Sample records for techniques raman spectroscopy

  1. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Matthew W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  2. Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy has gained increased use and importance in recent years for accurate and precise detection of physical and chemical properties of food materials, due to the greater specificity and sensitivity of Raman techniques over other analytical techniques. This book chapter presents Raman s...

  3. Raman Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gerrard, Donald L.


    Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and…

  4. Coherent Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Eesley, G L


    Coherent Raman Spectroscopy provides a unified and general account of the fundamental aspects of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy, also known as coherent Raman spectroscopy. The theoretical basis from which coherent Raman spectroscopy developed is described, along with its applications, utility, and implementation as well as advantages and disadvantages. Experimental data which typifies each technique is presented. This book is comprised of four chapters and opens with an overview of nonlinear optics and coherent Raman spectroscopy, followed by a discussion on nonlinear transfer function of matter

  5. Raman spectroscopy in solid state physics and material science. Theory, techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucazeau, G.; Abello, L.


    After a brief survey of the basic concepts of Raman scattering, we shall underline the specificities of the Raman spectroscopy as a characterization tool of solid materials. Most of the examples presented here have been selected among results which have been obtained recently in our laboratory. The micro-Raman technique provides a convenient way for investigating heterogeneities in ceramics and thin films. As a first example we show how the electric properties of the pure an doped BaCeO 3 perovskites are strongly dominated by the different phase transitions which take place in these compounds. We show in particular the advantage of the coupling of impedance and Raman spectroscopy when studying the influence of the chemical composition of the atmospheres and of the temperature on the electric properties of the ceramic. Unexpectedly, new concepts for explaining the phase transition mechanism in this structural family are provided by this study. A second example is borrowed from the characterization of a film made of a protonic conductor-doped polymer. A second kind of structural information which can be delivered by micro-Raman spectroscopy is related to the characterization of thermo-mechanical stresses in thin films of semi-conducting compounds in the Si-Ge system. It is well known that the gap and thus the electric properties are strongly dependent on the stress state of the material. The stress field induced either by an indenter, by a controlled flexion or by laser heating has been studied by Raman spectroscopy and is presented here. The pulsed Raman spectroscopy offers the possibility to characterize samples in strongly emissive atmospheres or submitted to strong perturbations of a short duration. The in situ characterization of diamond films in a plasma-assisted CVD reactor is briefly mentioned, another example is provided by a crystal of LaF 3 in which on a nanosecond scale different fluorescence processes are time-resolved and separated from the Raman

  6. Raman Spectroscopy of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technique Overview and Application to Carbon Deposition Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Maher, R. C.


    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful characterization tool for improving the understanding of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), capable of providing direct, molecularly specific information regarding the physical and chemical processes occurring within functional SOFCs in real time. In this paper we give a summary of the technique itself and highlight ex situ and in situ studies that are particularly relevant for SOFCs. This is followed by a case study of carbon formation on SOFC Ni-based anodes exposed to carbon monoxide (CO) using both ex situ and in situ Raman spectroscopy combined with computational simulations. In situ measurements clearly show that carbon formation is significantly reduced for polarized SOFCs compared to those held at open circuit potential (OCP). Ex situ Raman mapping of the surfaces showed clear variations in the rate of carbon formation across the surface of polarized anodes. Computational simulations describing the geometry of the cell showed that this is due to variations in gas access. These results demonstrate the ability of Raman spectroscopy in combination with traditional characterization tools, to provide detailed understanding of critical processes occurring within functional SOFCs. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Development of a multiplexing fingerprint and high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy technique for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei


    We report on the development of a novel multiplexing Raman spectroscopy technique using a single laser light together with a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating that simultaneously acquires both fingerprint (FP) and high wavenumber (HW) tissue Raman spectra at endoscopy. We utilize a customized VPH dual-transmission grating, which disperses the incident Raman scattered light vertically onto two separate segments (i.e., -150 to 1950 cm-1 1750 to 3600 cm-1) of a charge-coupled device camera. We demonstrate that the multiplexing Raman technique can acquire high quality in vivo tissue Raman spectra ranging from 800 to 3600 cm-1 within 1.0 s with a spectral resolution of 3 to 6 cm-1 during clinical endoscopy. The rapid multiplexing Raman spectroscopy technique covering both FP and HW ranges developed in this work has potential for improving in vivo tissue diagnosis and characterization at endoscopy.

  8. Development of a multiplexing fingerprint and high wavenumber Raman spectroscopy technique for real-time in vivo tissue Raman measurements at endoscopy. (United States)

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei


    We report on the development of a novel multiplexing Raman spectroscopy technique using a single laser light together with a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating that simultaneously acquires both fingerprint (FP) and high wavenumber (HW) tissue Raman spectra at endoscopy. We utilize a customized VPH dual-transmission grating, which disperses the incident Raman scattered light vertically onto two separate segments (i.e., -150 to 1950  cm⁻¹; 1750 to 3600  cm⁻¹) of a charge-coupled device camera. We demonstrate that the multiplexing Raman technique can acquire high quality in vivo tissue Raman spectra ranging from 800 to 3600  cm⁻¹ within 1.0 s with a spectral resolution of 3 to 6  cm⁻¹ during clinical endoscopy. The rapid multiplexing Raman spectroscopy technique covering both FP and HW ranges developed in this work has potential for improving in vivo tissue diagnosis and characterization at endoscopy.

  9. A Technique for Measuring Microparticles in Polar Ice Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimitsu Sakurai


    Full Text Available We describe in detail our method of measuring the chemical forms of microparticles in polar ice samples through micro-Raman spectroscopy. The method is intended for solid ice samples, an important point because melting the ice can result in dissociation, contamination, and chemical reactions prior to or during a measurement. We demonstrate the technique of measuring the chemical forms of these microparticles and show that the reference spectra of those salts expected to be common in polar ice are unambiguously detected. From our measurements, Raman intensity of sulfate salts is relatively higher than insoluble dust due to the specific Raman scattering cross-section of chemical forms of microparticles in ice.

  10. Industrial applications of Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Grasselli, J. G.; Walder, F.; Petty, C.; Kemeny, G.


    In the last two decades, Raman spectroscopy has matured as an important method for the study of molecules and complex molecular systems. This is evident from the number of fine texts and the many review articles which have been published describing theory and applications of Raman spectroscopy over a very broad range of subjects (1-10). Raman spectroscopy is the essential partner to infrared spectroscopy for a complete vibrational analysis of a molecule in structure determinations. From the understanding developed on small molecules, theory was extended to interpret the spectra of larger systems such as polymers, biological molecules, and ordered condensed phases. The contribution of Raman spectroscopy to these areas has been significant. It was the development of commercial lasers in the 1960s which spurred the renewed interest in the Raman technique. But applications were still limited for highly fluorescing or intensely colored systems. In 1986, a breakthrough paper by Hirschfeld and Chase (11) described the use of near-infrared laser excitation and a commercial interferometer-based FT-IR spectrometer to record FT-Raman spectra. Significant advantages included the inherent multiplex, throughput and data processing features of the FT interferometers and the use of a ND:YAG laser (1.064 μm) which dramatically decreased problems with sample fluorescence and decomposition. A deluge of papers describing applications of FT-Raman spectroscopy can be found in the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, Spectrochimica Acta (special issues 40A ad 47A), and Applied Spectroscopy since then.

  11. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larkin, Peter


    "Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Spectral Interpretation explains the background, core principles and tests the readers understanding of the important techniques of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy...

  12. Micro-Raman spectroscopy a powerful technique to identify crocidolite and erionite fibers in tissue sections (United States)

    Rinaudo, C.; Croce, A.; Allegrina, M.; Baris, I. Y.; Dogan, A.; Powers, A.; Rivera, Z.; Bertino, P.; Yang, H.; Gaudino, G.; Carbone, M.


    Exposure to mineral fibers such asbestos and erionite is widely associated with the development of lung cancer and pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM). Pedigree and mineralogical studies indicated that genetics may influence mineral fiber carcinogenesis. Although dimensions strongly impact on the fiber carcinogenic potential, also the chemical composition and the fiber is relevant. By using micro-Raman spectroscopy we show here persistence and identification of different mineral phases, directly on histopathological specimens of mice and humans. Fibers of crocidolite asbestos and erionite of different geographic areas (Oregon, US and Cappadocia, Turkey) were injected in mice intra peritoneum. MM developed in 10/15 asbestos-treated mice after 5 months, and in 8-10/15 erionite-treated mice after 14 months. The persistence of the injected fibers was investigated in pancreas, liver, spleen and in the peritoneal tissue. The chemical identification of the different phases occurred in the peritoneal cavity or at the organ borders, while only rarely fibers were localized in the parenchyma. Raman patterns allow easily to recognize crocidolite and erionite fibers. Microscopic analysis revealed that crocidolite fibers were frequently coated by ferruginous material ("asbestos bodies"), whereas erionite fibers were always free from coatings. We also analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy lung tissues, both from MM patients of the Cappadocia, where a MM epidemic developed because of environmental exposure to erionite, and from Italian MM patients with occupational exposure to asbestos. Our findings demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy is technique able to identify mineral phases directly on histopathology specimens, as routine tissue sections prepared for diagnostic purpose. REFERENCES A.U. Dogan, M. Dogan. Environ. Geochem. Health 2008, 30(4), 355. M. Carbone, S. Emri, A.U. Dogan, I. Steele, M. Tuncer, HI. Pass, et al. Nat. Rev. Cancer. 2007, 7 (2),147. M. Carbone, Y

  13. Raman Imaging Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server


    Raman imaging has long been used to probe the chemical nature of a sample, providing information on molecular orientation, symmetry and structure with sub-micron spatial resolution. Recent technical developments have pushed the limits of micro-Raman microscopy, enabling the acquisition of Raman spectra with unprecedented speed, and opening a pathway to fast chemical imaging for many applications from material science and semiconductors to pharmaceutical drug development and cell biology, and even art and forensic science. The promise of tip-enhanced raman spectroscopy (TERS) and near-field techniques is pushing the envelope even further by breaking the limit of diffraction and enabling nano-Raman microscopy.

  14. Characterization of Air Plane Soot Surrogates using Raman spectroscopy and laser ablation techniques (United States)

    Chazallon, Bertrand; Ortega, Ismael Kenneth; Ikhenazene, Raouf; Pirim, Claire; Carpentier, Yvain; Irimiea, Cornelia; Focsa, Cristian; Ouf, François-Xavier


    resulting spectra. If much literature discussed the most appropriate values of these parameters for analyzing graphite, coals, or amorphous carbon, only few works have dealt with soot, and no published studies have proposed the optimal parameter values for air-plane soot surrogates. In this work, we present the effect of three Raman parameters (laser wavelength, irradiance at sample, exposure time) on air-plane soot surrogates. The obtained results qualitatively indicate higher reactivity of soot samples collected in specific air-oxidation conditions. The surface chemical composition of the soot particles with special focus on PAHs are analyzed by two-Step (Desorption/Ionization) Laser Mass Spectrometry (L2MS) and Time of Fight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) techniques. In both techniques the spectra are obtained using positive polarity, which is better suited for detection of PAHs. A good agreement was obtained between the two techniques for the total PAH content of the analyzed samples. CAST samples are further processed by Raman spectroscopy to get complementary information on their structure. References [1] Lee et al., Atmos. Env. 44, 4678-4734, 2010 [2] IPCC 2014, Chap7: [3] L. Dufour, Ciel et Terre, vol 82, p1-36, 1966 [4] C. Hoose & O. Möhler, Atmos.Chem.Phys. 12, 9817-9854, 2012 [5] Sadezky, A., Muckenhuber, H., Grothe, H., Niessner, R. and Pöschl U., (2005) Carbon, 43, 1731-1742. [6] Parent, Laffon, Marhaba, Ferry, Regier, Ortega, Chazallon, Carpentier, Focsa, (2016) Carbon (accepted)

  15. Raman Spectroscopy for Homeland Security Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Mogilevsky


    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy is an analytical technique with vast applications in the homeland security and defense arenas. The Raman effect is defined by the inelastic interaction of the incident laser with the analyte molecule’s vibrational modes, which can be exploited to detect and identify chemicals in various environments and for the detection of hazards in the field, at checkpoints, or in a forensic laboratory with no contact with the substance. A major source of error that overwhelms the Raman signal is fluorescence caused by the background and the sample matrix. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the Raman signal’s sensitivity and to reduce the effects of fluorescence by altering how the hazard material interacts with its environment and the incident laser. Basic Raman techniques applicable to homeland security applications include conventional (off-resonance Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and spatially or temporally offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS and TORS. Additional emerging Raman techniques, including remote Raman detection, Raman imaging, and Heterodyne imaging, are being developed to further enhance the Raman signal, mitigate fluorescence effects, and monitor hazards at a distance for use in homeland security and defense applications.

  16. Achievements in resonance Raman spectroscopy review of a technique with a distinct analytical chemistry potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efremov, E.V.; Ariese, F.; Gooijer, C.


    In an extended introduction, key aspects of resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) such as enhanced sensitivity and selectivity are briefly discussed in comparison with normal RS. The analytical potential is outlined. Then achievements in different fields of research are highlighted in four sections,

  17. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 2. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy - Recent Advancement of Raman Spectroscopy. Ujjal Kumar Sur. General Article Volume 15 Issue 2 February 2010 pp 154-164 ...

  18. Ultrafast surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Keller, Emily L; Brandt, Nathaniel C; Cassabaum, Alyssa A; Frontiera, Renee R


    Ultrafast surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with pico- and femtosecond time resolution has the ability to elucidate the mechanisms by which plasmons mediate chemical reactions. Here we review three important technological advances in these new methodologies, and discuss their prospects for applications in areas including plasmon-induced chemistry and sensing at very low limits of detection. Surface enhancement, arising from plasmonic materials, has been successfully incorporated with stimulated Raman techniques such as femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). These techniques are capable of time-resolved measurement on the femtosecond and picosecond time scale and can be used to follow the dynamics of molecules reacting near plasmonic surfaces. We discuss the potential application of ultrafast SERS techniques to probe plasmon-mediated processes, such as H2 dissociation and solar steam production. Additionally, we discuss the possibilities for high sensitivity SERS sensing using these stimulated Raman spectroscopies.

  19. Raman spectroscopy as a non-invasive technique for the quantification of melanins in feathers and hairs. (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Jorge, Alberto; Ito, Kazuma; Tabuchi, Keisuke; Solano, Francisco; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa


    The quantification of melanins is a complex task due to the chemical heterogeneity of the pigments and the difficulty of their isolation. The best accepted procedure currently consists in the chemical cleavage of melanins and the subsequent detection of degradation products by HPLC, which implies the destruction of samples. Here, we show that Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive technique that can be used to quantify melanins. We made parallel analyses of the characteristics of pheomelanin and eumelanin Raman spectra as measured by confocal Raman microscopy and of degradation products of pheomelanin (4-amino-3-hydroxyphenylalanine, 4-AHP) and eumelanin (pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, PTCA) as measured by HPLC in feathers of red-legged partridges and hairs of wild boars and humans. We found strong correlations between the spectral Raman characteristics and 4-AHP and PTCA levels, which indicates that the Raman spectra of melanins can be used to determine their content. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Raman Plus X: Biomedical Applications of Multimodal Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandan K. Das


    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy is a label-free method of obtaining detailed chemical information about samples. Its compatibility with living tissue makes it an attractive choice for biomedical analysis, yet its translation from a research tool to a clinical tool has been slow, hampered by fundamental Raman scattering issues such as long integration times and limited penetration depth. In this review we detail the how combining Raman spectroscopy with other techniques yields multimodal instruments that can help to surmount the translational barriers faced by Raman alone. We review Raman combined with several optical and non-optical methods, including fluorescence, elastic scattering, OCT, phase imaging, and mass spectrometry. In each section we highlight the power of each combination along with a brief history and presentation of representative results. Finally, we conclude with a perspective detailing both benefits and challenges for multimodal Raman measurements, and give thoughts on future directions in the field.

  1. Application of laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy techniques to the monitoring of single cell response to stimuli (United States)

    Chan, James W.; Liu, Rui; Matthews, Dennis L.


    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) combines optical trapping with micro-Raman spectroscopy to enable label-free biochemical analysis of individual cells and small biological particles in suspension. The integration of the two technologies greatly simplifies the sample preparation and handling of suspension cells for spectroscopic analysis in physiologically meaningful conditions. In our group, LTRS has been used to study the effects of external perturbations, both chemical and mechanical, on the biochemistry of the cell. Single cell dynamics can be studied by performing longitudinal studies to continuously monitor the response of the cell as it interacts with its environment. The ability to carry out these measurements in-vitro makes LTRS an attractive tool for many biomedical applications. Here, we discuss the use of LTRS to study the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutics and bacteria cells to antibiotics and show that the life cycle and apoptosis of the cells can be detected. These results show the promise of LTRS for drug discovery/screening, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and chemotherapy response monitoring applications. In separate experiments, we study the response of red blood cells to the mechanical forces imposed on the cell by the optical tweezers. A laser power dependent deoxygenation of the red blood cell in the single beam trap is reported. Normal, sickle cell, and fetal red blood cells have a different behavior that enables the discrimination of the cell types based on this mechanochemical response. These results show the potential utility of LTRS for diagnosing and studying red blood cell diseases.

  2. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka


    molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant...... application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed....

