powder Compaction in Powder-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budding, A.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In powder-based rapid prototyping techniques, powder compaction is used to create thin layers of fine powder that are locally bonded. By stacking these layers of locally bonded material, an object is made. The compaction of thin layers of powder mater ials is of interest for a wide range of

  6. Balancing Instructional Techniques and Delivery Formats in Capstone Business Strategy Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstete, Jeffrey W.; Beutell, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contend that collegiate programs should carefully plan their capstone courses in light of the educational mission, pedagogical content knowledge, instructional techniques and delivery formats. Design/methodology/approach: This is a concept paper with elements of theory building from the case of business…

  7. Designs, Techniques, and Reporting Strategies in Geography Education: A Review of Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadrozny, Joann; McClure, Caroline; Lee, Jinhee; Jo, Injeong

    2016-01-01

    A wide variety of research is being completed and published in geography education. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the different types of methodologies, research designs, and techniques used by geography education researchers. Analyzing three geography education journals, we found 191 research articles published…

  8. Field test of radioactive high efficiency filter and filter exchange techniques of fuel cycle examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Hyung Kwon; Chun, Young Bum; Park, Dae Gyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Chu, Yong Sun; Kim, Eun Ka.

    1997-12-01

    The development of high efficiency filter was started to protect human beings from the contamination of radioactive particles, toxic gases and bacillus, and its gradual performance increment led to the fabrication of Ultra Low Penetration Air Filter (ULPA) today. The application field of ULPA has been spread not only to the air conditioning of nuclear power facilities, semiconductor industries, life science, optics, medical care and general facilities but also to the core of ultra-precision facilities. Periodic performance test on the filters is essential to extend its life-time through effective maintenance. Especially, the bank test on HEPA filter of nuclear facilities handling radioactive materials is required for environmental safety. Nowadays, the bank test technology has been reached to the utilization of a minimized portable detecting instruments and the evaluation techniques can provide high confidence in the area of particle distribution and leakage test efficiency. (author). 16 refs., 13 tabs., 14 figs

  9. Triaxial testing system for pressure core analysis using image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, J.; Masui, A.; Tenma, N.; Nagao, J.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a newly developed innovative triaxial testing system to investigate strength, deformation behavior, and/or permeability of gas hydrate bearing-sediments in deep sea is described. Transport of the pressure core from the storage chamber to the interior of the sealing sleeve of a triaxial cell without depressurization was achieved. An image processing technique was used to capture the motion and local deformation of a specimen in a transparent acrylic triaxial pressure cell and digital photographs were obtained at each strain level during the compression test. The material strength was successfully measured and the failure mode was evaluated under high confining and pore water pressures.

  10. Validity of a cross-specialty test in basic laparoscopic techniques (TABLT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Bjerrum, Flemming; Strandbygaard, Jeanett

    2015-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to establish validity evidence for the Training and Assessment of Basic Laparoscopic Techniques (TABLT) test, a tablet-based training system. METHODS: Laparoscopic surgeons and trainees were recruited from departments of general surgery, gynaecology and urology. Participants...... included novice, intermediate and experienced surgeons. All participants performed the TABLT test. Performance scores were calculated based on time taken and errors made. Evidence of validity was explored using a contemporary framework of validity. RESULTS: Some 60 individuals participated. The TABLT...... was shown to be reliable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0·99 (P value of 0·73 (P 

  11. Quality evaluation of PHWR fuel element end cap weld joints by ultrasonic testing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J L; Nair, V R; Ramadasan, E; Majumdar, S; Sahoo, K C [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiometallurgy Div.; Kumar, Arun [Atomic Fuel Fabrication Facility, Tarapur (India)

    1994-12-31

    An ultrasonic testing technique has been developed for effective quality evaluation of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) fuel end plug welds. A focused high frequency shear wave is directed to the weld zone from half skip distance to detect lack of fusion, porosities and wall cracks in the weld zone. A tentative select/reject level has been evolved to sort out the defective weld by examining more than 700 PHWR fuel pin welds. (author). 5 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Modelling and operation strategies of DLR's large scale thermocline test facility (TESIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenthal, Christian; Breidenbach, Nils; Bauer, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    In this work an overview of the TESIS:store thermocline test facility and its current construction status will be given. Based on this, the TESIS:store facility using sensible solid filler material is modelled with a fully transient model, implemented in MATLAB®. Results in terms of the impact of filler site and operation strategies will be presented. While low porosity and small particle diameters for the filler material are beneficial, operation strategy is one key element with potential for optimization. It is shown that plant operators have to ponder between utilization and exergetic efficiency. Different durations of the charging and discharging period enable further potential for optimizations.

  13. Digital Image Correlation Techniques Applied to Large Scale Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Rocket engine hot-fire ground testing is necessary to understand component performance, reliability and engine system interactions during development. The J-2X upper stage engine completed a series of developmental hot-fire tests that derived performance of the engine and components, validated analytical models and provided the necessary data to identify where design changes, process improvements and technology development were needed. The J-2X development engines were heavily instrumented to provide the data necessary to support these activities which enabled the team to investigate any anomalies experienced during the test program. This paper describes the development of an optical digital image correlation technique to augment the data provided by traditional strain gauges which are prone to debonding at elevated temperatures and limited to localized measurements. The feasibility of this optical measurement system was demonstrated during full scale hot-fire testing of J-2X, during which a digital image correlation system, incorporating a pair of high speed cameras to measure three-dimensional, real-time displacements and strains was installed and operated under the extreme environments present on the test stand. The camera and facility setup, pre-test calibrations, data collection, hot-fire test data collection and post-test analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  14. Cyclic Testing of the 6-Strand Tang and Modified Lim-Tsai Flexor Tendon Repair Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gavrielle Hui-Ying; Wong, Yoke-Rung; Lim, Rebecca Qian-Ru; Loke, Austin Mun-Kitt; Tay, Shian-Chao

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we compared the Tang repair technique with the 6-strand modified Lim-Tsai repair technique under cyclic testing conditions. Twenty fresh-frozen porcine flexor tendons were randomized into 2 groups for repair with either the modified Lim-Tsai or the Tang technique using Supramid 4-0 core sutures and Ethilon 6-0 epitendinous running suture. The repaired tendons were subjected to 2 stage cyclic loading. The survival rate and gap formation at the repair site were recorded. Tendons repaired by the Tang technique achieved an 80% survival rate. None of the modified Lim-Tsai repairs survived. The mean gap formed at the end of 1000 cycles was 1.09 mm in the Tang repairs compared with 4.15 mm in the modified Lim-Tsai repairs. The Tang repair is biomechanically stronger than the modified Lim-Tsai repair under cyclic loading. The Tang repair technique may exhibit a higher tolerance for active mobilization after surgery with less propensity for gap formation. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dental Student Study Strategies: Are Self-Testing and Scheduling Related to Academic Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen; Morrow, Christina S; Atiyeh, Lindsey; Pierre, Gaëlle C

    2016-05-01

    Self-testing, a strategy wherein a student actively engages in creating questions and answers from study materials to assist with studying, has been found to be especially advantageous because it enhances future retrieval of information. Studies have found correlations among students' grade point averages (GPAs), self-testing, and rereading study strategies, as well as the spacing of study sessions over time. The aim of this study was to assess relationships among dental students' study strategies, scheduling of study time, and academic achievement. A 16-item survey requesting information on study habits, study schedules, and GPAs was distributed to 358 second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry. Additionally, the survey asked students to report the average number of hours per week they devoted to studying for didactic courses and preparing for hands-on preclinical courses. Of the 358 students, 94 (26%) responded to the survey. The vast majority of the respondents reported utilizing self-testing and rereading study strategies. High performers (with higher GPAs) were more likely to use self-testing, especially with flashcards, and to space their studying over multiple sessions. Lower performing students were more likely to highlight or underline their notes and to mass their study sessions or cram. Longer hours devoted to studying and practicing for simulation courses were associated with stronger performance; lower performers reported spending significantly fewer hours practicing for simulation courses. Half of the dental students surveyed said that they felt their studying would be more productive in the morning, although 84% reported doing most of their studying in the evening or late night. Sound study decisions depend on accurate regulation of ongoing learning and appropriate use and timing of evidence-based study strategies, so these results suggest that dental students may require guidance in these areas.

  16. Economic Evaluation of Laboratory Testing Strategies for Hospital-Associated Clostridium difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robilotti, Elizabeth; Peterson, Lance R.; Banaei, Niaz; Dowdy, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in health care settings, and for patients presumed to have CDI, their isolation while awaiting laboratory results is costly. Newer rapid tests for CDI may reduce this burden, but the economic consequences of different testing algorithms remain unexplored. We used decision analysis from the hospital perspective to compare multiple CDI testing algorithms for adult inpatients with suspected CDI, assuming patient management according to laboratory results. CDI testing strategies included combinations of on-demand PCR (odPCR), batch PCR, lateral-flow diagnostics, plate-reader enzyme immunoassay, and direct tissue culture cytotoxicity. In the reference scenario, algorithms incorporating rapid testing were cost-effective relative to nonrapid algorithms. For every 10,000 symptomatic adults, relative to a strategy of treating nobody, lateral-flow glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)/odPCR generated 831 true-positive results and cost $1,600 per additional true-positive case treated. Stand-alone odPCR was more effective and more expensive, identifying 174 additional true-positive cases at $6,900 per additional case treated. All other testing strategies were dominated by (i.e., more costly and less effective than) stand-alone odPCR or odPCR preceded by lateral-flow screening. A cost-benefit analysis (including estimated costs of missed cases) favored stand-alone odPCR in most settings but favored odPCR preceded by lateral-flow testing if a missed CDI case resulted in less than $5,000 of extended hospital stay costs and 93%, or if the symptomatic carrier proportion among the toxigenic culture-positive cases was >80%. These results can aid guideline developers and laboratory directors who are considering rapid testing algorithms for diagnosing CDI. PMID:24478478

  17. Economic evaluation of laboratory testing strategies for hospital-associated Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Lee F; Robilotti, Elizabeth; Peterson, Lance R; Banaei, Niaz; Dowdy, David W

    2014-02-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in health care settings, and for patients presumed to have CDI, their isolation while awaiting laboratory results is costly. Newer rapid tests for CDI may reduce this burden, but the economic consequences of different testing algorithms remain unexplored. We used decision analysis from the hospital perspective to compare multiple CDI testing algorithms for adult inpatients with suspected CDI, assuming patient management according to laboratory results. CDI testing strategies included combinations of on-demand PCR (odPCR), batch PCR, lateral-flow diagnostics, plate-reader enzyme immunoassay, and direct tissue culture cytotoxicity. In the reference scenario, algorithms incorporating rapid testing were cost-effective relative to nonrapid algorithms. For every 10,000 symptomatic adults, relative to a strategy of treating nobody, lateral-flow glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)/odPCR generated 831 true-positive results and cost $1,600 per additional true-positive case treated. Stand-alone odPCR was more effective and more expensive, identifying 174 additional true-positive cases at $6,900 per additional case treated. All other testing strategies were dominated by (i.e., more costly and less effective than) stand-alone odPCR or odPCR preceded by lateral-flow screening. A cost-benefit analysis (including estimated costs of missed cases) favored stand-alone odPCR in most settings but favored odPCR preceded by lateral-flow testing if a missed CDI case resulted in less than $5,000 of extended hospital stay costs and 93%, or if the symptomatic carrier proportion among the toxigenic culture-positive cases was >80%. These results can aid guideline developers and laboratory directors who are considering rapid testing algorithms for diagnosing CDI.

  18. Future strategy and puzzles of heavy ion beam mediated technique in genetic improvement of biological bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qunce

    2007-01-01

    The 7 research puzzles in the genetic improvement of biological bodies made by ion beam mediated technique, are worth noticed. The technical ideas, including one mediated technique in physics, 2 significant subjects, 3 effective changes, the mediated evidences of 4 aspects and 5 biological characteristics, were particularly put forward according to the existing states in the field. The 2 significant subjects consist of the mechanics of the allogenetic materials entering into the acceptor and they being to be recombined. The 3 effective changes include from studying morphology to genetic laws, from researching M1 generation to the next generations, from determining the single character to the synthetic traits. The mediated evidences of 4 aspects come from morphology, physiology and biochemistry, molecule biology. The 5 biological characteristics are mainly reproduction, development, photosynthesis, bad condition-resistant and quality. (authors)

  19. Study on corrosion test techniques in lead bismuth eutectic flow. Joint research report in JFY2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    The evaluation of corrosion behaviors of core and structural materials in lead bismuth eutectic is one of the key issues for the utilization of lead bismuth eutectic as a coolant of the primary loops of lead bismuth cooled fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and the intermediate heat transport media of new-type steam generators of the sodium cooled FBRs. The purpose of the present study is to establish corrosion test techniques in lead bismuth eutectic flow. The techniques of steel corrosion test and oxygen control in flowing lead bismuth eutectic, and the technologies of a lead bismuth flow test at high temperature and high velocity were developed through corrosion test using a lead bismuth flow test loop of the Tokyo Institute of Technology in JFY2002. The major results are summarized as follows: (1) Techniques of fabrication, mount and rinse of corrosion specimens, measurement method of weight loss, and SEM/EDX analysis method have been established through lead bismuth corrosion test. (2) Weight losses were measured, corrosion and lead bismuth-adhered layers and eroded parts were observed in two 1000 hr-corrosion tests, and the results were compared with each other for twelve existing steels including ODS, F82H and SUH-3. (3) An oxygen sensor made of zirconia electrolyte structurally resistant to thermal stress and thermal shock was developed and tested in the lead bismuth flow loop. Good performance has been obtained. (4) An oxygen control method by injecting argon and hydrogen mixture gas containing steam into lead bismuth was applied to the lead bismuth flow loop, and technical issues for the development of the oxygen control method were extracted. (5) Technical measures for freezing and leakage of lead bismuth in the flow loop were accumulated. (6) Technical measures for flow rate decrease/blockage due to precipitation of oxide and corrosion products in a low temperature section of the lead bismuth flow loop were accumulated. (7) Electromagnetic flow meters with MI

  20. Comparison of DNA testing strategies in monitoring human papillomavirus infection prevalence through simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Carol Y; Li, Ling

    2016-11-07

    HPV DNA diagnostic tests for epidemiology monitoring (research purpose) or cervical cancer screening (clinical purpose) have often been considered separately. Women with positive Linear Array (LA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) research test results typically are neither informed nor referred for colposcopy. Recently, a sequential testing by using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) HPV clinical test as a triage before genotype by LA has been adopted for monitoring HPV infections. Also, HC2 has been reported as a more feasible screening approach for cervical cancer in low-resource countries. Thus, knowing the performance of testing strategies incorporating HPV clinical test (i.e., HC2-only or using HC2 as a triage before genotype by LA) compared with LA-only testing in measuring HPV prevalence will be informative for public health practice. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study. Data were generated using mathematical algorithms. We designated the reported HPV infection prevalence in the U.S. and Latin America as the "true" underlying type-specific HPV prevalence. Analytical sensitivity of HC2 for detecting 14 high-risk (oncogenic) types was considered to be less than LA. Estimated-to-true prevalence ratios and percentage reductions were calculated. When the "true" HPV prevalence was designated as the reported prevalence in the U.S., with LA genotyping sensitivity and specificity of (0.95, 0.95), estimated-to-true prevalence ratios of 14 high-risk types were 2.132, 1.056, 0.958 for LA-only, HC2-only, and sequential testing, respectively. Estimated-to-true prevalence ratios of two vaccine-associated high-risk types were 2.359 and 1.063 for LA-only and sequential testing, respectively. When designated type-specific prevalence of HPV16 and 18 were reduced by 50 %, using either LA-only or sequential testing, prevalence estimates were reduced by 18 %. Estimated-to-true HPV infection prevalence ratios using LA-only testing strategy are generally higher than using HC2-only or

  1. Comparison of DNA testing strategies in monitoring human papillomavirus infection prevalence through simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Y. Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HPV DNA diagnostic tests for epidemiology monitoring (research purpose or cervical cancer screening (clinical purpose have often been considered separately. Women with positive Linear Array (LA polymerase chain reaction (PCR research test results typically are neither informed nor referred for colposcopy. Recently, a sequential testing by using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 HPV clinical test as a triage before genotype by LA has been adopted for monitoring HPV infections. Also, HC2 has been reported as a more feasible screening approach for cervical cancer in low-resource countries. Thus, knowing the performance of testing strategies incorporating HPV clinical test (i.e., HC2-only or using HC2 as a triage before genotype by LA compared with LA-only testing in measuring HPV prevalence will be informative for public health practice. Method We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study. Data were generated using mathematical algorithms. We designated the reported HPV infection prevalence in the U.S. and Latin America as the “true” underlying type-specific HPV prevalence. Analytical sensitivity of HC2 for detecting 14 high-risk (oncogenic types was considered to be less than LA. Estimated-to-true prevalence ratios and percentage reductions were calculated. Results When the “true” HPV prevalence was designated as the reported prevalence in the U.S., with LA genotyping sensitivity and specificity of (0.95, 0.95, estimated-to-true prevalence ratios of 14 high-risk types were 2.132, 1.056, 0.958 for LA-only, HC2-only, and sequential testing, respectively. Estimated-to-true prevalence ratios of two vaccine-associated high-risk types were 2.359 and 1.063 for LA-only and sequential testing, respectively. When designated type-specific prevalence of HPV16 and 18 were reduced by 50 %, using either LA-only or sequential testing, prevalence estimates were reduced by 18 %. Conclusion Estimated-to-true HPV infection prevalence ratios using LA

  2. Non-destructive test of lock actuator component using neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliyanti; Setiawan; Sutiarso

    2012-01-01

    Non-destructive test of lock actuator using neutron radiography technique has been done. The lock actuator is a mechanical system which is controlled by central lock module consisting of electronic circuit which drives the lock actuator works accordingly to open and lock the vehicle door. The non-destructive test using neutron radiography is carried out to identify the type of defect is presence by comparing between the broken and the brand new one. The method used to test the lock actuator component is film method (direct method). The result show that the radiography procedure has complied with the ASTM standard for neutron radiography with background density of 2.2, 7 lines and 3 holes was seen in the sensitivity indicator (SI) and the quite good image quality was obtained. In the brand new actuator is seen that isolator part which separated the coils has melted. By this non-destructive test using neutron radiography technique is able to detect in early stage the type of component's defect inside the lock actuator without to dismantle it. (author)

  3. Re-irradiation tests of spent fuel at JMTR by means of re-instrumentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Jinichi; Shimizu, Michio; Endo, Yasuichi; Nabeya, Hideaki; Ichise, Kenichi; Saito, Junichi; Oshima, Kunio; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has developed re-irradiation test procedures of spent fuel irradiated at commercial reactor by means of re-instrumentation technique. Full length rods irradiated at commercial LWRs were re-fabricated to short length rods, and rod inner pressure gauges and fuel center thermocouples were re-instrumented to the rods. Re-irradiation tests to study the fuel behavior during power change were carried out by means of BOCA/OSF-1 facility at the JMTR. In the tests to study the fission gas release during power change, the rod inner pressure increase was observed during power change, especially during power reduction. The fission gas release during power reduction is estimated to be the release from fission gas bubbles on the grain boundary caused by the thermal stress in the pellet during power reduction. Re-irradiation test of gadolinia added fuel was performed by means of dual re-instrumentation technique (fuel center thermocouples and rod inner pressure gauge). A stepwise fission gas release during power change, and the following fuel center temperature change due to gap conductance change were observed. (author)

  4. Virtual-stereo fringe reflection technique for specular free-form surface testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Suodong; Li, Bo

    2016-11-01

    Due to their excellent ability to improve the performance of optical systems, free-form optics have attracted extensive interest in many fields, e.g. optical design of astronomical telescopes, laser beam expanders, spectral imagers, etc. However, compared with traditional simple ones, testing for such kind of optics is usually more complex and difficult which has been being a big barrier for the manufacture and the application of these optics. Fortunately, owing to the rapid development of electronic devices and computer vision technology, fringe reflection technique (FRT) with advantages of simple system structure, high measurement accuracy and large dynamic range is becoming a powerful tool for specular free-form surface testing. In order to obtain absolute surface shape distributions of test objects, two or more cameras are often required in the conventional FRT which makes the system structure more complex and the measurement cost much higher. Furthermore, high precision synchronization between each camera is also a troublesome issue. To overcome the aforementioned drawback, a virtual-stereo FRT for specular free-form surface testing is put forward in this paper. It is able to achieve absolute profiles with the help of only one single biprism and a camera meanwhile avoiding the problems of stereo FRT based on binocular or multi-ocular cameras. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed technique.

