WorldWideScience

Sample records for techniques standards activities

  1. Standard Test Method for Oxygen Content Using a 14-MeV Neutron Activation and Direct-Counting Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of oxygen concentration in almost any matrix by using a 14-MeV neutron activation and direct-counting technique. Essentially, the same system may be used to determine oxygen concentrations ranging from over 50 % to about 10 g/g, or less, depending on the sample size and available 14-MeV neutron fluence rates. Note 1 - The range of analysis may be extended by using higher neutron fluence rates, larger samples, and higher counting efficiency detectors. 1.2 This test method may be used on either solid or liquid samples, provided that they can be made to conform in size, shape, and macroscopic density during irradiation and counting to a standard sample of known oxygen content. Several variants of this method have been described in the technical literature. A monograph is available which provides a comprehensive description of the principles of activation analysis using a neutron generator (1). 1.3 The values stated in either SI or inch-pound units are to be regarded...

  2. Detection of active noise control on the standard motorcycle exhaust Supra X 125 D using PVC pipe technique form Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isranuri, I.; Alfisyahrin; Nasution, A. R.

    2018-02-01

    This detection aims to obtain noise reduction on the supra X 125D motorcycle exhaust by using the Active Noise Control Method. The technique is done using a Y-shaped PVC pipe to be bolted on the exhaust, which then branch Y PVC is placed loudspeaker with impermeable conditions. The function of this loudspeaker is as a secondary noise to counter the primary noise of the sound of exhaust motorcycle Supra X 125D. The sound generator in this study is the ISD 4004 module, which serves to generate noise to counter the source noise. How this ISD 4004 module works is by recording source noise then recording the source noise and then reversed the phase 180° by phase reversing circuit. So that, the noise generated by the sound generator will hit the source noise and encounter or such as addition of two different phase of sound will result in noise reduction when detected at the end of the Y-shaped PVC pipe. Inverted phase reversed using feed-back resistor 1 kΩ and 2 kΩ input resistors, 16V capacitor 2500μf and as amplifier using ICL 7660 and TL 702 CP. Test results on the highest 1000 rpm rotation engine speed on the Z axis of 2 dB, and at the highest 2000 rpm rotation engine speed also occurs on the Z axis of 1.5 dB.

  3. High Classification Rates for Continuous Cow Activity Recognition using Low-cost GPS Positioning Sensors and Standard Machine Learning Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Torben; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2011-01-01

    changes, affects the behavior of the individual animal, e.g., changes in time spend on activities like standing, lying, eating or walking. Low-cost and infrastructure-less GPS positioning sensors attached to the animals’ collars give the opportunity to monitor the movements of cows and recognize cow...... and their activities manually logged to serve as ground truth. For our dataset we managed to obtain an average classification success rate of 86.2% of the four activities: eating/seeking (90.0%), walking (100%), lying (76.5%), and standing (75.8%) by optimizing both the preprocessing of the raw GPS data...

  4. Standardization of P-33 by the TDCR efficiency calculation technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available and Isotopes 60 (2004) 465?468 The standardization of 33P by the TDCR efficiency calculation technique B.R.S. Simpson*, W.M. Morris Radioactivity Standards Laboratory, CSIR?NML, 15 Lower Hope Road, Rosebank, Cape Town 7700, South Africa Abstract The activity... allowed). 2. Review of the TDCR efficiency calculation technique A LS source is viewed by a three-phototube detection system and the double-tube coincidence counting rate Nd and the triple-tube rate Nt are recorded simulta- neously. If N0 is the 33P...

  5. ELISA technique standardization for strongyloidiasis diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huapaya, P.; Espinoza, I.; Huiza, A.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sevilla, C.

    2002-01-01

    To standardize ELISA technique for human Strongyloides stercoralis infection diagnosis a crude antigen was prepared using filariform larvae obtained from positive stool samples cultured with charcoal. Harvested larvae were crushed by sonication and washed by centrifugation in order to obtain protein extracts to be used as antigen. Final protein concentration was 600 μg/mL. Several kinds of ELISA plates were tested and antigen concentration, sera dilution, conjugate dilution and cut off were determined to identify infection. Sera from patients with both hyper-infection syndrome and intestinal infection demonstrated by parasitological examination were positive controls and sera from people living in non-endemic areas with no infection demonstrated by parasitological examination were negative controls. Best values were 5 μg/mL for antigen, 1/64 for sera, 1/1000 for conjugate; optical density values for positive samples were 1,2746 (1,1065 - 1,4206, DS = 0,3284) and for negative samples 0,4457 (0,3324 - 0,5538, DS = 0,2230). Twenty sera samples from positive subjects and one hundred from negative subjects were examined, obtaining 90% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The results show this technique could be useful as strongyloidiasis screening test in population studies

  6. Quality assurance techniques for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and techniques of quality assurance are applied to the measurement method of activation analysis. Quality assurance is defined to include quality control and quality assessment. Plans for quality assurance include consideration of: personnel; facilities; analytical design; sampling and sample preparation; the measurement process; standards; and documentation. Activation analysis concerns include: irradiation; chemical separation; counting/detection; data collection, and analysis; and calibration. Types of standards discussed include calibration materials and quality assessment materials

  7. Techniques for active passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  8. Video Coding Technique using MPEG Compression Standards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some application areas of video compression focused on the problem of optimizing storage space and transmission bandwidth (BW). The two dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is an integral part of video and image compression, which is used in Moving Picture Expert Group (MPEG) encoding standards.

  9. Journaling; an active learning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Tim K

    2005-01-01

    Journaling is a method frequently discussed in nursing literature and educational literature as an active learning technique that is meant to enhance reflective practice. Reflective practice is a means of self-examination that involves looking back over what has happened in practice in an effort to improve, or encourage professional growth. Some of the benefits of reflective practice include discovering meaning, making connections between experiences and the classroom, instilling values of the profession, gaining the perspective of others, reflection on professional roles, and development of critical thinking. A review of theory and research is discussed, as well as suggestions for implementation of journaling into coursework.

  10. Argentine nuclear energy standardization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boero, Norma; Corcuera, Roberto; Palacios, Tulio A.; Hey, Alfredo M.; Berte, G.; Trama, L.

    2004-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has more than 200 Technical Committees that develop technical standards. During April 2004 took place in Buenos Aires the 14th Plenary of the ISO/TC 85 Nuclear Energy Committee. During this Plenary issues as Nuclear Terminology, Radiation Protection, Nuclear Fuels, Nuclear Reactors and Irradiation Dosimetry was dealt with. 105 International delegates and 45 National delegates (belonging to CNEA, ARN, NASA, INVAP, CONUAR, IONICS and other organizations) attended the meetings. During this meeting ISO/TC 85 changed its scope; the new scope of the Committee is 'Standardization in the fields of peaceful applications of nuclear energy and of the protection of individuals against all sources of ionizing radiations'. This work summarizes the most important advances and resolutions about the development of standards taken during this meeting as well as the main conclusions. (author) [es

  11. [How to write an andrological paper: standardization, mechanics and techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Jin-Chun

    2010-12-01

    Andrological research papers not only reflect the current status and academic level of andrology, but also constitute an important communication platform for researchers and clinicians engaged in this field and contribute significantly to the development of andrology. It would be made easier to write a high-quality andrological paper once the author observes the basic requirements of research papers, adheres to the use of standard scientific terminology, knows the special writing mechanics, and equips himself with some essential writing techniques. Based on the long experience of editorship, we present a detailed introduction of the standardization, mechanics and techniques of writing an andrological paper.

  12. Paediatric sutureless circumcision-an alternative to the standard technique.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Circumcision is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in male children. A range of surgical techniques exist for this commonly performed procedure. The aim of this study is to assess the safety, functional outcome and cosmetic appearance of a sutureless circumcision technique. METHODS: Over a 9-year period, 502 consecutive primary sutureless circumcisions were performed by a single surgeon. All 502 cases were entered prospectively into a database including all relevant clinical details and a review was performed. The technique used to perform the sutureless circumcision is a modification of the standard sleeve technique with the use of a bipolar diathermy and the application of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate (2-OCA) to approximate the tissue edges. RESULTS: All boys in this study were pre-pubescent and the ages ranged from 6 months to 12 years (mean age 3.5 years). All patients had this procedure performed as a day case and under general anaesthetic. Complications included: haemorrhage (2.2%), haematoma (1.4%), wound infection (4%), allergic reaction (0.2%) and wound dehiscence (0.8%). Only 9 (1.8%) parents or patients were dissatisfied with the cosmetic appearance. CONCLUSION: The use of 2-OCA as a tissue adhesive for sutureless circumcisions is an alternative to the standard suture technique. The use of this tissue adhesive, 2-OCA, results in comparable complication rates to the standard circumcision technique and results in excellent post-operative cosmetic satisfaction.

  13. A novel wireless modulation technique for inter-standard communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkaoui, A.; Haartsen, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    A new technique is presented with permits transceivers of different radio standards to communicate with each other. Applications are found in unlicensed bands where radios using different technologies, like for example Bluetooth, ZigBee, or WLAN IEEE 802.11, have to share the same radio spectrum. If

  14. NET European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youtsos, A.

    2004-01-01

    Improved performance and safety of European energy production systems is essential for providing safe, clean and inexpensive electricity to the citizens of the enlarged EU. The state of the art in assessing internal stresses, micro-structure and defects in welded nuclear components -as well as their evolution due to complex thermo-mechanical loads and irradiation exposure -needs to be improved before relevant structural integrity assessment code requirements can safely become less conservative. This is valid for both experimental characterization techniques and predictive numerical algorithms. In the course of the last two decades neutron methods have proven to be excellent means for providing valuable information required in structural integrity assessment of advanced engineering applications. However, the European industry is hampered from broadly using neutron research due to lack of harmonised and standardized testing methods. 35 European major industrial and research/academic organizations have joined forces, under JRC coordination, to launch the NET European Network on Neutron Techniques Standardization for Structural Integrity in May 2002. The NET collaborative research initiative aims at further development and harmonisation of neutron scattering methods, in support of structural integrity assessment. This is pursued through a number of testing round robin campaigns on neutron diffraction and small angle neutron scattering - SANS and supported by data provided by other more conventional destructive and non-destructive methods, such as X-ray diffraction and deep and surface hole drilling. NET also strives to develop more reliable and harmonized simulation procedures for the prediction of residual stress and damage in steel welded power plant components. This is pursued through a number of computational round robin campaigns based on advanced FEM techniques, and on reliable data obtained by such novel and harmonized experimental methods. The final goal of

  15. European standardization activities on residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Youtsos, A G

    2002-01-01

    A main objective of a recently completed European research project, RESTAND - residual stress standard using neutron diffraction, was to develop industrial confidence in the application of the neutron-diffraction technique for residual stress measurement and its principal deliverable was a relevant draft code of practice. In fact this draft standard was jointly developed within RESTAND and VAMAS TWA 20 - an international pre-normative research activity. As no such standard is yet available, on the basis of this draft standard document the European Standards Committee on Non-Destructive Testing (CEN TC/138) has established a new ad hoc Work Group (AHG7). The objective of this group is the development of a European pre-standard on a 'test method for measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction'. The document contains the proposed protocol for making the measurements. It includes the scope of the method, an outline of the technique, the calibration and measurement procedures recommended, and details of ...

  16. Standardization of surgical techniques used in facial bone contouring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Sung

    2015-12-01

    Since the introduction of facial bone contouring surgery for cosmetic purposes, various surgical methods have been used to improve the aesthetics of facial contours. In general, by standardizing the surgical techniques, it is possible to decrease complication rates and achieve more predictable surgical outcomes, thereby increasing patient satisfaction. The technical strategies used by the author to standardize facial bone contouring procedures are introduced here. The author uses various pre-manufactured surgical tools and hardware for facial bone contouring. During a reduction malarplasty or genioplasty procedure, double-bladed reciprocating saws and pre-bent titanium plates customized for the zygomatic body, arch and chin are used. Various guarded oscillating saws are used for mandibular angloplasty. The use of double-bladed saws and pre-bent plates to perform reduction malarplasty reduces the chances of post-operative asymmetry or under- or overcorrection of the zygoma contours due to technical faults. Inferior alveolar nerve injury and post-operative jawline asymmetry or irregularity can be reduced by using a guarded saw during mandibular angloplasty. For genioplasty, final placement of the chin in accordance with preoperative quantitative analysis can be easily performed with pre-bent plates, and a double-bladed saw allows more procedural accuracy during osteotomies. Efforts by the surgeon to avoid unintentional faults are key to achieving satisfactory results and reducing the incidence of complications. The surgical techniques described in this study in conjunction with various in-house surgical tools and modified hardware can be used to standardize techniques to achieve aesthetically gratifying outcomes. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Standardized fluoroscopy-based technique to measure intraoperative cup anteversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Matthieu; Boudabbous, Sana; Hannouche, Didier; Montet, Xavier; Boettner, Friedrich

    2017-10-01

    Direct anterior approach (DAA) with the patient lying supine has facilitated the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy and allows for standardized positioning of the patient. The current study presents a new technique to measure acetabular component anteversion using intraoperative fluoroscopy. The current paper describes a mathematical formula to calculate true acetabular component anteversion based on the acetabular component abduction angle and the c-arm tilt angle (CaT). The CaT is determined by tilting the c-arm until an external pelvic oblique radiograph with the equatorial plane of the acetabular component perpendicular to the fluoroscopy receptor is obtained. CaT is determined by direct reading on the C-arm device. The technique was validated using a radiopaque synbone model comparing the described technique to computed tomography anteversion measurement. The experiment was repeated 25 times. The difference in anteversion between the two measuring techniques was on average 0.2° (range -3.0-3.1). The linear regression coefficients evaluating the agreement between the experimental and control methods were 0.99 (95%CI 0.88-1.10, p < 0.001) and 0.33 (95%CI -1.53-2.20, p = 0.713) for the slope and intercept, respectively. The current study confirms that the described three-step c-arm acetabular cup measuring technique can reproducibly and reliably assess acetabular component anteversion in the supine position, as compared to CT-imaging. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2307-2312, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Control Systems Cyber Security Standards Support Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Evans

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security’s Control Systems Security Program (CSSP) is working with industry to secure critical infrastructure sectors from cyber intrusions that could compromise control systems. This document describes CSSP’s current activities with industry organizations in developing cyber security standards for control systems. In addition, it summarizes the standards work being conducted by organizations within the sector and provides a brief listing of sector meetings and conferences that might be of interest for each sector. Control systems cyber security standards are part of a rapidly changing environment. The participation of CSSP in the development effort for these standards has provided consistency in the technical content of the standards while ensuring that information developed by CSSP is included.

  19. Standardized accounting ashore for afloat activities

    OpenAIRE

    Burr, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    With limited resources and reduced funding for Naval forces, there is a need to standardize accounting ashore for all afloat activities. The purpose of this thesis was to review the framework for standardization of inventory reporting afloat under one stores (inventory) accounting system, referred to as the Material Financial Control System-Retail (MFCS-Retail). Additional analysis was conducted on general funds obligational reporting for afloat Operating Targets (OPTARS) and the conversion t...

  20. Reef Fish Survey Techniques: Assessing the Potential for Standardizing Methodologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary R Caldwell

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in populations of fishes living on coral reefs have been documented globally and, in response, the research community has initiated efforts to assess and monitor reef fish assemblages. A variety of visual census techniques are employed, however results are often incomparable due to differential methodological performance. Although comparability of data may promote improved assessment of fish populations, and thus management of often critically important nearshore fisheries, to date no standardized and agreed-upon survey method has emerged. This study describes the use of methods across the research community and identifies potential drivers of method selection. An online survey was distributed to researchers from academic, governmental, and non-governmental organizations internationally. Although many methods were identified, 89% of survey-based projects employed one of three methods-belt transect, stationary point count, and some variation of the timed swim method. The selection of survey method was independent of the research design (i.e., assessment goal and region of study, but was related to the researcher's home institution. While some researchers expressed willingness to modify their current survey protocols to more standardized protocols (76%, their willingness decreased when methodologies were tied to long-term datasets spanning five or more years. Willingness to modify current methodologies was also less common among academic researchers than resource managers. By understanding both the current application of methods and the reported motivations for method selection, we hope to focus discussions towards increasing the comparability of quantitative reef fish survey data.

  1. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  2. Active learning techniques for librarians practical examples

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    A practical work outlining the theory and practice of using active learning techniques in library settings. It explains the theory of active learning and argues for its importance in our teaching and is illustrated using a large number of examples of techniques that can be easily transferred and used in teaching library and information skills to a range of learners within all library sectors. These practical examples recognise that for most of us involved in teaching library and information skills the one off session is the norm, so we need techniques that allow us to quickly grab and hold our

  3. Standard Establishment Through Scenarios (SETS): A new technique for occupational fitness standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, R E; Reilly, T J; Spivock, M; Newton, P S; Olinek, S M

    2015-01-01

    An objective and scientific task analysis provides the basis for establishing legally defensible Physical Employment Standards (PES), based on common and essential occupational tasks. Infrequent performance of these tasks creates challenges when developing PES based on criterion, or content validity. Develop a systematic approach using Subject Matter Experts (SME) to provide tasks with 1) an occupationally relevant scenario considered common to all personnel; 2) a minimum performance standard defined by time, distance, load or work. Examples provided here relate to the development of a new PES for the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF). SME of various experience are selected based on their eligibility criteria. SME are required to define a reasonable scenario for each task from personal experience, provide occupational performance requirements of the scenario in sub-groups, and discuss and agree by consensus vote on the final standard based on the definition of essential. A common and essential task for the CAF is detailed as a case example of process application. Techniques to avoid common SME rating errors are discussed and advantages to the method described. The SETS method was developed as a systematic approach to setting occupational performance standards and qualifying information from SME.

  4. European standardization activities on residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youtsos, A.G.; Ohms, C.

    2002-01-01

    A main objective of a recently completed European research project, RESTAND - residual stress standard using neutron diffraction, was to develop industrial confidence in the application of the neutron-diffraction technique for residual stress measurement and its principal deliverable was a relevant draft code of practice. In fact this draft standard was jointly developed within RESTAND and VAMAS TWA 20 - an international pre-normative research activity. As no such standard is yet available, on the basis of this draft standard document the European Standards Committee on Non-Destructive Testing (CEN TC/138) has established a new ad hoc Work Group (AHG7). The objective of this group is the development of a European pre-standard on a 'test method for measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction'. The document contains the proposed protocol for making the measurements. It includes the scope of the method, an outline of the technique, the calibration and measurement procedures recommended, and details of how the strain data should be analysed to calculate stresses and establish the reliability of the results obtained. (orig.)

  5. European standardization activities on residual stress analysis by neutron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youtsos, A. G.; Ohms, C.

    A main objective of a recently completed European research project, RESTAND - residual stress standard using neutron diffraction, was to develop industrial confidence in the application of the neutron-diffraction technique for residual stress measurement and its principal deliverable was a relevant draft code of practice. In fact this draft standard was jointly developed within RESTAND and VAMAS TWA 20 - an international pre-normative research activity. As no such standard is yet available, on the basis of this draft standard document the European Standards Committee on Non-Destructive Testing (CEN TC/138) has established a new ad hoc Work Group (AHG7). The objective of this group is the development of a European pre-standard on a `test method for measurement of residual stress by neutron diffraction'. The document contains the proposed protocol for making the measurements. It includes the scope of the method, an outline of the technique, the calibration and measurement procedures recommended, and details of how the strain data should be analysed to calculate stresses and establish the reliability of the results obtained.

  6. ACTIVE CYCLE BREATHING TECHNIQUES IN HEART FAILURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    47. Pulmonary Function Responses to Active Cycle. Breathing Techniques in Heart Failure Patients at the. University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Lusaka, Zambia. 1. 1. 2. 3. Charity Kapenda Muselema *, Methuselah Jere , Gershom Chongwe , Fastone M. Goma. 1Ministry of Community Development Mother and Child Health, ...

  7. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C

    2016-04-07

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  8. A no-gold-standard technique for objective assessment of quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Abhinav K; Frey, Eric C; Caffo, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The objective optimization and evaluation of nuclear-medicine quantitative imaging methods using patient data is highly desirable but often hindered by the lack of a gold standard. Previously, a regression-without-truth (RWT) approach has been proposed for evaluating quantitative imaging methods in the absence of a gold standard, but this approach implicitly assumes that bounds on the distribution of true values are known. Several quantitative imaging methods in nuclear-medicine imaging measure parameters where these bounds are not known, such as the activity concentration in an organ or the volume of a tumor. We extended upon the RWT approach to develop a no-gold-standard (NGS) technique for objectively evaluating such quantitative nuclear-medicine imaging methods with patient data in the absence of any ground truth. Using the parameters estimated with the NGS technique, a figure of merit, the noise-to-slope ratio (NSR), can be computed, which can rank the methods on the basis of precision. An issue with NGS evaluation techniques is the requirement of a large number of patient studies. To reduce this requirement, the proposed method explored the use of multiple quantitative measurements from the same patient, such as the activity concentration values from different organs in the same patient. The proposed technique was evaluated using rigorous numerical experiments and using data from realistic simulation studies. The numerical experiments demonstrated that the NSR was estimated accurately using the proposed NGS technique when the bounds on the distribution of true values were not precisely known, thus serving as a very reliable metric for ranking the methods on the basis of precision. In the realistic simulation study, the NGS technique was used to rank reconstruction methods for quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) based on their performance on the task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a known volume of interest

  9. [Study on standardization of cupping technique: elucidation on the establishment of the National Standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shu-zhong; Liu, Bing

    2010-02-01

    From the aspects of basis, technique descriptions, core contents, problems and solutions, and standard thinking in standard setting process, this paper states experiences in the establishment of the national standard Standardized Manipulation of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Part V, Cupping, focusing on methodologies used in cupping standard setting process, the method selection and operating instructions of cupping standardization, and the characteristics of standard TCM. In addition, this paper states the scope of application, and precautions for this cupping standardization. This paper also explaines tentative ideas on the research of standardized manipulation of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  10. Suitable activated carbon-13 tracer techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weicheng; Peng Xiuru; Wang Yuhua

    1995-12-01

    Feasibility and applicability studies of the proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) have been performed. The graphite was firstly bombarded at various proton energies to determine gamma ray yield (and, thus, sensitivities) for the reaction of interest. The accuracy for the determination of 13 C abundance was checked, and the precision with which this value and ratios 13 C/ 12 C may be obtained was established by repetitive analysis samples. The performance of different standards in this determination was assessed. The mathematical treatment was developed for the determination of 13 C abundance in tracer studies, and to derive the equations that govern this method of analysis from first principles, to arrive finally at a simple expression by virtue of the observed regularities. The system was calibrated by measuring the gamma ray yield form the 12 C (p, γ) 13 N and 13 C(p,γ) 14 N reaction as a function of known 13 C enrichment. Using this experimentally determined calibration curve, unknown materials can be assayed. This technique is applicable to the analysis of samples with 13 C enrichments between 0.1% and 90%. The samples of human breath natural samples were analyzed against graphite and Cylinder CO 2 standards. Relative standard deviations were 13 C abundance, an increase in 13 C per cent isotopic abundance from the natural 1.11% (average) to only 1.39% may be ascertained. Finally, PIGE is compared with more classical techniques for analysis of 13 C tracer experiments. Ease and speed are important advantages of this technique over mass spectrometry, and its error is compatible with the natural variation of biological results. (9 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs.)

  11. Neutron activation analysis for certification of standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote Rodriguez, G.; Perez Zayas, G.; Hernandez Rivero, A.; Ribeiro Guevara, S.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is used extensively as one of the analytical techniques in the certification of standard reference materials. Characteristics of neutron activation analysis which make it valuable in this role are: accuracy multielemental capability to asses homogeneity, high sensitivity for many elements, and essentially non-destructive method. This paper report the concentrations of 30 elements (major, minor and trace elements) in four Cuban samples. The samples were irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 10 12- 10 13 n.cm 2. s -1. The gamma ray spectra were measured by HPGe detectors and were analyzed using ACTAN program development in Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development

  12. Active vibration control by robust control techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohar, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies active vibration control of multi-degree-of-freedom system. The control techniques considered are LTR, H/sup 2/ and H/sup infinite/. The results show that LTR controls the vibration but its respective settling time is higher than that of the other techniques. The control performance of H/sup infinite/ control is similar to that of H/sup 2/ control in the case of it weighting functions. However, H/sup infinite/ control is superior to H/sup 2/ control with respect to robustness, steady state error and settling time. (author)

  13. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, C.P. (University of California, Davis, CA); Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J. (University of California, Davis, CA)

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  14. Active structural control with stable fuzzy PID techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed discussion of intelligent techniques to measure the displacement of buildings when they are subjected to vibration. It shows how these techniques are used to control active devices that can reduce vibration 60–80% more effectively than widely used passive anti-seismic systems. After introducing various structural control devices and building-modeling and active structural control methods, the authors propose offset cancellation and high-pass filtering techniques to solve some common problems of building-displacement measurement using accelerometers. The most popular control algorithms in industrial settings, PD/PID controllers, are then analyzed and then combined with fuzzy compensation. The stability of this combination is proven with standard weight-training algorithms. These conditions provide explicit methods for selecting PD/PID controllers. Finally, fuzzy-logic and sliding-mode control are applied to the control of wind-induced vibration. The methods described are support...

  15. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S. A.

    2000-07-01

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235 U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  16. Technique for fabrication of gradual standards of radiographic image blachening density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovin, I.V.; Kondina, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of fabrication of gradual standards of blackening density for industrial radiography by contact printing from a negative is described. The technique is designed for possibilities of industrial laboratoriesof radiation defectoscopy possessing no special-purpose sensitometric equipment

  17. Basic prediction techniques in modern video coding standards

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Byung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the basic algorithms of video compression that are widely used in modern video codec. The authors dissect complicated specifications and present material in a way that gets readers quickly up to speed by describing video compression algorithms succinctly, without going to the mathematical details and technical specifications. For accelerated learning, hybrid codec structure, inter- and intra- prediction techniques in MPEG-4, H.264/AVC, and HEVC are discussed together. In addition, the latest research in the fast encoder design for the HEVC and H.264/AVC is also included.

  18. Standardizing Activation Analysis: New Software for Photon Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z. J.; Wells, D.; Green, J.; Segebade, C.

    2011-01-01

    Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) of environmental, archaeological and industrial samples requires extensive data analysis that is susceptible to error. For the purpose of saving time, manpower and minimizing error, a computer program was designed, built and implemented using SQL, Access 2007 and asp.net technology to automate this process. Based on the peak information of the spectrum and assisted by its PAA library, the program automatically identifies elements in the samples and calculates their concentrations and respective uncertainties. The software also could be operated in browser/server mode, which gives the possibility to use it anywhere the internet is accessible. By switching the nuclide library and the related formula behind, the new software can be easily expanded to neutron activation analysis (NAA), charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Implementation of this would standardize the analysis of nuclear activation data. Results from this software were compared to standard PAA analysis with excellent agreement. With minimum input from the user, the software has proven to be fast, user-friendly and reliable.

  19. A standardized infrared imaging technique that specifically detects UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D; Mottillo, Emilio P; Farncombe, Troy H; Morrison, Katherine M; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2014-07-01

    The activation and expansion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a promising strategy to counter obesity and the metabolic syndrome by increasing energy expenditure. The subsequent testing and validation of novel agents that augment BAT necessitates accurate pre-clinical measurements in rodents regarding the capacity for BAT-derived thermogenesis. We present a novel method to measure BAT thermogenesis using infrared imaging following β3-adrenoreceptor stimulation in mice. We show that the increased body surface temperature observed using this method is due solely to uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-mediated thermogenesis and that this technique is able to discern differences in BAT activity in mice acclimated to 23 °C or thermoneutrality (30 °C). These findings represent the first standardized method utilizing infrared imaging to specifically detect UCP1 activity in vivo.

  20. Preliminary detection of explosive standard components with Laser Raman Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, S.; Ciardi, R.

    2008-01-01

    Presently, our section is leader of the ISOTREX project (Integrated System for On-line TRace EXplosives detection in solid, liquid and vapour state), funded in the frame of the PASR 2006 action (Preparatory Action on the enhancement of the European industrial potential in the field of Security Research Preparatory Action) of the 6. EC framework. ISOTREX project will exploit the capabilities of different laser techniques as LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), LPA (Laser Photo Acustic) and CRDS (Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy) to monitor explosive traces. In this frame, we extended our investigation also to the laser induced Raman effect spectroscopy, in order to investigate its capabilities and possible future integration. We analysed explosive samples in bulk solid phase, diluted liquid phase and as evaporated films over suitable substrate. In the following, we present the main results obtained, outlining preliminary conclusions [it

  1. Review of ANS-10 standards and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetschat, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The ANS-10 Standards Subcommittee is sponsored by the Mathematics and Computations Division of the American Nuclear Society. The scope of the ANS-10 Subcommittee includes the development of standards which will promote effective utilization and enhance the reliability of computer programs throughout the nuclear community. The intent of such standards is to improve ease of use, facilitate the exchange, and simplify the conversion of programs. These standards are to be applied during the computer program development process. The development process is the mechanism that creates special properties such as adequate documentation, verification and validation results, ease of use and portability in computer programs which improve reliability and promote effective use. ANS-10 has developed standards for Documentation of Digital Computer Programs, Programming Practices to Facilitate the Interchange of Digital Computer Programs, and Guidelines for Considering User Needs in Computer Program Development. The Documentation and Programming Practices Standards are presently being revised. ANS-10 is presently writing a new standard on verification and validation of computer programs. (orig.) [de

  2. Technology and Technique Standards for Camera-Acquired Digital Dermatologic Images: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Elizabeth A; Tokay, Barbara A; Jewell, Sarah T; Marchetti, Michael A; Halpern, Allan C

    2015-08-01

    Photographs are invaluable dermatologic diagnostic, management, research, teaching, and documentation tools. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standards exist for many types of digital medical images, but there are no DICOM standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images to date. To identify and describe existing or proposed technology and technique standards for camera-acquired dermatologic images in the scientific literature. Systematic searches of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were performed in January 2013 using photography and digital imaging, standardization, and medical specialty and medical illustration search terms and augmented by a gray literature search of 14 websites using Google. Two reviewers independently screened titles of 7371 unique publications, followed by 3 sequential full-text reviews, leading to the selection of 49 publications with the most recent (1985-2013) or detailed description of technology or technique standards related to the acquisition or use of images of skin disease (or related conditions). No universally accepted existing technology or technique standards for camera-based digital images in dermatology were identified. Recommendations are summarized for technology imaging standards, including spatial resolution, color resolution, reproduction (magnification) ratios, postacquisition image processing, color calibration, compression, output, archiving and storage, and security during storage and transmission. Recommendations are also summarized for technique imaging standards, including environmental conditions (lighting, background, and camera position), patient pose and standard view sets, and patient consent, privacy, and confidentiality. Proposed standards for specific-use cases in total body photography, teledermatology, and dermoscopy are described. The literature is replete with descriptions of obtaining photographs of skin disease, but universal imaging standards have not been developed

  3. WHO activities in teaching radioimmunoassay and related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, N.P.; Sufi, S.B.; Donaldson, A.; Jeffcoate, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction of the World Health Organization has recognized from its beginning that training is a key component of its activities, including its immunoassay standardization programme. Since the start of the Special Programme more than 250 scientists have received training in RIA and related procedures and 27 training courses have been held in various countries. Many of the courses have been held in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency, and these co-operative activities have established a core of scientific expertise worldwide which has contributed to the increased availability of modern diagnostic techniques in many countries. The increasing number of medical and non-medical applications of immunoassays and the special expertise required for some immunoassay methods create a continuing demand for training in RIA techniques. Both WHO and the IAEA have responded by organizing courses to 'train the trainers' and by supporting national and regional courses based on centrally provided material, as well as by commissioning the production of additional teaching documents and audio-visual aids in English and Spanish. It is envisaged that such materials, complete with centrally provided materials for practicals and other teaching aids, will be made available to national reagent programmes and will be used in the future as a well characterized, standardized core around which local organizers can construct training programmes geared to local needs and drawing upon local experience. (author)

  4. Activities of HPS standards committee in environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Health Physics Society (HPS) develops American National Standards in the area of radiation protection using methods approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Two of its sections, Environmental Health Physics and Contamination Limits, have ongoing standards development which are important to some environmental remediation efforts. This paper describes the role of the HPS standards process and indicates particular standards under development which will be of interest to the reader. In addition, the authors solicit readers to participate in the voluntary standards process by either joining active working groups (WG) or suggesting appropriate and relevant topics which should be placed into the standards process

  5. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    each Initial Entry Training ( IET ) sites to USMEPCOM but this reporting is not required by service regulations. The total numbers of reported...classification and reporting from the IET sites to MEPCOM, which is still passive, should be mandated and standardized by DoD/service regulations. Analysis would...attrit Hernia 2,029 19.7 565 27.8 335 59.3 158 47.2 18 11.4 Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) 300 2.9 91 30.3 46 50.5 24 52.2 9 37.5 Diabetes

  6. Neutron Activation Analysis with k0 Standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    1998-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on Neutron Activation Analysis with k 0 -standardisation aims to: (1) develop and implement k 0 -standardisation method for NAA; (2) to exploit the inherent qualities of NAA such as accuracy, traceability, and multi-element capability; (3) to acquire technical spin-off for nuclear measurements services. Main achievements in 1997 are reported

  7. Standard Test Method for Determining Thermal Neutron Reaction Rates and Thermal Neutron Fluence Rates by Radioactivation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this test method is to define a general procedure for determining an unknown thermal-neutron fluence rate by neutron activation techniques. It is not practicable to describe completely a technique applicable to the large number of experimental situations that require the measurement of a thermal-neutron fluence rate. Therefore, this method is presented so that the user may adapt to his particular situation the fundamental procedures of the following techniques. 1.1.1 Radiometric counting technique using pure cobalt, pure gold, pure indium, cobalt-aluminum, alloy, gold-aluminum alloy, or indium-aluminum alloy. 1.1.2 Standard comparison technique using pure gold, or gold-aluminum alloy, and 1.1.3 Secondary standard comparison techniques using pure indium, indium-aluminum alloy, pure dysprosium, or dysprosium-aluminum alloy. 1.2 The techniques presented are limited to measurements at room temperatures. However, special problems when making thermal-neutron fluence rate measurements in high-...

  8. Standardization of proton-induced x-ray emission technique for analysis of thick samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shad; Zeb, Johar; Ahad, Abdul; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Haneef, M.; Akbar, Jehan

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the standardization of the proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) technique for finding the elemental composition of thick samples. For the standardization, three different samples of standard reference materials (SRMs) were analyzed using this technique and the data were compared with the already known data of these certified SRMs. These samples were selected in order to cover the maximum range of elements in the periodic table. Each sample was irradiated for three different values of collected beam charges at three different times. A proton beam of 2.57 MeV obtained using 5UDH-II Pelletron accelerator was used for excitation of x-rays from the sample. The acquired experimental data were analyzed using the GUPIXWIN software. The results show that the SRM data and the data obtained using the PIXE technique are in good agreement.

  9. Standards in clinical decision support: activities in health level seven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenders, Robert A; Jenders, Robert Allen; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Sailors, R Matthew

    2008-11-06

    Health Level Seven (HL7) has evolved into an international standards development organization (SDO) with a suite of standards. Prominent among these are formalisms related to clinical decision support, including the Arden Syntax, GELLO and Decision Support Service (DSS) standards. Continuing improvement in these standards and ongoing development of future decision support standards require wide participation in order to maximize their success. Accordingly, the purpose of the workshop is twofold. First, instructors will convey the latest developments regarding existing decision support standards and related efforts to develop new standards. Second, the instructors will solicit feedback so that attendees who do not participate in HL7 can have input into the standards activities of that organization. The instructors of this workshop, who are the co-chairs and/or members of the Clinical Decision Support Technical Committee of HL7, will review progress in these areas. They will present the details of the ongoing development of the extant Arden Syntax, GELLO and DSS standards. They will discuss work on current draft and proposed future standards, including the Infobutton communication and Order Set standards that are undergoing development in anticipation of certification as standards. Finally, they will solicit discussion regarding the future direction of standards development in these areas.

  10. 25 CFR 36.43 - Standard XVI-Student activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 36.43 Standard XVI—Student activities. All schools shall provide and maintain a well-balanced student..., and planned types of fund-raising activities. (c) School may participate in interscholastic sports and... sanctioned by the school. (g) All student activities involved only in fund raising are required to establish...

  11. A comparison between two lateral cephalometry techniques (standard and natural head position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayati Z. Assistant Professor. Sang S. DMD

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Cephalometric findings are of high importance in making decision about orthodontic treatment plans and orthognathic surgeries. Natural head position (NHP is considered as a useful and exact radiographic technique."nAim: The aim of the present study was to compare two techniques, namely Standard and NHP, in lateral"ncephalometry."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross- sectional study, performed in Shiraz. 138 randomly selected students {70 males .and 68 females, age ranging from (13-15. were evaluated clinically and radiographically. None of them had a history of orthodontic treatment, head and face fracture or surgical operations. Lateral cephalograms were taken in both standard and natural head position techniques, for each student. For statistical analysis, l-lest for paired samples, was done."nResults: This study showed that in anterior-posterior dimension, among angles with significant differences in two techniques, those of standard one were more reliable, whereas in vertical dimension."nstatistical differences showed natural technique as more useful one."nConclusion: Due to the fact that natural cephalometry requires more patient cooperation, more time and a higher complex technique, it is not suggested, except when different clinical and cepholomeiric findings are observed.

  12. Laryngeal mask airway insertion in children: comparison between rotational, lateral and standard technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Babita; Makkar, Jeetinder Kaur; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Wig, Jyotsna

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the success and ease of insertion of three techniques of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion; the standard Brain technique, a lateral technique with cuff partially inflated and a rotational technique with cuff partially inflated. One hundred and sixty-eight ASA I and II children aged 6 months to 6 years undergoing short elective surgical procedures lasting 40-60 min were included in the study. A standard anesthesia protocol was followed for all patients. Patients were randomly allocated into one of the three groups i.e. standard (S), rotational (R) and lateral (L). The primary outcome measure of the study was success rate at the first attempt using three techniques of LMA insertion. Secondary outcomes measures studied were overall success rate, time before successful LMA insertion, complications and maneuvers used to relieve airway obstruction. Successful insertion at the first attempt was significantly higher in group R (96%) compared with group L (84%) and group S (80%) (P = 0.03). Overall success rate (i.e. successful insertion with two attempts) was 100% for group R, 93% for group L and 87% for group S (P = 0.03). Time for successful insertion was significantly lower in group R compared with group L and S (P insertion and lowest incidence of complications and could be the technique of first choice for LMA insertion in pediatric patients.

  13. A novel technique for active vibration control, based on optimal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last few decades, researchers have proposed many control techniques to suppress unwanted vibrations in a structure. In this work, a novel and simple technique is proposed for the active vibration control. In this technique, an optimal tracking control is employed to suppress vibrations in a structure by simultaneously ...

  14. Respirometry techniques and activated sludge models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benes, O.; Spanjers, H.; Holba, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper aims to explain results of respirometry experiments using Activated Sludge Model No. 1. In cases of insufficient fit of ASM No. 1, further modifications to the model were carried out and the so-called "Enzymatic model" was developed. The best-fit method was used to determine the effect of

  15. Opportunities to Create Active Learning Techniques in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Danielle J.; Legare, Jill M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to the growing body of research that focuses on active learning techniques. Active learning techniques require students to consider a given set of information, analyze, process, and prepare to restate what has been learned--all strategies are confirmed to improve higher order thinking skills. Active…

  16. Standard techniques for presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In September 1977, a crater studies workshop was held for the purpose of developing standard data analysis and presentation techniques. This report contains the unanimous recommendations of the participants. This first meeting considered primarily crater size-frequency data. Future meetings will treat other aspects of crater studies such as morphologies.

  17. Skin Absorbed Doses from Full Mouth Standard Intraoral Radiography in Bisecting Angle and Paralleling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nah, Kyung Soo; Kim, Ae Ji [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Doh, Shi Hong [Dept. of Applied physics . National Fisheries University of Pusan Department of Radiotherapy, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Ja [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Baptist Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Meong Jin [Dept. of Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-08-15

    This study was performed to measure the skin absorbed doses from full mouth standard intraoral radiography(14 exposures) in bisecting angle and paralleling techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used in a phantom. Circular tube collimator (60 mm in diameter, 20 cm in length) and rectangular collimator (35 mm X 44 mm, 40 cm in length) were set for bisecting angle and paralleling techniques respectively. All measurement sites were classified into 8 groups according to distance from each point of central rays. The results were as follows: 1. The skin absorbed doses from the paralleling technique were significantly decreased than those from the bisecting technique in both points at central ray and points away from central ray. The percentage rats of decrease were greater at points away from central ray than those at central ray. 2. The skin absorbed doses at the lens of eye, parotid gland, submandibular gland and thyroid region were significantly decreased in paralleling technique, but those of the midline of palate remained similar in both techniques. 3. The highest doses were measured at the site 20 mm above the point of central ray for the mandibular premolars in bisecting angle technique and at the point of central ray for the mandibular premolars in paralleling techniques. The lowest doses were measured at the thyroid region in both techniques.

  18. Skin Absorbed Doses from Full Mouth Standard Intraoral Radiography in Bisecting Angle and Paralleling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo; Kim, Ae Ji; Doh, Shi Hong; Kim, Hyun Ja; Yoo, Meong Jin

    1990-01-01

    This study was performed to measure the skin absorbed doses from full mouth standard intraoral radiography(14 exposures) in bisecting angle and paralleling techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used in a phantom. Circular tube collimator (60 mm in diameter, 20 cm in length) and rectangular collimator (35 mm X 44 mm, 40 cm in length) were set for bisecting angle and paralleling techniques respectively. All measurement sites were classified into 8 groups according to distance from each point of central rays. The results were as follows: 1. The skin absorbed doses from the paralleling technique were significantly decreased than those from the bisecting technique in both points at central ray and points away from central ray. The percentage rats of decrease were greater at points away from central ray than those at central ray. 2. The skin absorbed doses at the lens of eye, parotid gland, submandibular gland and thyroid region were significantly decreased in paralleling technique, but those of the midline of palate remained similar in both techniques. 3. The highest doses were measured at the site 20 mm above the point of central ray for the mandibular premolars in bisecting angle technique and at the point of central ray for the mandibular premolars in paralleling techniques. The lowest doses were measured at the thyroid region in both techniques.

  19. Elemental analyses of goundwater: demonstrated advantage of low-flow sampling and trace-metal clean techniques over standard techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, C. L.; Flegal, A. R.

    The combined use of both (1) low-flow purging and sampling and (2) trace-metal clean techniques provides more representative measurements of trace-element concentrations in groundwater than results derived with standard techniques. The use of low-flow purging and sampling provides relatively undisturbed groundwater samples that are more representative of in situ conditions, and the use of trace-element clean techniques limits the inadvertent introduction of contaminants during sampling, storage, and analysis. When these techniques are applied, resultant trace-element concentrations are likely to be markedly lower than results based on standard sampling techniques. In a comparison of data derived from contaminated and control groundwater wells at a site in California, USA, trace-element concentrations from this study were 2-1000 times lower than those determined by the conventional techniques used in sampling of the same wells prior to (5months) and subsequent to (1month) the collections for this study. Specifically, the cadmium and chromium concentrations derived using standard sampling techniques exceed the California Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL), whereas in this investigation concentrations of both of those elements are substantially below their MCLs. Consequently, the combined use of low-flow and trace-metal clean techniques may preclude erroneous reports of trace-element contamination in groundwater. Résumé L'utilisation simultanée de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit et des techniques sans traces de métaux permet d'obtenir des mesures de concentrations en éléments en traces dans les eaux souterraines plus représentatives que les résultats fournis par les techniques classiques. L'utilisation de la purge et de l'échantillonnage à faible débit donne des échantillons d'eau souterraine relativement peu perturbés qui sont plus représentatifs des conditions in situ, et le recours aux techniques sans éléments en traces limite l

  20. Standardization of the Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty technique: Outcomes of the first 450 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, M; Rodríguez-Calvo-de-Mora, M; Naveiras, M; Cabrerizo, J; Dapena, I; Melles, G R J

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of the first 450 consecutive cases after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK), as well as the effect of standardization of the technique. Comparison between 3 groups: Group I: (cases 1-125), as the extended learning curve; Group II: (cases 126-250), transition to technique standardization; Group III: (cases 251-450), surgery with standardized technique. Best corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, pachymetry and intra- and postoperative complications were evaluated before, and 1, 3 and 6 months after DMEK. At 6 months after surgery, 79% of eyes reached a best corrected visual acuity of≥0.8 and 43%≥1.0. Mean preoperative endothelial cell density was 2,530±220 cells/mm2 and 1,613±495 at 6 months after surgery. Mean pachymetry measured 668±92 μm and 526±46 μm pre- and (6 months) postoperatively, respectively. There were no significant differences in best corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density and pachymetry between the 3 groups (P > .05). Graft detachment presented in 17.3% of the eyes. The detachment rate declined from 24% to 12%, and the rate of secondary surgeries from 9.6% to 3.5%, from group I to III respectively. Visual outcomes and endothelial cell density after DMEK are independent of the technique standardization. However, technique standardization may have contributed to a lower graft detachment rate and a relatively low number of secondary interventions required. As such, DMEK may become the first choice of treatment in corneal endothelial disease. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in Student Performance and Confidence with a Standardized Patient and Standardized Colleague Interprofessional Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Marie L; Schonder, Kristine S; Meyer, Susan M; Hall, Deanne L

    2015-06-25

    To assess the impact of a standardized patient and standardized colleague interprofessional activity on student performance and perceived confidence in communicating with patients and physicians. Students in the third professional year were presented with a practice and final activity including a standardized patient interaction, SOAP note preparation, and standardized colleague interaction. Student performance was measured by assessment rubrics on practice and final activities. Students' perceived confidence was measured via presurvey and postsurvey. Students performed significantly better from the practice to the final activity with regard to communicating with patients, SOAP note, and the overall activity with a mean difference (95% CI) of 9.2 (6.9-11.5), 3.6 (1.3-5.8), and 3.9 (2.0-5.7), respectively. There was a positive significant change from presurvey to postsurvey in students' confidence talking to patients and physicians on majority of questions. This study demonstrates that active learning and integrated assessments improve overall student performance. Integration of interprofessional education also has positive effects on students' perceived confidence.

  2. A survey on development of neutron standards and neutron measurement technique corresponding to various fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuro

    2007-01-01

    Various uses of neutrons are being watched in many fields such as industry, medical technology and radiation protection. Especially, high energy neutrons above 15 MeV are important in a radiation exposure issue of an aircraft and a soft error issue of a semiconductor. Therefore neutron fluence standards for the high energy region are very important. However, the standards are not almost provided all over the world. Three reasons are mainly considered: (1) poor measurement techniques for the high energy neutrons, (2) a small number of high energy neutron facilities and (3) lack of nuclear data for high energy particle reactions. In this paper, the present status of the measurement techniques, the facilities and the nuclear data is investigated and discussed. In NMIJ/AIST, the 19.0-MeV neutron fluence standard will be established by 2010, and development of high energy neutron standards above 20 MeV is also examined. An outline of the development of the high energy neutron standards is also shown in this paper. (author)

  3. Quench correction in liquid scintillation counting by a combined internal standard-samples channels ratio technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, E.

    1982-01-01

    A well-known problem in liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is that radioactivity cannot be measured with 100% efficiency, e.g., due to ''quenching'', which thus needs be corrected for. Three methods (viz., those of internal standard (IS), samples channels ratio (SCR), and external standard channels ratio (ESCR) are in common use to accomplish quench correction. None of these methods is ideal. This paper shows that a combination of the IS and SCR methods (IS-SCR) ameliorates the major disadvantages of both techniques and the disadvantage of the SCR technique at low count rates have been eliminated in the IS-SCR method, which also has a low volume dependence compared to the IS and ESCR methods. The IS-SCR method is not affected by time-dependent diffusion of solutes and solvents into the walls of plastic counting vials, which is a major drawback of the ESCR technique. Used with a simple linear regression technique, the IS-SCR quench curves may be linearized over wide ranges of efficiencies. In view of the wide-spread application of LSC, the IS-SCR technique is therefore likely to be useful to many investigators. 2 figures, 2 tables

  4. Assessment of Snared-Loop Technique When Standard Retrieval of Inferior Vena Cava Filters Fails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doody, Orla; Noe, Geertje; Given, Mark F.; Foley, Peter T.; Lyon, Stuart M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify the success and complications related to a variant technique used to retrieve inferior vena cava filters when simple snare approach has failed. Methods A retrospective review of all Cook Guenther Tulip filters and Cook Celect filters retrieved between July 2006 and February 2008 was performed. During this period, 130 filter retrievals were attempted. In 33 cases, the standard retrieval technique failed. Retrieval was subsequently attempted with our modified retrieval technique. Results The retrieval was successful in 23 cases (mean dwell time, 171.84 days; range, 5-505 days) and unsuccessful in 10 cases (mean dwell time, 162.2 days; range, 94-360 days). Our filter retrievability rates increased from 74.6% with the standard retrieval method to 92.3% when the snared-loop technique was used. Unsuccessful retrieval was due to significant endothelialization (n = 9) and caval penetration by the filter (n = 1). A single complication occurred in the group, in a patient developing pulmonary emboli after attempted retrieval. Conclusion The technique we describe increased the retrievability of the two filters studied. Hook endothelialization is the main factor resulting in failed retrieval and continues to be a limitation with these filters.

  5. Russian Language Development Assessment as a Standardized Technique for Assessing Communicative Function in Children Aged 3–9 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhoda N.A.,

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the Russian Language Development Assessment, a standardized individual diagnostic tool for children aged from 3 to 9 that helps to assess the following components of a child’s communicative function: passive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, knowledge of semantic constructs with logical, temporal and spatial relations, passive perception and active use of syntactic and morphological features of words in a sentence, active and passive phonological awareness, active and passive knowledge of syntactic structures and categories. The article provides descriptions of content and diagnostic procedures for all 7 subtests included in the assessment (Passive Vocabulary, Active Vocabulary, Linguistic Operators, Sentence structure, Word Structure, Phonology, Sentence Repetition. Basing on the data collected in the study that involved 86 first- graders of a Moscow school, the article analyzes the internal consistency and construct validity of each subtest of the technique. It concludes that the Russian Language Development Assessment technique can be of much use both in terms of diagnostic purposes and in supporting children with ASD taking into account the lack of standardized tools for language and speech development assessment in Russian and the importance of this measure in general.

  6. Effect of active learning techniques on students' choice of approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to report on empirical work, related to a techniques module, undertaken with the dental students of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. I will relate how a range of different active learning techniques (tutorials; question papers and mock tests) assisted students to adopt a deep ...

  7. Advanced Packaging Materials and Techniques for High Power TR Module: Standard Flight vs. Advanced Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, James Patrick; Del Castillo, Linda; Miller, Jennifer; Jenabi, Masud; Hunter, Donald; Birur, Gajanana

    2011-01-01

    The higher output power densities required of modern radar architectures, such as the proposed DESDynI [Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice] SAR [Synthetic Aperture Radar] Instrument (or DSI) require increasingly dense high power electronics. To enable these higher power densities, while maintaining or even improving hardware reliability, requires advances in integrating advanced thermal packaging technologies into radar transmit/receive (TR) modules. New materials and techniques have been studied and compared to standard technologies.

  8. Extending and simplifying the standard Köhn-pipette technique for grain size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Grain size distribution is a fundamental parameter to characterize physical properties of soils and sediments. Manifold approaches exist and according to the DIN ISO 11277 soil texture is analyzed by default with the combined pipette sieving and sedimentation method developed by Köhn. With this standard technique subfractions of sand and silt as well as the total clay content can be determined but the differentiation of clay subfractions is impossible. As the differentiation of the clay subfractions yields relevant information about pedogenesis, we present a protocol basing on standard techniques of granulometry with easy to handle and low cost equipment. The protocol was tested on a set of soil samples to cover the range of grain size distributions. We used a three-step procedure for achieving the grain size distribution of soil samples taking into account the subfractions of sand, silt and clay by a combination of sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation and wet sieving. The pipetting was done with a piston-stroke pipette instead of the referred complex pipette from the DIN ISO 11277. Our first results show that the applied protocol is less prone to operating errors than the standard Köhn-pipette technique. Furthermore, even a less experienced laboratory worker can handle 10 samples in one day. Analyses of a luvisol profile, sampled in high spatial resolution, showed that the lessivation process is characterized by translocation of fine clay from the eluvial horizon to the illuvial horizon. Therefore our protocol is a fast alternative to detect lessivation, which is otherwise only clearly identifiable by micromorphological investigation and not by the standard Köhn-pipette technique.

  9. Impact of Standardized Communication Techniques on Errors during Simulated Neonatal Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Nicole K; Fuerch, Janene H; Halamek, Louis P

    2016-03-01

    Current patterns of communication in high-risk clinical situations, such as resuscitation, are imprecise and prone to error. We hypothesized that the use of standardized communication techniques would decrease the errors committed by resuscitation teams during neonatal resuscitation. In a prospective, single-blinded, matched pairs design with block randomization, 13 subjects performed as a lead resuscitator in two simulated complex neonatal resuscitations. Two nurses assisted each subject during the simulated resuscitation scenarios. In one scenario, the nurses used nonstandard communication; in the other, they used standardized communication techniques. The performance of the subjects was scored to determine errors committed (defined relative to the Neonatal Resuscitation Program algorithm), time to initiation of positive pressure ventilation (PPV), and time to initiation of chest compressions (CC). In scenarios in which subjects were exposed to standardized communication techniques, there was a trend toward decreased error rate, time to initiation of PPV, and time to initiation of CC. While not statistically significant, there was a 1.7-second improvement in time to initiation of PPV and a 7.9-second improvement in time to initiation of CC. Should these improvements in human performance be replicated in the care of real newborn infants, they could improve patient outcomes and enhance patient safety. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1: Technical standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities.