  3. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    In Raman spectroscopy, inelastic scattering of photons from an atom or molecule in chemical entities is utilized to analyze the composition of solids, liquids and gases. However, the low cross-section limits its applications. The introduction of sur- face-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in 1974 has attracted a lot of attention ...

  4. Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander; Berg, Rolf W.

    Poster "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at "Diffusion measurements by Raman spectroscopy", See poster at

  5. Emerging Dental Applications of Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark; Sowa, Michael G.

    Until recently, the application of Raman spectroscopy to investigate dental tissues has primarily focused on using microspectroscopy to characterize dentin and enamel structures as well as to understand the adhesive interface of various resin and bonding agents used in restorative procedures. With the advent of improved laser, imaging/mapping and fibre optic technologies, the applications have expanded to investigate various biomedical problems ranging from oral cancer, bacterial identification and early dental caries detection. The overall aim of these applications is to develop Raman spectroscopy into a tool for use in the dental clinic. This chapter presents the recent dental applications of Raman spectroscopy as well as discusses the potential, strengths and limitations of the technology in comparison with alternative techniques. In addition, a discussion and rationale about combining Raman spectroscopy with other optical techniques will be included.

  6. Raman spectroscopy as a tool for investigating lipid protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Frederic Nicolas Rønne; Helix Nielsen, Claus


    Raman spectroscopy is a very well-established technique for noninvasive probing of chemical compounds. The fad that Raman scattering is an inherently weak effect has prompted many new developments in sample signal enhancement and techniques (such as surface-enhancement Raman spectroscopy [SERS]) ...

  7. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy as a new spectral technique for quantitative detection of metal ions. (United States)

    Temiz, Havva Tumay; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Grabchev, Ivo; Tamer, Ugur


    Four newly synthesized poly (propylene amine) dendrimers from first and second generation modified with 1,8-naphthalimide units in the dendrimer periphery have been investigated as ligands for the detection of heavy metal ions (Al(3+), Sb(2+), As(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+)) by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Calibration curves were established for all metal ions between the concentration ranges of 1 x 10(-6) to 5 x 10(-4) M. It has been shown that these dendrimers can be coordinated, especially with different metal ions. Using dendrimer molecules and silver colloids at the same time allowed us to obtain an SERS signal from the abovementioned metal ions at very low concentrations. Principle component analysis (PCA) analysis was also applied to the collected SERS data. Four different PCA models were developed to accomplish the discrimination of five metal ions, which interacted with each of the four dendrimer molecules, separately. A detailed investigation was performed in the present study to provide the basis of a new approach for heavy metal detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, M.C.; Rosenblatt, G.M.


    Raman spectroscopy (largely because of advances in laser and detector technology) is assuming a rapidly expanding role in many areas of research. This paper reviews the contribution of Raman spectroscopy in high temperature chemistry including molecular spectroscopy on static systems and gas diagnostic measurements on reactive systems. An important aspect of high temperature chemistry has been the identification and study of the new, and often unusual, gaseous molecules which form at high temperatures. Particularly important is the investigation of vibrational-rotational energy levels and electronic states which determine thermodynamic properties and describe chemical bonding. Some advantages and disadvantages of high temperature Raman spectrosocpy for molecular studies on static systems are compared: (1) Raman vs infrared; (2) gas-phase vs condensed in matries; and (3) atmospheric pressure Raman vs low pressure techniques, including mass spectroscopy, matrix isolation, and molecular beams. Raman studies on molecular properties of gases, melts, and surfaces are presented with emphasis on work not covered in previous reviews of high temperature and matrix isolation Raman spectroscopy

  9. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    near-ultraviolet range of electromagnetic spectra. The shift in energy in Raman effect gives information about the ... Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in chemistry, since vibrational information is very specific for the ... in polarizability is compatible with preservation of the center of symmetry. Thus, in a centrosymmetric ...

  10. Application of Raman spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnakumar, N.


    Cancer is the second leading causes of death next to heart diseases, Half of all cancer cases occur in developing countries. The conventional histopathology is usually the most trustable gold standard for pre-cancer and cancer diagnosis. However, the applicability of this method is more or less restricted because of the requirement of removing human tissues and the difficulty of real time diagnosis. Recently, there has been increased interest in 'optical biopsy' system using tissue spectroscopy to establish the pathological changes. Among optical based methods, Raman spectroscopy is a unique vibrational spectroscopic technique capable of probing biomolecular structures and conformation of tissues, and has excelled in the early detection of pre-cancer and cancer in the number of organs with high diagnostic specificity. Raman spectroscopy offers certain distinct advantages over than other optical diagnostic techniques such as high spatial resolution, use of less harmful NIR radiation, less or no sample preparation, no influence of water bands which facilitates in vivo/in situ measurements. This makes Raman spectroscopy also very useful for biomedical applications. Several research groups have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique in biomedical applications. The background and principle of these techniques will be discussed with some examples and discussions on how Raman spectroscopy can act as a promising technique for rapid in vivo diagnosis and detection of various cancers at the molecular level. (author)

  11. Detection of biologically active diterpenoic acids by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Orinak, Andrej; Efremov, Evtim V.


    is not suitable for their unambiguous identification, especially not in solution. We attempted to increase the sensitivity by applying UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) techniques. The UV-Raman spectra of the three compounds in ethanol/water 50 : 50 showed only very......Three poorly detectable, biologically active diterpenoic acids, kaurenoic, abietic, and gibberellic acid, were studied by using different modes of Raman spectroscopy. Because of their structural similarities, in the absence of strongly polarizable groups, conventional Raman spectroscopy...

  12. Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, E.B.; Manoharan, R.; Koo, T.-W.; Shafer, K.E.; Motz, J.T.; Fitzmaurice, M.; Kramer, J.R.; Itzkan, I.; Dasari, R.R.; Feld, M.S.


    Raman spectroscopy is a potentially important clinical tool for real-time diagnosis of disease and in situ evaluation of living tissue. The purpose of this article is to review the biological and physical basis of Raman spectroscopy of tissue, to assess the current status of the field and to explore future directions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy and the molecular level information it provides are explained. An overview of the evolution of Raman spectroscopic techniques in biology and medicine, from early investigations using visible laser excitation to present-day technology based on near-infrared laser excitation and charge-coupled device array detection, is presented. State-of-the-art Raman spectrometer systems for research laboratory and clinical settings are described. Modern methods of multivariate spectral analysis for extracting diagnostic, chemical and morphological information are reviewed. Several in-depth applications are presented to illustrate the methods of collecting, processing and analysing data, as well as the range of medical applications under study. Finally, the issues to be addressed in implementing Raman spectroscopy in various clinical applications, as well as some long-term directions for future study, are discussed. (author)

  13. Raman spectroscopy of skin neoplasms (United States)

    Moryatov, A. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Kaganov, O. I.; Orlov, A. E.; Zaharov, V. P.; Batrachenko, I. A.; Artemiev, D. N.; Blinov, N. V.


    Skin melanoma is spread inhomogeneously worldwide, particularly in Samara region there are high figures of skin neoplasms sick rate as well—18.6%. Research goal: to develop a new method of early non-invasive differential diagnostics of skin neoplasms. Registration of Raman spectrum was implemented in the distance of 3-4 mm, the spectrum registration from pathologically changed zone was subsequently conducted, then from healthy skin zone. The test time for 1 patient was no longer than 3-5 min. In a range of experiments ex vivo there were the following results: melanoma—24, basal cell cancer—25, squamosus cell sarcinoma—7, nevus pigmentosis—9, other malignant neoplasms—6; in vivo: melanoma—9, basal cell cancer—8, nevus pigmentosis—2, other benign neoplasms—2. The first results of the research dedicated to studying permissive opportunities of Raman spectroscopy, with successive two-phase analysis of received parameters display high efficiency of method of differential diagnostic for skin melanoma and other malignant neoplasms, pigment and benign skin neoplasms. Safety and rapidity of the research reveal a high potential of the technique.

  14. Raman spectroscopy of white wines. (United States)

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François


    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Raman spectroscopy of bone metastasis (United States)

    Esmonde-White, Karen A.; Sottnik, Joseph; Morris, Michael; Keller, Evan


    Raman spectroscopy of bone has been used to characterize chemical changes occurring in diseases such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and osteomyelitis. Metastasis of cancer into bone causes changes to bone quality that are similar to those observed in osteoporosis, such as decreased bone strength, but with an accelerated timeframe. In particular, osteolytic (bone degrading) lesions in bone metastasis have a marked effect on patient quality of life because of increased risk of fractures, pain, and hypercalcemia. We use Raman spectroscopy to examine bone from two different mouse models of osteolytic bone metastasis. Raman spectroscopy measures physicochemical information which cannot be obtained through standard biochemical and histological measurements. This study was reviewed and approved by the University of Michigan University Committee on the Care and Use of Animals. Two mouse models of prostate cancer bone metastasis, RM1 (n=3) and PC3-luc (n=4) were examined. Tibiae were injected with RM1 or PC3-luc cancer cells, while the contralateral tibiae received a placebo injection for use as controls. After 2 weeks of incubation, the mice were sacrificed and the tibiae were examined by Raman microspectroscopy (λ=785 nm). Spectroscopic markers corresponding to mineral stoichiometry, bone mineralization, and mineral crystallinity were compared in spectra from the cancerous and control tibiae. X-ray imaging of the tibia confirmed extensive osteolysis in the RM1 mice, with tumor invasion into adjoining soft tissue and moderate osteolysis in the PC3-luc mice. Raman spectroscopic markers indicate that osteolytic lesions are less mineralized than normal bone tissue, with an altered mineral stoichiometry and crystallinity.

  16. Characterisation of Oil-Gas Mixtures by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan


    . The present project deals with development of a technique for quick analysis of oil-gas mixtures. The main emphasis is laid on characterisation of gas phases in equilibrium with oil at high pressures and high temperatures by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman technique has a great potential of being useful, due...

  17. Raman and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy in Mineral Identification (United States)

    Kuehn, J. W.


    Raman spectroscopy is particularly useful for rapid identification of minerals and gemstones. Raman spectrometers also allow PL studies for authentication of samples and geological provenance, diamond type screening and detection of HPHT treatments.

  18. Dynamic characterization of MEMS using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z X; Hedley, J; Gallacher, B J; Arce-Garcia, I


    This paper reports on utilizing Raman spectroscopy to characterize the motion and measure strain levels in dynamic micromechanical structures. The main advantages of such a technique is that surface features are not required to characterize the 3D motion as the crystal lattice is used as the reference frame and that it is suited to high frequency measurements. Two methodologies are presented. The first utilizes a strobed diode laser probe beam with the centre position of the Raman peak giving a measure of strain as a function of phase. A measurement resolution of 210 µstrain is obtained at frequencies up to 100 kHz. The second method uses a HeNe laser probe beam with the broadening of the Raman peak, indicating strain levels. Although no phase data are available in the latter technique, the technique is rapid and may be utilized on a Raman system without any modification. A measurement resolution of 30 µstrain is achieved and strain mapping of a region may be performed within minutes. As strobing is not used here, the technique is not frequency limited. Comparisons with alternative optical characterization techniques are made

  19. Gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy identifies flexible sites in proline and alanine peptides (United States)

    Continuous thermo dynamic Raman spectroscopy (TDRS) applies the temperature gradients utilized in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to Raman spectroscopy, providing a straightforward technique to identify molecular rearrangements that occur just prior to phase transitions. Herein we apply TDRS...

  20. Raman Spectroscopy of Optically Trapped Single Biological Micro-Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Redding


    Full Text Available The combination of optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful method for the study, characterization, and identification of biological micro-particles. In essence, optical trapping helps to overcome the limitation imposed by the relative inefficiency of the Raman scattering process. This allows Raman spectroscopy to be applied to individual biological particles in air and in liquid, providing the potential for particle identification with high specificity, longitudinal studies of changes in particle composition, and characterization of the heterogeneity of individual particles in a population. In this review, we introduce the techniques used to integrate Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping in order to study individual biological particles in liquid and air. We then provide an overview of some of the most promising applications of this technique, highlighting the unique types of measurements enabled by the combination of Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping. Finally, we present a brief discussion of future research directions in the field.

  1. Raman spectroscopy peer review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelman, W.D.; Eberlein, S.J.


    The Hanford Site in eastern Washington includes 177 underground storage tanks (UST), which contain waste materials produced during the production of nuclear fuels. The materials in the tanks must be characterized to support the retrieval, processing, and final disposition of the waste. Characterization is currently performed by removing waste samples for analyses in a hot cell or laboratory. A review of the Hanford Raman Spectroscopy Program was held in Richland on March 23 and 24, 1994. A team of principal investigators and researchers made presentations that covered both technical and programmatic aspects of the Hanford Site Raman work. After these presentations and discussions, the review panel met in a closed session to formalize a list of findings. The reviewers agreed that Raman spectroscopy is an excellent method to attack the tank waste characterization and screening problems that were presented. They agreed that there was a good chance that the method would be successful as presently envisioned. The reviewers provided the following primary recommendations: evaluation a laser with wavelength in the near infrared; provide optical filters at or near the sampling end of the fiber-optic probe; develop and implement a strategy for frequent calibration of the system; do not try to further increase Raman resolution at the expense of wavelength range; clearly identify and differentiate between requirements for providing a short-term operational system and requirements for optimizing a system for long-term field use; and determine the best optical configuration, which may include reduced fiber-optic diameter and/or short focal length and low F-number spectrographs

  2. The interrelationship of microstructure and hardness of human coronal dentin using reference point indentation technique and micro-Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Seyedmahmoud, Rasoul; McGuire, Jacob D; Wang, Yong; Thiagarajan, Ganesh; Walker, Mary P


    The aim of this paper is to determine the interrelationship between the microstructure - in terms of chemical composition and crystallinity - to the microhardness of coronal dentin. Dentin microhardness was tested by a novel reference point indenter and compared to the traditional Knoop hardness method. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition and crystallinity of dentin. From the occlusal groove to the border of the coronal pulp chamber, dentin hardness decreased from superficial dentin (SD) to deep dentin (DD). Mineral/organic matrix ratios (phosphate/CH and phosphate/amide I) also decreased from SD to DD; however, this change was significant (Pmicro-Raman spectroscopy. We hypothesize that the decrease in hardness from superficial to deep dentin can potentially be explained by decreased mineral content and increased carbonate content, which is also associated with decreased crystallinity. Collectively, there is a positive association between dentin hardness and mineral content and a negative association between dentin hardness and carbonate content. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shu-Lin


    Raman Spectroscopy and its Application in Nanostructures is an original and timely contribution to a very active area of physics and materials science research. This book presents the theoretical and experimental phenomena of Raman spectroscopy, with specialized discussions on the physical fundamentals, new developments and main features in low-dimensional systems of Raman spectroscopy. In recent years physicists, materials scientists and chemists have devoted increasing attention to low-dimensional systems and as Raman spectroscopy can be used to study and analyse such materials as carbon nan

  4. Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection (United States)

    Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong


    Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  5. Continuous gradient temperature Raman spectroscopy of unsaturated fatty acids (United States)

    A new innovative technique gradient temperature, Raman spectroscopy (GTRS), identifies Raman frequency shifts in solid or liquid samples, and correlates them with specific temperature ranges within which flexible structures absorb heat. GTRS can easily detect changes that occur within one celcius te...

  6. Raman spectroscopy of CNC-and CNF-based nanocomposites (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal


    In this chapter, applications of Raman spectroscopy to nanocelluloses and nanocellulose composites are reviewed, and it is shown how use of various techniques in Raman can provide unique information. Some of the most important uses consisted of identification of cellulose nanomaterials, estimation of cellulose crystallinity, study of dispersion of cellulose...

  7. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Heterogeneous Catalysis Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, C.E.


    Raman spectroscopy is valuable characterization technique for the chemical analysis of heterogeneous catalysts, both under ex-situ and in-situ conditions. The potential for Raman to shine light on the chemical bonds present in a sample makes the method highly desirable for detailed catalyst

  8. Raman spectroscopy for cancer detection and characterization in metastasis models (United States)

    Koga, Shigehiro; Oshima, Yusuke; Sato, Mitsunori; Ishimaru, Kei; Yoshida, Motohira; Yamamoto, Yuji; Matsuno, Yusuke; Watanabe, Yuji


    Raman spectroscopy provides a wealth of diagnostic information to the surgeon with in situ cancer detection and label-free histopathology in clinical practice. Raman spectroscopy is a developing optical technique which can analyze biological tissues with light scattering. The difference in frequencies between the incident light and the scattering light are called Raman shifts, which correspond to the vibrational energy of the molecular bonds. Raman spectrum gives information about the molecular structure and composition in biological specimens. We had been previously reported that Raman spectroscopy could distinguish various histological types of human lung cancer cells from normal cells in vitro. However, to identify and detect cancer diagnostic biomarkers in vivo on Raman spectroscopy is still challenging, because malignancy can be characterized not only by the cancer cells but also by the environmental factors including immune cells, stroma cells, secretion vesicles and extracellular matrix. Here we investigate morphological and molecular dynamics in both cancer cells and their environment in xenograft models and spontaneous metastasis models using Raman spectroscopy combined with fluorescence microscopy and photoluminescence imaging. We are also constructing a custom-designed Raman spectral imaging system for both in vitro and in vivo assay of tumor tissues to reveal the metastasis process and to evaluate therapeutic effects of anti-cancer drugs and their drug delivery toward the clinical application of the technique.