  5. Coping strategies as mediators in the relationship between test anxiety and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genc Ana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In most modern societies, nearly every realm of life involves some form of evaluation of our knowledge, abilities and skills. Given the potentially significant consequences of exams, it is not surprising that they are often very stressful. This study aimed to determine the existence and nature of the relationships between level of test anxiety, coping strategies, and achieved success on a mid-term test. As well as examining the direct relations between the given variables, our primary interest was to investigate the potential mediating role of coping mechanisms between the input and output variables of the examined stressful transaction. The study was conducted on a sample of 263 students from the Psychology and German Studies Departments of the Faculty of Philosophy at the University of Novi Sad. According to our results, only emotion-focused coping mechanisms were statistically significant mediators in the relationship between level of test anxiety and mid-term test achievement. The results indicate that students with high test anxiety who employ predominantly emotion-focused coping strategies score lower on a pre-exam knowledge test.

  6. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerable...... limitations regarding reliability and validity. METHODS: One hundred thirty subjects with mean foot size 44 (41-50 European size) participated. Two examiners, blinded to each other's measurements, measured the right foot of the subjects twice and the left foot once. The position of the most medial aspect...... of the navicular in the mediolateral direction was projected vertically onto a piece of paper placed under the subject's foot, and compared to the position of the forefoot and hindfoot to obtain the FLT value. RESULTS: FLT values ranged from -8 to 14 mm, with a mean (+/-SD) of 3.7 +/- 3.4 mm. The intratester...

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of HIV Testing Referral Strategies among Tuberculosis Patients in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhler, Lauren M.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Saxena, Anjali; Losina, Elena; Muniyandi, Malaisamy; Stoler, Adam W.; Lu, Zhigang; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Flanigan, Timothy P.; Bender, Melissa A.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2010-01-01

    Background Indian guidelines recommend routine referral for HIV testing of all tuberculosis (TB) patients in the nine states with the highest HIV prevalence, and selective referral for testing elsewhere. We assessed the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of alternative HIV testing referral strategies among TB patients in India. Methods and Findings We utilized a computer model of HIV and TB disease to project outcomes for patients with active TB in India. We compared life expectancy, cost, and cost-effectiveness for three HIV testing referral strategies: 1) selective referral for HIV testing of those with increased HIV risk, 2) routine referral of patients in the nine highest HIV prevalence states with selective referral elsewhere (current standard), and 3) routine referral of all patients for HIV testing. TB-related data were from the World Health Organization. HIV prevalence among TB patients was 9.0% in the highest prevalence states, 2.9% in the other states, and 4.9% overall. The selective referral strategy, beginning from age 33.50 years, had a projected discounted life expectancy of 16.88 years and a mean lifetime HIV/TB treatment cost of US$100. The current standard increased mean life expectancy to 16.90 years with additional per-person cost of US$10; the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was US$650/year of life saved (YLS) compared to selective referral. Routine referral of all patients for HIV testing increased life expectancy to 16.91 years, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$730/YLS compared to the current standard. For HIV-infected patients cured of TB, receiving antiretroviral therapy increased survival from 4.71 to 13.87 years. Results were most sensitive to the HIV prevalence and the cost of second-line antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Referral of all patients with active TB in India for HIV testing will be both effective and cost-effective. While effective implementation of this strategy would require investment, routine

  8. New Strategies for Powder Compaction in Powder-based Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Budding, A.; Vaneker, T.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    In powder-based rapid prototyping techniques, powder compaction is used to create thin layers of fine powder that are locally bonded. By stacking these layers of locally bonded material, an object is made. The compaction of thin layers of powder mater ials is of interest for a wide range of applications, but this study solely focuses on the application for powder -based three-dimensional printing (e.g. SLS, 3DP). This research is primarily interested in powder compaction for creating membrane...

  9. Development of ultrasonic testing technique to inspect containment liners embedded in concrete on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, H.; Kurozumi, Y. [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System, Incorporated, Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Kaneshima, Y. [The Kansai Electric Power Company, Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study is development of ultrasonic testing technique to inspect containment liners embedded in concrete on nuclear power plants. Integrity of containment liners on nuclear power plants can be secured by suitable present operation and maintenance. Furthermore, non-destructive testing technique to inspect embedded liners will ensure the integrity of the containment further. In order to develop the non-destructive testing technique, ultrasonic transducers were made newly and ultrasonic testing data acquisition and evaluation were carried out by using a mock-up. We adopted the surface shear horizontal (SH) wave, low frequency (0.3-0.5MHz), to be able to detect an echo from a defect against attenuation of ultrasonic waves due to long propagation in the liners and dispersion into concrete. We made transducers with three large active elements (40mm x 40mm) in a line which were equivalent to a 120mm width active element. Artificial hollows, {phi}200mm - 19mm depth (1/2thickness) and {phi}200mm - 9.5mm depth (1/4thickness), were made on a surface of a mock-up: carbon steel plate, 38mm thickness, 2,000mm length, 1000mm width. The surfaces of the plate were covered with concrete in order to simulate liners embedded in concrete. As a result of the examinations, the surface SH transducers could detect clearly the echo from the hollows at a distance of 1500mm. We evaluate that the newly made surface SH transducers with three elements have ability of detection of defects such as corrosion on the liners embedded in concrete. (author)

  10. Trading strategies modeling in Colombian power market using artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a model based on fuzzy logic and machine learning in order to maximize the profits of Colombian energy trade agents according to their risk profile. The model has two parts, the first one is a fuzzy expert system that gives a recommendation about the trade strategy these agents should follow, and whose definition depends mainly on market conditions. The second one is a reinforced learning mechanism with which the agents 'learn' when they perceive the consequences of their actions, so they modify such actions looking for a reward not just in short but also in long-term. The whole model is validated using actual data as well as a simulation approach using synthetic time series for some relevant variables as hydraulic availability, energy pool price and bilateral contracts price. (author)

  11. Trading strategies modeling in Colombian power market using artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Julian [Escuela de Sistemas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 80 No. 65-223 Bloque M8A Medellin (Colombia)

    2009-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a model based on fuzzy logic and machine learning in order to maximize the profits of Colombian energy trade agents according to their risk profile. The model has two parts, the first one is a fuzzy expert system that gives a recommendation about the trade strategy these agents should follow, and whose definition depends mainly on market conditions. The second one is a reinforced learning mechanism with which the agents 'learn' when they perceive the consequences of their actions, so they modify such actions looking for a reward not just in short but also in long-term. The whole model is validated using actual data as well as a simulation approach using synthetic time series for some relevant variables as hydraulic availability, energy pool price and bilateral contracts price. (author)

  12. Towards Intelligent Interpretation of Low Strain Pile Integrity Testing Results Using Machine Learning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, De-Mi; Yan, Weizhong; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Lu, Lie-Min

    2017-10-25

    Low strain pile integrity testing (LSPIT), due to its simplicity and low cost, is one of the most popular NDE methods used in pile foundation construction. While performing LSPIT in the field is generally quite simple and quick, determining the integrity of the test piles by analyzing and interpreting the test signals (reflectograms) is still a manual process performed by experienced experts only. For foundation construction sites where the number of piles to be tested is large, it may take days before the expert can complete interpreting all of the piles and delivering the integrity assessment report. Techniques that can automate test signal interpretation, thus shortening the LSPIT's turnaround time, are of great business value and are in great need. Motivated by this need, in this paper, we develop a computer-aided reflectogram interpretation (CARI) methodology that can interpret a large number of LSPIT signals quickly and consistently. The methodology, built on advanced signal processing and machine learning technologies, can be used to assist the experts in performing both qualitative and quantitative interpretation of LSPIT signals. Specifically, the methodology can ease experts' interpretation burden by screening all test piles quickly and identifying a small number of suspected piles for experts to perform manual, in-depth interpretation. We demonstrate the methodology's effectiveness using the LSPIT signals collected from a number of real-world pile construction sites. The proposed methodology can potentially enhance LSPIT and make it even more efficient and effective in quality control of deep foundation construction.

  13. Monitoring ambient ozone with a passive measurement technique method, field results and strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, BA; Adema, EH

    1996-01-01

    A low-cost, accurate and sensitive passive measurement method for ozone has been developed and tested. The method is based on the reaction of ozone with indigo carmine which results in colourless reaction products which are detected spectrophotometrically after exposure. Coated glass filters are

  14. Barriers to, and emerging strategies for, HIV testing among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwari, Chido D; Dringus, Stefanie; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2018-05-01

    HIV/AIDS is one of the leading causes of death among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and 40% of new HIV infections worldwide occur in this group. HIV testing and counselling (HTC) is the critical first step to accessing HIV treatment. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection is substantially higher in adolescents compared with adults. We review barriers to HTC for adolescents and emerging HTC strategies appropriate to adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa. There are substantial individual, health system and legal barriers to HTC among adolescents, and stigma by providers and communities remains an important obstacle. There has been progress made in recent years in developing strategies that address some of these barriers, increase uptake of HTC and yield of HIV. These include targeted approaches focused on provision of HTC among those higher risk of being infected, for example, index-linked HTC and use of screening tools to identify those at risk of HIV. Community-based HIV-testing approaches including HIV self-testing and incentives have also been shown to increase uptake of HTC. In implementing HTC strategies, consideration must be given to scalability and cost-effectiveness. HTC approaches must be coupled with linkage to appropriate care and prevention services.

  15. Strategy for 90% autoverification of clinical chemistry and immunoassay test results using six sigma process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Edward W; Short, Garry; Lee, Natasha; Beresford, Allison; Spencer, Margaret; Kennell, Marina; Moores, Zoë; Parry, David

    2018-06-01

    Six Sigma involves a structured process improvement strategy that places processes on a pathway to continued improvement. The data presented here summarizes a project that took three clinical laboratories from autoverification processes that allowed between about 40% to 60% of tests being auto-verified to more than 90% of tests and samples auto-verified. The project schedule, metrics and targets, a description of the previous system and detailed information on the changes made to achieve greater than 90% auto-verification is presented for this Six Sigma DMAIC (Design, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) process improvement project.

  16. Application of acoustic emission, as non destructive testing technique, to nuclear components inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Miro, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A panorama of actual state of acoustic emission as non destructive testing technique, from stand point of its safety applications to nuclear reactor is offered. In first place the physic grounds of acoustic emission phenomenon is briefly exposed. After we speak about the experimental methods for detection, and overall is made an explanation of the problems which are found during the application of this technology to on-line inspection of nuclear oower plants. It is hoped that this repport makes a contribution in the sense of to create a favourable atmosphere toward the introduction in our country of this important technique, and concretely within the nuclear power industry. In this last field the employ of acoustic emission is overcoming the experimental stage. (author)

  17. Cold crucible technique for interaction test of molten corium with structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kwang Soon; An, Sang Mo; Min, Beong Tae; Kim, Hwan Yeol

    2012-01-01

    During a severe accident, the molten corium might interact with several structures in a nuclear power plant such as core peripheral structures, lower plenum, lower head vessel, and external structures of a reactor vessel. The interaction of the molten corium with the structure depends on the molten corium composition, temperature, structural materials, and environmental conditions such as pressure and humidity. For example, the interaction of a metallic molten corium containing metal uranium (U) and zirconium (Zr) with the oxidized steel structure (Fe 2O3 ) is affected by not only thermal ablation but oxidation reduction reaction because the oxidation quotients of the U and Zr are higher than that of Fe. KAERI set up an experimental facility and technique using a cold crucible melting method to verify the interaction mechanism between the metallic molten corium and structural materials. This technique includes the generation of the metallic melt, melt delivery, measurement of the interaction process, and post analyses after the test

  18. Application of PXAMS technique for 36Cl analysis in soil collected at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmachyov, S.; Maeda, Y.; Mitarai, S.; Nakashima, T.; Momoshima, N.; Yamamoto, M.

    2001-01-01

    36 Cl in soil samples from the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (former USSR) was measured at Kyushu University Tandem Laboratory (KUTL) by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) coupled with projectile X-ray detection (PXD) technique. The separation of competing 36 S and 3 6Cl atomic isobars, was satisfactory by PXD technique. Measured 36 Cl/Cl atom ratio was (5.0 ± 0.6) x 10 -10 and an average activity of 36 Cl was calculated as (2.0 ± 0.2) mBq/g, which is in a good agreement with that obtained by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method previously. Currently developed AMS system at the Kyushu University can be applied for routine 36 Cl analysis at 36 Cl/Cl = 10 -11 atom ratio level. (author)

  19. Increased adolescent HIV testing with a hybrid mobile strategy in Uganda and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadede, Kevin; Ruel, Theodore; Kabami, Jane; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Sang, Norton; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig R; Liegler, Teri; Clark, Tamara D; Charlebois, Edwin D; Petersen, Maya L; Kamya, Moses R; Havlir, Diane V; Chamie, Gabriel

    2016-09-10

    We sought to increase adolescent HIV testing across rural communities in east Africa and identify predictors of undiagnosed HIV. Hybrid mobile testing. We enumerated 116 326 adolescents (10-24 years) in 32 communities of Uganda and Kenya ( NCT01864603): 98 694 (85%) reported stable (≥6 months of prior year) residence. In each community we performed hybrid testing: 2-week multidisease community health campaign that included HIV testing, followed by home-based testing of community health campaign nonparticipants. We measured adolescent HIV testing coverage and prevalence, and determined predictors of newly diagnosed HIV among HIV-infected adolescents using multivariable logistic regression. A total of 86 421 (88%) stable adolescents tested for HIV; coverage was 86, 90, and 88% in early (10-14), mid (15-17), and late (18-24) adolescents, respectively. Self-reported prior testing was 9, 26, and 55% in early, mid, and late adolescents tested, respectively. HIV prevalence among adolescents tested was 1.6 and 0.6% in Ugandan women and men, and 7.1 and 1.5% in Kenyan women and men, respectively. Prevalence increased in mid-adolescence for women and late adolescence for men. Among HIV-infected adolescents, 58% reported newly diagnosed HIV. In multivariate analysis of HIV-infected adolescents, predictors of newly diagnosed HIV included male sex [odds ratio (OR) = 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.42-2.73)], Ugandan residence [OR = 2.63 (95% CI: 2.08-3.31)], and single status [OR = 1.62 (95% CI: 1.23-2.14) vs. married)]. The SEARCH hybrid strategy tested 88% of stable adolescents for HIV, a substantial increase over the 28% reporting prior testing. The majority (57%) of HIV-infected adolescents were new diagnoses. Mobile HIV testing for adults should be leveraged to reach adolescents for HIV treatment and prevention.

  20. Opportunities and applications of medical imaging and image processing techniques for nondestructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Samuel Moon Ho; Cho, Jung Ho; Son, Sang Rock; Sung, Je Jonng; Ahn, Hyung Keun; Lee, Jeong Soon

    2002-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) of structures strives to extract all relevant data regarding the state of the structure without altering its form or properties. The success enjoyed by imaging and image processing technologies in the field of modem medicine forecasts similar success of image processing related techniques both in research and practice of NDT. In this paper, we focus on two particular instances of such applications: a modern vision technique for 3-D profile and shape measurement, and ultrasonic imaging with rendering for 3-D visualization. Ultrasonic imaging of 3-D structures for nondestructive evaluation purposes must provide readily recognizable 3-D images with enough details to clearly show various faults that may or may not be present. As a step towards Improving conspicuity and thus detection of faults, we propose a pulse-echo ultrasonic imaging technique to generate a 3-D image of the 3-D object under evaluation through strategic scanning and processing of the pulse-echo data. This three-dimensional processing and display improves conspicuity of faults and in addition, provides manipulation capabilities, such as pan and rotation of the 3-D structure. As a second application, we consider an image based three-dimensional shape determination system. The shape, and thus the three-dimensional coordinate information of the 3-D object, is determined solely from captured images of the 3-D object from a prescribed set of viewpoints. The approach is based on the shape from silhouette (SFS) technique and the efficacy of the SFS method is tested using a sample data set. This system may be used to visualize the 3-D object efficiently, or to quickly generate initial CAD data for reverse engineering purposes. The proposed system potentially may be used in three dimensional design applications such as 3-D animation and 3-D games.

  1. Modernization of Physical Appearance and Solution Color Tests Using Quantitative Tristimulus Colorimetry: Advantages, Harmonization, and Validation Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, Brian W; Montgomery, Laura L; Hetrick, Evan M

    2015-10-01

    Color measurements, including physical appearance, are important yet often misunderstood and underappreciated aspects of a control strategy for drug substances and drug products. From a patient safety perspective, color can be an important control point for detecting contamination, impurities, and degradation products, with human visual acuity often more sensitive for colored impurities than instrumental techniques such as HPLC. Physical appearance tests and solution color tests can also serve an important role in ensuring that appropriate steps are taken such that clinical trials do not become unblinded when the active material is compared with another product or a placebo. Despite the importance of color tests, compendial visual tests are not harmonized across the major pharmacopoeias, which results in ambiguous specifications of little value, difficult communication of true sample color, and significant extra work required for global registration. Some pharmacopoeias have not yet recognized or adopted technical advances in the instrumental measurement of color and appearance, whereas others begin to acknowledge the advantage of instrumental colorimetry, yet leave implementation of the technology ambiguous. This commentary will highlight the above-mentioned inconsistencies, provide an avenue toward harmonization and modernization, and outline a scientifically sound approach for implementing quantitative technologies for improved measurement, communication, and control of color and appearance for both solutions and solids. Importantly, this manuscript, for the first time, outlines a color method validation approach that is consistent with the International Conference on Harmonization's guidance on the topic of method validation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Comparison of NDT techniques to evaluate CFRP. Results obtained in a MAIzfp round robin test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Christian U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chair of Non-destructive Testing; Goldammer, Matthias; Grager, Jan-Carl [Siemens AG Corporate Technology, Muenchen (Germany); and others

    2016-10-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric materials are used for lightweight constructions and are an integral part of cars, airplanes or rotor blades of wind turbines. Nondestructive testing (NDT) methods play an increasing role concerning the manufacturing process and the inspection during lifetime. The selection of the best NDT technique for a certain application depends - of course - on many factors including the type, position and size of the defect to be detected but also on secondary issues like accessibility, automation, testing costs, reliability and resolution to mention only some. For the more technical-scientific part of these issues, the determination of the probability of detection (PoD) plays a significant role. Early in the design process questions should be raised concerning the probability with which certain attribute of interest (a defect that has an effect on the structural behavior) can be detected (and localized) in a certain construction. Several defect types have been identified to be critical like impact damages, undulations and porosity. Test samples out of differently processed Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) as used in the automotive or aeronautical industry have been produced including defects of different type and size. In order to determine the PoD and to check whether a technique is applicable the different partners applied a broad variety of selected NDT techniques including Micro CT, Ultrasound (including phased-array and air-coupled UT), Active Thermography, Eddy Current, Vibration and Visual Analysis and Local Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (LARS). The presentation will summarize some of the results of the experiments and ongoing data analysis.