  11. Active cycle of breathing technique for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckoy, Naomi A; Wilson, Lisa M; Saldanha, Ian J; Odelola, Olaide A; Robinson, Karen A

    2016-07-05

    People with cystic fibrosis experience chronic airway infections as a result of mucus build up within the lungs. Repeated infections often cause lung damage and disease. Airway clearance therapies aim to improve mucus clearance, increase sputum production, and improve airway function. The active cycle of breathing technique (also known as ACBT) is an airway clearance method that uses a cycle of techniques to loosen airway secretions including breathing control, thoracic expansion exercises, and the forced expiration technique. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the clinical effectiveness of the active cycle of breathing technique with other airway clearance therapies in cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews.Date of last search: 25 April 2016. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled clinical studies, including cross-over studies, comparing the active cycle of breathing technique with other airway clearance therapies in cystic fibrosis. Two review authors independently screened each article, abstracted data and assessed the risk of bias of each study. Our search identified 62 studies, of which 19 (440 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Five randomised controlled studies (192 participants) were included in the meta-analysis; three were of cross-over design. The 14 remaining studies were cross-over studies with inadequate reports for complete assessment. The study size ranged from seven to 65 participants. The age of the participants ranged from six to 63 years (mean age 22.33 years). In 13 studies, follow up lasted a single day. However, there were two long-term randomised controlled studies with follow up of one to three years. Most of the studies did not report on key quality items, and therefore, have an unclear risk of

  12. Secondary standards (non-activation) for neutron data measurements above 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    In addition to H(n,p) scattering and 235,238 U(n,f) reactions, secondary standards for neutron flux determination may be useful for neutron energies above 20 MeV. For experiments where gamma rays are detected, reference gamma-ray production cross sections are relevant. For neutron-induced charged particle production, standard (n,p) and (n,alpha) cross sections would be helpful. Total cross section standards would serve to check the accuracy of these measurements. These secondary standards are desirable because they can be used with the same detector systems employed in measuring the quantities of interest. Uncertainties due to detector efficiency, geometrical effects, timing and length of flight paths can therefore be significantly reduced. Several secondary standards that do not depend on activation techniques are proposed. 14 refs

  13. Active noise control technique and its application on ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Kean

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid development during past three decades, Active Noise Control(ANC has become a highly complementary noise control approach in comparison with traditional approaches, and has formed a complete system including basic theory, investigation approach, key techniques and system implementation. Meanwhile, substantial progress has been achieved in such fields as the practical application, industrialization development and commercial popularization of ANC, and this developed technique provides a practical and feasible choice for the active control of ship noise. In this review paper, its sound field analysis, system setup and key techniques are summarized, typical examples of ANC-based engineering applications including control of cabin noise and duct noise are briefly described, and a variety of forefronts and problems associated with the applications of ANC in ship noise control, such as active sound absorption, active sound insulation and smart acoustic structure, are subsequently discussed.

  14. Multielement analysis of biological standards by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Up to 28 elements were determined in two IAEA standards: Animal Muscle H4 and Fish Soluble A 6/74, and three NBS standards: Spinach: SRM-1570, Tomato Leaves: SRM-1573 and Pine Needles: SRM-1575 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. Seven noble metals were determined in two NBS standards: Coal: SRM-1632 and Coal Fly Ash: SRM-1633 by radiochemical procedure while 11 rare earth elements were determined in NBS standard Orchard Leaves: SRM-1571 by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The results are in good agreement with the certified and/or literature data where available. The irradiations were performed at the Cornell TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor at a thermal neutron flux of 1-3x10 12 ncm -2 sec -1 . The short-lived species were determined after a 2-minute irradiation in the pneumatic rabbit tube, and the longer-lived species after an 8-hour irradiation in the central thimble facility. The standards and samples were counted on coaxial 56-cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. The system resolution was 1.96 keV (FWHM) with a peak to Compton ratio of 37:1 and counting efficiency of 13%, all compared to the 1.332 MeV photopeak of Co-60. (T.I.)

  15. Applying Standard Industrial Components for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert-Uwe Koehler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of active magnetic bearing applications, satisfying additional requirements is becoming increasingly more important. As for every technology, moving away from being a niche product and achieving a higher level of maturity, these requirements relate to robustness, reliability, availability, safety, security, traceability, certification, handling, flexibility, reporting, costs, and delivery times. Employing standard industrial components, such as those from flexible modular motion control drive systems, is an approach that allows these requirements to be satisfied while achieving rapid technological innovation. In this article, we discuss technical and non-technical aspects of using standard industrial components in magnetic bearing applications.

  16. Activation volume measurement techniques: application to Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuniberti, A.; Picasso, A.

    2001-01-01

    Stress relaxation and strain rate change tests were performed in Zircaloy-4 at room temperature. The apparent and effective activation volumes were determined and the results obtained by the different techniques are compared. The stress dependence of activation volumes is studied in a broad range of stresses, and an analysis is made in the light of the thermal activation theory. The results suggest that plasticity is ruled by the overcoming of Peierls barriers. (orig.)

  17. Methods for preparing comparative standards and field samples for neutron activation analysis of soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgow, D.C.; Dyer, F.F.; Robinson, L.

    1994-01-01

    One of the more difficult problems associated with comparative neutron activation analysis (CNAA) is the preparation of standards which are tailor-made to the desired irradiation and counting conditions. Frequently, there simply is not a suitable standard available commercially, or the resulting gamma spectrum is convoluted with interferences. In a recent soil analysis project, the need arose for standards which contained about 35 elements. In response, a computer spreadsheet was developed to calculate the appropriate amount of each element so that the resulting gamma spectrum is relatively free of interferences. Incorporated in the program are options for calculating all of the irradiation and counting parameters including activity produced, necessary flux/bombardment time, counting time, and appropriate source-to-detector distance. The result is multi-element standards for CNAA which have optimal concentrations. The program retains ease of use without sacrificing capability. In addition to optimized standard production, a novel soil homogenization technique was developed which is a low cost, highly efficient alternative to commercially available homogenization systems. Comparative neutron activation analysis for large scale projects has been made easier through these advancements. This paper contains details of the design and function of the NAA spreadsheet and innovative sample handling techniques

  18. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  19. Standard practice for monitoring atmospheric SO2 using the sulfation plate technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a weighted average effective SO2 level for a 30-day interval through the use of the sulfation plate method, a technique for estimating the effective SO2 content of the atmosphere, and especially with regard to the atmospheric corrosion of stationary structures or panels. This practice is aimed at determining SO2 levels rather than sulfuric acid aerosol or acid precipitation. 1.2 The results of this practice correlate approximately with volumetric SO2 concentrations, although the presence of dew or condensed moisture tends to enhance the capture of SO2 into the plate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Comparisons of neural networks to standard techniques for image classification and correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paola, Justin D.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    Neural network techniques for multispectral image classification and spatial pattern detection are compared to the standard techniques of maximum-likelihood classification and spatial correlation. The neural network produced a more accurate classification than maximum-likelihood of a Landsat scene of Tucson, Arizona. Some of the errors in the maximum-likelihood classification are illustrated using decision region and class probability density plots. As expected, the main drawback to the neural network method is the long time required for the training stage. The network was trained using several different hidden layer sizes to optimize both the classification accuracy and training speed, and it was found that one node per class was optimal. The performance improved when 3x3 local windows of image data were entered into the net. This modification introduces texture into the classification without explicit calculation of a texture measure. Larger windows were successfully used for the detection of spatial features in Landsat and Magellan synthetic aperture radar imagery.

  1. Provenience studies using neutron activation analysis: the role of standardization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbottle, G

    1980-01-01

    This paper covers the historical background of chemical analysis of archaeological artifacts which dates back to 1790 to the first application of neutron activation analysis to archaeological ceramics and goes on to elaborate on the present day status of neutron activation analysis in provenience studies, and the role of standardization. In principle, the concentrations of elements in a neutron-activated specimen can be calculated from an exact knowledge of neutron flux, its intensity, duration and spectral (energy) distribution, plus an exact gamma ray count calibrated for efficiency, corrected for branching rates, etc. However, in practice it is far easier to compare one's unknown to a standard of known or assumed composition. The practice has been for different laboratories to use different standards. With analyses being run in the thousands throughout the world, a great benefit would be derived if analyses could be exchanged among all users and/or generators of data. The emphasis of this paper is on interlaboratory comparability of ceramic data; how far are we from it, what has been proposed in the past to achieve this goal, and what is being proposed. All of this may be summarized under the general heading of Analytical Quality Control - i.e., how to achieve precise and accurate analysis. The author proposes that anyone wishing to analyze archaeological ceramics should simply use his own standard, but attempt to calibrate that standard as nearly as possible to absolute (i.e., accurate) concentration values. The relationship of Analytical Quality Control to provenience location is also examined.

  2. Provenience studies using neutron activation analysis: the role of standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbottle, G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper covers the historical background of chemical analysis of archaeological artifacts which dates back to 1790 to the first application of neutron activation analysis to archaeological ceramics and goes on to elaborate on the present day status of neutron activation analysis in provenience studies, and the role of standardization. In principle, the concentrations of elements in a neutron-activated specimen can be calculated from an exact knowledge of neutron flux, its intensity, duration and spectral (energy) distribution, plus an exact gamma ray count calibrated for efficiency, corrected for branching rates, etc. However, in practice it is far easier to compare one's unknown to a standard of known or assumed composition. The practice has been for different laboratories to use different standards. With analyses being run in the thousands throughout the world, a great benefit would be derived if analyses could be exchanged among all users and/or generators of data. The emphasis of this paper is on interlaboratory comparability of ceramic data; how far are we from it, what has been proposed in the past to achieve this goal, and what is being proposed. All of this may be summarized under the general heading of Analytical Quality Control - i.e., how to achieve precise and accurate analysis. The author proposes that anyone wishing to analyze archaeological ceramics should simply use his own standard, but attempt to calibrate that standard as nearly as possible to absolute (i.e., accurate) concentration values. The relationship of Analytical Quality Control to provenience location is also examined

  3. 1997 Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity (AMSARA) Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Chronic knee pain 22 2.3 Adjustment disorder 16 2.7 Hearing 22 2.3 Bone injury-lower extremities 14 2.4 Eating disorder 22 2.3 Hypertension 12 2.0...Genetic Influences in Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders : Autism and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder . Am J Hum Genet 1997;60:1276-1282...active duty Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Armed Forces Qualifying Test Academic Skills Defect Accession Medical Standards Analysis and

  4. Training to Support Standardization and Improvement of Configuration Management Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauber, V.; Scheffer, N.; Schoenfelder, C.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years AREVA has conducted several measures to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of configuration management-related activities within a nuclear power plant (NPP) new build as well as modernization projects, thereby further strengthening its commitment to achieving the highest level of safety in nuclear facilities. This paper describes a new training course that shall support the standardization and improvement of configuration management activities. Recommendations will be given that should be considered when designing and developing comparable training programs to support change processes within engineering units. (Author)

  5. Outcome of a standardized technique of preputial preservation surgery for phimosis: A single institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalesh Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pathological phimosis or preputial stenosis is a distressing problem in children leading to recurrent balanoposthitis, ballooning of prepuce, and rarely back pressure changes in the urinary tract. Circumcision has been the standard of care for such situations, although recently, various alternatives to circumcision have been reported in the literature. Most of these techniques are often complex and are met with poor acceptance. Moreover, besides personal preferences (in Hindus, advantages of preputial preservation is increasingly being realized recently. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out in which a simple standardized technique of preputioplasty (dorsal slit was used in 40 pediatric preputial stenosis cases. The outcome of this procedure including cosmesis and parental satisfaction was evaluated. Results: The average duration of this procedure was from 10 to 25 min with no intraoperative complications. The cosmetic outcome was good in 62.5%, satisfactory in 30%, and poor in 7.5% of cases. All of the boys had retractable prepuce with no functional problems. There was 100% parental satisfaction. None of the patients required a redo procedure or circumcision. Conclusion: A dorsal slit of adequate length i.e.; 1/3 rd the length from the corona to the tip leads to a satisfactory cosmetic outcome in more than 92% of cases. Preputioplasty is a safe and simple alternative to more radical procedure of circumcision.

  6. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Technique using Subsecond Radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.K.; Schmidt, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The fast irradiation facility Mach-1 installed at the Danish DR 3 reactor has been used in boron determinations by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis using12B with 20-ms half-life. The performance characteristics of the system are presented and boron determinations of NBS standard...

  7. Closing the gap: accelerating the translational process in nanomedicine by proposing standardized characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Ali A; Weaver, James L; Salvador-Morales, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    On the cusp of widespread permeation of nanomedicine, academia, industry, and government have invested substantial financial resources in developing new ways to better treat diseases. Materials have unique physical and chemical properties at the nanoscale compared with their bulk or small-molecule analogs. These unique properties have been greatly advantageous in providing innovative solutions for medical treatments at the bench level. However, nanomedicine research has not yet fully permeated the clinical setting because of several limitations. Among these limitations are the lack of universal standards for characterizing nanomaterials and the limited knowledge that we possess regarding the interactions between nanomaterials and biological entities such as proteins. In this review, we report on recent developments in the characterization of nanomaterials as well as the newest information about the interactions between nanomaterials and proteins in the human body. We propose a standard set of techniques for universal characterization of nanomaterials. We also address relevant regulatory issues involved in the translational process for the development of drug molecules and drug delivery systems. Adherence and refinement of a universal standard in nanomaterial characterization as well as the acquisition of a deeper understanding of nanomaterials and proteins will likely accelerate the use of nanomedicine in common practice to a great extent. PMID:25525356

  8. Study of the standard direct costs of various techniques of advanced endoscopy. Comparison with surgical alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loras, Carme; Mayor, Vicenç; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Esteve, Maria

    2018-03-12

    The complexity of endoscopy has carried out an increase in cost that has a direct effect on the healthcare systems. However, few studies have analyzed the cost of advanced endoscopic procedures (AEP). To carry out a calculation of the standard direct costs of AEP, and to make a financial comparison with their surgical alternatives. Calculation of the standard direct cost in carrying out each procedure. An endoscopist detailed the time, personnel, materials, consumables, recovery room time, stents, pathology and medication used. The cost of surgical procedures was the average cost recorded in the hospital. Thirty-eight AEP were analyzed. The technique showing lowest cost was gastroscopy + APC (€116.57), while that with greatest cost was ERCP with cholangioscopy + stent placement (€5083.65). Some 34.2% of the procedures registered average costs of €1000-2000. In 57% of cases, the endoscopic alternative was 2-5 times more cost-efficient than surgery, in 31% of cases indistinguishable or up to 1.4 times more costly. Standard direct cost of the majority of AEP is reported using a methodology that enables easy application in other centers. For the most part, endoscopic procedures are more cost-efficient than the corresponding surgical procedure. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Closing the gap: accelerating the translational process in nanomedicine by proposing standardized characterization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Ali A; Weaver, James L; Salvador-Morales, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    On the cusp of widespread permeation of nanomedicine, academia, industry, and government have invested substantial financial resources in developing new ways to better treat diseases. Materials have unique physical and chemical properties at the nanoscale compared with their bulk or small-molecule analogs. These unique properties have been greatly advantageous in providing innovative solutions for medical treatments at the bench level. However, nanomedicine research has not yet fully permeated the clinical setting because of several limitations. Among these limitations are the lack of universal standards for characterizing nanomaterials and the limited knowledge that we possess regarding the interactions between nanomaterials and biological entities such as proteins. In this review, we report on recent developments in the characterization of nanomaterials as well as the newest information about the interactions between nanomaterials and proteins in the human body. We propose a standard set of techniques for universal characterization of nanomaterials. We also address relevant regulatory issues involved in the translational process for the development of drug molecules and drug delivery systems. Adherence and refinement of a universal standard in nanomaterial characterization as well as the acquisition of a deeper understanding of nanomaterials and proteins will likely accelerate the use of nanomedicine in common practice to a great extent.

  10. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonheure, G.; Wassenhove, G. Van [ERM-KMS, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Mlynar, J. [Association Euratom-IPP.CR, Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Za Slovankou 3, CZ-182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Lutter, G. [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium); Vermaercke, P. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R and D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -{approx}6 times more - compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  11. Weed Identification Using An Automated Active Shape Matching (AASM) Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swain, K C; Nørremark, Michael; Jørgensen, R N

    2011-01-01

    on the concept of ‘active shape modelling’ to identify weed and crop plants based on their morphology. The automated active shape matching system (AASM) technique consisted of, i) a Pixelink camera ii) an LTI (Lehrstuhlfuer technische informatik) image processing library, iii) a laptop pc with the Linux OS. A 2......-leaf growth stage model for Solanum nigrum L. (nightshade) is generated from 32 segmented training images in Matlab software environment. Using the AASM algorithm, the leaf model was aligned and placed at the centre of the target plant and a model deformation process carried out. The parameters used......Weed identification and control is a challenge for intercultural operations in agriculture. As an alternative to chemical pest control, a smart weed identification technique followed by mechanical weed control system could be developed. The proposed smart identification technique works...

  12. Phasic Electrodermal Activity During the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Adam C; Schaefer, Sydney Y

    2016-07-01

    The long-term effects of concussion on brain function during cognitive tasks are not fully understood and neuroimaging findings are equivocal. Some images show hyperactivation of prefrontal brain regions in previously concussed individuals relative to controls, suggesting increased cognitive resource allocation. Others show prefrontal hypoactivation and hyperactivation in other regions as a presumed compensatory mechanism. Given the relationship between sympathetic arousal and neural activation, physiologic measures of arousal, such as electrodermal activity, may provide additional insight into the brain's functional changes in those with a history of concussion. To quantify differences in electrodermal activity during a commonly used standardized neurocognitive assessment between individuals with or without a history of concussion. Descriptive laboratory study. Research laboratory. Seven asymptomatic individuals with a self-reported history of physician-diagnosed, sport-related concussion (number of previous concussions = 1.43 ± 0.53; time since most recent concussion = 0.75 to 6 years, median = 3 years) and 10 individuals without a history of concussion participated in this study. All participants wore bilateral wrist electrodermal activity sensors during the Standardized Assessment of Concussion. We measured normalized phasic (reactive) electrodermal activity during each test element (orientation, immediate recall, concentration, delayed recall). A significant group-by-test element interaction was present (P = .003). Individuals with a history of concussion had greater phasic activity during delayed recall (P concussed individuals relative to healthy control participants, supporting previous neuroimaging findings of increased prefrontal cortex activity during memory tasks after concussion. Given similar task performance and arousal patterns across the test, our results suggest that previously concussed individuals incur additional cognitive demands in a short

  13. Open Partial Nephrectomy in Renal Cancer: A Feasible Gold Standard Technique in All Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Cozar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Partial nephrectomy (PN is playing an increasingly important role in localized renal cell carcinoma (RCC as a true alternative to radical nephrectomy. With the greater experience and expertise of surgical teams, it has become an alternative to radical nephrectomy in young patients when the tumor diameter is 4 cm or less in almost all hospitals since cancer-specific survival outcomes are similar to those obtained with radical nephrectomy. Materials and Methods. The authors comment on their own experience and review the literature, reporting current indications and outcomes including complications. The surgical technique of open partial nephrectomy is outlined. Conclusions. Nowadays, open PN is the gold standard technique to treat small renal masses, and all nonablative techniques must pass the test of time to be compared to PN. It is not ethical for patients to undergo radical surgery just because the urologists involved do not have adequate experience with PN. Patients should be involved in the final treatment decision and, when appropriate, referred to specialized centers with experience in open or laparoscopic partial nephrectomies.

  14. Comparative analysis of photograph-based clinical goniometry to standard techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crasto, Jared A; Sayari, Arash J; Gray, Robert R-L; Askari, Morad

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of joint range of motion (ROM) is an accepted evaluation of disability as well as an indicator of recovery from musculoskeletal injuries. Many goniometric techniques have been described to measure ROM, with variable validity due to inter-rater reliability. In this report, we assessed the validity of photograph-based goniometry in measurement of ROM and its inter-rater reliability and compared it to two other commonly used techniques. We examined three methods for measuring ROM in the upper extremity: manual goniometry (MG), visual estimations (VE), and photograph-based goniometry (PBG). Eight motions of the upper extremity were measured in 69 participants at an academic medical center. We found visual estimations and photograph-based goniometry to be clinically valid when tested against manual goniometry (r avg. 0.58, range 0.28 to 0.87). Photograph-based measurements afforded a satisfactory degree of inter-rater reliability (ICC avg. 0.77, range 0.28 to 0.96). Our study supports photograph-based goniometry as the new standard goniometric technique, as it has been clinically validated, is performed with greater consistency and better inter-rater reliability when compared with manual goniometry. It also allows for better documentation of measurements and potential incorporation into medical records in direct contrast to visual estimation.

  15. MATLAB Toolboxes for Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST) of Scalp EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Li, Fali; Liu, Qiang; Wen, Xin; Lai, Yongxiu; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong

    2017-01-01

    Reference electrode standardization technique (REST) has been increasingly acknowledged and applied as a re-reference technique to transform an actual multi-channels recordings to approximately zero reference ones in electroencephalography/event-related potentials (EEG/ERPs) community around the world in recent years. However, a more easy-to-use toolbox for re-referencing scalp EEG data to zero reference is still lacking. Here, we have therefore developed two open-source MATLAB toolboxes for REST of scalp EEG. One version of REST is closely integrated into EEGLAB, which is a popular MATLAB toolbox for processing the EEG data; and another is a batch version to make it more convenient and efficient for experienced users. Both of them are designed to provide an easy-to-use for novice researchers and flexibility for experienced researchers. All versions of the REST toolboxes can be freely downloaded at http://www.neuro.uestc.edu.cn/rest/Down.html, and the detailed information including publications, comments and documents on REST can also be found from this website. An example of usage is given with comparative results of REST and average reference. We hope these user-friendly REST toolboxes could make the relatively novel technique of REST easier to study, especially for applications in various EEG studies.

  16. Introduction to Microwave Active Techniques and Backscatter Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Lidicky, L.

    2008-01-01

    The present article introduces active microwave techniques that are used for remote sensing of the European seas, focusing on RAdio Detection And Ranging (RADAR) and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). In section 1 the ranging principle and associated topics are introduced. As an example of this

  17. Idea-Generation Techniques: A Formulary of Active Ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald F.

    1998-01-01

    Reports the results of a study of active ingredients of creativity techniques, devices that promote idea generation, through an analysis of 172 idea-generation methods which identified three types of idea-generation devices--strategies, tactics, and enablers. These devices were organized into meaningful categories comprising a formulary of active…

  18. National Bureau of Standards coal flyash (SRM 1633a) as a multielement standard for instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotev, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. National Bureau of Standards standard reference material 1633a (coal flyash) was standardized for the concentrations of 29 elements against chemical standards by instrumental neutron activation analysis. United States Geological Survey basalt standard BCR-1 was analyzed concurrently as a check. SRM 1633a is a good multielement comparator standard for geochemical analysis for 25 of the elements analyzed and is a better standard than rock-powder SRMs commonly used. Analytical data for USGS DTS-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, BIR-1, DNC-1, and W-2; NBS SRMs 278 and 688; and GIT-IWG (French) anorthosite AN-G are also presented. (author)

  19. Are neck nodal volumes drawn on CT slices covered by standard three-field technique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Culp, Laura R; Endres, Eugene J; Bayouth, John E

    2004-07-01

    Several definitions have been proposed in the past few years on how to contour the various neck nodal levels on CT slices. However, whether the resulting nodal volumes would have been covered by standard techniques is unknown. The purpose of this study was to clarify this issue. Eight patients (N0-N1) with head-and-neck cancer from various primary sites referred to us for definitive radiotherapy were included in this study. Two observers contoured the level Ib-V neck nodal volumes on planning CT according to seven reported definitions. Each observer also drew blocks on digitally reconstructed radiographs for the initial (on-cord) phase of a standard three-field technique (parallel opposed lateral fields and AP supraclavicular field) for three different clinical settings: "medium" larynx (to cover upper, mid, and low jugular nodes), "big" larynx (same as for medium, plus posterior cervical nodes), and "tonsil" (same as for big plus retropharyngeal nodes). Fields blocks were concentrically reduced 5 mm in all directions as a surrogate for the clinical target volume to planning target volume expansion. A plan was created for each of the clinical settings, delivering 2 Gy to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements reference point. The coverage of the nodal levels according to the various definitions was investigated throughout the analysis of the volume receiving 50%, 80%, and 95% of the prescribed dose (V(50), V(80), and V(95), respectively) and dose covering at least 95% of the volume (D(95)) values extracted from their cumulative dose-volume histograms in the three clinical settings. The V(50) coverage of levels III and IV was adequate for all definitions and trials. For level V, about 3-5% of the volume was outside the 50% isodose of those trials that targeted the posterior cervical chain. Coverage of level Ib was highly dependent on the definition, with up to 21% of the volume outside the standard tonsillar fields. For level II, although

  20. Quality of Standard Reference Materials for Short Time Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Oberleitner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Some environmental reference materials (CFA-1633 b, IAEA-SL-1, SARM-1,BCR-176, Coal-1635, IAEA-SL-3, BCR-146, and SRAM-5) were analysed by short-time activation analysis. The results show that these materials can be classified in three groups, according to their activities after irradiation. The obtained results were compared in order to create a quality index for determination of short-lived nuclides at high count rates. It was found that Cfta is not a suitable standard for determining very short-lived nuclides (half-lives<1 min) because the activity it produces is 15-fold higher than that SL-3. Biological reference materials, such as SRM-1571, SRM-1573, SRM-1575, SRM-1577, IAEA-392, and IAEA-393, were also investigated by a higher counting efficiency system. The quality of this system and its well-type detector for investigating short-lived nuclides was discussed

  1. Development of the absolute standardization apparatus for radon-222 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juncheng; Yang, Zhijie; Wang, Liyuan; Li, Zexi; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Haoran; Yuan, Daqing

    2018-04-01

    A defined solid angle counting apparatus for radon-222 activity absolute measurement is presented. Two home-made vacuum sealed radium-226 sources with radioactivity of 500kBq and 3MBq are used to minimize the impact from gas impurities. The defined solid angle is calculated using precisely measured geometrical parameters by several algorithms. The result from Monte Carlo simulation agrees with results obtained by other methods within the estimated uncertainty limit. Alpha particle's scattering behavior in the measurement chamber and collimator is simulated by the geant4 code and a total scattering alpha particle ratio of 0.23% as well as a relative uncertainty contribution to activity measurement of 0.02% to 0.09% are estimated. A typical total combined standard uncertainty of 0.28% is evaluated for the radon activity primary measurement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Model-Based Data Integration and Process Standardization Techniques for Fault Management: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Deepak; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Johnson, Stephen B.; Moore, Craig

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the theory and considerations in the application of model-based techniques to assimilate information from disjoint knowledge sources for performing NASA's Fault Management (FM)-related activities using the TEAMS® toolset. FM consists of the operational mitigation of existing and impending spacecraft failures. NASA's FM directives have both design-phase and operational-phase goals. This paper highlights recent studies by QSI and DST of the capabilities required in the TEAMS® toolset for conducting FM activities with the aim of reducing operating costs, increasing autonomy, and conforming to time schedules. These studies use and extend the analytic capabilities of QSI's TEAMS® toolset to conduct a range of FM activities within a centralized platform.

  3. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of γ rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed

  4. Standardization of Berberis aristata extract through conventional and modern HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K. Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Berberis aristata (Berberidaceae is an important medicinal plant, found in the different region of the world. It has significant medicinal value in the traditional Indian and Chinese system of medicine. The aim of the present investigation includes qualitative and quantitative analysis of Berberis aristata extract. Methods: Present study includes determination of phytochemical analysis, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis by HPTLC method. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, alkaloid, protein, amino acid, saponin, tannin and flavonoid. Solubility in water and alcohal were found to be 81.90% in water and 84.52% in 50% in alcohal. Loss on drying was found to be 5.32%. Total phenol and flavonoid content were found to be 0.11% and 2.8%. Level of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complies the standard level. E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent whereas total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit. Content of berberine was found to be 13.47% through HPTLC techniques. Conclusions: The results obtained from the present studies could be used as source of valuable information which can play an important role for the food scientists, researchers and even the consumers for its standards.

  5. A standardized technique for high-pressure cooling of protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirnheim Pais, David; Rathmann, Barbara; Koepke, Juergen; Tomova, Cveta; Wurzinger, Paul; Thielmann, Yvonne

    2017-12-01

    Cryogenic temperatures slow down secondary radiation damage during data collection from macromolecular crystals. In 1973, cooling at high pressure was identified as a method for cryopreserving crystals in their mother liquor [Thomanek et al. (1973). Acta Cryst. A29, 263-265]. Results from different groups studying different crystal systems indicated that the approach had merit, although difficulties in making the process work have limited its widespread use. Therefore, a simplified and reliable technique has been developed termed high-pressure cooling (HPC). An essential requirement for HPC is to protect crystals in capillaries. These capillaries form part of new sample holders with SPINE standard dimensions. Crystals are harvested with the capillary, cooled at high pressure (220 MPa) and stored in a cryovial. This system also allows the usage of the standard automation at the synchrotron. Crystals of hen egg-white lysozyme and concanavalin A have been successfully cryopreserved and yielded data sets to resolutions of 1.45 and 1.35 Å, respectively. Extensive work has been performed to define the useful working range of HPC in capillaries with 250 µm inner diameter. Three different 96-well crystallization screens that are most frequently used in our crystallization facility were chosen to study the formation of amorphous ice in this cooling setup. More than 89% of the screening solutions were directly suitable for HPC. This achievement represents a drastic improvement for crystals that suffered from cryoprotection or were not previously eligible for cryoprotection.

  6. Root activity evaluation in tree crops using isotopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, Marcelo

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the methdology used to evalute root activity of the crops utilizing the technique of soil injection with solutions marked with isotopes. Some of the experimental data obtained with coffee, citrus and oil palm are also presented. Ovel all, these tree crops present a higher root activity in soil layers close to the surface (0-20 cm) and to a distance from the trunk which varies with age, season and variety. The most important conclusions are: 1. The isotope injection technique using 3 2 P , 1 5 N , or 8 5 R b, allow direct and reliable determination of root activity in these tree crops. 2. Root activity of three crops depends on age of the tree, variety, moisture content of the soil and soil type. 3. Soil moisture is the most influencial factor affecting root activity. This is turn depends on the irrigation method employed. 4. From the practical view point, the best distance from the trunk to apply fertilizer in the one wich has highest root activity closest to the soil surface

  7. Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy techniques and standard wedged tangents for whole breast radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, Andrew; Bromley, Regina; Beat, Mardi; Vien, Din; Dineley, Jude; Morgan, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Prior to introducing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) into our department we undertook a comparison of the dose parameters of several IMRT techniques and standard wedged tangents (SWT). Our aim was to improve the dose distribution to the breast and to decrease the dose to organs at risk (OAR): heart, lung and contralateral breast (Contra Br). Treatment plans for 20 women (10 right-sided and 10 left-sided) previously treated with SWT for WBRT were used to compare (a) SWT; (b) electronic compensators IMRT (E-IMRT); (c) tangential beam IMRT (T-IMRT); (d) coplanar multi-field IMRT (CP-IMRT); and (e) non-coplanar multi-field IMRT (NCP-IMRT). Plans for the breast were compared for (i) dose homogeneity (DH); (ii) conformity index (CI); (iii) mean dose; (iv) maximum dose; (v) minimum dose; and dose to OAR were calculated (vi) heart; (vii) lung and (viii) Contra Br. Compared with SWT, all plans except CP-IMRT gave improvement in at least two of the seven parameters evaluated. T-IMRT and NCP-IMRT resulted in significant improvement in all parameters except DH and both gave significant reduction in doses to OAR. As on initial evaluation NCP-IMRT is likely to be too time consuming to introduce on a large scale, T-IMRT is the preferred technique for WBRT for use in our department.

  8. Cost minimisation analysis of using acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) for breast reconstruction compared with standard techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R K; Wright, C K; Gandhi, A; Charny, M C; Barr, L

    2013-03-01

    We performed a cost analysis (using UK 2011/12 NHS tariffs as a proxy for cost) comparing immediate breast reconstruction using the new one-stage technique of acellular dermal matrix (Strattice™) with implant versus the standard alternative techniques of tissue expander (TE)/implant as a two-stage procedure and latissimus dorsi (LD) flap reconstruction. Clinical report data were collected for operative time, length of stay, outpatient procedures, and number of elective and emergency admissions in our first consecutive 24 patients undergoing one-stage Strattice reconstruction. Total cost to the NHS based on tariff, assuming top-up payments to cover Strattice acquisition costs, was assessed and compared to the two historical control groups matched on key variables. Eleven patients having unilateral Strattice reconstruction were compared to 10 having TE/implant reconstruction and 10 having LD flap and implant reconstruction. Thirteen patients having bilateral Strattice reconstruction were compared to 12 having bilateral TE/implant reconstruction. Total costs were: unilateral Strattice, £3685; unilateral TE, £4985; unilateral LD and implant, £6321; bilateral TE, £5478; and bilateral Strattice, £6771. The cost analysis shows a financial advantage of using acellular dermal matrix (Strattice) in unilateral breast reconstruction versus alternative procedures. The reimbursement system in England (Payment by Results) is based on disease-related groups similar to that of many countries across Europe and tariffs are based on reported hospital costs, making this analysis of relevance in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Critical Appraisal of Techniques, Software Packages, and Standards for Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Craig; Hubbard, Simon J.; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Hermjakob, Henning; Jones, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New methods for performing quantitative proteome analyses based on differential labeling protocols or label-free techniques are reported in the literature on an almost monthly basis. In parallel, a correspondingly vast number of software tools for the analysis of quantitative proteomics data has also been described in the literature and produced by private companies. In this article we focus on the review of some of the most popular techniques in the field and present a critical appraisal of several software packages available to process and analyze the data produced. We also describe the importance of community standards to support the wide range of software, which may assist researchers in the analysis of data using different platforms and protocols. It is intended that this review will serve bench scientists both as a useful reference and a guide to the selection and use of different pipelines to perform quantitative proteomics data analysis. We have produced a web-based tool (http://www.proteosuite.org/?q=other_resources) to help researchers find appropriate software for their local instrumentation, available file formats, and quantitative methodology. PMID:22804616

  10. DOE Technical Standards List. Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This is a periodic report on the level of agency participation in non-Government standards activities. This technical standards list is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) management and other personnel involved in the DOE technical Standards Program by identifying those participating individuals. The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted a Record of Non-Government Standards Activity. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. Appendices to this document are provided to list the information by parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees.

  11. Phytochemical analysis and standardization of Strychnos nux-vomica extract through HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to develop a noval qualitative and quantitative method by which we can determine different phytoconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica L. Methods: To profile the phyconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica, in the present study hydroalcoholic extract of Strychnos nux-vomica was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activities against certain pathogenic microorganisms, solubility test, loss on drying and pH value. Extract was also subjected to the quantitative analysis including total phenol, flavonoid and heavy metal analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed through HPTLC methods using strychnine and brucine as a standard marker. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside in the extract. Total flavonoid and phenol content of Strychnos nux-vomica L extract was found to be 0.40 % and 0.43%. Result showed that the level of heavy metal (lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complie the standard level. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Content of strychnine and brucine were found to be 4.75% and 3.91%. Conclusions: These studies provide valluable information for correct identification and selection of the drug from various adulterations. In future this study will be helpful for the quantitative analysis as well as standardization of the Strychnos nux-vomica L.

  12. Flow Diversion versus Standard Endovascular Techniques for the Treatment of Unruptured Carotid-Ophthalmic Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, F; Pistocchi, S; Clarençon, F; Bartolini, B; Blanc, R; Biondi, A; Redjem, H; Chiras, J; Sourour, N; Piotin, M

    2015-12-01

    Over the past few years, flow diversion has been increasingly adopted for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms, especially in the paraclinoid and paraophthalmic carotid segment. We compared clinical and angiographic outcomes and complication rates in 2 groups of patients with unruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms treated for 7 years by either standard coil-based techniques or flow diversion. From February 2006 to December 2013, 162 unruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms were treated endovascularly in 138 patients. Sixty-seven aneurysms were treated by coil-based techniques in 61 patients. Flow diverters were deployed in 95 unruptured aneurysms (77 patients), with additional coiling in 27 patients. Complication rates, clinical outcome, and immediate and long-term angiographic results were retrospectively analyzed. No procedure-related deaths occurred. Four procedure-related thromboembolic events (6.6%) leading to permanent morbidity in 1 case (1.6%) occurred in the coiling group. Neurologic complications were observed in 6 patients (7.8%) in the flow-diversion group, resulting in 3.9% permanent morbidity. No statistically significant difference was found between complication (P = .9) and morbidity rates (P = .6). In the coiling group (median follow-up, 31.5 ± 24.5 months), recanalization occurred at 1 year in 23/50 (54%) aneurysms and 27/55 aneurysms (50.9%) at the latest follow-up, leading to retreatment in 6 patients (9%). In the flow-diversion group (mean follow-up, 13.5 ± 10.8 months), 85.3% (35/41) of all aneurysms were occluded after 12 months, and 74.6% (50/67) on latest follow-up. The retreatment rate was 2.1%. Occlusion rates between the 2 groups differed significantly at 12 months (P < .001) and at the latest follow-up (P < .005). Our retrospective analysis shows better long-term occlusion of carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms after use of flow diverters compared with standard coil-based techniques, without significant differences in permanent morbidity

  13. Some problems of calibration technique in charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, N.N.; Zatolokin, B.V.; Konstantinov, I.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that three different approaches to calibration technique based on the use of average cross-section, equivalent target thickness and thick target yield are adequate. Using the concept of thick target yield, a convenient charged particle activation equation is obtained. The possibility of simultaneous determination of two impurities, from which the same isotope is formed, is pointed out. The use of the concept of thick target yield facilitates the derivation of a simple formula for an absolute and comparative methods of analysis. The methodical error does not exceed 10%. Calibration technique and determination of expected sensitivity based on the thick target yield concept is also very convenient because experimental determination of thick target yield values is a much simpler procedure than getting activation curve or excitation function. (T.G.)

  14. Comparison of active stretching technique and static stretching technique on hamstring flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meroni, Roberto; Cerri, Cesare Giuseppe; Lanzarini, Carlo; Barindelli, Guido; Morte, Giancesare Della; Gessaga, Viviana; Cesana, Gian Carlo; De Vito, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    To compare a passive and an active stretching technique to determine which one would produce and maintain the greatest gain in hamstring flexibility. To determine whether a passive or an active stretching technique results in a greater increase in hamstring flexibility and to compare whether the gains are maintained. Randomized controlled trial. Institutional. Sixty-five volunteer healthy subjects completed the enrollment questionnaire, 33 completed the required 75% of the treatment after 6 weeks, and 22 were assessed 4 weeks after the training interruption. A 6-week stretching program with subjects divided into 2 groups with group 1 performing active stretching exercises and group 2 performing passive stretching exercises. Range of motion (ROM) was measured after 3 and 6 weeks of training and again 4 weeks after the cessation of training and compared with the initial measurement. After 3 weeks of training, the mean gain in group 1 (active stretching) on performing the active knee extension range of motion (AKER) test was 5.7 degrees, whereas the mean gain in group 2 (passive stretching) was 3 degrees (P = .015). After 6 weeks of training, the mean gain in group 1 was 8.7 degrees , whereas the mean gain in group 2 was 5.3 degrees (P = .006). Twenty-two subjects were reassessed 4 weeks after the cessation of the training with the maintained gain of ROM in group 1 being 6.3 degrees , whereas the maintained gain in group 2 was 0.1 degrees (P = .003). Active stretching produced the greater gain in the AKER test, and the gain was almost completely maintained 4 weeks after the end of the training, which was not seen with the passive stretching group. Active stretching was more time efficient compared with the static stretching and needed a lower compliance to produce effects on flexibility.

  15. Fusion alpha loss diagnostic for ITER using activation technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R.; Vermaercke, P.; Murari, A.; Popovichev, S.; Mlynář, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 1298-1301 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology (SOFT) /26th./. Port o, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : ITER * fusion product * burning plasma diagnostics * alpha losses * activation technique Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379611002778

  16. The “excluding” suture technique for surgical closure of ventricular septal defects: A retrospective study comparing the standard technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Surgical closure of VSDs can be accomplished by placing sutures along the margins or away with comparable results. The incidence of CHB, however, seems to be less when the “excluding” technique is employed.

  17. Reduced Rate of Dehiscence After Implementation of a Standardized Fascial Closure Technique in Patients Undergoing Emergency Laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Mai-Britt; Watt, Sara Kehlet; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    is lacking. We aimed to investigate whether this technique would reduce the rate of dehiscence. METHODS: A standardized procedure of closing the midline laparotomy by using a "small steps" technique of continuous suturing with a slowly absorbable (polydioxanone) suture material in a wound-suture ratio...

  18. [Latest standards of muscle injury prophylactic activities, treatment and rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewski, Jacek; Bakowski, Paweł; Tabiszewski, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Muscle injury represents the highest proportion of sport-linked contusions. Experimental and clinical studies aim at increasingly detailed recognition of muscle physiology and pathophysiology. It would allow to set up functional standards and permit to minimize risk of contusions associated with sport activities. In cases of such contusions it would restrict its sequele and would abbreviate the duration of treatment. In the study elements of prophylaxis, treatment and rehabilitation of injured muscles will be discussed, based on current scientific results. Review study includes data from studies investigating prophylactic activities, types of teratment and the effects of different rehabilitation strategy. Latest standards from First European Congress of Football Medicine, Munich 2004, were also taken into account. The prophylactic activities should focus on education attempting to popularize the knowledge of the role of warm-up activities which precede proper physical effort, muscle stretching and activities augmenting muscle strength. The treatment of muscle injury is related to the extent of their damage. First actions should be focused on the RICE principle (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation). In case of torn tissues, local injections of anesthetics, anti-inflammatory agents and regeneration-promoting agents used to be applied. Application of NSAIDs and anti-thrombotic prophylaxis is sound but due to their side effects it is recommended as frequently as it is counterindicated by physicians. A threshold in the therapy, not always noted by therapeutists, involves rapid mobilization of the injured tissue. This involves mobility exercises starting at 3-5 days post-trauma, with no load at the beginning, but starting at days 4 to 6 asssociated with appropriate loading. The recently conducted studies aim at stimulation of rapid muscle regeneration, inhibition of scar formation in the site of injury and elimination of already existing scars. The latter seems most

  19. Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences. Proceedings of the Symposium on Nuclear Activation Techniques in the Life Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held at Amsterdam. 8-12 May 1967. The meeting was attended by 190 participants from 26 Member States and 3 international organizations. These are the third IAEA Symposium Proceedings to have nuclear activation analysis as their main theme, the preceding ones being Radioactivation Analysis, Butterworth and Co. Ltd, London (1960) and Radiochemical Methods of Analysis, IAEA, Vienna (1965). Contents: Introductory lecture (1 paper); Physical techniques (6 papers); Chemical techniques (6 papers); Analytical reference materials (1 paper); Comparison of activation analysis with other methods of trace analysis (4 papers); Plant and animal studies (7 papers); Medical sciences (19 papers); Public health and forensic science (6 papers). Each paper is in its original language (43 English, 5 French, 1 Russian and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  20. The relation between bone demineralization, physical activity and anthropometric standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Barbosa Camara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to verify the correlation between bone mineral density and the level of physical activity, as well as the food intake and the anthropometric parameters. It intended to analyse the bone mineral density (BMD of menopausal women through the bone densitometry test (DO in the lumbar region (L1 to L4, femoral neck and total femur, and also use Bouchard’s self-recall of daily activities; employing the food record from Buker and Stuart to dose and quantify the daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. The data were analysed via Kolmogorov-Smirnov’s test, and default value of α = 0.05 was set to compare the BMD averages. It was observed that one hundred percent of the assessed individuals had a BMD level below the average fixed by WHO: 14.4% with osteopenia and 85.6% with osteoporosis; a lower BMD in the femoral area (0.721g and the biggest loss among the sedentary ones (0.698g. It was noticed that there was a correlation between the physical activities and the BMD only when associated with anthropometric standards and the daily ingestion of vitamin D.

  1. [Abdominothoracic esophageal resection according to Ivor Lewis with intrathoracic anastomosis : standardized totally minimally invasive technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, N; Walz, M; Ketelhut, M

    2015-05-01

    The clinical and scientific interest in minimally invasive techniques for esophagectomy (MIE) are increasing; however, the intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis remains a surgical challenge and lacks standardization. Surgeons either transpose the anastomosis to the cervical region or perform hybrid thoracotomy for stapler access. This article reports technical details and early experiences with a completely laparoscopic-thoracoscopic approach for Ivor Lewis esophagectomy without additional thoracotomy. The extent of radical dissection follows clinical guidelines. Laparoscopy is performed with the patient in a beach chair position and thoracoscopy in a left lateral decubitus position using single lung ventilation. The anvil of the circular stapler is placed transorally into the esophageal stump. The specimen and gastric conduit are exteriorized through a subcostal rectus muscle split incision. The stapler body is placed into the gastric conduit and both are advanced through the abdominal mini-incision transhiatally into the right thoracic cavity, where the anastomosis is constructed. Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 23 non-selected consecutive patients (mean age 69 years, range 46-80 years) with adenocarcinoma (n = 19) or squamous cell carcinoma (n = 4) were surgically treated between June 2010 and July 2013. Neoadjuvant therapy was performed in 15 patients resulting in 10 partial and 4 complete remissions. There were no technical complications and no conversions. Mean operative time was 305 min (range 220-441 min). The median lymph node count was 16 (range 4-42). An R0 resection was achieved in 91 % of patients and 3 anastomotic leaks occurred which were successfully managed endoscopically. There were no postoperative deaths. The intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis during minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy can be constructed in a standardized fashion without an additional thoracotomy

  2. Standardization of the radioimmunoassay technique for the determination of human gastrin and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peig Ginabredra, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    It was developed and standardized a system of radioimmunoassay for the determination of gastrin, employing synthetic human gastrin for radioiodination and preparation of standard as well as specific antibody raised rabbits. The hormone was labeled with 125 I by the Cloramine T techique and purified by anion exchange chromatography in QAE-Sephadex A-25, being determined its specific activity. The tracer thus obtained was submitted to analysis of purity by poliacrilamide gel eletrophoresis and precipitation of proteins by trichloroacetic acid. Its stability evaluated according to the time of storage, being its purity and adequation for the use in radioimmunoassay also compared to a tracer obtained from a commercial diagnosis kit. The assays were performed by incubation of radioiodinated gastrin, standard gastrin prepared in plasma free from this hormone (from zero to 500 pmol/l) or samples to be assayed with the antiserum for 4 days at 4 0 C. The separation between the free gastrin and the gastrin bound to the antibody was carried out by adsorption of the free hormone to the charcoal, whose ideal concentration was previously determined. Plasma free from gastrin was obtained from time-expired blood bank plasma submitted to extraction with charcoal. When performed the quality control, this radioimmunoassay was shown specific, accurate, precise and sensitive, allowing the performance of valid assays. Its validation was even confirmed by clear discrimination not only of the gastrin concentration in subjects with very low levels (gastrectomized) and extremely high levels (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome) as well as gastrin concentrations in subjects with other diseases, such as Chagas disease, pernicious anemia and chronic renal failure. (author) [pt

  3. Standardization of MIP technique in three-dimensional CT portography: usefulness in evaluation of portosystemic collaterals in cirrhotic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Gi; Kim, Yong; Kim, Chang Won; Lee, Jun Woo; Lee, Suk Hong

    2003-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of three-dimensional CT portography using a standardized maximum intensity projection (MIP) technique for the evaluation of portosystemic collaterals in cirrhotic patients. In 25 cirrhotic patients with portosystemic collaterals, three-phase CT using a multide-tector-row helical CT scanner was performed to evaluate liver disease. Late arterial-phase images were transferred to an Advantage Windows 3.1 workstation (Gener Electric). Axial images were reconstructed by means of three-dimensional CT portography, using both a standardized and a non-standardized MIP technique, and the respective reconstruction times were determined. Three-dimensional CT portography with the standardized technique involved eight planes, namely the spleno-portal confluence axis (coronal, lordotic coronal, lordotic coronal RAO 30 .deg. C, and lordotic coronal LAO 30 .deg. C), the left renal vein axis (lordotic coronal), and axial MIP images (lower esophagus level, gastric fundus level and splenic hilum). The eight MIP images obtained in each case were interpreted by two radiologists, who reached a consensus in their evaluation. The portosystemic collaterals evaluated were as follows: left gastric vein dilatation; esophageal, paraesophageal, gastric, and splenic varix; paraumbilical vein dilatation; gastro-renal, spleno-renal, and gastro-spleno-renal shunt; mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and omental collaterals. The average reconstruction time using the non-standardized MIP technique was 11 minutes 23 seconds, and with the standardized technique, the time was 6 minutes 5 seconds. Three-dimensional CT portography with the standardized technique demonstrated left gastric vein dilatation (n=25), esophageal varix (n=18), paraesophageal varix (n=13), gastric varix (n=4), splenic varix (n=4), paraumbilical vein dilatation (n=4), gastro-renal shunt (n=3), spleno-renal shunt (n=3), and gastro-spleno-renal shunt (n=1). Using three-dimensional CT protography and the non-standardized

  4. A trial fabrication of activity standard surface sources and positional standard surface sources for an imaging plate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yasushi; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2003-01-01

    An imaging plate system can detect low level activity, but quantitative analysis is difficult because there are no adequate standard surface sources. A new fabrication method was developed for standard surface sources by printing on a sheet of paper using an ink-jet printer with inks in which a radioactive material was mixed. The fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range. The standard sources were used for measurement of surface activity as an application. (H. Yokoo)

  5. Development, improvement and calibration of neutronic reaction rates measurements: elaboration of a standard techniques basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudelot, J.P.

    1998-06-01

    In order to improve and to validate the neutronics calculation schemes, perfecting integral measurements of neutronics parameters is necessary. This thesis focuses on the conception, the improvement and the development of neutronics reaction rates measurements, and aims at building a base of standard techniques. Two subjects are discussed. The first one deals with direct measurements by fission chambers. A short presentation of the different usual techniques is given. Then, those last ones are applied through the example of doubling time measurements on the EOLE facility during the MISTRAL 1 experimental programme. Two calibration devices of fission chambers are developed: a thermal column located in the central part of the MINERVE facility, and a calibration cell using a pulsed high flux neutron generator and based on the discrimination of the energy of the neutrons with a time-of-flight method. This second device will soon allow to measure the mass of fission chambers with a precision of about 1 %. Finally, the necessity of those calibrations will be shown through spectral indices measurements in core MISTRAL 1 (UO 2 ) and MISTRAL 2 (MOX) of the EOLE facility. In each case, the associated calculation schemes, performed using the Monte Carlo MCNP code with the ENDF-BV library, will be validated. Concerning the second one, the goal is to develop a method for measuring the modified conversion ratio of 238 U (defined as the ratio of 238 U capture rate to total fission rate) by gamma-ray spectrometry of fuel rods. Within the framework of the MISTRAL 1 and MISTRAL 2 programmes, the measurement device, the experimental results and the spectrometer calibration are described. Furthermore, the MCNP calculations of neutron self-shielding and gamma self-absorption are validated. It is finally shown that measurement uncertainties are better than 1 %. The extension of this technique to future modified conversion ratio measurements for 242 Pu (on MOX rods) and 232 Th (on

  6. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  7. Electrophysiological Techniques for Studying Synaptic Activity In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeggo, Ross; Zhao, Fei-Yue; Spanswick, David

    2014-03-03

    Understanding the physiology, pharmacology, and plasticity associated with synaptic function is a key goal of neuroscience research and is fundamental to identifying the processes involved in the development and manifestation of neurological disease. A diverse range of electrophysiological methodologies are used to study synaptic function. Described in this unit is a technique for recording electrical activity from a single component of the central nervous system that is used to investigate pre- and post-synaptic elements of synaptic function. A strength of this technique is that it can be used on live animals, although the effect of anesthesia must be taken into consideration when interpreting the results. This methodology can be employed not only in naïve animals for studying normal physiological synaptic function, but also in a variety of disease models, including transgenic animals, to examine dysfunctional synaptic plasticity associated with neurological pathologies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Standardization of pulmonary ventilation technique using volume-controlled ventilators in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Melo Gallindo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To standardize a technique for ventilating rat fetuses with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH using a volume-controlled ventilator. METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into the following groups: a control (C; b exposed to nitrofen with CDH (CDH; and c exposed to nitrofen without CDH (N-. Fetuses of the three groups were randomly divided into the subgroups ventilated (V and non-ventilated (N-V. Fetuses were collected on day 21.5 of gestation, weighed and ventilated for 30 minutes using a volume-controlled ventilator. Then the lungs were collected for histological study. We evaluated: body weight (BW, total lung weight (TLW, left lung weight (LLW, ratios TLW / BW and LLW / BW, morphological histology of the airways and causes of failures of ventilation. RESULTS: BW, TLW, LLW, TLW / BW and LLW / BW were higher in C compared with N- (p 0.05. The morphology of the pulmonary airways showed hypoplasia in groups N- and CDH, with no difference between V and N-V (p <0.05. The C and N- groups could be successfully ventilated using a tidal volume of 75 ìl, but the failure of ventilation in the CDH group decreased only when ventilated with 50 ìl. CONCLUSION: Volume ventilation is possible in rats with CDH for a short period and does not alter fetal or lung morphology.

  9. Lithium carbonate tablets. Preparation techniques influence over active ingredient liberation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, J.H.F.; Oliveira, A.G. de; Toledo Salgado, P.E. de

    1989-01-01

    Lithium carbonate tablets, prepared using wet and dry granulation, were assessed in vitro so as to determine the active ingredient dissolution. In this study, standardized formulations were used and developed with usual adjuvants (lactose - maize starch). Parallel to the dissolution testing. The influence of the preparation process over some physical characteristics (hardness, friability and disintegration) was also analysed. Although a better performance was observed of tables prepared using dry granulation, the authors concluded that the wet process is more suitable in preparing tables with the mentioned drug. (author)

  10. Pulsed neutron generator for use with pulsed neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-output, transportable, pulsed neutron generator has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for use with Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) techniques. The PNA neutron generator generates > 10 10 14 MeV D-T neutrons in a 1.2 millisecond pulse. Each operation of the unit will produce a nominal total neutron output of 1.2 x 10 10 neutrons. The generator has been designed to be easily repaired and modified. The unit requires no additional equipment for operation or measurement of output

  11. Characterizing root activity of guava trees by radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, A.G.; Mukherjee, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    The distribution pattern of root activity of 12-year-old trees of guava (Psidium guajava L.) was determined by radiotracer technique. 32 P soloution was injected into the soil at lateral distances of 120, 240 and 360 cm from the tree trunk at depths of 15,30,60 and 90 cm. The 32 P uptake by the tree was determined by leaf analysis. In the rainy season the root activity or 32 P uptake was greater near the soil surface and midway between the trunk and the drip-line. The root activity decreased with an increase in the depth and distance from trunk. These results compared well with the actual distribution of feeder roots as determined by the soil-auger method. In summer the roots near the surface become less active in 32 P absorption with a drcrease in surface soil moisture. A decrease in the root activity in the surface soil was accompanied by an increase in 32 P uptake from lower depths. (author)

  12. Modification of the cranial closing wedge ostectomy technique for the treatment of canine cruciate disease. Description and comparison with standard technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A M; Addison, E S; Smith, B A; Radke, H; Hobbs, S J

    2011-01-01

    To describe a modification of the cranial closing wedge ostectomy (CCWO) technique and to compare its efficacy to the standard technique on cadaveric specimens. The standard and modified CCWO technique were applied to eight pairs of cadaveric tibiae. The following parameters were compared following the ostectomy: degrees of plateau levelling achieved (degrees), tibial long axis shift (degrees), reduction in tibial length (mm), area of bone wedge removed (cm²), and the area of proximal fragment (cm²). The size of the removed wedge of bone and the reduction in tibial length were significantly less with the modified CCWO technique. The modified CCWO has two main advantages. Firstly a smaller wedge is removed, allowing a greater preservation of bone stock in the proximal tibia, which is advantageous for implant placement. Secondly, the tibia is shortened to a lesser degree, which might reduce the risk of recurvatum, fibular fracture and patella desmitis. These factors are particularly propitious for the application of this technique to Terrier breeds with excessive tibial plateau angle, where large angular corrections are required. The modified CCWO is equally effective for plateau levelling and results in an equivalent tibial long-axis shift. A disadvantage with the modified technique is that not all of the cross sectional area of the distal fragment contributes to load sharing at the osteotomy.