  9. Probing nanoscale ferroelectricity by ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Tenne, D A; Bruchhausen, A; Lanzillotti-Kimura, N D; Fainstein, A; Katiyar, R S; Cantarero, A; Soukiassian, A; Vaithyanathan, V; Haeni, J H; Tian, W; Schlom, D G; Choi, K J; Kim, D M; Eom, C B; Sun, H P; Pan, X Q; Li, Y L; Chen, L Q; Jia, Q X; Nakhmanson, S M; Rabe, K M; Xi, X X


    We demonstrated that ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy is an effective technique to measure the transition temperature (Tc) in ferroelectric ultrathin films and superlattices. We showed that one-unit-cell-thick BaTiO3 layers in BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices are not only ferroelectric (with Tc as high as 250 kelvin) but also polarize the quantum paraelectric SrTiO3 layers adjacent to them. Tc was tuned by approximately 500 kelvin by varying the thicknesses of the BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers, revealing the essential roles of electrical and mechanical boundary conditions for nanoscale ferroelectricity.

  10. Applications of Raman spectroscopy in life science (United States)

    Martin, Airton A.; T. Soto, Cláudio A.; Ali, Syed M.; Neto, Lázaro P. M.; Canevari, Renata A.; Pereira, Liliane; Fávero, Priscila P.


    Raman spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of biological samples for the last 12 years providing detection of changes occurring at the molecular level during the pathological transformation of the tissue. The potential use of this technology in cancer diagnosis has shown encouraging results for the in vivo, real-time and minimally invasive diagnosis. Confocal Raman technics has also been successfully applied in the analysis of skin aging process providing new insights in this field. In this paper it is presented the latest biomedical applications of Raman spectroscopy in our laboratory. It is shown that Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been used for biochemical and molecular characterization of thyroid tissue by micro-Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis. This study aimed to improve the discrimination between different thyroid pathologies by Raman analysis. A total of 35 thyroid tissues samples including normal tissue (n=10), goiter (n=10), papillary (n=10) and follicular carcinomas (n=5) were analyzed. The confocal Raman spectroscopy allowed a maximum discrimination of 91.1% between normal and tumor tissues, 84.8% between benign and malignant pathologies and 84.6% among carcinomas analyzed. It will be also report the application of in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy as an important sensor for detecting advanced glycation products (AGEs) on human skin.

  11. Super-Resolution Raman Spectroscopy by Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro Tomita


    Full Text Available We demonstrate the results of a strain (stress evaluation obtained from Raman spectroscopy measurements with the super-resolution method (the so-called super-resolution Raman spectroscopy for a Si substrate with a patterned SiN film (serving as a strained Si sample. To improve the spatial resolution of Raman spectroscopy, we used the super-resolution method and a high-numerical-aperture immersion lens. Additionally, we estimated the spatial resolution by an edge force model (EFM calculation. One- and two-dimensional stress distributions in the Si substrate with the patterned SiN film were obtained by super-resolution Raman spectroscopy. The results from both super-resolution Raman spectroscopy and the EFM calculation were compared and were found to correlate well. The best spatial resolution, 70 nm, was achieved by super-resolution Raman measurements with an oil immersion lens. We conclude that super-resolution Raman spectroscopy is a useful method for evaluating stress in miniaturized state-of-the-art transistors, and we believe that the super-resolution method will soon be a requisite technique.

  12. Micro-Raman spectroscopy for meat type detection (United States)

    De Biasio, M.; Stampfer, P.; Leitner, R.; Huck, C. W.; Wiedemair, V.; Balthasar, D.


    The recent horse meat scandal in Europe increased the demand for optical sensors that can identify meat type. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique for the discrimination of meat types. Here, we present micro-Raman measurements of chicken, pork, turkey, mutton, beef and horse meat test samples. The data was analyzed with different combinations of data normalization and classification approaches. Our results show that Raman spectroscopy can discriminate between different meat types. Red and white meat are easily discriminated, however a sophisticated chemometric model is required to discriminate species within these groups.

  13. Basic principles of ultrafast Raman loss spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One such nonlinear process, namely, the third order nonlinear spectroscopy has become a popular tool to study molecular structure. Thus, the spectroscopy based on the third order optical nonlinearity called stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) is a tool to extract the structural and dynamical information about a molecular ...

  14. Disease recognition by infrared and Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Krafft, Christoph; Steiner, Gerald; Beleites, Claudia; Salzer, Reiner


    Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy are emerging biophotonic tools to recognize various diseases. The current review gives an overview of the experimental techniques, data-classification algorithms and applications to assess soft tissues, hard tissues and body fluids. The methodology section presents the principles to combine vibrational spectroscopy with microscopy, lateral information and fiber-optic probes. A crucial step is the classification of spectral data by a variety of algorithms. We discuss unsupervised algorithms such as cluster analysis or principal component analysis and supervised algorithms such as linear discriminant analysis, soft independent modeling of class analogies, artificial neural networks support vector machines, Bayesian classification, partial least-squares regression and ensemble methods. The selected topics include tumors of epithelial tissue, brain tumors, prion diseases, bone diseases, atherosclerosis, kidney stones and gallstones, skin tumors, diabetes and osteoarthritis. ((c) 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  15. Simultaneous Conoscopic Holography and Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce


    of laser light scattered inelastically from a laser-illuminated spot on the surface. The wavelengths of the inelastically scattered light differ from that of the incident laser beam by amounts that correspond to the energies of molecular vibrations. The resulting vibrational spectrum can be used to identify the molecules. Raman spectroscopy is a standard laboratory technique for identifying mineralogical, biological, and other specific chemical compositions.

  16. Raman spectroscopy an intensity approach

    CERN Document Server

    Guozhen, Wu


    This book summarizes the highlights of our work on the bond polarizability approach to the intensity analysis. The topics covered include surface enhanced Raman scattering, Raman excited virtual states and Raman optical activity (ROA). The first chapter briefly introduces the Raman effect in a succinct but clear way. Chapter 2 deals with the normal mode analysis. This is a basic tool for our work. Chapter 3 introduces our proposed algorithm for the Raman intensity analysis. Chapter 4 heavily introduces the physical picture of Raman virtual states. Chapter 5 offers details so that the readers can have a comprehensive idea of Raman virtual states. Chapter 6 demonstrates how this bond polarizability algorithm is extended to ROA intensity analysis. Chapters 7 and 8 offer details on ROA, showing many findings on ROA mechanism that were not known or neglected before. Chapter 9 introduces our proposed classical treatment on ROA which, as combined with the results from the bond polarizability analysis, leads to a com...

  17. [Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy analysis of thiabendazole pesticide]. (United States)

    Lin, Lei; Wu, Rui-mei; Liu, Mu-hua; Wang, Xiao-bin; Yan, Lin-yuan


    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique was used to analyze the Raman peaks of thiabendazole pesticides in the present paper. Surface enhanced substrates of silver nanoparticle were made based on microwave technology. Raman signals of thiabendazole were collected by laser Micro-Raman spectrometer with 514. 5 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths, respectively. The Raman peaks at different excitation wavelengths were analyzed and compared. The Raman peaks 782 and 1 012 at 785 nm excitation wavelength were stronger, which were C--H out-of-plane vibrations. While 1284, 1450 and 1592 cm(-1) at 514.5 nm excitation wavelength were stronger, which were vng and C==N stretching. The study results showed that the intensity of Raman peak and Raman shift at different excitation wavelengths were different And strong Raman signals were observed at 782, 1012, 1284, 1450 and 1592 cm(-1) at 514.5 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths. These characteristic vibrational modes are characteristic Raman peaks of carbendazim pesticide. The results can provide basis for the rapid screening of pesticide residue in agricultural products and food based on Raman spectrum.

  18. UTI diagnosis and antibiogram using Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Kastanos, Evdokia; Kyriakides, Alexandros; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Pitris, Constantinos


    Urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram require a 48 hour waiting period using conventional methods. This results in ineffective treatments, increased costs and most importantly in increased resistance to antibiotics. In this work, a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their sensitivity to an antibiotic using Raman spectroscopy is described. Raman spectra of three species of gram negative Enterobacteria, most commonly responsible for urinary tract infections, were collected. The study included 25 samples each of E.coli, Klebsiella p. and Proteus spp. A novel algorithm based on spectral ratios followed by discriminant analysis resulted in classification with over 94% accuracy. Sensitivity and specificity for the three types of bacteria ranged from 88-100%. For the development of an antibiogram, bacterial samples were treated with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin to which they were all sensitive. Sensitivity to the antibiotic was evident after analysis of the Raman signatures of bacteria treated or not treated with this antibiotic as early as two hours after exposure. This technique can lead to the development of new technology for urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram with same day results, bypassing urine cultures and avoiding all undesirable consequences of current practice.

  19. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Principles and Spectral Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Larkin, Peter


    Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: Principles and Spectral Interpretation explains the background, core principles and tests the readers understanding of the important techniques of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy. These techniques are used by chemists, environmental scientists, forensic scientists etc to identify unknown chemicals. In the case of an organic chemist these tools are part of an armory of techniques that enable them to conclusively prove what compound they have made, which is essential for those being used in medical applications. The book reviews basic principles, instrumentation

  20. Deep UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy for Characterizing Amyloid Aggregation. (United States)

    Handen, Joseph D; Lednev, Igor K


    Deep UV resonance Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for probing the structure and formation mechanism of protein fibrils, which are traditionally difficult to study with other techniques owing to their low solubility and noncrystalline arrangement. Utilizing a tunable deep UV Raman system allows for selective enhancement of different chromophores in protein fibrils, which provides detailed information on different aspects of the fibrils' structure and formation. Additional information can be extracted with the use of advanced data treatment such as chemometrics and 2D correlation spectroscopy. In this chapter we give an overview of several techniques for utilizing deep UV resonance Raman spectroscopy to study the structure and mechanism of formation of protein fibrils. Clever use of hydrogen-deuterium exchange can elucidate the structure of the fibril core. Selective enhancement of aromatic amino acid side chains provides information about the local environment and protein tertiary structure. The mechanism of protein fibril formation can be investigated with kinetic experiments and advanced chemometrics.

  1. Applications of Raman spectroscopy to gemology. (United States)

    Bersani, Danilo; Lottici, Pier Paolo


    Being nondestructive and requiring short measurement times, a low amount of material, and no sample preparation, Raman spectroscopy is used for routine investigation in the study of gemstone inclusions and treatments and for the characterization of mounted gems. In this work, a review of the use of laboratory Raman and micro-Raman spectrometers and of portable Raman systems in the gemology field is given, focusing on gem identification and on the evaluation of the composition, provenance, and genesis of gems. Many examples are shown of the use of Raman spectroscopy as a tool for the identification of imitations, synthetic gems, and enhancement treatments in natural gemstones. Some recent developments are described, with particular attention being given to the semiprecious stone jade and to two important organic materials used in jewelry, i.e., pearls and corals.

  2. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Free Radicals Produced by Ionizing Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter


    Applications of time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by ionizing radiation are briefly reviewed. Potential advantages and limitations of this technique are discussed in the light of given examples. The reduction of p-nitrobenzylchloride and......Applications of time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by ionizing radiation are briefly reviewed. Potential advantages and limitations of this technique are discussed in the light of given examples. The reduction of p...

  3. Surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) spectroscopy: a powerful technique for the forensic analysis of colorants? (United States)

    White, Peter C.; Rodger, Caroline; Rutherford, Vicky; Finnon, Yvonne; Smith, W. Ewen; Fitzgerald, Mary P.


    During the past five years work in our laboratory has been concentrated on developing SERRS spectroscopy and making it a simple and robust technique for the analyses of colorants. It has proved to be highly discriminative, extremely sensitive and possible to identify dyes in mixtures without their prior separation. Additionally, by using concentrated silver colloid solutions, in-situ analyses have now been accomplished with minimal or in some cases no visual destruction of the item being examined and with virtually no background interference from the surfaces on which the stains or smears have been deposited. To illustrate the methodology and the potential of SERRS various applications including the in-situ analyses of the dyes on cotton fibers and stains from cosmetics, shoe polishes, inks and drinks on various surfaces are presented.

  4. Identification of color development potential of quartz by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkmim, Danielle G.; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Almeida, Frederico O.T.


    Colorless quartz is usually exposed to ionizing radiation (gamma rays or high energy electron beams) to acquire different colors for jewelry. Color development is due to the presence of traces of some elements such as aluminum, iron, hydrogen, lithium, or sodium. Most quartz crystals are extracted colorless from nature and it is necessary to separate those that can develop colors from those that cannot. Irradiation tests can be used to accomplish this separation, but they take a long time. Infrared signature of colorless quartz can also be used. However, infrared spectroscopy is quite expensive, especially when using portable devices. Raman spectroscopy is now available as an inexpensive and portable technique that could provide identification of the samples of colorless quartz still in the field, facilitating the prediction for their economic exploitation. In addition, Raman spectroscopy usually requires a minimum or no sample preparation. This paper presents an investigation of the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy as a substitute for infrared spectroscopy to predict the potential for color development of quartz. A band at 3595 cm -1 in the Raman shift spectrum was observed only along the c axis of a prasiolite excited by a high power 514 nm laser. This band was not observed in quartz samples that do not develop color after irradiation. Further studies are required to identify the potential for color development by Raman spectroscopy of other types of colorless quartz. (author)

  5. Influence of Ar-ion implantation on the structural and mechanical properties of zirconia as studied by Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation techniques (United States)

    Kurpaska, L.; Jasinski, J.; Wyszkowska, E.; Nowakowska-Langier, K.; Sitarz, M.


    In this study, structural and nanomechanical properties of zirconia polymorphs induced by ion irradiation were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation techniques. The zirconia layer have been produced by high temperature oxidation of pure zirconium at 600 °C for 5 h at normal atmospheric pressure. In order to distinguish between the internal and external parts of zirconia, the spherical metallographic sections have been prepared. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with 150 keV Ar+ ions at fluences ranging from 1 × 1015 to 1 × 1017 ions/cm2. The main objective of this study was to distinguish and confirm different structural and mechanical properties between the interface layer and fully developed scale in the internal/external part of the oxide. Conducted studies suggest that increasing ion fluence impacts Raman bands positions (especially characteristic for tetragonal phase) and increases the nanohardness and Young's modulus of individual phases. This phenomenon has been examined from the point of view of stress-induced hardening effect and classical monoclinic → tetragonal (m → t) martensitic phase transformation.

  6. Triplet State Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Jensen, N. H.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn


    Makes the first report on the resonance Raman spectrum of a molecule in its triplet state generated by pulse radiolysis. A solution of 0.01 mol dm-3 of p-terphenyl in benzene was studied......Makes the first report on the resonance Raman spectrum of a molecule in its triplet state generated by pulse radiolysis. A solution of 0.01 mol dm-3 of p-terphenyl in benzene was studied...

  7. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy analytical, biophysical and life science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schlücker, Sebastian


    Covering everything from the basic theoretical and practical knowledge to new exciting developments in the field with a focus on analytical and life science applications, this monograph shows how to apply surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for solving real world problems. From the contents: * Theory and practice of SERS * Analytical applications * SERS combined with other analytical techniques * Biophysical applications * Life science applications including various microscopies Aimed at analytical, surface and medicinal chemists, spectroscopists, biophysicists and materials scientists. Includes a Foreword by the renowned Raman spectroscopist Professor Wolfgang Kiefer, the former Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Raman Spectroscopy.

  8. Corrosion product characterisation by fibre optic raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzonas, D.A.; Rochefort, P.A.; Turner, C.W.


    Fibre optic Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterise secondary-side deposits removed from CANDU steam generators. The deposits examined were in the form of powders, millimetre-sized flakes, and deposits on the surfaces of pulled steam generator tubes. The compositions of the deposits obtained using Raman spectroscopy are similar to the compositions obtained using other ex-situ analytical techniques. A semi-quantitative estimate of amounts of the major components can be obtained from the spectra. It was noted that the signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman spectra decreased as the amount of magnetite in the deposit increased, as a result of absorption of the laser light by the magnetite. The conversion of magnetite to hematite by the laser beam was observed when high laser powers were used. The Raman spectra of larger flake samples clearly illustrate the inhomogeneous nature of the deposits. (author)

  9. Implementation of Deep Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chuan

    are located in the visible range, e.g. for petroleum product analysis. Deep Ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy applied to this research field was claimed to be able to solve the problem. Chapter 5 is devoted to gasoline analysis by the use of the DUV Raman spectroscopy. Firstly, some sampling difficulties...... (absorption, condensation) are described. We have found a way to solve the problems, and our solution, using a special designed gas gap cell to obtain measurements of extraordinary high quality, are presented. The DUV Raman spectra of gasoline were excited by three different wavelengths, 257.3, 244.0 and 229...... spectra of the gasoline samples. It is virtually unimportant what the rest of the sample consisted of. The most intense characteristic band is located at 1381 cm-1. The Raman spectra of home-made artificial gasoline mixtures - with gradually increasing Naphthalene contents - can be used to determine...

  10. Resonant Raman spectroscopy on InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuball, M.; Pomeroy, J.W.; Wintrebert-Fouquet, M.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Lu, Hai; Schaff, W.J.; Shubina, T.V.; Ivanov, S.V.; Vasson, A.; Leymarie, J.