  3. Comparison of NDT techniques to evaluate CFRP. Results obtained in a MAIzfp round robin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, Christian U.

    2016-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric materials are used for lightweight constructions and are an integral part of cars, airplanes or rotor blades of wind turbines. Nondestructive testing (NDT) methods play an increasing role concerning the manufacturing process and the inspection during lifetime. The selection of the best NDT technique for a certain application depends - of course - on many factors including the type, position and size of the defect to be detected but also on secondary issues like accessibility, automation, testing costs, reliability and resolution to mention only some. For the more technical-scientific part of these issues, the determination of the probability of detection (PoD) plays a significant role. Early in the design process questions should be raised concerning the probability with which certain attribute of interest (a defect that has an effect on the structural behavior) can be detected (and localized) in a certain construction. Several defect types have been identified to be critical like impact damages, undulations and porosity. Test samples out of differently processed Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) as used in the automotive or aeronautical industry have been produced including defects of different type and size. In order to determine the PoD and to check whether a technique is applicable the different partners applied a broad variety of selected NDT techniques including Micro CT, Ultrasound (including phased-array and air-coupled UT), Active Thermography, Eddy Current, Vibration and Visual Analysis and Local Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (LARS). The presentation will summarize some of the results of the experiments and ongoing data analysis.

  4. [Introducing marketing strategies and techniques into the field of voluntary blood donation, to meet the rise in blood demand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, S; Bégué, L

    2011-04-01

    Social marketing uses marketing principles and techniques to induce a target audience to voluntary accept, reject, change or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups, or society as a whole. Thus, individual or societal gain is the primary goal of social marketing. This kind of marketing is frequently used in the United States or in Canada in several fields such as healthcare, social work, or the environment. In 2008, we introduced these strategies and techniques in the field of blood donation in France. This article describes what has been achieved in the last three years and outlines the main steps in the social marketing planning process: analyzing the social marketing environment, defining target audiences and objectives, building and implementing strategies and action plans, evaluating and monitoring. On the way to self-sufficiency, while respecting donors, social marketing is additional to the work done by the blood collection staffs, communication teams, and volunteers. Social marketing is a complementary tool to the work done by the blood collection staff, communication teams and blood donation organizations and can help to meet the challenge of self-sufficiency while still allowing for the privacy and rights of donors. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. High School Students' Performance on Vandenberg's Mental Rotations Test: Art Ability, Gender, Activities, Academic Performance, Strategies, and Ease of Taking the Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurny, Helen Graham

    This study tested whether mental rotation performance of 186 high school students (80 males and 106 females) in grades 9 through 12 in art and nonart classes on Vandenbergs Mental Rotations test (S. Vandenberg and Kuse, 1978) was affected by gender, visual-spatial activities, strategies used while performing the test, and the ease of test taking.…

  6. Agricultural soils decontamination techniques: methods and results of tests realized near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maubert, H.; Jouve, A.; Mary, N.

    1992-01-01

    After a major nuclear accident, decontamination of agricultural soils would be necessary in order to reclaim the land. Specific techniques were studied in the framework of the European program for Rehabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an Accident (RESSAC). Different ways to remove the top layer of soils are described, and especially the use of Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N.) combined with spraying of organic polymers. Real scale tests in the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant showed that it is possible to achieve an excellent decontamination of agricultural fields (decontamination factor greater than 95%. (author)

  7. Experimental test of a new technique of background suppression in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Bottari, S.; Ciocci, M.A.; Fantacci, M.E.; Maestro, P.; Malakhov, N.; Marrocchesi, P.S. E-mail: marrocchesi@pi.infn.it; Novelli, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Pilo, F.; Rosso, V.; Turini, N.; Zucca, S

    2002-02-01

    A multiple-exposure technique in digital mammography has been developed to suppress the physical background in the image due to Compton scattering in the body. A pair of X-ray masks, shaped in a projective geometry and positioned upstream and downstream the patient, are coupled mechanically and moved in four steps along a square pattern in order to irradiate the full area in four consecutive short exposures. A proof-of-principle apparatus is under test with a breast phantom and a standard mammographic X-ray unit. Results are reported.

  8. Experimental test of a new technique of background suppression in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Bottari, S.; Ciocci, M.A.; Fantacci, M.E.; Maestro, P.; Malakhov, N.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Novelli, M.; Quattrocchi, M.; Pilo, F.; Rosso, V.; Turini, N.; Zucca, S.

    2002-01-01

    A multiple-exposure technique in digital mammography has been developed to suppress the physical background in the image due to Compton scattering in the body. A pair of X-ray masks, shaped in a projective geometry and positioned upstream and downstream the patient, are coupled mechanically and moved in four steps along a square pattern in order to irradiate the full area in four consecutive short exposures. A proof-of-principle apparatus is under test with a breast phantom and a standard mammographic X-ray unit. Results are reported

  9. Accounting for estimated IQ in neuropsychological test performance with regression-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, S Marc; Winicki, Jessica M; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Gordon, Barry; Schretlen, David J

    2009-11-01

    Regression-based normative techniques account for variability in test performance associated with multiple predictor variables and generate expected scores based on algebraic equations. Using this approach, we show that estimated IQ, based on oral word reading, accounts for 1-9% of the variability beyond that explained by individual differences in age, sex, race, and years of education for most cognitive measures. These results confirm that adding estimated "premorbid" IQ to demographic predictors in multiple regression models can incrementally improve the accuracy with which regression-based norms (RBNs) benchmark expected neuropsychological test performance in healthy adults. It remains to be seen whether the incremental variance in test performance explained by estimated "premorbid" IQ translates to improved diagnostic accuracy in patient samples. We describe these methods, and illustrate the step-by-step application of RBNs with two cases. We also discuss the rationale, assumptions, and caveats of this approach. More broadly, we note that adjusting test scores for age and other characteristics might actually decrease the accuracy with which test performance predicts absolute criteria, such as the ability to drive or live independently.

  10. Assessment of Random Assignment in Training and Test Sets using Generalized Cluster Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The properness of random assignment of compounds in training and validation sets was assessed using the generalized cluster technique. Material and Method: A quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship model using Molecular Descriptors Family on Vertices was evaluated in terms of assignment of carboquinone derivatives in training and test sets during the leave-many-out analysis. Assignment of compounds was investigated using five variables: observed anticancer activity and four structure descriptors. Generalized cluster analysis with K-means algorithm was applied in order to investigate if the assignment of compounds was or not proper. The Euclidian distance and maximization of the initial distance using a cross-validation with a v-fold of 10 was applied. Results: All five variables included in analysis proved to have statistically significant contribution in identification of clusters. Three clusters were identified, each of them containing both carboquinone derivatives belonging to training as well as to test sets. The observed activity of carboquinone derivatives proved to be normal distributed on every. The presence of training and test sets in all clusters identified using generalized cluster analysis with K-means algorithm and the distribution of observed activity within clusters sustain a proper assignment of compounds in training and test set. Conclusion: Generalized cluster analysis using the K-means algorithm proved to be a valid method in assessment of random assignment of carboquinone derivatives in training and test sets.

  11. Development of small scale mechanical testing techniques on ion beam irradiated 304 SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichardt, A.; Abad, M.D.; Hosemann, P.; Lupinacci, A.; Kacher, J.; Minor, A.; Jiao, Z; Chou, P.

    2015-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used for structural components in light water reactors, however uncertainty in their susceptibility to irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) has made long term performance predictions difficult. In addition, the testing of reactor irradiated materials has proven challenging due to the long irradiation times required, limited sample availability, and unwanted activation. To address these problems, we apply recently developed techniques in nano-indentation and micro-compression testing to small volume samples of 10 dpa proton-beam irradiated 304 stainless steel. Cross sectional nano-indentation was performed on both proton beam irradiated and non-irradiated samples at temperatures ranging from 22 to 300 C. degrees to determine the effects of irradiation and operating temperature on hardening. Micro-compression tests using 2 μm x 2 μm x 5 μm focused-ion beam milled pillars were then performed in situ in an electron microscope to allow for a more accurate look at stress-strain behavior along with real-time observations of localized mechanical deformation. Large sudden slip events and significant increase in yield strength are observed in irradiated micro-compression samples at room temperature. Elevated temperature nano-indentation results reveal the possibility of thermally-activated changes in deformation mechanism for irradiated specimens. Since the deformation mechanism information provided by micro-compression testing can provide valuable information about IASCC susceptibility, future work will involve ex situ micro-compression tests at reactor operating temperature

  12. Anxiety in voluntary HIV-antibody testing in pregnancy and its implications for preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldspang, A; Hedegaard, M

    1991-06-01

    During a three-month period in 1989, 820 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, were offered a HIV-antibody test and asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire about attitudes to HIV-antibody testing; 779 (95.0%) agreed to do so. One hundred and fifty-six women (20.0% of the participants) had been tested on a previous occasion, and 629 (80.7%) accepted the present offer to be tested. The most prevalent reasons to decline testing were indifference to the epidemic (45.3% of those declining), refusal of (further) blood testing (34.7%) and fear of being infected (16.7%). Women who consented to be tested most often expressed fear of being infected (21.8%). Fear of registration worried less than 5% of study group members; only 1% declined to be tested because of such worry. The pattern of worries expressed by the pregnant women is interpreted as one of anxiety and, in part at least, perplexity as concerns how to take rational consequences of public messages about the HIV epidemic. It is suggested that future surveillance be based primarily on voluntary testing and, whenever needed and possible, supplied with anonymous unlinked testing of existing blood samples from groups and persons declining to be tested. Such surveillance strategies should be supported in individual patient contacts and public health educational campaigns underscoring the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV and the need for repeated HIV-antibody testing of selected groups and individuals.

  13. Nuclear Technology. Course 32: Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II. Module 32-4, Operation of Magnetic Particle Test Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groseclose, Richard

    This fourth in a series of six modules for a course titled Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Techniques II describes the specific technique variables and options which are available to the test technician, provides instructions for selecting and operating the appropriate test equipment, describes physical criteria for detectable discontinuities,…

  14. Techniques and management strategies for environmental restoration and their ecological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, J.; Vazquez, C.; Meckbach, R.; Wilkins, B.; Rafferty, B.; Holm, E.; Badie, M.; Burton, O.

    2000-01-01

    The intervention is one of the targeted situations of concern for radiological protection. One of the aspects of the intervention deals with the environmental restoration. In fact, the emergency measures taken immediately or shortly after an accident, in order to avoid unnecessary increases of radiological risks, shoul not be prolonged for long periods because of their elevated cost for society. Hence restoration of the contaminated areas could be needed and therefore researches are required for theevelopmet of obust d optimised restoration strategies. The experimental work carried out after the Chernobyl accident provided large amount of information about the environmental behaviour of radionuclides and their exposure pathways to man. Additionally, some advance on the setting up of intervention methodologies was produced, concluding that the postaccident environmental restoration is possible and desirable. However, for restoration purpose, some limitations remained concerning the capacity to predict the transfer and fluxes of radionuclides (strongly dependent on the local specificity and no directly exchangeable from one place to another) and the correct assessment of the performance of the applicable countermeasures. In the first case, a possible approach to solve the problem would be the identification and further use of some local characteristics (of the scenario of contamination), to predict, using adequate radioecological models, the behaviour of the radionuclides (and their radiological consequences) for places and times different than those experimental sites where information exists. Concerning the second problem, one must identify the features of the scenario having influence on the performance of the countermeasures and to consider those factors (not only radiological) related to their applicability, cost and secondary effects, including the management and disporadiological impact and the countermeasures performance , are unavoidable to face the

  15. Radioisotope esophageal transit test. A new technique for esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazono, K.; Fukuda, K.; Toyonaga, A. (Kurume Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    A new technique employed sup(99m)Tc-MAA for the study of esophageal dysfunction and its clinical implication were evaluated in the patients with achalasia, progressive systemic sclerosis, reflux esophagitis and 10 normal controls. To investigate esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux, a homogeneous bolus of sup(99m)Tc-MAA in 15ml of water was swallowed in the upright and supine positions under the collimeter of a gamma camera linked to nuclear medicine data analyser (Shimazu Scinti Pack 1200). This radionuclide transit study made a quantitative evaluation of the esophageal dysfunction possible in all cases. Comparing the conventional esophageal function test procedures, this test is a safe, noninvasive and more physiological and sensitive in detecting abnormal esophageal emptying and gastroesophageal reflux.

  16. Local confidence limits for IMRT and VMAT techniques: a study based on TG119 test suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.; Chandroth, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a local confidence limit (CL) for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques used at Waikato Regional Cancer Centre. This work was carried out based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group (TG) 119 report. The AAPM TG 119 report recommends CLs as a bench mark for IMRT commissioning and delivery based on its multiple institutions planning and dosimetry comparisons. In this study the locally obtained CLs were compared to TG119 benchmarks. Furthermore, the same bench mark was used to test the capabilities and quality of the VMAT technique in our clinic. The TG 119 test suite consists of two primary and four clinical tests for evaluating the accuracy of IMRT planning and dose delivery systems. Pre defined structure sets contoured on computed tomography images were downloaded from AAPM website and were transferred to a locally designed phantom. For each test case two plans were generated using IMRT and VMAT optimisation. Dose prescriptions and planning objectives recommended by TG119 report were followed to generate the test plans in Eclipse Treatment Planning System. For each plan the point dose measurements were done using an ion chamber at high dose and low dose regions. The planar dose distribution was analysed for percentage of points passing the gamma criteria of 3 %/3 mm, for both the composite plan and individual fields of each plan. The CLs were generated based on the results from the gamma analysis and point dose measurements. For IMRT plans, the CLs obtained were (1) from point dose measurements: 2.49 % at high dose region and 2.95 % for the low dose region (2) from gamma analysis: 2.12 % for individual fields and 5.9 % for the composite plan. For VMAT plans, the CLs obtained were (1) from point dose measurements: 2.56 % at high dose region and 2.6 % for the low dose region (2) from gamma analysis: 1.46 % for individual fields and 0

  17. Effect of stigma reduction intervention strategies on HIV test uptake in low- and middle-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Subash; Hannes, Karin; Cargo, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several stigma reduction intervention strategies have been developed and tested for effectiveness in terms of increasing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test uptake. These strategies have been more effective in some contexts and less effective in others. Individual factors......, such as lack of knowledge and fear of disclosure, and social-contextual factors, such as poverty and illiteracy, might influence the effect of stigma reduction intervention strategies on HIV test uptake in low- and middle-income countries. So far, it is not clearly known how the stigma reduction intervention...... strategies interact with these contextual factors to increase HIV test uptake. Therefore, we will conduct a review that will synthesize existing studies on stigma reduction intervention strategies to increase HIV test uptake to better understand the mechanisms underlying this process in low- and middle...

  18. Testing of a new prototype surgical stapler that automates the rollover sleeve technique for venous anastomoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA B CARROLL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The creation of successful vascular anastomoses is of primary importance in many surgical fields. Numerous attempts to automate this process have been made. These techniques have slowly gained acceptance, but their use is still limited. This report details feasibility testing of a new prototype stapler that automates the rollover sleeve technique for venous vascular anastomoses. Male and female mongrel dogs (n=7 (25-32 kg were used. A segment of the right (n=5 or left (n=2 iliac vein was harvested for interposition grafts after the contra lateral side was transected. In each dog, two end-to-end venous anastomoses at the interposition grafts were performed. The standard anastomosis employed continuous mattress sutures. The experimental anastomosis was performed with a new prototype surgical stapler. The stapled anastomosis was proximal and the sutured was distal. In all experiments, it was possible to perform the experimental anastomosis with the stapler. Complications included two small leaks, one due to misfiring of a single pin in one experimental site. These leaks required suture reinforcement. One dog died of hemorrhage due to a slipped suture at the vein harvest site. One vein had thrombus seen at the sutured site although no technical abnormalities at either of the anastomoses could be found. After two weeks, grafts were inspected grossly and histologically. Healing appeared normal. There was a trend for less inflammatory cells infiltrating stapled sites; however, this was not statistically significant. The experiments demonstrate that this device can automate the rollover sleeve technique for venous anastomoses.

  19. POC-scale testing of an advanced fine coal dewatering equipment/technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groppo, J.G.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Rawls, P. [Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Froth flotation technique is an effective and efficient process for recovering of ultra-fine (minus 74 {mu}m) clean coal. Economical dewatering of an ultra-fine clean coal product to a 20 percent level moisture will be an important step in successful implementation of the advanced cleaning processes. This project is a step in the Department of Energy`s program to show that ultra-clean coal could be effectively dewatered to 20 percent or lower moisture using either conventional or advanced dewatering techniques. As the contract title suggests, the main focus of the program is on proof-of-concept testing of a dewatering technique for a fine clean coal product. The coal industry is reluctant to use the advanced fine coal recovery technology due to the non-availability of an economical dewatering process. in fact, in a recent survey conducted by U.S. DOE and Battelle, dewatering of fine clean coal was identified as the number one priority for the coal industry. This project will attempt to demonstrate an efficient and economic fine clean coal slurry dewatering process.

  20. Testing of a new prototype surgical stapler that automates the rollover sleeve technique for venous anastomoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Patricia B; Defaria, Werviston; Gandia, Carlos; Berho, Mariana; Misiakos, Evangelos; Tzakis, Andreas G

    2006-01-01

    The creation of successful vascular anastomoses is of primary importance in many surgical fields. Numerous attempts to automate this process have been made. These techniques have slowly gained acceptance, but their use is still limited. This report details feasibility testing of a new prototype stapler that automates the rollover sleeve technique for venous vascular anastomoses. Male and female mongrel dogs (n=7) (25-32 kg) were used. A segment of the right (n=5) or left (n=2) iliac vein was harvested for interposition grafts after the contra lateral side was transected. In each dog, two end-to-end venous anastomoses at the interposition grafts were performed. The standard anastomosis employed continuous mattress sutures. The experimental anastomosis was performed with a new prototype surgical stapler. The stapled anastomosis was proximal and the sutured was distal. In all experiments, it was possible to perform the experimental anastomosis with the stapler. Complications included two small leaks, one due to misfiring of a single pin in one experimental site. These leaks required suture reinforcement. One dog died of hemorrhage due to a slipped suture at the vein harvest site. One vein had thrombus seen at the sutured site although no technical abnormalities at either of the anastomoses could be found. After two weeks, grafts were inspected grossly and histologically. Healing appeared normal. There was a trend for less inflammatory cells infiltrating stapled sites; however, this was not statistically significant. The experiments demonstrate that this device can automate the rollover sleeve technique for venous anastomoses.