  13. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  14. Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF 6 gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques

  15. Detection of uranium enrichment activities using environmental monitoring techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.L.; Carter, J.A.; Smith, D.H.; Walker, R.L.

    1993-03-30

    Uranium enrichment processes have the capability of producing weapons-grade material in the form of highly enriched uranium. Thus, detection of undeclared uranium enrichment activities is an international safeguards concern. The uranium separation technologies currently in use employ UF{sub 6} gas as a separation medium, and trace quantities of enriched uranium are inevitably released to the environment from these facilities. The isotopic content of uranium in the vegetation, soil, and water near the plant site will be altered by these releases and can provide a signature for detecting the presence of enriched uranium activities. This paper discusses environmental sampling and analytical procedures that have been used for the detection of uranium enrichment facilities and possible safeguards applications of these techniques.

  16. Physical Activity Stories: Assessing the "Meaning Standard" in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tyler G.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the "meaning standard" in both national and state content standards suggests that professionals consider it an important outcome of a quality physical education program. However, only 10 percent of states require an assessment to examine whether students achieve this standard. The purpose of this article is to introduce…

  17. Standardization of the PCR technique for the detection of delta toxin in Staphylococcus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marconi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, components of the normal flora of neonates, have emerged as important opportunistic pathogens of nosocomial infections that occur in neonatal intensive care units. Some authors have reported the ability of some CNS strains, particularly Staphylococcus epidermidis, to produce a toxin similar to S. aureus delta toxin. This toxin is an exoprotein that has a detergent action on the membranes of various cell types resulting in rapid cell lysis. The objectives of the present study were to standardize the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique for the detection of the gene responsible for the production of delta toxin (hld gene in staphylococcal species isolated from catheters and blood cultures obtained from neonates, and to compare the results to those obtained with the phenotypic synergistic hemolysis method. Detection of delta toxin by the phenotypic and genotypic method yielded similar results for the S. aureus isolates. However, in S. epidermidis, a higher positivity was observed for PCR (97.4% compared to the synergistic hemolysis method (86.8%. Among CNS, S. epidermidis was the most frequent isolate and was a delta toxin producer. Staphylococcus simulans and S. warneri tested positive by the phenotypic method, but their positivity was not confirmed by PCR for the hld gene detection. These results indicate that different genes might be responsible for the production of this toxin in different CNS species, requiring highly specific primers for their detection. PCR was found to be a rapid and reliable method for the detection of the hld gene in S. aureus and S. epidermidis.

  18. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  19. Standardization and in vitro antioxidant activity of jatamansi rhizome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaveer Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nardostachys jatamansi Linn. commonly known as jatamansi is a well notorious drug in Indian systems of medicines having various health-related benefits and employed in various herbal formulations due to the presence of high levels of valuable phenolic constituents. The present study was aimed to quality assessment of Jatamansi rhizome by studying macro- and micro-scopic characters along with physicochemical tests, chemo-profiling using thin layer chromatography (TLC, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS, in vitro antioxidant activity. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines and contaminant estimation was carried out by analyzing the samples for the determination of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins. Chemo-profiling was done with TLC by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The GC-MS chemo-profiling was also carried out by using hexane soluble fraction of the hydroalcoholic extract. The drug is well known for a protective role in the human body as an antioxidant, so total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy was also determined by using established methods. Results:The results of quality control and anatomical studies were very much useful for its identification, whereas significant antioxidant efficacy was also observed. The drug was found free of contaminants when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins, whereas heavy metals were found under the pharmacopeial limit. Conclusion: The findings of the present research can be utilized for the identification and quality control of the jatamansi rhizome.

  20. Teaching Computational Geophysics Classes using Active Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keers, H.; Rondenay, S.; Harlap, Y.; Nordmo, I.

    2016-12-01

    We give an overview of our experience in teaching two computational geophysics classes at the undergraduate level. In particular we describe The first class is for most students the first programming class and assumes that the students have had an introductory course in geophysics. In this class the students are introduced to basic Matlab skills: use of variables, basic array and matrix definition and manipulation, basic statistics, 1D integration, plotting of lines and surfaces, making of .m files and basic debugging techniques. All of these concepts are applied to elementary but important concepts in earthquake and exploration geophysics (including epicentre location, computation of travel time curves for simple layered media plotting of 1D and 2D velocity models etc.). It is important to integrate the geophysics with the programming concepts: we found that this enhances students' understanding. Moreover, as this is a 3 year Bachelor program, and this class is taught in the 2nd semester, there is little time for a class that focusses on only programming. In the second class, which is optional and can be taken in the 4th or 6th semester, but often is also taken by Master students we extend the Matlab programming to include signal processing and ordinary and partial differential equations, again with emphasis on geophysics (such as ray tracing and solving the acoustic wave equation). This class also contains a project in which the students have to write a brief paper on a topic in computational geophysics, preferably with programming examples. When teaching these classes it was found that active learning techniques, in which the students actively participate in the class, either individually, in pairs or in groups, are indispensable. We give a brief overview of the various activities that we have developed when teaching theses classes.

  1. Comparison of exertion required to perform standard and active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, J J; Mianulli, M J; Gisch, T M; Coffeen, P R; Haidet, G C; Lurie, K G

    1995-02-01

    Active compression-decompression (ACD) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) utilizes a hand-held suction device with a pressure gauge that enables the operator to compress as well as actively decompress the chest. This new CPR method improves hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters when compared with standard CPR. ACD-CPR is easy to perform but may be more labor intensive. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the work required to perform ACD and standard CPR. Cardiopulmonary testing was performed on six basic cardiac life support- and ACD-trained St. Paul, MN fire-fighter personnel during performance of 10 min each of ACD and standard CPR on a mannequin equipped with a compression gauge. The order of CPR techniques was determined randomly with > 1 h between each study. Each CPR method was performed at 80 compressions/min (timed with a metronome), to a depth of 1.5-2 inches, and with a 50% duty cycle. Baseline cardiopulmonary measurements were similar at rest prior to performance of both CPR methods. During standard and ACD-CPR, respectively, rate-pressure product was 18.2 +/- 3.0 vs. 23.8 +/- 1.7 (x 1000, P CPR compared with standard CPR. Both methods require subanaerobic energy expenditure and can therefore be sustained for a sufficient length of time by most individuals to optimize resuscitation efforts. Due to the slightly higher work requirement, ACD-CPR may be more difficult to perform compared with standard CPR for long periods of time, particularly by individuals unaccustomed to the workload requirement of CPR, in general.

  2. Comparison of anthropometry with photogrammetry based on a standardized clinical photographic technique using a cephalostat and chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kihwan; Kwon, Hyuk Joon; Choi, Tae Hyun; Kim, Jun Hyung; Son, Daegu

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to standardize clinical photogrammetric techniques, and to compare anthropometry with photogrammetry. To standardize clinical photography, we have developed a photographic cephalostat and chair. We investigated the repeatability of the standardized clinical photogrammetric technique. Then, with 40 landmarks, a total of 96 anthropometric measurement items was obtained from 100 Koreans. Ninety six photogrammetric measurements from the same subjects were also obtained from standardized clinical photographs using Adobe Photoshop version 7.0 (Adobe Systems Corporation, San Jose, CA, USA). The photogrammetric and anthropometric measurement data (mm, degree) were then compared. A coefficient was obtained by dividing the anthropometric measurements by the photogrammetric measurements. The repeatability of the standardized photography was statistically significantly high (p=0.463). Among the 96 measurement items, 44 items were reliable; for these items the photogrammetric measurements were not different to the anthropometric measurements. The remaining 52 items must be classified as unreliable. By developing a photographic cephalostat and chair, we have standardized clinical photogrammetric techniques. The reliable set of measurement items can be used as anthropometric measurements. For unreliable measurement items, applying a suitable coefficient to the photogrammetric measurement allows the anthropometric measurement to be obtained indirectly.

  3. DOE technical standards list: Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity, which is attached to the end of this document. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. The committees or governing bodies in which the person participates is listed after each name. An asterisk preceding the committee notation indicates that the person has identified himself or herself as the DOE representative on that committee. Appendices to this document are also provided to sort the information by the parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees. DOE employees and contractors listed in this technical standards list are those recorded as of May 1, 1999.

  4. Study of some environmental problem in egypt using neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Karim, A.H.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    this thesis deals with the investigation of the possibility of using the new (second) egyptian research reactor (ETRR-2) at Inshas (22 MW) for the neutron activation analysis (ANN) of trace elements, particularly in air dust, collected from cairo and some other cities of egypt. in this concern chapter 1 gives an introduction about the activation methods in general, describing the various techniques used and a comparison of the methods with other instrumental methods of analysis . as a main classification, the neutron activation methods involve prompt γ-ray NAA and delayed γ-ray NAA; cyclic NAA (repeated activation) was also outlined. the methodology of NAA involves the absolute method, the relative method and the mono standard (single comparator) method , which is in between the absolute and relative methods

  5. Debris removal from artificial grooves using different endodontic irrigation activation techniques: ex vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mügem Aslı Ekici

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the debris removal efficiency of different irrigation activation techniques from artificially formed endodontic grooves. Materials and Method: Crowns of twenty maxillary incisor teeth were removed and the root canals were prepared. Specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and placed into teflon molds. Acrylic resin blocks were removed from the molds and split longitudinally into equal two halves. A standardized artificial groove (4 mm x 0.2 mm x 0.5 mm was prepared at 2 mm distance from the apex and filled with dentinal debris. Acrylic resin blocks were placed into the teflon mold again and compressed. Four different irrigation activation techniques; Manual Dynamic Irrigation (MDI, Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI, Sonic Irrigation (SI and Apical Negative Pressure Irrigation (ANPI were used for debris removal. Conventional Irrigation (CI was applied as control. For standardization, each specimen was cleaned and reused (n=20. Before and after irrigation, images of the grooves were taken by using an operating microscope at x30 magnification. Amount of remaining debris was evaluated by using a scoring system. Data were analyzed by using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (α=0.05. Results: There were statistically significant differences between the experimental groups (p0.05. Conclusion: PUI yielded the lowest debris scores. A simple and low-cost technique, MDI, yielded similar results with PUI.

  6. Active Learning Techniques Applied to an Interdisciplinary Mineral Resources Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    An interdisciplinary active learning course was introduced at the University of Puget Sound entitled 'Mineral Resources and the Environment'. Various formative assessment and active learning techniques that have been effective in other courses were adapted and implemented to improve student learning, increase retention and broaden knowledge and understanding of course material. This was an elective course targeted towards upper-level undergraduate geology and environmental majors. The course provided an introduction to the mineral resources industry, discussing geological, environmental, societal and economic aspects, legislation and the processes involved in exploration, extraction, processing, reclamation/remediation and recycling of products. Lectures and associated weekly labs were linked in subject matter; relevant readings from the recent scientific literature were assigned and discussed in the second lecture of the week. Peer-based learning was facilitated through weekly reading assignments with peer-led discussions and through group research projects, in addition to in-class exercises such as debates. Writing and research skills were developed through student groups designing, carrying out and reporting on their own semester-long research projects around the lasting effects of the historical Ruston Smelter on the biology and water systems of Tacoma. The writing of their mini grant proposals and final project reports was carried out in stages to allow for feedback before the deadline. Speakers from industry were invited to share their specialist knowledge as guest lecturers, and students were encouraged to interact with them, with a view to employment opportunities. Formative assessment techniques included jigsaw exercises, gallery walks, placemat surveys, think pair share and take-home point summaries. Summative assessment included discussion leadership, exams, homeworks, group projects, in-class exercises, field trips, and pre-discussion reading exercises

  7. Determination of 25 elements in biological standard reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzi, G.; Pietra, R.; Sabbioni, E.

    1974-12-01

    Standard and Certified Reference Materials programme of the JRC includes the determination of trace elements in complex biological samples delivered by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards: Bovine liver (NBS SRM 1577), Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM 1571) and Tomato Leaves. The study has been performed by the use of neutron activation analysis. Due to the very low concentration of some elements, radiochemical groups or elemental separation procedures were necessary. The paper describes the techniques used to analyse 25 elements. Computer assisted instrumental neutron activation analysis with high resolution Ge(Li) spectrometry was considerably advantageous in the determination of Na, K, Cl, Mn, Fe, Rb and Co and in some cases of Ca, Zn, Cs, Sc, and Cr. For low contents of Ca, Mg, Ni and Si special chemical separation schemes, followed by Cerenkov counting have been developped. Two other separation procedures allowing the determination of As, Cd, Ga, Hg, Mo, Cu, Sr Se, Ba and P have been set up. The first, the simplified one involves the use of high resolution Ge(Li) detectors, the second, the more complete one involves a larger number of shorter measurements performed by simpler and more sensitive techniques, such as NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometry and Cerenkov counting. The results obtained are presented and discussed

  8. [Health protection for rural workers: the need to standardize techniques for quantifying dermal exposure to pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Giuliana da Fontoura Rodrigues; Trapé, Angelo Zanaga

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of dermal exposure to pesticides in rural workers, used in risk assessment, can be performed with different techniques such as patches or whole body evaluation. However, the wide variety of methods can jeopardize the process by producing disparate results, depending on the principles in sample collection. A critical review was thus performed on the main techniques for quantifying dermal exposure, calling attention to this issue and the need to establish a single methodology for quantification of dermal exposure in rural workers. Such harmonization of different techniques should help achieve safer and healthier working conditions. Techniques that can provide reliable exposure data are an essential first step towards avoiding harm to workers' health.

  9. Standard techniques for presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data. [on moon and planetary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Boyce, J.; Chapman, C.; Cintala, M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Moore, H.; Soderblom, L.; Neukum, G.; Schultz, P.; Strom, R.

    1979-01-01

    In September 1977 a crater studies workshop was held for the purpose of developing standardized data analysis and presentation techniques. The present report contains the unanimous recommendations of the participants. Recommendations are devoted primarily to crater size-frequency data and refer to cumulative and relative size-frequency distribution plots and to morphological analysis.

  10. Does leaf chemistry differentially affect breakdown in tropical vs temperate streams? Importance of standardized analytical techniques to measure leaf chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo Ard& #243; n; Catherine M. Pringle; Susan L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of the effects of leaf litter chemistry on leaf breakdown rates in tropical vs temperate streams are hindered by incompatibility among studies and across sites of analytical methods used to measure leaf chemistry. We used standardized analytical techniques to measure chemistry and breakdown rate of leaves from common riparian tree species at 2 sites, 1...

  11. Portable optical frequency standard based on sealed gas-filled hollow-core fiber using a novel encapsulation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triches, Marco; Brusch, Anders; Hald, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A portable stand-alone optical frequency standard based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is developed to stabilize a fiber laser to the 13C2H2 P(16) (ν1 + ν3) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. A novel encapsulation technique is developed to permanently seal...

  12. [Comparison study on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and standard culture technique in detecting mycobacterium tuberculosis to diagnose of joint tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yong-sheng; Wen, Jian-min; Lü, Wei-xin; Lou, Si-quan; Jiao, Chang-geng; Yang, Su-min; Xu, Hai-bin; Duan, Yong-zhuang

    2009-07-01

    To study the role of PCR technique in detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the samples from joint tuberculosis, and to evaluate the clinical value of PCR in diagnosis of joint tuberculosis. From June 1993 to August 2001, PCR was used to detect DNA of mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the standard culture was applied to detect mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis were respectively blindly by the two techniques in the samples obtained from 95 patients with joint tuberculosis (55 males and 40 females, the age ranging from 2 to 75 years, with an average of 34 years). The positive rate of mycobacterium tuberculosis detection was calculated. In the detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis, positive rate was 82% (78/95) in PCR technique, and 16% (15/95) in standard culture technique. There were statistical differences between the two groups (chi2=67, Ptechnique is a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific method for detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the samples of joint tuberculosis, showing more marked advantages than the standard culture technique. It is valuable in the early rapid diagnosis and differential diagnosis of joint tuberculosis.

  13. [The standard implantation of a total hip prosthesis via two incisions (the Yale Technique)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, Robert

    2009-09-01

    Implantation of a total hip endoprosthesis with minimal trauma to the soft tissue. The need for visual aids (e.g., navigation or X-rays) during the procedure is frequently avoided. All kinds of coxarthrosis for every age group, for every variation of bone construction, and even in obese patients. Extremely dysplastic hip joints involving the development of a secondary socket and the necessity of reconstruction of the acetabular socket (e.g., in the Harris method). Using a fixed lateral position, a small entry incision is made between the tensor fasciae latae and the sartorius muscles and the prosthesis socket is put into place. Via a second dorsal incision, after stripping the exterior rotators, the prosthesis stem and ball are implanted and the two parts of the prosthesis are attached. Full weight bearing allowed immediately. A luxation prophylaxis, in the form of a self-developed hip bodice (the so-called Yale bandage), is used until the end of the 4th postoperative week. Discharge from hospital is possible after just a few days. Upon discharge, the patient is sent to a rehabilitation facility, either as a resident or as an outpatient, for approximately 3 weeks. Return to the workplace, with only light physical activity, is possible once the wound has healed completely; this could be as soon as 14 days after the operation. Checkups are made after 4 weeks, 6 months, 1 year and then every year; these checkups include a full examination, X-rays and laboratory tests. Full exposure to sport or heavy manual labor is usually approved after the 6-month checkup. Between October 2004 and April 2006, a total of 221 patients underwent surgery using this new technique (of these 15 patients underwent two-stage bilateral hip joint replacements). Patients were followed up for a minimum of 12 months and a maximum of 30 months. The Harris Hip Score improved from an average of 45.25 preoperatively to 96.4 postoperatively.

  14. Elemental analysis of brazing alloy samples by neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.; El-Shershaby, A.; Walley El-Dine, N.

    1996-01-01

    Two brazing alloy samples (C P 2 and C P 3 ) have been investigated by Neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique in order to identify and estimate their constituent elements. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS), installed at the first egyptian research reactor (ETRR-1) was used for short-time irradiation (30 s) with a thermal neutron flux of 1.6 x 10 1 1 n/cm 2 /s in the reactor reflector, where the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio is 106. Long-time irradiation (48 hours) was performed at reactor core periphery with thermal neutron flux of 3.34 x 10 1 2 n/cm 2 /s, and thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio of 79. Activation by epithermal neutrons was taken into account for the (1/v) and resonance neutron absorption in both methods. A hyper pure germanium detection system was used for gamma-ray acquisitions. The concentration values of Al, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Ag and Sb were estimated as percentages of the sample weight and compared with reported values. 1 tab

  15. Tracing salmon to their birthplace by activable tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masao

    1978-01-01

    Activable tracer technique was applied to trace the recurrent migration of white salmons, as a typical example of employing radioactivation analysis to the study of agricultural and marinefields. Europium was adopted because it is easy to use technically with less influence on fish body and easy to detect, and its remaining time is very long. Artificially hatched young white salmons were stocked in the Saibetsu River after being raised for a month with europium-containing feed. These stocked fish were labeled by fin-cutting method. Recurrent salmons (fin cutting-labeled fish) were then collected and dissected. The fishes were divided into otoliths, scales, flesh, internal organs, gills, bones, etc., and irradiated for 5 min in JRR-2 reactor of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Europium was detected from the scales and otoliths of 3 to 4 year stocked adult fishes by γ-spectrometry of Eu. This proved the availability of activable tracer method for tracing the recurrent migration of salmons. (Kobatake, H.)

  16. European standardization activities on safety of liquid helium cryostats

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This talk gives a general overview on the challenges of designing safety units for liquid helium cryostats with regard to existing industry standards. It reviews the work of a national working group that published the technical guideline DIN SPEC 4683 in April 2015, which is dedicated to the particular conditions in liquid helium cryostats. Based on both this guideline and equivalent documents from e.g. CEA, CERN, a working group is being formed at the European Committee for Standardization, associated to CEN/TC 268, which will work on a European standard on safety of liquid helium cryostats. The actual status and the schedule of this project are presented.

  17. DOE technical standards list: Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The body of this document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity, which is attached to the end of this document and to DOE Order 1300.2A. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies. The committees or governing bodies in which the person participates is listed after each name. An asterisk preceding the committee notation indicates that the person has identified himself or herself as the DOE representative on that committee. Appendices to this document are also provided to sort the information by the parent employment organization, by non-Government standards activity, and by the proper names of the non-Government standards organizations and committees. DOE employees and contractors listed in this TSL are those recorded as of July 1, 1996.

  18. Standardization by ISO to Ensure the Sustainability of Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A.; Lazare, B.; Oltrogge, D.; Stokes, H.

    2013-08-01

    The ISO / Technical Committee 20 / Sub-committee 14 develops debris-related standards and technical reports to mitigate debris and help ensure mission and space sustainability. While UN Guidelines and the IADC Guidelines encourage national governments and agencies to promote debris mitigation design and operation, the ISO standards will help the global space industry promote and sustain its space-related business. In this paper the scope and status of each ISO standard is discussed within an overall framework. A comparison with international guidelines is also provided to demonstrate the level of consistency. Finally, as a case study, the ISO standards are applied to a CubeSat mission, thus demonstrating their usability on a relatively recent and popular class of satellite.

  19. Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in New Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to serve as a model for use to develop and adopt building codes, appendices to codes, or standards specifically applicable to unique local or regional radon control requirements.

  20. 76 FR 65166 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... interactive nature of the standard-setting process, we encourage any persons who are interested in the most...] International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection..., we are informing the public of the international standard- setting activities of the World...

  1. 78 FR 1826 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... dynamic and interactive nature of the standard-setting process, we encourage any persons who are...] International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection..., we are informing the public of the international standard- setting activities of the World...

  2. Evaluation of the overlapping of posterior teeth in two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic program and standard panoramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarzi pour D

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Overlapping of the proximal surfaces of posterior teeth in the panoramic radiography is a major concern. Therefore, an option has been developed in the panoramic unit of Planmeca Promax, namely improved interproximal mode. This mode causes lower horizental angle with the teeth contact region during the unit rotation decreasing overlapping of the panoramic images of the posterior teeth especially premolar teeth. The present study was done to compare the overlapping of posterior teeth using two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic program and standard panoramic. "nMaterials and Methods: In this diagnostic study, 32 patients requiring panoramic radiographies at their posterior teeth during their routine diagnosis and treatment process with the mean age of 27.3 years were participated. No patients showed crowding of posterior teeth or missed and restored posterior teeth. The participants' panoramic radiographies were randomly taken by two techniques of improved interproximal panoramic and standard panoramic using Planmeca Promax device. The overlapping of the panoramic images was blindly assessed by an oral radiologist. The overlapping in both techniques was reported by frequency and percentage. The comparisons were done by Chi-square test between two techniques and the odds ratio of overlapping was estimated using regression analysis. "nResults: In standard panoramic techniques, 38.5% (148 contacts of 384 contacts of the proximal surfaces overlapped while the overlapping of the proximal surfaces was observed in 18.8% (72 contacts of 384 overall contacts in improved interproximal technique. Significant differences were noted between two techniques regarding overlapping (P<0.001. Also 66.4% and 39.1% of 4-5 teeth contacts overlapped in standard and improved techniques. The values were reported to be 39.1% and 12.5% in contacts of 5-6 teeth and 10.2% and 4.7% in the contacts of 6-7 teeth in both techniques

  3. Remnant preservation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction versus standard techniques: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianjun; Zeng, Chun; Pan, Jianying; Zhao, Chang; Fang, Hang; Cai, Daozhang

    2017-01-01

    Preserving the remnant during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is considered beneficial for graft healing, but it might increase the technical difficulties and complications. This study was to compare outcomes of using the technique of remnant preservation during the ACL reconstruction versus the standard procedure with the debridement of remnant. We searched PubMed and EMBASE and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials comparing the outcomes of ACL reconstruction both with and without remnant preservation. The risk of bias was assessed in accordance with the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed to compare results. Six randomized controlled trials with 346 patients were included. Statistically significant differences in favor of using technique of remnant preservation were observed for Lysholm Score, arthrometer measurements, and tibial tunnel enlargement. There was no significant difference between remnant technique of preservation and the standard procedure with respect to the IKDC (International Knee Documentation Committee) grade, IKDC score, Lachman Test, Pivot-shift Test, range of motion (ROM), and the incidence of the cyclops lesion. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials showed that ACL reconstruction with technique of remnant preservation cannot provide superior clinical outcomes compared with the standard procedure.

  4. Development of sulfide calibration standards for the laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.A.; Ridley, W.I.; Koenig, A.E.

    2002-01-01

    The requirements of standard materials for LA-ICP-MS analysis have been difficult to meet for the determination of trace elements in sulfides. We describe a method for the production of synthetic sulfides by precipitation from solution. The method is detailed by the production of approximately 200 g of a material, PS-1, with a suite of chalcophilic trace elements in an Fe-Zn-Cu-S matrix. Preliminary composition data, together with an evaluation of the homogeneity for individual elements, suggests that this type of material meets the requirements for a sulfide calibration standard that allows for quantitative analysis. Contamination of the standard with Na suggests that H2S gas may prove a better sulfur source for future experiments. We recommend that calibration data be collected in whatever mode is closest to that employed for the analysis of the unknown material, because of variable fractionation effects as a function of analytical mode. For instance, if individual spot analyses are attempted on unknown sample, then a raster of several individual spot analyses, not a continuous scan, should be collected and averaged for the standard. Hg and Au are exceptions to the above and calibration data should always be collected in a scanning mode. Au is more heterogeneously distributed than other trace metals and large-area scans are required to provide an average value for calibration purposes. We emphasize that the values given in Table 1 are preliminary values. Further chemical characterization of this standard, through a round-robin analysis program, will allow the USGS to provide both certified and recommended values for individual elements. The USGS has developed PS-1 as a potential new LA-ICP-MS standard for use by the analytical community, and requests for this material should be addressed to S. Wilson. However, it is stressed that an important aspect of the method described here is the flexibility for individual investigators to produce sulfides with a wide range

  5. Active sampling technique to enhance chemical signature of buried explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, John S.; French, Patrick D.

    2004-09-01

    Deminers and dismounted countermine engineers commonly use metal detectors, ground penetrating radar and probes to locate mines. Many modern landmines have a very low metal content, which severely limits the effectiveness of metal detectors. Canines have also been used for landmine detection for decades. Experiments have shown that canines smell the explosives which are known to leak from most types of landmines. The fact that dogs can detect landmines indicates that vapor sensing is a viable approach to landmine detection. Several groups are currently developing systems to detect landmines by "sniffing" for the ultra-trace explosive vapors above the soil. The amount of material that is available to passive vapor sensing systems is limited to no more than the vapor in equilibrium with the explosive related chemicals (ERCs) distributed in the surface soils over and near the landmine. The low equilibrium vapor pressure of TNT in the soil/atmosphere boundary layer and the limited volume of the boundary layer air imply that passive chemical vapor sensing systems require sensitivities in the picogram range, or lower. ADA is working to overcome many of the limitations of passive sampling methods, by the use of an active sampling method that employs a high-powered (1,200+ joules) strobe lamp to create a highly amplified plume of vapor and/or ERC-bearing fine particulates. Initial investigations have demonstrated that this approach can amplify the detectability of TNT by two or three orders of magnitude. This new active sampling technique could be used with any suitable explosive sensor.

  6. Directory of DOE and contractor personnel involved in non-government standards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This document contains a listing of DOE employees and DOE contractors who have submitted form DOE F 1300.2, Record of Non-Government Standards Activity. Additional names were added from rosters supplied by non-Government standards bodies.

  7. Standard practice for examination of welds using the alternating current field measurement technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes procedures to be followed during alternating current field measurement examination of welds for baseline and service-induced surface breaking discontinuities. 1.2 This practice is intended for use on welds in any metallic material. 1.3 This practice does not establish weld acceptance criteria. 1.4 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system might not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  8. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by 125I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-01-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using 125 I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare 125 I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using 125 I absorptiometry. At each site the 125 I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it

  9. Applying Standard Independent Verification and Validation (IVV) Techniques Within an Agile Framework: Is There a Compatibility Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, James B.; Arthur, James Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Agile methods have gained wide acceptance over the past several years, to the point that they are now a standard management and execution approach for small-scale software development projects. While conventional Agile methods are not generally applicable to large multi-year and mission-critical systems, Agile hybrids are now being developed (such as SAFe) to exploit the productivity improvements of Agile while retaining the necessary process rigor and coordination needs of these projects. From the perspective of Independent Verification and Validation (IVV), however, the adoption of these hybrid Agile frameworks is becoming somewhat problematic. Hence, we find it prudent to question the compatibility of conventional IVV techniques with (hybrid) Agile practices.This paper documents our investigation of (a) relevant literature, (b) the modification and adoption of Agile frameworks to accommodate the development of large scale, mission critical systems, and (c) the compatibility of standard IVV techniques within hybrid Agile development frameworks. Specific to the latter, we found that the IVV methods employed within a hybrid Agile process can be divided into three groups: (1) early lifecycle IVV techniques that are fully compatible with the hybrid lifecycles, (2) IVV techniques that focus on tracing requirements, test objectives, etc. are somewhat incompatible, but can be tailored with a modest effort, and (3) IVV techniques involving an assessment requiring artifact completeness that are simply not compatible with hybrid Agile processes, e.g., those that assume complete requirement specification early in the development lifecycle.

  10. MIMO wireless networks channels, techniques and standards for multi-antenna, multi-user and multi-cell systems

    CERN Document Server

    Clerckx, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This book is unique in presenting channels, techniques and standards for the next generation of MIMO wireless networks. Through a unified framework, it emphasizes how propagation mechanisms impact the system performance under realistic power constraints. Combining a solid mathematical analysis with a physical and intuitive approach to space-time signal processing, the book progressively derives innovative designs for space-time coding and precoding as well as multi-user and multi-cell techniques, taking into consideration that MIMO channels are often far from ideal. Reflecting developments

  11. Free-field reciprocity calibration of laboratory standard (LS) microphones using a time selective technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Although the basic principle of reciprocity calibration of microphones in a free field is simple, the practical problems are complicated due to the low signal-to-noise ratio and the influence of cross talk and reflections from the surroundings. The influence of uncorrelated noise can be reduced...... by conventional narrow-band filtering and time averaging, while correlated signals like cross talk and reflections can be eliminated by using time-selective postprocessing techniques. The technique used at DPLA overcomes both these problems using a B&K Pulse analyzer in the SSR mode (steady state response......) and an FFT-based time-selective technique. The complex electrical transfer impedance is measured in linear frequency steps from a few kHz to about three times the resonance frequency of the microphones. The missing values at low frequencies are estimated from a detailed knowledge of the pressure...

  12. free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activity of standardized extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ledy

    Cerecero et al., 2011; Hernández-Pérez and Herrera-. Arellano, 2011). These compounds have standardized which can use as quality markers, ensuring the composition of assets present. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. We thank Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología. (CONACYT) for their support (204643). We also thank.

  13. 30 CFR 229.123 - Standards for audit activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 229.123 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE... required, including a knowledge of accounting, auditing, agency regulations, and industry operations. (ii... statement of standards. (iii) The auditor's report should contain a statement of positive assurance on those...

  14. What Types Of Standards Would Be Useful In PACS Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Brent; Zeleznik, Michael; Macguire, Gerald

    1983-05-01

    Digital storage and retrival of diagnostic image information in a large medical center is dependent upon the interconnection and successful use of many types of electronic equipment. Much of this equipment may be sufficiently dissimilar to cause major interconnection problems. For these individual systems to function together in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) network it is essential that of their use and operation be coordinated in a systematic manner according to standardized procedures. There are several benefits to the adoption and use of such standards: a) New equipment and software can be designed for parts of the system without the entire system becomming obsolete. b) Permanence of the archived image material will be unaffected by replacement of archive equipment. c) Communication of image data between medical centers will be simpler. This talk will outline desirable characteristics for standards designed to help meet these objectives. Aspects of archive system operation that are suitable for standardization will be discussed and contrasted with those most likely best left unspecified to encourage creative diversity.

  15. Brief review: Preparation techniques of biomass based activated carbon monolith electrode for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taer, Erman; Taslim, Rika

    2018-02-01

    The synthesis of activated carbon monolith electrode made from a biomass material using the hydrolytic pressure or the pelletization technique of pre-carbonized materials is one of standard reported methods. Several steps such as pre-carbonization, milling, chemical activation, hydraulic press, carbonization, physical activation, polishing and washing need to be accomplished in the production of electrodes by this method. This is relatively a long process that need to be simplified. In this paper we present the standard method and proceed with the introduction to several alternative methods in the synthesis of activated carbon monolith electrodes. The alternative methods were emphasized on the selection of suitable biomass materials. All of carbon electrodes prepared by different methods will be analyzed for physical and electrochemical properties. The density, degree of crystallinity, surface morphology are examples for physical study and specific capacitance was an electrochemical properties that has been analysed. This alternative method has offered a specific capacitance in the range of 10 to 171 F/g.

  16. The Effect of Long-Term Therapeutics, Prophylaxis and Screening Techniques on Aircrew Medical Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    350. voel RA, Kirch DC, LeFree MT, Rainwater JO, Jensen DP, Steele PP. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintiaraphy: results of standard aad multi...Reference 3. Further Reference 4.Security Clasification of Document A;ARD4"P-3 10 ISBN 92-835-0288-4 UNCLASSIFIE) 5 Originator Advi,,ory Group for

  17. Quantitation of microbicidal activity of mononuclear phagocytes: an in vitro technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rege N

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro assay technique was set up to determine the phagocytic and microbicidal activity of a monocyte-macrophage cell line using Candida species as test organisms. The norms were determined for the activity of peritoneal macrophages of rats (24.69 +/- 2.6% phagocytosis and 35.4 +/- 5.22% ICK and human (27.89 +/- 3.63% phagocytosis and 50.91 +/- 6.3% ICK. The assay technique was used to test the degree of activation of macrophages induced by metronidazole, Tinospora cordifolia and Asparaqus racemousus and to compare their effects with a standard immunomodulator muramyl-dipeptide. All the three test agents increased the phagocytic and killing capacity of macrophages in a dose dependent manner upto a certain dose, beyond which either these activities were found to have plateaued or decreased. The optimal doses for MDP, Metronidazole, Asparagus racemosus and Tinospora cordifolia were found to be 100 micrograms, 300 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg respectively. Patients with cirrhosis were screened for defects in monocyte function. The depressed monocyte function (20.58 +/- 5% phago and 41.24 +/- 12.19% ICK; P < 0.05 was observed indicating a compromised host defense. The utility of this candidicidal assay in experimental and clinical studies is discussed.

  18. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This volume contains the appendices that provide additional environment, safety, and health (ES and H) information to complement Volume 1 of this Standard. Appendix A provides a set of candidate DOE ES and H directives and external regulations, organized by hazard types that may be used to identify potentially applicable directives to a specific facility disposition activity. Appendix B offers examples and lessons learned that illustrate implementation of ES and H approaches discussed in Section 3 of Volume 1. Appendix C contains ISMS performance expectations to guide a project team in developing and implementing an effective ISMS and in developing specific performance criteria for use in facility disposition. Appendix D provides guidance for identifying potential Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) when decommissioning facilities fall under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, Liability Act (CERCLA) process. Appendix E discusses ES and H considerations for dispositioning facilities by privatization. Appendix F is an overview of the WSS process. Appendix G provides a copy of two DOE Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards memoranda that form the bases for some of the guidance discussed within the Standard. Appendix H gives information on available hazard analysis techniques and references. Appendix I provides a supplemental discussion to Sections 3.3.4, Hazard Baseline Documentation, and 3.3.6, Environmental Permits. Appendix J presents a sample readiness evaluation checklist

  19. Admissions Standards and the Use of Key Marketing Techniques by United States' Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldgehn, Leslie A.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of admissions deans and directors investigated the use and perceived effectiveness of 15 well-known marketing techniques: advertising, advertising research, a marketing plan, market positioning, market segmentation, marketing audit, marketing research, pricing, program and service accessibility, program development, publicity, target…

  20. International intercomparison of standards for low collision kerma rates in air by means of low dose TLD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanne, P.; Carlsson, C.A.; Carlsson, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    An international intercomparison of standards for calibration of radiation protection instruments is described. The intercomparison involved collision kerma rates in air in the range 5.7 to 7.400 μGy.h -1 and was performed using low dose TLD techniques with TL-LiF dosemeters. The dosemeters were specifically tested with regard to their dose rate dependence, but none was found. (author)

  1. Assessing the service quality of Iran military hospitals: Joint Commission International standards and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Military hospitals are responsible for preserving, restoring and improving the health of not only armed forces, but also other people. According to the military organizations strategy, which is being a leader and pioneer in all areas, providing quality health services is one of the main goals of the military health care organizations. This study was aimed to evaluate the service quality of selected military hospitals in Iran based on the Joint Commission International (JCI) standards and comparing these hospitals with each other and ranking them using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) technique in 2013. This was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted on five military hospitals, selected using the purposive sampling method, in 2013. Required data collected using checklists of accreditation standards and nominal group technique. AHP technique was used for prioritizing. Furthermore, Expert Choice 11.0 was used to analyze the collected data. Among JCI standards, the standards of access to care and continuity of care (weight = 0.122), quality improvement and patient safety (weight = 0.121) and leadership and management (weight = 0.117) had the greatest importance, respectively. Furthermore, in the overall ranking, BGT (weight = 0.369), IHM (0.238), SAU (0.202), IHK (weight = 0.125) and SAB (weight = 0.066) ranked first to fifth, respectively. AHP is an appropriate technique for measuring the overall performance of hospitals and their quality of services. It is a holistic approach that takes all hospital processes into consideration. The results of the present study can be used to improve hospitals performance through identifying areas, which are in need of focus for quality improvement and selecting strategies to improve service quality.

  2. Evaluation of a standard breast tangent technique: a dose-volume analysis of tangential irradiation using three-dimensional tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasin, Matthew; McCall, Anne; King, Stephanie; Olson, Mary; Emami, Bahman

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: A thorough dose-volume analysis of a standard tangential radiation technique has not been published. We evaluated the adequacy of a tangential radiation technique in delivering dose to the breast and regional lymphatics, as well as dose delivered to underlying critical structures. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans of 25 consecutive women with breast cancer undergoing lumpectomy and adjuvant breast radiotherapy were studied. Patients underwent two-dimensional (2D) treatment planning followed by treatment with standard breast tangents. These 2D plans were reconstructed without modification on our three-dimensional treatment planning system and analyzed with regard to dose-volume parameters. Results: Adequate coverage of the breast (defined as 95% of the target receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose) was achieved in 16 of 25 patients, with all patients having at least 85% of the breast volume treated to 95% of the prescribed dose. Only 1 patient (4%) had adequate coverage of the Level I axilla, and no patient had adequate coverage of the Level II axilla, Level III axilla, or the internal mammary lymph nodes. Conclusion: Three-dimensional treatment planning is superior in quantification of the dose received by the breast, regional lymphatics, and critical structures. The standard breast tangent technique delivers an adequate dose to the breast but does not therapeutically treat the regional lymph nodes in the majority of patients. If coverage of the axilla or internal mammary lymph nodes is desired, alternate beam arrangements or treatment fields will be necessary

  3. A Simple low-cost device enables four epi-illumination techniques on standard light microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishmukhametov, Robert R; Russell, Aidan N; Wheeler, Richard J; Nord, Ashley L; Berry, Richard M

    2016-02-08

    Back-scattering darkfield (BSDF), epi-fluorescence (EF), interference reflection contrast (IRC), and darkfield surface reflection (DFSR) are advanced but expensive light microscopy techniques with limited availability. Here we show a simple optical design that combines these four techniques in a simple low-cost miniature epi-illuminator, which inserts into the differential interference-contrast (DIC) slider bay of a commercial microscope, without further additions required. We demonstrate with this device: 1) BSDF-based detection of Malarial parasites inside unstained human erythrocytes; 2) EF imaging with and without dichroic components, including detection of DAPI-stained Leishmania parasite without using excitation or emission filters; 3) RIC of black lipid membranes and other thin films, and 4) DFSR of patterned opaque and transparent surfaces. We believe that our design can expand the functionality of commercial bright field microscopes, provide easy field detection of parasites and be of interest to many users of light microscopy.

  4. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1 of 2: Technical standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities

  5. Characterization of the neutron sources storage pool of the Neutron Standards Laboratory, using Montecarlo Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo Blanco, X.

    2015-01-01

    The development of irradiation damage resistant materials is one of the most important open fields in the design of experimental facilities and conceptual nucleoelectric fusion plants. The Neutron Standards Laboratory aims to contribute to this development by allowing the neutron irradiation of materials in its calibration neutron sources storage pool. For this purposes, it is essential to characterize the pool itself in terms of neutron fluence and spectra due to the calibration neutron sources. In this work, the main features of this facility are presented and the characterization of the storage pool is carried out. Finally, an application is shown of the obtained results to the neutron irradiation of material.

  6. Evaluation of nuclear reactor based activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrusnik, I.; Kucera, J.

    1977-09-01

    A survey is presented of the basic types of activation analysis applied in environmental control. Reactor neutron activation analysis is described (including the reactor as a neutron source, sample activation in the reactor, methodology of neutron activation analysis, sample transport into the reactor and sample packaging after irradiation, instrumental activation analysis with radiochemical separation, data measurement and evaluation, sampling and sample preparation). Sources of environmental contamination with trace elements, sampling and sample analysis by neutron activation are described. The analysis is described of soils, waters and biological materials. Methods are shown of evaluating neutron activation analysis results and of their interpretation for purposes of environmental control. (J.B.)

  7. Standardization of the Manufacturing Process of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Containing Melittin as the Active Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonmi Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pharmacopuncture is a unique treatment in oriental medicine that combines chemical stimulation with conventional acupuncture. However, there are no standardized methods for preparing the herbal medicines used in pharmacopuncture, and it is not clear whether the active ingredients are safe and stable. Several studies have investigated nonstandardized preparation processes, but few investigations have addressed safety and preparation methods. Pharmacopuncture may provide an alternative treatment for incurable diseases. However, it must be as valid and safe as standardized medicine. In this way, the present project may contribute to the industrialization of medicine in Korea. It may also expand health insurance coverage by promoting evidence-based medical insurance benefits. Thus, the present study attempted to standardize and improve the raw materials, preparation, and efficacy of bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP, which is a highly effective technique in oriental medicine. Method. To purify the crude bee venom, the extract was subjected to a stepped-gradient open column (ODS-A; 120 Å, 150 mesh. Using this method, the yield of melittin was significantly increased and the allergen proteins were effectively removed. The melittin content of the purified bee venom was determined using HPLC, and the product was then diluted to 0.1 mg/mL using injection water in preparation for BVP. Results. In the present study, we standardized the purification process to provide safe and stable BVP by increasing the main effective components and eliminating allergens. This study will be seminal in the industrialization and regulation of BVP. Conclusion. We developed an effective strategy for melittin purification and allergen removal from bee venom to create safe BVP.

  8. Standardization of the Manufacturing Process of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Containing Melittin as the Active Ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonmi; Kim, Sung-Geun; Kim, In-Su; Lee, Hwa-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Pharmacopuncture is a unique treatment in oriental medicine that combines chemical stimulation with conventional acupuncture. However, there are no standardized methods for preparing the herbal medicines used in pharmacopuncture, and it is not clear whether the active ingredients are safe and stable. Several studies have investigated nonstandardized preparation processes, but few investigations have addressed safety and preparation methods. Pharmacopuncture may provide an alternative treatment for incurable diseases. However, it must be as valid and safe as standardized medicine. In this way, the present project may contribute to the industrialization of medicine in Korea. It may also expand health insurance coverage by promoting evidence-based medical insurance benefits. Thus, the present study attempted to standardize and improve the raw materials, preparation, and efficacy of bee venom pharmacopuncture (BVP), which is a highly effective technique in oriental medicine. To purify the crude bee venom, the extract was subjected to a stepped-gradient open column (ODS-A; 120 Å, 150 mesh). Using this method, the yield of melittin was significantly increased and the allergen proteins were effectively removed. The melittin content of the purified bee venom was determined using HPLC, and the product was then diluted to 0.1 mg/mL using injection water in preparation for BVP. In the present study, we standardized the purification process to provide safe and stable BVP by increasing the main effective components and eliminating allergens. This study will be seminal in the industrialization and regulation of BVP. We developed an effective strategy for melittin purification and allergen removal from bee venom to create safe BVP.

  9. Guidelines on Active Content and Mobile Code: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Wayne

    2001-01-01

    .... One such category of technologies is active content. Broadly speaking, active content refers to electronic documents that, unlike past character documents based on the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII...

  10. 8 CFR 287.8 - Standards for enforcement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., coercion, or physical abuse by the designated immigration officer to induce a suspect to waive his or her... immigration officer may not enter into the non-public areas of a business, a residence including the curtilage... from entering into any area of a business or other activity to which the general public has access or...

  11. Evaluation of Visualization Using a 50/50 (Contrast Media/Glucose 5% Solution) Technique for Radioembolization as an Alternative to a Standard Sandwich Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprottka, Karolin J; Todica, Andrei; Ilhan, Harun; Rübenthaler, Johannes; Schoeppe, Franziska; Michl, Marlies; Heinemann, Volker; Bartenstein, Peter; Reiser, Maximilian F; Paprottka, Philipp M

    2017-11-01

    Radioembolization (RE) with 90 yttrium ( 90 Y) resin microspheres generally employs a sandwich technique with separate sequential administration of contrast medium (CM), followed by vehicle (e.g., glucose 5% [G5] solution), then 90 Y resin microspheres (in G5), then G5, and then CM again to avoid contact of CM and microspheres under fluoroscopic guidance. This study evaluates the visualization quality and safety of a modified sandwich technique with a 50/50-mixture of CM (Imeron 300) and G5 for administration of 90 Y resin microspheres. A retrospective analysis of 81 RE procedures in patients with primary or secondary liver tumors was performed. The quality of angiographic visualization of the hepatic vessels was assessed before the first injection and immediately before the whole dose has been injected. Visualization and flow rate were graded on a 5-point scale: 1 = very good to 5 = not visible/no antegrade flow. Univariate logistic regression models and multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate the prognostic variables associated with visualization and flow scores. Visualization quality was inversely related to flow rate, the lower the flow rate the better the grade of the visualization. Visualization quality was also inversely related to body-mass-index (BMI). Performing RE with the 50/50-CM/G5 mixture resulted in a mean injection time for 1 GBq of 15 min. No clinically significant adverse events, including radiation-induced liver disease were reported. RE with a 50/50-mixture of CM and G5 for administration of 90 Y resin microspheres in a modified sandwich technique is a safe administration alternative and provides good visualization of hepatic vessels, which is inversely dependent on flow rate and BMI. Injection time was reduced compared with our experience with the standard sandwich technique.

  12. Robot-assisted repair of tricuspid leaflet prolapse using standard valvuloplasty techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seder, Christopher W; Suri, Rakesh M; Rehfeldt, Kent; Pislaru, Sorin; Burkhart, Harold M

    2012-11-01

    While minimally invasive approaches are used routinely to correct severe mitral regurgitation due to leaflet prolapse, isolated tricuspid valve prolapse is less frequent and usually addressed via sternotomy. A 34-year-old female presented with exertional dyspnea and severe tricuspid regurgitation due to an unsupported anterior leaflet causing prolapse, a tethered septal leaflet, and dilated annulus. Herein, the technique is described of a robot-assisted tricuspid valve repair using established open valvuloplasty principles. The robotic repair was performed by the placement of Gore-Tex neochordae from the anterior papillary muscle to the anterior tricuspid leaflet, plication of the anteroseptal and anteroposterior commissures, closure of an anterior leaflet cleft, and the insertion of an annuloplasty band. The patient had an uncomplicated hospital course and was dismissed home on the third postoperative day.

  13. Standard practice for evaluation of hydrogen uptake, permeation, and transport in metals by an electrochemical technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    1.1 This practice gives a procedure for the evaluation of hydrogen uptake, permeation, and transport in metals using an electrochemical technique which was developed by Devanathan and Stachurski. While this practice is primarily intended for laboratory use, such measurements have been conducted in field or plant applications. Therefore, with proper adaptations, this practice can also be applied to such situations. 1.2 This practice describes calculation of an effective diffusivity of hydrogen atoms in a metal and for distinguishing reversible and irreversible trapping. 1.3 This practice specifies the method for evaluating hydrogen uptake in metals based on the steady-state hydrogen flux. 1.4 This practice gives guidance on preparation of specimens, control and monitoring of the environmental variables, test procedures, and possible analyses of results. 1.5 This practice can be applied in principle to all metals and alloys which have a high solubility for hydrogen, and for which the hydrogen permeation is ...

  14. Pyrite: A blender plugin for visualizing molecular dynamics simulations using industry-standard rendering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, Nivedita; Durrant, Jacob D

    2018-05-05

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations provide critical insights into many biological mechanisms. Programs such as VMD, Chimera, and PyMOL can produce impressive simulation visualizations, but they lack many advanced rendering algorithms common in the film and video-game industries. In contrast, the modeling program Blender includes such algorithms but cannot import MD-simulation data. MD trajectories often require many gigabytes of memory/disk space, complicating Blender import. We present Pyrite, a Blender plugin that overcomes these limitations. Pyrite allows researchers to visualize MD simulations within Blender, with full access to Blender's cutting-edge rendering techniques. We expect Pyrite-generated images to appeal to students and non-specialists alike. A copy of the plugin is available at http://durrantlab.com/pyrite/, released under the terms of the GNU General Public License Version 3. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Not another boring lecture: engaging learners with active learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret; Wagner, Mary Jo; Poznanski, Stacey; Schiller, Jocelyn; Santen, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Core content in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs is traditionally covered in didactic sessions, despite evidence suggesting that learners do not retain a significant portion of what is taught during lectures. We describe techniques that medical educators can use when leading teaching sessions to foster engagement and encourage self-directed learning, based on current literature and evidence about learning. When these techniques are incorporated, sessions can be effective in delivering core knowledge, contextualizing content, and explaining difficult concepts, leading to increased learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychovisual masks and intelligent streaming RTP techniques for the MPEG-4 standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecocci, Alessandro; Falconi, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    In today multimedia audio-video communication systems, data compression plays a fundamental role by reducing the bandwidth waste and the costs of the infrastructures and equipments. Among the different compression standards, the MPEG-4 is becoming more and more accepted and widespread. Even if one of the fundamental aspects of this standard is the possibility of separately coding video objects (i.e. to separate moving objects from the background and adapt the coding strategy to the video content), currently implemented codecs work only at the full-frame level. In this way, many advantages of the flexible MPEG-4 syntax are missed. This lack is due both to the difficulties in properly segmenting moving objects in real scenes (featuring an arbitrary motion of the objects and of the acquisition sensor), and to the current use of these codecs, that are mainly oriented towards the market of DVD backups (a full-frame approach is enough for these applications). In this paper we propose a codec for MPEG-4 real-time object streaming, that codes separately the moving objects and the scene background. The proposed codec is capable of adapting its strategy during the transmission, by analysing the video currently transmitted and setting the coder parameters and modalities accordingly. For example, the background can be transmitted as a whole or by dividing it into "slightly-detailed" and "highly detailed" zones that are coded in different ways to reduce the bit-rate while preserving the perceived quality. The coder can automatically switch in real-time, from one modality to the other during the transmission, depending on the current video content. Psychovisual masks and other video-content based measurements have been used as inputs for a Self Learning Intelligent Controller (SLIC) that changes the parameters and the transmission modalities. The current implementation is based on the ISO 14496 standard code that allows Video Objects (VO) transmission (other Open Source Codes

  17. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part II. Renormalization procedures and computational techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I general aspects of the renormalization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory have been introduced. Here, in part II, two-loop renormalization is introduced and discussed within the context of the minimal Standard Model. Therefore, this paper deals with the transition between bare parameters and fields to renormalized ones. The full list of one- and two-loop counterterms is shown and it is proven that, by a suitable extension of the formalism already introduced at the one-loop level, two-point functions suffice in renormalizing the model. The problem of overlapping ultraviolet divergencies is analyzed and it is shown that all counterterms are local and of polynomial nature. The original program of 't Hooft and Veltman is at work. Finite parts are written in a way that allows for a fast and reliable numerical integration with all collinear logarithms extracted analytically. Finite renormalization, the transition between renormalized parameters and physical (pseudo-)observables, are discussed in part III where numerical results, e.g. for the complex poles of the unstable gauge bosons, are shown. An attempt is made to define the running of the electromagnetic coupling constant at the two-loop level. (orig.)

  18. Standard Test Methods for Total Normal Emittance of Surfaces Using Inspection-Meter Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover determination of the total normal emittance (Note) of surfaces by means of portable, inspection-meter instruments. Note 1—Total normal emittance (εN) is defined as the ratio of the normal radiance of a specimen to that of a blackbody radiator at the same temperature. The equation relating εN to wavelength and spectral normal emittance [εN (λ)] is where: L b(λ, T) = Planck's blackbody radiation function = c1π −1λ−5(ec2/λT − 1)−1, c1 = 3.7415 × 10−16 W·m 2, c2 = 1.4388 × 10−2 m·K, T = absolute temperature, K, λ = wavelength, m, Lb(λ, T)dλ = Δπ −1T4, and Δ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant = 5.66961 × 10 −8 W·m2·K−4 1.2 These test methods are intended for measurements on large surfaces when rapid measurements must be made and where a nondestructive test is desired. They are particularly useful for production control tests. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measu...

  19. A novel technique for active vibration control, based on optimal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... structure by simultaneously tracking zero references for modes of vibration. To illustrate the technique, a two-degrees of freedom spring-mass-dampersystem is considered as a test system. The mathematical model of the system is derived and then converted into a state-space model. A linear quadratic tracking control law ...

  20. Watermarking Techniques Using Least Significant Bit Algorithm for Digital Image Security Standard Solution- Based Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Muzakir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ease of deployment of digital image through the internet has positive and negative sides, especially for owners of the original digital image. The positive side of the ease of rapid deployment is the owner of that image deploys digital image files to various sites in the world address. While the downside is that if there is no copyright that serves as protector of the image it will be very easily recognized ownership by other parties. Watermarking is one solution to protect the copyright and know the results of the digital image. With Digital Image Watermarking, copyright resulting digital image will be protected through the insertion of additional information such as owner information and the authenticity of the digital image. The least significant bit (LSB is one of the algorithm is simple and easy to understand. The results of the simulations carried out using android smartphone shows that the LSB watermarking technique is not able to be seen by naked human eye, meaning there is no significant difference in the image of the original files with images that have been inserted watermarking. The resulting image has dimensions of 640x480 with a bit depth of 32 bits. In addition, to determine the function of the ability of the device (smartphone in processing the image using this application used black box testing. 

  1. Neutron activation techniques in the detection and measurement of environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Maheswaran, P.; Nagy, K.; Oezek, F.