    The novel use of resonant Raman spectroscopy to elucidate the band gap of InN is illustrated in a study of MBE-grown films. This technique can distinguish between electronic transitions related to the InN from transitions related to defects and impurities that are so typical for current InN material. Using excitation energies from 1.49 eV (830 nm) to 2.54 eV (488 nm), we identify a critical point in the InN band structure within ∼200-300 meV below 1.5 eV. The origin of this critical point, whether band gap or higher critical point, is discussed. Furthermore, Raman results are presented on the temperature dependence of the InN phonons. Analysis of the data provides information on phonon lifetimes and decay mechanisms, important to assess whether hot phonon effects need to be considered in future InN devices. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Integrated optical modules for miniature raman spectroscopy devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çivitci, F.


    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful materials analysis technique used for identification of molecules residing near the surface of a sample. It has been successfully used for a broad range of application areas such as material science, biology, medicine and pharmacology owing to its numerous

  12. Raman spectroscopy of WO3 nano-wires and thermo-chromism study of VO2 belts produced by ultrasonic spray and laser pyrolysis techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwakikunga, BW


    Full Text Available Novel optical and electrical properties of newly synthesized nano-wires of monoclinic WO3 and nano-belts of rutile VO2 have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and thermochromism studies respectively. Phonon confinement is observed in the WO3...

  13. Potential of Raman and Infrared Spectroscopy for Plant Analysis (United States)

    Schulz, H.


    Various mid-infrared (MIR) and Raman spectroscopic methods applied to the analysis of valuable plant substances or quality parameters in selected horticultural and agricultural crops are presented. Generally, both spectroscopy techniques allow to identify simultaneously characteristic key bands of individual plant components (e.g. carotenoids, alkaloids, polyacetylenes, fatty acids, amino acids, terpenoids). In contrast to MIR methods Raman spectroscopy mostly does not need any sample pre-treatment; even fresh plant material can be analysed without difficulty because water shows only weak Raman scattering properties. In some cases a significant sensivity enhancement of Raman signals can be achieved if the exciting laser wavelength is adjusted to the absorption range of particular plant chromophores such as carotenoids (Resonance Raman effect). Applying FT-IR or FT Raman micro-spectroscopy the distribution of certain plant constituents in the cell wall can be identified without the need for any physical separation. Furthermore it is also possible to analyse secondary metabolites occurring in the cell vacuoles if significant key bands do not coincide with the spectral background of the plant matrix.

  14. Emerging Raman Applications and Techniques in Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Michael D


    The book presents the latest technological advances in Raman spectroscopy that are presently redrawing the landscape of many fields of biomedical and pharmaceutical R&D. Numerous examples are given to illustrate the application of the new methods and compared with established and related techniques. The book is suitable for both new researchers and practitioners in this area as well as for those familiar with the Raman technique but seeking to keep abreast of the latest dramatic advances in this field.

  15. Visualizing cell state transition using Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Ichimura

    Full Text Available System level understanding of the cell requires detailed description of the cell state, which is often characterized by the expression levels of proteins. However, understanding the cell state requires comprehensive information of the cell, which is usually obtained from a large number of cells and their disruption. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy, which can report changes in the cell state without introducing any label, as a non-invasive method with single cell capability. Significant differences in Raman spectra were observed at the levels of both the cytosol and nucleus in different cell-lines from mouse, indicating that Raman spectra reflect differences in the cell state. Difference in cell state was observed before and after the induction of differentiation in neuroblastoma and adipocytes, showing that Raman spectra can detect subtle changes in the cell state. Cell state transitions during embryonic stem cell (ESC differentiation were visualized when Raman spectroscopy was coupled with principal component analysis (PCA, which showed gradual transition in the cell states during differentiation. Detailed analysis showed that the diversity between cells are large in undifferentiated ESC and in mesenchymal stem cells compared with terminally differentiated cells, implying that the cell state in stem cells stochastically fluctuates during the self-renewal process. The present study strongly indicates that Raman spectral morphology, in combination with PCA, can be used to establish cells' fingerprints, which can be useful for distinguishing and identifying different cellular states.

  16. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke


    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH4+ strategy for ethylene and SO2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be < 4.3% and 2.1% respectively. Good recoveries for ethylene and sulfur dioxide from fruit samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS.

  17. Large-volume constant-concentration sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid on-site gas analysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin; Zhan, Yisen; Huang, Yichun; Li, Gongke


    In this work, a portable large-volume constant-concentration (LVCC) sampling technique coupling with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for the rapid on-site gas analysis based on suitable derivatization methods. LVCC sampling technique mainly consisted of a specially designed sampling cell including the rigid sample container and flexible sampling bag, and an absorption-derivatization module with a portable pump and a gas flowmeter. LVCC sampling technique allowed large, alterable and well-controlled sampling volume, which kept the concentration of gas target in headspace phase constant during the entire sampling process and made the sampling result more representative. Moreover, absorption and derivatization of gas target during LVCC sampling process were efficiently merged in one step using bromine-thiourea and OPA-NH 4 + strategy for ethylene and SO 2 respectively, which made LVCC sampling technique conveniently adapted to consequent SERS analysis. Finally, a new LVCC sampling-SERS method was developed and successfully applied for rapid analysis of trace ethylene and SO 2 from fruits. It was satisfied that trace ethylene and SO 2 from real fruit samples could be actually and accurately quantified by this method. The minor concentration fluctuations of ethylene and SO 2 during the entire LVCC sampling process were proved to be samples were achieved in range of 95.0-101% and 97.0-104% respectively. It is expected that portable LVCC sampling technique would pave the way for rapid on-site analysis of accurate concentrations of trace gas targets from real samples by SERS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.


    In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

  19. Condition Assessment of Kevlar Composite Materials Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Washer, Glenn; Brooks, Thomas; Saulsberry, Regor


    This viewgraph presentation includes the following main concepts. Goal: To evaluate Raman spectroscopy as a potential NDE tool for the detection of stress rupture in Kevlar. Objective: Test a series of strand samples that have been aged under various conditions and evaluate differences and trends in the Raman response. Hypothesis: Reduction in strength associated with stress rupture may manifest from changes in the polymer at a molecular level. If so, than these changes may effect the vibrational characteristics of the material, and consequently the Raman spectra produced from the material. Problem Statement: Kevlar composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) on the space shuttles are greater than 25 years old. Stress rupture phenomena is not well understood for COPVs. Other COPVs are planned for hydrogen-fueled vehicles using Carbon composite material. Raman spectroscopy is being explored as an non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique to predict the onset of stress rupture in Kevlar composite materials. Test aged Kevlar strands to discover trends in the Raman response. Strength reduction in Kevlar polymer will manifest itself on the Raman spectra. Conclusions: Raman spectroscopy has shown relative changes in the intensity and FWHM of the 1613 cm(exp -1) peak. Reduction in relative intensity for creep, fleet leader, and SIM specimens compared to the virgin strands. Increase in FWHM has been observed for the creep and fleet leader specimens compared to the virgin strands. Changes in the Raman spectra may result from redistributing loads within the material due to the disruption of hydrogen bonding between crystallites or defects in the crystallites from aging the Kevlar strands. Peak shifting has not been observed to date. Analysis is ongoing. Stress measurements may provide a tool in the short term.

  20. Raman spectroscopy for detection of stretched DNAs on superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Marini, Monica


    A novel approach for the study of low concentrated DNAs (60 pM) using microRaman spectroscopy is reported. A superhydrophobic substrate with array of microPillars is fabricated over which the sample was drop casted. The substrate concentrates the molecules in a very small area with higher molecular density, enabling to carry out the microRaman measurements. Two different DNAs (single strand and double strand) were used to investigate through Raman technique. A spectral Raman difference was found to distinguish the ssDNA and dsDNAs. The approach can be of interest for a wide variety of applications ranging from biological materials interactions characterization to the biomedical field. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Raman-spectroscopy-based biosensing for applications in ophthalmology (United States)

    Rusciano, Giulia; Capriglione, Paola; Pesce, Giuseppe; Zito, Gianluigi; Del Prete, Antonio; Cennamo, Giovanni; Sasso, Antonio


    Cell-based biosensors rely on the detection and identification of single cells as well as monitoring of changes induced by interaction with drugs and/or toxic agents. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool to reach this goal, being non-destructive analytical technique, allowing also measurements of samples in aqueous environment. In addition, micro-Raman measurements do not require preliminary sample preparation (as in fluorescence spectroscopy), show a finger-print spectral response, allow a spatial resolution below typical cell sizes, and are relatively fast (few s or even less). All these properties make micro-Raman technique particularly promising for high-throughput on-line analysis integrated in lab-on-a-chip devices. Herein, we demonstrate some applications of Raman analysis in ophthalmology. In particular, we demonstrate that Raman analysis can provide useful information for the therapeutic treatment of keratitis caused by Acanthamoeba Castellanii (A.), an opportunistic protozoan that is widely distributed in the environment and is known to produce blinding keratitis and fatal encephalitis. In particular, by combining Raman analysis with Principal Component Analysis (PCA), we have demonstrated that is possible to distinguish between live and dead cells, enabling, therefore to establish the effectiveness of therapeutic strategies to vanquish the protozoa. As final step, we have analyzed the presence of biochemical differences in the conjunctival epithelial tissues of patients affected by keratitis with respect to healthy people. As a matter of facts, it is possible to speculate some biochemical alterations of the epithelial tissues, rendering more favorable the binding of the protozoan. The epithelial cells were obtained by impression cytology from eyes of both healthy and keratitis-affected individuals. All the samples were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy within a few hours from cells removal from eyes. The results of this analysis are discussed.

  2. Strain characterization of FinFETs using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleli, B.; Hemert, T. van; Hueting, R.J.E.; Wolters, R.A.M.


    Metal induced strain in the channel region of silicon (Si) fin-field effect transistor (FinFET) devices has been characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The strain originates from the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of Si and titanium-nitride. The Raman map of the device region is used to determine strain in the channel after preparing the device with the focused ion beam milling. Using the Raman peak shift relative to that of relaxed Si, compressive strain values up to – 0.88% have been obtained for a 5 nm wide silicon fin. The strain is found to increase with reducing fin width though it scales less than previously reported results from holographic interferometry. In addition, finite-element method (FEM) simulations have been utilized to analyze the amount of strain generated after thermal processing. It is shown that obtained FEM simulated strain values are in good agreement with the calculated strain values obtained from Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: ► Strain is characterized in nanoscale devices with Raman spectroscopy. ► There is a fin width dependence of the originated strain. ► Strain levels obtained from this technique is in correlation with device simulations

  3. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A review of recent applications in forensic science (United States)

    Fikiet, Marisia A.; Khandasammy, Shelby R.; Mistek, Ewelina; Ahmed, Yasmine; Halámková, Lenka; Bueno, Justin; Lednev, Igor K.


    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy has many advantages over its parent technique of Raman spectroscopy. Some of these advantages such as increased sensitivity and selectivity and therefore the possibility of small sample sizes and detection of small concentrations are invaluable in the field of forensics. A variety of new SERS surfaces and novel approaches are presented here on a wide range of forensically relevant topics.

  4. Raman spectroscopy of Bacillus thuringiensis physiology and inactivation (United States)

    Morrow, J. B.; Almeida, J.; Cole, K. D.; Reipa, V.


    The ability to detect spore contamination and inactivation is relevant to developing and determining decontamination strategy success for food and water safety. This study was conducted to develop a systematic comparison of nondestructive vibrational spectroscopy techniques (Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, SERS, and normal Raman) to determine indicators of Bacillus thuringiensis physiology (spore, vegetative, outgrown, germinated and inactivated spore forms). SERS was found to provide better resolution of commonly utilized signatures of spore physiology (dipicolinic acid at 1006 cm-1 and 1387 cm-1) compared to normal Raman and native fluorescence indigenous to vegetative and outgrown cell samples was quenched in SERS experiment. New features including carotenoid pigments (Raman features at 1142 cm-1, 1512 cm-1) were identified for spore cell forms. Pronounced changes in the low frequency region (300 cm-1 to 500 cm-1) in spore spectra occurred upon germination and inactivation (with both free chlorine and by autoclaving) which is relevant to guiding decontamination and detection strategies using Raman techniques.

  5. Bladder cancer diagnosis during cystoscopy using Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; Draga, R. O. P.; van Diest, P.; Verdaasdonk, R. M.; Stone, N.; Bosch, J. H. L. R.


    Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that can be used to obtain specific molecular information of biological tissues. It has been used successfully to differentiate normal and pre-malignant tissue in many organs. The goal of this study is to determine the possibility to distinguish normal tissue from bladder cancer using this system. The endoscopic Raman system consists of a 6 Fr endoscopic probe connected to a 785nm diode laser and a spectral recording system. A total of 107 tissue samples were obtained from 54 patients with known bladder cancer during transurethral tumor resection. Immediately after surgical removal the samples were placed under the Raman probe and spectra were collected and stored for further analysis. The collected spectra were analyzed using multivariate statistical methods. In total 2949 Raman spectra were recorded ex vivo from cold cup biopsy samples with 2 seconds integration time. A multivariate algorithm allowed differentiation of normal and malignant tissue with a sensitivity and specificity of 78,5% and 78,9% respectively. The results show the possibility of discerning normal from malignant bladder tissue by means of Raman spectroscopy using a small fiber based system. Despite the low number of samples the results indicate that it might be possible to use this technique to grade identified bladder wall lesions during endoscopy.

  6. Evaluation of bone quality in osteoporosis model mice by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yasumitsu; Oshima, Yusuke; Imai, Yuuki; Iimura, Tadahiro; Takanezawa, Sota; Hino, Kazunori; Miura, Hiromasa


    To evaluate the bone quality in the osteoporosis, we generated sciatic nerve resection (NX) mice as an osteoporosis model and analyzed by Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were measured in anterior cortical surface of the proximal tibia at 5 points in each bone. After that, the samples were fixed with 70% ethanol. We then performed DXA and μCT measurement. Raman peak intensity ratios were significantly different between NX and Control. Those changes in the Raman peak intensity ratios may reflect loss of bone quality in the osteoporosis model. Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique for measuring the bone quality and bone strength.

  7. Characterization of Kevlar Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Washer, Glenn; Brooks, Thomas; Saulsberry, Regor


    This paper explores the characterization of Kevlar composite materials using Raman spectroscopy. The goal of the research is to develop and understand the Raman spectrum of Kevlar materials to provide a foundation for the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies based on the interaction of laser light with the polymer Kevlar. The paper discusses the fundamental aspects of experimental characterization of the spectrum of Kevlar, including the effects of incident wavelength, polarization and laser power. The effects of environmental exposure of Kevlar materials on certain characteristics of its Raman spectrum are explored, as well as the effects of applied stress. This data may provide a foundation for the development of NDE technologies intended to detect the in-situ deterioration of Kevlar materials used for engineering applications that can later be extended to other materials such as carbon fiber composites.

  8. Raman spectroscopy using a spatial heterodyne spectrometer: proof of concept. (United States)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R; Gordon, Christopher M; Lucey, Paul; Sharma, Shiv K; Carter, J Chance; Angel, S Michael


    The use of a spatial heterodyne interferometer-based spectrometer (SHS) for Raman spectroscopy is described. The motivation for this work is to develop a small, rugged, high-resolution ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectrometer that is compatible with pulsed laser sources and that is suitable for planetary space missions. UV Raman is a particular technical challenge for space applications because dispersive (grating) approaches require large spectrographs and very narrow slits to achieve the spectral resolution required to maximize the potential of Raman spectroscopy. The heterodyne approach of the SHS has only a weak coupling of resolution and throughput, so a high-resolution UV SHS can both be small and employ a wide slit to maximize throughput. The SHS measures all optical path differences in its interferogram simultaneously with a detector array, so the technique is compatible with gated detection using pulsed lasers, important to reject ambient background and mitigate fluorescence (already low in the UV) that might be encountered on a planetary surface where samples are uncontrolled. The SHS has no moving parts, and as the spectrum is heterodyned around the laser wavelength, it is particularly suitable for Raman measurements. In this preliminary report we demonstrate the ability to measure visible wavelength Raman spectra of liquid and solid materials using an SHS Raman spectrometer and a visible laser. Spectral resolution and bandpass are also discussed. Separation of anti-Stokes and Stokes Raman bands is demonstrated using two different approaches. Finally spectral bandpass doubling is demonstrated by forming an interference pattern in both directions on the ICCD detector followed by analysis using a two-dimensional Fourier transform.

  9. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.


    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented

  10. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.


    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.

  11. Raman spectroscopy on simple molecular systems at very high density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiferl, D.; LeSar, R.S.; Moore, D.S.