  1. Utilizing constructivism learning theory in collaborative testing as a creative strategy to promote essential nursing skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Barbara T; Satre, Maria E

    2014-01-01

    In nursing education, students participate in individual learner testing. This process follows the instructionist learning theory of a system model. However, in the practice of nursing, success depends upon collaboration with numerous people in different capacities, critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and the ability to communicate with others. Research has shown that collaborative testing, a constructivism learning activity and a form of collaborative learning, enhances students' abilities to master these areas. Collaborative testing is a clear, creative strategy which constructivists would say supports the socio-linguistic base of their learning theory. The test becomes an active implementation of peer-mediated learning where individual knowledge is enhanced through problem solving or defense of an individual position with the collaborative method. There is criticism for the testing method's potential of grade inflation and for students to receive grade benefits with little effort. After a review of various collaborative testing methods, this nursing faculty implemented a collaborative testing format that addresses both the positive and negative aspects of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pacing Strategy, Muscle Fatigue, and Technique in 1500-m Speed-Skating and Cycling Time Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoter, Inge K; MacIntosh, Brian R; Fletcher, Jared R; Pootz, Spencer; Zijdewind, Inge; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate pacing behavior and peripheral and central contributions to muscle fatigue in 1500-m speed-skating and cycling time trials when a faster or slower start is instructed. Nine speed skaters and 9 cyclists, all competing at regional or national level, performed two 1500-m time trials in their sport. Athletes were instructed to start faster than usual in 1 trial and slower in the other. Mean velocity was measured per 100 m. Blood lactate concentrations were measured. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), and potentiated twitch (PT) of the quadriceps muscles were measured to estimate central and peripheral contributions to muscle fatigue. In speed skating, knee, hip, and trunk angles were measured to evaluate technique. Cyclists showed a more explosive start than speed skaters in the fast-start time trial (cyclists performed first 300 m in 24.70 ± 1.73 s, speed skaters in 26.18 ± 0.79 s). Both trials resulted in reduced MVC (12.0% ± 14.5%), VA (2.4% ± 5.0%), and PT (25.4% ± 15.2%). Blood lactate concentrations after the time trial and the decrease in PT were greater in the fast-start than in the slow-start trial. Speed skaters showed higher trunk angles in the fast-start than in the slow-start trial, while knee angles remained similar. Despite similar instructions, behavioral adaptations in pacing differed between the 2 sports, resulting in equal central and peripheral contributions to muscle fatigue in both sports. This provides evidence for the importance of neurophysiological aspects in the regulation of pacing. It also stresses the notion that optimal pacing needs to be studied sport specifically, and coaches should be aware of this.

  3. Techniques Employed to Conduct Postshot Drilling at the former Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekin, W D

    2011-04-14

    Postshot drilling provided essential data on the results of the underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), now identified as the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). It was the means by which samples from the zone of interest were obtained for radiochemical analysis. This handbook describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted postshot drilling operations at the NTS, and it provides a general understanding of the process. Postshot drilling is a specialized application of rotary drilling. Accordingly, this handbook gives a brief description of rotary drilling in Section 2 to acquaint the reader with the general subject before proceeding to the specialized techniques used in postshot drilling. In Section 3, the handbook describes the typical postshot drilling situation at the former NTS and the drilling methods used. Section 4 describes the typical sequence of operations in postshot drilling at the former NTS. Detailed information on special equipment and techniques is given in a series of appendices (A through F) at the end of the handbook.

  4. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffs, S.P., E-mail: s.p.jeffs@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Lancaster, R.J. [Institute of Structural Materials, Swansea University, Singleton Park SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Garcia, T.E. [IUTA (University Institute of Industrial Technology of Asturias), University of Oviedo, Edificio Departamental Oeste 7.1.17, Campus Universitario, 33203 Gijón (Spain)

    2015-06-11

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k{sub SP} method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results.

  5. Creep lifing methodologies applied to a single crystal superalloy by use of small scale test techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffs, S.P.; Lancaster, R.J.; Garcia, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, advances in creep data interpretation have been achieved either by modified Monkman–Grant relationships or through the more contemporary Wilshire equations, which offer the opportunity of predicting long term behaviour extrapolated from short term results. Long term lifing techniques prove extremely useful in creep dominated applications, such as in the power generation industry and in particular nuclear where large static loads are applied, equally a reduction in lead time for new alloy implementation within the industry is critical. The latter requirement brings about the utilisation of the small punch (SP) creep test, a widely recognised approach for obtaining useful mechanical property information from limited material volumes, as is typically the case with novel alloy development and for any in-situ mechanical testing that may be required. The ability to correlate SP creep results with uniaxial data is vital when considering the benefits of the technique. As such an equation has been developed, known as the k SP method, which has been proven to be an effective tool across several material systems. The current work now explores the application of the aforementioned empirical approaches to correlate small punch creep data obtained on a single crystal superalloy over a range of elevated temperatures. Finite element modelling through ABAQUS software based on the uniaxial creep data has also been implemented to characterise the SP deformation and help corroborate the experimental results

  6. Testing of indoor radon reduction techniques in eastern Pennsylvania: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.; Scott, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    EPA has installed radon reduction measures in 38 houses in the Reading Prong region of eastern Pennsylvania. All were basement houses with hollow block or poured concrete foundation walls. The reduction approaches tested in most houses involved active soil ventilation, including: suction on the footing drain tile system; suction underneath the concrete slabs, using pipes inserted through the slabs from inside the house; and ventilation of the void network inside hollow block foundation walls. Heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) were tested in three houses. The current results confirm that, for the houses tested here, drain tile suction appears consistently able to provide high radon reductions when a complete loop of drain tile exists, often reducing high-radon houses to 4 pCi/l (148 B1/m 3 ) and less. Sub-slab suction (with pipes through the slab) can also provide high reductions if a sufficient number of suction pipes are located properly. Placement of one or more sub-slab suction pipes near each perimeter wall appears in this testing to aid in treating the major soil gas entry routes, although fewer pipes can sometimes give high reductions if conditions are favorable. For effective radon reduction using any active soil ventilation technique, it is important that major wall and slab openings be closed, and that a fan be employed that is capable of developing adequate static pressure

  7. Development of methodology for certification of Type B shipping containers using analytical and testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R.; Varley, D.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Analysis and Testing Group (WX-11) of the Design Engineering Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is developing methodology for designing and providing a basis for certification of Type B shipping containers. This methodology will include design, analysis, testing, fabrication, procurement, and obtaining certification of the Type B containers, allowing usage in support of the United States Department of Energy programs. While all aspects of the packaging development are included in this methodology, this paper focuses on the use of analysis and testing techniques for enhancing the design and providing a basis for certification. This methodology is based on concurrent engineering principles. Multidisciplinary teams within LANL are responsible for the design and certification of specific Type B Radioactive Material Shipping Containers. These teams include personnel with the various backgrounds and areas of expertise required to support the design, testing, analysis and certification tasks. To demonstrate that a package can pass all the performance requirements, the design needs to be characterized as completely as possible. Understanding package responses to the various environments and how these responses influence the effectiveness of the packaging requires expertise in several disciplines. In addition to characterizing the shipping container designs, these multidisciplinary teams should be able to provide insight into improving new package designs

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Language Version of the Test of Performance Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miçooğulları Bülent Okan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Test of Performance Strategies (TOPS; Thomas et al., 1999 on the Turkish population. The TOPS was designed to assess eight psychological skills and strategies used by athletes in competition (activation, automaticity, emotional control, goal-setting, imagery, relaxation, self-talk, and negative thinking and the same strategies, except negative thinking is replaced by attentional control used in training. The sample of the study included athletes who were training and competing in a wide variety of sports across a broad range of performance standards. The final sample consisted of 433 males (mean ± s: age 22.47 ± 5.30 years and 187 females (mean ± s: age 20.97 ± 4.78 years, 620 athletes in total (mean ± s: age 21.25 ± 4.87 years who voluntarily participated; TOPS was administered to all participants. Afterward, Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was conducted by Analysis Moments of Structures (AMOS 18. Comparative fit index (CFI, non-normed fit index (NNFI and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA were used to verify whether the model fit the data. Goodness-of-fit statistics were CFI= .91, NNFI= .92 and RMSEA= .056. These values showed that the tested model is coherent at a satisfactory level. Moreover, results of confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a total of four items (two items from competition and two from practice within the subscale of automaticity have been removed. The 28 items within the remaining seven subscales have been validated. In conclusion, Turkish version of TOPS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the psychological skills and strategies used by athletes in competition and practices.

  9. Selective deficit in spatial memory strategies contrast to intact response strategies in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders tested in a virtual navigation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Leanne K; Girard, Todd A; Konishi, Kyoko; King, Matthew; Herdman, Katherine A; King, Jelena; Christensen, Bruce; Bohbot, Veronique D

    2013-11-01

    Spatial memory is impaired among persons with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, different strategies may be used to solve most spatial memory and navigation tasks. This study investigated the hypothesis that participants with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) would demonstrate differential impairment during acquisition and retrieval of target locations when using a hippocampal-dependent spatial strategy, but not a response strategy, which is more associated with caudate function. Healthy control (CON) and SSD participants were tested using the 4-on-8 virtual maze (4/8VM), a virtual navigation task designed to differentiate between participants' use of spatial and response strategies. Consistent with our predictions, SSD participants demonstrated a differential deficit such that those who navigated using a spatial strategy made more errors and took longer to locate targets. In contrast, SSD participants who spontaneously used a response strategy performed as well as CON participants. The differential pattern of spatial-memory impairment in SSD provides only indirect support for underlying hippocampal dysfunction. These findings emphasize the importance of considering individual strategies when investigating SSD-related memory and navigation performance. Future cognitive intervention protocols may harness SSD participants' intact ability to navigate using a response strategy and/or train the deficient ability to navigate using a spatial strategy to improve navigation and memory abilities in participants with SSD. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques in identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, T. A.

    2003-04-01

    This paper’s objectives are twofold: to test the potential of cation exchange capacity (CEC) analysis for refinement of the knowledge of the hydrological system in landslide areas; and to examine two laboratory CEC analysis techniques on their applicability to partly weathered marls. The NH4Ac and NaCl laboratory techniques are tested. The geochemical results are compared with the core descriptions and interpreted with respect to their usefulness. Both analysis techniques give identical results for CEC, and are plausible on the basis of the available clay content information. The determination of the exchangeable cations was more difficult, since part of the marls dissolved. With the ammonium-acetate method more of the marls are dissolved than with the sodium-chloride method. This negatively affects the results of the exchangeable cations. Therefore, the NaCl method is to be preferred for the determination of the cation fractions at the complex, be it that this method has the disadvantage that the sodium fraction cannot be determined. To overcome this problem it is recommended to try and use another salt e.g. SrCl2 as displacement fluid. Both Alvera and Boulc-Mondorès examples show transitions in cation composition with depth. It was shown that the exchangeable cation fractions can be useful in locating boundaries between water types, especially the boundary between the superficial, rain fed hydrological system and the lower, regional ground water system. This information may be important for landslide interventions since the hydrological system and the origin of the water need to be known in detail. It is also plausible that long-term predictions of slope stability may be improved by knowledge of the hydrogeochemical evolution of clayey landslides. In the Boulc-Mondorès example the subsurface information that can be extracted from CEC analyses was presented. In the Boulc-Mondorès cores deviant intervals of CEC could be identified. These are interpreted as

  11. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear testing past of the NNSS for the development of OSI techniques for CTBT. One such activity—the focus of this report—was a survey and sampling campaign at the site of an old UNE that vented: DILUTED WATERS. Activities at DILUTED WATERS included vehicle-based survey

  12. Program of in-pile IASCC testing under the simulated actual plant condition. Development of technique for in-pile IASCC initiation test in JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugachi, Hirokazu; Tsukada, Takashi; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Nagata, Nobuaki; Dozaki, Koji; Takiguchi, Hideki

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) is caused by the synergistic effects of neutron irradiation, stress and corrosion by high temperature water. It is, therefore, essential to perform in-pile SCC tests, which are material tests under the conditions simulating those of actual LWR operation, in order to clarify the precise mechanism of the phenomenon, though mainly out-of-pile SCC tests for irradiated materials have been carried out in this research field. There are, however, many difficulties to perform in-pile SCC tests. Performing in-pile SCC tests, essential key techniques must be developed. Hence as a part of development of the key techniques for in-pile SCC tests, we have embarked on development of the test technique which enables us to obtain the information concerning the effect of such parameters as applied stress level, water chemistry, irradiation conditions, etc. on the crack initiation behavior. Although it is difficult to detect the crack initiation in in-pile SCC tests, the crack initiation can be evaluated by the detection of specimen rupture if the cross section area of the specimen is small enough. Therefore, we adopted the uniaxial constant loading (UCL) test with small tensile specimens. This paper will describe the current status of the development of several techniques for in-pile SCC initiation tests in JMTR and the results of the performance tests of the designed testing unit using the out-of-pile loop facility. (author)

  13. Biomechanical testing of new meniscal repair techniques containing ultra high-molecular weight polyethylene suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Herbert, Morley A; Schroeder, F Alexander; Aziz-Jacobo, Jorge; Sutker, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical characteristics of current meniscal repair techniques containing ultra high-molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) suture with and without cyclic loading. Vertical longitudinal cuts made in porcine menisci were secured with a single repair device. Noncycled and cycled (500 cycles) biomechanical tests were performed on the following groups: group 1, No. 2-0 Mersilene vertical suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ); group 2, No. 2-0 Orthocord vertical suture (DePuy Mitek, Westwood, MA); group 3, No. 0 Ultrabraid vertical suture (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy, Andover, MA); group 4, No. 2-0 FiberWire vertical suture (Arthrex, Naples, FL); group 5, vertically oriented mattress suture by use of an Ultra FasT-Fix device (Smith & Nephew Endoscopy) with No. 0 Ultrabraid; group 6, vertically oriented mattress suture by use of a RapidLoc A2 device (DePuy Mitek) with No. 2-0 Orthocord suture; group 7, vertically oriented stitch by use of a MaxFire device with MaxBraid PE suture (Biomet Sports Medicine, Warsaw, IN); and group 8, an obliquely oriented stitch of No. 0 UHMWPE suture inserted by use of a CrossFix device (Cayenne Medical, Scottsdale, AZ). Endpoints were failure loads, failure modes, stiffness, and cyclic displacement. Mean single-pull loads were calculated for Ultra FasT-Fix (121 N), FiberWire (110 N), MaxFire (130 N), Mersilene (84 N), Orthocord (124 N), RapidLoc A2 (86 N), CrossFix (77 N), and Ultrabraid (109 N). After 500 cyclic loads, the Orthocord (222 N) repair was stronger than the others: Ultra FasT-Fix (110 N), FiberWire (117 N), MaxFire (132 N), Mersilene (89 N), RapidLoc A2 (108 N), CrossFix (95 N), and Ultrabraid (126 N) (P Fix, RapidLoc A2, and MaxFire) were comparable to the isolated UHMWPE-containing suture repairs on single-failure load testing. UHMWPE-containing suture repairs are stronger than braided polyester suture repairs, but pure UHMWPE suture (Ultrabraid) elongated more during cycling. Orthocord suture is significantly

  14. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  15. Evaluation of testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, S J; Cameron, A R; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Ezanno, P; Kenny, K; Fourichon, C; Graham, D

    2015-08-01

    As part of a broader control strategy within herds known to be infected with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), individual animal testing is generally conducted to identify infected animals for action, usually culling. Opportunities are now available to quantitatively compare different testing strategies (combinations of tests) in known infected herds. This study evaluates the effectiveness, cost, and cost-effectiveness of different testing strategies to identify infected animals at a single round of testing within dairy herds known to be MAP infected. A model was developed, taking account of both within-herd infection dynamics and test performance, to simulate the use of different tests at a single round of testing in a known infected herd. Model inputs included the number of animals at different stages of infection, the sensitivity and specificity of each test, and the costs of testing and culling. Testing strategies included either milk or serum ELISA alone or with fecal culture in series. Model outputs included effectiveness (detection fraction, the proportion of truly infected animals in the herd that are successfully detected by the testing strategy), cost, and cost-effectiveness (testing cost per true positive detected, total cost per true positive detected). Several assumptions were made: MAP was introduced with a single animal and no management interventions were implemented to limit within-herd transmission of MAP before this test. In medium herds, between 7 and 26% of infected animals are detected at a single round of testing, the former using the milk ELISA and fecal culture in series 5 yr after MAP introduction and the latter using fecal culture alone 15 yr after MAP introduction. The combined costs of testing and culling at a single round of testing increases with time since introduction of MAP infection, with culling costs being much greater than testing costs. The cost-effectiveness of testing varied by testing strategy. It was also

  16. Method-independent, Computationally Frugal Convergence Testing for Sensitivity Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, J.; Tolson, B.

    2017-12-01

    The increasing complexity and runtime of environmental models lead to the current situation that the calibration of all model parameters or the estimation of all of their uncertainty is often computationally infeasible. Hence, techniques to determine the sensitivity of model parameters are used to identify most important parameters. All subsequent model calibrations or uncertainty estimation procedures focus then only on these subsets of parameters and are hence less computational demanding. While the examination of the convergence of calibration and uncertainty methods is state-of-the-art, the convergence of the sensitivity methods is usually not checked. If any, bootstrapping of the sensitivity results is used to determine the reliability of the estimated indexes. Bootstrapping, however, might as well become computationally expensive in case of large model outputs and a high number of bootstraps. We, therefore, present a Model Variable Augmentation (MVA) approach to check the convergence of sensitivity indexes without performing any additional model run. This technique is method- and model-independent. It can be applied either during the sensitivity analysis (SA) or afterwards. The latter case enables the checking of already processed sensitivity indexes. To demonstrate the method's independency of the convergence testing method, we applied it to two widely used, global SA methods: the screening method known as Morris method or Elementary Effects (Morris 1991) and the variance-based Sobol' method (Solbol' 1993). The new convergence testing method is first scrutinized using 12 analytical benchmark functions (Cuntz & Mai et al. 2015) where the true indexes of aforementioned three methods are known. This proof of principle shows that the method reliably determines the uncertainty of the SA results when different budgets are used for the SA. The results show that the new frugal method is able to test the convergence and therefore the reliability of SA results in an

  17. An analysis of a digital variant of the Trail Making Test using machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, Jessamyn; Cook, Diane; Fellows, Robert; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a digital version of a standard cognitive assessment, the Trail Making Test (TMT), and assess its utility. This paper introduces a novel digital version of the TMT and introduces a machine learning based approach to assess its capabilities. Using digital Trail Making Test (dTMT) data collected from (N = 54) older adult participants as feature sets, we use machine learning techniques to analyze the utility of the dTMT and evaluate the insights provided by the digital features. Predicted TMT scores correlate well with clinical digital test scores (r = 0.98) and paper time to completion scores (r = 0.65). Predicted TICS exhibited a small correlation with clinically derived TICS scores (r = 0.12 Part A, r = 0.10 Part B). Predicted FAB scores exhibited a small correlation with clinically derived FAB scores (r = 0.13 Part A, r = 0.29 for Part B). Digitally derived features were also used to predict diagnosis (AUC of 0.65). Our findings indicate that the dTMT is capable of measuring the same aspects of cognition as the paper-based TMT. Furthermore, the dTMT's additional data may be able to help monitor other cognitive processes not captured by the paper-based TMT alone.