    1976-01-01

    The Medical and Environmental Group at the University of Surrey has been involved for several years in the development and application of nuclear activation techniques to biomedical and environmental problems. One such project has been a study of air pollution in the city of Guildford, which requires a routine but quick analytical process for the detection of trace elements in the atmosphere in order to handle data with limited resources and manpower. The proposed method comprises cyclic irradiation and counting, followed by further counting on a low-energy photon detector and a Ge(Li) detector. The scheme concentrates on the measurement of short-lived isotopes. In order to test its efficacy it is compared with conventional activation experiments for irradiation times of 1 min, 10 min and 60 min; various types of filter papers and membranes, used for collection of the samples, are analysed under these conditions. The paper illustrates this comparison by analysis of NBS Standard Reference Material 1571 (Orchard Leaves) on Whatman grade 1 filter paper. The analysis of a typical Guildford sample is also shown. The technique enhances the detection of 38 Clsup(m)(0.74 s), 207 Pbsup(m)(0.8 s), 20 F(11.56 s), 77 Sesup(m)(17.5 s) and 110 Ag(24.4 s). (author)

  2. Characterization of the storage pool of the Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT, using Monte Carlo techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo B, X.; Mendez V, R.; Embid S, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico); Sanz G, J., E-mail: xandra.campo@ciemat.es [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, C. Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT in Spain is a brand new irradiation facility, with {sup 241}Am-Be (185 GBq) and {sup 252}Cf (5 GBq) calibrated neutron sources which are stored in a water pool with a concrete cover. From this storage place an automated system is able to take the selected source and place it in the irradiation position, 4 m over the ground level and in the geometrical center of the Irradiation Room with 9 m (length) x 7.5 m (width) x 8 m (height). For calibration or irradiation purposes, detectors or materials can be placed on a bench but it is possible to use the pool (1.0 m x 1.5 m and more than 1.0 m depth) for long time irradiations in thermal neutron fields. For this reason it is essential to characterize the pool itself in terms of neutron spectrum. In this document, the main features of this facility are presented and the characterization of the storage pool in terms of neutron fluence rate and neutron spectrum has been carried out using simulations with MCNPX-2.7.e code. The MCNPX-2.7.e model has been validated using experimental measurements outside the pool (Bert hold LB6411). Inside the pool, the fluence rate decreases and the spectra is thermalized with the distance to the {sup 252}Cf source. This source predominates and the effect of the {sup 241}Am-Be source in these magnitudes is not shown until positions closer than 20 cm from it. (author)

  3. Characterization of the storage pool of the Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT, using Monte Carlo techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo B, X.; Mendez V, R.; Embid S, M.; Vega C, H. R.; Sanz G, J.

    2014-08-01

    Neutron Standards Laboratory of CIEMAT in Spain is a brand new irradiation facility, with 241 Am-Be (185 GBq) and 252 Cf (5 GBq) calibrated neutron sources which are stored in a water pool with a concrete cover. From this storage place an automated system is able to take the selected source and place it in the irradiation position, 4 m over the ground level and in the geometrical center of the Irradiation Room with 9 m (length) x 7.5 m (width) x 8 m (height). For calibration or irradiation purposes, detectors or materials can be placed on a bench but it is possible to use the pool (1.0 m x 1.5 m and more than 1.0 m depth) for long time irradiations in thermal neutron fields. For this reason it is essential to characterize the pool itself in terms of neutron spectrum. In this document, the main features of this facility are presented and the characterization of the storage pool in terms of neutron fluence rate and neutron spectrum has been carried out using simulations with MCNPX-2.7.e code. The MCNPX-2.7.e model has been validated using experimental measurements outside the pool (Bert hold LB6411). Inside the pool, the fluence rate decreases and the spectra is thermalized with the distance to the 252 Cf source. This source predominates and the effect of the 241 Am-Be source in these magnitudes is not shown until positions closer than 20 cm from it. (author)

  4. Comparison of four different techniques to evaluate the elastic properties of phantom in elastography: is there a gold standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudry, Jennifer; Lynch, Ted; Vappou, Jonathan; Sandrin, Laurent; Miette, Véronique

    2014-10-07

    Elastographic techniques used in addition to imaging techniques (ultrasound, resonance magnetic or optical) provide new clinical information on the pathological state of soft tissues. However, system-dependent variation in elastographic measurements may limit the clinical utility of these measurements by introducing uncertainty into the measurement. This work is aimed at showing differences in the evaluation of the elastic properties of phantoms performed by four different techniques: quasi-static compression, dynamic mechanical analysis, vibration-controlled transient elastography and hyper-frequency viscoelastic spectroscopy. Four Zerdine® gel materials were tested and formulated to yield a Young's modulus over the range of normal and cirrhotic liver stiffnesses. The Young's modulus and the shear wave speed obtained with each technique were compared. Results suggest a bias in elastic property measurement which varies with systems and highlight the difficulty in finding a reference method to determine and assess the elastic properties of tissue-mimicking materials. Additional studies are needed to determine the source of this variation, and control for them so that accurate, reproducible reference standards can be made for the absolute measurement of soft tissue elasticity.

  5. Standardization of the Fricke gel dosimetry method and tridimensional dose evaluation using the magnetic resonance imaging technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavinato, Christianne Cobello

    2009-01-01

    This study standardized the method for obtaining the Fricke gel solution developed at IPEN. The results for different gel qualities used in the preparation of solutions and the influence of the gelatin concentration in the response of dosimetric solutions were compared. Type tests such as: dose response dependence, minimum and maximum detection limits, response reproducibility, among others, were carried out using different radiation types and the Optical Absorption (OA) spectrophotometry and Magnetic Resonance (MR) techniques. The useful dose ranges for Co 60 gamma radiation and 6 MeV photons are 0,4 to 30,0 Gy and 0,5 to 100,0 Gy , using OA and MR techniques, respectively. A study of ferric ions diffusion in solution was performed to determine the optimum time interval between irradiation and samples evaluation; until 2,5 hours after irradiation to obtain sharp MR images. A spherical simulator consisting of Fricke gel solution prepared with 5% by weight 270 Bloom gelatine (national quality) was developed to be used to three-dimensional dose assessment using the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique. The Fricke gel solution prepared with 270 Bloom gelatine, that, in addition to low cost, can be easily acquired on the national market, presents satisfactory results on the ease of handling, sensitivity, response reproducibility and consistency. The results confirm their applicability in the three-dimensional dosimetry using MRI technique. (author)

  6. The 'Pull' Technique for Removal of Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters: A Call for Re-Evaluation of Practice Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieff, Marvin; Mamo, Elizabeth; Scroggins, Gina; Kurchin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    ♦ BACKGROUND: The most commonly used peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters have silicon tubing with attached Dacron cuffs. The current standard of care for PD catheter removal is by complete surgical dissection, withdrawing both the tubing and the cuffs. The intention is to avoid infection of any residual part of the catheter. We retrospectively analyzed our results with the alternative 'pull' technique, by which the silicon tube is pulled out, leaving the Dacron cuffs within the abdominal wall. This technique never gained popularity due to concern that the retained cuffs would get infected. ♦ METHODS: We reviewed our experience from an 18-month period, between January 2014 and June 2015. There were 46 catheter removals in 40 patients. All the catheters were of the double-cuffed coiled Tenckhoff type (Covidien, Dublin, Ireland). ♦ RESULTS: Of the 46 catheter removals by the 'pull' technique, there was only 1 case of retained cuff infection. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: The 'pull' technique is a safe method for Tenckhoff catheter removal with low risk of infection. We strongly recommend it as the procedure of choice. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  7. Comparative Study of two PWM techniques for Three Phase Shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter to Suppress Line Current Harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    SELVAMUTHUKUMARAN Rajasekar; NATARAJAN Muraly; PERIANAYAGAM Ajay-D-VimalRaj; MAHALINGAM Sudhakaran

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the performanceand comparison of two pulse-width-modulation (PWM)techniques by employing direct current control strategyapplied to three phase shunt hybrid active power filter(SHAPF). The objective of SHAPF is to eliminate linecurrent harmonics and to incur reactive powercompensation. The direct current control strategy isimplemented using Standard PWM (S-PWM) and aModified PWM (M-WM), in order to compensatecurrent harmonic and reactive power generated bydifferent load...

  8. Materials for Consideration in Standardized Canister Design Activities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Enos, David George; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest

    2014-10-01

    This document identifies materials and material mitigation processes that might be used in new designs for standardized canisters for storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. It also addresses potential corrosion issues with existing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) that could be addressed in new canister designs. The major potential corrosion risk during storage is stress corrosion cracking of the weld regions on the 304 SS/316 SS canister shell due to deliquescence of chloride salts on the surface. Two approaches are proposed to alleviate this potential risk. First, the existing canister materials (304 and 316 SS) could be used, but the welds mitigated to relieve residual stresses and/or sensitization. Alternatively, more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic or duplex stainless steels, could be used. Experimental testing is needed to verify that these alternatives would successfully reduce the risk of stress corrosion cracking during fuel storage. For disposal in a geologic repository, the canister will be enclosed in a corrosion-resistant or corrosion-allowance overpack that will provide barrier capability and mechanical strength. The canister shell will no longer have a barrier function and its containment integrity can be ignored. The basket and neutron absorbers within the canister have the important role of limiting the possibility of post-closure criticality. The time period for corrosion is much longer in the post-closure period, and one major unanswered question is whether the basket materials will corrode slowly enough to maintain structural integrity for at least 10,000 years. Whereas there is extensive literature on stainless steels, this evaluation recommends testing of 304 and 316 SS, and more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic, duplex, and super-duplex stainless steels, at repository-relevant physical and chemical conditions. Both general and localized corrosion testing methods would be used to

  9. Standardization of Administered Activities in Pediatric Nuclear Medicine: A Report of the First Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative Project, Part 2-Current Standards and the Path Toward Global Standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Frederic H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Chiti, Arturo; Choi, Yun Young; Huang, Gang; Lassmann, Michael; Laurin, Norman; Mut, Fernando; Nuñez-Miller, Rodolfo; O'Keeffe, Darin; Pradhan, Prasanta; Scott, Andrew M; Song, Shaoli; Soni, Nischal; Uchiyama, Mayuki; Vargas, Luis

    2016-07-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Global Initiative (NMGI) was formed in 2012 and consists of 13 international organizations with direct involvement in nuclear medicine. The underlying objectives of the NMGI are to promote human health by advancing the field of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging, encourage global collaboration in education, and harmonize procedure guidelines and other policies that ultimately lead to improvements in quality and safety in the field throughout the world. For its first project, the NMGI decided to consider the issues involved in the standardization of administered activities in pediatric nuclear medicine. It was decided to divide the final report of this project into 2 parts. Part 1 was published in this journal in the spring of 2015. This article presents part 2 of the final report. It discusses current standards for administered activities in children and adolescents that have been developed by various professional organizations. It also presents an evaluation of the current practice of pediatric nuclear medicine specifically with regard to administered activities as determined by an international survey of 313 nuclear medicine clinics and centers from 29 countries. Lastly, it provides recommendations for a path toward global standardization of the administration of radiopharmaceuticals in children. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  10. The regeneration of polluted activated carbon by radiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Minghong; Bao Borong [Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research, Academia Sinica, Shanghai (China); Zhou Ruimin; Zhu Jinliang; Hu Longxin [Shanghai University, Shanghai (China)

    1998-10-01

    In this paper, the regeneration of used activated carbon from monosodium glutamate factory was experimented using radiation and acid-alkali chemical cleaning method. Results showed that the activated carbon saturated with pollutants can be wash away easily by flushing with chemical solution prior irradiation. DSC was used to monitor the change of carbon adsorption.

  11. Standardization of 68Ge-68Ga using 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system for activity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, D B; Joseph, Leena; Anuradha, R; Kulkarni, M S; Tomar, B S

    2017-05-01

    68 Ga has great scope for use in future for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging due to its very fast blood clearance and fast target localization, even though at present 18 F is widely used. 68 Ge in equilibrium with 68 Ga ( 68 Ge- 68 Ga) can also be used as a surrogate for 18 F calibration, as 18 F source standardization can be done at national metrology institute (NMI) but, these standards cannot be sent to nuclear medicine centers (NMCs) across India for calibration of isotope calibrators, due to the short half-life of 18 F (110min). Providing 68 Ge- 68 Ga standards to NMCs requires that first standardization must be carried out at NMI (BARC in India) to provide traceability to the measurements carried out at NMCs. In the present work, standardization of 68 Ge- 68 Ga was carried out using 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system and CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing technique. The decay scheme correction factors for two gamma windows were calculated by Monte Carlo technique using general purpose code FLUKA. The activity concentration values were normalized by the activity concentration obtained by 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting system using window-1. The final result reported to BIPM for 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting was calculated by taking arithmetic mean of activity concentrations obtained for two gamma windows. The normalized activity concentration obtained by 4πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting was 0.998±0.005 and that obtained using CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing was 1.002±0.007 which are in excellent agreement within uncertainty limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of curricular and extracurricular learning activities on students' choice of chiropractic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, David M; KizhakkeVeettil, Anupama; Tobias, Gene S

    2016-03-01

    Surveys for the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners indicate that diversified chiropractic technique is the most commonly used chiropractic manipulation method. The study objective was to investigate the influences of our diversified core technique curriculum, a technique survey course, and extracurricular technique activities on students' future practice technique preferences. We conducted an anonymous, voluntary survey of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year chiropractic students at our institution. Surveys were pretested for face validity, and data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. We had 164 students (78% response rate) participate in the survey. Diversified was the most preferred technique for future practice by students, and more than half who completed the chiropractic technique survey course reported changing their future practice technique choice as a result. The students surveyed agreed that the chiropractic technique curriculum and their experiences with chiropractic practitioners were the two greatest bases for their current practice technique preference, and that their participation in extracurricular technique clubs and seminars was less influential. Students appear to have the same practice technique preferences as practicing chiropractors. The chiropractic technique curriculum and the students' experience with chiropractic practitioners seem to have the greatest influence on their choice of chiropractic technique for future practice. Extracurricular activities, including technique clubs and seminars, although well attended, showed a lesser influence on students' practice technique preferences.

  13. Activated sampling in complex materials at finite temperature: The properly obeying probability activation-relaxation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, Henk; Chubynsky, M. V.; Barkema, G. T.; Mousseau, Normand

    2005-12-01

    While the dynamics of many complex systems is dominated by activated events, there are very few simulation methods that take advantage of this fact. Most of these procedures are restricted to relatively simple systems or, as with the activation-relaxation technique (ART), sample the conformation space efficiently at the cost of a correct thermodynamical description. We present here an extension of ART, the properly obeying probability ART (POP-ART), that obeys detailed balance and samples correctly the thermodynamic ensemble. Testing POP-ART on two model systems, a vacancy and an interstitial in crystalline silicon, we show that this method recovers the proper thermodynamical weights associated with the various accessible states and is significantly faster than molecular dynamics in the simulations of a vacancy below 700 K.

  14. Nuclear activation techniques in the life sciences, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Ryabukhin, Yu.S.

    1978-01-01

    A brief summary of the symposium is presented, pointing out the main achievements in the use of activation analysis for elemental analysis of biological materials. Some of the individual papers presented at the meeting are mentioned

  15. A comparative study of standard vs. high definition colonoscopy for adenoma and hyperplastic polyp detection with optimized withdrawal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, J E; Stavrindis, M; Thomas-Gibson, S; Guenther, T; Tekkis, P P; Saunders, B P

    2008-09-15

    Colonoscopy has a known miss rate for polyps and adenomas. High definition (HD) colonoscopes may allow detection of subtle mucosal change, potentially aiding detection of adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. To compare detection rates between HD and standard definition (SD) colonoscopy. Prospective, cohort study with optimized withdrawal technique (withdrawal time >6 min, antispasmodic, position changes, re-examining flexures and folds). One hundred and thirty patients attending for routine colonoscopy were examined with either SD (n = 72) or HD (n = 58) colonoscopes. Groups were well matched. Sixty per cent of patients had at least one adenoma detected with SD vs. 71% with HD, P = 0.20, relative risk (benefit) 1.32 (95% CI 0.85-2.04). Eighty-eight adenomas (mean +/- standard deviation 1.2 +/- 1.4) were detected using SD vs. 93 (1.6 +/- 1.5) with HD, P = 0.12; however more nonflat, diminutive (9 mm) hyperplastic polyps was 7% (0.09 +/- 0.36). High definition did not lead to a significant increase in adenoma or hyperplastic polyp detection, but may help where comprehensive lesion detection is paramount. High detection rates appear possible with either SD or HD, when using an optimized withdrawal technique.

  16. Chemical Separation Technique of Strontium-90 in the Soil Water as theStandard Methods for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngasifudin-Hamdani; Suratman; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign; Winduanto-Wahyu SP

    2000-01-01

    Research about separation technique of strontium-90 from its materialmatrix using chemical precipitation method has been done. That technique wasapplied on the detection of radionuclide strontium-90 containing in the soilwater of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN in three location. The twoimportant parameters used in this technique were growth time of Y-90 andstirring time. The result shown that activity of strontium-90 in the pos-01was between 1.801x10 -19 - 9.616x10 -17 μCi/cm 3 , pos-02 was8.448x10 -19 - 1.003x X 10 -16 μCi/cm 3 and pos-03 was 6.719x10 -19 - 11.644x10 -16 μCi/cm 3 . From those data shown that activity of Sr-90in the soil water of near nuclear reactor facility P3TM BATAN was still belowthe limit value of maximum concentration permitted i.e. 4.0x10 -7 -3.5x10 -6 μCi/cm 3 . The statistic test using analysis of varian twofactorial with random block design shown that the activity of Sr-90 in thesoil water was influenced by the interaction which take place between growthlong time of Y-90 and stirring long time. (author)

  17. Air pollution studies in Tianjing city using neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Nie Nuiling; Wang Pingsheng

    1999-01-01

    Two sites of airborne sampling from industrial and residential areas were made in Tianjing city during February and June using PM-10 sampler and analyzed by NAA techniques; Comparison of air pollution between urban and rural area in Tianjing city was made using neutron activation analysis techniques and some other data analyzing techniques. (author)

  18. A comparison between active and passive techniques for measurements of radon emanation factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Coto, I. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: Israel.lopez@dfa.uhu.es; Mas, J.L. [Dept. de Fisica Aplicada I, E.U.P., University of Seville, Seville (Spain); San Miguel, E.G.; Bolivar, J.P. [Dept. Fisica Aplicada, University of Huelva, Huelva (Spain); Sengupta, D. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, I.I.T. Kharagpur, West Bengal (India)

    2009-05-15

    Some radon related parameters have been determined through two different techniques (passive and active) in soil and phosphogypsum samples. Emanation factors determined through these techniques show a good agreement for soil samples while for phosphogympsum samples appear large discrepancies. In this paper, these discrepancies are analyzed and explained if non-controlled radon leakages in the passive technique are taken into account.

  19. 78 FR 37404 - Small Business Size Standards: Support Activities for Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Support Activities for Coal Mining $7.0 $19.0 213114 Support Activities for Metal Mining $7.0 $19.0 SBA is... million in net income after income taxes) for business concerns that do not meet the size standards for... Oil and Gas Operations.. $35.5 213113 Support Activities for Coal Mining $19.0 213114 Support...

  20. A novel technique for active vibration control, based on optimal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BEHROUZ KHEIRI SARABI

    2017-07-11

    Jul 11, 2017 ... Active vibration control; linear quadratic tracking; two-degrees of freedom system. PACS No. 02.30.Yy. 1. Introduction. Demand for energy is ever increasing and researchers are trying hard to make lightweight ... finite actuator dynamics for flexible structures to over- come instability. Stability based on the ...

  1. Justification of rational parameters of briquetting using mechanic activation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Burenina, O. N.

    2017-12-01

    The paper illustrates results of development of technology and compositions of briquetting substandard lignite waste with the use of tar as a binder, modified with mechanically activated organic-mineral fillers. The influence of highly disperse additives and technological briquetting regimes on the structure formation and the qualitative characteristics of fuel brown coal briquettes is considered.

  2. The preparation of synthetic standards for use in instrumental neutron-activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, B.T.; Watterson, J.I.W.; Erasmus, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the formulation and preparation of synthetic standards suitable for the routine analysis of minerals, ores, and ore concentrates by instrumental neutron activation. Fifteen standards were prepared, each containing from one to seven elements. The standards contain forty-four elements that produce isotopes with half-lives longer than 12 hours. An evaluation of the accuracy and precision of the method of preparation is given

  3. Behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for men with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallward, Laura; Patel, Nisha; Duncan, Lindsay R

    2018-02-01

    Physical activity interventions can improve prostate cancer survivors' health. Determining the behaviour change techniques used in physical activity interventions can help elucidate the mechanisms by which an intervention successfully changes behaviour. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate behaviour change techniques in physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors. A total of 7 databases were searched and 15 studies were retained. The studies included a mean 6.87 behaviour change techniques (range = 3-10), and similar behaviour change techniques were implemented in all studies. Consideration of how behaviour change techniques are implemented may help identify how behaviour change techniques enhance physical activity interventions for prostate cancer survivors.

  4. Application of new standardization method in activation analysis with registration of soft gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Dac Bang; Phan Thu Huong.

    1983-01-01

    An application of the new standardization method for rapid activation mass analysis with the registration of the strongly absorbed low-energy gamma radiation is described. This method makes it possible to avoid the Use of the time-consumina and laboriuous method of Internal Standard

  5. The Effectiveness of Active and Traditional Teaching Techniques in the Orthopedic Assessment Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, Sara; Verscheure, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Active learning is a teaching methodology with a focus on student-centered learning that engages students in the educational process. This study implemented active learning techniques in an orthopedic assessment laboratory, and the effects of these teaching techniques. Mean scores from written exams, practical exams, and final course evaluations…

  6. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  7. TECHNIQUES OF ACTIVATION OF STUDENTS’ SPEECH ACTIVITY AT FOREIGN LANGUAGE LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Rozumna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article techniques of activation of speech activity of students at lessons of foreign language are analyzed; types, sources, requirements to didactic providing of a dialogue, rules of conduct of a dialogue, and also circumstances which prevent its origin are considered. The author notices that dialogical approach assumes the transmission of knowledge and also general growth of personality, personal development of a teacher and students. It is well-proven that interaction eliminates prevailing of one personality above other, one opinion above other, during the educational process students study to think critically, settle thorny problems by the analysis of circumstances and information, accept careful decisions. The form of interaction is an educational dialogue between a teacher and students, which foresees passing to the subject-subject relations, helps in interchange of educational information, points of view, and mastering of social experience in the conditions of collaboration. The attention is paid to the peculiarities of usage of methods of discussion and debates in teaching foreign languages, their stages of work, abilities and skills which are necessary for a teacher if he plans to use these methods; the development of intellectual activity of students at lessons of foreign language can be attained through specific problem situations, which also help to develop skills of critical thinking.

  8. The Mediating Effects of Muscle Activities on the Relationship of Production Standard Time and Work Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Nurhayati Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Dahari, Mahidzal; Faraihan Zulkefli, Nur

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the mediation effects of muscle activities on the relationship between production standard time and work productivity. The work productivity and muscle activities data are collected from twenty workers (10 males, 10 females) while performing industrial repetitive tasks at three different levels of production standard time corresponding to “normal”, “hard” and ‘very hard”. Mediation test was performed on the data and the results showed that muscle activities act as a mediator in the relationship between production standard time and work productivity. The result indicates the importance of assessing muscle activities in relation to work productivity at different levels of production standard time in order to optimize work productivity and reduce WMSDs risks.

  9. Pesticide Active Ingredient Production Industry: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the pesticide active ingredient (PAI) production source category under section 112 of the Clean Air Act as amended (CAA or Act).

  10. The effect of hydrodistillation techniques on yield, kinetics, composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from flowers of Lavandula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. (L. officinalis L. = L. angustifolia Mill. were obtained by two hydrodistillation techniques: standard (technique I and modified (technique II Clevenger hydrodistillation. The yield, hydrodistillation kinetics, composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils were investigated. The higher yield of oil was obtained by hydrodistillation technique II. The new analytical hydrodistillation kinetics model of essential oil from Lavandulae flowers was defined. The essential oil composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. There are differences in chemical compositions of the oils obtained by different techniques. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil obtained by technique I and II against Salmonella enteritidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger is the same, while the activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is slightly different.

  11. Demonstration of a 10 V programmable Josephson voltage standard system based on a multi-chip technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T; Sasaki, H; Yamamori, H; Shoji, A [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)], E-mail: yamada-takahiro@aist.go.jp

    2008-03-01

    We have demonstrated a programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) operation up to 10.84 V using a multi-chip technique. We combined two PJVS chips fabricated using NbN/(TiN{sub x}/NbN){sub 2} junction technology. Each PJVS chip was mounted on a single chip carrier using bonding wire, and the two chip carriers were connected by a simple Cu lead wire, and mounted on a cryocooler. High-precision measurements confirmed flat voltage steps for all 22 cells, with a peak-to-peak variation of 100 nV and wide margins of at least 0.35 mA. We also confirmed the stability of the voltage steps in spite of a temperature and RF frequency variation of {+-} 0.1 K and {+-} 0.1 GHz, respectively.

  12. Experimental techniques for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Swaha; Patra, Arjun; Ahirwar, Bharti

    2015-12-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis, a silent epidemic, has become a major health hazard, afflicting about 50% of postmenopausal women worldwide and is thought to be a disease with one of the highest incidences in senile people. It is a chronic, progressive condition associated with micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue that results in low bone mass, decreased bone strength that predisposes to an increased risk of fracture. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to reduction in estrogen during menopause which leads to decline in bone formation and increase in bone resorption activity. Estrogen is able to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-7 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). This is why these cytokines are elevated in postmenopausal women. In this review article we have made an attempt to collate the various methods and parameters most frequently used for screening of antiosteoporotic activity in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Pertaining to ovariectomized animal model, this is the most appropriate model for studying the efficacy of different drugs to prevent bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  13. Exogenous bleaching evaluation on dentin using chemical activated technique compared with diode laser technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Breno Carnevalli Franco de

    2003-01-01

    This in vitro study compared the results of different exogenous bleaching proceedings on dentin after treatment of enamel surface. Thirty human canine were hewn preserving the vestibular half of the crown and 3 mm of root, showing a vestibular-lingual thickness average of 3,5 mm, measuring in the third middle of the crown. Ali teeth were maintained in wet chamber during the experiment. Digital photographs were taken of the dentin surface at 3 experimental times (LI: initial record, L0: immediate pos-bleaching record and L 15: 15 days after bleaching). The teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups of 10 teeth in each. The Control Group did not receive any kind of treatment. The Laser Group received 2 session of laser bleaching, with 3 applications each, using 35% hydrogen peroxide, activated by diode laser during 30 seconds, by scanning the enamel surface from incisal edge to the top of the crown, from mesial to distal portion of the crown and circularly, each movement during 10 seconds. The following parameters being adopted: wavelength of 808 nm, power of 1,5 W and optic fiber with 600 μm (core). The Peroxide Group received 28 daily applications, during 4 hours each application, using 16% carbamide peroxide. The bleaching records were analysed using a computer, through RGBK (red, green , blue and black). The K averages (K=100% for black and K=0% for white) of the records for Control Group were: LI=50,1 %, L0=50,3% and L 15=50,6%. For Laser Group the K averages were LI=48,5%, L0=50,0% and L 15=47,7%. And for the Peroxide Group were LI=50,5%, L0=35,9% and L 15=37,3%. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference of the K between the Control Group and the Laser Group, as to LI, L0 and L 15. Only Peroxide Group showed significant statistical difference between LI with L0 and L 15 (0,1%), and L0 in comparison with L 15 did not show any difference. (author)

  14. Monolithic active pixel radiation detector with shielding techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz W.

    2018-03-20

    A monolithic active pixel radiation detector including a method of fabricating thereof. The disclosed radiation detector can include a substrate comprising a silicon layer upon which electronics are configured. A plurality of channels can be formed on the silicon layer, wherein the plurality of channels are connected to sources of signals located in a bulk part of the substrate, and wherein the signals flow through electrically conducting vias established in an isolation oxide on the substrate. One or more nested wells can be configured from the substrate, wherein the nested wells assist in collecting charge carriers released in interaction with radiation and wherein the nested wells further separate the electronics from the sensing portion of the detector substrate. The detector can also be configured according to a thick SOA method of fabrication.

  15. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried standardized extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cínthia R. C. Porto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus niruri L., Euphorbiaceae, spray-dried standardized extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in adult albino rats and mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of spray-dried standardized extract was observed in carrageenan-induced paw edema and thioglycolate-induced leukocyte migration, while antinociceptive effects were observed using Randall & Selitto, tail flick, and hot plate tests. This study showed that intraperitoneal spray-dried standardized extract at 100, 200, 800, or 1600 mg/kg reduced the vascular response in the inflammatory process of paw edema induced by 1% carrageenan. Oral spray-dried standardized extract at 100 or 200 mg/kg inhibited leukocyte migration to the site of inflammation induced by 3% thioglycolate. In rats, at 100 and 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally, the extract exhibited a marked peripheral analgesic effect in a Randall & Selitto assay and showed significant central analgesic activity in a hot plate and tail flick assay. In conclusion, this study suggested that Phyllanthus niruri spray-dried standardized extract has potent inflammatory and antinociceptive activities and that these activities are not modified by standard drying process, making it feasible to use the dry extract standardized to obtain a phytotherapic preparation and thus validating its use for the treatment of pain and inflammation disorders.

  16. Late effects of craniospinal irradiation for standard risk medulloblastoma in paediatric patients: A comparison of treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leman, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survival rates for standard risk medulloblastoma are favourable, but craniospinal irradiation (CSI) necessary to eradicate microscopic spread causes life limiting late effects. Aims: The aim of this paper is to compare CSI techniques in terms of toxicity and quality of life for survivors. Methods and materials: A literature search was conducted using synonyms of ‘medulloblastoma’, ’craniospinal’, ‘radiotherapy’ and ‘side effects’ to highlight 29 papers that would facilitate this discussion. Results and discussion: Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), tomotherapy and protons all provide CSI which can reduce dose to normal tissue, however photon methods cannot eliminate exit dose as well as protons can. Research for each technique requires longer term follow up in order to prove that survival rates remain high whilst reducing late effects. Findings/conclusion: Proton therapy is the superior method of CSI in term of late effects, but more research is needed to evidence this. Until proton therapy is available in the UK IMRT should be utilised. - Highlights: • Craniospinal irradiation is vital in the treatment of medulloblastoma. • Survivors often suffer long term side effects which reduce quality of life. • Tomotherapy, IMRT and proton therapy reduce late effects by sparing normal tissue. • Proton therapy offers superior dose distribution but further research is necessary. • IMRT should be employed for photon radiotherapy.

  17. Oxidant and antioxidant activities of different anesthetic techniques. Propofol versus desflurane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceylan, Berit G.; Yilmaz, Funda; Eroglu, Fusun; Yavuz, Lutfi; Gulmen, Senol; Vural, Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between propofol and desflurane in terms of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant activity and to search the possible antioxidant anesthesia technique. The study was performed in the Department of Anesthesia and Reanimation, Medical Faculty, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta, Turkey, between January 2006 and July 2006. Thirty, ASA I-II patients, with an age range of 19-55 years, undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia were randomized to receive either propofol infusion (Group P) or desflurane inhalation (Group D) following standard induction. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin E) were measured preoperatively, at peroperatively first hour and postoperatively 12-hour. Malondialdehyde was found lower peroperatively in Group P compared to Group D (p<0.05). In Group D, Vitamin E levels were decreased significantly peroperatively compared to preoperative period (p=0.001). We observed a systemic oxidative stress increment with desflurane by terms of MDA; a lipid peroxidation product and endogenous antioxidant activity suppression by terms of Vitamin E at only peroperative period. This study may be defined to support the fact that free oxygen radicals were released more by desflurane than propofol. (author)

  18. Radiochemical separation and their application to neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turel, Z.R.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper discusses the development of some new, rapid and selective method for the radiochemical separation and estimation of elements such as, Co(II) 2-3 , Ir(III) 4 , Au(III) 5 , Pt(IV), Pd(II), Os(IV) 6 , Cu(II), Ag(I), Mo(VI), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Cs(I), Sb(III), La(III), Sc(III) etc. using various reagents. Various parameters such as pH, time of equilibrium, effect of anions and cations, effect of reagent etc. has been determined employing tracers of the elements under consideration and will be discussed. The method is made highly selective by the use of appropriate masking agent. The stoichiometry of metal reagent is determined by the substoichiometric method. Some examples of multielemental radiochemical separation methods thus developed which have been applied in determining the elements by radiochemical thermal neutron activation analysis will be presented and discussed. The implications of the results on the reference system will also be accounted. Statistical evaluation with reference to accuracy, precision and sensitivity will also be presented

  19. Modern Standard Arabic and Rural Palestinian Dialect: Patterns of the Active Participle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaidat, Mohammed Mahmoud Talal

    2017-01-01

    This paper was mainly concerned with analyzing the processes of active participle formation in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). It also aimed to examine the Rural Palestinian Dialect (RPD) in order to reveal the derivation of the active participle in this dialect and to describe any patterns that might vary from MSA. The study was based on the…

  20. 78 FR 45051 - Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Industry Classification System (NAICS) Subsector 213, Support Activities for Mining, that are based on... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule; correction...

  1. Designing on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono

    2014-01-01

    Basic design of on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique has been carried out. Compared with sampling technique, this neutron activation technique has some advantages in term of analysis accuracy and time. The design activities performed include the establishment of design requirements, functional requirements, technical requirements, technical specification, detection sub-system design, data acquisition subsystem design, and operator computer console design. This program will use Nal(Tl) scintillation detector to detect gamma-rays emitted by elements in coal due to neutron activation of a neutron source, 252 Cf (Californium-252). This basic design of on-line analyzer for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique should be followed up with the development of detailed design, prototype construction, and field testing. (author)

  2. Effects on hamstring muscle extensibility, muscle activity, and balance of different stretching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyoung-Il; Nam, Hyung-Chun; Jung, Kyoung-Sim

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different stretching techniques on range of motion (ROM), muscle activation, and balance. [Subjects] For the present study, 48 adults with hamstring muscle tightness were recruited and randomly divided into three groups: a static stretching group (n=16), a PNF stretching group (n=16), a control group (n=16). [Methods] Both of the stretching techniques were applied to the hamstring once. Active knee extension angle, muscle activation during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC), and static balance were measured before and after the application of each stretching technique. [Results] Both the static stretching and the PNF stretching groups showed significant increases in knee extension angle compared to the control group. However, there were no significant differences in muscle activation or balance between the groups. [Conclusion] Static stretching and PNF stretching techniques improved ROM without decrease in muscle activation, but neither of them exerted statistically significant effects on balance.

  3. Primary activity standardization of {sup 57}Co by sum-peak method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio dos Bandeirantes - CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.br; Poledna, R.; Silva, C.J. da; Tauhata, L. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio dos Bandeirantes - CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The sum-peak method was applied to standardize a {sup 57}Co solution within the framework of an international comparison organized by International Atomic Energy Agency, in 2008, aimed toward international traceability of activity measurements. A planar germanium detector was used with the sources placed on top of the detector for activity determination measurements. An analytical expression for accidental summing correction was derived and the effect of the germanium characteristic KX-ray escape peak of 112 keV was taken into account. The standard uncertainty associated to the activity concentration value was 0.37% and the result was compared with other measurement methods.

  4. A hybrid electron and photon IMRT planning technique that lowers normal tissue integral patient dose using standard hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosca, Florin

    2012-06-01

    To present a mixed electron and photon IMRT planning technique using electron beams with an energy range of 6-22 MeV and standard hardware that minimizes integral dose to patients for targets as deep as 7.5 cm. Ten brain cases, two lung, a thyroid, an abdominal, and a parotid case were planned using two planning techniques: a photon-only IMRT (IMRT) versus a mixed modality treatment (E+IMRT) that includes an enface electron beam and a photon IMRT portion that ensures a uniform target coverage. The electron beam is delivered using a regular cutout placed in an electron cone. The electron energy was chosen to provide a good trade-off between minimizing integral dose and generating a uniform, deliverable plan. The authors choose electron energies that cover the deepest part of PTV with the 65%-70% isodose line. The normal tissue integral dose, the dose for ring structures around the PTV, and the volumes of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isosurfaces were used to compare the dose distributions generated by the two planning techniques. The normal tissue integral dose was lowered by about 20% by the E+IMRT plans compared to the photon-only IMRT ones for most studied cases. With the exception of lungs, the dose reduction associated to the E+IMRT plans was more pronounced further away from the target. The average dose ratio delivered to the 0-2 cm and the 2-4 cm ring structures for brain patients for the two planning techniques were 89.6% and 70.8%, respectively. The enhanced dose sparing away from the target for the brain patients can also be observed in the ratio of the 75%, 50%, and 25% isodose line volumes for the two techniques, which decreases from 85.5% to 72.6% and further to 65.1%, respectively. For lungs, the lateral electron beams used in the E+IMRT plans were perpendicular to the mostly anterior/posterior photon beams, generating much more conformal plans. The authors proved that even using the existing electron delivery hardware, a mixed electron/photon planning

  5. Lower limb muscle activity during squat and judo technique seoi nage

    OpenAIRE

    Holý, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Title: Lower limb muscle activity during squat and technique seoi nage in judo Objectives: Goals of my work is finding activity lower muscle limb using surface electromyography in shallow squat, deep squat and seoi nage technic in judo. From the obtained results will be compared muscle activity in relative to MVC and compared timing activity of measuring muscles between deep squat and technic seoi nage right. Methods: Research component consisted of 10 subjects, 5 of fitness and 5 are active ...

  6. Development, improvement and calibration of neutronic reaction rate measurements: elaboration of a base of standard techniques; Developpement, amelioration et calibration des mesures de taux de reaction neutroniques: elaboration d`une base de techniques standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudelot, J.P

    1998-06-19

    In order to improve and to validate the neutronic calculation schemes, perfecting integral measurements of neutronic parameters is necessary. This thesis focuses on the conception, the improvement and the development of neutronic reaction rates measurements, and aims at building a base of standard techniques. Two subjects are discussed. The first one deals with direct measurements by fission chambers. A short presentation of the different usual techniques is given. Then, those last ones are applied through the example of doubling time measurements on the EOLE facility during the MISTRAL 1 experimental programme. Two calibration devices of fission chambers are developed: a thermal column located in the central part of the MINERVE facility, and a calibration cell using a pulsed high flux neutron generator and based on the discrimination of the energy of the neutrons with a time-of-flight method. This second device will soon allow to measure the mass of fission chambers with a precision of about 1 %. Finally, the necessity of those calibrations will be shown through spectral indices measurements in core MISTRAL 1 (UO{sub 2}) and MISTRAL 2 (MOX) of the EOLE facility. In each case, the associated calculation schemes, performed using the Monte Carlo MCNP code with the ENDF-BV library, will be validated. Concerning the second one, the goal is to develop a method for measuring the modified conversion ratio of {sup 238}U (defined as the ratio of {sup 238}U capture rate to total fission rate) by gamma-ray spectrometry of fuel rods. Within the framework of the MISTRAL 1 and MISTRAL 2 programmes, the measurement device, the experimental results and the spectrometer calibration are described. Furthermore, the MCNP calculations of neutron self-shielding and gamma self-absorption are validated. It is finally shown that measurement uncertainties are better than 1 %. The extension of this technique to future modified conversion ratio measurements for {sup 242}Pu (on MOX rods) and

  7. Determination of standard times of nursing activities based on a Nursing Minimum Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myny, Dries; Van Goubergen, Dirk; Limère, Veronique; Gobert, Micheline; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Defloor, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study conducted to determine the standard time per nursing activity and the proportion of nursing time covered by the nursing activities of the Belgian Nursing Minimum Dataset compared to the total time of a nurse shift, and to evaluate the correlation between hospital size and standard times of nursing activities. Because of a shrinking workforce and rising workload, nursing managers need tools that help them to allocate their staff to the wards. Such tools should be based on objective time measurements. The study was performed in surgical, internal medicine and elder care wards in an acute hospital care setting. In the first phase, a two-round Delphi-procedure was used to operationalize the definitions of nursing activities. In the second phase, the standard time for each nursing activity was determined, based on data collected over a 6-month period during 2006-2007. A combination of 13,292 work sampling observations by external observers, 3000 recordings of direct time measurement by self-recording and subjective time assessments yielded times that were used to analyse the duration of the nursing activities. A standard time for 102 nursing activities was established. The coverage of the Belgian Nursing Minimum Dataset in the surgical, internal medicine and elder care wards was 47.5%, 46.4% and 51.0% respectively. The Belgian Nursing Minimum Dataset was found to cover almost 70% of direct and indirect nursing care. Further research is needed to assess the impact on the standard times of nursing activities of inefficient organizational structures and different cultural interpretations of the way an activity is conducted.

  8. Expert training with standardized operative technique helps establish a successful penile prosthetics program for urologic resident education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ashley B; Klausner, Adam P; Johnson, Corey M; Moore, Blake W; Wilson, Steven K; Grob, B Mayer

    2011-10-01

    The challenge of resident education in urologic surgery programs is to overcome disparity imparted by diverse patient populations, limited training times, and inequalities in the availability of expert surgical educators. Specifically, in the area of prosthetic urology, only a small proportion of programs have full-time faculty available to train residents in this discipline. To examine whether a new model using yearly training sessions from a recognized expert can establish a successful penile prosthetics program and result in better outcomes, higher case volumes, and willingness to perform more complex surgeries. A recognized expert conducted one to two operative training sessions yearly to teach standardized technique for penile prosthetics to residents. Each session consisted of three to four operative cases performed under the direct supervision of the expert. Retrospective data were collected from all penile prosthetic operations before (February, 2000 to June, 2004: N = 44) and after (July, 2004 to October, 2007: N = 79) implementation of these sessions. Outcomes reviewed included patient age, race, medical comorbidities, operative time, estimated blood loss, type of prosthesis, operative approach, drain usage, length of stay, and complications including revision/explantation rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests, Fisher's tests, and survival curves using the Kaplan-Meier technique (P value ≤ 0.05 to define statistical significance). Patient characteristics were not significantly different pre- vs. post-training. Operative time and estimated blood loss significantly decreased. Inflatable implants increased from 19/44 (43.2%, pre-training) to 69/79 (87.3%, post-training) (P prosthetics surgery. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Behavior change techniques in top-ranked mobile apps for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, David E; Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P

    2014-06-01

    Mobile applications (apps) have potential for helping people increase their physical activity, but little is known about the behavior change techniques marketed in these apps. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior change techniques represented in online descriptions of top-ranked apps for physical activity. Top-ranked apps (n=167) were identified on August 28, 2013, and coded using the Coventry, Aberdeen and London-Revised (CALO-RE) taxonomy of behavior change techniques during the following month. Analyses were conducted during 2013. Most descriptions of apps incorporated fewer than four behavior change techniques. The most common techniques involved providing instruction on how to perform exercises, modeling how to perform exercises, providing feedback on performance, goal-setting for physical activity, and planning social support/change. A latent class analysis revealed the existence of two types of apps, educational and motivational, based on their configurations of behavior change techniques. Behavior change techniques are not widely marketed in contemporary physical activity apps. Based on the available descriptions and functions of the observed techniques in contemporary health behavior theories, people may need multiple apps to initiate and maintain behavior change. This audit provides a starting point for scientists, developers, clinicians, and consumers to evaluate and enhance apps in this market. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On measuring multiple lexical activation using the cross-modal semantic priming technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Esther; Quené, Hugo

    Cross-modal semantic priming with partial auditory primes seems a good technique to assess spoken-word recognition, because it allows tracking the activation of multiple word candidates. However, previous research using this technique has found inconsistent results. First, a priming experiment is

  11. Exploring Undergraduates' Perceptions of the Use of Active Learning Techniques in Science Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ashley J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines students' mixed perceptions of the use of active learning techniques in undergraduate science lectures. Written comments from over 250 students offered an in-depth view of why students perceive these techniques as helping or hindering their learning and experience. Fourth- and fifth-year students were more likely to view…

  12. Development of a Primary Standard for Calibration of [18F]FDG Activity Measurement Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capogni, M; Felice, P De; Fazio, A; Simonelli, F; Abbas, K

    2006-01-01

    The 18 F national primary standard was developed by the INMRI-ENEA using the 4πβ Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry Method with 3 H-Standard Efficiency Tracing. Measurements were performed at JRCIspra under a scientific collaboration between the Institute for Health and Consumer Production, the Amersham Health and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL). The goal of the work was to calibrate, with minimum uncertainty, the INMRI-ENEA transfer standard portable well-type ionisation chamber as well as other JRC-Ispra and Amersham Health reference Ionising Chambers used for FDG activity measurement

  13. Development of a Primary Standard for Calibration of [{sup 18}F]FDG Activity Measurement Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capogni, M [ENEA Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (INMRI), Centro Ricerche Casaccia, I-00060 Rome (Italy); Felice, P De [ENEA Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (INMRI), Centro Ricerche Casaccia, I-00060 Rome (Italy); Fazio, A [ENEA Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (INMRI), Centro Ricerche Casaccia, I-00060 Rome (Italy); Simonelli, F [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,), Italy; D' Ursi, V [Amersham Health Srl (AH), I-13040 Saluggia (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Italy; Pecorale, A [Amersham Health Srl (AH), I-13040 Saluggia (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Italy; Giliberti, C [Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro (ISPESL), I-00184 Rome (Italy); Abbas, K [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,), Italy

    2006-05-15

    The {sup 18}F national primary standard was developed by the INMRI-ENEA using the 4{pi}{beta} Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry Method with {sup 3}H-Standard Efficiency Tracing. Measurements were performed at JRCIspra under a scientific collaboration between the Institute for Health and Consumer Production, the Amersham Health and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Prevention (ISPESL). The goal of the work was to calibrate, with minimum uncertainty, the INMRI-ENEA transfer standard portable well-type ionisation chamber as well as other JRC-Ispra and Amersham Health reference Ionising Chambers used for FDG activity measurement.

  14. What expects of academies. Activity of code and standard Div. in JSME, AESJ and JEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The present states of establishment activities of standards by the three academies in the title are summarized from the viewpoint of 'explanation accountability'. Their roles and directions to go forward are also summarized. To be concrete, the trends of these establishment academies of standards relating to the nuclear industry are summarized. By focusing on the three indispensable conditions (neutrality, impartiality and transparency) for the establishment academy of standards and their implementation, the verifications of these conditions and 'explanation accountability' in these three academies are described. (K. Kato)

  15. Neutron radiography activity in the european program cost 524: Neutron imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirco, P.; Bach, P.; Lehmann, E.; Balasko, M.

    2001-01-01

    COST is a framework for scientific and technical cooperation, allowing the coordination of national research on a European level, including 32 member countries. Participation of institutes from non-COST countries is possible. From an initial 7 Actions in 1971, COST has grown to 200 Actions at the beginning of 2000. COST Action 524 is under materials domain, the title of which being 'Neutron Imaging Techniques for the Detection of Defects in Materials', under the Chairmanship of Dr. P. Chirco (I.N.F.N.). The following countries are represented in the Management Committee of Action 524: Italy, France, Austria, Germany, United Kingdom, Hungary, Switzerland, Spain, Czech Republic, Slovenia, and Russia. The six working groups of this Action are working respectively on standardization of neutron radiography techniques, on aerospace application, on civil engineering applications, on comparison and integration of neutron imaging techniques with other NDT, on neutron tomography, and on non radiographic techniques such as neutron scattering techniques. A specific effort is devoted to standardization issues, with respect to other non European standards. Results of work performed in the COST frame are published or will be published in the review INSIGHT, edited by the British Institute of Non Destructive Testing

  16. Should hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic nephrectomy replace the standard laparoscopic technique for living donor nephrectomy? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaraezy, Ahmed; Abushouk, Abdelrahman Ibrahim; Kamel, Moaz; Negida, Ahmed; Naser, Omar

    2017-04-01

    We performed this meta-analysis to compare hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic (HARP) and traditional laparoscopic (TLS) techniques for living donor nephrectomy. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, and Web of science for prospective studies, comparing HARP and TLS techniques. Data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled as risk ratios (RR) or standardized mean difference (SMD), using RevMan software (version 5.3 for windows). We performed a sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our evidence and a subgroup analysis to stratify intraoperative complications on Clavien-Dindo score. Seven studies (498 patients) were included in the final analysis. HARP was superior to TLS in terms of shortening the operative duration (SMD = -0.84, 95% CI [-1.18 to -0.50]) and warm ischemia time (SMD = -0.93, 95% CI [-1.13 to -0.72]). There was no significant difference between HARP and TLS in terms of blood loss (SMD = 0.13, 95% CI [-0.50 to 0.76]), hospital stay (SMD = -0.27, 95% CI [-0.70 to 0.15]) or graft survival (RR = 0.97, 95% CI [0.92 to 1.02]). The overall risk ratio of intraoperative complications did not differ significantly between the two groups (RR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.31 to 1.21]). Our meta-analysis shows that HARP was associated with a shorter surgery duration and less warm ischemia time than TLS. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups in terms of graft survival or intraoperative complication rates. We recommend HARP over TLS for living donor nephrectomy; however, future studies with larger sample sizes are recommended to compare both techniques in terms of operative safety and quality of life outcomes. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of healthy eating and physical activity quality standards for out-of-school time programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecha, Jean L; Hall, Georgia; Gannett, Ellen; Roth, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    Out-of-school time (OST) programs serve over 8 million children per year and have ample opportunity to promote health through menu and physical activity choices. Until recently, however, the field has lacked a comprehensive set of operationalizable standards for healthy eating and physical activity. The National AfterSchool Association adopted voluntary healthy eating and physical activity quality standards (HEPAQS) in April, 2011. We describe the development of HEPAQS. This work reflects a social ecological model for changing children's eating and activity behaviors through program-level interventions. The standards were developed using a national, mixed-methods needs assessment, review of existing standards and expert recommendations, and a participatory process of discussion, review, and consensus engaging 19 influential service and policy organizations and agencies in the Healthy Out-of-School Time (HOST) coalition, which we convened in 2009. The HOST coalition approved a final version of the HEPAQS in January, 2011. The 11 standards address content, curriculum selection, staff training, program support, and environmental support for healthy eating and physical activity. In April, 2011, the HEPAQS were adopted by the National AfterSchool Association, and have subsequently been widely disseminated. Extensive adoption and implementation efforts are underway. The availability of a comprehensive set of standards for healthy eating and physical activity in OST provides practical information to help community-based youth-serving organizations participate in obesity and chronic disease prevention. A working awareness of their content will be useful to scientists undertaking health promotion studies in the out-of-school time setting.

  18. Technique for evaluation of spatial resolution and microcalcifications in digital and scanned images of a standard breast phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Priscila do C.; Gomes, Danielle S.; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Oliveira, Paulo Marcio C. de; Meira-Belo, Luiz C.; Nogueira-Tavares, Maria S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an automated methodology to evaluate digital and scanned images of a standard phantom (Phantom Mama) was studied. The Phantom Mama was used as an important tool to check the quality of mammographs. The scanned images were digitized using a ScanMaker 9800XL, with resolution of 900 dpi. The aim of this work is to test an automatic methodology for evaluation of spatial resolution and microcalcifications group of phantom mama images acquired with the same parameters in the same equipment. In order to analyze the images we have used the ImageJ software (in Java) which is public domain. We have used the Fast Fourier transform technique to evaluate the spatial resolution and used the ImageJ function Subtract Background and the Light Background plus Sliding Paraboloid on the evaluation of the five groups of microcalcifications on the breast phantom to assess the viability of using automated methods for both types of images. The methodology was adequate for evaluated the microcalcifications group and the spatial resolution in scanned and digital images, but the Phantom Mama doesn't provide sufficient parameters to evaluate the spatial resolution in this images. (author)

  19. Expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in naturally infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells: comparison of a standard co-culture technique with a newly developed microculture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, B; Baur, A; Neundorfer, M; Jahn, G

    1991-05-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 29 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were cultured by two different methods. One was the standard co-culture technique, the other a newly developed microculture method. In this assay 10(6) PBMCs were cultivated in 250 microliters medium, no activating agents or allogeneic cells were present. P24 antigen production measured by this method was found in 7 out of 11 PBMC cultures of patients in the Walter Reed (WR) stage 1 or 2, whereas only 4 samples were positive by the co-culture procedure. Cultures from patients in the later stages of the disease (WR 5/6) showed a higher p24 production by the co-culture method than by the microculture assay. It is assumed that rapidly growing HIV strains can be better assessed by the co-culture method which may select for these strains. P24 expression can be more easily obtained by the microculture technique even in cases where slowly replicating strains may be present. In conclusion, results from the microculture procedure described may be a useful supplementation to findings observed by the co-culture method.

  20. Standardization of Fault Management Techniques and Activities with TEAMS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fault Management (FM) is a key enabler of system autonomy critical to reducing overall operations costs of increasingly complex science missions while ensuring their...

  1. Suitable activated stable nuclide tracer technique and its applications in biology and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weicheng

    1989-01-01

    Stable isotopes as tracers in biology and medicine have been more extensively used. Mass spectrometry has been a classic technique in the analysis of stable isotopes because it is very sensitive and precise. Activation analysis has recently been introduced as an analytical tool. Its fast speed and simplicity is a great advantage for handling large batches of samples in isotopic tracer experiments. The combination of enriched stable isotope tracer studies and activation analysis techniques has become an ideal and reliable technique, especially in the fields of biology and medicine. This paper presents a survey of the fundamental principle, the character and the applications in biology and medicine for the suitable activated stable isotope tracer techniques

  2. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Haori [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238U and 239Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two

  3. Active Interrogation using Photofission Technique for Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Haori

    2016-01-01

    Innovative systems with increased sensitivity and resolution are in great demand to detect diversion and to prevent misuse in support of nuclear materials management for the U.S. fuel cycle. Nuclear fission is the most important multiplicative process involved in non-destructive active interrogation. This process produces the most easily recognizable signature for nuclear materials. In addition to thermal or high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma rays can also excite a nucleus and cause fission through a process known as photofission. Electron linear accelerators (linacs) are widely used as the interrogating photon sources for inspection methods involving photofission technique. After photofission reactions, prompt signals are much stronger than the delayed signals, but it is difficult to quantify them in practical measurements. Delayed signals are easily distinguishable from the interrogating radiation. Linac-based, advanced inspection techniques utilizing the delayed signals after photofission have been extensively studied for homeland security applications. Previous research also showed that a unique delayed gamma ray energy spectrum exists for each fissionable isotope. In this work, high-energy delayed γ-rays were demonstrated to be signatures for detection, identification, and quantification of special nuclear materials. Such γ-rays were measured in between linac pulses using independent data acquisition systems. A list-mode system was developed to measure low-energy delayed γ-rays after irradiation. Photofission product yields of 238 U and 239 Pu were determined based on the measured delayed γ-ray spectra. The differential yields of delayed γ-rays were also proven to be able to discriminate nuclear from non-nuclear materials. The measurement outcomes were compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. It was demonstrated that the current available codes have capabilities and limitations in the simulation of photofission process. A two-fold approach was

  4. Determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols in various objects by chromatographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochetova, M V; Semenistaya, E N; Larionov, Oleg G; Revina, A A

    2007-01-01

    Chromatographic techniques for determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols are considered. Various methods for sample preparation and detection are compared. The advantages of high performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection for determination of antioxidants are demonstrated. Data on determination of biologically active phenols and polyphenols published in the period from 1995 to 2005 are analysed.