    We present an overview of how Raman spectroscopy is done on simple molecular substances at high pressures. Raman spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools for studying these substances. It is often the quickest means to explore changes in crystal and molecular structures, changes in bond strength, and the formation of new chemical species. Raman measurements have been made at pressures up to 200 GPa (2 Mbar). Even more astonishing is the range of temperatures (4-5200/degree/K) achieved in various static and dynamic (shock-wave) pressure experiments. One point we particularly wish to emphasize is the need for a good theoretical understanding to properly interpret and use experimental results. This is particularly true at ultra-high pressures, where strong crystal field effects can be misinterpreted as incipient insulator-metal transitions. We have tried to point out apparatus, techniques, and results that we feel are particularly noteworthy. We have also included some of the /open quotes/oral tradition/close quotes/ of high pressure Raman spectroscopy -- useful little things that rarely or never appear in print. Because this field is rapidly expanding, we discuss a number of exciting new techniques that have been informally communicated to us, especially those that seem to open new possibilities. 58 refs., 18 figs

  12. Comparison of a compatible and an incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interaction by biochemical and non-invasive techniques: chlorophyll a fluorescence, isothermal calorimetry and FT-Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Rys, Magdalena; Juhász, Csilla; Surówka, Ewa; Janeczko, Anna; Saja, Diana; Tóbiás, István; Skoczowski, Andrzej; Barna, Balázs; Gullner, Gábor


    Leaves of a pepper cultivar harboring the L(3) resistance gene were inoculated with Obuda pepper virus (ObPV), which led to the appearance of hypersensitive necrotic lesions approx. 72 h post-inoculation (hpi) (incompatible interaction), or with Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) that caused no visible symptoms on the inoculated leaves (compatible interaction). ObPV inoculation of leaves resulted in ion leakage already 18 hpi, up-regulation of a pepper carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) gene from 24 hpi, heat emission and declining chlorophyll a content from 48 hpi, and partial desiccation from 72 hpi. After the appearance of necrotic lesions a strong inhibition of photochemical energy conversion was observed, which led to photochemically inactive leaf areas 96 hpi. However, leaf tissues adjacent to these inactive areas showed elevated ΦPSII and Fv/Fm values proving the advantage of chlorophyll a imaging technique. PMMoV inoculation also led to a significant rise of ion leakage and heat emission, to the up-regulation of the pepper CCD gene as well as to decreased PSII efficiency, but these responses were much weaker than in the case of ObPV inoculation. Chlorophyll b and total carotenoid contents as measured by spectrophotometric methods were not significantly influenced by any virus inoculations when these pigment contents were calculated on leaf surface basis. On the other hand, near-infrared FT-Raman spectroscopy showed an increase of carotenoid content in ObPV-inoculated leaves suggesting that the two techniques detect different sets of compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: nonlocal limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, S.; Xiao, Sanshui


    for our understanding of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The intrinsic length scale of the electron gas serves to smear out assumed field singularities, leaving the SERS enhancement factor finite, even for geometries with infinitely sharp features. For silver nanogroove structures, mimicked...... by periodic arrays of half-cylinders (up to 120 nm in radius), we find no enhancement factors exceeding 10 orders of magnitude (10(10)). (C) 2012 Optical Society of America...

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: nonlocal limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Xiao, Sanshui


    for our understanding of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The intrinsic length scale of the electron gas serves to smear out assumed field singularities, leaving the SERS enhancement factor finite, even for geometries with infinitely sharp features. For silver nanogroove structures, mimicked...... by periodic arrays of half-cylinders (up to 120 nm in radius), we find no enhancement factors exceeding 10 orders of magnitude (1010)....

  15. Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samek, Ota; Mlynariková, K.; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Holá, Miroslava; Mahelová, M.


    Roč. 15, č. 12 (2014), s. 23924-23935 E-ISSN 1422-0067 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * Candida parapsilosis * biofilm Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2014

  16. A pseudo-Voigt component model for high-resolution recovery of constituent spectra in Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Rindzevicius, Tomas


    Raman spectroscopy is a well-known analytical technique for identifying and analyzing chemical species. Since Raman scattering is a weak effect, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is often employed to amplify the signal. SERS signal surface mapping is a common method for detecting trace a...

  17. Cell Imaging by Spontaneous and Amplified Raman Spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Rusciano


    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy (RS is a powerful, noninvasive optical technique able to detect vibrational modes of chemical bonds. The high chemical specificity due to its fingerprinting character and the minimal requests for sample preparation have rendered it nowadays very popular in the analysis of biosystems for diagnostic purposes. In this paper, we first discuss the main advantages of spontaneous RS by describing the study of a single protozoan (Acanthamoeba, which plays an important role in a severe ophthalmological disease (Acanthamoeba keratitis. Later on, we point out that the weak signals that originated from Raman scattering do not allow probing optically thin samples, such as cellular membrane. Experimental approaches able to overcome this drawback are based on the use of metallic nanostructures, which lead to a huge amplification of the Raman yields thanks to the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS and tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS are examples of such innovative techniques, in which metallic nanostructures are assembled on a flat surface or on the tip of a scanning probe microscope, respectively. Herein, we provide a couple of examples (red blood cells and bacterial spores aimed at studying cell membranes with these techniques.

  18. Multi-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy based on modified multi-energy constrained iterative deconvolution algorithm (United States)

    Zou, Wenlong; Cai, Zhijian; Zhou, Hongwu; Wu, Jianhong


    Raman spectroscopy is fast and nondestructive, and it is widely used in chemistry, biomedicine, food safety and other areas. However, Raman spectroscopy is often hampered by strong fluorescence background, especially in food additives detection and biomedicine researching. In this paper, one efficient technique was the multi-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (MERDS) which incorporated a series of small wavelength-shift wavelengths as excitation sources. A modified multi-energy constrained iterative deconvolution (MMECID) algorithm was proposed to reconstruct the Raman Spectroscopy. Computer simulation and experiments both demonstrated that the Raman spectrum can be well reconstructed from large fluorescence background. The more excitation sources used, the better signal to noise ratio got. However, many excitation sources were equipped on the Raman spectrometer, which increased the complexity of the experimental system. Thus, a trade-off should be made between the number of excitation frequencies and experimental complexity.

  19. Raman spectroscopy characterization of colored pigments in archaeological materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    Archaeological artifacts and artworks with colors are being increasingly analyzed in these years. The pigment materials used for their creation are much studied after the development of modern non-destructive micro sampling analytical techniques. Art historians, museum conservators, and archaeolo......Archaeological artifacts and artworks with colors are being increasingly analyzed in these years. The pigment materials used for their creation are much studied after the development of modern non-destructive micro sampling analytical techniques. Art historians, museum conservators...... to the artifacts or artworks. In this connection the Raman spectroscopy technique must be considered a most elegant method for pigment and materials analysis of relevant museum and archaeological materials. This is done by correlating some bands in the studied pigments with those of well characterized references....... The number of research papers on the subject of Raman spectroscopy applied to pigments and art has been growing very fast during the last years. To get a comprehensive overview we refer to three recent theme numbers of Journal of Raman Spectroscopy1, 2, 3 and other dedicated texts such as e.g. Edwards et al...

  20. Infrared and NIR Raman spectroscopy in medical microbiology (United States)

    Naumann, Dieter


    FTIR and FT-NIR Raman spectra of intact microbial cells are highly specific, fingerprint-like signatures which can be used to (i) discriminate between diverse microbial species and strains, (ii) detect in situ intracellular components or structures such as inclusion bodies, storage materials or endospores, (iii) detect and quantify metabolically released CO2 in response to various different substrate, and (iv) characterize growth-dependent phenomena and cell-drug interactions. The characteristic information is extracted from the spectral contours by applying resolution enhancement techniques, difference spectroscopy, and pattern recognition methods such as factor-, cluster-, linear discriminant analysis, and artificial neural networks. Particularly interesting applications arise by means of a light microscope coupled to the spectrometer. FTIR spectra of micro-colonies containing less than 103 cells can be obtained from colony replica by a stamping technique that transfers micro-colonies growing on culture plates to a special IR-sample holder. Using a computer controlled x, y- stage together with mapping and video techniques, the fundamental tasks of microbiological analysis, namely detection, enumeration, and differentiation of micro- organisms can be integrated in one single apparatus. FTIR and NIR-FT-Raman spectroscopy can also be used in tandem to characterize medically important microorganisms. Currently novel methodologies are tested to take advantage of the complementary information of IR and Raman spectra. Representative examples on medically important microorganisms will be given that highlight the new possibilities of vibrational spectroscopies.

  1. Applications of Raman spectroscopy to the analysis of natural rubber (United States)

    Hendra, Patrick J.; Jackson, Kevin D. O.


    The technique of Raman spectroscopy has been available for over 60 years but the analysis of elastomers has been dogged by problems of fluorescence. The introduction of Fourier transform collection techniques and spectral accumulation, coupled with the advantages of using a near-IR laser as an excitation source, have removed many of the barriers to the application of this technique within a routine laboratory environment. This paper describes some of the areas related to the analysis of natural rubber which have been investigated using this technique. Of particular interest is the observation of main chain modifications during vulcanization and the ability to observe the conversion of insoluble to soluble sulphur under conditions appropriate to compounding and vulcanization. The influence of crystallization, both temperature and strain induced, on the FT-Raman spectrum of natural rubber is also demonstrated.

  2. Transcutaneous Raman Spectroscopy of Murine Bone In Vivo


    Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Kreider, Jaclynn M.; Esmonde-White, Francis; Dooley, Kathryn A.; Goldstein, Steven A.; Morris, Michael D.


    Raman spectroscopy can provide valuable information about bone tissue composition in studies of bone development, biomechanics, and health. In order to study the Raman spectra of bone in vivo, instrumentation that enhances the recovery of subsurface spectra must be developed and validated. Five fiber-optic probe configurations were considered for transcutaneous bone Raman spectroscopy of small animals. Measurements were obtained from the tibia of sacrificed mice, and the bone Raman signal was...

  3. Construction of coherent antistokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Jazmati, A.


    Coherent Antistokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) has been built. It consists of a Raman cell, which is filled with CO 2 gas at 5 atm pressure and a frequency doubled Nd-YAG laser pumped dye laser. The two beams are focused by means of a bi-convex lens into Raman cell. The Antistokes signals (CARS signals) are generated due to Four-wave mixing process. The antistokes signals were directed to monochrometer entrance slit by prism . The signals are detected by photomultiplier detector which is fixed on the exit slit and connected to data acquisition card located inside the computed case. The dye laser frequency has to be tuned to satisfy the energy difference between the ν 1 beam (Nd- YAG laser beam) and the ν 2 beam (the stokes beam or the dye laser beam) exactly corresponds to a vibrational - rotational Raman resonance (ν 2 - ν 1 = ν M ) in the 12 CO 2 or 13 CO 2 molecule, then the antistokes signals (ν 3 ) will be generated. The spectra of the CARS signals have been recorded to determine the isotope shift of 12 CO 2 , 13 CO 2 , which is 18.3 cm -1 . (author)

  4. Screening and classification of ordinary chondrites by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Baert, Kitty; Debaille, Vinciane; Claeys, Philippe


    Classification of ordinary chondrite meteorites generally implies (1) determining the chemical group by the composition in endmembers of olivine and pyroxene, and (2) identifying the petrologic group by microstructural features. The composition of olivine and pyroxene is commonly obtained by microprobe analyses or oil immersion of mineral separates. We propose Raman spectroscopy as an alternative technique to determine the endmember content of olivine and pyroxene in ordinary chondrites, by using the link between the wavelength shift of selected characteristic peaks in the spectra of olivine and pyroxene and the Mg/Fe ratio in these phases. The existing correlation curve has been recalculated from the Raman spectrum of reference minerals of known composition and further refined for the range of chondritic compositions. Although the technique is not as accurate as the microprobe for determining the composition of olivine and pyroxene, for most of the samples the chemical group can be easily determined by Raman spectroscopy. Blind tests with ordinary chondrites of different provenance, weathering, and shock stages have confirmed the potential of the method. Therefore, we suggest that a preliminary screening and the classification of most of the equilibrated ordinary chondrites can be carried out using an optical microscope equipped with a Raman spectrometer.

  5. Raman spectroscopy in cervical cancers: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rubina


    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide. Developing countries contribute more than 80% towards global burden. Over the last 2 decades, Raman spectroscopy (RS has been actively pursued for cervical cancer detection. In view of latest development in Raman spectroscopic applications in cervical cancers, especially in vivo studies, an update of the same is presented in this article. This articles opens with a brief note on Anatomy of cervix followed by Etiology, and conventional Screening and Diagnosis of Cervical cancers. In subsequent sections, brief description of Theory and Instrumentation of RS is followed by a review of recent developments in cervical cancer detection; with emphasis on cell lines, exfoliated cells, ex vivo and in vivo, and therapeutic response monitoring applications in cervical cancer.

  6. Rapid identification of single microbes by various Raman spectroscopic techniques (United States)

    Rösch, Petra; Harz, Michaela; Schmitt, Michael; Peschke, Klaus-Dieter; Ronneberger, Olaf; Burkhardt, Hans; Motzkus, Hans-Walter; Lankers, Markus; Hofer, Stefan; Thiele, Hans; Popp, Jürgen


    A fast and unambiguous identification of microorganisms is necessary not only for medical purposes but also in technical processes such as the production of pharmaceuticals. Conventional microbiological identification methods are based on the morphology and the ability of microbes to grow under different conditions on various cultivation media depending on their biochemical properties. These methods require pure cultures which need cultivation of at least 6 h but normally much longer. Recently also additional methods to identify bacteria are established e.g. mass spectroscopy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), flow cytometry or fluorescence spectroscopy. Alternative approaches for the identification of microorganisms are vibrational spectroscopic techniques. With Raman spectroscopy a spectroscopic fingerprint of the microorganisms can be achieved. Using UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRR) macromolecules like DNA/RNA and proteins are resonantly enhanced. With an excitation wavelength of e.g. 244 nm it is possible to determine the ratio of guanine/cytosine to all DNA bases which allows a genotypic identification of microorganisms. The application of UVRR requires a large amount of microorganisms (> 10 6 cells) e.g. at least a micro colony. For the analysis of single cells micro-Raman spectroscopy with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm can be used. Here, the obtained information is from all type of molecules inside the cells which lead to a chemotaxonomic identification. In this contribution we show how wavelength dependent Raman spectroscopy yields significant molecular information applicable for the identification of microorganisms on a single cell level.

  7. Spectroscopy and Raman imaging of inhomogeneous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslova, Olga


    This thesis is aimed at developing methodologies in Raman spectroscopy and imaging. After reviewing the statistical instruments which allow treating giant amount of data (multivariate analysis and classification), the study is applied to two families of well-known materials which are used as models for testing the limits of the implemented developments. The first family is a series of carbon materials pyrolyzed at various temperatures and exhibiting inhomogeneities at a nm scale which is suitable for Raman-X-ray diffraction combination. Another results concern the polishing effect on carbon structure. Since it is found to induce Raman artifacts leading to the overestimation of the local structural disorder, a method based on the use of the G band width is therefore proposed in order to evaluate the crystallite size in both unpolished and polished nano-graphites. The second class of materials presents inhomogeneities at higher (micrometric) scales by the example of uranium dioxide ceramics. Being well adapted in terms of spatial scale, Raman imaging is thus used for probing their surfaces. Data processing is implemented via an approach combining the multivariate (principal component) analysis and the classical fitting procedure with Lorentzian profiles. The interpretation of results is supported via electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) analysis which enables us to distinguish the orientation effects of ceramic grains from other underlying contributions. The last ones are mainly localized at the grain boundaries, that is testified by the appearance of a specific Raman mode. Their origin seems to be caused by stoichiometric oxygen variations or impurities, as well as strain inhomogeneities. The perspectives of this work include both the implementation of other mathematical methods and in-depth analysis of UO 2 structure damaged by irradiation (anisotropic effects, role of grain boundaries). (author) [fr

  8. Raman spectroscopy as a tool for ecology and evolution. (United States)

    Germond, Arno; Kumar, Vipin; Ichimura, Taro; Moreau, Jerome; Furusawa, Chikara; Fujita, Hideaki; Watanabe, Tomonobu M


    Scientists are always on the lookout for new modalities of information which could reveal new biological features that are useful for deciphering the complexity of biological systems. Here, we introduce Raman spectroscopy as a prime candidate for ecology and evolution. To encourage the integration of this microscopy technique in the field of ecology and evolution, it is crucial to discuss first how Raman spectroscopy fits within the conceptual, technical and pragmatic considerations of ecology and evolution. In this paper, we show that the spectral information holds reliable indicators of intra- and interspecies variations, which can be related to the environment, selective pressures and fitness. Moreover, we show how the technical and pragmatic aspects of this modality (non-destructive, non-labelling, speed, relative low cost, etc.) enable it to be combined with more conventional methodologies. With this paper, we hope to open new avenues of research and extend the scope of available methodologies used in ecology and evolution. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Super-Resolution Raman Spectroscopy by Digital Image Processing


    Tomita, Motohiro; Hashiguchi, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Takei, Munehisa; Kosemura, Daisuke; Ogura, Atsushi


    We demonstrate the results of a strain (stress) evaluation obtained from Raman spectroscopy measurements with the super-resolution method (the so-called super-resolution Raman spectroscopy) for a Si substrate with a patterned SiN film (serving as a strained Si sample). To improve the spatial resolution of Raman spectroscopy, we used the super-resolution method and a high-numerical-aperture immersion lens. Additionally, we estimated the spatial resolution by an edge force model (EFM) calculati...

  10. A classification model for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) using confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy (United States)

    Yan, Jie; Yu, Yang; Kang, Jeon Woong; Tam, Zhi Yang; Xu, Shuoyu; Fong, Eliza Li Shan; Singh, Surya Pratap; Song, Ziwei; Tucker Kellogg, Lisa; So, Peter; Yu, Hanry


    We combined Raman micro-spectroscopy and machine learning techniques to develop a classification model based on a well-established non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse model, using spectrum pre-processing, biochemical component analysis (BCA) and logistic regression.