  18. An integrated strategy for in vivo metabolite profiling using high-resolution mass spectrometry based data processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jian; Zhang, Minli; Elmore, Charles S.; Vishwanathan, Karthick

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Profiling the metabolites of model compounds in rats using high resolution mass spectrometry based data processing techniques. •Demonstrating an integrated strategy in vivo metabolite profiling using data mining tools. •Unusual metabolites generated via thiazole-ring opening were characterized based on processed LC–MS.data. -- Abstract: An ongoing challenge of drug metabolite profiling is to detect and identify unknown or low-level metabolites in complex biological matrices. Here we present a generic strategy for metabolite detection using multiple accurate-mass-based data processing tools via the analysis of rat samples of two model drug candidates, AZD6280 and AZ12488024. First, the function of isotopic pattern recognition was proved to be highly effective in the detection of metabolites derived from [ 14 C]-AZD6280 that possesses a distinct isotopic pattern. The metabolites revealed using this approach were in excellent qualitative correlation to those observed in radiochromatograms. Second, the effectiveness of accurate mass based untargeted data mining tools such as background subtraction, mass defect filtering, or a data mining package (MZmine) used for metabolomic analysis in detection of metabolites of [ 14 C]-AZ12488024 in rat urine, feces, bile and plasma samples was examined and a total of 33 metabolites of AZ12488024 were detected. Among them, at least 16 metabolites were only detected by the aid of the data mining packages and not via radiochromatograms. New metabolic pathways such as S-oxidation and thiomethylation reactions occurring on the thiazole ring were proposed based on the processed data. The results of these experiments also demonstrated that accurate mass-based mass defect filtering (MDF) and data mining techniques used in metabolomics are complementary and can be valuable tools for delineating low-level metabolites in complex matrices. Furthermore, the application of distinct multiple data

  19. Calculation of Core Damage Frequency for the Change of the Common Cause Failure Parameters According to the Testing Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil You; Jin, Young Ho; Kim, Tae Woon

    2011-01-01

    Common cause failure (CCF) probabilities are differently estimated according to testing strategies. There are two representative testing schemes; staggered testing and non-staggered testing schemes. For the cases where trains or channels of standby safety systems consisting of more than two redundant components are tested in a staggered manner, the standby safety components within a train can be tested simultaneously or consecutively. In this case, mixed testing scheme, staggered and non-staggered testing schemes, are used for testing the components. Kang et al. derived the formulas for the estimations of the CCF probabilities of the components under the mixed testing scheme. This paper presents the sensitivity study results on the core damage frequency (CDF) of the SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) for the changes of the CCF parameters according to the testing strategies

  20. Operational Testing of a Combined Hardware-Software Strategy for Triage of Radiologically-Contaminated Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward J

    2015-08-01

    After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, it is possible for radionuclides to enter the human body through inhalation, ingestion, and skin and wound absorption. The dominant pathway will be through inhalation. From a health physics perspective, it is important to know the magnitude of the intake to perform dosimetric assessments. From a medical perspective, removal of radionuclides leading to dose (hence risk) aversion is of high importance. The efficacy of medical decorporation strategies is extremely dependent upon the time of treatment delivery after intake. The "golden hour," or more realistically 3-4 h, is imperative when attempting to increase removal of radionuclides from extracellular fluids prior to cellular incorporation. To assist medical first response personnel in making timely decisions regarding appropriate treatment delivery modes, a software tool has been developed which compiles existing radionuclide decorporation therapy data and allows a user to perform simple triage leading to potential appropriate decorporation treatment strategies. Three triage algorithms were included: (1) multi-parameter model (MPM), (2) clinical decision guidance (CDG) model, and (3) annual limit on intake (ALI) model. A radiation triage mask (RTM) has simultaneously been developed to provide a simple and rapid hardware solution for first responders to triage internally exposed personnel in the field. The hardware/software strategy was field tested with a military medical unit and was found by end-users to be relatively simple to learn and use.

  1. Development of a codon optimization strategy using the efor RED reporter gene as a test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Chee-Hoo; Yarkoni, Orr; Ajioka, James; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Nathan, Sheila

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic biology is a platform that enables high-level synthesis of useful products such as pharmaceutically related drugs, bioplastics and green fuels from synthetic DNA constructs. Large-scale expression of these products can be achieved in an industrial compliant host such as Escherichia coli. To maximise the production of recombinant proteins in a heterologous host, the genes of interest are usually codon optimized based on the codon usage of the host. However, the bioinformatics freeware available for standard codon optimization might not be ideal in determining the best sequence for the synthesis of synthetic DNA. Synthesis of incorrect sequences can prove to be a costly error and to avoid this, a codon optimization strategy was developed based on the E. coli codon usage using the efor RED reporter gene as a test case. This strategy replaces codons encoding for serine, leucine, proline and threonine with the most frequently used codons in E. coli. Furthermore, codons encoding for valine and glycine are substituted with the second highly used codons in E. coli. Both the optimized and original efor RED genes were ligated to the pJS209 plasmid backbone using Gibson Assembly and the recombinant DNAs were transformed into E. coli E. cloni 10G strain. The fluorescence intensity per cell density of the optimized sequence was improved by 20% compared to the original sequence. Hence, the developed codon optimization strategy is proposed when designing an optimal sequence for heterologous protein production in E. coli.

  2. Strategies for cell manipulation and skeletal tissue engineering using high-throughput polymer blend formulation and microarray techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ferdous; Tare, Rahul S; Kanczler, Janos M; Oreffo, Richard O C; Bradley, Mark

    2010-03-01

    A combination of high-throughput material formulation and microarray techniques were synergistically applied for the efficient analysis of the biological functionality of 135 binary polymer blends. This allowed the identification of cell-compatible biopolymers permissive for human skeletal stem cell growth in both in vitro and in vivo applications. The blended polymeric materials were developed from commercially available, inexpensive and well characterised biodegradable polymers, which on their own lacked both the structural requirements of a scaffold material and, critically, the ability to facilitate cell growth. Blends identified here proved excellent templates for cell attachment, and in addition, a number of blends displayed remarkable bone-like architecture and facilitated bone regeneration by providing 3D biomimetic scaffolds for skeletal cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. This study demonstrates a unique strategy to generate and identify innovative materials with widespread application in cell biology as well as offering a new reparative platform strategy applicable to skeletal tissues. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of HBV and HCV Screening Strategies – A Systematic Review of Existing Modelling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geue, Claudia; Wu, Olivia; Xin, Yiqiao; Heggie, Robert; Hutchinson, Sharon; Martin, Natasha K.; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Goldberg, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of screening for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) are generally heterogeneous in terms of risk groups, settings, screening intervention, outcomes and the economic modelling framework. It is therefore difficult to compare cost-effectiveness results between studies. This systematic review aims to summarise and critically assess existing economic models for HBV and HCV in order to identify the main methodological differences in modelling approaches. Methods A structured search strategy was developed and a systematic review carried out. A critical assessment of the decision-analytic models was carried out according to the guidelines and framework developed for assessment of decision-analytic models in Health Technology Assessment of health care interventions. Results The overall approach to analysing the cost-effectiveness of screening strategies was found to be broadly consistent for HBV and HCV. However, modelling parameters and related structure differed between models, producing different results. More recent publications performed better against a performance matrix, evaluating model components and methodology. Conclusion When assessing screening strategies for HBV and HCV infection, the focus should be on more recent studies, which applied the latest treatment regimes, test methods and had better and more complete data on which to base their models. In addition to parameter selection and associated assumptions, careful consideration of dynamic versus static modelling is recommended. Future research may want to focus on these methodological issues. In addition, the ability to evaluate screening strategies for multiple infectious diseases, (HCV and HIV at the same time) might prove important for decision makers. PMID:26689908

  4. A comparison of conventional mechanical testing techniques with innovative testing techniques for the evaluation of mechanical properties of NPP structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, P.A.; Kopriva, R.

    2015-01-01

    The innovative testing methods of Small Punch (SP) and Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) tests are based on the determination of material properties from sub-sized samples. These methods are promising to evaluate the components of nuclear power plants since they preserve the structural integrity of the component. The SP test is a semi-destructive method that employs miniaturised plate-shaped samples of various geometries. The method is based on the penetration of a sample with a semi-spherical punch. The sample deflection is measured throughout the test. The ABI test is a fully automatic test based on multiple indentations at a single penetration location on a polished sample surface with a spherical indenter of various diameters. The purpose of the test is to determine the tensile properties of materials in a non-destructive and localised fashion. A comparison has been made between SP, ABI and conventional tensile tests on the measurement of yield strength for the A533B (JRQ) ferritic steel which is a base metal of the pressure vessels of western PWR. The results show an excellent correlation for both innovative methods and the conventional tensile tests

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNIQUE FOR ZONING THE FORMER SEMIPALATINSK TEST SITE TERRITORY USINHG GEOINFORMATIONAL MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Yakovenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on radio-ecological assessment of pollution carried out at the former Semipalatinsk test site. The technique of radio-ecological zoning with methods of geoinformation mapping, including the determination of qualitative and qualitative criteria depending on the degree of superficial soil layer pollution, exposed to anthropogenic radiative impact, is offered. The result of such zoning makes it possible to evaluate the degree of radiation impact on the surveyed area, identify areas with high background radiation and define the borders representing potential risks to the public, residing or carrying out business activities within the area.

  6. An Exploratory Study on the Optimized Test Conditions of the Lock-in Thermography Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Jin

    2011-01-01

    This work is devoted to the technique application of lock-in infrared thermography in the shipbuilding and ocean engineering industry. For this purpose, an exploratory study to find the optimized test conditions is carried out by the design of experiments. It has been confirmed to be useful method that the phase contrast images were quantified by a reference image and weighted by defect hole size. Illuminated optical intensity of lower or medium strength give a good result for getting a phase contrast image. In order to get a good phase contrast image, lock-in frequency factors should be high in proportion to the illuminated optical intensity. The integration time of infrared camera should have been inversely proportional to the optical intensity. The other hand, the difference of specimen materials gave a slightly biased results not being discriminative reasoning

  7. Application of numerical analysis techniques to eddy current testing for steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazuo; Satake, Koji; Araki, Yasui; Morimura, Koichi; Tanaka, Michio; Shimizu, Naoya; Iwahashi, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the application of numerical analysis to eddy current testing (ECT) for steam generator tubes. A symmetrical and three-dimensional sinusoidal steady state eddy current analysis code was developed. This code is formulated by future element method-boundary element method coupling techniques, in order not to regenerate the mesh data in the tube domain at every movement of the probe. The calculations were carried out under various conditions including those for various probe types, defect orientations and so on. Compared with the experimental data, it was shown that it is feasible to apply this code to actual use. Furthermore, we have developed a total eddy current analysis system which consists of an ECT calculation code, an automatic mesh generator for analysis, a database and display software for calculated results. ((orig.))

  8. Resolution enhancement for ultrasonic echographic technique in non destructive testing with an adaptive deconvolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivet, L.

    1989-01-01

    The ultrasonic echographic technique has specific advantages which makes it essential in a lot of Non Destructive Testing (NDT) investigations. However, the high acoustic power necessary to propagate through highly attenuating media can only be transmitted by resonant transducers, which induces severe limitations of the resolution on the received echograms. This resolution may be improved with deconvolution methods. But one-dimensional deconvolution methods come up against problems in non destructive testing when the investigated medium is highly anisotropic and inhomogeneous (i.e. austenitic steel). Numerous deconvolution techniques are well documented in the NDT literature. But they often come from other application fields (biomedical engineering, geophysics) and we show they do not apply well to specific NDT problems: frequency-dependent attenuation and non-minimum phase of the emitted wavelet. We therefore introduce a new time-domain approach which takes into account the wavelet features. Our method solves the deconvolution problem as an estimation one and is performed in two steps: (i) A phase correction step which takes into account the phase of the wavelet and estimates a phase-corrected echogram. The phase of the wavelet is only due to the transducer and is assumed time-invariant during the propagation. (ii) A band equalization step which restores the spectral content of the ideal reflectivity. The two steps of the method are performed using fast Kalman filters which allow a significant reduction of the computational effort. Synthetic and actual results are given to prove that this is a good approach for resolution improvement in attenuating media [fr

  9. Complexity testing techniques for time series data: A comprehensive literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ling; Lv, Huiling; Yang, Fengmei; Yu, Lean

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A literature review of complexity testing techniques for time series data is provided. • Complexity measurements can generally fall into fractality, methods derived from nonlinear dynamics and entropy. • Different types investigate time series data from different perspectives. • Measures, applications and future studies for each type are presented. - Abstract: Complexity may be one of the most important measurements for analysing time series data; it covers or is at least closely related to different data characteristics within nonlinear system theory. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review examining the complexity testing techniques for time series data. According to different features, the complexity measurements for time series data can be divided into three primary groups, i.e., fractality (mono- or multi-fractality) for self-similarity (or system memorability or long-term persistence), methods derived from nonlinear dynamics (via attractor invariants or diagram descriptions) for attractor properties in phase-space, and entropy (structural or dynamical entropy) for the disorder state of a nonlinear system. These estimations analyse time series dynamics from different perspectives but are closely related to or even dependent on each other at the same time. In particular, a weaker self-similarity, a more complex structure of attractor, and a higher-level disorder state of a system consistently indicate that the observed time series data are at a higher level of complexity. Accordingly, this paper presents a historical tour of the important measures and works for each group, as well as ground-breaking and recent applications and future research directions.

  10. A strategy for in vitro safety testing of nanotitania-modified textile products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszak, Joanna; Stępnik, Maciej; Nocuń, Marek; Ferlińska, Magdalena; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna; Grobelny, Jarosław; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Wąsowicz, Wojciech; Cieślak, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Commercially available TiO 2 /Ag nanomaterials (NMs) showed higher cytotoxic effect than TiO 2 NMs. • Both titania NMs in pristine form induced a weak genotoxic effect in in vitro studies. • Cytotoxic effect of textile materials modified with TiO 2 /Ag NMs depended on the mode of the fiber manufacturing. • The strategy of in vitro testing of textile materials modified with NMs was proposed. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanomaterials are extensively used in many applications, also for modification of textile materials. Toxicological assessment of such textile materials is currently seldom performed, mainly because of lack of appropriate guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of commercially available TiO 2 and TiO 2 /Ag NMs in pristine form as well as polypropylene fibers modified with the NMs. Both titania NMs showed a cytotoxic effect on BALB/3T3 clone A31 and V79 fibroblasts after 72-h exposure. Both NMs induced a weak genotoxic effect in comet assay, with TiO 2 /Ag being more active. In vitro micronucleus test on human lymphocytes revealed a weak mutagenic effect of both materials after 24 h of exposure. In contrast, no significant increase in micronuclei frequency was observed in the in vitro micronucleus test on V79 fibroblasts. The 24-h extracts prepared from polypropylene fibers modified with TiO 2 /Ag induced a cytotoxic effect on BALB/3T3 cells which strongly depended on the mode of the fibers manufacturing. The study presents a comprehensive approach to toxicity assessment of textile fibers modified with NMs. Proposed approach may form a good “starting point” for improved future testing strategies

  11. A strategy for in vitro safety testing of nanotitania-modified textile products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roszak, Joanna; Stępnik, Maciej; Nocuń, Marek; Ferlińska, Magdalena; Smok-Pieniążek, Anna [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 8 St Teresy St., 91-348 Łódź (Poland); Grobelny, Jarosław; Tomaszewska, Emilia [University of Lodz, Faculty of Chemistry, 163 Pomorska St, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Wąsowicz, Wojciech [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 8 St Teresy St., 91-348 Łódź (Poland); Cieślak, Małgorzata, E-mail: cieslakm@iw.lodz.pl [Textile Research Institute, 118 Gdańska St., 90-520, Łódź (Poland)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: • Commercially available TiO{sub 2}/Ag nanomaterials (NMs) showed higher cytotoxic effect than TiO{sub 2} NMs. • Both titania NMs in pristine form induced a weak genotoxic effect in in vitro studies. • Cytotoxic effect of textile materials modified with TiO{sub 2}/Ag NMs depended on the mode of the fiber manufacturing. • The strategy of in vitro testing of textile materials modified with NMs was proposed. -- Abstract: Titanium dioxide nanomaterials are extensively used in many applications, also for modification of textile materials. Toxicological assessment of such textile materials is currently seldom performed, mainly because of lack of appropriate guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of commercially available TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/Ag NMs in pristine form as well as polypropylene fibers modified with the NMs. Both titania NMs showed a cytotoxic effect on BALB/3T3 clone A31 and V79 fibroblasts after 72-h exposure. Both NMs induced a weak genotoxic effect in comet assay, with TiO{sub 2}/Ag being more active. In vitro micronucleus test on human lymphocytes revealed a weak mutagenic effect of both materials after 24 h of exposure. In contrast, no significant increase in micronuclei frequency was observed in the in vitro micronucleus test on V79 fibroblasts. The 24-h extracts prepared from polypropylene fibers modified with TiO{sub 2}/Ag induced a cytotoxic effect on BALB/3T3 cells which strongly depended on the mode of the fibers manufacturing. The study presents a comprehensive approach to toxicity assessment of textile fibers modified with NMs. Proposed approach may form a good “starting point” for improved future testing strategies.

  12. Studies on laws of stress-magnetization based on magnetic memory testing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shangkun; Ren, Xianzhi

    2018-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory (MMM) testing technique is a novel testing method which can early test stress concentration status of ferromagnetic components. Under the different maximum tensile stress, the relationship between the leakage magnetic field of at certain point of cold rolled steel specimen and the tensile stress was measured during the process of loading and unloading by repeated. It shows that when the maximum tensile stress is less than 610 MPa, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the stress is linear; When the maximum tensile stress increase from 610 MPa to 653 MPa of yield point, the relationship between the magnetic induction intensity and the tensile becomes bending line. The location of the extreme point of the bending line will move rapidly from the position of smaller stress to the larger stress position, and the variation of magnetic induction intensity increases rapidly. When the maximum tensile stress is greater than the 653 MPa of yield point, the variation of the magnetic induction intensity remains large, and the position of the extreme point moves very little. In theoretical aspects, tensile stress is to be divided into ordered stress and disordered stress. In the stage of elastic stress, a microscopic model of the order stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data. In the plastic deformation stage, a microscopic model of disordered stress magnetization is established, and the conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental data, too. The research results can provide reference for the accurate quantitative detection and evaluation of metal magnetic memory testing technology.