  5. Minimal immunoreactive plasma beta-endorphin and decrease of cortisol at standard analgesia or different acupuncture techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbach, H; Moll, B; Boedeker, R-H; Vigelius-Rauch, U; Otto, H; Muehling, J; Hempelmann, G; Markart, P

    2007-04-01

    Acupuncture has been claimed to be associated with activation of the endogenous antinociceptive system. The analgesic effects of acupuncture have been ascribed to beta-endorphin interacting with opioid receptors. However, firstly, the release of beta-endorphin into the blood has been proven to be induced by stress, i.e. under dysphoric conditions, and, secondly, if released under stress, beta-endorphin has been shown not to be analgesic. Our aim was to test whether beta-endorphin immunoreactive material is released into the cardiovascular compartment during acupuncture comparing the most frequently used types of acupuncture with standard pain treatment under apparently low stress conditions. This prospective study included 15 male patients suffering from chronic low back pain. beta-Endorphin immunoreactive material and cortisol were measured in the plasma of patients who underwent, in random order, therapy according to a standard pain treatment, traditional Chinese acupuncture, sham acupuncture, electro acupuncture and electro acupuncture at non-acupuncture points before, at and after the treatment. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. A decrease in plasma cortisol concentration measured over the five treatment protocols was highly significant (P < 0.001). The beta-endorphin immunoreactive material concentrations in plasma were minimal at all times and in all treatment conditions. The influence of treatments by various acupuncture procedures on cortisol and beta-endorphin immunoreactive material plasma concentrations over the three time points was not significantly different. beta-endorphin immunoreactive material in blood is not released by any type of acupuncture as tested under low stress conditions.

  6. Standardizing operational vector sampling techniques for measuring malaria transmission intensity: evaluation of six mosquito collection methods in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jacklyn; Bayoh, Nabie; Olang, George; Killeen, Gerry F; Hamel, Mary J; Vulule, John M; Gimnig, John E

    2013-04-30

    Operational vector sampling methods lack standardization, making quantitative comparisons of malaria transmission across different settings difficult. Human landing catch (HLC) is considered the research gold standard for measuring human-mosquito contact, but is unsuitable for large-scale sampling. This study assessed mosquito catch rates of CDC light trap (CDC-LT), Ifakara tent trap (ITT), window exit trap (WET), pot resting trap (PRT), and box resting trap (BRT) relative to HLC in western Kenya to 1) identify appropriate methods for operational sampling in this region, and 2) contribute to a larger, overarching project comparing standardized evaluations of vector trapping methods across multiple countries. Mosquitoes were collected from June to July 2009 in four districts: Rarieda, Kisumu West, Nyando, and Rachuonyo. In each district, all trapping methods were rotated 10 times through three houses in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Anophelines were identified by morphology and females classified as fed or non-fed. Anopheles gambiae s.l. were further identified as Anopheles gambiae s.s. or Anopheles arabiensis by PCR. Relative catch rates were estimated by negative binomial regression. When data were pooled across all four districts, catch rates (relative to HLC indoor) for An. gambiae s.l (95.6% An. arabiensis, 4.4% An. gambiae s.s) were high for HLC outdoor (RR = 1.01), CDC-LT (RR = 1.18), and ITT (RR = 1.39); moderate for WET (RR = 0.52) and PRT outdoor (RR = 0.32); and low for all remaining types of resting traps (PRT indoor, BRT indoor, and BRT outdoor; RR < 0.08 for all). For Anopheles funestus, relative catch rates were high for ITT (RR = 1.21); moderate for HLC outdoor (RR = 0.47), CDC-LT (RR = 0.69), and WET (RR = 0.49); and low for all resting traps (RR < 0.02 for all). At finer geographic scales, however, efficacy of each trap type varied from district to district. ITT, CDC-LT, and WET appear to be effective methods for large-scale vector sampling in

  7. 78 FR 42821 - Agency Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC 20503 (202... (Technical Industry Standards) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics... or a Copy of the Submission Contact: Crystal Rennie, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B), Department...

  8. 75 FR 28857 - Agency Information Collection (Technical Industry Standards) Activities Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ..., OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235, Washington, DC... (Technical Industry Standards) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Acquisition and Logistics... INFORMATION OR A COPY OF THE SUBMISSION CONTACT: Denise McLamb, Enterprise Records Service (005R1B...

  9. Standardization of the Manufacturing Process of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Containing Melittin as the Active Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonmi Lee; Sung-Geun Kim; In-Su Kim; Hwa-Dong Lee

    2018-01-01

    Background. Pharmacopuncture is a unique treatment in oriental medicine that combines chemical stimulation with conventional acupuncture. However, there are no standardized methods for preparing the herbal medicines used in pharmacopuncture, and it is not clear whether the active ingredients are safe and stable. Several studies have investigated nonstandardized preparation processes, but few investigations have addressed safety and preparation methods. Pharmacopuncture may provide an alternat...

  10. PET/CT colonography: a novel non-invasive technique for assessment of extent and activity of ulcerative colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Chandan J.; Sharma, Raju [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Makharia, Govind K.; Tiwari, Rajeew P. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Rajender; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India)

    2010-04-15

    Extent of involvement and activity of ulcerative colitis (UC) is best evaluated by colonoscopy. Colonoscopy however carries risk during acute exacerbation. We investigated the utility of PET/CT colonography for assessment of extent and activity of UC. Within a 1-week window, 15 patients with mild to moderately active UC underwent colonoscopy and PET/CT colonography 60 min after injection of 10 mCi of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). PET activity score based on the amount of FDG uptake and endoscopic mucosal activity in seven colonic segments of each patient was recorded. The mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of seven segments was compared with activity in liver. A PET activity grade of 0, 1, 2 or 3 was assigned to each region depending upon their SUV{sub max} ratio (colon segment to liver). The extent of disease was left-sided colitis in five and pancolitis in ten. The mean Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index (UCDAI) was 7.6. The number of segments involved as per colonoscopic evaluation and PET/CT colonography was 67 and 66, respectively. There was a good correlation for extent evaluation between the two modalities (kappa 55.3%, p = 0.02). One patient had grade 0 PET activity, nine had grade 2 and five had grade 3 PET activity. In six patients, there was one to one correlation between PET activity grades with that of endoscopic grade. One patient showed activity in the sacroiliac joint suggesting active sacroiliitis. PET/CT colonography is a novel non-invasive technique for the assessment of extent and activity of the disease in patients with UC. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of measured and calculated contralateral breast doses in whole breast radiotherapy for VMAT and standard tangent techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, T.L.J; Bromley, R.; Booth, J.; Gray, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Objective This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of calculated dose with the Eclipse analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) for contralateral breast (CB) in left-sided breast radiotherapy for dual-arc VMA T and standard wedged tangent (SWT) techniques. Methods and materials Internal and surface CB doses were measured with EBT2 film in an anthropomorphic phantom mounted with C-cup and D-cup breasts. The measured point dose was approximated by averaging doses over the 4 x 4 mm 2 central region of each 2 x 2 cm2 piece of film. The dose in the target region of the breast was also measured. The measured results were compared to AAA calculations with calculation grids of I, 2.5 and 5 mm. Results In SWT plans, the average ratios of calculation to measurement for internal doses were 0.63 ± 0.081 and 0.5 I ± 0.28 in the medial and lateral aspects, respectively. Corresponding ratios for surface doses were 0.88 ± 0.22 and 0.38 ± 0.38. In VMAT plans, however, the calculation accuracies showed little dependence on the measurement locations, the ratios were 0.78 ± O. I I and 0.81 ± 0.085 for internal and surface doses. In general, finer calculation resolutions did not inevitably improve the dose estimates of internal doses. For surface doses, using smaller grid size I mm could improve the calculation accuracies on the medial but not the lateral aspects of CB. Conclusion In all plans, AAA had a tendency to underestimate both internal and surface CB doses. Overall, it produces more accurate results in VMAT than SWT plans.

  12. Thin Layer Activation (TLA) Technique Application for Monitoring Corrosion, Erosion and Wear on Industrial Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Suryanto; Sunarhadijoso Soenarjo; Imam Kambali

    2003-01-01

    Thin Layer Activation (TLA) technique is one of high-precision and effective nuclear methods for measurement and monitoring corrosion, erosion and wear on industrial components. This technique was developed by using low current charged particle beam produced from a cyclotron to activate a surface layer of component. In this case only the surface layer in the μm range at the desired parts of the component are activated. The surface activation lets a very low radioactivity concerning to safety aspect but still can be detected and measured well due to specificity and sensitivity of nuclear reaction produced. Some reported experiences on TLA technique have confirmed that the technique is proper fully recommended to be applied in various industries such as automotive, petrochemical, petroleum, power plant, transportation, lubricant oil etc. The measurement and monitoring of corrosion, erosion and wear rates can be remotely and continuously performed, on-line and in-situ, giving a real-time information. By giving a real-time information, TLA technique provides a considerably better estimation of the components lifetimes for any operating condition. The measurement sensitivity of surface loss rate by using this method can reach up to 0.01 μm depends on the type of applications. The application of the TLA technique lets early observation on the damage of the system preventing any disturbance on industrial process, either in the form of accident during the process or that of unscheduled interruption. (author)

  13. The Effect of "Pumping" and "Nonpumping" Techniques on Velocity Production and Muscle Activity During Field-Based BMX Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Lee P; Hurst, Howard T; Roberts, Simon J; Graydon, Robert W

    2017-02-01

    Rylands, LP, Hurst, HT, Roberts, SJ, and Graydon, RW. The effect of "pumping" and "nonpumping" techniques on velocity production and muscle activity during field-based BMX cycling. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 445-450, 2017-The aim of the current study was to determine if a technique called "pumping" had a significant effect on velocity production in Bicycle Motocross (BMX) cycling. Ten National standard male BMX riders fitted with surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors completed a timed lap of an indoor BMX track using the technique of pumping, and a lap without pumping. The lap times were recorded for both trials and their surface sEMG was recorded to ascertain any variation in muscle activation of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, vastus lateralis, and medial gastrocnemius. The findings revealed no significant differences between any of muscle groups (p > 0.05). However, significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed between the pumping and nonpumping trials for both mean lap velocity (42 ± 1.8 km·h, 33 ± 2.9 km·h, respectively) and lap times (43.3 ± 3.1 seconds, 34.7 ± 1.49 seconds, respectively). The lap times recorded for the pumping trials were 19.50 ± 4.25% lower than the nonpumping, whereas velocity production was 21.81 ± 5.31% greater in the pumping trial compared with the nonpumping trial. The technique of pumping contributed significantly to velocity production, although not at the cost of additional muscle activity. From a physiological and technical perspective, coaches and riders should prioritize this technique when devising training regimes.

  14. Comparison of ankle-brachial index measured by an automated oscillometric apparatus with that by standard Doppler technique in vascular patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korno, M.; Eldrup, N.; Sillesen, H.

    2009-01-01

    was calculated twice using both the methods on both legs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested the automated oscillometric blood pressure device, CASMED 740, for measuring ankle and arm blood pressure and compared it with the current gold standard, the hand-held Doppler technique, by the Bland-Altman analysis....... RESULTS: Using the Doppler-derived ABI as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of the oscillometric method for determining an ABI Udgivelsesdato: 2009/11...

  15. Pro-Activeness of Parents in Accepting Behavior Management Techniques: A Cross-Sectional Evaluative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Shah, Jolly; Kaur, Manpreet; Trivedi, Krishna; Shah, Shalin; Virda, Mira

    2016-07-01

    The contemporary parents are more active and participate in the decision making during dental treatment. To assess the parents' acceptance towards behavior management techniques commonly used in the pediatric dentistry in different dental situation. Fifty-one parents participated in the study. Children's dental fear was assessed by the parents before attending power point presentation using Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS). Parents viewed power point presentation of eight behavior management techniques being used during pediatric dental treatment. The techniques were: 1) Voice control; 2) Tell-Show-Do; 3) Positive reinforcement; 4) Parental presence or absence; 5) HOME; 6) Physical restraint; 7) N2O-O2 sedation; 8) General anesthesia. Parents were asked to arrange various behavior management techniques from most accepted technique to least accepted technique in various dental situations according to their view. All the parents completed the questionnaire. Most children show increased anxiety related to dental component of CFSS-DS scale particularly during the administration of local anesthetic. In present study most preferred behavior management technique was Tell-Show-Do followed by positive reinforcement and least preferred behavior management technique was general anesthesia followed by physical restraint. Children's anxiety level increases during the condition related to dentistry which can be overcome by developing positive approach in children and parents towards dentistry and by utilizing various behaviour management strategies. A generalized low parental tolerance level for firm management techniques was seen in the present study population.

  16. Work related perceived stress and muscle activity during standardized computer work among female computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsman, P; Thorn, S; Søgaard, K

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the associations between work-related perceived stress and surface electromyographic (sEMG) parameters (muscle activity and muscle rest) during standardized simulated computer work (typing, editing, precision, and Stroop tasks). It was part of the European case......-control study, NEW (Neuromuscular assessment in the Elderly Worker). The present cross-sectional study was based on a questionnaire survey and sEMG measurements among Danish and Swedish female computer users aged 45 or older (n=49). The results show associations between work-related perceived stress...... and trapezius muscle activity and rest during standardized simulated computer work, and provide partial empirical support for the hypothesized pathway of stress induced muscle activity in the association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and shoulder....

  17. Investigating real-time activation of adenosine receptors by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine receptors play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, for example regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and the release of neurotransmitters. The activations of adenosine receptors have been studied by some kinds of techniques, such as western blot, immunohistochemistry, etc. However, these techniques cannot reveal the dynamical response of adenosine receptors under stimulation. In this paper, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique was introduced to study the real-time activation of adenosine receptors by monitoring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. The results showed that there were significant differences between adenosine receptors on real-time responses under stimulation. Moreover, the dynamics of cAMP level demonstrated that competition between adenosine receptors existed. Taken together, our study indicates that monitoring the dynamics of cAMP level using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique could be one potential approach to investigate the mechanism of competitions between adenosine receptors.

  18. Standardization of metachromatic staining method of myofibrillar ATPase activity of myosin to skeletal striated muscle of mules and donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora H.F. D'Angelis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at standardizing the pre-incubation and incubation pH and temperature used in the metachromatic staining method of myofibrillar ATPase activity of myosin (mATPase used for asses and mules. Twenty four donkeys and 10 mules, seven females and three males, were used in the study. From each animal, fragments from the Gluteus medius muscle were collected and percutaneous muscle biopsy was performed using a 6.0-mm Bergström-type needle. In addition to the metachromatic staining method of mATPase, the technique of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR was also performed to confirm the histochemical data. The histochemical result of mATPase for acidic pre-incubation (pH=4.50 and alkaline incubation (pH=10.50, at a temperature of 37ºC, yielded the best differentiation of fibers stained with toluidine blue. Muscle fibers were identified according to the following colors: type I (oxidative, light blue, type IIA (oxidative-glycolytic, intermediate blue and type IIX (glycolytic, dark blue. There are no reports in the literature regarding the characterization and distribution of different types of muscle fibers used by donkeys and mules when performing traction work, cargo transportation, endurance sports (horseback riding and marching competitions. Therefore, this study is the first report on the standardization of the mATPase technique for donkeys and mules.

  19. Metabolic mapping of functional activity in human subjects with the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.H.; Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose technique was used to measure regional cerebral glucose utilization by human subjects during functional activation. Normal male volunteers subjected to one or more sensory stimuli exhibited focal increases in glucose metabolism in response to the stimulus. These results demonstrate that the technique is capable of providing functional maps in vivo related to both body region and submodality of sensory information in the human brain

  20. [Epidemics of schistosomiasis in military staff assigned to endemic areas: standard diagnostic techniques and the development of real-time PCR techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biance-Valero, E; De Laval, F; Delerue, M; Savini, H; Cheinin, S; Leroy, P; Soullié, B

    2013-05-01

    The authors report the results of molecular biology techniques for the early diagnosis of cases (invasion phase) of schistosomiasis during two epidemics occurring during French military projects in the Central African Republic and Madagascar. The use of these techniques in real time for subjects not residing in the endemic area significantly improves the sensitivity of screening. The attack rates of these episodes, according to a case definition that took positive specific PCR results into account, were 59% and 26%. These results are a concrete illustration of the proverb that "yaws begin where the trail stops".

  1. Thermally activated state transition technique for femto-Newton-level force measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Jung; Wong, Jhih-Sian; Hsu, Ken Y; Hsu, Long

    2012-05-01

    We develop and test a thermally activated state transition technique for ultraweak force measurement. As a force sensor, the technique was demonstrated on a classical Brownian bead immersed in water and restrained by a bistable optical trap. A femto-Newton-level flow force imposed on this sensor was measured by monitoring changes in the transition rates of the bead hopping between two energy states. The treatment of thermal disturbances as a requirement instead of a limiting factor is the major feature of the technique, and provides a new strategy by which to measure other ultraweak forces beyond the thermal noise limit.

  2. Analysis technique for controlling system wavefront error with active/adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, Victor L.; Michels, Gregory J.

    2017-08-01

    The ultimate goal of an active mirror system is to control system level wavefront error (WFE). In the past, the use of this technique was limited by the difficulty of obtaining a linear optics model. In this paper, an automated method for controlling system level WFE using a linear optics model is presented. An error estimate is included in the analysis output for both surface error disturbance fitting and actuator influence function fitting. To control adaptive optics, the technique has been extended to write system WFE in state space matrix form. The technique is demonstrated by example with SigFit, a commercially available tool integrating mechanical analysis with optical analysis.

  3. Technique, muscle activity and kinematic differences in young adults texting on mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Ewa; Johnson, Peter W; Lindegård, Agneta; Hagberg, Mats

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are differences in technique between young adults with and without musculoskeletal symptoms when using a mobile phone for texting and whether there are differences in muscle activity and kinematics between different texting techniques. A total of 56 young adults performed a standardised texting task on a mobile phone. Their texting techniques were registered using an observation protocol. The muscular activity in six muscles in the right forearm/hand and both shoulders were registered by surface electromyography and the thumb abduction/adduction and flexion/extension were registered using a biaxial electrogoniometer. Differences in texting techniques were found between the symptomatic and the asymptomatic group, with a higher proportion of sitting with back support and forearm support and with a neutral head position in the asymptomatic group. Differences in muscle activity and kinematics were also found between different texting techniques. The differences in texting technique between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects cannot be explained by them having symptoms but may be a possible contribution to their symptoms. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: There has been a dramatically increased use of mobile phones for texting especially among young people during the last years. A better understanding of the physical exposure associated with the intensive use is important in order to prevent the development of musculoskeletal disorders and decreased work ability related to this use.

  4. Risk assessment of manual material handling activities (case study: PT BRS Standard Industry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviani; Triyanti, V.

    2017-12-01

    The process of moving material manually has the potential for injury to workers. The risk of injury will increase if we do not pay attention to the working conditions. The purpose of this study is to assess and analyze the injury risk level in manual handling material activity, as well as to improve the condition. The observed manual material handling activities is pole lifting and goods loading. These activities were analyzed using Job Strain Index method, Rapid Entire Body Assessment, and Chaffin’s 2D Planar Static Model. The results show that most workers who perform almost all activities have a high level of risk level with the score of JSI and REBA exceeds 9 points. For some activities, the estimated compression forces in the lumbar area also exceed the standard limits of 3400 N. Concerning this condition, several suggestions for improvement were made, improving the composition of packing, improving body posture, and making guideline posters.

  5. A new technique for radon measurement based on a combination of a track-etch detector and activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutej, T.; Krizman, M.; Ilic, R. (Institut Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Yugoslavia))

    1991-01-01

    A new technique for radon measurement in the natural environment was investigated. It is based on the use of activated charcoal and a track-etch detector. The charcoal acts as a radon collector from the air and the track-etch detector as a recorder of the alpha particles emitted by radon and its decay products. Our preliminary results show that the response of the new dosimeter to radon, using Deodorant activated charcoal (TOK, Yugoslavia) and a CR-39 track-etch detector, is 1.4 tracks cm{sup -2}/Bqm{sup -3}d, which is about eight times higher than that obtained with a standard track-etch dosimeter. (author).

  6. 40 CFR 745.230 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Activities § 745.230 Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: public and commercial buildings, bridges and superstructures. 745.230...

  7. Improvement of security techniques and protection of biometric data in biometric systems: Presentation of International Standard ISO 24745

    OpenAIRE

    Milinković, Milorad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the International Standard ISO 24745 as a potential security tool for biometric information protection, more precisely as a tool for privacy protection in biometric systems. This is one of the latest internationally accepted standards that address the security issues of biometric systems.

  8. Use of sum-peak and coincidence counting methods for activity standardization of {sup 22}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, E.M. de, E-mail: estela@ird.gov.br [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Poledna, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, M.A.L. da [Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Nucleares/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, R. Gal. Severiano, 90 - Botafogo, CEP 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tauhata, L. [Fundacao Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Av. Erasmo Braga, 118-6 Degree-Sign andar, CEP 20020-000 Centro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Delgado, J.U. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68509, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    A solution containing the positron emitter {sup 22}Na has been absolutely standardized using the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting method and the sum-peak spectrometry counting method. In the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence method two ways for the activity concentration measurements were used: gating on the 1275 keV photopeak and on the 1786 keV sum-peak where the knowledge of the {beta}{sup +}-branching ratio is required. In the sum-peak method the measurements were carried out using three experimental arrangements: the first composed by a well type 5 in. Multiplication-Sign 5 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal, the second by a 3 in. Multiplication-Sign 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal placed on the top of the first, resulting in a 4{pi} counting geometry and the third arrangement is a high purity coaxial germanium detector. The results that are obtained by these two methods are compatible within the standard uncertainty values with a coverage factor of k=2 ({approx}95% of the confidence level). This means that the sum-peak counting with its more simple experimental setup than the complex coincidence 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} counting system gives consistent results for the activity standardization of {sup 22}Na with smaller uncertainties. Besides, the time period involved to attain the result of the standardization was quite shorter than the coincidence measurements used in this work.

  9. The k0-based neutron activation analysis: a mono standard to standardless approach of NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Sudarshan, K.; Goswami, A.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2006-01-01

    The k 0 -based neutron activation analysis (k 0 -NAA) uses neutron flux parameters, detection efficiency and nuclear constants namely k 0 and Q 0 for the determination of concentration of elements. Gold ( 197 Au) or any other element having suitable nuclear properties is used as external or internal single comparator. This article describes the principle of k 0 -NAA and standardization of method by characterization of reactor irradiation sites and calibration of efficiency of the detector and applications. The method was validated using CRMs obtained from USGS, IAEA and NIST. The applications of method includes samples like gemstones (ruby, beryl and emerald), sediments, manganese nodules and encrustations, cereals, and medicinal and edible leaves. Recently, a k-o-based internal mono standard INAA (IM-NAA) method using in-situ relative efficiency has been standardized by us for the analysis of small and large samples of different shapes and sizes. The method was applied to a new meteorite sample and large size wheat samples. Non-standard size and shape samples of nuclear cladding materials namely zircaloy 2 and 4, stainless steels (SS 316M and D9) and 1S aluminium were analysed. Standard-less analysis of these cladding materials was possible by mass balance approach since all the major and minor elements were amenable to NAA. (author)

  10. Estimation of Anti-HIV Activity of HEPT Analogues Using MLR, ANN, and SVM Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Basheerulla; Zafar, Tabassum; Agrawal, Vijay K

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the estimation of the anti-HIV activity (log1/C) of a large set of 107 HEPT analogues using molecular descriptors which are responsible for the anti-HIV activity. The study has been undertaken by three techniques MLR, ANN, and SVM. The MLR model fits the train set with R (2)=0.856 while in ANN and SVM with higher values of R (2) = 0.850, 0.874, respectively. SVM model shows improvement to estimate the anti-HIV activity of trained data, while in test set ANN have higher R (2) value than those of MLR and SVM techniques. R m (2) = metrics and ridge regression analysis indicated that the proposed four-variable model MATS5e, RDF080u, T(O⋯O), and MATS5m as correlating descriptors is the best for estimating the anti-HIV activity (log 1/C) present set of compounds.

  11. Calibration and consistency of results of an ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring system for activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrader, Heinrich

    2000-01-01

    Calibration in terms of activity of the ionization-chamber secondary standard measuring systems at the PTB is described. The measurement results of a Centronic IG12/A20, a Vinten ISOCAL IV and a radionuclide calibrator chamber for nuclear medicine applications are discussed, their energy-dependent efficiency curves established and the consistency checked using recently evaluated radionuclide decay data. Criteria for evaluating and transferring calibration factors (or efficiencies) are given

  12. MAG4 versus alternative techniques for forecasting active region flare productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free magnetic energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Key Points Quantitative comparison of performance of pairs of forecasting techniques Next MAG4 forecasts major flares more accurately than Present MAG4 Present MAG4 forecast outperforms McIntosh AR Class and total magnetic flux PMID:26213517

  13. Changes in muscle activation following balance and technique training and a season of Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C J; Elliott, B C; Doyle, T L A; Finch, C F; Dempsey, A R; Lloyd, D G

    2015-05-01

    Determine if balance and technique training implemented adjunct to 1001 male Australian football players' training influenced the activation/strength of the muscles crossing the knee during pre-planned and unplanned sidestepping. Randomized Control Trial. Each Australian football player participated in either 28 weeks of balance and technique training or 'sham' training. Twenty-eight Australian football players (balance and technique training, n=12; 'sham' training, n=16) completed biomechanical testing pre-to-post training. Peak knee moments and directed co-contraction ratios in three degrees of freedom, as well as total muscle activation were calculated during pre-planned and unplanned sidestepping. No significant differences in muscle activation/strength were observed between the 'sham' training and balance and technique training groups. Following a season of Australian football, knee extensor (p=0.023) and semimembranosus (p=0.006) muscle activation increased during both pre-planned sidestepping and unplanned sidestepping. Following a season of Australian football, total muscle activation was 30% lower and peak valgus knee moments 80% greater (p=0.022) during unplanned sidestepping when compared with pre-planned sidestepping. When implemented in a community level training environment, balance and technique training was not effective in changing the activation of the muscles crossing the knee during sidestepping. Following a season of Australian football, players are better able to support both frontal and sagittal plane knee moments. When compared to pre-planned sidestepping, Australian football players may be at increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury during unplanned sidestepping in the latter half of an Australian football season. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Current activities in development of PIE techniques in JMTR hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshimitsu; Ohmi, Masao; Shimizu, Michio; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    A wide variety of post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) for research and development of nuclear fuels and materials to be utilized in nuclear field has been carried out since 1971 in three kinds of β-γ hot cells; concrete, lead and steel cells in the JMTR Hot Laboratory (JMTR HL) associated with the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). In addition to PIEs, the re-capsuling work including re-instrumentation was also conducted for the power ramping tests of the irradiated LWR fuels using Boiling Water Capsule (BOCA). Recently, new PIE techniques are required for the advanced irradiation studies. In this paper, the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) growth test technique of irradiated in-core structural materials and the remote operation technique of the atomic force microscope (AFM) are described as JMTR HL's current activities in the development of new PIE techniques. (author)

  15. Analysis of voltage modulation based active damping techniques for small DC-link drive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2015-01-01

    without the requirements of the information of system parameters and operating conditions. Finally, active damping techniques with minimized current magnitude and total duty cycle are discussed, in order to fit various operating conditions. Simulation and experimental results are presented to verify...

  16. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique in the IPR-R1 research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabino, C.V.S.; Mansur, N.

    1986-01-01

    A review is made of the neutron activation analysis technique used in the IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - NUCLEBRAS. Some characteristics of the method are described, types of samples and elements analyzed are also mentioned. (Author) [pt

  17. A comparison of maximal bioenergetic enzyme activities obtained with commonly used homogenization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, M; Fletcher, L; Powers, S K; Hughes, M; Coombes, J

    1996-12-01

    Homogenization of tissue for analysis of bioenergetic enzyme activities is a common practice in studies examining metabolic properties of skeletal muscle adaptation to disease, aging, inactivity or exercise. While numerous homogenization techniques are in use today, limited information exists concerning the efficacy of specific homogenization protocols. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of four commonly used approaches to homogenizing skeletal muscle for analysis of bioenergetic enzyme activity. The maximal enzyme activity (Vmax) of citrate synthase (CS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured from homogenous muscle samples (N = 48 per homogenization technique) and used as indicators to determine which protocol had the highest efficacy. The homogenization techniques were: (1) glass-on-glass pestle; (2) a combination of a mechanical blender and a teflon pestle (Potter-Elvehjem); (3) a combination of the mechanical blender and a biological detergent; and (4) the combined use of a mechanical blender and a sonicator. The glass-on-glass pestle homogenization protocol produced significantly higher (P pestle homogenization protocol is the technique of choice for studying bioenergetic enzyme activity in skeletal muscle.

  18. Estimation of Anti-HIV Activity of HEPT Analogues Using MLR, ANN, and SVM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basheerulla Shaik

    2013-01-01

    value than those of MLR and SVM techniques. Rm2= metrics and ridge regression analysis indicated that the proposed four-variable model MATS5e, RDF080u, T(O⋯O, and MATS5m as correlating descriptors is the best for estimating the anti-HIV activity (log 1/C present set of compounds.

  19. Status of the Usage of Active Learning and Teaching Method and Techniques by Social Studies Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Özkan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the active learning and teaching methods and techniques which are employed by the social studies teachers working in state schools of Turkey. This usage status was assessed using different variables. This was a case study, wherein the research was limited to 241 social studies teachers. These teachers…

  20. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kathryn; Li, Melissa; Giangregorio, Lora; Burns, Catherine; Grindrod, Kelly

    2016-04-27

    Wearable activity trackers are promising as interventions that offer guidance and support for increasing physical activity and health-focused tracking. Most adults do not meet their recommended daily activity guidelines, and wearable fitness trackers are increasingly cited as having great potential to improve the physical activity levels of adults. The objective of this study was to use the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy to examine if the design of wearable activity trackers incorporates behavior change techniques (BCTs). A secondary objective was to critically analyze whether the BCTs present relate to known drivers of behavior change, such as self-efficacy, with the intention of extending applicability to older adults in addition to the overall population. Wearing each device for a period of 1 week, two independent raters used CALO-RE taxonomy to code the BCTs of the seven wearable activity trackers available in Canada as of March 2014. These included Fitbit Flex, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Jawbone UP24, Spark Activity Tracker by SparkPeople, Nike+ FuelBand SE, and Polar Loop. We calculated interrater reliability using Cohen's kappa. The average number of BCTs identified was 16.3/40. Withings Pulse had the highest number of BCTs and Misfit Shine had the lowest. Most techniques centered around self-monitoring and self-regulation, all of which have been associated with improved physical activity in older adults. Techniques related to planning and providing instructions were scarce. Overall, wearable activity trackers contain several BCTs that have been shown to increase physical activity in older adults. Although more research and development must be done to fully understand the potential of wearables as health interventions, the current wearable trackers offer significant potential with regard to BCTs relevant to uptake by all populations, including older adults.

  1. Systematic review of behaviour change techniques to promote participation in physical activity among people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Samuel R; Adamczewska, Natalia; Howlett, Neil

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the potential promise of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to increase physical activity among people with dementia (PWD). PsychINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched 01/01/2000-01/12/2016. Randomized controlled/quasi-randomized trials were included if they recruited people diagnosed/suspected to have dementia, used at least one BCT in the intervention arm, and had at least one follow-up measure of physical activity/adherence. Studies were appraised using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool, and BCTs were coded using Michie et al., 2013, Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81. taxonomy. Intervention findings were narratively synthesized as either 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising', and BCTs were judged as having potential promise if they featured in at least twice as many very/quite promising than non-promising interventions (as per Gardner et al., 2016, Health Psychology Review, 10, 89). Nineteen articles from nine trials reported physical activity findings on behavioural outcomes (two very promising, one quite promising, and two non-promising) or intervention adherence (one quite promising and four non-promising). Thirteen BCTs were used across the interventions. While no BCT had potential promise to increase intervention adherence, three BCTs had potential promise for improving physical activity behaviour outcomes: goal setting (behaviour), social support (unspecified), and using a credible source. Three BCTs have potential promise for use in future interventions to increase physical activity among PWD. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? While physical activity is a key lifestyle factor to enhance and maintain health and wellbeing amongst the general population, adults rarely participate in sufficient levels to obtain these benefits. Systematic reviews suggest that

  2. Activity on non-destructive testing as constituent element of the quality management in accordance with ISO 9001:2000 standard at The Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Kislitsin, S.B.; Ablanov, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    An increase of technical and public safety requirements for facilities of nuclear industries, an efficient quality control based on non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques is crucial. Therefore, Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) through NDT Division makes efforts towards a competent NDT inspection of its facilities starting from research reactor of WWR-K type with a further activity according to the National Program for Development in Nuclear Industry. The additional objective is to harmonize the present codes and standards for Nuclear Industry as an integral part of the INP policy in a quality management according ISO 9001:2000 Standard. (author)

  3. Duration of Hemodialysis Following Peritoneal Dialysis Cessation in Australia and New Zealand: Proposal for a Standardized Definition of Technique Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Patrick G; Clayton, Philip A; Johnson, David W; McDonald, Stephen P; Borlace, Monique; Badve, Sunil V; Sud, Kamal; Boudville, Neil

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Although technique failure is a key outcome in peritoneal dialysis (PD), there is currently no agreement on a uniform definition. We explored different definitions of PD technique failure using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant (ANZDATA) Registry. ♦ METHODS: We included 16,612 incident PD patients in Australia and New Zealand from January 1998 to December 2012. Different definitions of technique failure were applied according to the minimum number of days (30, 60, 90, 180, or 365) the patient received hemodialysis after cessation of PD. ♦ RESULTS: Median technique survival varied from 2.0 years with the 30-day definition to 2.4 years with the 365-day definition. For all definitions, the most common causes of technique failure were death, followed by infectious complications. The likelihood of a patient returning to PD within 12 months of technique failure was highest in the 30-day definition (24%), and was very small when using the 180- and 365-day definitions (3% and 0.8%, respectively). Patients whose technique failed due to mechanical reasons were the most likely to return to PD (46% within 12 months using the 30-day definition). ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Both 30- and 180-day definitions have clinical relevance but offer different perspectives with very different prognostic implications for further PD. Therefore, we propose that PD technique failure be defined by a composite endpoint of death or transfer to hemodialysis using both 30-day and 180-day definitions. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  4. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed high phenolic compound concentration (0.5-1.6 mg/mL, mainly flavones and flavonols (0.1-0.8 mg/mL. The extracts showed hydrogen donating ability (DPPH and ABTS and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity (O2●-, OH-, H2O2. The ability of the extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2 was determined by calculating percent inhibition of PGE2 production measured by enzyme immunoassay. All extracts inhibited both enzymes with IC50 values of 2.0 to 16.7 µg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. incarum and C. atacamensis extracts was higher than that of B. boliviensis and P. lucida. The IC50 values obtained for indomethacin were 0.11 and 0.78 µM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. The present results are consistent with the anecdotal use of these species in phytotherapic preparations.

  5. An Active Damping Technique for Small DC-Link Capacitor Based Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2013-01-01

    A small dc-link capacitor based drive system shows instability when it is operated with large input line inductance at operating points with high power. This paper presents a simple, new active damping technique that can stabilize effectively the drive system at unstable operating points, offering...... points. The stabilizing effect of the active damping terms is demonstrated for an induction machine based drive system. The effects of the added damping terms on the machine current and dc-link voltage are analyzed in detail. A design recommendation for the proposed active damping terms is given...

  6. Standardized phenology monitoring methods to track plant and animal activity for science and resource management applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Tierney, Geraldine L.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Guertin, Patricia; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Thomas, Kathryn A.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2014-01-01

    Phenology offers critical insights into the responses of species to climate change; shifts in species’ phenologies can result in disruptions to the ecosystem processes and services upon which human livelihood depends. To better detect such shifts, scientists need long-term phenological records covering many taxa and across a broad geographic distribution. To date, phenological observation efforts across the USA have been geographically limited and have used different methods, making comparisons across sites and species difficult. To facilitate coordinated cross-site, cross-species, and geographically extensive phenological monitoring across the nation, the USA National Phenology Network has developed in situ monitoring protocols standardized across taxonomic groups and ecosystem types for terrestrial, freshwater, and marine plant and animal taxa. The protocols include elements that allow enhanced detection and description of phenological responses, including assessment of phenological “status”, or the ability to track presence–absence of a particular phenophase, as well as standards for documenting the degree to which phenological activity is expressed in terms of intensity or abundance. Data collected by this method can be integrated with historical phenology data sets, enabling the development of databases for spatial and temporal assessment of changes in status and trends of disparate organisms. To build a common, spatially, and temporally extensive multi-taxa phenological data set available for a variety of research and science applications, we encourage scientists, resources managers, and others conducting ecological monitoring or research to consider utilization of these standardized protocols for tracking the seasonal activity of plants and animals.

  7. Applicability of ISO 9001: 2000 standard to design and research activities in nuclear objectives and installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatopol, M.; Patticu, C.

    2001-01-01

    The ISO 9001: 2000 standard contains the results of the latest studies concerning the design and implementation of quality management systems. The continuous improvement of these systems required a new approach, namely, the process-based approach. A process-based model of quality management is presented in terms of client request, input data, management responsibility, resource management, product realisation, measurement / analysis and optimization, product, output data and client request fulfilment. Thus, the quality management system becomes an ensemble of interconnected or interacting processes. Consequently, to implement such a system the necessary processes have to be identified and their ISO 9001: 2000 standard based management ensured. Process based approach also allows better evidencing the input and output data specific to each process. Such an approach grants a wider applicability to the design and research activities in nuclear objectives and installations. This work aims at identifying additional requirements implied in design and research activities in nuclear field, as stipulated in the following standards / documents: - IAEA SG Q8 'Quality assurance in research and development'; - IAEA SG Q10 'Quality assurance in design'; - CAN / CSA N 286.2 - 00 'Design Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants'; CAN 3 - CSA Z 299.1 'Quality Assurance Program - Category 1'; - NQA - 1, SUPPLEMENT 3S-1 'Supplementary requirements for design control'

  8. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Daniela P. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Amaral, A. Luís [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Eugénio C., E-mail: ecferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed.

  9. Anticholinesterase activity of standardized extract of Illicium verum Hook. f. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kumar, N Satheesh; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2011-04-01

    Illicium verum is a well known spice in traditional Indian system for its therapeutic potential. The present study was aimed to evaluate the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory (BChE) activity of standardized extracts of I. verum and its oil. Present study confirmed that anethole contributed to the anticholinesterase activity of I. verum, with more specificity towards AChE. IC(50) for AChE and BChE inhibitory activity of anethole was 39.89±0.32 μg/mL and 75.35±1.47 μg/mL, whereas for the oil, 36.00±0.44 μg/mL and 70.65±0.96 μg/mL respectively. Therefore I. verum can be a good lead as anti-cholinesterase agent from natural resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Improved performance of GaAs photocathodes using effective activation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijun; Zhang, Jingzhi; Feng, Cheng; Cheng, Hongchang; Zhang, Xiang; Qian, Yunsheng

    2017-09-01

    To achieve negative-electron-affinity state, the atomically clean surface of GaAs-based photocathode is usually activated by cesium and oxygen in the ultrahigh vacuum environment. In view of the required computer-control of evaporation flow rates, the solid oxygen dispenser instead of gaseous oxygen is urgently needed just as the regular cesium dispenser. Accordingly, the solid cesium and oxygen dispensers were applied to activate epitaxial GaAs cathode samples. Two types of solid oxygen dispensers composed of barium peroxide powder and silver oxide powder respectively are employed to improve cathode photoemission performance. The experimental results show that the barium peroxidebased oxygen dispenser can release more oxygen and bring in higher activation photocurrent and spectral response than the silver oxide-based one. The unsatisfactory feature is that the silver oxide-based oxygen dispenser released effectual oxygen gas more slowly than the barium peroxide-based oxygen dispenser. Therefore, an effective activation technique was proposed to ameliorate this unfavorable phenomenon for the silver oxide-based dispenser, which can bring out the desired symmetry of photocurrent curve shape during the Cs/O alternate activation process. The improved activation technique would provide guidance for the optimization of activation craft.

  11. Comparative study between the PIXE technique and neutron activation analysis for Zinc determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Crestana, Silvio; Artaxo Netto, Paulo Eduardo

    1997-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study between the PIXE, proton beams and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques, for determination of total zinc concentration. Particularly, soil samples from the Pindorama, Instituto Agronomico de Campinas, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, experimental station have been analysed and measuring the zinc contents in μg/g. The results presented good correlation between the mentioned techniques. The PIXE and NAA analyses have been carried out by using the series S, 2.4 MeV proton beams Pelletron accelerator and the IPEN/CNEN-IEA-R1 reactor, both installed at the Sao Paulo - Brazil university

  12. Unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures: operative technique and early clinical experience with the standard locking option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettek, C; Rudolf, J; Schandelmaier, P; Guy, P; Könemann, B; Tscherne, H

    1996-05-01

    Nailing techniques have changed in recent years in ways which are not just limited to omitting the reaming process. These changes concern positioning patients, techniques of reduction and selecting implants. Techniques of approach and exposure have been modified to new, less-invasive procedures to fulfill technical, functional and cosmetic requirements. In addition, techniques have been developed to avoid fragment diastasis, rotational and sagittal malalignment, and leg-length discrepancy. Finally, simple algorithms have been elaborated for the management of specific fracture patterns (bilateral shaft fractures, ipsilateral tibial fractures or associated femoral neck fractures) and to determine the number and location of locking bolts. We developed these algorithms, techniques and procedures in a series of 133 femoral shafts, which were stabilized with the AO unreamed femoral nail (URFN) in a prospective study between 1991 and 1994. Of these, the first 57 cases with a mean follow-up of 17.9 months (range, 5-44) after injury were reviewed. Fractures were classified according to Müller's 1990 system: 12 type A, 29 type B and 16 type C. Closed soft-tissue injuries were classified by our classification of 1982: 17 type C 0/I, 42 type C II. Of 15 open fractures, six were OI, six OII, two OIIIA and one was OIIIB by Gustilo's classification of 1984. The major complications were two broken locking bolts, one nail breaking after 9 weeks, one case of osteitis and one of intra-operative lung embolism.

  13. Remeasurement and compilation of excitation function of proton induced reactions on iron for activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Vasvary, L.; Tarkanyi, F.

    1994-01-01

    Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on nat Fe(p, xn) 56 Co have been remeasured in the energy region up to 18 MeV using stacked foil technique and standard high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry at the Debrecen MGC-20E cyclotron. Compilation of the available data measured between 1959 and 1993 has been made. The corresponding excitation functions have been reviewed, critical comparison of all the available data was done to obtain the most accurate data set. The feasibility of the evaluated data set was checked by reproducing experimental calibration curves for TLA by calculation. (orig.)

  14. Refolding techniques for recovering biologically active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Masaya

    2014-02-20

    Biologically active proteins are useful for studying the biological functions of genes and for the development of therapeutic drugs and biomaterials in a biotechnology industry. Overexpression of recombinant proteins in bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, often results in the formation of inclusion bodies, which are protein aggregates with non-native conformations. As inclusion bodies contain relatively pure and intact proteins, protein refolding is an important process to obtain active recombinant proteins from inclusion bodies. However, conventional refolding methods, such as dialysis and dilution, are time consuming and, often, recovered yields of active proteins are low, and a trial-and-error process is required to achieve success. Recently, several approaches have been reported to refold these aggregated proteins into an active form. The strategies largely aim at reducing protein aggregation during the refolding procedure. This review focuses on protein refolding techniques using chemical additives and laminar flow in microfluidic chips for the efficient recovery of active proteins from inclusion bodies.

  15. A Technique for Standardized Evaluation of Soft and Hard Peri-Implant Tissues in Partially Edentulous Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijndert, Leo; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan

    Background: There is a growing need to evaluate the esthetics of implant-supported crowns and bridges. An important tool for such an evaluation is standardized assessment of the soft and hard peri-implant tissue levels. Methods: A simple acrylic device has been developed for reliable and

  16. Slit-scanning technique using standard cell sorter instruments for analyzing and sorting nonacrocentric human chromosomes, including small ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, W.; van Oven, C. H.; Stap, J.; Jakobs, M. E.; Aten, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of two types of standard flow cell sorter instruments, a System 50 Cytofluorograph and a FACSTar PLUS cell sorter, for the on-line centromeric index (CI) analysis of human chromosomes. To optimize the results, we improved the detection efficiency for centromeres

  17. The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify isotopic enrichment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, Jose Henrique

    2000-01-01

    The use of environmental monitoring as a technique to identify activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle has been proposed, by international organizations, as an additional measure to the safeguards agreements in force. The elements specific for each kind of nuclear activity, or nuclear signatures, inserted in the ecosystem by several transfer paths, can be intercepted with better or worse ability by different live organisms. Depending on the kind of signature of interest, the anthropogenic material identification and quantification require the choice of adequate biologic indicators and, mainly, the use of sophisticated techniques associated with elaborate sample treatments. This work demonstrates the technical viability of using pine needles as bioindicators of nuclear signatures associated with uranium enrichment activities. Additionally, it proposes the use of a technique widely diffused nowadays in the scientific community, the High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS), to identify the signature corresponding to that kind of activities in the ecosystem. It can be also found a description of a methodology recently being applied in analytical chemistry,based on uncertainties estimates metrological concepts, used to calculate the uncertainties associated with the obtained measurement results. Nitric acid solutions with a concentration of 0.3 mol.kg -1 , used to wash pine needles sampled near facilities that manipulate enriched uranium and containing only 0.1 μg.kg -1 of uranium, exhibit a 235 U: 238 U isotopic abundance ratio of 0.0092±0.0002, while solutions originated from samples collected at places located more than 200 km far from activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle exhibit a value of 0.0074±0.0002 for this abundance ratio. Similar results were obtained for samples collected in different places permit to confirm the presence of anthropogenic uranium and demonstrate the viability of using this technique and the

  18. Methodological aspects and development of techniques for neutron activation analysis of microcomponents in materials of geologic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of the activation analysis methodology applied to geological samples activated in nuclear reactors were studied, and techniques were developed for the determination of various elements in different types of matrixes, using gamma spectrometry for the measurement of the products. The consideration of the methodological aspects includes the study of the working conditions, the preparation of samples and standards, irradiations, treatment of the irradiated material, radiochemical separation and measurement. Experiments were carried out on reproducibility and errors in relation to the behaviour of the measurement equipment and that of the methods of area calculation (total area, Covell and Wasson), as well as on the effects of geometry variations on the results of the measurements, the RA-3 reactors's flux variations, and the homogeneity of the samples and standards. Also studied were: the selection of the conditions of determination, including the irradiation and decay times; the irradiation with thermal and epithermal neutrons; the measurement with the use of absorbers, and the resolution of complex peaks. Both non-destructive and radiochemical separation techniques were developed for the analysis of 5 types of geological materials. These methods were applied to the following determinations: a) In, Cd, Mn, Ga and Co in blende; b) La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in fluorites; c) La, Ca, Eu, Tb, Yb, Se and Th in barites and celestites; d) Cu and Zn in soils. The spectral interferences or those due to nuclear reactions were studied and evaluated by mathematical calculation. (M.E.L.) [es

  19. IAEA standard syllabus of a course to acquire competence on ionizing radiation sources activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, M.

    2004-01-01

    The specialized training for Ionizing Radiation Sources (IRS) activities is conducted according to educational syllabuses developed for every job position in compliance with art. 12, (3) of new Regulation of the conditions and procedure for acquiring professional qualification and for the procedure for issuing licenses for specialized training and certificates for qualification for use of nuclear energy. A brief review of the modular structure of the standard syllabus of the Postgraduate Educational Course in Radiation Protection and the Safe Use of Radiation Sources is presented in this paper. The content and level of training for categories of persons engaged in different practices are also listed

  20. Standardization of 32P activity determination method in soil-root cores for root distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.B.; Ghildyal, B.P.

    1976-01-01

    The root distribution of wheat variety UP 301 was obtained by determining the 32 P activity in soil-root cores by two methods, viz., ignition and triacid digestion. Root distribution obtained by these two methods was compared with that by standard root core washing procedure. The percent error in root distribution as determined by triacid digestion method was within +- 2.1 to +- 9.0 as against +- 5.5 to +- 21.2 by ignition method. Thus triacid digestion method proved better over the ignition method. (author)

  1. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P; Kuijer, Joost P A; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M; van de Ven, Peter M; Meine, Mathias; Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick; van Rossum, Albert C; Nijveldt, Robin

    2017-12-01

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. • Myocardial strain analysis could potentially improve patient selection for CRT. • Currently a well validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains is lacking. • The novel SLICE technique derives segmental strains from standard CMR cine images. • SLICE-derived strain markers of CRT response showed close agreement with CMR-TAG. • Future studies will focus on the prognostic value of SLICE in CRT candidates.

  2. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Artur; Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-06-25

    There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklist can be used to identify BCTs in smartphone apps. The top-20 paid and top-20 free physical activity and/or dietary behaviour apps from the New Zealand Apple App Store Health & Fitness category were downloaded to an iPhone. Four independent raters user-tested and coded each app for the presence/absence of BCTs using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques (26 BCTs in total). The number of BCTs included in the 40 apps was calculated. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability for each of the 26 BCTs. Apps included an average of 8.1 (range 2-18) techniques, the number being slightly higher for paid (M = 9.7, range 2-18) than free apps (M = 6.6, range 3-14). The most frequently included BCTs were "provide instruction" (83% of the apps), "set graded tasks" (70%), and "prompt self-monitoring" (60%). Techniques such as "teach to use prompts/cues", "agree on behavioural contract", "relapse prevention" and "time management" were not present in the apps reviewed. Interrater reliability coefficients ranged from 0.1 to 0.9 (Mean 0.6, SD = 0.2). Presence of BCTs varied by app type and price; however, BCTs associated with increased intervention effectiveness were in general more common in paid apps. The taxonomy checklist can be used by independent raters to reliably identify BCTs in physical activity and dietary behaviour smartphone apps.

  3. Figure analysis: A teaching technique to promote visual literacy and active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-08

    Learning often improves when active learning techniques are used in place of traditional lectures. For many of these techniques, however, students are expected to apply concepts that they have already grasped. A challenge, therefore, is how to incorporate active learning into the classroom of courses with heavy content, such as molecular-based biology courses. An additional challenge is that visual literacy is often overlooked in undergraduate science education. To address both of these challenges, a technique called figure analysis was developed and implemented in three different levels of undergraduate biology courses. Here, students learn content while gaining practice in interpreting visual information by discussing figures with their peers. Student groups also make connections between new and previously learned concepts on their own while in class. The instructor summarizes the material for the class only after students grapple with it in small groups. Students reported a preference for learning by figure analysis over traditional lecture, and female students in particular reported increased confidence in their analytical abilities. There is not a technology requirement for this technique; therefore, it may be utilized both in classrooms and in nontraditional spaces. Additionally, the amount of preparation required is comparable to that of a traditional lecture. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):336-344, 2016. © 2016 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Holmium-166m: multi-gamma standard to determine the activity of radionuclides in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, Estela Maria de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency and calibration curves as function of gamma-ray energy for a germanium detector are usually established by using many standard gamma ray sources of radionuclides decaying with few gamma rays or radionuclides having complex decay scheme, as 152 Eu or 133 Ba. But these radionuclides cannot be used alone, because they have a few gamma lines with high intensity and these lines have a irregular distribution in the energy spectrum. 166m Ho is found to be a convenient single source for such calibration, because it decays by β - with subsequent emission of about 40 strong and well distributed gamma lines between 80 and 1500 keV. Moreover, its long half - life (1200 years) and X-rays characteristics between 40 and 50 keV makes it a good standard for calibration of germanium detectors. However, it is necessary to know with accuracy and precision the gamma ray intensities of their main lines, due to the fact that literature has showed discrepant values. Then, a methodology to determine the emission probability of its main lines is proposed by means of combined use of gamma spectrometry and coincidence 4πβ -γ techniques. The experimental results show consistence to the others authors, with lower or compatible uncertainties. (author)

  5. Strain analysis in CRT candidates using the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweerink, Alwin; Allaart, Cornelis P.; Wu, LiNa; Beek, Aernout M.; Rossum, Albert C. van; Nijveldt, Robin [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, and Institute for Cardiovascular Research (ICaR-VU), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ven, Peter M. van de [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meine, Mathias [University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Croisille, Pierre; Clarysse, Patrick [Univ Lyon, UJM-Saint-Etienne, INSA, CNRS UMR 5520, INSERM U1206, CREATIS, Saint-Etienne (France)

    2017-12-15

    Although myocardial strain analysis is a potential tool to improve patient selection for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), there is currently no validated clinical approach to derive segmental strains. We evaluated the novel segment length in cine (SLICE) technique to derive segmental strains from standard cardiovascular MR (CMR) cine images in CRT candidates. Twenty-seven patients with left bundle branch block underwent CMR examination including cine imaging and myocardial tagging (CMR-TAG). SLICE was performed by measuring segment length between anatomical landmarks throughout all phases on short-axis cines. This measure of frame-to-frame segment length change was compared to CMR-TAG circumferential strain measurements. Subsequently, conventional markers of CRT response were calculated. Segmental strains showed good to excellent agreement between SLICE and CMR-TAG (septum strain, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.76; lateral wall strain, ICC 0.66). Conventional markers of CRT response also showed close agreement between both methods (ICC 0.61-0.78). Reproducibility of SLICE was excellent for intra-observer testing (all ICC ≥0.76) and good for interobserver testing (all ICC ≥0.61). The novel SLICE post-processing technique on standard CMR cine images offers both accurate and robust segmental strain measures compared to the 'gold standard' CMR-TAG technique, and has the advantage of being widely available. (orig.)

  6. Standardized Kaempferia parviflora Extract Enhances Exercise Performance Through Activation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Bo; Kim, Taeyoon; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2018-01-01

    Exercise enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Increased mitochondrial function and content can contribute to the improvement in skeletal muscle function and the benefits of exercise by increasing the response to energy demands. The effect of standardized Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE) on exercise performance was accessed in L6 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. KPE significantly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and increased mitochondrial density in L6 myotubes. KPE also upregulated the expression of transcription factors for mitochondrial biogenesis (estrogen-related receptor-α [ERRα], nuclear respiratory factor-1 [NRF-1], and mitochondrial transcription factor A [Tfam]) through activation of PGC-1α in L6 myotubes. In vivo models including normal diet mice and high-fat diet obese mice showed that KPE effectively enhanced running endurance and increased the skeletal muscle weight/body weight ratio. Furthermore, these observations were associated with a significant upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory genes in skeletal muscle tissue. KPE enhanced the protein expression of the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/PGC-1α/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) signaling pathway components in vitro and in vivo, acting as an exercise metabolism regulator. These results suggest that KPE has the potential to enhance exercise performance through mitochondrial biogenesis and the SIRT1/AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARδ signaling pathways.