  11. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy bioanalytical, biomolecular and medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Procházka, Marek


    This book gives an overview of recent developments in RS and SERS for sensing and biosensing considering also limitations, possibilities and prospects of this technique. Raman scattering (RS) is a widely used vibrational technique providing highly specific molecular spectral patterns. A severe limitation for the application of this spectroscopic technique lies in the low cross section of RS. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy overcomes this problem by 6-11 orders of magnitude enhancement compared with the standard RS for molecules in the close vicinity of certain rough metal surfaces. Thus, SERS combines molecular fingerprint specificity with potential single-molecule sensitivity. Due to the recent development of new SERS-active substrates, labeling and derivatization chemistry as well as new instrumentations, SERS became a very promising tool for many varied applications, including bioanalytical studies and sensing. Both intrinsic and extrinsic SERS biosensing schemes have been employed to...

  12. Combination of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy for multivariate classification of bacteria (United States)

    Prochazka, D.; Mazura, M.; Samek, O.; Rebrošová, K.; Pořízka, P.; Klus, J.; Prochazková, P.; Novotný, J.; Novotný, K.; Kaiser, J.


    In this work, we investigate the impact of data provided by complementary laser-based spectroscopic methods on multivariate classification accuracy. Discrimination and classification of five Staphylococcus bacterial strains and one strain of Escherichia coli is presented. The technique that we used for measurements is a combination of Raman spectroscopy and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Obtained spectroscopic data were then processed using Multivariate Data Analysis algorithms. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was selected as the most suitable technique for visualization of bacterial strains data. To classify the bacterial strains, we used Neural Networks, namely a supervised version of Kohonen's self-organizing maps (SOM). We were processing results in three different ways - separately from LIBS measurements, from Raman measurements, and we also merged data from both mentioned methods. The three types of results were then compared. By applying the PCA to Raman spectroscopy data, we observed that two bacterial strains were fully distinguished from the rest of the data set. In the case of LIBS data, three bacterial strains were fully discriminated. Using a combination of data from both methods, we achieved the complete discrimination of all bacterial strains. All the data were classified with a high success rate using SOM algorithm. The most accurate classification was obtained using a combination of data from both techniques. The classification accuracy varied, depending on specific samples and techniques. As for LIBS, the classification accuracy ranged from 45% to 100%, as for Raman Spectroscopy from 50% to 100% and in case of merged data, all samples were classified correctly. Based on the results of the experiments presented in this work, we can assume that the combination of Raman spectroscopy and LIBS significantly enhances discrimination and classification accuracy of bacterial species and strains. The reason is the complementarity in

  13. Rapid identification of staphylococci by Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rebrošová, K.; Šiler, Martin; Samek, Ota; Růžička, F.; Bernatová, Silvie; Holá, V.; Ježek, Jan; Zemánek, Pavel; Sokolová, J.; Petráš, P.


    Roč. 7, NOV (2017), s. 1-8, č. článku 14846. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : coagulase-negative staphylococci * Raman spectroscopy * rapid identification Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  14. Optimization of Sample Preparation processes of Bone Material for Raman Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Chikhani, Madelen; Wuhrer, Richard; Green, Hayley


    Raman spectroscopy has recently been investigated for use in the calculation of postmortem interval from skeletal material. The fluorescence generated by samples, which affects the interpretation of Raman data, is a major limitation. This study compares the effectiveness of two sample preparation techniques, chemical bleaching and scraping, in the reduction of fluorescence from bone samples during testing with Raman spectroscopy. Visual assessment of Raman spectra obtained at 1064 nm excitation following the preparation protocols indicates an overall reduction in fluorescence. Results demonstrate that scraping is more effective at resolving fluorescence than chemical bleaching. The scraping of skeletonized remains prior to Raman analysis is a less destructive method and allows for the preservation of a bone sample in a state closest to its original form, which is beneficial in forensic investigations. It is recommended that bone scraping supersedes chemical bleaching as the preferred method for sample preparation prior to Raman spectroscopy. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Near-infrared-excited confocal Raman spectroscopy advances in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer. (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J H; Ilancheran, Arunachalam; Huang, Zhiwei


    Raman spectroscopy is a unique optical technique that can probe the changes of vibrational modes of biomolecules associated with tissue premalignant transformation. This study evaluates the clinical utility of confocal Raman spectroscopy over near-infrared (NIR) autofluorescence (AF) spectroscopy and composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy for improving early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo at colposcopy. A rapid NIR Raman system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic confocal Raman probe was utilized for in vivo NIR AF/Raman spectral measurements of the cervix. A total of 1240 in vivo Raman spectra [normal (n=993), dysplasia (n=247)] were acquired from 84 cervical patients. Principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) together with a leave-one-patient-out, cross-validation method were used to extract the diagnostic information associated with distinctive spectroscopic modalities. The diagnostic ability of confocal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated using the PCA-LDA model developed from the significant principal components (PCs) [i.e., PC4, 0.0023%; PC5, 0.00095%; PC8, 0.00022%, (pspectroscopy coupled with PCA-LDA modeling yielded the diagnostic accuracy of 84.1% (a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 87.1%) for in vivo discrimination of dysplastic cervix. The receiver operating characteristic curves further confirmed that the best classification was achieved using confocal Raman spectroscopy compared to the composite NIR AF/Raman spectroscopy or NIR AF spectroscopy alone. This study illustrates that confocal Raman spectroscopy has great potential to improve early diagnosis of cervical precancer in vivo during clinical colposcopy.

  16. Determination of human coronary artery composition by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Brennan, J F; Römer, T J; Lees, R S; Tercyak, A M; Kramer, J R; Feld, M S


    We present a method for in situ chemical analysis of human coronary artery using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. It is rapid and accurate and does not require tissue removal; small volumes, approximately 1 mm3, can be sampled. This methodology is likely to be useful as a tool for intravascular diagnosis of artery disease. Human coronary artery segments were obtained from nine explanted recipient hearts within 1 hour of heart transplantation. Minces from one or more segments were obtained through grinding in a mortar and pestle containing liquid nitrogen. Artery segments and minces were excited with 830 nm near-infrared light, and Raman spectra were collected with a specially designed spectrometer. A model was developed to analyze the spectra and quantify the amounts of cholesterol, cholesterol esters, triglycerides and phospholipids, and calcium salts present. The model provided excellent fits to spectra from the artery segments, indicating its applicability to intact tissue. In addition, the minces were assayed chemically for lipid and calcium salt content, and the results were compared. The relative weights obtained using the Raman technique agreed with those of the standard assays within a few percentage points. The chemical composition of coronary artery can be quantified accurately with Raman spectroscopy. This opens the possibility of using histochemical analysis to predict acute events such as plaque rupture, to follow the progression of disease, and to select appropriate therapeutic interventions.

  17. Laser Raman Spectroscopy in studies of corrosion and electrocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendres, C.A.


    Laser Raman Spectroscopy (LRS) has become an important tool for the in-situ structural study of electrochemical systems and processes in recent years. Following a brief introduction of the experimental techniques involved in applying LRS to electrochemical systems, we survey the literature for examples of studies in the inhibition of electrode reactions by surface films (e.g., corrosion and passivation phenomena) as well as the acceleration of reactions by electro-sorbates (electrocatalysis). We deal mostly with both normal and resonance Raman effects on fairly thick surface films in contrast to surface-enhanced Raman investigations of monolayer adsorbates, which is covered in another lecture. Laser Raman spectroelectrochemical studies of corrosion and film formation on such metals as Pb, Ag, Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Au, stainless steel, etc. in various solution conditions are discussed. Further extension of the technique to studies in high-temperature and high-pressure aqueous environments is demonstrated. Results of studies of the structure of corrosion inhibitors are also presented. As applications of the LRS technique in the area of electrocatalysis, we cite studies of the structure of transition metal macrocyclic compounds, i.e., phthalocyanines and porphyrins, used for catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction. 104 refs., 20 figs.

  18. Operando Raman Micro Spectroscopy of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (United States)


    exchange site local symmetry. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons...Operando Raman spectroscopy.—All operando Raman spectra were acquired using a WITec Inc. (Ulm, Germany) Confocal Raman Microscope ( CRM 200). A 488

  19. In vivo Raman spectroscopy of cervix cancers (United States)

    Rubina, S.; Sathe, Priyanka; Dora, Tapas Kumar; Chopra, Supriya; Maheshwari, Amita; Krishna, C. Murali


    Cervix-cancer is the third most common female cancer worldwide. It is the leading cancer among Indian females with more than million new diagnosed cases and 50% mortality, annually. The high mortality rates can be attributed to late diagnosis. Efficacy of Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and pathological conditions in cervix cancers on diverse populations has already been demonstrated. Our earlier ex vivo studies have shown the feasibility of classifying normal and cancer cervix tissues as well as responders/non-responders to Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). The present study was carried out to explore feasibility of in vivo Raman spectroscopic methods in classifying normal and cancerous conditions in Indian population. A total of 182 normal and 132 tumor in vivo Raman spectra, from 63 subjects, were recorded using a fiberoptic probe coupled HE-785 spectrometer, under clinical supervision. Spectra were acquired for 5 s and averaged over 3 times at 80 mW laser power. Spectra of normal conditions suggest strong collagenous features and abundance of non-collagenous proteins and DNA in case of tumors. Preprocessed spectra were subjected to Principal Component-Linear Discrimination Analysis (PCLDA) followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Classification efficiency of ~96.7% and 100% for normal and cancerous conditions respectively, were observed. Findings of the study corroborates earlier studies and suggest applicability of Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis of cervical cancers in Indian population. In view of encouraging results, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

  20. Medical applications of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Choi, Samjin; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk


    This paper reviews the recent research and application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques, which are considered the multi-functional and powerful toolkits for probing the nanostructural, biomechanical and physicochemical properties of biomedical samples in medical science. We introduce briefly the basic principles of AFM and Raman spectroscopy, followed by diagnostic assessments of some selected diseases in biomedical applications using them, including mitochondria isolated from normal and ischemic hearts, hair fibers, individual cells, and human cortical bone. Finally, AFM and Raman spectroscopy applications to investigate the effects of pharmacotherapy, surgery, and medical device therapy in various medicines from cells to soft and hard tissues are discussed, including pharmacotherapy--paclitaxel on Ishikawa and HeLa cells, telmisartan on angiotensin II, mitomycin C on strabismus surgery and eye whitening surgery, and fluoride on primary teeth--and medical device therapy--collagen cross-linking treatment for the management of progressive keratoconus, radiofrequency treatment for skin rejuvenation, physical extracorporeal shockwave therapy for healing of Achilles tendinitis, orthodontic treatment, and toothbrushing time to minimize the loss of teeth after exposure to acidic drinks.

  1. 1064nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal


    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression...

  2. Determining the Authenticity of Gemstones Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Aponick, Aaron; Marchozzi, Emedio; Johnston, Cynthia R.; Wigal, Carl T.


    The benefits of laser spectroscopy in the undergraduate curriculum have been the focus of several recent articles in this journal. Raman spectroscopy has been of particular interest since the similarities of Raman to conventional infrared spectroscopy make the interpretation of spectral data well within undergraduate comprehension. In addition, the accessibility to this technology is now within the reach of most undergraduate institutions. This paper reports the development of an experiment using Raman spectroscopy which determines the authenticity of both diamonds and pearls. The resulting spectra provide an introduction to vibrational spectroscopy and can be used in a variety of laboratory courses ranging from introductory chemistry to instrumental analysis.

  3. Scanning Angle Raman spectroscopy in polymer thin film characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Vy H.T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The focus of this thesis is the application of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of thin polymer films. Chapter 1 provides background information and motivation, including the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, scanning angle Raman scattering and scanning angle Raman scattering for applications in thin polymer film characterization. Chapter 2 represents a published manuscript that focuses on the application of scanning angle Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of submicron thin films with a description of methodology for measuring the film thickness and location of an interface between two polymer layers. Chapter 3 provides an outlook and future directions for the work outlined in this thesis. Appendix A, contains a published manuscript that outlines the use of Raman spectroscopy to aid in the synthesis of heterogeneous catalytic systems. Appendix B and C contain published manuscripts that set a foundation for the work presented in Chapter 2.

  4. Detection of hazardous chemicals using field-portable Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Wright, Cherylyn W.; Harvey, Scott D.; Wright, Bob W.


    A major challenge confronting emergency response, border control, and other security-related functions is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Raman spectroscopy is a rapid, non-intrusive technique that can be used to confidently identify many classes of hazardous and potentially explosive compounds based on molecular vibration information. Advances in instrumentation now allow reliable field - portable measurements to be made. Before the Raman technique can be effectively applied and be accepted within the scientific community, realistic studies must be performed to develop methods, define limitations, and rigorously evaluate its effectiveness. Examples of a variety of chemicals (including neat and diluted chemical warfare [CW] agents, a CW agent precursor, a biological warfare (BW)-related compound, an illicit drug, and explosives) identified using Raman spectroscopy in various types of containers and on surfaces are given, as well as results from a blind field test of 29 unknown samples which included CW agent precursors and/or degradation products, solvents associated with CW agent production, pesticides, explosives, and BW toxins (mostly mycotoxins). Additionally, results of experimental studies to evaluate the analysis of flammable organic solvents, propellants, military explosives, mixtures containing military explosives, shock-sensitive explosives, and gun powders are described with safety guidelines. Spectral masks for screening unknown samples for explosives and nerve agents are given.

  5. Quantitative aspects of near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Walder, F. T.; Smith, M. J.

    Three fundamental behaviors of vibrational spectroscopy data manipulation routinely associated with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy are evaluated for near-infrared (NIR) Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy. Spectral reproducibility, spectral subtraction and sensitivity are examined relative to the NIR FT-Raman experiment. Quantitative predictive ability is compared for identical sets of samples containing mixtures of the three xylene isomers. Partial least-squares analysis is used to compare predictive ability. IR performance is found to be better than Raman, though the potential for method development using NIR FT-Raman is shown to be quite promising.

  6. Evaluation of thyroid tissue by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Teixeira, C. S. B.; Bitar, R. A.; Santos, A. B. O.; Kulcsar, M. A. V.; Friguglietti, C. U. M.; Martinho, H. S.; da Costa, R. B.; Martin, A. A.


    Thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. Thyroid's main function is to produce the hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. Thyroid disorders can disturb the production of these hormones, which will affect numerous processes within the body such as: regulating metabolism and increasing utilization of cholesterol, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The gland itself can also be injured; for example, neoplasias, which have been considered the most important, causing damage of to the gland and are difficult to diagnose. There are several types of thyroid cancer: Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, and Anaplastic. The occurrence rate, in general is between 4 and 7%; which is on the increase (30%), probably due to new technology that is able to find small thyroid cancers that may not have been found previously. The most common method used for thyroid diagnoses are: anamnesis, ultrasonography, and laboratory exams (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy- FNAB). However, the sensitivity of those test are rather poor, with a high rate of false-negative results, therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostic techniques. Raman spectroscopy has been presented as a valuable tool for cancer diagnosis in many different tissues. In this work, 27 fragments of the thyroid were collected from 18 patients, comprising the following histologic groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular tissue, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma. Spectral collection was done with a commercial FTRaman Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100/S) using a 1064 nm laser excitation and Ge detector. Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. Comparing the goitre adjacent tissue with the goitre nodular region, an index of 58.3% of correct classification was obtained. Between goitre (nodular region and

  7. Raman Spectroscopy and instrumentation for monitoring soil carbon systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, D.L.


    This work describes developments in the application of Raman scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) towards the assessment/characterization of carbon in soil. In the past, the nonspecific total carbon mass content of soil samples has generally been determined through mass loss techniques and elemental analysis. However, because of the concern over CO{sub 2} buildup in the atmosphere and its possible role in the ''Greenhouse Effect,'' there is a need for better-defined models of global cycling of carbon. As a means towards this end, there is a need to know more about the structure and functionality of organic materials in soil. Raman spectroscopy may therefore prove to be an exceptional tool in soil carbon analysis. Based on vibrational transitions of irradiated molecules, it provides structural information that is often suitable for sample identification. Furthermore, Raman scattering yields very fine spectral features which offer the potential for multicomponent sample analysis with minimal or no sample pretreatment. Although the intensity of Raman scattering is generally extremely low, the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect can greatly enhance Raman signals (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} range) through the adsorption of compounds on specially roughened metal surfaces. In our laboratory, we have investigated copper, gold and silver as possible substrate metals in the fabrication of SERS substrates. These substrates have included metal-coated microparticles, metal island films, and redox-roughened metal foils. We have evaluated several laser excitation sources spanning the 515-785 nm range for both Raman and SERS analysis. For this particular study, we have selected fulvic and humic acids as models for establishing the feasibility of using Raman and SERS in soil carbon analysis. Our studies thus far have demonstrated that copper substrates perform best in the SERS detection of humic and fulvic acids, particularly when coupled

  8. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy: A review of recent applications in forensic science. (United States)

    Fikiet, Marisia A; Khandasammy, Shelby R; Mistek, Ewelina; Ahmed, Yasmine; Halámková, Lenka; Bueno, Justin; Lednev, Igor K


    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy has many advantages over its parent technique of Raman spectroscopy. Some of these advantages such as increased sensitivity and selectivity and therefore the possibility of small sample sizes and detection of small concentrations are invaluable in the field of forensics. A variety of new SERS surfaces and novel approaches are presented here on a wide range of forensically relevant topics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High-resolution inverse Raman and resonant-wave-mixing spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, L.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    These research activities consist of high-resolution inverse Raman spectroscopy (IRS) and resonant wave-mixing spectroscopy to support the development of nonlinear-optical techniques for temperature and concentration measurements in combustion research. Objectives of this work include development of spectral models of important molecular species needed to perform coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements and the investigation of new nonlinear-optical processes as potential diagnostic techniques. Some of the techniques being investigated include frequency-degenerate and nearly frequency-degenerate resonant four-wave-mixing (DFWM and NDFWM), and resonant multi-wave mixing (RMWM).