  13. An educational strategy for treating chronic, noncancer pain with opioids: a pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhwairis, Huda; Reznich, Christopher B

    2010-12-01

    Chronic pain is common and can be devastating to the patient and challenging to the health care provider. Despite the importance of the topic, pain management curricula are incomplete in health professionals' training. We developed a longitudinal curriculum to teach therapy for chronic noncancer pain over four units and pilot-tested the teaching of one unit (opioids) to internal medicine residents. The educational strategies we used included didactic sessions, write-up of a management plan following a model, case discussions, and role-play group activities. We pilot-tested one unit (opioid therapy) in March 2008. We performed learner evaluations, using a pretest and posttest, a write-up plan following a model, and a learner knowledge questionnaire. Results showed significant improvement in knowledge. Residents found the sessions and educational strategy to be excellent and reported higher confidence levels in managing patients with chronic noncancer pain. This article demonstrates that multiple teaching modalities-including didactic lectures, case discussions, write-up of a management plan following a model, and role-play group activities-are effective methods of teaching internal medicine residents how to use opioids to manage chronic noncancer pain. Copyright © 2010 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Marketing-oriented strategy concept and its empirical testing with large sawmills.

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, Juha S.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this study are both theoretical and empirical. On the theoretical level strategy concept, its operationalization and measurement are analyzed and clarified. On the empirical level marketing strategies and competitive strategies are described by country, and the study also identifies the strategic marketing decisions characterizing different countries or competitive strategies. Furthermore, the relationships between strategies and marketing structures and functions are analyz...

  15. Impact of Breast Reader Assessment Strategy on mammographic radiologists' test reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Wasfi I; Rawashdeh, Mohammad A; Lewis, Sarah J; McEntee, Mark F; Lee, Warwick; Tapia, Kriscia; Brennan, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    The detection of breast cancer is somewhat limited by human factors, and thus there is a need to improve reader performance. This study assesses whether radiologists who regularly undertake the education in the form of the Breast Reader Assessment Strategy (BREAST) demonstrate any changes in mammography interpretation performance over time. In 2011, 2012 and 2013, 14 radiologists independently assessed a year-specific BREAST mammographic test-set. Radiologists read a different single test-set once each year, with each comprising 60 digital mammogram cases. Radiologists marked the location of suspected lesions without computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and assigned a confidence rating of 2 for benign and 3-5 for malignant lesions. The mean sensitivity, specificity, location sensitivity, JAFROC FOM and ROC AUC were calculated. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the readings for the 14 radiologists across the 3 years. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess comparison between pairs of years. Relationships between changes in performance and radiologist characteristics were examined using a Spearman's test. Significant increases were noted in mean sensitivity (P = 0.01), specificity (P = 0.01), location sensitivity (P = 0.001) and JAFROC FOM (P = 0.001) between 2011 and 2012. Between 2012 and 2013, significant improvements were noted in mean sensitivity (P = 0.003), specificity (P = 0.002), location sensitivity (P = 0.02), JAFROC FOM (P = 0.005) and ROC AUC (P = 0.008). No statistically significant correlations were shown between the levels of improvement and radiologists' characteristics. Radiologists' who undertake the BREAST programme demonstrate significant improvements in test-set performance during a 3-year period, highlighting the value of ongoing education through the use of test-set. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  16. Testing photogrammetry-based techniques for three-dimensional surface documentation in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr; Jurda, Mikoláš

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional surface technologies particularly close range photogrammetry and optical surface scanning have recently advanced into affordable, flexible and accurate techniques. Forensic postmortem investigation as performed on a daily basis, however, has not yet fully benefited from their potentials. In the present paper, we tested two approaches to 3D external body documentation - digital camera-based photogrammetry combined with commercial Agisoft PhotoScan(®) software and stereophotogrammetry-based Vectra H1(®), a portable handheld surface scanner. In order to conduct the study three human subjects were selected, a living person, a 25-year-old female, and two forensic cases admitted for postmortem examination at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic (both 63-year-old males), one dead to traumatic, self-inflicted, injuries (suicide by hanging), the other diagnosed with the heart failure. All three cases were photographed in 360° manner with a Nikon 7000 digital camera and simultaneously documented with the handheld scanner. In addition to having recorded the pre-autopsy phase of the forensic cases, both techniques were employed in various stages of autopsy. The sets of collected digital images (approximately 100 per case) were further processed to generate point clouds and 3D meshes. Final 3D models (a pair per individual) were counted for numbers of points and polygons, then assessed visually and compared quantitatively using ICP alignment algorithm and a cloud point comparison technique based on closest point to point distances. Both techniques were proven to be easy to handle and equally laborious. While collecting the images at autopsy took around 20min, the post-processing was much more time-demanding and required up to 10h of computation time. Moreover, for the full-body scanning the post-processing of the handheld scanner required rather time-consuming manual image alignment. In all instances the applied approaches

  17. Testing the potential of geochemical techniques for identifying hydrological systems within landslides in partly weathered marls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, T. A.; Buma, J. T.; Klawer, C. J. M.

    2004-03-01

    This paper's objective is to determine how useful geochemistry can be in landslide investigations. More specifically, what additional information can be gained by analysing the cation exchange capacity (CEC) and cation composition in respect to the hydrological system of a landslide area in clayey material. Two cores from the Boulc-Mondorès landslide (France) and one core from the Alvera landslide (Italy) were analysed. The NH 4Ac and NaCl laboratory techniques are tested. The geochemical results are compared with the core descriptions and interpreted with respect to their usefulness. Both analysis techniques give identical results for CEC, and are plausible on the basis of the available clay content information. The determination of the exchangeable cations was more difficult, since part of the marls dissolved. With the ammonium-acetate method more of the marls are dissolved than with the sodium-chloride method. The NaCl method is preferred for the determination of the cation fractions at the complex, be it that this method has the disadvantage that the sodium fraction cannot be determined. To overcome this problem, it is recommended to try other displacement fluids. In the Boulc-Mondorès example, the subsurface information that can be extracted from CEC analyses was presented. In the Boulc-Mondorès cores deviant intervals of CEC could be identified. These are interpreted as weathered layers (and preferential flow paths) that may develop or have already developed into slip surfaces. The major problem of the CEC analyses was to explain the origin of the differences found in the core samples. Both Alvera and Boulc-Mondorès examples show transitions in cation composition with depth. It was shown that the exchangeable caution fractions can be useful in locating boundaries between water types, especially the boundary between the superficial, rain-fed hydrological system and the lower, regional groundwater system. This information may be important for landslide

  18. The application of remote sensing techniques to create a Black Sea coastal response strategy for oil spill response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, R.; Hanlon, W.

    1998-01-01

    The application of remote satellite imaging, coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has been used to create coastal maps enhanced with environmental information. The use of such techniques for oil spill response requires the development of practical applications to assist responders with real-time decision making. In a joint effort with regional navies for Black Sea spill contingency planning, the US Navy has developed methods by which a quick, accurate, and economical application of existing technology can be used to produce data rich maps for a large area of interest. This combines various existing techniques to create practical applications and usable documents for oil spill planners and responders. Existing environmental data on a selected area of the Black Sea coastal zone was collected and this information was sorted, harmonized and transposed onto a rectified multispectral satellite image of the area in a GIS format. Multispectral analysis was performed on the image to locate environmentally distinct zones. The resulting multi-layered GIS map provides a useful representation of coastal environmental sensitivities, and in many ways surpasses conventional GIS systems. The satellite image provides an accurate and realtime map of the area while the multispectral data precisely locates common ecosystems, such as wetlands and forests. This allows for the rapid prioritization of coastal areas and the ability to pinpoint specific areas for protection. The resulting process provides emergency responders the ability to quickly and economically create a data rich GIS. This system will provide reliable, timely information for protection strategies, identifying environmental and public risks, and offer a basis by which to measure spill impacts and recovery techniques, especially in areas where environmental reference data is limited. (author)

  19. Further Development of Crack Growth Detection Techniques for US Test and Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohse, Gordon; Carpenter, David M.; Ostrovsky, Yakov; Joseph Palmer, A.; Teysseyre, Sebastien P.; Davis, Kurt L.; Rempe, Joy L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the key issues facing Light Water Reactors (LWRs) in extending lifetimes beyond 60 years is characterizing the combined effect of irradiation and water chemistry on material degradation and failure. Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC), in which a crack propagates in a susceptible material under stress in an aggressive environment, is a mechanism of particular concern. Full understanding of IASCC depends on real time crack growth data acquired under relevant irradiation conditions. Techniques to measure crack growth in actively loaded samples under irradiation have been developed outside the US - at the Halden Boiling Water Reactor, for example. Several types of IASCC tests have also been deployed at the MITR, including passively loaded crack growth measurements and actively loaded slow strain rate tests. However, there is not currently a facility available in the US to measure crack growth on actively loaded, pre-cracked specimens in LWR irradiation environments. A joint program between the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (NRL) is currently underway to develop and demonstrate such a capability for US test and research reactors. Based on the Halden design, the samples will be loaded using miniature high pressure bellows and a compact loading mechanism, with crack length measured in real time using the switched Direct Current Potential Drop (DCPD) method. The basic design and initial mechanical testing of the load system and implementation of the DCPD method have been previously reported. This paper presents the results of initial autoclave testing at INL and the adaptation of the design for use in the high pressure, high temperature water loop at the MITR 6 MW research reactor, where an initial demonstration is planned in mid-2015. Materials considerations for the high pressure bellows are addressed. Design modifications to the loading mechanism required by the

  20. Operation and control strategies in pre-series testing of cold circulating pumps for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Vaghela, H.; Sarkar, B.; Srinivas, M.; Choukekar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cryo-distribution system of ITER is responsible for the distribution and control of forced-flow supercritical helium for cooling of the superconducting magnets and the cryo-pumps. The requirements of cold circulating pumps (CCP) for mass flow rates and performance are much higher than presently existing and commercially available one used at 4.0 K helium. Design up-scaling with pre-series test of CCP has been proposed including test infrastructure. Operation and control strategies for the test distribution box (TDB) of test infrastructure have been developed and analyzed using steady state and dynamic process simulation to cope with the functional requirements of CCPs. Off-normal scenario with CCP inlet pressure variation is an important concern, dynamic process responses during such scenario have been evaluated to verify the operability of CCP. The paper describes process simulation to cope with the functional requirements of CCPs along with evaluation of off-normal scenario to verify the operability of CCP. (author)

  1. Testing of the derivative method and Kruskal-Wallis technique for sensitivity analysis of SYVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prust, J.O.; Edwards, H.H.

    1985-04-01

    The Kruskal-Wallis method of one-way analysis of variance by ranks has proved successful in identifying input parameters which have an important influence on dose. This technique was extended to test for first order interactions between parameters. In view of a number of practical difficulties and the computing resources required to carry out a large number of runs, this test is not recommended for detecting interactions between parameters. The derivative method of sensitivity analysis examines the partial derivative values of each input parameter with dose at various points across the parameter range. Important input parameters are associated with high derivatives and the results agreed well with previous sensitivity studies. The derivative values also provided information on the data generation distributions to be used for the input parameters in order to concentrate sampling in the high dose region of the parameter space to improve the sampling efficiency. Furthermore, the derivative values provided information on parameter interactions, the feasibility of developing a high dose algorithm and formed the basis for developing a regression equation. (author)

  2. An introduction to testing techniques in the Intelsat TDMA/DSI system. II - Satellite system operations guide (SSOG) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, R. J.; Parthasarathy, R.; Stimson, A. L.

    1983-12-01

    The test methods and procedures of the Intelsat TDMA/DSI SSOG are summarized. The overall structure of the SSOG is outlined, and the operational procedures to be followed for joining a new terminal to the system and for normal operations are reviewed, with an emphasis on the roles of the IOC and the TDMA reference and monitoring stations. The testing philosophy (based on minimal interruptions) and the star-test method are explained and illustrated with diagrams, and the test procedures are examined, including modem tests, electrical-path-length equalization, RF/IF downchain tests, protocol tests, nontransmitting protocol tests, IF/RF upchain tests, transmitting protocol tests, baseband tests, and orderwire lineups. The fundamental access discipline of the TDMA system is presented in an appendix.

  3. Development of Flight-Test Performance Estimation Techniques for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, Matthew Henry

    This dissertation provides a flight-testing framework for assessing the performance of fixed-wing, small-scale unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by leveraging sub-system models of components unique to these vehicles. The development of the sub-system models, and their links to broader impacts on sUAS performance, is the key contribution of this work. The sub-system modeling and analysis focuses on the vehicle's propulsion, navigation and guidance, and airframe components. Quantification of the uncertainty in the vehicle's power available and control states is essential for assessing the validity of both the methods and results obtained from flight-tests. Therefore, detailed propulsion and navigation system analyses are presented to validate the flight testing methodology. Propulsion system analysis required the development of an analytic model of the propeller in order to predict the power available over a range of flight conditions. The model is based on the blade element momentum (BEM) method. Additional corrections are added to the basic model in order to capture the Reynolds-dependent scale effects unique to sUAS. The model was experimentally validated using a ground based testing apparatus. The BEM predictions and experimental analysis allow for a parameterized model relating the electrical power, measurable during flight, to the power available required for vehicle performance analysis. Navigation system details are presented with a specific focus on the sensors used for state estimation, and the resulting uncertainty in vehicle state. Uncertainty quantification is provided by detailed calibration techniques validated using quasi-static and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) ground based testing. The HIL methods introduced use a soft real-time flight simulator to provide inertial quality data for assessing overall system performance. Using this tool, the uncertainty in vehicle state estimation based on a range of sensors, and vehicle operational environments is

  4. Exclusion and diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by a rapid ELISA D-dimer test and noninvasive imaging techniques within the context of a clinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, J J; Pattynama, P M

    2000-01-01

    A negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test alone in out-patients with a low to moderate clinical probability (CP) on pulmonary embolism (PE) is predicted to safely exclude pulmonary embolism. The combination of a negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test and a low to moderate CP on PE followed by compression ultrasonography (CUS) for the detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is safe and cost-effective as it reduces the need for noninvasive imaging techniques to about 50% to 60% of outpatients with suspected PE. A high probability ventilation-perfusion (VP) scan or a positive spiral CT consistent with PE and the detection of DVT by CUS are currently considered to be clear indications for anticoagulant treatment. Subsequent pulmonary angiography (PA) is the gold standard diagnostic strategy to exclude or diagnose PE in suspected outpatients with a negative CUS, a positive rapid ELISA D-dimer test, and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT to prevent overtreatment with anticoagulants. However, the willingness of clinicians and the availability of resources to perform PA is restricted, a fact that has provided an impetus for clinical investigators to search for alternative noninvasive strategies to exclude or detect venous thromboembolism (VTE). Serial CUS testing for the detection of DVT in patients with a low to moderate CP on PE and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT is predicted to be safe and will reduce the need for PA to less than 10% or even less than 5%. This noninvasive serial CUS strategy restricts the need for invasive PA to a minor group of patients (spiral CT and a high CP on PE. Prospective evaluations are warranted to implement and to validate the advantages and the disadvantages of the various combinations of noninvasive strategies and to compare serial CUS testing versus PA in randomized clinical management studies of outpatients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

  5. Detecting epileptic seizure with different feature extracting strategies using robust machine learning classification techniques by applying advance parameter optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Lal

    2018-06-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder produced due to abnormal excitability of neurons in the brain. The research reveals that brain activity is monitored through electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients suffered from seizure to detect the epileptic seizure. The performance of EEG detection based epilepsy require feature extracting strategies. In this research, we have extracted varying features extracting strategies based on time and frequency domain characteristics, nonlinear, wavelet based entropy and few statistical features. A deeper study was undertaken using novel machine learning classifiers by considering multiple factors. The support vector machine kernels are evaluated based on multiclass kernel and box constraint level. Likewise, for K-nearest neighbors (KNN), we computed the different distance metrics, Neighbor weights and Neighbors. Similarly, the decision trees we tuned the paramours based on maximum splits and split criteria and ensemble classifiers are evaluated based on different ensemble methods and learning rate. For training/testing tenfold Cross validation was employed and performance was evaluated in form of TPR, NPR, PPV, accuracy and AUC. In this research, a deeper analysis approach was performed using diverse features extracting strategies using robust machine learning classifiers with more advanced optimal options. Support Vector Machine linear kernel and KNN with City block distance metric give the overall highest accuracy of 99.5% which was higher than using the default parameters for these classifiers. Moreover, highest separation (AUC = 0.9991, 0.9990) were obtained at different kernel scales using SVM. Additionally, the K-nearest neighbors with inverse squared distance weight give higher performance at different Neighbors. Moreover, to distinguish the postictal heart rate oscillations from epileptic ictal subjects, and highest performance of 100% was obtained using different machine learning classifiers.

  6. A Comparison of Single-Cycle Versus Multiple-Cycle Proof Testing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, R. C.; Chell, G. G.; Millwater, H. R.; Russell, D. A.; Millwater, H. R.

    1999-01-01

    Single-cycle and multiple-cycle proof testing (SCPT and MCPT) strategies for reusable aerospace propulsion system components are critically evaluated and compared from a rigorous elastic-plastic fracture mechanics perspective. Earlier MCPT studies are briefly reviewed. New J-integral estimation methods for semielliptical surface cracks and cracks at notches are derived and validated. Engineering methods are developed to characterize crack growth rates during elastic-plastic fatigue crack growth (FCG) and the tear-fatigue interaction near instability. Surface crack growth experiments are conducted with Inconel 718 to characterize tearing resistance, FCG under small-scale yielding and elastic-plastic conditions, and crack growth during simulated MCPT. Fractography and acoustic emission studies provide additional insight. The relative merits of SCPT and MCPT are directly compared using a probabilistic analysis linked with an elastic-plastic crack growth computer code. The conditional probability of failure in service is computed for a population of components that have survived a previous proof test, based on an assumed distribution of initial crack depths. Parameter studies investigate the influence of proof factor, tearing resistance, crack shape, initial crack depth distribution, and notches on the MCPT versus SCPT comparison. The parameter studies provide a rational basis to formulate conclusions about the relative advantages and disadvantages of SCPT and MCPT. Practical engineering guidelines are proposed to help select the optimum proof test protocol in a given application.

  7. Community-engaged strategies to promote hepatitis B testing and linkage to care in immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevetta Stanford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve early identification and linkage to treatment and preventive services for hepatitis B virus (HBV in persons born in countries with intermediate or high (>2% HBV prevalence, the University of Florida Center for HIV/AIDS Research, Education, and Services (UF CARES employed community-engaged strategies to implement the Hepatitis B Awareness and Service Linkage (HBASL program. In this brief report, we present a summary of program components, challenges, and successes. Faith and community-based networks were established to improve HBV testing and screening and to increase foreign born nationals (FBNs access to HBV care. A total of 1516 FBNs were tested and screened for hepatitis B. The majority were females (50.4%, Asians (62.8%, non-Hispanic (87.2%, and they also received post-test counseling (54.8%. Noted program advantages included the development of community networks and outreach to a large population of FBNs. The major challenges were institutional delays, pressures related to meeting program deliverables, and diversity within FBNs populations. Community health workers in the United States can replicate this program in their respective communities and ensure success by maintaining a strong community presence, establishing partnerships and linkage processes, developing a sustainability plan, and ensuring the presence of dedicated program staff.

  8. Improvement of Railroad Roller Bearing Test Procedures & Development of Roller Bearing Diagnostic Techniques. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive review of existing basic diagnostic techniques applicable to the railcar roller bearing defect and failure problem was made. Of the potentially feasible diagnostic techniques identified, high frequency vibration was selected for exper...