  7. Trace element analysis at the Livermore pool-type reactor using neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Ralston, R.; Garvis, D.

    1975-01-01

    The capabilities of trace element analysis at the Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) are discussed. A description is given of the technology and the methods employed, including sample preparation, irradiation, and analysis. Applications of the INAA technique in past and current projects are described. A computer program, GAMANAL, has been used for nuclide identification and quantification. (U.S.)

  8. Understanding long-time vacancy aggregation in iron : a kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique study

    OpenAIRE

    Brommer, Peter; Béland, Laurent Karim; Joly, Jean-Francois; Mousseau, N. (Normand)

    2014-01-01

    Vacancy diffusion and clustering processes in body-centered-cubic (bcc) Fe are studied using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), an off-lattice kinetic Monte Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building capabilities. For monovacancies and divacancies, k-ART recovers previously published results while clustering in a 50-vacancy simulation box agrees with experimental estimates. Applying k-ART to the study of clustering pathways for systems containing from one to six vacancies...

  9. Active Vibration damping of Smart composite beams based on system identification technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendine, Kouider; Satla, Zouaoui; Boukhoulda, Farouk Benallel; Nouari, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the active vibration control of a composite beam using piezoelectric actuator is investigated. The space state equation is determined using system identification technique based on the structure input output response provided by ANSYS APDL finite element package. The Linear Quadratic (LQG) control law is designed and integrated into ANSYS APDL to perform closed loop simulations. Numerical examples for different types of excitation loads are presented to test the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed model.

  10. Antibacterial activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam. extract against standard bacteria and isolated strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Omidpanah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have been trying to develop new broad-spectrum antibiotics against the infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites for many decades. Prolonged usage of the antibiotics has led to the emergence of drug resistance among bacteria; therefore, there is a tremendous need for novel antimicrobial agents from different sources such as plants which are used in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial effect of Achillea tenuifolia. The plant material was extracted by maceration method using methanol three times at room temperature. The extract was concentrated after removing the solvent by rotary evaporator and then lyophilized using freeze dryer. Inhibitory effect of the extract was examined against four standard bacteria strains and two isolated strains from diseased hen using disk diffusion method and microdilution method to evaluate their inhibition zone diameter (IZD and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, respectively. The results showed that the extract of the plant was active against standard strains including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis with IZDs of 10.3±0.5, 14±0.0, 12±0.0 and 11.6±0.5, respectively. However, growths of isolated strains were not inhibited in the presence of the extract. Although, the growths of isolated strains were not inhibited by the plant extract, the standard strains were moderately susceptible to the extract; among those P. aeroginosa was more sensible than other tested strains

  11. A Comparative Energetic Analysis of Active and Passive Emission Control Systems Adopting Standard Emission Test Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Algieri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at analysing and comparing the thermal performances of active and passive aftertreatment systems. A one-dimensional transient model has been developed in order to evaluate the heat exchange between the solid and the exhaust gas and to estimate the energy effectiveness of the apparatus. Furthermore, the effect of the engine operating conditions on the performances of emission control systems has been investigated considering standard emission test cycles. The analysis has demonstrated that the active flow control presents the higher thermal inertia and it appears more suitable to maintain the converter initial temperature level for a longer time after variations in engine load. Conversely, the traditional passive flow control is preferable when rapid “cooling” or “heating” of the solid phase is requested. Moreover, the investigation has highlighted the significant influence of the cycle time and converter length on the energetic performances of the aftertreatment apparatus.

  12. Effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on the in vitro protease inhibitory activity of naproxen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmalingam, Senthil Rajan; Chidambaram, Kumarappan; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Nadaraju, Shamala, E-mail: dsenthilrajan@yahoo.co.in [School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the effects of nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques on in vitro trypsin inhibitory activity of naproxen—a member of the propionic acid derivatives, which are a group of antipyretic, analgesic, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nanosuspension and inclusion complex techniques were used to increase the solubility and anti-inflammatory efficacy of naproxen. The evaporative precipitation into aqueous solution (EPAS) technique and the kneading methods were used to prepare the nanosuspension and inclusion complex of naproxen, respectively. We also used an in vitro protease inhibitory assay to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of modified naproxen formulations. Physiochemical properties of modified naproxen formulations were analyzed using UV, IR spectra, and solubility studies. Beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex of naproxen was found to have a lower percentage of antitryptic activity than a pure nanosuspension of naproxen did. In conclusion, nanosuspension of naproxen has a greater anti-inflammatory effect than the other two tested formulations. This is because the nanosuspension formulation reduces the particle size of naproxen. Based on these results, the antitryptic activity of naproxen nanosuspension was noteworthy; therefore, this formulation can be used for the management of inflammatory disorders. (author)

  13. Active release technique in hamstrings strain: Rehabilitation and return to play – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharasudhan Ravichandran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamstring injuries and its rehabilitation in competitive events such as football targets safe and early return to play. This is because hamstring injuries are more related to prolonged recovery time and high rate of re-injury. In this case study, Zakeer Mundampara, 26-year-old footballer of Chennaiyin FC team (Indian super league tournament, who was rehabilitated for Grade 2 hamstring strain was briefed. To describe the importance of conservative rehabilitation in hamstring injuries and report on player's rehabilitation program and clinical outcome. Zakeer Mundampara was conservatively treated with active release technique for 2 weeks duration. Data collected includes passive knee extension test range of motion and verbal rating score. After 2 weeks of rehabilitation, Zakeer Mundampara had nearly full range of pain-free movement, normal gait and trained to run safely. By the 3rd week, he started to perform all sports specific drills. He was rehabilitated and set fit to play after 4 weeks from the date of injury. Active release technique is effective in hamstring injuries. In this case study, rehabilitation program with an emphasis on active release technique is found to be effective in returning the footballer back to play.

  14. [Western blot technique standardization for specific diagnosis of Chagas disease using excretory-secretory antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Hermes; Jara, César; Davelois, Kelly; Iglesias, Miguel; Benites, Adderly; Espinoza, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the effectiveness of Western Blot for the specific diagnosis of Chagas disease using excretory-secretory antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Antigens were obtained after twenty hours of incubation in Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium, which were prepared at a protein concentration of 0.2 ug/uL to be faced with 10 mL pool of serum from patients with Chagas disease and a conjugated anti-IgG labeled with peroxidase. The presence of the following antigens was observed: 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23, 26, 30, 33, 36, 40, 42, 46, 58, 63, 69, 91, 100, and 112 kDa; of which antigens of 10, 12, 14, 15, 19, 20, 23, and 26 kDa were considered to be specific using pools of serum from patients with other parasitosis and serum from people with no parasites. The sensitivity of the technique was assessed using individual serum from 65 patients with Chagas disease; and the specificity with serum from 40 patients with other parasitosis, and serums from five people who did not have parasites. The technique has a sensitivity of 95.4% in the detection of one to eight specific bands, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 93.7%. Western Blot technique with excretory-secretory antigens of T. cruzi epimastigotes is effective in the diagnosis of Chagas disease in Peru; therefore, it can be used as a confirmatory test.

  15. Use of the Taguchi method for biomechanical comparison of flexor-tendon-repair techniques to allow immediate active flexion. A new method of analysis and optimization of technique to improve the quality of the repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, G; Ebramzadeh, E; Jones, N F; Meals, R

    1998-10-01

    The current trend toward early active flexion after repair of the flexor tendons necessitates a stronger repair than that provided by a modified Kessler technique with use of 4-0 nylon suture. The purpose of the current study was to determine, with use of the Taguchi method of analysis, the strongest and most consistent repair of the flexor tendons. Flexor tendons were obtained from fresh-frozen hands of human cadavera. Eight flexor tendons initially were repaired with the modified Kessler technique with use of 4-0 nylon core suture and 6-0 nylon epitenon suture. A test matrix was used to analyze a total of twenty variables in sixty-four tests. These variables included eight techniques for core-suture repair, four types of core suture, two sizes of core suture, four techniques for suture of the epitenon, and two distances from the repair site for placement of the core suture. After each repair, the specimens were mounted in a servohydraulic mechanical testing machine for tension-testing to failure. The optimum combination of variables was determined, with the Taguchi method, to be an augmented Becker technique with use of 3-0 Mersilene core suture, placed 0.75 centimeter from the cut edge with volar epitenon suture. The four-strand, double modified Kessler technique provided the second strongest repair. Five tendons that had been repaired with use of the optimum combination then were tested and compared with tendons that had been repaired with the standard modified Kessler technique. With the optimum combination of variables, the strength of the repair improved from a mean (and standard deviation) of 17.2 +/- 2.9 to 128 +/- 5.6 newtons, and the stiffness improved from a mean of 4.6 to 16.2 newtons per millimeter.

  16. Effects of electromyographic and mechanomyographic biofeedback on upper trapezius muscle activity during standardized computer work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Vedsted, Pernille; Blangsted, Anne Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of surface electromyography (EMG)- and mechanomyography (MMG)-based audio and visual biofeedback during computer work. Standardized computer work was performed for 3 min with/without time constraint and biofeedback in a randomize...... alternative to EMG in ergonomics. A lowering of the trapezius muscle activity may contribute to diminish the risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders development.......The purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate the effects of surface electromyography (EMG)- and mechanomyography (MMG)-based audio and visual biofeedback during computer work. Standardized computer work was performed for 3 min with/without time constraint and biofeedback in a randomized......) values as well as the work performance in terms of number of completed graph/mouse clicks/errors, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the usefulness of the biofeedback were assessed. The duration of muscle activity above the threshold was significantly lower with MMG compared with EMG as source...

  17. Study on bioavailability of zinc for children's diet by using activable isotopic tracer 70Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Wang Pingsheng; Tian Weizhi; Cao Lei

    2001-01-01

    Bioavailability of zinc for three groups (low amount of diet zinc, balance amount of diet zinc and high amount of diet zinc) of children's diet is studied by using activable isotopic tracer 70 Zn and neutron activation analysis techniques. The results indicate that the fractional absorption of zinc from balance diet zinc group is the highest, up to 33.9%. A procedure of pre-irradiation concentration zinc for fecal samples using anion exchanger is developed, and the enriched 70 Zn with isotopic abundance of 18.3% is used for tracer. The mass ratios between 70 Zn and 68 Zn or 64 Zn and their contents between natural zinc and enriched zinc are used to calculate the bioavailability of zinc. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 64 Zn of each original fecal samples and pre-irradiation concentrated zinc samples are used to normalize the chemical yield in order to reduce the uncertainty during the chemical separation procedure

  18. Proposal for inclusion of the risk based inspection technique in Regulatory Standard NR 13; Proposta de inclusao da tecnica de inspecao baseada em risco na Norma Regulamentadora NR 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Vinicius Teixeira; Lima, Marco Aurelio Oliveira [Det Norske Veritas Ltda. (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In Brazil, the Regulatory Standard n. 13 (NR 13) establishes requirements for the inspection of boilers and pressure vessels which has main objective of preventing accidents with these types of equipment. Additionally, it has the Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) technique as an effective way to manage the mechanical integrity of various types of static mechanical equipment by through an inspection planning based on the risk factor. In this study, it is being proposed to include the RBI technique, in the NR 13, for the planning and definition of periods for the safety inspection of boilers and pressure vessels in order to promote an increase in the operational safety in process industries in Brazil. In this study it was carried out a critical analysis of NR 13 and RBI, and beyond that a bibliographic research of various international documents that relate the operational safety of pressurized equipment with the inspection activity, and the acceptability of RBI by governments, agencies and organizations around the world. It is considered that the inclusion and formal acceptance of RBI technique in the NR 13 must be accompanied by a rigorous control to avoid the 'trivialization' of its use and ensure the implementation rational, efficient and reliable. Finally, it was developed and suggested basic elements and minimum requirements to be inserted in the NR 13, to be attended, in order mandatory, by the companies that choose the implementation and use of the RBI technique as a tool for the planning of safety inspection of boilers and pressure vessels. It is concluded that the formal acceptance of the RBI technique in the NR 13 could aggregate much value to this standard, with regard to the prevention of accidents involving boilers or pressure vessels, and provide a technological jump to the companies that make use of RBI technique in Brazil. (author)

  19. Soil zymography - A novel technique for mapping enzyme activity in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Marie

    2014-05-01

    The effect plant roots on microbial activity in soil at the millimeter scale is poorly understood. One reason for this is that spatially explicit methods for the study of microbial activity in soil are limited. Here we present a quantitative in situ technique for mapping the distribution of exoenzymes in soil along with some results about the effects of roots on exoenzyme activity in soil. In the first study we showed that both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity were up to 5.4-times larger in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus than in the bulk soil. While acid phosphatase activity (produced by roots and microorganisms) was closely associated with roots, alkaline phosphatase activity (produced only by microorganisms) was more widely distributed, leading to a 2.5-times larger area of activity of alkaline than of acid phosphatase. These results indicate a spatial differentiation of different ecophysiological groups of organic phosphorus mineralizing organisms in the rhizosphere which might alleviate a potential competition for phosphorus between them. In a second study cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activities were analyzed in the presence of living Lupinus polyphyllus roots and dead/dying roots (in the same soils 10, 20 and 30 days after cutting the L. polyphyllus shoots). The activity of all three enzymes was 9.0 to 13.9-times higher at the living roots compared to the bulk soil. Microhotspots of cellulase, chitinase and phosphatase activity in the soil were found up to 60 mm away from the living roots. 10 days after shoot cutting, the areas of high activities of cellulase and phosphatase activity were extend up to 55 mm away from the next root, while the extension of the area of chitinase activity did not change significantly. At the root, cellulase and chitinase activity increased first at the root tips after shoot cutting and showed maximal activity 20 days after shoot cutting. The number and activity of microhotspots of chitinase activity was maximal 10

  20. Accurate determination of arsenic in arsenobetaine standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a by neutron activation analysis coupled with internal standard method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tsutomu; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Hioki, Akiharu; Matsue, Hideaki

    2010-09-15

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) coupled with an internal standard method was applied for the determination of As in the certified reference material (CRM) of arsenobetaine (AB) standard solutions to verify their certified values. Gold was used as an internal standard to compensate for the difference of the neutron exposure in an irradiation capsule and to improve the sample-to-sample repeatability. Application of the internal standard method significantly improved linearity of the calibration curve up to 1 microg of As, too. The analytical reliability of the proposed method was evaluated by k(0)-standardization NAA. The analytical results of As in AB standard solutions of BCR-626 and NMIJ CRM 7901-a were (499+/-55)mgkg(-1) (k=2) and (10.16+/-0.15)mgkg(-1) (k=2), respectively. These values were found to be 15-20% higher than the certified values. The between-bottle variation of BCR-626 was much larger than the expanded uncertainty of the certified value, although that of NMIJ CRM 7901-a was almost negligible. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microfluidics and numerical simulation as methods for standardization of zebrafish sperm cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Thomas; Knapp, Gerald L; Guitreau, Amy; Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Tiersch, Terrence; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy; Monroe, W Todd

    2015-01-01

    Sperm cell activation plays a critical role in a range of biological and engineering processes, from fertilization to cryopreservation protocol evaluation. Across a range of species, ionic and osmotic effects have been discovered that lead to activation. Sperm cells of zebrafish (Danio rerio) initiate motility in a hypoosmotic environment. In this study, we employ a microfluidic mixer for the purpose of rapidly diluting the extracellular medium to initiate the onset of cell motility. The use of a microchannel offers a rapid and reproducible mixing profile throughout the device. This greatly reduces variability from trial to trial relative to the current methods of analysis. Coupling these experiments with numerical simulations, we were able to investigate the dynamics of intracellular osmolality as each cell moves along its path through the micromixer. Our results suggest that intracellular osmolality, and hence intracellular ion concentration, only slightly decreases, contrary to the common thought that larger changes in these parameters are required for activation. Utilizing this framework, microfluidics for controlled extracellular environments and associated numerical modeling, has practical applicability in standardizing high-throughput aquatic sperm activation, and more fundamentally, investigations of the intracellular environment leading to motility.

  2. Physical activity and the use of standard and complementary therapies in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valle, Katy L; Davidson, Zoe E; Kennedy, Rachel A; Ryan, Monique M; Carroll, Kate M

    2016-01-01

    To record the use and perceived benefits of mainstream allied health services, complementary therapies, nutritional supplements and structured physical activity in a paediatric population of males with Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy. A questionnaire was distributed to 125 parents of males with a dystrophinopathy within a tertiary neuromuscular clinic population in Melbourne, Australia. Response rate to the survey was 41%. Most families (73%) reported use of allied health services: physiotherapy (65%), occupational therapy (47%), and psychology (25%). The most commonly used complementary therapy was massage (31%). Sixty-five percent of families reported using nutritional supplements. Fifty-one and 38% of families reported participation in swimming and other organised sports, respectively. Physical and psychological benefits of sporting activities were identified by families. Participation in physical activity was lowest in those transitioning to full-time wheelchair use. Access to allied health services by boys with dystrophinopathies is variable and inconsistent with published international standards of care. There is frequent use of complementary therapies, despite a lack of proven efficacy. Studies of the effects of such therapies would support provision of evidence-based advice to families. Continued involvement in physical activity for those boys with declining function should be supported by clinicians.

  3. Standardization and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Psittacanthus plagiophyllus Eichl. (Loranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Adrielle Nara Serra; Massing, Laís Tatiele; de Oliveira, Ricardo Bezerra; Mourão, Rosa Helena Veras

    2017-04-18

    The hemiparasitic species Psittacanthus plagiophyllus Eichl. (Loranthaceae), also known as erva de passarinho, is used in folk medicine in the Santarém region in the state of Pará, Brazil, to treat gastritis and a variety of inflammatory disorders. In view of the lack of pharmacological studies on this species in the literature and the fact that it is used constantly by the local population, this study sought to standardize the extract of the leaves of P. plagiophyllus (AEPp) and to assess its anti-inflammatory potential in in vivo tests. Quality control and standardization of AEPp were performed following the 5th edition of the Brazilian Pharmacopeia. To assess the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of AEPp, the carrageenan-induced and dextran-induced rat paw edema models were initially used. To investigate the effect of AEPp on carrageenan-induced leukocyte recruitment and exudate production, the air pouch inflammation model was used. In addition, the antioxidant activity of AEPp was assessed in vitro by the DPPH radical scavenging method. The chromatographic profile of AEPp indicated the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and hydrolyzable and condensed tannins. Measurement of phenolics revealed the following percentages in the extract: 12.62±0.18% total phenolics, 5.39±0.01% total tannins, 12.54±0.24% hydrolyzable tannins, 8.37±0.32% condensed tannins and 1.23±0.02% total flavonoids. In 500 and 1000mg/kg doses (p.o.) AEPp had significant edema-inhibiting activity (ptested [250, 500 and 1000mg/kg (p.o.)], AEPp inhibited total leukocyte and neutrophil migration and reduced the amount of exudate in the air pouch in a dose-dependent manner. Both effects were statistically significant (pconcentration of 75µg/mL), indicating that it has antioxidant activity. AEPp, therefore, exhibited considerable in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and in vitro antioxidant activity. This may be due to its high phenolics content. These findings provide evidence to support the

  4. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  5. A multi coding technique to reduce transition activity in VLSI circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vithyalakshmi, N.; Rajaram, M.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in VLSI technology have enabled the implementation of complex digital circuits in a single chip, reducing system size and power consumption. In deep submicron low power CMOS VLSI design, the main cause of energy dissipation is charging and discharging of internal node capacitances due to transition activity. Transition activity is one of the major factors that also affect the dynamic power dissipation. This paper proposes power reduction analyzed through algorithm and logic circuit levels. In algorithm level the key aspect of reducing power dissipation is by minimizing transition activity and is achieved by introducing a data coding technique. So a novel multi coding technique is introduced to improve the efficiency of transition activity up to 52.3% on the bus lines, which will automatically reduce the dynamic power dissipation. In addition, 1 bit full adders are introduced in the Hamming distance estimator block, which reduces the device count. This coding method is implemented using Verilog HDL. The overall performance is analyzed by using Modelsim and Xilinx Tools. In total 38.2% power saving capability is achieved compared to other existing methods. (semiconductor technology)

  6. Application of radiobiological techniques in studying antioxidant mechanisms: evaluation of their radioprotective, antioxidative and antiviral activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmamouchi, M.

    2000-01-01

    In the medical field, the oxidation phenomenon is the source of several pathologies (diabetes, cystic fibrosis, cancers,...). The natural oxidants are used as food preserving and skin ageing moderators. Several plant extracts with antioxidant activity were studied, this important antioxidant activity is probably due to their richness of compounds: polyphenols, phenolic acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, flavonoids,... Many techniques for evaluation and reactional mechanism study of the antioxidative activity are used. After selection, extraction, fractionation, activity screening, chemical analyses of molecules contained in the best active extracts, biological properties research of isolated redox pharmacophore, we have : - determined the structure of active products by spectroscopy and chromatography; - studied the antioxidative properties by EPR and spin trapping of the obtained extracts and molecules. The results of this first part of our work consists in evaluating the antioxidative degree of a great number of natural active principles, extracted from moroccan plants and pur obtained products. The second part consists in studying the action mechanisms using the LDL labelling (F. M.)

  7. Standardization of Tragopogon graminifolius DC. Extract Based on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Farzaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tragopogon graminifolius DC. (TG, Compositae family, is traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases like gastrointestinal and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study is to standardize extracts from TG used for preparation of different dosage forms in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM based on phenolic compounds. For this purpose, total phenolic content and some phenolic compounds were determined in ethanolic extracts from aerial part and root of TG by HPLC method. Furthermore, antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH-HPLC methods. Caffeic acid, gallic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and catechin were detected in root and aerial part of TG. ρ-Coumaric acid (6.357 ± 0.014 mg·g−1 was dominant phenolic compound in aerial part followed by ferulic acid (1.24 ± 0.018 mg·g−1. Also, ρ-coumaric acid (2.685 ± 0.031 mg·g−1 was highly abundant in root, followed by catechin (2.067 ± 0.021 mg·g−1. Antioxidant activity of root extract (460.45 ± 0.78 µg Vit.E.E·mL−1 was better than that of aerial part. Generally, phenolic compounds are one of the major constituents of TG and could be used as markers for standardization of dosage forms prepared from this plant. Also, TG demonstrated significant antioxidant activity using DPPH-HPLC method. Phenolic compounds of TG may be responsible for its marked antioxidant properties.

  8. Enhancements and Health-Related Studies of Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis covers two major points. One algorithm concerns with establishment of an accurate standardization method with multi-elemental capabilities and low workload suitable for NAA standardization at ETRR-2. The second one deals with constructing and developing an effective nondestructive technique for analysis of liquid samples based on NAA using (very) short-lived radionuclides. To achieve the first goal, attention has been directed toward implementation of the k 0 -method for calculation of the elements concentrations in the samples. The k 0 -method of NAA standardization has a considerable success as a method for accurate multi-elemental analysis with comparable low workload. The k 0 - method is based on the fact that the unknown sample is irradiated with only one standard element as comparator. To access the implementation of this method at ETRR-2, careful and complete characterization of the neutron flux parameters in the irradiation positions as well as the efficiency calibration of the γ-ray spectrometer must be carried out. The required neutron flux parameters are: the ratio of the thermal to epithermal neutron fluxes (f) and the deviation factor (α) of the epithermal neutron flux from the ideal 1/E law. The work presented in Chapter 4 shows the efficiency calibration curve of the γ ray spectrometer system which was obtained using standard radioactive point sources. Moreover, the f and α parameters were determined in some selected irradiation sites using sets of Zr-Au as neutron flux monitors. Due to different locations relative to the reactor core, the available neutron fluxes in the selected irradiation positions differ substantially, so that different irradiation demands can be satisfied. The reference materials coal NIST 1632c and IAEA-Soil 7 were analyzed for data validation and good agreement between the experimental values and the certified values was obtained. The obtained results have revealed that the k 0 -NAA

  9. Coracoid bone graft osteolysis after Latarjet procedure: A comparison study between two screws standard technique vs mini-plate fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomo, Giovanni Di; Costantini, Alberto; de Gasperis, Nicola; De Vita, Andrea; Lin, Bernard K. H.; Francone, Marco; Beccaglia, Mario A. Rojas; Mastantuono, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Aims: One of the reason for Latarjet procedure failure may be coracoid graft osteolysis. In this study, we aimed to understand if a better compression between the coracoid process and the glenoid, using a mini-plate fixation during the Latarjet procedure, could reduce the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis. Materials and Methods: A computed tomography scan analysis of 26 prospectively followed-up patients was conducted after modified Latarjet procedure using mini-plate fixation technique to determine both the location and the amount of coracoid graft osteolysis in them. We then compared our current results with results from that of our previous study without using mini-plate fixation to determine if there is any statistical significant difference in terms of corcacoid bone graft osteolysis between the two surgical techniques. Results: The most relevant osteolysis was represented by the superficial part of the proximal coracoid, whereas the deep part of the proximal coracoid graft is least involved in osteolysis and has best bone healing. The current study showed a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid with our previous study (P Latarjet procedure. Conclusion: Our study suggests that there is a significant difference only for the deep part of the distal coracoid in terms of osteolysis. At clinical examination, this difference did not correspond with any clinical findings. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Clinical Relevance: Prospective case series, Treatment study. PMID:23858288

  10. Review of the ANSI metafile and virtual device interface standardization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.N.

    1983-01-01

    The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is developing several graphics standards. Two of these standards, the Virtual Device Metafile and the Virtual Device Interface, are reviewed. The purpose, basic concepts, and philosophy of these standards are discussed and contrasted with current practice and the proposed Graphical Kernel System Standard. The proposed Virtual Device Metafile has been accepted by the International Standards Organization as a new WG2 work item.

  11. Spherical crystallization: A technique use to reform solubility and flow property of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arindam; Gupta, Madan Mohan; Srivastava, Birendra

    2017-01-01

    Tablets have been choice of manufacturers over the years due to their comparatively low cost of manufacturing, packaging, shipping, and ease of administration; also have better stability and can be considered virtually tamper proof. A major challenge in formulation development of the tablets extends from lower solubility of the active agent to the elaborated manufacturing procedures for obtaining a compressible granular material. Moreover, the validation and documentation increases, as the numbers of steps increases for an industrially acceptable granulation process. Spherical crystallization (SC) is a promising technique, which encompass the crystallization, agglomeration, and spheronization phenomenon in a single step. Initially, two methods, spherical agglomeration, and emulsion solvent diffusion, were suggested to get a desired result. Later on, the introduction of modified methods such as crystallo-co-agglomeration, ammonia diffusion system, and neutralization techniques overcame the limitations of the older techniques. Under controlled conditions such as solvent composition, mixing rate and temperature, spherical dense agglomerates cluster from particles. Application of the SC technique includes production of compacted spherical particles of drug having improved uniformity in shape and size of particles, good bulk density, better flow properties as well as better solubility so SC when used on commercial scale will bring down the production costs of pharmaceutical tablet and will increase revenue for the pharmaceutical industries in the competitive market. This review summarizes the technologies available for SC and also suggests the parameters for evaluation of a viable product.

  12. Anatomic and Pathologic Variability During Radiotherapy for a Hybrid Active Breath-Hold Gating Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K.; Gopan, Ellen; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung volume and position using a hybrid active breath-hold gating technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 159 repeat normal inspiration active breath-hold CTs were acquired weekly during radiotherapy for 9 lung cancer patients (12-21 scans per patient). A physician delineated the gross tumor volume (GTV), lungs, and spinal cord on the first breath-hold CT, and contours were propagated semiautomatically. Intra- and interfraction variability of tumor and lung position and volume were evaluated. Tumor centroid and border variability were quantified. Results: On average, intrafraction variability of lung and GTV centroid position was 0.1). Increases in free-breathing tidal volume were associated with increases in breath-hold ipsilateral lung volume (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The breath-hold technique was reproducible within 2 mm during each fraction. Interfraction variability of GTV position and shape was substantial because of tumor volume and breath-hold lung volume change during therapy. These results support the feasibility of a hybrid breath-hold gating technique and suggest that online image guidance would be beneficial.

  13. Techniques for determining the fluorine content of fluorochemical-treated fabrics by neutron activation using the 19F(n,2n)18F reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The 19 F(n,2n) 18 F reaction has been adapted to the analysis of fluorochemical-treated fabrics, using Teflon film as the reference standard. The ultimate success of the technique depends on effective retention of active recoil 18 F nuclei which can escape from both the fabric and the Teflon standards; this is accomplished by sealing all samples individually in thin Mylar film before activation. Recoil protons, produced in the fabric substrate, create a measurable amount of 18 F in the basic unfinished fabric through the 18 O(p,n) 18 F reaction. This compensates for systematic deficiencies encountered in measurement of the total 18 F-activity of the finished fabric. (author)

  14. Study on bioavailability of dietary iron of women by using activable isotopic tracer and neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yangmei; Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Wang Pingsheng; Cao Lei

    2002-01-01

    The bioavailability of diet iron of 10 healthy young women in Beijing area is studied by using two enriched isotopes 54 Fe and 58 Fe, and neutron activation analysis techniques. The abundance of 54 Fe and 58 Fe is 61.4% and 23.4%, respectively. In additional, the atomic absorption spectrometry is employed to measure total iron in fecal samples. Dysprosium, rarely absorbed by human body, is used to monitor the residence time of tracer isotopes in order to collect the fecal samples completely. The results show that the bioavailability of dietary iron in young women is (14.9 +- 3.9)%

  15. Preservice Secondary Teachers' Conceptions from a Mathematical Modeling Activity and Connections to the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlmann, Micah; Maiorca, Cathrine; Olson, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling is an essential integrated piece of the Common Core State Standards. However, researchers have shown that mathematical modeling activities can be difficult for teachers to implement. Teachers are more likely to implement mathematical modeling activities if they have their own successful experiences with such activities. This…

  16. Determination of Pu-238 Abundance in a Plutonium Standard by an Advanced Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P.; Thomas, R.

    2006-12-01

    New developments in thermal ionization mass spectrometers allow for the determination of very small minor isotope ratios. The new hardware and software capabilities require attention to detail and accounting for additional sources of measurement uncertainty. The Pu-238 isotopic composition in New Brunswick Laboratory plutonium metal standard CRM 126-A was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry using combined Faraday cup and ion counting detection. A dynamic acquisition scheme was employed which provided for near real-time mass fractionation correction and ion counter/Faraday detector inter-calibration. Steps taken to minimize or eliminate isobaric U-238 interferences will be described, and an evaluation detailing contributions to the uncertainty, including SEM non-linearity, will be presented.

  17. A semi-automated technique determining the liver standardized uptake value reference for tumor delineation in FDG PET-CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Hirata

    Full Text Available 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography (PET-computed tomography (CT has been an essential modality in oncology. We propose a semi-automated algorithm to objectively determine liver standardized uptake value (SUV, which is used as a threshold for tumor delineation.A large spherical volume of interest (VOI was placed manually to roughly enclose the right lobe (RL of the liver. For each voxel in this VOI, a coefficient of variation of voxel values (CVv was calculated for neighboring voxels within a radius of d/2. The voxel with the minimum CVv was then selected, where a 30-mm spherical VOI was placed at that voxel in accordance with PERCIST criteria. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently defined 30-mm VOIs manually on 124 studies in 62 patients to generate the standard values, against which the results from the new method were compared.The semi-automated method was successful in determining the liver SUV that was consistent between the two physicians in all the studies (d = 80 mm. The liver SUV threshold (mean +3 SD within 30-mm VOI determined by the new semi-automated method (3.12±0.61 was not statistically different from those determined by the manual method (Physician-1: 3.14±0.58, Physician-2: 3.15±0.58. The semi-automated method produced tumor volumes that were not statistically different from those by experts' manual operation. Furthermore, the volume change in the two sequential studies had no statistical difference between semi-automated and manual methods.Our semi-automated method could define the liver SUV robustly as the threshold value used for tumor volume measurements according to PERCIST. The method could avoid possible subjective bias of manual liver VOI placement and is thus expected to improve clinical performance of volume-based parameters for prediction of cancer treatment response.

  18. Impact of Standardized Simulated Patients on First-Year Pharmacy Students' Knowledge Retention of Insulin Injection Technique and Counseling Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Riley; Tunney, Robert; Kelly, Kim; Mills, Beth; Trotta, Katie; Wheeless, C Neil; Drew, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To compare pre- and post-intervention test scores assessing insulin injection technique and counseling skills among P1 students with (intervention) or without (control) simulated patients, and to compare counseling checklist and knowledge retention test scores between groups. Methods. This study utilized cluster randomization. In addition to traditional instruction, the intervention group counseled a simulated patient on the use of insulin using the teach-back method. Test score changes from baseline were analyzed via two-sample t-test. Results. The intervention group exhibited a significantly greater increase in knowledge test scores from baseline compared to the control group. Similar changes were seen in post-instruction counseling checklist scores and knowledge retention test scores from baseline. Conclusion. Simulated patient interactions, when added to traditional coursework within a P1 skills lab, improve student counseling aptitude and knowledge retention scores.

  19. Layout techniques to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard CMOS technologies demonstrated on a pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Document Server

    Snoeys, W; Burns, M; Campbell, M; Cantatore, E; Carrer, N; Casagrande, L; Cavagnoli, A; Dachs, C; Di Liberto, S; Formenti, F; Giraldo, A; Heijne, Erik H M; Jarron, Pierre; Letheren, M F; Marchioro, A; Martinengo, P; Meddi, F; Mikulec, B; Morando, M; Morel, M; Noah, E; Paccagnella, A; Ropotar, I; Saladino, S; Sansen, Willy; Santopietro, F; Scarlassara, F; Segato, G F; Signe, P M; Soramel, F; Vannucci, Luigi; Vleugels, K

    2000-01-01

    A new pixel readout prototype has been developed at CERN for high- energy physics applications. This full mixed mode circuit has been implemented in a commercial 0.5 mu m CMOS technology. Its radiation tolerance has been enhanced by designing all NMOS transistors in enclosed geometry and introducing guardrings wherever necessary. The technique is explained and its effectiveness demonstrated on various irradiation measurements on individual transistors and on the prototype. Circuit performance started to degrade only after a total dose of 600 krad-1.7 Mrad depending on the type of radiation. 10 keV X-rays, /sup 60/Co gamma-rays, 6.5 MeV protons, and minimum ionizing particles were used. Implications of this layout approach on the circuit design and perspectives for even deeper submicron technologies are discussed. (20 refs).

  20. Use of the iTClamp versus standard suturing techniques for securing chest tubes: A randomized controlled cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mckee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Tube thoracostomy (TT is a common yet potentially life-saving trauma procedure. After successful placement however, securing a TT through suturing is a skillset that requires practice, risking that the TT may become dislodged during prehospital transport. The purpose of this study was to examine if the iTClamp was a simpler technique with equivalent effectiveness for securing TTs. Materials and methods: In a cadaver model, a 1.5 inch incision was utilized along the upper border of the rib below the 5th intercostal space at the anterior axillary line. TTs (sizes 28Fr, 32Fr, 36Fr and 40Fr were inserted and secured with both suturing and iTClamp techniques according to the preset randomization. TT were then functionally tested for positive and negative pressure as well as the force required to remove the TT (pull test-up to 5 lbs. Time to secure the TT was also recorded. Results: When sutured is placed by a trained surgeon, the sutures and iTClamp were functionally equivalent for holding a positive and negative pressure. Mean pull force for both sutures and iTClamp exceeded the 5 lb threshold; there was no significant difference between the groups. Securing the TT with the iTClamp was significantly faster (p < 0.0001 with the iTClamp having a mean application time of 37.0 ± 22.8 s and using a suture had a man application time of 96.3 ± 29.0 s. Conclusion: The iTClamp was effective in securing TTs. The main benefit to the iTClamp is that minimal skill is required to adequately secure a TT to ensure that it does not become dislodged during transport to a trauma center. Keywords: Chest tube, Tube thoracostomy, Securing chest tubes

  1. Validation of a motor activity system by a robotically controlled vehicle and using standard reference compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, John P; Markgraf, Carrie G; Cirino, Maria; Bass, Alan S

    2005-01-01

    A series of experiments were undertaken to evaluate the accuracy, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of an automated, infrared photo beam-based open field motor activity system, the MotorMonitor v. 4.01, Hamilton-Kinder, LLC, for use in a good laboratory practices (GLP) Safety Pharmacology laboratory. This evaluation consisted of two phases: (1) system validation, employing known inputs using the EM-100 Controller Photo Beam Validation System, a robotically controlled vehicle representing a rodent and (2) biologic validation, employing groups of rats treated with the standard pharmacologic agents diazepam or D-amphetamine. The MotorMonitor's parameters that described the open-field activity of a subject were: basic movements, total distance, fine movements, x/y horizontal ambulations, rearing, and total rest time. These measurements were evaluated over a number of zones within each enclosure. System validation with the EM-100 Controller Photo Beam Validation System showed that all the parameters accurately and precisely measured what they were intended to measure, with the exception of fine movements and x/y ambulations. Biologic validation using the central nervous system depressant diazepam at 1, 2, or 5 mg/kg, i.p. produced the expected dose-dependent reduction in rat motor activity. In contrast, the central nervous system stimulant D-amphetamine produced the expected increases in rat motor activity at 0.1 and 1 mg/kg, i.p, demonstrating the specificity and sensitivity of the system. Taken together, these studies of the accuracy, precision, specificity, and sensitivity show the importance of both system and biologic validation in the evaluation of an automated open field motor activity system for use in a GLP compliant laboratory.

  2. A Novel (DDCC-SFG-Based Systematic Design Technique of Active Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fakhfakh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel idea for the synthesis of active filters that is based on the use of signal-flow graph (SFG stamps of differential difference current conveyors (DDCCs. On the basis of an RLC passive network or a filter symbolic transfer function, an equivalent SFG is constructed. DDCCs’ SFGs are identified inside the constructed ‘active’ graph, and thus the equivalent circuit can be easily synthesized. We show that the DDCC and its ‘derivatives’, i.e. differential voltage current conveyors and the conventional current conveyors, are the main basic building blocks in such design. The practicability of the proposed technique is showcased via three application examples. Spice simulations are given to show the viability of the proposed technique.

  3. The determination of pesticide residues in local vegetables by means of neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolphantha, S.; Karasuddhi, P.; Yamkate, P.; Serichareonsatit, N.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical methods based on neutron activation have been developed for studying pesticides residues of bromine, arsenic and mercury in local vegetables and fruits. The concentration of bromine, arsenic and mercury in samples are enriched prior to neutron irradiations by a technique of dry-ashing and freeze-drying for the determination of arsenic, bromine and mercury respectively. The element bromine is determined instrumentally while arsenic and mercury are determined destructively using a distillation technique. The limit of detection under the conditions used for bromine, arsenic and mercury as obtained are 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001 microgram respectively. A total of 45 varieties of vegetables and 20 varieties of fruits are analyzed. The results of the investigation and the concentration range in part per million of bromine, arsenic and mercury are also presented

  4. Induced modifications on algae photosynthetic activity monitored by pump-and-probe technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fantoni, R.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Tarzillo, G.; Carlozzi, P.; Pelosi, E. [CNR, Florence (Italy). Centro Studi Microorganismi Autotrofi

    1995-12-01

    The lidar fluorosensor system available at ENEA Frascati has been used for a series of laboratory measurements on brackish-water and marine phytoplankton grown in laboratory with the proper saline solution. The system, already used to measure the laser induced fluorescence spectra of different algae species and their detection limits, has been upgraded with a short pulse Nd:YAG laser and rearranged to test a new technique based on laser pump and probe excitation. Results of this new technique for remote monitoring of the in-vivo photosynthetic activity will be presented, as measured during a field campaign carried out in Florence during the Autumn 1993, where the effects of an actinic saturating light and different chemicals have also been checked.

  5. Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Bhati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard. Results: Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected. Conclusion: S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals.

  6. Determination of arsenic in food and dietary supplement standard reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic was measured in food and dietary supplement standard reference materials by neutron activation analysis for the purpose of assigning certified or reference As mass fractions and to assess material homogeneity. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to value assign As in candidate SRM 3532 Calcium Dietary Supplement and candidate SRM 3262 Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) Aerial Parts down to about 100 μg/kg. Values were also determined for two additional candidate St. John's Wort SRMs with As mass fractions 24 Na and 82 Br limited the reproducibility of the method below 100 μg/kg. For measurement of lower As mass fractions, a radiochemical neutron activation analysis method with extraction of As 3+ into diethyl-dithiocarbamate in chloroform and detection limits down to 0.1 μg/kg. As was used to value-assign As mass fractions for SRM 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets and for candidate SRM 3233 Fortified Breakfast Cereal, and at <10 μg/kg in candidate SRM 1845a Whole Egg Powder. (author)

  7. The {sup 124}Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)

    2010-07-21

    This work describes a metrological activity determination of {sup 124}Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. {sup 124}Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. {sup 124}Sb decays by {beta}-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point {sup 124}Sb solid sources were obtained from a {sup 166m}Ho standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of {sup 124}Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% (k=2) were obtained.

  8. Implementation of behavior change techniques in mobile applications for physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Hsiang; Maher, Jaclyn P; Conroy, David E

    2015-04-01

    Mobile applications (apps) for physical activity are popular and hold promise for promoting behavior change and reducing non-communicable disease risk. App marketing materials describe a limited number of behavior change techniques (BCTs), but apps may include unmarketed BCTs, which are important as well. To characterize the extent to which BCTs have been implemented in apps from a systematic user inspection of apps. Top-ranked physical activity apps (N=100) were identified in November 2013 and analyzed in 2014. BCTs were coded using a contemporary taxonomy following a user inspection of apps. Users identified an average of 6.6 BCTs per app and most BCTs in the taxonomy were not represented in any apps. The most common BCTs involved providing social support, information about others' approval, instructions on how to perform a behavior, demonstrations of the behavior, and feedback on the behavior. A latent class analysis of BCT configurations revealed that apps focused on providing support and feedback as well as support and education. Contemporary physical activity apps have implemented a limited number of BCTs and have favored BCTs with a modest evidence base over others with more established evidence of efficacy (e.g., social media integration for providing social support versus active self-monitoring by users). Social support is a ubiquitous feature of contemporary physical activity apps and differences between apps lie primarily in whether the limited BCTs provide education or feedback about physical activity. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Guidelines for certification of Activated clotting time (ACT) according to the EN ISO 22870 standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasne, Dominique; Bauters, Anne; Le Querrec, Agnès; Bourdin, Carole; Voisin, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Point of care testing (POCT) must comply with regulatory requirements according to standard EN ISO 22870, which identify biologists as responsible for POCT. Activated clotting time (ACT) is mandatory to monitor on whole blood, anticoagulation achieved by unfractionated heparin during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) or cardiac catheterization. This test has no equivalent in the laboratory. With the aim to help the multidisciplinary groups for POCT supervision when they have to analyse the wish of medical departments to use ACT and to help the biologists to be in accordance with the standard, we present the guidelines of the GEHT (Groupe d'étude d'hémostase et thrombose) subcommittee "CEC et Biologie délocalisée" for the certification of ACT. These guidelines are based on the SFBC guidelines for the certification of POCT and on the analysis of the literature to ascertain the justification of clinical need and assess the analytical performance of main analyzers used in France, as well as on a survey conducted with French and Belgian biologists.

  10. Epilobi Hirsuti Herba Extracts Influence the In Vitro Activity of Common Antibiotics on Standard Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirvu Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilobium genus has been confirmed as an effective source of natural antimicrobials. However, the influence of Epilobi hirsuti herba derived products on usual antibiotics activity has not been studied. In this study, several standardized Epilobi hirsuti herba extracts (EHE were evaluated in order to asses their potential effects on usual antibiotics tested on standard Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains in vitro. The results emphasized that the bacterial strains ranged from sensitive (MIC values between 50–200 μg GAE mL-1 (S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 to very resistant (E. coli strains, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 being practically immune to EHE. In terms of synergistic interaction, Tetracycline and Ampicillin combinations lead to the most important stimulatory effects, the diameters of the inhibition zone being even 60% bigger compared to the antibiotic alone. Synergistic effects between myricetin(galloyl derivates and Tetracycline were also revealed on P. aeruginosa and E. coli strains. Together, it clearly demonstrated not only EHE’s own antimicrobial properties, but also their capacity to influence the antimicrobial potency of some common antibiotics. These results could be useful for the area of herbal medicines and as potential candidates in managing microbial resistance, but also for physicians and pharmacists using combined antibacterial therapy.

  11. Smart facility location planning using GIS technology & facility provision standards for pro-active planning of social facilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available www.csir.co.za Smart facility location planning using GIS technology & facility provision standards for pro- active planning of social facilities Cheri Green BRICS Smart Cites, Jaipur India 17-19 August 2016 Council for Scientific...

  12. A Standard-Compliant Virtual Meeting System with Active Video Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Yao-Jen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an H.323 standard compliant virtual video conferencing system. The proposed system not only serves as a multipoint control unit (MCU for multipoint connection but also provides a gateway function between the H.323 LAN (local-area network and the H.324 WAN (wide-area network users. The proposed virtual video conferencing system provides user-friendly object compositing and manipulation features including 2D video object scaling, repositioning, rotation, and dynamic bit-allocation in a 3D virtual environment. A reliable, and accurate scheme based on background image mosaics is proposed for real-time extracting and tracking foreground video objects from the video captured with an active camera. Chroma-key insertion is used to facilitate video objects extraction and manipulation. We have implemented a prototype of the virtual conference system with an integrated graphical user interface to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods.

  13. Effects of Active and Passive Control Techniques on Mach 1.5 Cavity Flow Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Aradag

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic flow over cavities has been of interest since 1960s because cavities represent the bomb bays of aircraft. The flow is transient, turbulent, and complicated. Pressure fluctuations inside the cavity can impede successful weapon release. The objective of this study is to use active and passive control methods on supersonic cavity flow numerically to decrease or eliminate pressure oscillations. Jet blowing at several locations on the front and aft walls of the cavity configuration is used as an active control method. Several techniques are used for passive control including using a cover plate to separate the flow dynamics inside and outside of the cavity, trailing edge wall modifications, such as inclination of the trailing edge, and providing curvature to the trailing edge wall. The results of active and passive control techniques are compared with the baseline case in terms of pressure fluctuations, sound pressure levels at the leading edge, trailing edge walls, and cavity floor and in terms of formation of the flow structures and the results are presented. It is observed from the results that modification of the trailing edge wall is the most effective of the control methods tested leading to up to 40 dB reductions in cavity tones.

  14. Development, standardization and validation of purine excretion technique for measuring microbial protein supply for Yerli Kara cross-breed cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozdemir, H.; Gucus, A.I.; Ozcan, H.; Sogut, A.; Yaman, S.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate of the developed techniques for uric acid, allantoin and creatinine in Yerli Kara cross-breed cattle on farm at different feeding level locally available feed resources and linking the observed information to feed intake and to assess of protein nutrition status of Yerli Kara cross-breed dairy cattle using urinary PD and creatinine excretion. In Experiment I. Response of daily PD excretion to feed intake in Yerli Kara cross-breed on state farm was measured. Animals were fed a mixed diet containing 30 % wheat straw and 70 % compounded feed. The diet contained 90 % DM, its N and OM contents were 124 and 950 g/kg DM, respectively. In Experiment II. Spot urine sampling techniques was applied at state farm. Four Yerli Kara cross-breed bulls live weight with a mean of 211±41.3 kg were used. Experimental design, feeding and diet were the same as in Experiment I. The treatments were [located according to a 4x4 Latin Square design. In Experiment III. Spot urine sampling techniques was applied at smallholder farms. Compound feed containing 65 % barley, 25 % bran, 6 % sunflower seed meal, 3 % manner dust and 1 % mineral and vitamin mixture (120 g/kg DM-Crude Protein and 950 g/kg DM-Organic Matter)- was offered total in between 2 to 3 kg in two parts one in the morning (07:30 h) and one in the afternoon (17:00 h). Compound feed ingredients were similar given to all animals but Groups I, II and III animals were receiving 1 to 2 kg/d of straw (30 g CP/kg DM, 93Og OM/kg DM), grass hay (70g CP/kg DM, 915 g OM/kg DM), straw and grass hay respectively. There were significant correlations (R 2 =0.99) between PD excretion (mmol/d) and DOMI (kg/d) for YK-C cattle. PD execration (mmol/L) was plotted against PD: Creatinine W 0.75 to obtain slope and use as constant for the estimation of daily PD excretion from spot sampling from animals held by small holders. The equation could be expressed as: PD (mmol/d)=8.27+0.960 (PD:CxW 0.75 ). The

  15. Internal standardization--atomic spectrometry and geographical pattern recognition techniques for the multielement analysis and classification of Catalonian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Mònica; Besalú, Emili; Anticó, Enriqueta

    2007-01-24

    Major and minor (K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Sr) and trace (Ba, Ni, Pb, V, Co, Cd, and Sb) elements from wine samples from the Denomination of Origin (DO) Empordà-Costa Brava (Catalonia, Spain) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) respectively. Previously, a comparison of different calibration methodologies and sample digestion treatments had been carried out using ANOVA statistical tool. The obtained results demonstrated that internal standardization provides reliable results with the advantage that no further manipulation of the sample is needed. A principal component analysis of the concentration data was performed to differentiate the samples of DO Empordà-Costa Brava from wine samples from other wine-producing regions in Spain (i.e., Penedès, Somontano, and Rioja). It was found that Sr and Ba contents discriminate the two DO groups. Moreover, a discriminant analysis function involving both variables distinguishes the two groups with a 100% classification rate. At the level of the leave-one-out cross-validation, all of the Empordà-Costa Brava samples were well classified, whereas the other DOs presented two borderline misclassifications.

  16. Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hydrogen Embrittlement Threshold in Steel by the Incremental Step Loading Technique

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method establishes a procedure to measure the susceptibility of steel to a time-delayed failure such as that caused by hydrogen. It does so by measuring the threshold for the onset of subcritical crack growth using standard fracture mechanics specimens, irregular-shaped specimens such as notched round bars, or actual product such as fasteners (2) (threaded or unthreaded) springs or components as identified in SAE J78, J81, and J1237. 1.2 This test method is used to evaluate quantitatively: 1.2.1 The relative susceptibility of steels of different composition or a steel with different heat treatments; 1.2.2 The effect of residual hydrogen in the steel as a result of processing, such as melting, thermal mechanical working, surface treatments, coatings, and electroplating; 1.2.3 The effect of hydrogen introduced into the steel caused by external environmental sources of hydrogen, such as fluids and cleaners maintenance chemicals, petrochemical products, and galvanic coupling in an aqueous enviro...

  17. Evaluation of Image Processing Technique for Measuring of Nitrogen and Yield in Paddy Rice and Comparing it with Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Larijani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to use new and low cost methods in precision agriculture, nitrogen should be supplied for plants on time and precisely. For determining the required nitrogen of paddy rice in the clustering stage, a series of experiments were conducted using three different methods of: image processing, kjeldahl and chlorophyll meter set (SPAD-502, in a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2010 at Rice Research Center of Tonekabon, Iran. Four experimental treatments were different level of fertilizer (Urea with 46% nitrogen. In the clustering stage, some images from rice plants were taken vertically by a digital camera and were analyzed using image processing technique. Simultaneously the chlorophyll index of plants was measured by SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter set and the percentage amount of nitrogen was measured using of the so called kjeldahl laboratory method. The results showed that the three methods of determining nitrogen of rice plant were highly correlated. Moreover, the correlation among the three methods and crop yield were almost the same. In general, the method of image processing could have a high potential for nitrogen management in the field, while this method was low-cost, faster and also nondestructive in comparison to the other methods.

  18. Scaffolds with a standardized macro-architecture fabricated from several calcium phosphate ceramics using an indirect rapid prototyping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; van Blitterswijk, C. A.; Verbout, A. J.; de Bruijn, J. D.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics, commonly applied as bone graft substitutes, are a natural choice of scaffolding material for bone tissue engineering. Evidence shows that the chemical composition, macroporosity and microporosity of these ceramics influences their behavior as bone graft substitutes and bone tissue engineering scaffolds but little has been done to optimize these parameters. One method of optimization is to place focus on a particular parameter by normalizing the influence, as much as possible, of confounding parameters. This is difficult to accomplish with traditional fabrication techniques. In this study we describe a design based rapid prototyping method of manufacturing scaffolds with virtually identical macroporous architectures from different calcium phosphate ceramic compositions. Beta-tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite (at two sintering temperatures) and biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds were manufactured. The macro- and micro-architectures of the scaffolds were characterized as well as the influence of the manufacturing method on the chemistries of the calcium phosphate compositions. The structural characteristics of the resulting scaffolds were remarkably similar. The manufacturing process had little influence on the composition of the materials except for the consistent but small addition of, or increase in, a beta-tricalcium phosphate phase. Among other applications, scaffolds produced by the method described provide a means of examining the influence of different calcium phosphate compositions while confidently excluding the influence of the macroporous structure of the scaffolds. PMID:21069558

  19. [Western blot technique standardization of the diagnosis of human fasciolosis using Fasciola hepatica excreted-secreted antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Hermes; Davelois, Kelly; Ortiz, Pedro; Rodríguez, Hans; Díaz, Enrique; Jara, César

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB, Western blot) using excretory/secretory antigens from adult forms of Fasciola hepatica (Fh E/S Ag) for the diagnosis of human fasciolosis. Antigens were obtained after 18 hours of incubation in culture medium Minimum Essential Eagle, prepared at a protein concentration of 0.15 ug/uL and run against a pool of sera of patients with proven fasciolosis (confirmed by the finding of parasite eggs in the stool microscopy). Antigens of 10, 12, 17, 23, 27, 30, 36, 43, 66 and 136 kDa were detected and used to develop the Western blot technique. The sensitivity was evaluated using sera from 67 fasciolosis patients, and the specificity using sera from 57 patients with other parasitic diseases, and 10 from healthy individuals. Out of the 67 sera, 64 reacted with the 23 kDa band and 61 with the one of 17 kDa. These two bands were not detected in sera from patients with other parasitic diseases or in those from healthy volunteers and thus could be considered specific and diagnostic. The sensitivity of the test, using the bands of 17 and 23 kDa, was 95.5% for positive reactions to at least one of these two bands, being its specificity 100% with a positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 95.71%.

  20. Active load sharing technique for on-line efficiency optimization in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, E. Riva; Zizzo, G.; Boscaino, V.

    2017-01-01

    -DC converters, is modeled. An active load sharing technique is proposed for the on-line optimization of the global efficiency of the DC distribution network. The algorithm aims at the instantaneous efficiency optimization of the whole DC network, based on the on-line load current sampling. A Look Up Table......, is created to store the real efficiencies of the converters taking into account components tolerances. A MATLAB/Simulink model of the DC distribution network has been set up and a Genetic Algorithm has been employed for the global efficiency optimization. Simulation results are shown to validate the proposed...