  10. Skin biochemical composition analysis by Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Patricia Karen; Tosato, Maira Gaspar; Alves, Rani de Souza; Martin, Airton Abrahao; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro, E-mail: [Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Vibracional Biomedica, Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - IP e D, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba - UniVap, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    Skin aging is characterized by cellular and molecular alterations. In this context, Confocal Raman spectroscopy was used in vivo to measure these biochemical changes as function of the skin depth. In this study we have tried to correlate spectra from pure amino acids to in vivo spectra from volunteers with different ages. This study was performed on 32 volunteers: 11 from Group A (20-23 years), 11 from Group B (39-42 years) and 10 from Group C (59-62 years). For each group, the Raman spectra were measured on the surface (0 mm), 30 +- 3 mm and 60 +- 3 {mu}m below the surface. The results from intergroup comparisons showed that the oldest group had a prevalence of the tyrosine band, but it also presented a decrease in the band centered at 875 cm{sup -1} of pyrrolidone acid. The amide I band centered at 1637 cm{sup -1} that is attributed to collagen, as well as other proteins and lipid, showed a smaller amount of these biomolecules for Group C, which can be explained by the decrease in collagen concentration as a function of age. (author)

  11. Application of Raman Spectroscopy for Quality Monitoring in the Meat Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Daniel Tsegay

    The objective of this thesis was to test the potential application of Raman spectroscopy for quality monitoring in the meat processing industry. Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique, which can provide rapid chemical information at the molecular level. It can, therefore, be used for non......-destructive quality monitoring in the meat processing industry as it requires no further sample preparation. Water, which is the main component of meat, is also not a problem for Raman spectroscopic measurement because water is a poor Raman scatter. Two major product quality related issues, cooking of meat and fat...... in water bath then stored under vacuum packaging for day- 0, -4 and -8 (paper-II). Secondly, the thesis work examined the use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics to determine the gross FA parameters and individual FAs in pork backfat. Non-targeted predictions of highly collinear...

  12. Ultrasensitive detection of phenolic antioxidants by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Ornelas-Soto, N.; Aguilar-Hernández, I. A.; Afseth, N.; López-Luke, T.; Contreras-Torres, F. F.; Wold, J. P.


    Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful surface-sensitive technique to study the vibrational properties of analytes at very low concentrations. In this study, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and sinapic acid were analyzed by SERS using Ag colloids. Analytes were detected up to 2.5x10-9M. For caffeic acid and coumaric acid, this detection limit has been reached for the first time, as well as the SERS analysis of sinapic acid using silver colloids.

  13. Transcutaneous monitoring of steroid-induced osteoporosis with Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Maher, Jason R.; Inzana, Jason; Takahata, Masahiko; Awad, Hani A.; Berger, Andrew J.


    Although glucocorticoids are among the most frequently prescribed anti-inflammatory agents used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, extended exposure to this steroid hormone is the leading cause of iatrogenic osteoporosis. Recently, Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to exploit biochemical differences between osteoporotic and normal bones in order to predict fracture risk. In this presentation, we report the results of ongoing research in our laboratory towards the clinical translation of this technique. We will discuss strategies for the transcutaneous acquisition of spectra from the tibiae of mice that are of sufficient quality to generate accurate predictions of fracture risk.

  14. Optical characterization of semiconductors infrared, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Perkowitz, Sidney


    This is the first book to explain, illustrate, and compare the most widely used methods in optics: photoluminescence, infrared spectroscopy, and Raman scattering. Written with non-experts in mind, the book develops the background needed to understand the why and how of each technique, but does not require special knowledge of semiconductors or optics. Each method is illustrated with numerous case studies. Practical information drawn from the authors experience is given to help establish optical facilities, including commercial sources for equipment, and experimental details. For industrial sci

  15. Coral calcifying fluid aragonite saturation states derived from Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    DeCarlo, Thomas M.; D'Olivo, Juan P.; Foster, Taryn; Holcomb, Michael; Becker, Thomas; McCulloch, Malcolm T.


    Quantifying the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr) within the calcifying fluid of corals is critical for understanding their biomineralization process and sensitivity to environmental changes including ocean acidification. Recent advances in microscopy, microprobes, and isotope geochemistry enable the determination of calcifying fluid pH and [CO32-], but direct quantification of ΩAr (where ΩAr = [CO32-][Ca2+]/Ksp) has proved elusive. Here we test a new technique for deriving ΩAr based on Raman spectroscopy. First, we analysed abiogenic aragonite crystals precipitated under a range of ΩAr from 10 to 34, and we found a strong dependence of Raman peak width on ΩAr with no significant effects of other factors including pH, Mg/Ca partitioning, and temperature. Validation of our Raman technique for corals is difficult because there are presently no direct measurements of calcifying fluid ΩAr available for comparison. However, Raman analysis of the international coral standard JCp-1 produced ΩAr of 12.3 ± 0.3, which we demonstrate is consistent with published skeletal Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, B/Ca, δ11B, and δ44Ca data. Raman measurements are rapid ( ≤ 1 s), high-resolution ( ≤ 1 µm), precise (derived ΩAr ± 1 to 2 per spectrum depending on instrument configuration), accurate ( ±2 if ΩAr Great Barrier Reef, and we evaluate the response of ΩAr in juvenile Acropora cultured under elevated CO2 and temperature.

  16. Tackling field-portable Raman spectroscopy of real world samples (United States)

    Shand, Neil C.


    A major challenge confronting first responders, customs authorities and other security-related organisations is the accurate, rapid, and safe identification of potentially hazardous chemicals outside a laboratory environment. Currently, a range of hand portable Raman equipment is commercially available that is low cost and increasingly more sophisticated. These systems are generally based on the 785nm Stokes shifted Raman technique with many using dispersive grating spectrometers. This technique offers a broad range of capabilities including the ability to analyse illicit drugs, explosives, chemical weapons and pre-cursors but still has some fundamental constraints. 'Real world' samples, such as those found at a crime scene, will often not be presented in the most accessible manner. Simple issues such as glass fluorescence can make an otherwise tractable sample impossible to analyse in-situ. A new generation of portable Raman equipment is currently being developed to address these issues. Consideration is given to the use of longer wavelength for fluorescence reduction. Alternative optical designs are being tested to compensate for the signal reduction incurred by moving to longer wavelengths. Furthermore, the use of anti-Stokes spectroscopy is being considered as well as investigating the robustness and portability of traditional Fourier Transform interferometer designs along with future advances in detector technology and ultra small spectrometers.

  17. Nanoscale Stress Field Evaluation with Shallow Trench Isolation Structure Assessed by Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, and Finite Element Method Analyses (United States)

    Kodera, Masako; Iguchi, Tadashi; Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Tamura, Mizuki; Kakinuma, Shigeru; Naka, Nobuyuki; Kashiwagi, Shinsuke


    Stress engineering related to the LSI process is required. With shallow trench isolation (STI) structures, a high stress field causes a variation in electrical characteristics. Although stress fields in a Si substrate can be detected by Raman spectroscopy, no effective technique has been reported for the measurement of nanoscale stress fields in a dielectric material used for STI filling. Recently, we have reported that “cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy” enables us to detect nanometer-scale stress fields in LSI structures. In this study, we performed the first estimation of the stress fields with a STI structure by CL and Raman spectroscopy, as well as finite element method (FEM) calculation. We were able to repeatedly acquire clear stress distributions by CL and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, CL, Raman, and FEM results showed excellent agreement with one another, revealing that a large variation in stresses along the AA/STI boundary was induced by the intrinsic tensile stress of the SiO2 film.

  18. New Applications of Portable Raman Spectroscopy in Agri-Bio-Photonics (United States)

    Voronine, Dmitri; Scully, Rob; Sanders, Virgil


    Modern optical techniques based on Raman spectroscopy are being used to monitor and analyze the health of cattle, crops and their natural environment. These optical tools are now available to perform fast, noninvasive analysis of live animals and plants in situ. We will report new applications of a portable handheld Raman spectroscopy to identification and taxonomy of plants. In addition, detection of organic food residues will be demonstrated. Advantages and limitations of current portable instruments will be discussed with suggestions for improved performance by applying enhanced Raman spectroscopic schemes.

  19. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.


    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  20. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchukov, S; Sukhinina, A; Bakhmutov, D; Biryukova, T; Tsvetkov, M; Bagratashvily, V


    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm −1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva. (letter)

  1. Nanoparticle detection in aqueous solutions using Raman and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sovago, M.; Buis, E.-J.; Sandtke, M.


    We show the chemical identification and quantification of the concentration and size of nanoparticle (NP) dispersions in aqueous solutions by using a combination of Raman Spectroscopy and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The two spectroscopic techniques are applied to demonstrate the NP

  2. Study of CVD diamond layers with amorphous carbon admixture by Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dychalska Anna


    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy is a most often used standard technique for characterization of different carbon materials. In this work we present the Raman spectra of polycrystalline diamond layers of different quality, synthesized by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition method (HF CVD. We show how to use Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of the Raman bands to determine the structure of diamond films as well as the structure of amorphous carbon admixture. Raman spectroscopy has become an important technique for the analysis of CVD diamond films. The first-order diamond Raman peak at ca. 1332 cm−1 is an unambiguous evidence for the presence of diamond phase in the deposited layer. However, the existence of non-diamond carbon components in a CVD diamond layer produces several overlapping peaks in the same wavenumber region as the first order diamond peak. The intensities, wavenumber, full width at half maximum (FWHM of these bands are dependent on quality of diamond layer which is dependent on the deposition conditions. The aim of the present work is to relate the features of diamond Raman spectra to the features of Raman spectra of non-diamond phase admixture and occurrence of other carbon structures in the obtained diamond thin films.

  3. Investigation of biomineralization by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Fatscher, Robert William

    Biomineralization is a process in which living organism grow composite materials consisting of inorganic and organic materials. This produces a composite material consisting of both inorganic and organic components, with superior mechanical properties. In the human body bone and dentin are both examples of biominerals. In this research Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize dentin from mice and human teeth, to determine composition. In the mouse tooth samples areas of irregular dentin were found, along the inside of the tooth, to be in the process of mineralization. By analyzing the samples along these areas we were able to determine the composition of dentin and track how it changed in these area. By analysis of the mineral to matrix ratio the areas of irregular dentin were determined to have less mineral present. Observations of other organic components and collagen in increased concentrations in this area suggested these area were in the process of biomineralization. The understanding of the structure of dentin and its biomineralization process is of crucial importance when trying reproduce dentin. Scientists and engineers are able to produce dentin minerals in vitro by culturing various dental stem cells. The ability to create dentin mineral from cells could lead to methods of repairing dentin in patients, or even lead to the creation of a completely engineered tooth. While dentin-like materials can be produced in a laboratory environment, analysis and comparison of the composition of these materials must be performed to ensure the mineral produced is consistent with dentin. Mineralized nodules from six different dental stem cell lines were cultured to produce a mineralized deposit. Utilizing Raman spectroscopy, we were able to determine cell source dependent differences in a variety of dental stem cells, and compare the mineral produced to native dentin. Orthopedic implants are implants used to replace damaged bone, examples include knee, hip and dental

  4. Application of Raman spectroscopy to forensic fibre cases. (United States)

    Lepot, L; De Wael, K; Gason, F; Gilbert, B


    Five forensic fibre cases in which Raman spectroscopy proved to be a good complementary method for microspectrophotometry (MSP) are described. Absorption spectra in the visible range are indeed sometimes characteristic ofa certain dye but this one can be subsequently identified unambiguously by Raman spectroscopy using a spectral library. In other cases the comparison of Raman spectra of reference fibres and suspect fibres led to an improvement of the discrimination power. The Raman measurements have been performed directly on mounted fibres and the spectra showed only little interference from the mounting resin and glass. Raman spectroscopy is therefore a powerful method that can be applied in routine fibre analysis following optical microscopy and MSP measurements.

  5. Machine learning methods for quantitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy data (United States)

    Madden, Michael G.; Ryder, Alan G.


    The automated identification and quantification of illicit materials using Raman spectroscopy is of significant importance for law enforcement agencies. This paper explores the use of Machine Learning (ML) methods in comparison with standard statistical regression techniques for developing automated identification methods. In this work, the ML task is broken into two sub-tasks, data reduction and prediction. In well-conditioned data, the number of samples should be much larger than the number of attributes per sample, to limit the degrees of freedom in predictive models. In this spectroscopy data, the opposite is normally true. Predictive models based on such data have a high number of degrees of freedom, which increases the risk of models over-fitting to the sample data and having poor predictive power. In the work described here, an approach to data reduction based on Genetic Algorithms is described. For the prediction sub-task, the objective is to estimate the concentration of a component in a mixture, based on its Raman spectrum and the known concentrations of previously seen mixtures. Here, Neural Networks and k-Nearest Neighbours are used for prediction. Preliminary results are presented for the problem of estimating the concentration of cocaine in solid mixtures, and compared with previously published results in which statistical analysis of the same dataset was performed. Finally, this paper demonstrates how more accurate results may be achieved by using an ensemble of prediction techniques.

  6. Rationale for single molecule detection by means of Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, S.V.; Guzatov, D.V.


    A consistent quantum electrodynamical description is proposed of Raman scattering of light by a molecule in a medium with a modified photon density of states. Enhanced local density of states near a metal nanobody is shown to increase a scattering rate by several orders of magnitude, thus providing a rationale for experimental detection of single molecules by means of Raman spectroscopy. For an ellipsoidal particle 10 14 -fold enhancement of the Raman scattering cross-section is obtained. (authors)

  7. Raman Spectroscopy: an essential tool for future IODP expeditions (United States)

    Andò, Sergio; Garzanti, Eduardo; Kulhanek, Denise K.


    The scientific drilling of oceanic sedimentary sequences plays a fundamental part in provenance studies, paleoclimate recostructions, and source-to-sink investigations (e.g., France-Lanord et al., 2015; Pandey et al., 2015). When studying oceanic deposits, Raman spectroscopy can and does represent an essential flexible tool for the multidisciplinary approach necessary to integrate the insight provided by different disciplines. This new user-friendly technique opens up an innovative avenue to study in real time the composition of detrital mineral grains of any origin, complementing traditional methods of provenance analysis (e.g., sedimentary petrography, heavy minerals; Andò and Garzanti, 2014). Raman spectra can readily reveal the chemistry of foraminiferal tests, nannofossils and other biogenic debris for the study of ecosystem evolution and paleoclimate, or the Ca/Mg ratio in biogenic or terrigenous carbonates for geological or marine biological applications and oil exploration (Borromeo et al., 2015). For the study of pelagic or turbiditic muds, which represent the bulk of the deep-marine sedimentary record, Raman spectroscopy allows us to identify silt-sized grains down to the size of a few microns with the same precision level required in quantitative provenance analysis of sand-sized sediments (Andò et al., 2011). Silt and siltstone also represent a very conspicuous part of the stratigraphic record onshore and usually preserve original mineralogical assemblages better than more permeable interbedded sand and sandstone (Blatt, 1985). Raman spectra can be obtained on sample volumes of only a few cubic microns by a confocal micro-Raman coupled with a standard polarizing light microscope using a 50× objective. The size of this apparatus can be easily placed onboard an IODP vessel to provide crucial information and quickly solve identification problems for the benefit of a wide range of scientists during future expeditions. Cited references Andò, S., Vignola

  8. Transcutaneous Measurement of Blood Analyte Concentration Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Barman, Ishan; Singh, Gajendra P.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.