  9. Nuclear test - The French nuclear strike force in the 21. century: challenges, ambitions and strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodka-Gallien, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This bibliographical note presents a book in which the author, after having recalled the history of the French nuclear force since the first nuclear test in 1960, and outlined the fact that France has been living under the protection of its own nuclear deterrence force since that date, presents the components of this nuclear strike force with its four nuclear submarines equipped to launch new generation missiles, its fifty fighter bomber aircraft equipped with the ASMP-A missile. He presents and discusses the mission of this nuclear force, discusses the relevancy of the deterrence strategy in the present context, and the significance of such a strategy for a European country like France. He wanders whether this strike force is still affordable for our country, which can be its benefits, whether this arsenal remains useful as it has been designed in the Cold War context. He also discusses the disarmament perspectives in an unsteady international environment where power and arms race logics prevail again

  10. The comparison of bolus tracking and test bolus techniques for computed tomography thoracic angiography in healthy beagles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolette Cassel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography thoracic angiography studies were performed on five adult beagles using the bolus tracking (BT technique and the test bolus (TB technique, which were performed at least two weeks apart. For the BT technique, 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent was injected intravenously. Scans were initiated when the contrast in the aorta reached 150 Hounsfield units (HU. For the TB technique, the dogs received a test dose of 15% of 2 mL/kg of 300 mgI/mL iodinated contrast agent, followed by a series of low dose sequential scans. The full dose of the contrast agent was then administered and the scans were conducted at optimal times as identified from time attenuation curves. Mean attenuation in HU was measured in the aorta (Ao and right caudal pulmonary artery (rCPA. Additional observations included the study duration, milliAmpere (mA, computed tomography dose index volume (CTDI[vol] and dose length product (DLP. The attenuation in the Ao (BT = 660 52 HU ± 138 49 HU, TB = 469 82 HU ± 199 52 HU, p = 0.13 and in the rCPA (BT = 606 34 HU ± 143 37 HU, TB = 413 72 HU ± 174.99 HU, p = 0.28 did not differ significantly between the two techniques. The BT technique was conducted in a significantly shorter time period than the TB technique (p = 0.03. The mean mA for the BT technique was significantly lower than the TB technique (p = 0.03, as was the mean CTDI(vol (p = 0.001. The mean DLP did not differ significantly between the two techniques (p = 0.17. No preference was given to either technique when evaluating the Ao or rCPA but the BT technique was shown to be shorter in duration and resulted in less DLP than the TB technique.

  11. Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (SIC) by using the Seldinger technique as the treatment strategy for maxillary sinus carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Tukahara, Kiyoaki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Akira; Takata, Daisuke; Okamoto, Isaku; Kondo, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    We have been applying superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (SIC) by using the Seldinger technique as the treatment strategy for maxillary sinus carcinoma since 1998 in combination with radiotherapy and surgery. SIC allows delivery of high-dose anticancer drugs to the target tumor at high concentrations through its feeding vessel with few adverse effects by neutralizing and limiting the toxic effects of cisplatin (CDDP) within an acceptable range. We studied the effect of primary treatment and adverse events in 40 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus who underwent high-dose SIC combined with radiotherapy in our department between 1998 and 2008. The patients were 30 men and 10 women aged 43 to 75 years (median, 61 years). All carcinomas were advanced and graded as T3 in 17, T4 in 23, and N+ in 8. Some of the carcinomas reached the skull base or extended deep into the orbit. SIC was performed using the Seldinger technique from the femoral artery. Total CDDP dose was 200-300 mg/m 2 (mean, 210 mg/m 2 ). All vessels used for the treatment were those branching from the external carotid arteries; those from internal carotid arteries were not used for intra-arterial infusion. Following arterial infusion chemotherapy, systemic administration of 800 mg 5-fluorouracil (FU) was started on Day 2. Simultaneous radiotherapy was started on Day 2 at a dose of 2 Gy with a goal of increasing up to 60 Gy. Patients enrolled in this treatment arm received two courses of chemotherapy at 1- to 2-week intervals, along with a total dose of 60 Gy of radiotherapy from 1998 to 2007. Since 2008, two courses of SIC with the Seldinger technique, based on the results of postoperative pathological examination, and curative radiation at 60 Gy became the preferred basic treatment strategy irrespective of tumor size, and evaluation of treatment response at the level of 40 Gy was abandoned. For residual or recurrent carcinoma, we took a ''wait and see'' approach and

  12. An economic evaluation of preclinical testing strategies compared to the compulsory scrapie flock scheme in the control of classical scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Boden

    Full Text Available Cost-benefit is rarely combined with nonlinear dynamic models when evaluating control options for infectious diseases. The current strategy for scrapie in Great Britain requires that all genetically susceptible livestock in affected flocks be culled (Compulsory Scrapie Flock Scheme or CSFS. However, this results in the removal of many healthy sheep, and a recently developed pre-clinical test for scrapie now offers a strategy based on disease detection. We explore the flock level cost-effectiveness of scrapie control using a deterministic transmission model and industry estimates of costs associated with genotype testing, pre-clinical tests and the value of a sheep culled. Benefit was measured in terms of the reduction in the number of infected sheep sold on, compared to a baseline strategy of doing nothing, using Incremental Cost Effectiveness analysis to compare across strategies. As market data was not available for pre-clinical testing, a threshold analysis was used to set a unit-cost giving equal costs for CSFS and multiple pre-clinical testing (MT, one test each year for three consecutive years. Assuming a 40% within-flock proportion of susceptible genotypes and a test sensitivity of 90%, a single test (ST was cheaper but less effective than either the CSFS or MT strategies (30 infected-sales-averted over the lifetime of the average epidemic. The MT strategy was slightly less effective than the CSFS and would be a dominated strategy unless preclinical testing was cheaper than the threshold price of £6.28, but may be appropriate for flocks with particularly valuable livestock. Though the ST is not currently recommended, the proportion of susceptible genotypes in the national flock is likely to continue to decrease; this may eventually make it a cost-effective alternative to the MT or CSFS.

  13. ITS-NANO - Prioritising nanosafety research to develop a stakeholder driven intelligent testing strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, V.; Pozzi-Mucelli, S.; Tran, L.

    2014-01-01

    of the current and future risk assessment of NMs. RESULTS: The framework for future research has been developed from the opinions of over 80 stakeholders, that describes the research priorities for effective development of an intelligent testing strategy (ITS) to allow risk evaluation of NMs. In this context......BACKGROUND: To assess the risk of all nanomaterials (NMs) on a case-by-case basis is challenging in terms of financial, ethical and time resources. Instead a more intelligent approach to knowledge gain and risk assessment is required. METHODS: A framework of future research priorities was developed......-priority research areas are described via a series of stepping stones, or hexagon diagrams structured into a time perspective. Importantly, this framework is flexible, allowing individual stakeholders to identify where their own activities and expertise are positioned within the prioritisation pathway...

  14. A new islanding detection technique for multiple mini hydro based on rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, J.A.; Mokhlis, H.; Bakar, A.H.A.; Karimi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The requirement of DG interconnection with existing power system is discussed. • Various islanding detection techniques are discussed with their merits and demerits. • New islanding detection strategy is proposed for multiple mini hydro type DGs. • The proposed strategy is based on dq/dt and load connecting strategy. • The effectiveness of strategy is verified on various other cases. - Abstract: The interconnection of distributed generation (DG) into distribution networks is undergoing a rapid global expansion. It enhances the system’s reliability, while simultaneously reduces pollution problems related to the generation of electrical power. To fully utilize the benefits of DGs, certain technical issues need to be addressed. One of the most important issues in this context is islanding detection. This paper presents a new islanding detection technique that is suitable for multiple mini-hydro type DG units. The proposed strategy is based on the rate of change of reactive power and load connecting strategy to detect islanding within the system. For a large power mismatch, islanding is detected by rate of change of reactive power only. However, for a close power mismatch, the rate of change of reactive power initiates a load connecting strategy, which in turn alters the load on the distribution network. This load variation in the distribution network causes a variation in the rate of change of reactive power, which is utilized to distinguish islanding and other events. The simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective in detecting islanding occurrence in a distribution network

  15. Preparation of W/CuCrZr monoblock test mock-up using vacuum brazing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kongkham Premjit; Khirwadkar, Samir S.; Bhope, Kedar; Patel, Nikunj; Mokaria, Prakash K.; Mehta, Mayur

    2015-01-01

    Development of the joining for W/CuCrZr monoblock PFC test mock-up is an interest area in Fusion R and D. W/Cu bimetallic material has prepared using OFHC copper casting approach on the radial surface of W monoblock tile surface. The W/Cu bimetallic material has been joined with CuCrZr tube (heat sink) material with the vacuum brazing route. Vacuum brazing of W/Cu-CuCrZr has been performed @ 970 °C for 10 mins using NiCuMn-37 filler material under deep vacuum environment (10 -6 mbar). Graphite fixtures were used for OFHC copper casting and vacuum brazing experiments. The joint integrity of W/Cu-CuCrZr monoblock mock-up on W/Cu and Cu-CuCrZr has been checked using ultrasonic immersion technique. Micro-structural examination and Spot-wise elemental analysis have been carried out using HR-SEM and EDAX. The results of the experimental work will be discussed in the paper. (author)

  16. Near infrared spectrometric technique for testing fruit quality: optimisation of regression models using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isingizwe Nturambirwe, J. Frédéric; Perold, Willem J.; Opara, Umezuruike L.

    2016-02-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has gained extensive use in quality evaluation. It is arguably one of the most advanced spectroscopic tools in non-destructive quality testing of food stuff, from measurement to data analysis and interpretation. NIR spectral data are interpreted through means often involving multivariate statistical analysis, sometimes associated with optimisation techniques for model improvement. The objective of this research was to explore the extent to which genetic algorithms (GA) can be used to enhance model development, for predicting fruit quality. Apple fruits were used, and NIR spectra in the range from 12000 to 4000 cm-1 were acquired on both bruised and healthy tissues, with different degrees of mechanical damage. GAs were used in combination with partial least squares regression methods to develop bruise severity prediction models, and compared to PLS models developed using the full NIR spectrum. A classification model was developed, which clearly separated bruised from unbruised apple tissue. GAs helped improve prediction models by over 10%, in comparison with full spectrum-based models, as evaluated in terms of error of prediction (Root Mean Square Error of Cross-validation). PLS models to predict internal quality, such as sugar content and acidity were developed and compared to the versions optimized by genetic algorithm. Overall, the results highlighted the potential use of GA method to improve speed and accuracy of fruit quality prediction.

  17. Monitoring the effectiveness of remediation techniques using sediment toxicity tests with the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, K.G.; Jackman, P.M.; Lee, K.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a controlled oil release experiment of weathered crude oil was presented. The released oil was applied to a tidal saltwater marsh at Conrod's Beach, Nova Scotia, Canada. The study included 3 replicate blocks which included 2 unoiled treatments and 4 oiled treatments for each block. One unoiled site had no treatment, the second unoiled site had nutrient addition to examine the effect of nutrients. The oiled treatments included natural attenuation, nutrient addition, nutrient addition with plants, and nutrient addition with a garden aerator to introduce oxygen. A standard lab procedure was used to analyze the sediments to determine the effectiveness of the technique as well as the toxic effects on the survival of the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius. Test results indicated that the unoiled sites were non-toxic, with a slight decrease in survival in the treatment with nutrient addition. All the oiled sites were very toxic at first, but toxicity decreased gradually with time. Treatment with nutrient addition with a garden aerator proved to be the most complete and fastest detoxification method. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Some problems in the technique of high-voltage testing of the accelerating tube gaps in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, V.A.; Ivanov, V.V.; Mukhametshin, V.I.; Dmitriev, E.P.; Kidalov, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    Problems arising during high-voltage testing and training of accelerating taubes of electrostatic accelrators are discussed. A rig and technique of the accelerating tube testing and program designed for the processing of the data obtained and sorting out of the samples investigated are described

  19. One or two serological assay testing strategy for diagnosis of HBV and HCV infection? The use of predictive modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, John V; Easterbrook, Philippa; Sands, Anita R

    2017-11-01

    Initial serological testing for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is conducted using either rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) or laboratory-based enzyme immunoassays (EIA)s for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) or antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), typically on serum or plasma specimens and, for certain RDTs, capillary whole blood. WHO recommends the use of standardized testing strategies - defined as a sequence of one or more assays to maximize testing accuracy while simplifying the testing process and ideally minimizing cost. Our objective was to examine the diagnostic outcomes of a one- versus two-assay serological testing strategy. These data were used to inform recommendations in the 2017 WHO Guidelines on hepatitis B and C testing. Few published studies have compared diagnostic outcomes for one-assay versus two-assay serological testing strategies for HBsAg and anti-HCV. Therefore, the principles of Bayesian statistics were used to conduct a modelling exercise to examine the outcomes of a one-assay versus two-assay testing strategy when applied to a hypothetical population of 10,000 individuals. The resulting model examined the diagnostic outcomes (true and false positive diagnoses; true and false negative diagnoses; positive and negative predictive values as a function of prevalence; and total tests required) for both one-assay and two-assay testing strategies. The performance characteristics assumed for assays used within the testing strategies were informed by WHO prequalification assessment findings and systematic reviews for diagnostic accuracy studies. Each of the presumptive testing strategies (one-assay or two-assay) was modelled at varying prevalences of HBsAg (10%, 2% and 0.4%) and of anti-HCV (40%, 10%, 2% and 0.4%), aimed at representing the range of testing populations typically encountered in WHO Member States. When the two-assay testing strategy was considered, the model assumed the independence of the

  20. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those

  1. Patient selection, echocardiographic screening and treatment strategies for interventional tricuspid repair using the edge-to-edge repair technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausleiter, Jörg; Braun, Daniel; Orban, Mathias; Latib, Azeem; Lurz, Philipp; Boekstegers, Peter; von Bardeleben, Ralph Stephan; Kowalski, Marek; Hahn, Rebecca T; Maisano, Francesco; Hagl, Christian; Massberg, Steffen; Nabauer, Michael

    2018-04-24

    Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has long been neglected despite its well known association with mortality. While surgical mortality rates remain high in isolated tricuspid valve surgery, interventional TR repair is rapidly evolving as an alternative to cardiac surgery in selected patients at high surgical risk. Currently, interventional edge-to-edge repair is the most frequently applied technique for TR repair even though the device has not been developed for this particular indication. Due to the inherent differences in tricuspid and mitral valve anatomy and pathology, percutaneous repair of the tricuspid valve is challenging due to a variety of factors including the complexity and variability of tricuspid valve anatomy, echocardiographic visibility of the valve leaflets, and device steering to the tricuspid valve. Furthermore, it remains to be clarified which patients are suitable for a percutaneous tricuspid repair and which features predict a successful procedure. On the basis of the available experience, we describe criteria for patient selection including morphological valve features, a standardized process for echocardiographic screening, and a strategy for clip placement. These criteria will help to achieve standardization of valve assessment and the procedural approach, and to further develop interventional tricuspid valve repair using either currently available devices or dedicated tricuspid edge-to-edge repair devices in the future. In summary, this manuscript will provide guidance for patient selection and echocardiographic screening when considering edge-to-edge repair for severe TR.

  2. Tools for forming strategies for remediation of forests and park areas in northern Europe after radioactive contamination: background and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, L.; Rantavaara, A.; Andersson, K.; Roed, J.

    2002-01-01

    This report compiles background information that can be used in planning appropriate countermeasures for forest and park areas in Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, in case a nuclear accident results in large-scale contamination of forests. The information is formulated to inform the forestry sector and radiation protection experts about the practicality of both forest management techniques and mechanical cleanup methods, for use in their planning of specific strategies that can lead to an optimal use of contaminated forests. Decisions will depend on the site and the actual situation after radioactive deposition to forested areas, but the report provides background information from investigations performed before an accident occurs that will make the process more effective. The report also discusses the radiological consequences of producing energy from biomass contaminated by a major nuclear accident, both in the context of normal bio-fuel energy production and as a means of reducing potentially severe environmental problems in the forest by firing power plants with highly contaminated forest biomass. (au)

  3. Testing the implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) strategy as an effective adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) strategy: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Zehner, Mark; Roosa, Mathew R; Martino, Steve; Gotham, Heather J; Ball, Elizabeth L; Stilen, Patricia; Speck, Kathryn; Vandersloot, Denna; Rieckmann, Traci R; Chaple, Michael; Martin, Erika G; Kaiser, David; Ford, James H

    2017-11-17

    Improving the extent to which evidence-based practices (EBPs)-treatments that have been empirically shown to be efficacious or effective-are integrated within routine practice is a well-documented challenge across numerous areas of health. In 2014, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the substance abuse treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI) for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS service organizations (ASOs) as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the ISF Experiment. Using a cluster randomized design, case management and leadership staff from 39 ASOs across the United States were randomized to receive either the ATTC strategy (control condition) or the ATTC + ISF strategy (experimental condition). The ATTC strategy is staff-focused and includes 10 discrete strategies (e.g., provide centralized technical assistance, conduct educational meetings, provide ongoing consultation). The ISF strategy is organization-focused and includes seven discrete strategies (e.g., use an implementation advisor, organize implementation team meetings, conduct cyclical small tests of change). Building upon the exploration-preparation-implementation-sustainment (EPIS) framework, the effectiveness of the ISF strategy is examined via three staff-level measures: (1) time-to-proficiency (i.e., preparation phase outcome), (2) implementation effectiveness (i.e., implementation phase outcome), and (3) level of sustainment (i.e., sustainment phase outcome). Although not without limitations, the ISF

  4. Testing the implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF strategy as an effective adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC strategy: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Garner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the extent to which evidence-based practices (EBPs—treatments that have been empirically shown to be efficacious or effective—are integrated within routine practice is a well-documented challenge across numerous areas of health. In 2014, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded a type 2 effectiveness–implementation hybrid trial titled the substance abuse treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS service organizations (ASOs as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the ISF Experiment. Methods Using a cluster randomized design, case management and leadership staff from 39 ASOs across the United States were randomized to receive either the ATTC strategy (control condition or the ATTC + ISF strategy (experimental condition. The ATTC strategy is staff-focused and includes 10 discrete strategies (e.g., provide centralized technical assistance, conduct educational meetings, provide ongoing consultation. The ISF strategy is organization-focused and includes seven discrete strategies (e.g., use an implementation advisor, organize implementation team meetings, conduct cyclical small tests of change. Building upon the exploration–preparation–implementation–sustainment (EPIS framework, the effectiveness of the ISF strategy is examined via three staff-level measures: (1 time-to-proficiency (i.e., preparation phase outcome, (2 implementation effectiveness (i.e., implementation phase outcome, and (3 level of sustainment (i.e., sustainment phase outcome

  5. Suspension tests on a larger scale. Report from the status seminar on magnetic suspension techniques. Testing of the electrodynamic system started

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogg, D; Muckli, W

    1976-07-01

    A world record speed for electromagnetically suspended vehicles as well as successful suspension tests with forced-circulation cooled superconducting magnets were the outstanding success reports at the fifth status seminar 'Magnetic suspension techniques' on 31st March and 1st April in Bad Kissingen. The research work on magnetic suspension techniques in the railborne long-distance travel is supported by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) within the frameworke of the programme 'Railway engineering - New technologies'.