  1. Investigation of an egyptian phosphate ore sample by neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, E.A.; Aly, R.A.; Rofail, N.B.; Hassan, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A domestic phosphate ore sample has been analysed by means of prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectrometry following the activation by thermal neutron capture technique. The rabbit pneumatic transfer system (RPTS), long irradiation facility and two Pu/Be (2,5 Ci each) neutron sources set-Pu for prompt (n,gamma) were applied. The high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma-ray spectrometer with a personal computer analyzer (PCA) system were used for spectrum measurements. Programmes on the VAX computer were utilized for estimating the elemental concentrations of 22 out of 36 elements identified in this work. 2 tabs

  2. Studies of Some Parameters Affecting The Efficiency and Accuracy of The Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zaghloul, R.A.; Sroor, A.; Abdel Sabour, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The present studies deal with the optimum physical conditions which seriously affect the neutron activation analysis technique efficiency. An experimental work for the efficiency calibration of hyper pure germanium detectors especially for environmental studies is presented. This work showed that the tested parameters, under consideration, distance, mass and measured time, reveal a significant effect on the obtained data. These results, intern, affect the accuracy of the measurements. Further work on the test of other parameters is planned in our laboratory using special treatments and applying special computer programs

  3. Investigation of Lecturer's Chalk by x-ray Florescence and Fast Neutron Activation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Different samples of lecturer's chalk were studied, using X-ray florescence (XRF) and Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) techniques to ensure the safety of its use. The K (X-rays) and the gamma-rays were measured, using Si(Li) and high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers to detect and determine qualitatively and quantitatively the constituents of the studied samples. The concentrations of the elements (Ca and small traces of Al, Fe, Mg and Si) were measured and their presence was confirmed by gamma-ray, lifetime and/or XRF measurements.

  4. Elemental investigation of talcum baby powder by X-Ray florescence and fast neutron activation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M. F.; Abd El Wahab, M.; Nada, A.

    2008-01-01

    Different samples of Egyptian and Hungarian talcum powders were studied, using X-ray florescence (XRF) and Fast Neutron Activation Analysis (FNAA) techniques to ensure the safety of its use. The K (X-rays) and the gamma-rays were measured, using Si(Li) and high-purity germanium (HPGe) spectrometers to detect and determine qualitatively and quantitatively the constituents of the studied samples. The concentrations of the elements (Mg, Si, Al, Fe, Zn, and Ba) were measured and their presence was confirmed by X-ray, lifetime and/or XRF measurements. One of these samples was also studied, using the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM)

  5. Actual survey of dose evaluation method for standardization of radiation therapy techniques. With special reference to display method of radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kozo; Yoshiura, Takao; Izumi, Takashi; Araki, Fujio; Takada, Takuo; Jingu, Kenichi.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of questionnaire survey for actual conditions of radiation therapy, which was conducted with the aim of establishing the standardization of radiation therapy techniques. Questionnaires were sent to 100 facilities in Japan, and 86 of these answered, consisting of 62 university hospitals, 2 national hospitals, 14 cancer centers, 4 prefectural or municipal hospitals, and 4 other hospitals. In addition to electron beam therapy, the following typical diseases for radiation therapy were selected as standard irradiation models: cancers of the larynx, esophagus, breast, and uterine cervix, and malignant lymphomas. According to these models, questionnaire results are analyzed in terms of the following four items: (1) irradiation procedures, (2) energy used for radiotherapy, (3) the depth for calculating target absorption doses, and (4) points for displaying target absorption doses. (N.K.)

  6. What Are the Most Effective Intervention Techniques for Changing Physical Activity Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Behaviour--and Are They the Same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. L.; French, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that targeting self-efficacy is an effective means of increasing physical activity. However, evidence concerning which are the most effective techniques for changing self-efficacy and thereby physical activity is lacking. The present review aims to estimate the association between specific intervention techniques used…

  7. Sports activity after anatomic acromioclavicular joint stabilisation with flip-button technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porschke, Felix; Schnetzke, Marc; Aytac, Sara; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Gruetzner, Paul Alfred; Guehring, Thorsten

    2017-07-01

    Sports activity after surgical AC joint stabilisation has not been comprehensively evaluated to date. The aim of this study was to determine rate, level and time to return to sports after AC joint stabilisation and to identify the influence of overhead sports on post-operative sports activity. In this retrospective case series, a total of 68 patients with a high-grade AC joint dislocation (Rockwood type V) were stabilised using a single TightRope technique. Fifty-five patients (80.9 %) with median age of 42.0 (range, 18-65) years completed questionnaires regarding sports activity before and after surgery. Clinical outcome and complications were also evaluated. Forty-three patients participated in sports regularly before injury. Their sports activity was rated according to Allain, and non-overhead and overhead sports were differentiated. At median follow-up of 24 (18-45) months, 41 of 43 patients (95.3 %) had returned to sports. 63 % returned to the same sports activity as before injury. 16.3 % needed to adapt the type of sports to reduce demanding activities. 11.6 % reduced the frequency and 32.5 % the intensity of sports. The median time to return to sports was 9.5 (3-18) months. Overhead athletes (Allain Type III and IV) had to reduce their sports activity significantly more often (11.8 vs. 53.8 %; p = 0.011) and needed more time to return to sports (9.5 vs. 4.5 months; p = 0.009). After stabilisation of AC joint dislocation, the majority of patients returned to sports after a substantial period of time. Overhead athletes, in particular, required more time and had to considerably reduce their sports activity. The findings impact therapeutic decision-making after AC joint injury and help with the prognosis and assessment of rehabilitation progress. IV.

  8. Salivary Fluoride level in preschool children after toothbrushing with standard and low fluoride content dentifrice, using the transversal dentifrice application technique: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Jandre Melo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the salivary fluoride concentration in pre-school children after toothbrushing with dentifrice containing standard (1100ppmF/NaF and low (500ppmF/NaF fluoride concentration, using the transversal technique of placing the product on the toothbrush. Methods: Eight children of both sexes, ranging from 4 to 9 years, and 5 years and 6 months of age, participated in the study. The experiment was divided into two phases with a weekly interval. In the first stage, the children used the standard concentration dentifrice for one week, and in the second, the low concentration product. Samples were collected at the end of each experimental stage, at the following times: Before brushing, immediately afterwards, and after 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fluoride contents were analyzed by the microdiffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done by the analysis of variance ANOVA and Student’s-t test (p<0.05. Results: The salivary fluoride concentration was significantly higher at all times, when the standard concentration product was used. The comparison between the Halogen concentration found before bushing and immediately afterwards, showed that there was a 6.8 times increase in the standard dentifrice (0.19 x 1.29μgF/ml and in the low concentration product, an increase of 20.5 times (0.02 x 0.41μgF/ml. Conclusion: Toothbrushing with both products promoted relevant increases in the salivary fluoride concentration; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the clinical result of this measurement.

  9. Precision of a photogrammetric method to perform 3D wound measurements compared to standard 2D photographic techniques in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labens, R; Blikslager, A

    2013-01-01

    Methods of 3D wound imaging in man play an important role in monitoring of healing and determination of the prognosis. Standard photographic assessments in equine wound management consist of 2D analyses, which provide little quantitative information on the wound bed. 3D imaging of equine wounds is feasible using principles of stereophotogrammetry. 3D measurements differ significantly and are more precise than results with standard 2D assessments. Repeated specialised photographic imaging of 4 clinical wounds left to heal by second intention was performed. The intraoperator variability in measurements due to imaging and 3D processing was compared to that of a standard 2D technique using descriptive statistics and multivariate repeated measures ANOVA. Using a custom made imaging system, 3D analyses were successfully performed. Area and circumference measurements were significantly different between imaging modalities. The intraoperator variability of 3D measurements was up to 2.8 times less than that of 2D results. On average, the maximum discrepancy between repeated measurements was 5.8% of the mean for 3D and 17.3% of the mean for 2D assessments. The intraoperator repeatability of 3D wound measurements based on principles of stereophotogrammetry is significantly increased compared to that of a standard 2D photographic technique indicating it may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool. The equine granulation bed plays an important role in equine wound healing. When compared to 2D analyses 3D monitoring of the equine wound bed allows superior quantitative characterisation, contributing to clinical and experimental investigations by offering potential new parameters. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Neutron activation analysis as a tracer technique for evaluating sample dissolution methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porritt, P.M.; Porritt, R.E.J.

    1978-01-01

    The usefulness of neutron activation analysis for monitoring sample dissolution methods has been demonstrated. Lanthanum was determined in the USGS standard rock GSP-1 by instrumental neutron activation analysis to provide a reference figure. When an irradiated sample of GSP-1 was sintered with sodium peroxide and the sinter cake washed with water, all the lanthanum-140 could be dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid. Heating an irradiated sample of GSP-1 with a mixture of hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid and perchloric acid and evaporating to fumes of perchloric acid dissolved only 80% of the lanthanum-140. However, evaporation to dryness, addition of perchloric acid and reevaporation to dryness rendered all the lanthanum-140 soluble

  11. Different parameter and technique affecting the rate of evaporation on active solar still -a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Muthu Manokar; D, Prince Winston; A. E, Kabeel; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; T, Arunkumar

    2017-10-01

    Water is one of the essential sources for the endurance of human on the earth. As earth having only a small amount of water resources for consumption purpose people in rural and urban areas are getting affected by consuming dirty water that leads to water-borne diseases. Even though ground water is available in small quantity, it has to be treated properly before its use for internal consumption. Brackish water contains dissolve and undissolved contents, and hence it is not suitable for the household purpose. Nowadays, distillation process is done by using passive and active solar stills. The major problem in using passive solar still is meeting higher demand for fresh water. The fresh water production from passive solar still is critically low to meet the demand. To improve the productivity of conventional solar still, input feed water is preheated by integrating the solar still to different collector panels. In this review article, the different parameters that affect the rate of evaporation in an active solar still and the different methods incorporated has been presented. In addition to active distillation system, forced convection technique can be incorporated to increase the yield of fresh water by decreasing the temperature of cover. Furthermore, it is identified that the yield of fresh water from the active desalination system can be improved by sensible and latent heat energy storage. This review will motivate the researchers to decide appropriate active solar still technology for promoting development.

  12. Different parameter and technique affecting the rate of evaporation on active solar still -a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Muthu Manokar; D, Prince Winston; A. E, Kabeel; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar; T, Arunkumar

    2018-03-01

    Water is one of the essential sources for the endurance of human on the earth. As earth having only a small amount of water resources for consumption purpose people in rural and urban areas are getting affected by consuming dirty water that leads to water-borne diseases. Even though ground water is available in small quantity, it has to be treated properly before its use for internal consumption. Brackish water contains dissolve and undissolved contents, and hence it is not suitable for the household purpose. Nowadays, distillation process is done by using passive and active solar stills. The major problem in using passive solar still is meeting higher demand for fresh water. The fresh water production from passive solar still is critically low to meet the demand. To improve the productivity of conventional solar still, input feed water is preheated by integrating the solar still to different collector panels. In this review article, the different parameters that affect the rate of evaporation in an active solar still and the different methods incorporated has been presented. In addition to active distillation system, forced convection technique can be incorporated to increase the yield of fresh water by decreasing the temperature of cover. Furthermore, it is identified that the yield of fresh water from the active desalination system can be improved by sensible and latent heat energy storage. This review will motivate the researchers to decide appropriate active solar still technology for promoting development.

  13. Enhancing Student Self-Study Attitude and Activity with Motivational Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Rhoads

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that students will exhibit a positive attitude towards self-study, but that they will often fail to complete self-study activities. The purpose of this paper is to investigate positive instructor interactions and motivation of students to complete self- study activities and students’ attitudes towards self-study. Six English instructors at the University of Shizuoka created a one-semester self-access study log for use in the university self-access language laboratory in order to find out how many students would complete the log. One of the six instructors applied motivational techniques in the classroom in an effort to engender greater student self-study. Later a questionnaire was administered to 465 student participants to determine their self-study attitudes and activities. The data collected from the questionnaire and the high participation in the self- study activities suggest the positive impact the motivational actions employed by the instructor had on his students' attitudes towards self-study activities.

  14. Validation of Ammonia Diffusive and Active Samplers in a Controlled Atmosphere Test Facility Using Traceable Primary Standard Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N. A.; Ferracci, V.; Cassidy, N.; Hook, J.; Battersby, R. M.; Tang, Y. S.; Stevens, A. C. M.; Jones, M. R.; Braban, C. F.; Gates, L.; Hangartner, M.; Sacco, P.; Pagani, D.; Hoffnagle, J.

    2016-12-01

    Intensive farming, the increased use of fertilizers, and certain industrial processes are believed to be responsible for increases in the amount fraction of ammonia (NH3) found in Europe. NH3 contributes to eutrophication and acidification of land and freshwater, leading to a loss of biodiversity, undesirable changes to the ecosystem, and to secondary particulate matter (PM) formation. Measurements of ambient ammonia over a wide geographical area, are principally carried out with low-cost diffusive samplers or by active sampling with denuders, with each technique delivering time-integrated values over the monitoring period. The goal of this work was to measure the NH3 diffusive sampling rates of five different designs of commercial diffusive samplers (FSM Radiello radial sampler, Gradko diffusion tube, Gradko DIFRAM-400, Passam ammonia sampler, and CEH ALPHA sampler), together with validation tests with a denuder sampler (CEH DELTA denuder). The would deliver validated improvements in the accuracy of ambient measurements of NH3 in the field through the establishment of metrological traceability using new stable ammonia Primary Standard Gas Mixtures (PSMs), developed by gravimetry at NPL. All devices were simultaneously exposed in a controlled atmosphere test facility (CATFAC) containing traceable amount fractions of ammonia applicable to a range of ambient monitoring conditions, with well-defined conditions of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. Online continuous monitoring of the test atmospheres was carried out with a calibrated cavity ring-down spectrometer modified to account for cross interference by water. Exposed samplers were analysed by individual manufacturers for ammonium using traceable wet chemical techniques. The measured diffusive sampling rates were then applied to field measurements carried out at the Whim Bog experimental station in Scotland, where there is a facility in place for controlled releases of NH3 and also a background site.

  15. The determination of gold in activated charcoal by use of a loose-powder technique and x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaes, A.M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The method of analysis described is applicable to samples of activated charcoal with a gold concentration of 15g/t and higher. The use of a loose-powder technique minimizes the time taken for the preparation of samples. A platinum internal standard is used for the correction for matrix effects and for differences that could be caused by the packing of the loose charcoal into liquid-sample cups. The precision of the method ranges from a relative standard deviation of 0,085 to 0,016 for concentrations of gold from 67 to 3800g/t respectively. The agreement between the recommended values for a set of reference samples and the values obtained by the X-ray-fluorescence method is better than 3 per cent. The overall time required for the analysis of ten samples and standards is approximately 1 hour. A detailed laboratory method and a computer programme for the calculations are given as appendices

  16. Validation of five minimally obstructive methods to estimate physical activity energy expenditure in young adults in semi-standardized settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Gupta, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    ActivPAL3 software (ActivPAL), ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph) and Actiheart (Actiheart), and by a combination of activity type recognition via Acti4 software and activity counts per minute (CPM) of either a hip- or thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ (AGhip + Acti4 and AGthigh + Acti4). At group level, estimated......-standardized settings compared to previously validated methods using CPM only....

  17. Analyzing Activity Behavior and Movement in a Naturalistic Environment Using Smart Home Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Dawadi, Prafulla

    2015-11-01

    One of the many services that intelligent systems can provide is the ability to analyze the impact of different medical conditions on daily behavior. In this study, we use smart home and wearable sensors to collect data, while ( n = 84) older adults perform complex activities of daily living. We analyze the data using machine learning techniques and reveal that differences between healthy older adults and adults with Parkinson disease not only exist in their activity patterns, but that these differences can be automatically recognized. Our machine learning classifiers reach an accuracy of 0.97 with an area under the ROC curve value of 0.97 in distinguishing these groups. Our permutation-based testing confirms that the sensor-based differences between these groups are statistically significant.

  18. Neutron dose measurements in PET medical cyclotron by foil activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepa, S.; Sathian, V.; Phadnis, U.V.; Pal, Rupali; Jayalakshmi, V.; Chaurasiya, G.; Kannan, S.; Soni, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Radionuclides are being used in diagnostic purpose as well as therapeutic purpose under medical category for early detection of malignancies, the diagnosis using radionuclides are playing very important role. PET scan is a miles stone in medical history. These scan is done using a positron emitter 18 F. This radionuclide is produced by the reaction 18 O (p, n) 18 F. In RMC this is produced using accelerated proton using cyclotron. The neutron production is an unwanted by product. These neutrons will make lot of radiation protection problem as neutron itself and also these neutrons will produce induced activity in the different elements of cyclotron shielding material as well as the wall materials in long run. So the accurate neutron dose measurement is very important. The measurement of neutron dose in cyclotron of RMC using activation foil technique is presented in this paper

  19. Novel Technique and Technologies for Active Optical Remote Sensing of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    The societal benefits of understanding climate change through identification of global carbon dioxide sources and sinks led to the desired NASA's active sensing of carbon dioxide emissions over nights, days, and seasons (ASCENDS) space-based missions of global carbon dioxide measurements. For more than 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have developed several carbon dioxide active remote sensors using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique operating at the two-micron wavelength. Currently, an airborne two-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is under development. This IPDA lidar measures carbon dioxide as well as water vapor, the dominant interfering molecule on carbon dioxide remote sensing. Advancement of this triple-pulse IPDA lidar development is presented.

  20. THE GAME TECHNIQUE NTCHNIQUE STIMULATING LEARNING ACTIVITY OF JUNIOR STUDENTS SPECIALIZING IN ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri. S. Ezrokh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at specifying and developing the modern control system of current academic achievements of junior university students; and the main task is to find the adequate ways for stimulating the junior students’ learning activities, and estimating their individual achievements.Methods: The author applies his own assessment method for estimating and stimulating students’ learning outcomes, based on the rating-point system of gradually obtained points building up a student’s integrated learning outcomes.Results: The research findings prove that implementation of the given method can increase the motivational, multiplicative and controlling components of the learning process.Scientific novelty: The method in question is based on the new original game approach to controlling procedures and stimulation of learning motivation of the economic profile students.Practical significance: The recommended technique can intensify the incentivebased training activities both in and outside a classroom, developing thereby students’ professional and personal qualities.

  1. Survival of the Fittest: An Active Queue Management Technique for Noisy Packet Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirish S. Karande

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel active queue management (AQM technique to demonstrate the efficacy of practically harnessing the predictive utility of SSR indications for improved video communication. We consider a network within which corrupted packets are relayed over multiple hops, but a certain percentage of packets needs to be dropped at an intermediate node due to congestion. We propose an AQM technique, survival of the fittest (SOTF, to be employed at the relay node, within which we use packet state information, available from SSR indications and checksums, to drop packets with the highest corruption levels. On the basis of actual 802.11b measurements we show that such a side information (SI aware processing within the network can provide significant performance benefits over an SI-unaware scheme, random queue management (RQM, which is forced to randomly discard packets. With trace-based simulations, we show the utility of the proposed AQM technique in improving the error recovery performance of cross-layer FEC schemes. Finally, with the help of H.264-based video simulations these improvements are shown to translate into a significant improvement in video quality.

  2. Comparison of Smear Layer Removal Ability of QMix with Different Activation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Dilara; Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Dincer, Asiye Nur; Kustarci, Alper; Er, Kursat; Siso, Seyda Herguner

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of QMix solution (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK) on the smear layer using the following irrigation activation techniques: the EndoActivator (EA) system (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS), and an Er:YAG laser with an endodontic fiber tip. Sixty-four extracted single-rooted human teeth were decoronated and the canals instrumented with ProTaper (Denstply Maillefer, Ballagues, Switzerland) up to size F4. The canals were irrigated with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and a saline solution for 1 minute each. The specimens were then divided randomly into 4 experimental and 4 control groups (n = 8) according to the final irrigation activation technique. These groups included group 1, 2.5 mL QMix; group 2, QMix + EA; group 3, QMix + PIPS; and group 4: QMix + Er:YAG. Laser activated distilled water was used as control groups 5, 6, 7, and 8. Teeth were split longitudinally, and specimens were observed under a scanning electron microscope. Images were taken at the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the teeth at a magnification of 1000× and were scored in the presence of the smear layer. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The highest scores were found in the apical third of all groups (P < .05). The QMix + Er:YAG group removed the smear layer more effectively than the nonactivated QMix group in the apical third (P < .05). The QMix + EA group removed the smear layer significantly in all thirds of the teeth when compared with the nonactivated QMix group (P < .05). The QMix + PIPS group showed a significantly better effect than the QMix group in the coronal third (P < .05). The EA and Er:YAG laser enhanced the smear layer removal ability of QMix in the apical thirds of the canals. QMix removed more smear layer in the coronal thirds when activated with the PIPS technique. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Trace elements in California aerosols. Part I. Instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Ralston, H.R.; Garvis, D.; Kaifer, R.

    1975-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) done at LLL played a key role in the 1972--1974 California Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACHEX), a major experiment in the chemistry of aerosols in urban and non-urban sites of California sponsored by the State of California Air Resources Board. The main purpose of INAA was to measure the particle size distributions and diurnal patterns of key chemical constituents in aerosols collected in California. These data were used to satisfy some of the key objectives of ACHEX, including aerosol characterization and evaluation of the origins and evolutions of aerosols. Secondary uses of INAA were the validations of the Lundgren rotating drum cascade impactors used in the ACHEX, and validations of other analytical techniques used in the chemical analyses. As a result of these studies, it was concluded that techniques using INAA were useful operational methods for chemical analysis of aerosols collected over two-hour periods in urban air with an active monitoring program. (U.S.)

  4. Monitoring volcanic thermal activity by Robust Satellite Techniques: achievements and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramutoli, V.; Marchese, F.; Mazzeo, G.; Pergola, N.

    2009-12-01

    Satellite data have been increasingly used in last decades to study active volcanoes and to monitor thermal activity variation in space-time domain. Several satellite techniques and original methods have been developed and tested, devoted to hotspot detection and thermal monitoring. Among them, a multi-temporal approach, named RST (Robust Satellite Techniques), has shown high performances in detecting hotspots, with a low false positive rate under different observational and atmospheric conditions, providing also a potential toward low-level thermal anomalies which may announce incoming eruptions. As the RST scheme is intrinsically exportable on different geographic areas and satellite sensors, it has been applied and tested on a number of volcanoes and in different environmental conditions. This work presents major results and outcomes of studies carried out on Etna and Stromboli (Italy), Merapi (Java Indonesia), Asamayama (Japan), Jebel Al Tair (Yemen) by using different satellite systems and sensors (e.g. NOAA-AVHRR, EOS-MODIS, MSG-SEVIRI). Performances on hotspot detection, early warning and real-time monitoring, together with capabilities in possible thermal precursor identification, will be presented and discussed.

  5. Surface deformation of active volcanic areas retrieved with the SBAS-DInSAR technique: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zeni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the surface deformation retrieval capability of the Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR algorithm, referred to as Small BAseline Subset (SBAS technique, in the context of active volcanic areas. In particular, after a brief description of the algorithm some experiments relevant to three selected case-study areas are presented. First, we concentrate on the application of the SBAS algorithm to a single-orbit scenario, thus considering a set of SAR data composed by images acquired on descending orbits by the European Remote Sensing (ERS radar sensors and relevant to the Long Valley caldera (eastern California area. Subsequently, we address the capability of the SBAS technique in a multipleorbit context by referring to Mt. Etna volcano (southern Italy test site, with respect to which two different ERS data set, composed by images acquired both on ascending and descending orbits, are available. Finally, we take advantage of the capability of the algorithm to work in a multi-platform scenario by jointly exploiting two different sets of SAR images collected by the ERS and the Environment Satellite (ENVISAT radar sensors in the Campi Flegrei caldera (southern Italy area. The presented results demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm to investigate the deformation field in active volcanic areas and the potential of the DInSAR methodologies within routine surveillance scenario.

  6. Determination of silver, gold, zinc and copper in mineral samples by various techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez R, N. I.; Rios M, C.; Pinedo V, J. L.; Yoho, M.; Landsberger, S.

    2015-09-01

    Using the method of instrumental neutron activation analysis, mineral exploration samples were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of silver, gold, zinc and copper; these minerals being the main products of benefit of Tizapa and Cozamin mines. Samples were subjected to various techniques, where the type of radiation and counting methods were chosen based on the specific isotopic characteristics of each element. For calibration and determination of concentrations the comparator method was used, certified standards were subjected to the same conditions of irradiation and measurement that the prospecting samples. The irradiations were performed at the research reactor TRIGA Mark II of the University of Texas at Austin. The silver concentrations were determined by Cyclical Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis. This method in combination with the transfer pneumatic system allowed a good analytical precision and accuracy in prospecting for silver, from photo peak measurement 657.7 keV of short half-life radionuclide 110 Ag. For the determination of gold and zinc, Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis was used, the photo peaks analyzed corresponded to the energies 411.8 keV of radionuclide 199 Au and 438.6 keV of metastable radionuclide 69m Zn. On the other hand, copper quantification was based on the photo peak analysis of 1039.2 keV produced by the short half-life radionuclide 66 Cu, by Thermal Neutron Activation Analysis. The photo peaks measurement corresponding to gold, zinc and copper was performed using a Compton suppression system, which allowed an improvement in the signal to noise relationship, so that better detection limits and low uncertainties associated with the results were obtained. Comparing elemental concentrations the highest values in silver, zinc and copper was for samples of mine Tizapa. Regarding gold values were found in the same range for both mines. To evaluate the precision and accuracy of the methods used, various geological

  7. Learning from the experts: exploring playground experience and activities using a write and draw technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Zoe Rebecca; Parnell, Daniel; Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola Diane

    2013-03-01

    Qualitative research into the effect of school recess on children's physical activity is currently limited. This study used a write and draw technique to explore children's perceptions of physical activity opportunities during recess. 299 children age 7-11 years from 3 primary schools were enlisted. Children were grouped into Years 3 & 4 and Years 5 & 6 and completed a write and draw task focusing on likes and dislikes. Pen profiles were used to analyze the data. Results indicated 'likes' focused on play, positive social interaction, and games across both age groups but showed an increasing dominance of games with an appreciation for being outdoors with age. 'Dislikes' focused on dysfunctional interactions linked with bullying, membership, equipment, and conflict for playground space. Football was a dominant feature across both age groups and 'likes/dislikes' that caused conflict and dominated the physically active games undertaken. Recess was important for the development of conflict management and social skills and contributed to physical activity engagement. The findings contradict suggestions that time spent in recess should be reduced because of behavioral issues.

  8. A highly sensitive technique for detecting catalytically active nanoparticles against a background of general workplace aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, N; Weis, F; Seipenbusch, M; Kasper, G; Binder, A

    2011-01-01

    A new measurement technique was studied using catalysis to specifically detect airborne nanoparticles in presence of background particles in the workplace air. Catalytically active nanoparticles produced by spark discharge were used as aerosol catalysts. According to these particles suitable catalytic test reactions were chosen and investigated by two different approaches: catalysis on airborne nanoparticles and catalysis on deposited nanoparticles. The results indicate that catalysis is applicable for the specific measurement of nanoparticles in the workplace air. Catalysis on airborne particles is suitable for the specific detection of very active nanoparticles, e.g. platinum or nickel, at high concentrations of about 10 7 /cm 3 . The approach of catalysis on deposited particles is better suited for nanoparticle aerosols at low concentrations, for slow catalytic reactions or less active nanoparticles like iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). On the basis of the experimental results detection limits in the range of μg or even ng were calculated which assure the good potential of catalysis for the specific detection of nanoparticles in the workplace air based on their catalytic activity.

  9. Measuring enzyme activities under standardized in vivo-like conditions for Systems Biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, K.; Bouwman, J.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.L.; Postmus, J.; Canelas, A.; Mensonides, F.I.C.; Orij, R.; Tuzun, I.; van der Brink, J.; Smits, G.J.; van Gulik, W.M.; Brul, S.; Heijnen, J.J.; de Winde, J.H.; Teixeira de Mattos, M.J.; Kettner, C.; Nielsen, J.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Bakker, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Realistic quantitative models require data from many laboratories. Therefore, standardization of experimental systems and assay conditions is crucial. Moreover, standards should be representative of the in vivo conditions. However, most often, enzyme-kinetic parameters are measured under assay

  10. Measuring enzyme activities under standardized in vivo-like conditions for systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, Karen; Bouwman, Jildau; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Postmus, Jarne; Canelas, Andre B.; Mensonides, Femke I. C.; Orij, Rick; Tuzun, Isil; van den Brink, Joost; Smits, Gertien J.; van Gulik, Walter M.; Brul, Stanley; de Winde, Johannes H.; de Mattos, M. J. Teixeira; Kettner, Carsten; Nielsen, Jens; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    Realistic quantitative models require data from many laboratories. Therefore, standardization of experimental systems and assay conditions is crucial. Moreover, standards should be representative of the in vivo conditions. However, most often, enzyme-kinetic parameters are measured under assay

  11. Standardized activities of daily living in presence of sub-acute low-back pain: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svendsen, Jacob H.; Svarrer, Heine; Laessoe, Uffe; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Madeleine, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate how sub-acute low-back pain (LBP) patients differed with respect to control in movements and muscle activation during standardized tasks representing daily living activities, and explore relationships between cognition and measured motor performance.

  12. Biofilm removal by 6% sodium hypochlorite activated by different irrigation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordinola-Zapata, R; Bramante, C M; Aprecio, R M; Handysides, R; Jaramillo, D E

    2014-07-01

    To compare the removal of biofilm utilizing four irrigation techniques on a bovine root canal model. Fifty dentine specimens (2 × 2 mm) were infected with biofilm. The samples were then adapted to previously created cavities in the bovine model. The root canals were irrigated twice with 2 mL of 6% sodium hypochlorite for 2 min (4 min total). Following initial irrigation, the different treatment modalities were introduced for 60 s (3 × 20 s intervals). The evaluated techniques were needle irrigation, Endoactivator (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK, USA), passive ultrasonic irrigation and laser-activated irrigation (photon-induced photoacoustic streaming). The controls were irrigated with distilled water and conventional needle irrigation. Subsequently, the dentine samples were separated from the model and analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fifteen operative fields were scanned per block, and SEM pictures were captured. Two calibrated evaluators examined the images and collected data using a four-degree scale. Nonparametric tests were used to evaluate for statistical significance amongst the groups. The group undergoing laser-activated irrigation using photon-induced photoacoustic streaming exhibited the most favourable results in the removal of biofilm. Passive ultrasonic irrigation scores were significantly lower than both the Endoactivator and needle irrigation scores. Sonic and needle irrigation were not significantly different. The least favourable results were found in the control group. Laser activation of 6% sodium hypochlorite significantly improved the cleaning of biofilm-infected dentine followed by passive ultrasonic irrigation. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Standardization of radiochemical techniques aiming the study of Hg volatilization and methylation in water and sediment of gold mining areas in the Amazon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee

    1992-09-01

    Methylation of inorganic Hg in aquatic systems is a key process in the environmental cycling of this metal, not yet studied in tropical conditions. Radiochemical techniques were adapted and simplified, aiming at the study of Hg volatilization and methylation in water and sediment of gold mining areas in the Amazon region. Preliminary experiments showed, in 35 days volatilization of up to 32 % of 203 Hg 2+ added to aqueous solutions. Acid K 2 Cr 2 0 7 0.1 M solutions were not effective in 203 Hg 0 trapping and the latter was highly and irreversibly absorbed by a variety of synthetic materials commonly used in laboratory work. Considerably simplified versions of the Furutani and Rudd (1980) radiochemical technique for the determination of methylation rates in environmental samples were developed and showed efficiencies close to 90 % in tests with methyl- 2 0 3 H g standards. In-situ incubations of surface sediments were performed in the Madeira River gold mining region, Rondonia State, Brazil, and potential net Hg methylation rates (MR) of up to 1 %.g-1.h-1 were found in black-water affluent like the Mutum-Parana and Jamari rivers and in the Samuel reservoir. MRs in the Madeira River sediments were lower, ranging 10-5 to 10-3 %.g-1.h-1 . MRs obtained in incubations of samples some weeks after collection were one or two orders of magnitude lower than those resulting from in-situ incubations. Methylation in autoclaved samples was close to minimum detectable rates. MRs in surface water samples was in all cases < 7.10-7 %.ml-1.h-1. The determination of the predominant methylation sites will allow a better standardization of the technique described herein, suitable for MR determinations even under the unfavorable conditions prevailing in the Amazon region. (author)

  14. Water quality - Determination of tritium activity concentration - Liquid scintillation counting method (International Standard Publication ISO 9698:1989)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanik, J.

    1999-01-01

    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of tritiated water ([ 3 H]H 2 O) activity concentration in water by liquid scintillation counting. The method is applicable to all types of water including seawater with tritium activity concentrations of up to 10 6 Bq/m 3 when using 20 ml counting vials. Below tritium activity concentrations of about 5 x 10 4 Bq/m 3[ 8], a prior enrichment step and/or the measurement of larger sample volumes can significantly improve the accuracy of the determination and lower the limit of detection. Tritium activity concentrations higher than 10 6 Bq/m 3 may be determined after appropriate dilution with distilled water of proven low tritium content. An alternative method for the determination of these higher activities involves increasing the tritium activity concentrations of the internal standard solution. The method is not applicable to the analysis of organically bound tritium; its determination requires an oxidative digestion

  15. Application of the neutron activation analysis technique in trace elements analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.

    2006-12-01

    The main objective in this study is the implementation k 0 -standardization method (single comparator method) using gold comparator as a routine method in neutron activation analysis laboratory in Engineering Nuclear Department. Cadmium ratio Rcd; Cd-ratio = [A s p/(A s p) C d] and the nuclear reactor constants (f=φ t h/φ e pi subcadimum thermal- to- epithermal neutron flux ratio and α with describing the φ e (E)∼ 1/E 1+α neutron flux distribution) were determined in the inner and outer irradiation sites at MNS Reactor. K 0 -IAEA software, which provided by the Agency, has been installed and applied in our laboratory. Trace elements in many kinds of samples (biological, environmental, alloy ...etc) were determined using K 0 -IAEA software. The results of standard reference materials (SRM's) obtained in this work show a good agreement with the certified values, and we got these results with a good accuracy closer to results which we got from relative NAA method. (author)

  16. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in organic red wine using different winemaking techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, Juana; Zafrilla, Pilar; Cayuela, Jose M; Martínez-Cachá, Adela; Pardo, Francisco

    2011-04-01

    Wine phenolic composition depends on the grapes used to make wine and on vinification conditions. The occurrence of these biological compounds has stimulated numerous studies focused on understanding the mechanisms that influence their concentrations in wine. This article studied the effect of different vinification techniques on the antioxidant activity and on the phenolic compounds of red wine made from the variety of Monastrell grapes obtained by organic culture. To this purpose, 3 different vinification procedures were carried out: vinification after prolonged maceration, vinification with the addition of enological enzymes, and traditional vinification procedures (used as control).The results showed similar values of antioxidant activity in all 3 types of wine elaborated and found no differences in the concentrations of the different types of phenolic compounds in wine made with the 3 different methods. The evolution of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds tested in wines during 3 mo of storage showed a similar pattern. Organic wine has acquired an important role in the economic world and its important, working in oenology to research in this field.

  17. Investigation of anti-wear performance of automobile lubricants using thin layer activation analysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, Jayashree [Isotope and Radiation Application Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Thakre, G.D. [Tribology and Combustion Division, Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun 248005, Uttarakhand (India); Pant, H.J., E-mail: hjpant@barc.gov.in [Isotope and Radiation Application Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Samantray, J.S. [Isotope and Radiation Application Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Arya, P.K. [Tribology and Combustion Division, Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun 248005, Uttarakhand (India); Sharma, S.C.; Gupta, A.K. [Nuclear Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-05-15

    An investigation was carried out to examine the anti-wear behavior of automobile lubricants using thin layer activation analysis technique. For this study disc gears made of EN 31 steel were labeled with a small amount of radioactivity by irradiating with 13 MeV proton beam from a particle accelerator. Experiments on wear rate measurement of the gear were carried out by mounting the irradiated disc gear on a twin-disc tribometer under lubricated condition. The activity loss was monitored by using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector integrated with a multichannel analyzer. The relative remnant activity was correlated with thickness loss by generating a calibration curve. The wear measurements were carried out for four different types of lubricants, named as, L1, L2, L3 and L4. At lower load L1 and L4 were found to exhibit better anti-wear properties than L2 and L3, whereas, L4 exhibited the best anti-wear performance behavior than other three lubricants at all the loads and speeds investigated.

  18. Antibiofilm properties of interfacially active lipase immobilized porous polycaprolactam prepared by LB technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veluchamy Prabhawathi

    Full Text Available Porous biomaterial is the preferred implant due to the interconnectivity of the pores. Chances of infection due to biofilm are also high in these biomaterials because of the presence of pores. Although biofilm in implants contributes to 80% of human infections, there are no commercially available natural therapeutics against it. In the current study, glutaraldehyde cross linked lipase was transferred onto a activated porous polycaprolactam surface using Langmuir-Blodgett deposition technique, and its thermostability, slimicidal, antibacterial, biocompatibility and surface properties were studied. There was a 20% increase in the activity of the covalently crosslinked lipase when compared to its free form. This immobilized surface was thermostable and retained activity and stability until 100°C. There was a 2 and 7 times reduction in carbohydrate and 9 and 5 times reduction in biofilm protein of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli respectively on lipase immobilized polycaprolactam (LIP when compared to uncoated polycaprolactam (UP. The number of live bacterial colonies on LIP was four times less than on UP. Lipase acted on the cell wall of the bacteria leading to its death, which was confirmed from AFM, fluorescence microscopic images and amount of lactate dehydrogenase released. LIP allowed proliferation of more than 90% of 3T3 cells indicating that it was biocompatible. The fact that LIP exhibits antimicrobial property at the air-water interface to hydrophobic as well as hydrophilic bacteria along with lack of cytotoxicity makes it an ideal biomaterial for biofilm prevention in implants.

  19. A multi-standard active-RC filter with accurate tuning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Heping; Yuan Fang; Shi Yin; Dai, F F

    2009-01-01

    A low-power, highly linear, multi-standard, active-RC filter with an accurate and novel tuning architecture is presented. It exhibits IEEE 802.11 a/b/g (9.5 MHz) and DVB-H (3 MHz, 4 MHz) application. The filter exploits digitally-controlled polysilicon resistor banks and a phase lock loop type automatic tuning system. The novel and complex automatic frequency calibration scheme provides better than 4 corner frequency accuracy, and it can be powered down after calibration to save power and avoid digital signal interference. The filter achieves OIP3 of 26 dBm and the measured group delay variation of the receiver filter is 50 ns (WLAN mode). Its dissipation is 3.4 mA in RX mode and 2.3 mA (only for one path) in TX mode from a 2.85 V supply. The dissipation of calibration consumes 2 mA. The circuit has been fabricated in a 0.35 μm 47 GHz SiGe BiCMOS technology; the receiver and transmitter filter occupy 0.21 mm 2 and 0.11 mm 2 (calibration circuit excluded), respectively.

  20. Application of Scharer's quantitative method for the determination of residual alkaline phosphatase activity in standard Minas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Soares

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk pasteurization is a critical issue in the dairy industry, and failures in this process can affect final product safety. Scharer's enzymatic method is still traditionally used to verify pasteurization efficiency compliance, and it is based on screening for residual alkaline phosphatase in milk. Although several methods are used to quantify enzymatic activity to assess milk pasteurization efficiency, there is a small amount of published data regarding the use of these methods to quantify alkaline phosphatase in cheese. In this study, the Scharer's modified method was used to determine the levels of residual alkaline phosphatase in standard minas cheese, before and after 20 days of ripening. The cheeses were made using raw or pasteurized milk with the addition of different concentrations of raw milk (0; 0.05%; 0.10%; 0.20%; and 0.50%. In the fresh cheese samples, the method showed a sensitivity of only 0.50% with the addition of raw milk to the pasteurized milk used to make cheese. In addition, levels of up 0.20% of raw milk in pasteurized milk, the concentrations of phenol was inferior to 1μg phenol/g of dairy product which is the preconized indicator value for adequate pasteurization.

  1. The standard model and some new directions. [for scientific theory of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, R. D.; Rees, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A 'standard' model of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), based upon a massive black hole surrounded by a thin accretion disk, is defined. It is argued that, although there is good evidence for the presence of black holes and orbiting gas, most of the details of this model are either inadequate or controversial. Magnetic field may be responsible for the confinement of continuum and line-emitting gas, for the dynamical evolution of accretion disks and for the formation of jets. It is further argued that gaseous fuel is supplied in molecular form and that this is responsible for thermal re-radiation, equatorial obscuration and, perhaps, the broad line gas clouds. Stars may also supply gas close to the black hole, especially in low power AGN and they may be observable in discrete orbits as probes of the gravitational field. Recent observations suggest that magnetic field, stars, dusty molecular gas and orientation effects must be essential components of a complete description of AGN. The discovery of quasars with redshifts approaching 5 is an important clue to the mechanism of galaxy formation.

  2. Calcium-activated force of human muscle fibers following a standardized eccentric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Jun; Widrick, Jeffrey J

    2010-12-01

    Peak Ca(2+)-activated specific force (force/fiber cross-sectional area) of human chemically skinned vastus lateralis muscle fiber segments was determined before and after a fixed-end contraction or an eccentric contraction of standardized magnitude (+0.25 optimal fiber length) and velocity (0.50 unloaded shortening velocity). Fiber myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content was assayed by SDS-PAGE. Posteccentric force deficit, a marker of damage, was similar for type I and IIa fibers but threefold greater for type IIa/IIx hybrid fibers. A fixed-end contraction had no significant effect on force. Multiple linear regression revealed that posteccentric force was explained by a model consisting of a fiber type-independent and a fiber type-specific component (r(2) = 0.91). Preeccentric specific force was directly associated with a greater posteccentric force deficit. When preeccentric force was held constant, type I and IIa fibers showed identical susceptibility to damage, while type IIa/IIx fibers showed a significantly greater force loss. This heightened sensitivity to damage was directly related to the amount of type IIx MHC in the hybrid fiber. Our model reveals a fiber-type sensitivity of the myofilament lattice or cytoskeleton to mechanical strain that can be described as follows: type IIa/IIx > type IIa = type I. If these properties extend to fibers in vivo, then alterations in the number of type IIa/IIx fibers may modify a muscle's susceptibility to eccentric damage.

  3. A multi-standard active-RC filter with accurate tuning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Heping; Yuan Fang; Shi Yin [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Dai, F F, E-mail: hpma@semi.ac.c [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5201 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    A low-power, highly linear, multi-standard, active-RC filter with an accurate and novel tuning architecture is presented. It exhibits IEEE 802.11 a/b/g (9.5 MHz) and DVB-H (3 MHz, 4 MHz) application. The filter exploits digitally-controlled polysilicon resistor banks and a phase lock loop type automatic tuning system. The novel and complex automatic frequency calibration scheme provides better than 4 corner frequency accuracy, and it can be powered down after calibration to save power and avoid digital signal interference. The filter achieves OIP3 of 26 dBm and the measured group delay variation of the receiver filter is 50 ns (WLAN mode). Its dissipation is 3.4 mA in RX mode and 2.3 mA (only for one path) in TX mode from a 2.85 V supply. The dissipation of calibration consumes 2 mA. The circuit has been fabricated in a 0.35 {mu}m 47 GHz SiGe BiCMOS technology; the receiver and transmitter filter occupy 0.21 mm{sup 2} and 0.11 mm{sup 2} (calibration circuit excluded), respectively.

  4. THE STUDY OF ACTIVITY REGARDING THE PROCESSES QUALITY ACCORDING TO ISO STANDARD 9004-2.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA Ioan – Pavel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the activities regarding processes quality according to ISO 9004-2.1 there is one refering to planning to keep under control the processes, achieved by: documentation of current activities, development of documented work instructions, establishing checkpoints and quality inspection techniques, assess the potential effectiveness of technological processes. A first step in this direction represents the presentation of the general elements that contribute to insuring the quality of each stage of manufacturing processes, the data being possible to suit for individual cases. It shall be noted that in industrial practice these quality assurance measures are designed interdependent. Preventive control during the technological processes has an important role in improving the technological processes in textiles and also increasing the quality performance of products in order to improve production and creating a recognizable brand in the world market. Quality of products manufactured in textiles has a decisive role in the present, when facing with an excess of production in this domain and a special competition between firms in the world market. A company that wants to continue to exist and develop must regularly check the quality/satisfaction degree obtained for the products manufactured. The application of quality control system implies a reference system compared to what can be measured by which we obtain “the quality level required and expected.” The referential system can be formed in a set of performance indicators so we can say that a company continues to be competitive as far as it established and achieved a series of performance indicators and in addition it controls these indicators every day.

  5. Federal environmental standards of potential importance to operations and activities at US Department of Energy sites. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, K.M.; Bilyard, G.R.; Davidson, S.A.; Jonas, R.J.; Joseph, J.

    1993-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is now engaged in a program of environmental restoration nationwide across its 45 sites. It is also bringing its facilities into compliance with environmental regulations, decontaminating and decommissioning unwanted facilities, and constructing new waste management facilities. One of the most difficult questions that DOE must face in successfully remediating its inactive waste sites, decontaminating and decommissioning its inactive facilities, and operating its waste management facilities is: ``What criteria and standards should be met?`` Acceptable standards or procedures for determining standards will assist DOE in its conduct of ongoing waste management and pending cleanup activities by helping to ensure that those activities are conducted in compliance with applicable laws and regulations and are accepted by the regulatory community and the public. This document reports on the second of three baseline activities that are being conducted as prerequisites to either the development of quantitative standards that could be used by DOE, or consistent procedures for developing such standards. The first and third baseline activities are also briefly discussed in conjunction with the second of the three activities.

  6. Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, JP

    2011-01-01

    International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the l...

  7. Characterizing Dissolved Organic Matter and Metabolites in an Actively Serpentinizing Ophiolite Using Global Metabolomics Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, L. M.; Rempfert, K. R.; Kraus, E. A.; Spear, J. R.; Templeton, A. S.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental metabolomics is an emerging approach used to study ecosystem properties. Through bioinformatic comparisons to metagenomic data sets, metabolomics can be used to study microbial adaptations and responses to varying environmental conditions. Since the techniques are highly parallel to organic geochemistry approaches, metabolomics can also provide insight into biogeochemical processes. These analyses are a reflection of metabolic potential and intersection with other organisms and environmental components. Here, we used an untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize dissolved organic carbon and aqueous metabolites from groundwater obtained from an actively serpentinizing habitat. Serpentinites are known to support microbial communities that feed off of the products of serpentinization (such as methane and H2 gas), while adapted to harsh environmental conditions such as high pH and low DIC availability. However, the biochemistry of microbial populations that inhabit these environments are understudied and are complicated by overlapping biotic and abiotic processes. The aim of this study was to identify potential sources of carbon in an environment that is depleted of soluble inorganic carbon, and to characterize the flow of metabolites and describe overlapping biogenic and abiogenic processes impacting carbon cycling in serpentinizing rocks. We applied untargeted metabolomics techniques to groundwater taken from a series of wells drilled into the Semail Ophiolite in Oman.. Samples were analyzed via quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (QToF-LC/MS/MS). Metabolomes and metagenomic data were imported into Progenesis QI software for statistical analysis and correlation, and metabolic networks constructed using the Genome-Linked Application for Metabolic Maps (GLAMM), a web interface tool. Further multivariate statistical analyses and quality control was performed using EZinfo. Pools of dissolved organic carbon could

  8. Getting the Most Out of Dual-Listed Courses: Involving Undergraduate Students in Discussion through Active Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Leslie Lyons; Burkhardt, Bethany L.; Benneyworth, Laura M.; Tasich, Christopher M.; Duncan, Benjamin R.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides readers with details concerning the implementation of four active learning techniques used to help undergraduate students critically discuss primary literature. On the basis of undergraduate and graduate student perceptions and experiences, the authors suggest techniques to enhance the quality of dual-listed courses and…

  9. The radiological safety in the use of nuclear technique -activities developed by Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, T.; Pereira, E.G.; Hirayama, T.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear - CDTN supporting the users of nuclear techniques are described. The methodology used and future plans for the group are shown. (E.G.)

  10. Techniques for extracting single-trial activity patterns from large-scale neural recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Mark M; Yu, Byron M; Sahani, Maneesh; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2008-01-01

    Summary Large, chronically-implanted arrays of microelectrodes are an increasingly common tool for recording from primate cortex, and can provide extracellular recordings from many (order of 100) neurons. While the desire for cortically-based motor prostheses has helped drive their development, such arrays also offer great potential to advance basic neuroscience research. Here we discuss the utility of array recording for the study of neural dynamics. Neural activity often has dynamics beyond that driven directly by the stimulus. While governed by those dynamics, neural responses may nevertheless unfold differently for nominally identical trials, rendering many traditional analysis methods ineffective. We review recent studies – some employing simultaneous recording, some not – indicating that such variability is indeed present both during movement generation, and during the preceding premotor computations. In such cases, large-scale simultaneous recordings have the potential to provide an unprecedented view of neural dynamics at the level of single trials. However, this enterprise will depend not only on techniques for simultaneous recording, but also on the use and further development of analysis techniques that can appropriately reduce the dimensionality of the data, and allow visualization of single-trial neural behavior. PMID:18093826

  11. On the Active and Passive Flow Separation Control Techniques over Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Tohid; Banazadeh Neishabouri, Nafiseh

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, recent advances in the field of the active and passive flow separation control, particularly blowing and suction flow control techniques, applied on the common airfoils are briefly reviewed. This broad research area has remained the point of interest for many years as it is applicable to various applications. The suction and blowing flow control methods, among other methods, are more technically feasible and market ready techniques. It is well established that the uniform and/or oscillatory blowing and suction flow control mechanisms significantly improve the lift-to-drag ratio, and further, postpone the boundary layer separation as well as the stall. The oscillatory blowing and suction flow control, however, is more efficient compared to the uniform one. A wide range of parameters is involved in controlling the behavior of a blowing and/or suction flow control, including the location, length, and angle of the jet slots. The oscillation range of the jet slot is another substantial parameter.

  12. Biogeosystem technique as a method to overcome the Biological and Environmental Hazards of modern Agricultural, Irrigational and Technological Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinitchenko, Valery; Batukaev, Abdulmalik; Zinchenko, Vladimir; Zarmaev, Ali; Magomadov, Ali; Chernenko, Vladimir; Startsev, Viktor; Bakoev, Serojdin; Dikaev, Zaurbek

    2014-05-01

    Modern challenge for humanity is to replace the paradigm of nature use and overcome environmental hazards of agronomy, irrigation, industry, and other human activities in biosphere. It is utterly reasonable to stop dividing biosphere on shares - the human habitat and the environment. In the 21st century it is an outdated anthropocentrism. Contradicting himself to biosphere Humankind has the problems. The new paradigm of biosphere control by methods of Biogeosystem technique is on agenda of Humankind. Key directions of Biogeosystem technique. Tillage. Single rotary milling 20…30-50…60 sm soil layer optimizes the evolution and environment of soil, creates a favorable conditions for the rhizosphere, increases the biological productivity of biosphere by 30-50% compared to the standard agricultural practices for the period up to 40 years. Recycle material. Recycling of mineral and organic substances in soil layer of 20…30-50…60 sm in rotary milling soil processing provides wastes clean return to biosphere. Direct intrasoil substances synthesis. Environmentally friendly robot wasteless nanotechnology provides direct substances synthesis, including fertilizers, inside the soil. It eliminates the prerequisites of the wastes formation under standard industrial technologies. Selective substance's extraction from soil. Electrochemical robotic nanotechnology provides selective substances extraction from soil. The technology provides recovery, collection and subsequent safe industrial use of extracted substances out of landscape. Saving fresh water. An important task is to save fresh water in biosphere. Irrigation spends water 4-5 times more of biological requirements of plants, leads to degradation of soil and landscape. The intrasoil pulse continuous-discrete paradigm of irrigation is proposed. It provides the soil and landscape conservation, increases the biological productivity, save the fresh water up to 10-20 times. The subsurface soil rotary processing and

  13. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity using thermoluminescence, gamma spectrometry and neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fausto, A.M.; Otsubo, S.M.; Paes, W.S.; Yoshimura, E.M.; Okuno, E.; Hiodo, F.; Marques, L.S.; Alcala, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    The evaluation of the radiation dose in the living species due to the natural radioactivity is the main objective of this paper. The region that had been monitored was Intrusive Suite of Itu near to Sao Paulo city. Lateral[and depth distributions of natural radioactivity of the soil were determined using the techniques of thermoluminescence gamma spectrometry and neutron[activation. From the concentration in the soil of K-40 and radioactive elements of U and Th series experimentally determined, the dose due to gamma rays in air at 1 m from the soil was evaluated and the results compared with the direct dose measured with the portable rate-meter. (authors). 11 refs., 3 figs

  14. Control and switching synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, A.G.

    2013-03-13

    This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchronizations can be obtained when the switching parameters are functions of time. The nonstandard finite difference method is used for the numerical solution of the fractional order master and slave systems. Many numeric simulations are presented to validate the concept for different fractional order parameters.

  15. Microwave amplifier and active circuit design using the real frequency technique

    CERN Document Server

    Jarry, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the authors' Real Frequency Technique (RFT) and its application to a wide variety of multi-stage microwave amplifiers and active filters, and passive equalizers for radar pulse shaping and antenna return loss applications. The first two chapters review the fundamentals of microwave amplifier design and provide a description of the RFT. Each subsequent chapter introduces a new type of amplifier or circuit design, reviews its design problems, and explains how the RFT can be adapted to solve these problems. The authors take a practical approach by summarizing the design steps and giving numerous examples of amplifier realizations and measured responses. Provides a complete description of the RFT as it is first used to design multistage lumped amplifiers using a progressive optimization of the equalizers, leading to a small umber of parameters to optimize simultaneously Presents modifications to the RFT to design trans-impedance microwave amplifiers that are used for photodiodes acti...

  16. In vivo and in vitro techniques to determine the biological activity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for determination of the biological activity of food allergens comprise both determination of the allergenic potency, i.e. the capability to elicit an allergic reaction in an already sensitized individual, and the allergenic potential, i.e. the risk for sensitizing a hitherto non......-allergic individual. Several methods are discussed for determination of potency including the double-blinded placebo-controlled food challenge, skin testing, in vitro effector cell assays such as basophil histamine release, and IgE-based techniques such as RAST and RAST inhibition. No reliable methods have yet been...... developed which can predict the allergenic potential of a food or a food allergen. The progress in the areas of stability studies and animal models for food allergy are discussed....

  17. Active room compensation for sound reinforcement using sound field separation techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuchel, Franz Maria; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2018-01-01

    with the three sound separation techniques. Resonances in the entire room are reduced, although the microphone array and secondary sources are confined to a small region close to the reflecting wall. Unlike previous control methods based on the creation of a plane wave sound field, the investigated method works......This work investigates how the sound field created by a sound reinforcement system can be controlled at low frequencies. An indoor control method is proposed which actively absorbs the sound incident on a reflecting boundary using an array of secondary sources. The sound field is separated...... into incident and reflected components by a microphone array close to the secondary sources, enabling the minimization of reflected components by means of optimal signals for the secondary sources. The method is purely feed-forward and assumes constant room conditions. Three different sound field separation...