  6. R20 Programme: The development of grouting technique. Stop criteria and field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollmen, K.

    2008-01-01

    This work is a part of the project 'Grouting Technique' by Posiva Oy, which is responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This study attempts to collect disperse information about the design parameters of the grouting and about a field-test stop criterion, which differs from the prevailing practice. The literature study describes salient processes of grouting design in sufficient extent. Different methods for grouting stop criterion are described in more detail. Grouting design based on selected grouting theory, grouting and evaluating of the grouting results are presented in the experiential part of this study. This study focuses on rock tunnel grouting using cement-based grout. The requirements for water tightness, which are set down by customer, direct the grouting design. Information about fractures in rock mass, which surrounds the rock facility, is the prime initial data for grouting design. In grouting work, fracturing is generally studied by water loss measurements performed in investigation, probe and grouting holes. Besides the water loss measurement, the Posiva Flow Log -tool, which measures location and transmissivity for every single fracture, is used in ONKALO. Grouting pressure and grout must be chosen together and case-specifically. Both pressure and yield strength of grout are influencing the penetration length of grout in a fracture. Grouting pressure must be high enough to ensure sufficient penetration length, but pressure must be under the level where rock mass breaks to avoid hydraulic fracturing. Raising the water to dry material ratio reduces the yield strength of grout, in which case the grouting pressure can be lowered. Stop criterion for grouting aims to define the point, when the result of the grouting is adequate, and the grouting after that point is uneconomical. Properly specified stop criterion minimizes extra grout volume and reduces the running time of grouting work. From the references, three different

  7. Refining Soil Test Calibration and Nitrogen Recommendation in Corn through 15N Isotope Tracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rallos, Roland V.

    2015-01-01

    Soil test serve as a baseline to efficiently manage the fertilizer inputs and determine excess nutrients that may cause adverse impact to human health and the environment. The ever increasing fertilizer prices and application inefficiency raised concerns to re-evaluate and redesigned the current crop cultural management to increase its efficiency and productivity. Additionally, with the intensification of farming methods, corn varietal improvement, soil degradations, climate change among many others, the earlier fertilizer recommendations may not be sufficient enough to match with the crop’s fertilizer requirements. The use of 15N isotope tracer techniques in nutrient management research implies important benefits than any existing conventional methodologies. This technology provides enormous advantages because it permits a direct quantitative measurement of the crop nutrient utilization under the influence of varied factors of the environment. Hence, this technique was used to understand N dynamics and fertilizer N-use efficiency (FNUE) in corn grown under different soil fertility levels during wet and dry season productions. This allows us to follow the fate and accurately quantify the contribution of different N pools to the crops N nutrition. Results showed that the fertilizer rates for optimum corn yield under low soil N was observed at 180 kg N ha-1 during dry season while 90 kg N ha-1 during wet season production. While for medium and high N soil, the optimum production yield was noted in 45 kg N ha-1 both in dry and wet season productions. Economic optimum nitrogen recommendations (EONR) were also calculated following the quadratic crop response model. In all cases, EONR for dry season productions are much higher compared to wet season production. Generally, high chlorophyll content was observed at higher fertilizer levels. In addition, more than half of the plant N was taken directly from the added fertilizer during the early stage (30-60 days after

  8. A Novel Experimental and Modelling Strategy for Nanoparticle Toxicity Testing Enabling the Use of Small Quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda van Pomeren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles (NPs differ from other metal forms with respect to their large surface to volume ratio and subsequent inherent reactivity. Each new modification to a nanoparticle alters the surface to volume ratio, fate and subsequently the toxicity of the particle. Newly-engineered NPs are commonly available only in low quantities whereas, in general, rather large amounts are needed for fate characterizations and effect studies. This challenge is especially relevant for those NPs that have low inherent toxicity combined with low bioavailability. Therefore, within our study, we developed new testing strategies that enable working with low quantities of NPs. The experimental testing method was tailor-made for NPs, whereas we also developed translational models based on different dose-metrics allowing to determine dose-response predictions for NPs. Both the experimental method and the predictive models were verified on the basis of experimental effect data collected using zebrafish embryos exposed to metallic NPs in a range of different chemical compositions and shapes. It was found that the variance in the effect data in the dose-response predictions was best explained by the minimal diameter of the NPs, whereas the data confirmed that the predictive model is widely applicable to soluble metallic NPs. The experimental and model approach developed in our study support the development of (ecotoxicity assays tailored to nano-specific features.

  9. Acceptance- and imagery-based strategies can reduce chocolate cravings: A test of the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-06-01

    The elaborated-intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a two-stage process whereby initial intrusions about a desired target are subsequently elaborated with mental imagery. The present study tested whether the craving reduction strategies of cognitive defusion and guided imagery could differentially target the intrusion and elaboration stages, respectively, and thus differentially impact the craving process. Participants were randomly assigned to a cognitive defusion, a guided imagery or a mind-wandering control condition. Pre- and post-intervention chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery, craving intensity, and chocolate consumption were compared. Experiment 1 recruited a general sample of young women (n = 94), whereas Experiment 2 recruited a sample of chocolate cravers who wanted to reduce their chocolate consumption (n = 97). Across both experiments, cognitive defusion lowered intrusiveness of thoughts, vividness of imagery and craving intensity. Guided imagery reduced chocolate-related thoughts, intrusiveness, vividness and craving intensity for chocolate cravers (Experiment 2), but not for the general sample (Experiment 1). There were no group differences in chocolate consumption in either experiment. Results add to existing evidence supporting the elaborated-intrusion theory of desire in the food domain, and suggest that acceptance- and imagery-based techniques have potential for use in combatting problematic cravings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Different Test Construction Strategies in the Development of a Gender Fair Interest Inventory Using Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Eunike; Hell, Benedikt; Passler, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Three test construction strategies are described and illustrated in the development of the Verb Interest Test (VIT), an inventory that assesses vocational interests using verbs. Verbs might be a promising alternative to the descriptions of occupational activities used in most vocational interest inventories because they are context-independent,…

  11. Evaluating the enforceability of texting laws: strategies tested in Connecticut and Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore alternative strategies for increasing seat belt use. Researchers examined behavior : change strategies proven effective in education, healthcare, advertising, and marketing, and they considered how these : ...

  12. Invasive Candidiasis in Various Patient Populations: Incorporating Non-Culture Diagnostic Tests into Rational Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Cornelius J.; Shields, Ryan K.; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates due to invasive candidiasis remain unacceptably high, in part because the poor sensitivity and slow turn-around time of cultures delay the initiation of antifungal treatment. β-d-glucan (Fungitell) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based (T2Candida) assays are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for diagnosing invasive candidiasis, but their clinical roles are unclear. We propose a Bayesian framework for interpreting non-culture test results and developing rational patient management strategies, which considers test performance and types of invasive candidiasis that are most common in various patient populations. β-d-glucan sensitivity/specificity for candidemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis is ~80%/80% and ~60%/75%, respectively. In settings with 1%–10% likelihood of candidemia, anticipated β-d-glucan positive and negative predictive values are ~4%–31% and ≥97%, respectively. Corresponding values in settings with 3%–30% likelihood of intra-abdominal candidiasis are ~7%–51% and ~78%–98%. β-d-glucan is predicted to be useful in guiding antifungal treatment for wide ranges of populations at-risk for candidemia (incidence ~5%–40%) or intra-abdominal candidiasis (~7%–20%). Validated PCR-based assays should broaden windows to include populations at lower-risk for candidemia (incidence ≥~2%) and higher-risk for intra-abdominal candidiasis (up to ~40%). In the management of individual patients, non-culture tests may also have value outside of these windows. The proposals we put forth are not definitive treatment guidelines, but rather represent starting points for clinical trial design and debate by the infectious diseases community. The principles presented here will be applicable to other assays as they enter the clinic, and to existing assays as more data become available from different populations. PMID:29376927

  13. Invasive Candidiasis in Various Patient Populations: Incorporating Non-Culture Diagnostic Tests into Rational Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius J. Clancy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rates due to invasive candidiasis remain unacceptably high, in part because the poor sensitivity and slow turn-around time of cultures delay the initiation of antifungal treatment. β-d-glucan (Fungitell and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based (T2Candida assays are FDA-approved adjuncts to cultures for diagnosing invasive candidiasis, but their clinical roles are unclear. We propose a Bayesian framework for interpreting non-culture test results and developing rational patient management strategies, which considers test performance and types of invasive candidiasis that are most common in various patient populations. β-d-glucan sensitivity/specificity for candidemia and intra-abdominal candidiasis is ~80%/80% and ~60%/75%, respectively. In settings with 1%–10% likelihood of candidemia, anticipated β-d-glucan positive and negative predictive values are ~4%–31% and ≥97%, respectively. Corresponding values in settings with 3%–30% likelihood of intra-abdominal candidiasis are ~7%–51% and ~78%–98%. β-d-glucan is predicted to be useful in guiding antifungal treatment for wide ranges of populations at-risk for candidemia (incidence ~5%–40% or intra-abdominal candidiasis (~7%–20%. Validated PCR-based assays should broaden windows to include populations at lower-risk for candidemia (incidence ≥~2% and higher-risk for intra-abdominal candidiasis (up to ~40%. In the management of individual patients, non-culture tests may also have value outside of these windows. The proposals we put forth are not definitive treatment guidelines, but rather represent starting points for clinical trial design and debate by the infectious diseases community. The principles presented here will be applicable to other assays as they enter the clinic, and to existing assays as more data become available from different populations.

  14. Use of genotoxicity information in the development of integrated testing strategies (ITS) for skin sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekenyan, Ovanes; Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrova, Gergana; Kuseva, Chanita; Todorov, Milen; Stoeva, Stoyanka; Kotov, Stefan; Donner, E Maria

    2010-10-18

    Skin sensitization is an end point of concern for various legislation in the EU, including the seventh Amendment to the Cosmetics Directive and Registration Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Since animal testing is a last resort for REACH or banned (from 2013 onward) for the Cosmetics Directive, the use of intelligent/integrated testing strategies (ITS) as an efficient means of gathering necessary information from alternative sources (e.g., in vitro, (Q)SARs, etc.) is gaining widespread interest. Previous studies have explored correlations between mutagenicity data and skin sensitization data as a means of exploiting information from surrogate end points. The work here compares the underlying chemical mechanisms for mutagenicity and skin sensitization in an effort to evaluate the role mutagenicity information can play as a predictor of skin sensitization potential. The Tissue Metabolism Simulator (TIMES) hybrid expert system was used to compare chemical mechanisms of both end points since it houses a comprehensive set of established structure-activity relationships for both skin sensitization and mutagenicity. The evaluation demonstrated that there is a great deal of overlap between skin sensitization and mutagenicity structural alerts and their underlying chemical mechanisms. The similarities and differences in chemical mechanisms are discussed in light of available experimental data. A number of new alerts for mutagenicity were also postulated for inclusion into TIMES. The results presented show that mutagenicity information can provide useful insights on skin sensitization potential as part of an ITS and should be considered prior to any in vivo skin sensitization testing being initiated.

  15. Testing the effectiveness of simplified search strategies for updating systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Maureen; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Kenny, Meghan; Raina, Parminder; Sherifali, Diana

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the study was to test the overall effectiveness of a simplified search strategy (SSS) for updating systematic reviews. We identified nine systematic reviews undertaken by our research group for which both comprehensive and SSS updates were performed. Three relevant performance measures were estimated, that is, sensitivity, precision, and number needed to read (NNR). The update reference searches for all nine included systematic reviews identified a total of 55,099 citations that were screened resulting in final inclusion of 163 randomized controlled trials. As compared with reference search, the SSS resulted in 8,239 hits and had a median sensitivity of 83.3%, while precision and NNR were 4.5 times better. During analysis, we found that the SSS performed better for clinically focused topics, with a median sensitivity of 100% and precision and NNR 6 times better than for the reference searches. For broader topics, the sensitivity of the SSS was 80% while precision and NNR were 5.4 times better compared with reference search. SSS performed well for clinically focused topics and, with a median sensitivity of 100%, could be a viable alternative to a conventional comprehensive search strategy for updating this type of systematic reviews particularly considering the budget constraints and the volume of new literature being published. For broader topics, 80% sensitivity is likely to be considered too low for a systematic review update in most cases, although it might be acceptable if updating a scoping or rapid review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The application of the acoustic emission technique to stone decay by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grossi, C. M.

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission was monitored during salt crystallisation cycles in order to study the mechanisms of rock deterioration by sodium sulphate in laboratory tests. Some porous carbonate stones used in Spanish monuments (Cathedral of Oviedo, Murcia and Seo Vella of Lérida were selected for this study. The acoustic emission detected during the different stages of the cycles (immersion, drying and cooling was interpreted to be the result of the salt behaviour inside the stone. The use of this technique has confirmed that this behaviour depends on salt characteristics (solubility, hydration state and polymorphism of anhydrous sodium sulphate and stone porosity and pore network.

    Para determinar los mecanismos de deterioro de las rocas debidos a la acción del sulfato de sodio, se ha registrado la emisión acústica durante ensayos de cristalización de sales en el laboratorio. Para ello, se han seleccionado tres piedras porosas carbonatadas utilizadas como materiales de construcción en monumentos españoles (Catedrales de Oviedo, Murcia y Seo Vella de Lérida. La emisión acústica detectada durante las diferentes etapas de los ciclos (inmersión, secado y enfriamiento se ha interpretado como debida al comportamiento de la sal en el interior de la piedra. Mediante esta técnica se ha confirmado que este comportamiento depende de las características de la sal (solubilidad, diferentes estados de hidratación y el polimorfismo del sulfato de sodio anhidro y de la porosidad y configuración del sistema poroso de las rocas.

  17. The GRIM Test : A Simple Technique Detects Numerous Anomalies in the Reporting of Results in Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Nicholas J. L.; Heathers, James A. J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a simple mathematical technique that we call granularity-related inconsistency of means (GRIM) for verifying the summary statistics of research reports in psychology. This technique evaluates whether the reported means of integer data such as Likert-type scales are consistent with the

  18. Variation in Research Designs Used to Test the Effectiveness of Dissemination and Implementation Strategies: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucca, Stephanie; Tabak, Rachel G; Pilar, Meagan; Ramsey, Alex T; Baumann, Ana A; Kryzer, Emily; Lewis, Ericka M; Padek, Margaret; Powell, Byron J; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-01-01

    The need for optimal study designs in dissemination and implementation (D&I) research is increasingly recognized. Despite the wide range of study designs available for D&I research, we lack understanding of the types of designs and methodologies that are routinely used in the field. This review assesses the designs and methodologies in recently proposed D&I studies and provides resources to guide design decisions. We reviewed 404 study protocols published in the journal Implementation Science from 2/2006 to 9/2017. Eligible studies tested the efficacy or effectiveness of D&I strategies (i.e., not effectiveness of the underlying clinical or public health intervention); had a comparison by group and/or time; and used ≥1 quantitative measure. Several design elements were extracted: design category (e.g., randomized); design type [e.g., cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT)]; data type (e.g., quantitative); D&I theoretical framework; levels of treatment assignment, intervention, and measurement; and country in which the research was conducted. Each protocol was double-coded, and discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Of the 404 protocols reviewed, 212 (52%) studies tested one or more implementation strategy across 208 manuscripts, therefore meeting inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 77% utilized randomized designs, primarily cluster RCTs. The use of alternative designs (e.g., stepped wedge) increased over time. Fewer studies were quasi-experimental (17%) or observational (6%). Many study design categories (e.g., controlled pre-post, matched pair cluster design) were represented by only one or two studies. Most articles proposed quantitative and qualitative methods (61%), with the remaining 39% proposing only quantitative. Half of protocols (52%) reported using a theoretical framework to guide the study. The four most frequently reported frameworks were Consolidated Framework for Implementing Research and RE-AIM ( n  = 16 each), followed by

  19. Variation in Research Designs Used to Test the Effectiveness of Dissemination and Implementation Strategies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Mazzucca

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe need for optimal study designs in dissemination and implementation (D&I research is increasingly recognized. Despite the wide range of study designs available for D&I research, we lack understanding of the types of designs and methodologies that are routinely used in the field. This review assesses the designs and methodologies in recently proposed D&I studies and provides resources to guide design decisions.MethodsWe reviewed 404 study protocols published in the journal Implementation Science from 2/2006 to 9/2017. Eligible studies tested the efficacy or effectiveness of D&I strategies (i.e., not effectiveness of the underlying clinical or public health intervention; had a comparison by group and/or time; and used ≥1 quantitative measure. Several design elements were extracted: design category (e.g., randomized; design type [e.g., cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT]; data type (e.g., quantitative; D&I theoretical framework; levels of treatment assignment, intervention, and measurement; and country in which the research was conducted. Each protocol was double-coded, and discrepancies were resolved through discussion.ResultsOf the 404 protocols reviewed, 212 (52% studies tested one or more implementation strategy across 208 manuscripts, therefore meeting inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 77% utilized randomized designs, primarily cluster RCTs. The use of alternative designs (e.g., stepped wedge increased over time. Fewer studies were quasi-experimental (17% or observational (6%. Many study design categories (e.g., controlled pre–post, matched pair cluster design were represented by only one or two studies. Most articles proposed quantitative and qualitative methods (61%, with the remaining 39% proposing only quantitative. Half of protocols (52% reported using a theoretical framework to guide the study. The four most frequently reported frameworks were Consolidated Framework for Implementing Research and RE

  20. Advancing Risk Analysis for Nanoscale Materials: Report from an International Workshop on the Role of Alternative Testing Strategies for Advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatkin, J A; Ong, Kimberly J; Beaudrie, Christian; Clippinger, Amy J; Hendren, Christine Ogilvie; Haber, Lynne T; Hill, Myriam; Holden, Patricia; Kennedy, Alan J; Kim, Baram; MacDonell, Margaret; Powers, Christina M; Sharma, Monita; Sheremeta, Lorraine; Stone, Vicki; Sultan, Yasir; Turley, Audrey; White, Ronald H

    2016-08-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) has a history of bringing thought leadership to topics of emerging risk. In September 2014, the SRA Emerging Nanoscale Materials Specialty Group convened an international workshop to examine the use of alternative testing strategies (ATS) for manufactured nanomaterials (NM) from a risk analysis perspective. Experts in NM environmental health and safety, human health, ecotoxicology, regulatory compliance, risk analysis, and ATS evaluated and discussed the state of the science for in vitro and other alternatives to traditional toxicology testing for NM. Based on this review, experts recommended immediate and near-term actions that would advance ATS use in NM risk assessment. Three focal areas-human health, ecological health, and exposure considerations-shaped deliberations about information needs, priorities, and the next steps required to increase confidence in and use of ATS in NM risk assessment. The deliberations revealed that ATS are now being used for screening, and that, in the near term, ATS could be developed for use in read-across or categorization decision making within certain regulatory frameworks. Participants recognized that leadership is required from within the scientific community to address basic challenges, including standardizing materials, protocols, techniques and reporting, and designing experiments relevant to real-world conditions, as well as coordination and sharing of large-scale collaborations and data. Experts agreed that it will be critical to include experimental parameters that can support the development of adverse outcome pathways. Numerous other insightful ideas for investment in ATS emerged throughout the discussions and are further highlighted in this article. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.