  18. Neutron activation analysis - an old technique but is it still useful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a non-destructive technique of analysis making it particularly suitable to analyse certain types of samples or particular elements, such as diamonds, black precious opal and ancient fish fossil bones. It is particularly suited to analysing solid samples since no sample dissolution, with its associated problems, prior to analysis is necessary. NAA is remarkably free of matrix effects essentially eliminating complex pre analysis procedures. It is uniquely suited to determining low levels of certain elements such as Cl, Br and I, particularly in organic samples. Its ability to determine sub-ppm levels of Cl in transformer oils has greatly assisted in the development of a patented method for the destruction of PCB ' s. It is possible to analyse large samples in order to overcome homogeneity problems, which is particularly useful in the precious metals industry. Radiochemical NAA enables the determination of very low levels of particular elements (eg Ta) in samples traditionally difficult to dissolve (author)

  19. Developing an ANSI standard for image quality tools for the testing of active millimeter wave imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Jeffrey; Greca, Joseph; Yam, Kevin; Weatherall, James C.; Smith, Peter R.; Smith, Barry T.

    2017-05-01

    In 2016, the millimeter wave (MMW) imaging community initiated the formation of a standard for millimeter wave image quality metrics. This new standard, American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N42.59, will apply to active MMW systems for security screening of humans. The Electromagnetic Signatures of Explosives Laboratory at the Transportation Security Laboratory is supporting the ANSI standards process via the creation of initial prototypes for round-robin testing with MMW imaging system manufacturers and experts. Results obtained for these prototypes will be used to inform the community and lead to consensus objective standards amongst stakeholders. Images collected with laboratory systems are presented along with results of preliminary image analysis. Future directions for object design, data collection and image processing are discussed.

  20. Bowel sparing in pediatric cranio-spinal radiotherapy: a comparison of combined electron and photon and helical TomoTherapy techniques to a standard photon method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harron, Elizabeth; Lewis, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dose to organs at risk (OARs) from different craniospinal radiotherapy treatment approaches available at the Northern Centre for Cancer Care (NCCC), with a particular emphasis on sparing the bowel. Method: Treatment plans were produced for a pediatric medulloblastoma patient with inflammatory bowel disease using 3D conformal 6-MV photons (3DCP), combined 3D 6-MV photons and 18-MeV electrons (3DPE), and helical photon TomoTherapy (HT). The 3DPE plan was a modification of the standard 3DCP technique, using electrons to treat the spine inferior to the level of the diaphragm. The plans were compared in terms of the dose-volume data to OARs and the nontumor integral dose. Results: The 3DPE plan was found to give the lowest dose to the bowel and the lowest nontumor integral dose of the 3 techniques. However, the coverage of the spine planning target volume (PTV) was least homogeneous using this technique, with only 74.6% of the PTV covered by 95% of the prescribed dose. HT was able to achieve the best coverage of the PTVs (99.0% of the whole-brain PTV and 93.1% of the spine PTV received 95% of the prescribed dose), but delivered a significantly higher integral dose. HT was able to spare the heart, thyroid, and eyes better than the linac-based techniques, but other OARs received a higher dose. Conclusions: Use of electrons was the best method for reducing the dose to the bowel and the integral dose, at the expense of compromised spine PTV coverage. For some patients, HT may be a viable method of improving dose homogeneity and reducing selected OAR doses.

  1. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grogan, Brandon R., E-mail: groganbr@ornl.gov; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-12-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system.

  2. Investigation of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Boarded search of a cargo container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.; Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2013-01-01

    The detonation of a terrorist nuclear weapon in the United States would result in the massive loss of life and grave economic damage. Even if a device was not detonated, its known or suspected presence aboard a cargo container ship in a U.S. port would have major economic and political consequences. One possible means to prevent this threat would be to board a ship at sea and search for the device before it reaches port. The scenario considered here involves a small Coast Guard team with strong intelligence boarding a container ship to search for a nuclear device. Using active interrogation, the team would nonintrusively search a block of shipping containers to locate the fissile material. Potential interrogation source and detector technologies for the team are discussed. The methodology of the scan is presented along with a technique for calculating the required interrogation source strength using computer simulations. MCNPX was used to construct a computer model of a container ship, and several search scenarios were simulated. The results of the simulations are presented in terms of the source strength required for each interrogation scenario. Validation measurements were performed in order to scale these simulation results to expected performance. Interrogations through the short (2.4 m) axis of a standardized shipping container appear to be feasible given the entire range of container loadings tested. Interrogations through several containers at once or a single container through its long (12.2 m) axis do not appear to be viable with a portable interrogation system

  3. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehn, J.

    1995-01-01

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations

  4. Analysis of soil and sewage sludge by ICP-OES and the German standard DIN 38414 sample preparation technique (P3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, M.; Heitland, P.; Visser, H.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The elemental analyses of soil and sewage sludge has developed to become one of the main applications for ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and is described in many official procedures. These methods include different acid mixtures and digestion techniques. Even though the German standard DIN 38414 part 7 and the Dutch NEN 6465 do not guarantee complete recoveries for all elements, they are widely accepted in Europe. This paper describes sample preparation, line selection and investigates precision, accuracy and Limits of detection. The SPECTRO CIROSCCD EOP with axial plasma observation and the SPECTRO CIROSCCD SOP with radial observation were compared and evaluated for the analyses of soil and sewage sludge. Accuracy was investigated using the certified reference materials CRM-141 R, CRM-143 R and GSD 11. Both instruments show excellent performance in terms of speed, precision, accuracy and detection limits for the determination of trace metals in soil and sewage sludge. (author)

  5. New overlay measurement technique with an i-line stepper using embedded standard field image alignment marks for wafer bonding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulse, P.; Sasai, K.; Schulz, K.; Wietstruck, M.

    2017-06-01

    In the last decades the semiconductor technology has been driven by Moore's law leading to high performance CMOS technologies with feature sizes of less than 10 nm [1]. It has been pointed out that not only scaling but also the integration of novel components and technology modules into CMOS/BiCMOS technologies is becoming more attractive to realize smart and miniaturized systems [2]. Driven by new applications in the area of communication, health and automation, new components and technology modules such as BiCMOS embedded RF-MEMS, high-Q passives, Sibased microfluidics and InP-SiGe BiCMOS heterointegration have been demonstrated [3-6]. In contrast to standard VLSI processes fabricated on front side of the silicon wafer, these new technology modules require addition backside processing of the wafer; thus an accurate alignment between the front and backside of the wafer is mandatory. In previous work an advanced back to front side alignment technique and implementation into IHP's 0.25/0.13 μm high performance SiGe:C BiCMOS backside process module has been presented [7]. The developed technique enables a high resolution and accurate lithography on the backside of BiCMOS wafer for additional backside processing. In addition to the aforementioned back side process technologies, new applications like Through-Silicon Vias (TSV) for interposers and advanced substrate technologies for 3D heterogeneous integration demand not only single wafer fabrication but also processing of wafer stacks provided by temporary and permanent wafer bonding [8]. Therefore, the available overlay measurement techniques are not suitable if overlay and alignment marks are realized at the bonding interface of a wafer stack which consists of both a silicon device and a silicon carrier wafer. The former used EVG 40NT automated overlay measurement system, which use two opposite positioned microscopes inspecting simultaneous the wafer back and front side, is not capable measuring embedded overlay

  6. The Study of Mining Activities and their Influences in the Almaden Region Applying Remote Sensing Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, C.; Schmid, T.; Millan, R.; Gumuzzio, J.

    2010-01-01

    This scientific-technical report is a part of an ongoing research work carried out by Celia Rico Fraile in order to obtain the Diploma of Advanced Studies as part of her PhD studies. This work has been developed in collaboration with the Faculty of Science at The Universidad Autonoma de Madrid and the Department of Environment at CIEMAT. The main objective of this work was the characterization and classification of land use in Almaden (Ciudad Real) during cinnabar mineral exploitation and after mining activities ceased in 2002, developing a methodology focused on the integration of remote sensing techniques applying multispectral and hyper spectral satellite data. By means of preprocessing and processing of data from the satellite images as well as data obtained from field campaigns, a spectral library was compiled in order to obtain representative land surfaces within the study area. Monitoring results show that the distribution of areas affected by mining activities is rapidly diminishing in recent years. (Author) 130 refs

  7. Hydrogeological activity of lineaments in Yaoundé Cameroon region using remote sensing and GIS techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Teikeu Assatse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Though Yaoundé zone is characterized by abundant rains, access to safe drinking water becomes a difficult activity, because of climate change and pollution caused by human activities. Lineament zones on the earth’s surface are important elements in understanding the dynamics of the subsurface fluid flow. However, good exposures of these features are always lacking in some areas around Yaoundé, characterized by thick alteration. During field surveys these conditions, in many cases, hinder the proper characterization of such features. Therefore, an approach that identifies the regional lineaments on remote-sensing images (Landsat Thematic Mapper and shaded digital terrain models, with its large scale synoptic coverage, could be promising. This paper aims to the structural organization of lineament network in the crystalline basement of Yaoundé from remote sensing data and characterize them by statistical and geostatistical techniques. The results were validated on the basis of the geological maps, the hydrogeological maps and the outcrop data. Statistical analysis of the lineaments network shows a distribution along the N0–10, N20–30, N40–60 and N140–150. The correlation between the productivity of high yield wells and the closest lineament confirms that these lineaments are surface traces of regional discontinuities and act as main groundwater flow paths.

  8. Evaluation of computer-based NDE techniques and regional support of inspection activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.T.; Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the technical progress during fiscal year 1990 for the program entitled 'Evaluation of Computer-Based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) Techniques and Regional Support of Inspection Activities.' Highlights of the technical progress include: development of a seminar to provide basic knowledge required to review and evaluate computer-based systems; review of a typical computer-based field procedure to determine compliance with applicable codes, ambiguities in procedure guidance, and overall effectiveness and utility; design and fabrication of a series of three test blocks for NRC staff use for training or audit of UT systems; technical assistance in reviewing (1) San Onofre ten year reactor pressure vessel inservice inspection activities and (2) the capability of a proposed phased array inspection of the feedwater nozzle at Oyster Creek; completion of design calculations to determine the feasibility and significance of various sizes of mockup assemblies that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of eddy current examinations performed on steam generators; and discussion of initial mockup design features and methods for fabricating flaws in steam generator tubes

  9. Student knowledge and confidence in an elective clinical toxicology course using active-learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael C; Macias-Moriarity, Liliairica Z

    2014-06-17

    To measure changes in students' knowledge and confidence scores after completing an elective clinical toxicology course in an accelerated doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Various active-learning techniques were used to create a learner-centered environment. Approximately two-thirds of the course used student-led presentations. Some of those not presenting were assigned to be evaluators, responsible for asking the presenter a question or writing quiz questions based on the presented material. Other learner-centered activities included weekly quizzes and discussions at the conclusion of each presented topic. A test instrument designed to measure students' knowledge and associated level of confidence on each item was administered at the beginning and end of the course. Students' knowledge and confidence scores increased significantly from pretest to posttest. Students' increased confidence and knowledge scores were well correlated after course completion, indicating students were better able to self-assess these areas. These findings suggest that confidence could be an additional measure of students' metacognitive skill development.

  10. Standardization of I-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine myocardial sympathetic activity imaging: phantom calibration and clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Verschure, Derk O.; Okuda, Koichi; Verberne, Hein J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Myocardial sympathetic imaging with I-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (I-123-mIBG) has gained clinical momentum. Although the need for standardization of I-123-mIBG myocardial uptake has been recognized, the availability of practical clinical standardization approaches is limited. The need for

  11. The Impact of Stability Balls, Activity Breaks, and a Sedentary Classroom on Standardized Math Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Tim; Scibora, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if standardized math test scores improve by administering different types of exercise during math instruction. Three sixth grade classes were assessed on the Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) and the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessment (MCA) standardized math tests during the 2012 and 2013 academic year.…

  12. 78 FR 73504 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Standard for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... reduce unreasonable risks of burn injuries and deaths from fires associated with mattresses and mattress... resist ignition from a smoldering cigarette. The part 1632 standard requires manufacturers to perform... standard) under section 4 of the FFA to reduce deaths and injuries related to mattress fires, particularly...

  13. Regulations, guidelines, standards, and policies pertaining to decontamination and decommissioning activities: A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, M.G.

    1993-09-01

    A literature review has been conducted of the existing rules, regulations, and guidelines pertaining to the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Included in the survey are US Government documents, national (industrial) standards, international standards and guidelines, and the regulations issued by various national governments, such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and Germany.

  14. 76 FR 16728 - Announcement of the American Petroleum Institute's Standards Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    .... MPMS Chapter 10.9, Standard Test Method for Water in Crude Oils by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration... the Internal Electro-Optical Distance Ranging (EODR) Method, 2nd Ed. MPMS Chapter 4.5, Master-Meter... Transit Time Technology, 2nd Ed. MPMS Chapter 9.1, Standard Test Method for Density, Relative Density...

  15. Capturing the Complex, Situated, and Active Nature of Teaching through Inquiry-Oriented Standards for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnema, Claire; Meyer, Frauke; Aitken, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Given widespread acceptance of the role of teaching in improving student outcomes, it is not surprising that policy makers have turned to teaching standards as a lever for educational improvement. There are, however, long-standing critiques of standards that suggest they are reductionist and promote a dualism between theory and practice. Our…

  16. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability evaluation of high-performance, low-power FinFET standard cells based on mixed RBB/FBB technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Cui, Xiaoxin; Ni, Yewen; Liao, Kai; Liao, Nan; Yu, Dunshan; Cui, Xiaole

    2017-04-01

    With shrinking transistor feature size, the fin-type field-effect transistor (FinFET) has become the most promising option in low-power circuit design due to its superior capability to suppress leakage. To support the VLSI digital system flow based on logic synthesis, we have designed an optimized high-performance low-power FinFET standard cell library based on employing the mixed FBB/RBB technique in the existing stacked structure of each cell. This paper presents the reliability evaluation of the optimized cells under process and operating environment variations based on Monte Carlo analysis. The variations are modelled with Gaussian distribution of the device parameters and 10000 sweeps are conducted in the simulation to obtain the statistical properties of the worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage for each cell. For comparison, a set of non-optimal cells that adopt the same topology without employing the mixed biasing technique is also generated. Experimental results show that the optimized cells achieve standard deviation reduction of 39.1% and 30.7% at most in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage respectively while the normalized deviation shrinking in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage can be up to 98.37% and 24.13%, respectively, which demonstrates that our optimized cells are less sensitive to variability and exhibit more reliability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61306040), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB057201), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4152020), and Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2015A030313147).

  18. Making sense of geoscientific concepts using active pedagogy techniques, a technology aided experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, C.; Noè, L. F.; Pearse, J.; Gómez Pérez, M.; Valencia Lopez, D.; Jimenez Heredia, A.; Patiño Avedaño, M.

    2016-12-01

    This work is the result of a teaching innovation project funded by the Conecta-TE unit at Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia and results from the collaborative work of a team of geoscience professors and pedagogic and technical support experts. The need for this innovation stems from the constraints of teaching an applied science subject to a large cohort of approximately 500 students per semester in five sections which makes it impossible to include laboratories or scientific outings. These factors are compounded by the fact this is an introductory core course for Geoscience but also a service course that can be taken by any student on campus whether they have a scientific background or not. Therefore our aim was double: making the basic concepts more understandable for a broad audience, while at the same time maintaining a sufficiently high level to challenge and form a sound basis for students from the Geosciences program. Additionally we wanted to incorporate more active and practical aspects to the subject in order to enhance student learning. This in itself was challenging with groups of over 90 students. Data on student understanding and satisfaction were collected both in classes where the innovation was implemented and others in which it was not. Generally our innovation was positively rated, however the students perceived that it involved more work than the traditional lecture-based classes, but they preferred the continual assessment to traditional homework. The methodology was improved and implemented fully for the second round of teaching by introducing the methodology and objectives more clearly. In the future we expect to reduce the number of activities per class (the ´less-is-more' approach) whilst at the same time increasing the amount of classes which include active learning techniques. The ultimate goal is to extend the experience from the two current sections to all five sections of the course.

  19. Validation of ammonia diffusive and active samplers in a controlled atmosphere test facility using traceable Primary Standard Gas Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicholas A.; Ferracci, Valerio; Cassidy, Nathan; Hook, Josh; Battersby, Ross M.; Tang, Yuk S.; Stevens, Amy C. M.; Jones, Matthew R.; Braban, Christine F.; Gates, Linda; Hangartner, Markus; Stoll, Jean-Marc; Sacco, Paolo; Pagani, Diego; Hoffnagle, John A.

    2017-04-01

    Intensive animal farming, the increased use of fertilizers, and certain industrial processes are believed to be responsible for the observed increases in the amount fraction of ammonia (NH3) found in Europe. NH3 contributes to eutrophication and acidification of land and freshwater, potentially leading to a loss of biodiversity and undesirable changes to the ecosystem. It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate matter (PM) formation, which is associated with poor air quality and adverse health outcomes. Measurements of ambient ammonia are principally carried out with low-cost diffusive samplers or by active sampling with denuders, with each method delivering time-integrated values over the monitoring period. However, such techniques have not yet been extensively validated. The goal of this work was to provide improvements in the metrological traceability through the determination of NH3 diffusive sampling rates. Five different designs of commercial diffusive samplers (FSM Radiello radial sampler, Gradko diffusion tube, Gradko DIFRAM-400, Passam ammonia sampler, and CEH ALPHA sampler) were employed, together with a pumped denuder sampler (CEH DELTA denuder) for comparison. All devices were simultaneously exposed for either 28 days or 14 days (dependent on sampler type) in a controlled atmosphere test facility (CATFAC) containing traceable amount fractions of humidified ammonia using new stable ammonia Primary Standard Gas Mixtures developed by gravimetry at NPL, under a wide range of conditions that are relevant to ambient monitoring. Online continuous monitoring of the ammonia test atmospheres was carried out by extractive sampling, employing a calibrated cavity ring-down spectrometer, which had been modified to account for cross interference by water vapour. Each manufacturer extracted the captured ammonia on the exposed samplers in the form of ammonium (NH4+) using their own accredited traceable wet chemical techniques, and then reported data

  20. Suction/inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver: a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Froehlich, Johannes M.; Weymarn, Constantin von; Goyen, Matthias; Waelti, Stephan; Roos, Justus E.; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus; Czell, David; Reischauer, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. (orig.)

  1. Suction/inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver: a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzeit, Andreas [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland); Kantonsspital Winterthur, Department of Radiology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M.; Weymarn, Constantin von; Goyen, Matthias [Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland); Waelti, Stephan [Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Roos, Justus E. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Czell, David [Cantonal Hospital Winterthur, Department of Neurology, Winterthur (Switzerland); Reischauer, Carolin [Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Department of Radiology, Salzburg (Austria); Hirslanden Hospital St. Anna, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Research Unit, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2015-11-15

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. (orig.)

  2. A COMPARISON BETWEEN ACTIVE AND PASSIVE TECHNIQUES FOR UNDERWATER 3D APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bianco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of 3D scanning, there is an increasing need for more accurate technologies to acquire 3D models of close range objects. Underwater exploration, for example, is very hard to perform due to the hostile conditions and the bad visibility of the environment. Some application fields, like underwater archaeology, require to recover tridimensional data of objects that cannot be moved from their site or touched in order to avoid possible damages. Photogrammetry is widely used for underwater 3D acquisition, because it requires just one or two digital still or video cameras to acquire a sequence of images taken from different viewpoints. Stereo systems composed by a pair of cameras are often employed on underwater robots (i.e. ROVs, Remotely Operated Vehicles and used by scuba divers, in order to survey archaeological sites, reconstruct complex 3D structures in aquatic environment, estimate in situ the length of marine organisms, etc. The stereo 3D reconstruction is based on the triangulation of corresponding points on the two views. This requires to find in both images common points and to match them (correspondence problem, determining a plane that contains the 3D point on the object. Another 3D technique, frequently used in air acquisition, solves this point-matching problem by projecting structured lighting patterns to codify the acquired scene. The corresponding points are identified associating a binary code in both images. In this work we have tested and compared two whole-field 3D imaging techniques (active and passive based on stereo vision, in underwater environment. A 3D system has been designed, composed by a digital projector and two still cameras mounted in waterproof housing, so that it can perform the various acquisitions without changing the configuration of optical devices. The tests were conducted in a water tank in different turbidity conditions, on objects with different surface properties. In order to simulate a typical

  3. Implementation of the k{sub 0}-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k{sub 0}-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Manh Dung [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2006-03-15

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k{sub o}-NAA procedure.The k{sub o}-standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k{sub o}-NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k{sub o}-IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used.

  4. Implementation of the k0-standardization Method for an Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis: Use-k0-IAEA Software as a Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Kim, Hark Rho; Ho, Manh Dung

    2006-03-01

    Under the RCA post-doctoral program, from May 2005 through February 2006, it was an opportunity to review the present work being carried out in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, HANARO Center, KAERI. The scope of this research included: a calibration of the counting system, a characterization of the irradiation facility ,a validation of the established k o -NAA procedure.The k o -standardization method for an Neutron Activation Analysis(k o -NAA), which is becoming increasingly popular and widespread,is an absolute calibration technique where the nuclear data are replaced by compound nuclear constants which are experimentally determined. The k o -IAEA software distributed by the IAEA in 2005 was used as a demonstration for this work. The NAA no. 3 irradiation hole in the HANARO research reactor and the gamma-ray spectrometers No. 1 and 5 in the NAA Laboratory were used

  5. Comparative screening of the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sempervivum marmoreum L. extracts obtained by various extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASA S. STOJICEVIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in extracts obtained from houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves by the classical (maceration, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction (CE, UE and SE, respectively. The extract obtained by the CE contained higher amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained using other two techniques. All the extracts, independent of the extraction technique applied, showed antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans only but not against the tested bacteria.

  6. Technique and equipment for measuring volume activity of radon in the air of radon laboratories and clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorob'ev, I.B.; Krivokhatskij, A.S.; Nekrasov, E.V.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Potapov, V.G.; Terent'ev, M.V.

    1990-01-01

    Usability of a new equipment-technique combination for measuring radon activity in the air of radon laboratories and balneological clinics is studied. The complex includes nitrate-cellulose detector, radon chamber, Aist, Istra type spark counters and technique of spark counting. The method sensitivity is 50 Bqxm 3 , the error is 30%. Usability and advisability of track method in radon laboratories and balneological clinics for simultaneous measurement in several points of integral volumetric radon activities are confirmred. The method permits to carry out rapid and accurate bulk investigations. The results of determining mean volumetric radon activity in the air in different points of radon laboratory and radon clinics are presented

  7. Intelligent future wireless networks for energy efficiency: overall analysis and standardization activities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kliks, A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This chapter addresses a number of issues related to standardization and regulatory policies aiming at promoting energy-efficient communications and networking, highlighting the need of synergic approach. It encompasses the analysis of various...

  8. Determinations of silicon and phosphorus in Pepperbush standard reference material by neutron activation and x-ray fluorescence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Nishio, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kusakabe, Toshio; Iwata, Shiro.

    1987-01-01

    Silicon and phosphorus contents in Pepperbush standard reference material were determined by neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence methods. In neutron activation analysis, β-ray spectra of 32 P produced by 31 P(n,γ) 32 P reaction on Pepperbush and standard samples were measured by a low background β-ray spectrometer. In X-ray fluorescence analysis, the standard samples were prepared by mixing the Pepperbush powder with silicon dioxide and diammonium hydrogenphosphate. Characteristic X-rays from the samples were analyzed by a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. From the β and X-ray intensities, silicon and phosphorus contents in Pepperbush were determined to be 1840 ± 80 and 1200 ± 50 μg g -1 , respectively. (author)

  9. Evolution of activities in international biological standardization since the early days of the Health Organisation of the League of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizaret, P

    1988-01-01

    The main activities in international biological standardization during the 18 years that followed the first international biological standardization meeting in London in 1921 were concerned with expressing the potencies of test preparations in comparison with reference materials. After the Second World War, however, it became clear that the testing of biological substances against international reference materials was only one among several measures for obtaining safe and potent products. The activities in international biological standardization were therefore widened so that, by the strict observance of specific manufacturing and control requirements, it was possible to gain further in safety and efficacy. At the end of 1987, 42 international requirements for biological substances were available and were being used as national requirements, sometimes after minor modification, by the majority of WHO's Member States. This is of utmost importance for the worldwide use of safe and potent biological products, including vaccines.

  10. 40 CFR 745.227 - Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., child-occupied facilities) on/in which abatement work will be performed. (F) Property name (if... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work practice standards for conducting lead-based paint activities: target housing and child-occupied facilities. 745.227 Section 745.227...

  11. Energy landscape and diffusion kinetics of lithiated silicon: A kinetic activation-relaxation technique study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochet, Mickaël; Mousseau, Normand

    2017-10-01

    With large specific and volumetric capacity, lithiated silicon is an excellent anode for lithium-ion batteries. Its application is challenged today, however, by the formation of an amorphous a -LixSi phase associated with a large volume change that occurs at relatively low Li concentration and remains only very partly understood at the microscopic level. In this paper, we characterize the full energy landscape associated with the onset of Li insertion in crystalline Si as a first step for understanding the lithiation process. We identify the diffusion mechanisms and migration energies for one to ten Li atoms in a Si crystal as well as the average lifetime of small lithium aggregates, using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (kART), an off-lattice kinetic Monte-Carlo method with on-the-fly catalog building capabilities coupled to a newly developed force field (ReaxFF) used as potential based on ab initio results. We show that the short lifetimes of the bound states (from meV to ten meV) mean that Li atoms move in the interstitial sublattice with little interactions, explaining how high Li concentration in Si can be reached.

  12. Techniques for sampling nuclear waste tank contents and in situ measurement of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, R.C.

    1978-04-01

    A study was conducted to develop suitable sampling equipment and techniques for characterizing the mechanical properties of nuclear wastes; identifying effective means of measuring radiation levels, temperatures, and neutron fluxes in situ in wastes; and developing a waste core sampler. A portable, stainless steel probe was developed which is placed in the tank through a riser. This probe is built for the insertion of instrumentation that can measure the contents of the tank at any level and take temperature, radiation, and neutron activation readings with reliable accuracy. A simple and reliable instrument for the in situ extraction of waste materials ranging from liquid to concrete-like substances was also developed. This portable, stainless steel waste core sampler can remove up to one liter of radioactive waste from tanks for transportation to hot cell laboratories for analysis of hardness, chemical form, and isotopic content. A cask for transporting the waste samples from the tanks to the laboratory under radiation-protected conditions was also fabricated. This cask was designed with a ''boot'' or inner-seal liner to contain any radioactive wastes that might remain on the outside of the waste core sampling device

  13. Behaviour based Mobile Robot Navigation Technique using AI System: Experimental Investigation on Active Media Pioneer Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman, V.Ganapathy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A key issue in the research of an autonomous robot is the design and development of the navigation technique that enables the robot to navigate in a real world environment. In this research, the issues investigated and methodologies established include (a Designing of the individual behavior and behavior rule selection using Alpha level fuzzy logic system  (b Designing of the controller, which maps the sensors input to the motor output through model based Fuzzy Logic Inference System and (c Formulation of the decision-making process by using Alpha-level fuzzy logic system. The proposed method is applied to Active Media Pioneer Robot and the results are discussed and compared with most accepted methods. This approach provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing the human expert heuristic knowledge and perception-based action in mobile robot navigation. In this approach, the operational strategies of the human expert driver are transferred via fuzzy logic to the robot navigation in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables.Keywards: Mobile robot, behavior based control, fuzzy logic, alpha level fuzzy logic, obstacle avoidance behavior and goal seek behavior

  14. Experimental Studies of Active and Passive Flow Control Techniques Applied in a Twin Air-Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshoy Ranjan Paul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow control in twin air-intakes is necessary to improve the performance characteristics, since the flow traveling through curved and diffused paths becomes complex, especially after merging. The paper presents a comparison between two well-known techniques of flow control: active and passive. It presents an effective design of a vortex generator jet (VGJ and a vane-type passive vortex generator (VG and uses them in twin air-intake duct in different combinations to establish their effectiveness in improving the performance characteristics. The VGJ is designed to insert flow from side wall at pitch angle of 90 degrees and 45 degrees. Corotating (parallel and counterrotating (V-shape are the configuration of vane type VG. It is observed that VGJ has the potential to change the flow pattern drastically as compared to vane-type VG. While the VGJ is directed perpendicular to the side walls of the air-intake at a pitch angle of 90 degree, static pressure recovery is increased by 7.8% and total pressure loss is reduced by 40.7%, which is the best among all other cases tested for VGJ. For bigger-sized VG attached to the side walls of the air-intake, static pressure recovery is increased by 5.3%, but total pressure loss is reduced by only 4.5% as compared to all other cases of VG.

  15. Synthetic pheromones as a management technique - dispensers reduce Linepithema humile activity in a commercial vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Fabian L; Bell, Vaughn A; Suckling, David M; Lester, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    Invasive ants, such as the Argentine ant, have often been reported to facilitate honeydew-producing hemipteran pests such as mealybugs, which can be vectors of plant pathogens. Synthetic pheromones may offer a target-specific method to control such ants and consequently lower the abundance of honeydew-producing pests. Here we report the results of a trial to suppress Argentine ants in grapevines using ant pheromone dispensers. Compared with untreated controls, we observed a significant drop in Argentine ant activity on the ground, irrespective of whether pheromone dispensers were placed at ground level, within the canopy or in both locations. Ant counts in the canopy confirmed that Argentine ant abundance was reduced under the influence of the pheromone dispenser placed at ground level compared with untreated controls. However, placing dispensers only in the canopy did not reduce the numbers of ants within the canopy compared with untreated controls. Our results showed that pheromone dispensers can significantly reduce Argentine ant foraging in grapevines if they are positioned appropriately. This technique could potentially reduce the abundance of associated mealybugs and potentially attendant virus vectoring areawide. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Development of an Active Flow Control Technique for an Airplane High-Lift Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Dickey, Eric D.; Hartwich, Peter M.; Khodadoust, Abdi

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on Active Flow Control methods used in conjunction with airplane high-lift systems. The project is motivated by the simplified high-lift system, which offers enhanced airplane performance compared to conventional high-lift systems. Computational simulations are used to guide the implementation of preferred flow control methods, which require a fluidic supply. It is first demonstrated that flow control applied to a high-lift configuration that consists of simple hinge flaps is capable of attaining the performance of the conventional high-lift counterpart. A set of flow control techniques has been subsequently considered to identify promising candidates, where the central requirement is that the mass flow for actuation has to be within available resources onboard. The flow control methods are based on constant blowing, fluidic oscillators, and traverse actuation. The simulations indicate that the traverse actuation offers a substantial reduction in required mass flow, and it is especially effective when the frequency of actuation is consistent with the characteristic time scale of the flow.

  17. Detailed characterization of lithium diffusion mechanisms in crystalline silicon using the kinetic Activation-Relaxation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trochet, Mickaël; Restrepo Gutierrez, Oscar Antonio; Mousseau, Normand

    Silicon displays a potential for high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries as it can absorb large quantities of this metal. Yet, very little is understood about the evolution of diffusion mechanisms and migration barriers as the concentration of lithium increases. Until now, for example, simulations studies were limited by the time scale over which diffusion takes place. Here, we use the kinetic activation relaxation technique (kART), an unbiased off-lattice Monte Carlo method with on-the fly catalog building, coupled with the ReaxFF forcefield to follow diffusion of Li in c - Si over timescale of seconds and more at room temperature, obtaining detailed information about the whole set of possible diffusion mechanisms as the local environment evolves. We first present a detailed characterization of Li diffusion in the presence of 1 to 3 impurities and then show the evolution of systems with a higher concentration of solute as Li aggregate. These results provide a first detailed picture of the onset of Li aggregating into this high-capacity material, as it modifies the structure through local rearrangements and long-range elastic deformations, crucial information for the development of the next generation of high-capacity anode. ∖pard ∖pard.

  18. Techniques for tritium recovery from carbon flakes and dust at the JET active gas handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenhagen, S.; Perevezentsev, A.; Brennan, P. D.; Camp, P.; Knipe, S.; Miller, A.; Yorkshades, J.

    2008-01-01

    Detritiation of highly tritium contaminated carbon and metal material used as first wall armour is a key issue for fusion machines like JET and ITER. Re-deposited carbon and hydrogen in the form of flakes and dust can lead to a build-up of the tritium inventory and therefore this material must be removed and processed. The high tritium concentration of the flake and dust material collected from the JET vacuum vessel makes it unsuitable for direct waste disposal without detritiation. A dedicated facility to process the tritiated carbon flake material and recover the tritium has been designed and built. In several test runs active material was successfully processed and de-tritiated in the new facility. Samples containing only carbon and hydrogen isotopes have been completely oxidized without any residue. Samples containing metallic impurities, e.g. beryllium, require longer processing times, adjusted processing parameters and yield an oxide residue. The detritiation factor was 2x10 4 . In order to simulate in-vessel and ex-vessel detritiation techniques, the detritiation of a carbon flake sample by isotopic exchange in a hydrogen atmosphere was investigated. 2.8% of tritium was recovered by this means. (authors)

  19. TPR Technique in the study of activated surfaces; Tecnica TPR nello studio di superfici attivate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, L. [Linea Microstrutture Ce Instruments/ThermoQuest, Thermoquest Italia, Rodano, MI (Italy)

    2000-08-01

    Flow analytical techniques like the pulse chemisorption, TPR, TPO and TPD are easily applicable and supply several information about the energetic nature of catalysts. Though measurements are easily made, it is necessary to pay attention to preparation methods and to sample activation. TPR is a useful analytical tool to determine optima conditions of pre-treatment. Furthermore, reliability and reproducibility of experimental results are strongly linked to sensitivity and accuracy of instrumentation in use. Evaluation of these parameters is not always immediate. A TPR method is suggested for quantitative computation of instrumental sensitivity. [Italian] Le tecniche analitiche in flusso come il chemisorbimento a pulsi, TPR, TPO e TPD sono di semplice applicabilita' e forniscono parecchie informazioni sulla natura energetica dei catalizzatori. Nonostante la semplicita' delle misure, bisogna porre una particolare attenzione ai metodi preparativi e di attivazione del campione. La TPR e' un utile strumento analitico per l'individuazione delle condizioni ottimali di pre-trattamento. Inoltre, l'attendibilita' e la riproducibilita' dei risultati sperimentali sono fortemente legati alla sensibilita' e accuratezza della strumentazione in uso. La valutazione di tali parametri non e' sempre immediata. Viene proposto un metodo TPR per il calcolo quantitativo della sensibilita' strumentale.

  20. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles prepared by a thermal decomposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Le Thi; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Lan, Hoang; Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Hien, Tran Minh; Huy, Tran Quang; Quy, Nguyen Van; Chinh, Huynh Dang; Tung, Le Minh; Tuan, Pham Anh; Lam, Vu Dinh; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing need of efficient synthetic protocols using eco-friendly conditions including low costs and green chemicals for production of metal nanoparticles. In this work, silver nanoparticles (silver NPs) with average particle size about 10 nm were synthesized by using a thermal decomposition technique. Unlike the colloidal chemistry method, the thermal decomposition method developed has advantages such as the high crystallinity, single-reaction synthesis, and easy dispersion ability of the synthesized NPs in organic solvents. In a modified synthesis process, we used sodium oleate as a capping agent to modify the surface of silver NPs because the oleate has a C18 tail with a double bond in the middle, therefore, forming a kink which is to be effective for aggregative stability. Importantly, the as-synthesized silver NPs have demonstrated strong antimicrobial effects against various bacteria and fungi strains. Electron microscopic studies reveal physical insights into the interaction and bactericidal mechanism between the prepared silver NPs and tested bacteria in question. The observed excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity of the silver NPs make them ideal for disinfection and biomedicine applications.

  1. Metallic Concentration in Karnaphuly Estuary Sediment Using Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.K.M.R.; Chakroborty, S.R.; Roy, P.K.; Dev, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of tonnes of liquid waste, dirt and garbage from different mills and factories from Kaptai to Chittagong are dumped unhindered into the Karnaphuli River. Pollutants enter the river directly from urban sewerage and industrial waste discharges. Ships pollute waterways in many ways. All theses can contribute to the heavy and other metals of the water bodies. To find out concentration of different metallic elements and make a comparison with the world reference values twenty one surface sediment samples were collected from the different locations of Karnaphuly River near Chittagong city drainage outlet. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was used for detecting the concentration qualitatively and quantitatively using the 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor of Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka. Pearson correlation among the elements obtained using SPSS software. Three transitional metals Fe, Cr and Co, two alkali metals Rb and Na, two lanthanides La and Ce, and two metalloids As and Sb were determined. The concentrations of elements were compared with the world reference values. Some elements are found in elevated level. (author)

  2. Proximal tendon-prosthesis junction for active tendon implants of the hand: a biomechanical comparison of 2 techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew J; Owen, John R; McDowell, Charles L; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    To study the biomechanical characteristics (percent stretch, stiffness, and ultimate load) of 2 tendon-prosthesis techniques used to connect the proximal tendon stump to silicone active tendon implants used in reconstruction of flexor tendons. We evaluated percent stretch following cyclic loading and at failure, stiffness during load to failure, and ultimate load of 16 tendon-prosthesis junctions using cadaveric canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons to re-create 2 junction techniques: the tendon loop (TL) and the polyester weave (PW). The TL junction showed greater percent stretch at a static load of 2 N, following 500 cycles of loading between 2 N and 50 N, and at peak load. The PW junction displayed greater stiffness from 50 to 150 N during load to failure. Both junctions failed at a mean ultimate load greater than 220 N. The described proximal junction techniques for active tendon implants were strong enough to resist early active motion in the immediate postoperative period without significant elongation. The PW technique displayed greater stiffness and ultimate load compared with the TL. Data on tendon-prosthesis characteristics of these 2 methods may aid the surgeon in choosing which junction technique to use, during surgical tensioning decisions, and in considering activity protocols after surgery. These data may also serve as a baseline for further investigations regarding active tendon implants. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Ramamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131 therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable.

  4. Math starters 5- to 10-minute activities aligned with the common core math standards, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Muschla, Judith A; Muschla, Erin

    2013-01-01

    A revised edition of the bestselling activities guide for math teachers Now updated with new math activities for computers and mobile devices-and now organized by the Common Core State Standards-this book includes more than 650 ready-to-use math starter activities that get kids quickly focused and working as soon as they enter the classroom. Ideally suited for any math curriculum, these high-interest problems spark involvement in the day's lesson, help students build skills, and allow teachers to handle daily management tasks without wasting valuable instructional time. A newly updated edit

  5. Solar wind and geomagnetism: toward a standard classification of geomagnetic activity from 1868 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Zerbo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined solar activity with a large series of geomagnetic data from 1868 to 2009. We have revisited the geomagnetic activity classification scheme of Legrand and Simon (1989 and improve their scheme by lowering the minimum Aa index value for shock and recurrent activity from 40 to 20 nT. This improved scheme allows us to clearly classify about 80% of the geomagnetic activity in this time period instead of only 60% for the previous Legrand and Simon classification.

  6. Harmonization of standards for permissible radionuclide activity concentrations in foodstuffs in the long term after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, Mikhail I; Kashparov, Valery; Nikolaenko, Elena; Berkovsky, Volodymyr; Fesenko, Sergey

    2018-04-16

    The article critically examines the practice of post-Chernobyl standardization of radionuclide concentrations (mainly 137Cs and 90Sr) in food products in the USSR and the successor countries of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Recommendations are given on potential harmonization of these standards of radionuclide concentrations in food products among three countries, taking into account substantial international experience. We propose to reduce the number of product groups for standardization purpose from the current several dozens to three to five groups to optimize radiation control and increase the transparency of the process. We recommend five product groups for the standardization of 137Cs and three groups for 90Sr in food in radiocontaminated areas. The values of standards for individual product groups are recommended to be set proportionally to the measured specific activity in each of these groups, which will reduce unreasonable food rejection. The standards might be set for the entire country, and could be also used to control imports from other countries as well as exports to other countries. The developed recommendations were transferred in 2015-2016 to the regulatory authorities of the three countries. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Effects of temperature, swimming speed and body mass on standard and active metabolic rate in vendace (Coregonus albula).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlberger, Jan; Staaks, Georg; Hölker, Franz

    2007-11-01

    This study gives an integrated analysis of the effects of temperature, swimming speed and body mass on standard metabolism and aerobic swimming performance in vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)). The metabolic rate was investigated at 4, 8 and 15 degrees C using one flow-through respirometer and two intermittent-flow swim tunnels. We found that the standard metabolic rate (SMR), which increased significantly with temperature, accounted for up to 2/3 of the total swimming costs at optimum speed (U (opt)), although mean U (opt) was high, ranging from 2.0 to 2.8 body lengths per second. Net swimming costs increased with swimming speed, but showed no clear trend with temperature. The influence of body mass on the metabolic rate varied with temperature and activity level resulting in scaling exponents (b) of 0.71-0.94. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to integrate the effects of temperature, speed and mass (AMR = 0.82M (0.93) exp(0.07T) + 0.43M (0.93) U (2.03)). The regression analysis showed that temperature affects standard but not net active metabolic costs in this species. Further, we conclude that a low speed exponent, high optimum speeds and high ratios of standard to activity costs suggest a remarkably efficient swimming performance in vendace.

  8. Suction/Inspiration against resistance or standardized Mueller maneuver : a new breathing technique to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery: a pilot CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzeit, Andreas; Froehlich, Johannes M; Wälti, Stephan; Roos, Justus E; Meissnitzer, Matthias; Hergan, Klaus; von Weymarn, Constantin; Czell, David; Goyen, Matthias; Reischauer, Carolin

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to prospectively investigate whether the recently introduced suction/inspiration against resistance breathing method leads to higher computed tomography (CT) contrast density in the pulmonary artery compared to standard breathing. The present study was approved by the Medical Ethics committee and all subjects gave written informed consent. Fifteen patients, each without suspicious lung emboli, were randomly assigned to four different groups with different breathing maneuvers (suction against resistance, Valsalva, inspiration, expiration) during routine CT. Contrast enhancement in the central and peripheral sections of the pulmonary artery were measured and compared with one another. Peripheral enhancement during suction yielded increased mean densities of 138.14 Hounsfield units (HU) (p = 0.001), compared to Valsalva and a mean density of 67.97 HU superior to inspiration (p = 0.075). Finally, suction in comparison to expiration resulted in a mean increase of 30.51 HU (p = 0.42). Central parts of pulmonary arteries presented significantly increased enhancement values (95.74 HU) for suction versus the Valsalva technique (p = 0.020), while all other mean densities were in favour of suction (versus inspiration: p = 0.201; versus expiration: p = 0.790) without reaching significance. Suction/Inspiration against resistance is a promising technique to improve contrast density within pulmonary vessels, especially in the peripheral parts, in comparison to other breathing maneuvers. • Suction/Inspiration against resistance is promising to improve contrast density within the pulmonary artery. • Patients potentially suffering pulmonary embolism are able to follow suction/inspiration against resistance. • Contrast density after suction is superior in comparison to other breathing maneuvers.

  9. Relations Between Autonomous Motivation and Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation: The Mediating Role of Self-Regulation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Johanna; Hagger, Martin S; Haukkala, Ari; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Hankonen, Nelli

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the predictive validity of a multitheory process model in which the effect of autonomous motivation from self-determination theory on physical activity participation is mediated by the adoption of self-regulatory techniques based on control theory. Finnish adolescents (N = 411, aged 17-19) completed a prospective survey including validated measures of the predictors and physical activity, at baseline and after one month (N = 177). A subsample used an accelerometer to objectively measure physical activity and further validate the physical activity self-report assessment tool (n = 44). Autonomous motivation statistically significantly predicted action planning, coping planning, and self-monitoring. Coping planning and self-monitoring mediated the effect of autonomous motivation on physical activity, although self-monitoring was the most prominent. Controlled motivation had no effect on self-regulation techniques or physical activity. Developing interventions that support autonomous motivation for physical activity may foster increased engagement in self-regulation techniques and positively affect physical activity behavior.

  10. Examining English Language Arts Common Core State Standards Instruction through Cultural Historical Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett-Tatum, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The English Language Arts Common Core State Standards and corresponding assessments brought about many changes for educators, their literacy instruction, and the literacy learning of their students. This study examined the day-to-day literacy instruction of two primary grade teachers during their first year of full CCSS implementation. Engestr?m's…

  11. 78 FR 12037 - Announcement of the American Petroleum Institute's Standards Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ..., 9th Edition Document XX, Life Cycle Management for Exploration and Production Oilfield Equipment For... Equipment, 1st Edition Recommended Practice 99, Flash Fire Risk Assessment Standard for the Upstream Oil and... Chapter 22.5, Testing Protocols--Electronic Flow Computer Calculations, 1st Edition MPMS Chapter 22.6...

  12. 75 FR 27733 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Standard for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... Fabrics Act (``FFA''), 15 U.S.C. 1193, to reduce unreasonable risks of burn injuries and deaths from fires... mattress pad will resist ignition from a smoldering cigarette. The standard requires manufacturers to... related to mattress fires, particularly those ignited by open flame sources such as lighters, candles and...

  13. 75 FR 75573 - Standards Governing the Release of a Suspicious Activity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... Part III Department of the Treasury Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Parts 4 and 21 Office of Thrift Supervision 12 CFR Parts 510 and 563 31 CFR Part 103 Standards Governing the Release of a... THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency 12 CFR Part 4 [Docket ID OCC-2010-0018] RIN...

  14. SU-F-T-503: Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy of Intracranial Lesions: Development of a Standardized Path-Based Technique for Fully Dynamic Couch-Gantry Modulated Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S; Chin, E; Xing, L; Hristov, D; Fahimian, B [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Otto, K [University of British Columbia, Victoria (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The integration of couch motion during arc delivery is necessitated to enable irradiation trajectories such as coronal arcs, and to enhance the geometrical sampling for dynamic deliveries to the highest extent. To enable such capability, a platform of Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy (TMAT) is developed in conjunction with standardized noncollisional dynamic path-set for irradiation of intracranial lesions. Methods: A generalized path-set was constructed through the combination of sagittal arcs (45 degrees from the CAX), axial arcs, and coronal arcs produced through modulation of the dynamic rotation of couch. The standardized path was implemented in a contiguous manner enabling the formation of fully automated sub-trajectories to provide maximal geometrical convergence with minimal number of arcs. Progressive sampling technique is used for direct aperture optimization of the MLCs and the selection of couch positions across the control points. Dosimetry of the resulting plans was assessed relative to clinically delivered plans. Using the TrueBeam Developer Mode, plan deliverability was tested. Results: Treatment planning of TMAT sub-trajectories for central, anterior and posterior tumor sites with volumes ranging from 4.75cc to 107cc demonstrated radically reduced doses to the critical OARs when compared to the clinically treated VMAT. Specifically, percentage reduction in mean dose for critical organs such as brainstem, cochlea, and optic nerve are found to be as low as 74±15%, 50±26% and 74±30% respectively as compared to VMAT. Conformity Index, defined as the ratio of tumor volume (VPTV) and 100% dose volume (V(D100%)), was reduced up to 12% while the Gradient Index, defined as V(D100%)/V(D50%), was concurrently improved by up to 14%. Conclusion: An automated standardized trajectory with dynamically modulated couch-gantry arcs has been developed for intracranial radiotherapy. Through the incorporation of coronal arcs, it is demonstrated that

  15. Techniques for characterization of particulate matter: neutron activation analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulett, L.D.; Dale, J.M.; Emery, J.F.; Lyon, W.S. Jr.; Fulkerson, W.

    1975-01-01

    Three techniques for particulate matter analysis are discussed: (1) neutron activation, which is a method that samples the entire specimen, both surface and bulk; (2) electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), which samples particle surfaces only; and (3) scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which reveals particle size and morphology, and can be used to determine composition differences in individual particles. These three techniques can be combined to construct highly detailed characterizations of particulate matter specimens. It is shown that multielement analysis can be quickly done by neutron activation and that surface analysis and individual particle analysis obtained by ESCA and SEM, are very important supplementary information

  16. Impact of resolution and downscaling technique in simulating recent Atlantic tropical cyclone activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caron, Louis-Philippe; Winger, Katja [CRCMD Network, UQAM, Montreal, QC (Canada); Jones, Colin G. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Rossby Centre, Norrkoping (Sweden)

    2011-09-15

    Using the global environmental multiscale (GEM) model, we investigate the impact of increasing model resolution from 2 to 0.3 on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity. There is a clear improvement in the realism of Atlantic storms with increased resolution, in part, linked to a better representation of African easterly waves. The geographical distribution of a Genesis Potential Index, composed of large-scales fields known to impact cyclone formation, coincides closely in the model with areas of high cyclogenesis. The geographical distribution of this index also improves with resolution. We then compare two techniques for achieving local high resolution over the tropical Atlantic: a limited-area model driven at the boundaries by the global 2 GEM simulation and a global variable resolution model (GVAR). The limited-area domain and high-resolution part of the GVAR model coincide geographically, allowing a direct comparison between these two downscaling options. These integrations are further compared with a set of limited-area simulations employing the same domain and resolution, but driven at the boundaries by reanalysis. The limited-area model driven by reanalysis produces the most realistic Atlantic tropical cyclone variability. The GVAR simulation is clearly more accurate than the limited-area version driven by GEM-Global. Degradation in the simulated interannual variability is partly linked to the models failure to accurately reproduce the impact of atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial Pacific and Sahel on Atlantic cyclogenesis. Through the use of a smaller limited-area grid, driven by GEM-Global 2 , we show that an accurate representation of African Easterly Waves is crucial for simulating Atlantic tropical cyclone variability. (orig.)

  17. Application of neutron activation analysis technique in elemental determination of lichen samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko Prakoso Dwi Atmodjo; Syukria Kurniawati; Woro Yatu Niken Syahfitri; Nana Suherman; Dadang Supriatna

    2010-01-01

    Lichen is one of the biological materials as pollution monitor that can give information about level, direction, and history of various pollutants in environment. Small sample weights and elemental content of lichens is on the order of ppm, so that its characterization requires advanced analytical techniques that has high sensitivity and capable of analyzing samples with weight of - 25 mg, such as neutron activation analysis. In this research, determination of elements was done in lichen samples obtained from Kiaracondong and Holis areas in Bandung city, to understanding the difference of industrial exposure level on surrounding environment. Samples were irradiated in RSG GA Siwabessy, Serpong, at 15 MW for 1-2 and 60 minutes for short irradiation and long irradiation, respectively. The samples were then counted using HPGe detector with GENIE 2000 software. The level of element in lichen for Kiaracondong area were Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sb, Sc, and V in the range of 0.55-0.86, 1.47-2.57, 0.87-1.19, 540-1005, 949-1674, 34.91-45.94, 0.08-0.14, 0.16-0.31, and ≤ 2.33 mg/kg, respectively, while for Holis area were 1.04-2.37, 4.41-10.36, 0.41-0.89, 3166-709, 1131-1422, 40.97-72.51, 0.33-0.50, 0.98-2.18, and 5.30-13.05 mg/kg respectively. From these results, it is known that pollution exposure from the semi industrial area Holis provide greater influence than in the semi industrial area Kiaracondong. (author)

  18. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayati, Mohsen; Mahboub Ahari, Alireza; Badakhshan, Abbas; Gholipour, Mahin; Joulaei, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs) have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC) as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs). We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC) was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be implemented in MRI centers. With the settlement of a reliable cost accounting system

  19. Cost Analysis of MRI Services in Iran: An Application of Activity Based Costing Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayati, Mohsen; Mahboub Ahari, Alireza; Badakhshan, Abbas; Gholipour, Mahin; Joulaei, Hassan

    2015-10-01

    Considerable development of MRI technology in diagnostic imaging, high cost of MRI technology and controversial issues concerning official charges (tariffs) have been the main motivations to define and implement this study. The present study aimed to calculate the unit-cost of MRI services using activity-based costing (ABC) as a modern cost accounting system and to fairly compare calculated unit-costs with official charges (tariffs). We included both direct and indirect costs of MRI services delivered in fiscal year 2011 in Shiraz Shahid Faghihi hospital. Direct allocation method was used for distribution of overhead costs. We used micro-costing approach to calculate unit-cost of all different MRI services. Clinical cost data were retrieved from the hospital registering system. Straight-line method was used for depreciation cost estimation. To cope with uncertainty and to increase the robustness of study results, unit costs of 33 MRI services was calculated in terms of two scenarios. Total annual cost of MRI activity center (AC) was calculated at USD 400,746 and USD 532,104 based on first and second scenarios, respectively. Ten percent of the total cost was allocated from supportive departments. The annual variable costs of MRI center were calculated at USD 295,904. Capital costs measured at USD 104,842 and USD 236, 200 resulted from the first and second scenario, respectively. Existing tariffs for more than half of MRI services were above the calculated costs. As a public hospital, there are considerable limitations in both financial and administrative databases of Shahid Faghihi hospital. Labor cost has the greatest share of total annual cost of Shahid Faghihi hospital. The gap between unit costs and tariffs implies that the claim for extra budget from health providers may not be relevant for all services delivered by the studied MRI center. With some adjustments, ABC could be implemented in MRI centers. With the settlement of a reliable cost accounting system

  20. Hydrogen Adsorption on Activated Carbon an Carbon Nanotubes Using Volumetric Differential Pressure Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanip, S. M.; Saidin, M. A. R.; Aziz, M.; Ismail, A. F.

    2010-01-01

    A simple hydrogen adsorption measurement system utilizing the volumetric differential pressure technique has been designed, fabricated and calibrated. Hydrogen adsorption measurements have been carried out at temperatures 298 K and 77 K on activate carbon and carbon nanotubes with different surface areas. The adsorption data obtained will be helpful in understanding the adsorption property of the studied carbon materials using the fundamentals of adsorption theory. The principle of the system follows the Sievert-type method. The system measures a change in pressure between the reference cell, R1 and the sample cell S1, S2, S3 over a certain temperature range, R1, S1, S2, and S3 having known fixed volume. The sample temperatures will be monitored by thermocouple TC while the pressures in R1 an S1, S2, S3 will be measured using a digital pressure transducer. The maximum operating pressure of the pressure transducer is 20 bar and calibrated with an accuracy of ±0.01 bar. High purity hydrogen is being used in the system and the amount of samples for the study is between 1.0-2.0 grams. The system was calibrated using helium gas without any samples in S1, S2 an S3. This will provide a correction factor during the adsorption process providing an adsorption free reference point when using hydrogen gas resulting in a more accurate reading of the adsorption process by eliminating the errors caused by temperature expansion effects and other non-adsorption related phenomena. The ideal gas equation of state is applied to calculate the hydrogen adsorption capacity based on the differential pressure measurements. Activated carbon with a surface area of 644.87 m 2 /g showed a larger amount of adsorption as compared to multiwalled nanotubes (commercial) with a surface area of 119.68 m 2 /g. This study als indicated that there is a direct correlation between the amounts of hydrogen adsorbed an surface area of the carbon materials under the conditions studied and that the adsorption