    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder, affecting nearly 200 million people worldwide. Acute complications, such as hypoglycemia, cardiovascular disease and retinal damage, may occur if the disease is not adequately controlled. As diabetes has no known cure, tight control of glucose levels is critical for the prevention of such complications. Given the necessity for regular monitoring of blood glucose, development of non-invasive glucose detection devices is essential to improve the quality of life in diabetic patients. The commercially available glucose sensors measure the interstitial fluid glucose by electrochemical detection. However, these sensors have severe limitations, primarily related to their invasive nature and lack of stability. This necessitates the development of a truly non-invasive glucose detection technique. NIR Raman Spectroscopy, which combines the substantial penetration depth of NIR light with the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy, provides an excellent tool to meet the challenges involved. Additionally, it enables simultaneous determination of multiple blood analytes. Our laboratory has pioneered the use of Raman spectroscopy for blood analytes' detection in biological media. The preliminary success of our non-invasive glucose measurements both in vitro (such as in serum and blood) and in vivo has provided the foundation for the development of feasible clinical systems. However, successful application of this technology still faces a few hurdles, highlighted by the problems of tissue luminescence and selection of appropriate reference concentration. In this article we explore possible avenues to overcome these challenges so that prospective prediction accuracy of blood analytes can be brought to clinically acceptable levels.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy for cocrystal screening. A comparative study with Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Allesø, Morten; Velaga, Sitaram; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Cornett, Claus; Rasmussen, Morten A; van den Berg, Frans; de Diego, Heidi Lopez; Rantanen, Jukka


    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for solid-state analysis, providing fast, noninvasive measurements. The use of NIR spectroscopy for polymorph screening and the associated advantages have recently been demonstrated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the analytical potential of NIR spectroscopy for cocrystal screening using Raman spectroscopy as a comparative method. Indomethacin was used as the parent molecule, while saccharin and l-aspartic acid were chosen as guest molecules. Molar ratios of 1:1 for each system were subjected to two types of preparative methods. In the case of saccharin, liquid-assisted cogrinding as well as cocrystallization from solution resulted in a stable 1:1 cocrystalline phase termed IND-SAC cocrystal. For l-aspartic acid, the solution-based method resulted in a polymorphic transition of indomethacin into the metastable alpha form retained in a physical mixture with the guest molecule, while liquid-assisted cogrinding did not induce any changes in the crystal lattice. The good chemical peak selectivity of Raman spectroscopy allowed a straightforward interpretation of sample data by analyzing peak positions and comparing to those of pure references. In addition, Raman spectroscopy provided additional information on the crystal structure of the IND-SAC cocrystal. The broad spectral line shapes of NIR spectra make visual interpretation of the spectra difficult, and consequently, multivariate modeling by principal component analysis (PCA) was applied. Successful use of NIR/PCA was possible only through the inclusion of a set of reference mixtures of parent and guest molecules representing possible solid-state outcomes from the cocrystal screening. The practical hurdle related to the need for reference mixtures seems to restrict the applicability of NIR spectroscopy in cocrystal screening.

  10. Strain characterization of FinFETs using Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaleli, B.; van Hemert, T.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Wolters, Robertus A.M.


    Metal induced strain in the channel region of silicon (Si) fin-field effect transistor (FinFET) devices has been characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The strain originates from the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of Si and titanium-nitride. The Raman map of the device region is used

  11. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Short-Lived Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Hansen, Karina Benthin


    We report the first application of pulsed resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by pulse radiolysis. A single pulse from a flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the resonance Raman spectrum of the p-terphenyl anion radical with an initial...

  12. Component Identification in Multi-Chemical Mixtures With Swept-Wavelength Resonant-Raman Spectroscopy (United States)


    03-2011 Journal Article Component Identification in Multi-Chemical Mixtures with Swept-Wavelength Resonant-Raman Spectroscopy Robert Lunsford, David...IDENTIFICATION IN MULTI-CHEMICAL MIXTURES WITH SWEPT-WAVELENGTH RESONANT-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Robert Lunsford1, David Gillis2, Jacob Grun1, Pratima...fractional molecular abundances. Introduction The utilization of Raman spectroscopy , specifically Ultraviolet Resonance Raman spectroscopy for

  13. Quantitative determination of the human breast milk macronutrients by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Motta, Edlene d. C. M.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.


    This work proposes the evaluation of the macronutrient constitution of human breast milk based on the spectral information provided by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Human breast milk (5 mL) from a subject was collected during the first two weeks of breastfeeding and stocked in -20°C freezer. Raman spectra were measured using a Raman spectrometer (830 nm excitation) coupled to a fiber based Raman probe. Spectra of human milk were dominated by bands of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the 600-1800 cm-1 spectral region. Raman spectroscopy revealed differences in the biochemical constitution of human milk depending on the time of breastfeeding startup. This technique could be employed to develop a classification routine for the milk in Human Milk Banking (HMB) depending on the nutritional facts.

  14. Developing Raman spectroscopy for the nondestructive testing of composite materials. (United States)


    The proposed research will develop the application of Raman Spectroscopy as a nondestructive evaluation tool for the condition assessment of carbon fiber composites. Composite materials are increasingly being used in engineered structures and compone...

  15. Cryoprotectant redistribution along the frozen straw probed by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Karpegina, Yu A; Okotrub, K A; Brusentsev, E Yu; Amstislavsky, S Ya; Surovtsev, N V


    The distribution of cryoprotectant (10% glycerol) and ice along the frozen plastic straw (the most useful container for freezing mammalian semen, oocytes and embryos) was studied by Raman scattering technique. Raman spectroscopy being a contactless, non-invasive tool was applied for the straws filled with the cryoprotectant solution and frozen by controlled rate programs commonly used for mammalian embryos freezing. Analysis of Raman spectra measured at different points along the straw reveals a non-uniform distribution of the cryoprotectant. The ratio between non-crystalline solution and ice was found to be increased by several times at the bottom side of the solution column frozen by the standard freezing program. The increase of the cryoprotectant fraction occurs in the area where embryos or oocytes are normally placed during their freezing. Possible effects of the cooling rate and the ice nucleation temperature on the cryoprotectant fraction at the bottom side of the solution column were considered. Our findings highlight that the ice fraction around cryopreserved embryos or oocytes can differ significantly from the averaged one in the frozen plastic straws. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Novel Method for Bacterial UTI Diagnosis Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokia Kastanos


    Full Text Available The current state of the art on bacterial classification using Raman and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS for the purpose of developing a rapid and more accurate method for urinary tract infection (UTI diagnosis is presented. SERS, an enhanced version of Raman offering much increased sensitivity, provides complex biochemical information which, in conjunction with advanced analysis and classification techniques, can become a valuable diagnostic tool. The variety of metal substrates used for SERS, including silver and gold colloids, as well as nanostructured metal surfaces, is reviewed. The challenges in preprocessing noisy and complicated spectra and the various methods used for feature creation as well as a novel method using spectral band ratios are described. The various unsupervised and supervised classification methods commonly used for SERS spectra of bacteria are evaluated. Current research on transforming SERS into a valuable clinical tool for the diagnosis of UTIs is presented. Specifically, the classification of bacterial spectra (a as positive or negative for an infection, (b as belonging to a particular species of bacteria, and (c as sensitive or resistant to an antibiotic are described. This work can lead to the development of novel technology with extremely important benefits for public health.

  17. [Identification of B jade by Raman spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Zu, En-dong; Chen, Da-peng; Zhang, Peng-xiang


    Raman spectroscopy has been found to be a useful tool for identification of bleached and polymer-impregnated jadeites (so-called B jade). The major advantage of this system over classical methods of gem testing is the non-destructive identification of inclusions in gemstones and the determination of organic fracture filling in jade. Fissures in jadeites have been filled with oils and various resins to enhance their clarity, such as paraffin wax, paraffin oil, AB glue and epoxy resins. They show different peaks depending on their chemical composition. The characteristic spectrum ranges from 1,200-1,700 cm-1 to 2,800-3,100 cm-1. The spectra of resins show that they all have four strongest peaks related with phenyl: two C-C stretching modes at 1,116 and 1,609 cm-1, respectively, one C-H stretching mode at 3,069 cm-1, and a in-plane C-H bending mode at 1,189 cm-1. In addition, other two -CH2, -CH3 stretching modes at 2,906 and 2,869 cm-1, respectively, are very similar to paraffin. Therefore, the peaks at 1,116, 1,609, 1,189 and 3,069 cm-1 are important in distinguishing resin from paraffin, and we can identify B jade depending on them.

  18. Raman Spectroscopy and Microscopy of Individual Cells andCellular Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J; Fore, S; Wachsmann-Hogiu, S; Huser, T


    Raman spectroscopy provides the unique opportunity to non-destructively analyze chemical concentrations on the submicron length scale in individual cells without the need for optical labels. This enables the rapid assessment of cellular biochemistry inside living cells, and it allows for their continuous analysis to determine cellular response to external events. Here, we review recent developments in the analysis of single cells, subcellular compartments, and chemical imaging based on Raman spectroscopic techniques. Spontaneous Raman spectroscopy provides for the full spectral assessment of cellular biochemistry, while coherent Raman techniques, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering is primarily used as an imaging tool comparable to confocal fluorescence microscopy. These techniques are complemented by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, which provides higher sensitivity and local specificity, and also extends the techniques to chemical indicators, i.e. pH sensing. We review the strengths and weaknesses of each technique, demonstrate some of their applications and discuss their potential for future research in cell biology and biomedicine.

  19. A comparative study on defect estimation using XPS and Raman spectroscopy in few layer nanographitic structures. (United States)

    Ganesan, K; Ghosh, Subrata; Gopala Krishna, Nanda; Ilango, S; Kamruddin, M; Tyagi, A K


    Defects in planar and vertically oriented nanographitic structures (NGSs) synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have been investigated using Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. While Raman spectra reveal the dominance of vacancy and boundary type defects respectively in vertical and planar NGSs, XPS provides additional information on vacancy related defect peaks in the C 1s spectrum, which originate from non-conjugated carbon atoms in the hexagonal lattice. Although an excellent correlation prevails between these two techniques, our results show that estimation of surface defects by XPS is more accurate than Raman analysis. Nuances of these techniques are discussed in the context of assessing defects in nanographitic structures.

  20. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Infrared Spectroscopy in the Identification of Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Depciuch, Joanna; Kaznowska, Ewa; Zawlik, Izabela; Wojnarowska, Renata; Cholewa, Marian; Heraud, Philip; Cebulski, Józef


    Raman spectroscopy and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are both techniques that allow for the investigation of vibrating chemical particles. These techniques provide information not only about chemical particles through the identification of functional groups and spectral analysis of so-called "fingerprints", these methods allow for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical substances in the sample. Both of these spectral techniques are frequently being used in biology and medicine in diagnosing illnesses and monitoring methods of therapy. The type of breast cancer found in woman is often a malignant tumor, causing 1.38 million new cases of breast cancer and 458 000 deaths in the world in 2013. The most important risk factors for breast cancer development are: sex, age, family history, specific benign breast conditions in the breast, ionizing radiation, and lifestyle. The main purpose of breast cancer screening tests is to establish early diagnostics and to apply proper treatment. Diagnoses of breast cancer are based on: (1) physical techniques (e.g., ultrasonography, mammography, elastography, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography [PET]); (2) histopathological techniques; (3) biological techniques; and (4) optical techniques (e.g., photo acoustic imaging, fluorescence tomography). However, none of these techniques provides unique or especially revealing answers. The aim of our study is comparative spectroscopic measurements on patients with the following: normal non-cancerous breast tissue; breast cancer tissues before chemotherapy; breast cancer tissues after chemotherapy; and normal breast tissues received around the cancerous breast region. Spectra collected from breast cancer patients shows changes in amounts of carotenoids and fats. We also observed changes in carbohydrate and protein levels (e.g., lack of amino acids, changes in the concentration of amino acids, structural changes) in comparison with normal breast tissues. This fact

  1. [Rapid identification of potato cultivars using NIR-excited fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Dai, Fen; Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Benjamin, Arnold Julian Vinoj; Hong, Tian-Sheng; Zhiwei, Huang


    Potato is one of the most important food in the world. Rapid and noninvasive identification of potato cultivars plays a important role in the better use of varieties. In this study, The identification ability of optical spectroscopy techniques, including near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy and NIR fluorescence spectroscopy, for invasive detection of potato cultivars was evaluated. A rapid NIR Raman spectroscopy system was applied to measure the composite Raman and NIR fluorescence spectroscopy of 3 different species of potatoes (98 samples in total) under 785 nm laser light excitation. Then pure Raman and NIR fluorescence spectroscopy were abstracted from the composite spectroscopy, respectively. At last, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was utilized to analyze and classify Raman spectra of 3 different types of potatoes. All the samples were divided into two sets at random: the calibration set (74samples) and prediction set (24 samples), the model was validated using a leave-one-out, cross-validation method. The results showed that both the NIR-excited fluorescence spectra and pure Raman spectra could be used to identify three cultivars of potatoes. The fluorescence spectrum could distinguish the Favorita variety well (sensitivity: 1, specificity: 0.86 and accuracy: 0.92), but the result for Diamant (sensitivity: 0.75, specificity: 0.75 and accuracy: 0. 75) and Granola (sensitivity: 0.16, specificity: 0.89 and accuracy: 0.71) cultivars identification were a bit poorer. We demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy uncovered the main biochemical compositions contained in potato species, and provided a better classification sensitivity, specificity and accuracy (sensitivity: 1, specificity: 1 and accuracy: 1 for all 3 potato cultivars identification) among the three types of potatoes as compared to fluorescence spectroscopy.

  2. Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of food and pharmaceutical nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Sing Li


    Full Text Available Raman scattering is an inelastic phenomenon. Although its cross section is very small, recent advances in electronics, lasers, optics, and nanotechnology have made Raman spectroscopy suitable in many areas of application. The present article reviews the applications of Raman spectroscopy in food and drug analysis and inspection, including those associated with nanomaterials. Brief overviews of basic Raman scattering theory, instrumentation, and statistical data analysis are also given. With the advent of Raman enhancement mechanisms and the progress being made in metal nanomaterials and nanoscale metal surfaces fabrications, surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy has become an extra sensitive method, which is applicable not only for analysis of foods and drugs, but also for intracellular and intercellular imaging. A Raman spectrometer coupled with a fiber optics probe has great potential in applications such as monitoring and quality control in industrial food processing, food safety in agricultural plant production, and convenient inspection of pharmaceutical products, even through different types of packing. A challenge for the routine application of surface enhanced Raman scattering for quantitative analysis is reproducibility. Success in this area can be approached with each or a combination of the following methods: (1 fabrication of nanostructurally regular and uniform substrates; (2 application of statistic data analysis; and (3 isotopic dilution.

  3. Raman Spectroscopy: An Emerging Tool in Neurodegenerative Disease Research and Diagnosis. (United States)

    Devitt, George; Howard, Kelly; Mudher, Amrit; Mahajan, Sumeet


    The pathogenesis underlining many neurodegenerative diseases remains incompletely understood. The lack of effective biomarkers and disease preventative medicine demands the development of new techniques to efficiently probe the mechanisms of disease and to detect early biomarkers predictive of disease onset. Raman spectroscopy is an established technique that allows the label-free fingerprinting and imaging of molecules based on their chemical constitution and structure. While analysis of isolated biological molecules has been widespread in the chemical community, applications of Raman spectroscopy to study clinically relevant biological species, disease pathogenesis, and diagnosis have been rapidly increasing since the past decade. The growing number of biomedical applications has shown the potential of Raman spectroscopy for detection of novel biomarkers that could enable the rapid and accurate screening of disease susceptibility and onset. Here we provide an overview of Raman spectroscopy and related techniques and their application to neurodegenerative diseases. We further discuss their potential utility in research, biomarker detection, and diagnosis. Challenges to routine use of Raman spectroscopy in the context of neuroscience research are also presented.

  4. Coral calcifying fluid aragonite saturation states derived from Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. DeCarlo


    Full Text Available Quantifying the saturation state of aragonite (ΩAr within the calcifying fluid of corals is critical for understanding their biomineralization process and sensitivity to environmental changes including ocean acidification. Recent advances in microscopy, microprobes, and isotope geochemistry enable the determination of calcifying fluid pH and [CO32−], but direct quantification of ΩAr (where ΩAr =  [CO32−][Ca2+]∕Ksp has proved elusive. Here we test a new technique for deriving ΩAr based on Raman spectroscopy. First, we analysed abiogenic aragonite crystals precipitated under a range of ΩAr from 10 to 34, and we found a strong dependence of Raman peak width on ΩAr with no significant effects of other factors including pH, Mg∕Ca partitioning, and temperature. Validation of our Raman technique for corals is difficult because there are presently no direct measurements of calcifying fluid ΩAr available for comparison. However, Raman analysis of the international coral standard JCp-1 produced ΩAr of 12.3 ± 0.3, which we demonstrate is consistent with published skeletal Mg∕Ca, Sr∕Ca, B∕Ca, δ11B, and δ44Ca data. Raman measurements are rapid ( ≤  1 s, high-resolution ( ≤  1 µm, precise (derived ΩAr ± 1 to 2 per spectrum depending on instrument configuration, accurate ( ±2 if ΩAr < 20, and require minimal sample preparation, making the technique well suited for testing the sensitivity of coral calcifying fluid ΩAr to ocean acidification and warming using samples from natural and laboratory settings. To demonstrate this, we also show a high-resolution time series of ΩAr over multiple years of growth in a Porites skeleton from the Great Barrier Reef, and we evaluate the response of ΩAr in juvenile Acropora cultured under elevated CO2 and temperature.

  5. Development and Application of Raman Microspectroscopic and Raman Imaging Techniques for Cell Biological Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Raman spectroscopy is being used to study biological molecules for some three decades now. Thanks to continuing advances in instrumentation more and more applications have become feasible in which molecules are studied in situ, and this has enabled Raman spectroscopy to enter the realms of

  6. Raman spectroscopy applied to identify metabolites in urine of physically active subjects. (United States)

    Moreira, Letícia Parada; Silveira, Landulfo; da Silva, Alexandre Galvão; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Rocco, Débora Dias Ferraretto Moura


    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid and non-destructive technique suitable for biological fluids analysis. In this work, dispersive Raman spectroscopy has been employed as a rapid and nondestructive technique to detect the metabolites in urine of physically active subjects before and after vigorous 30min pedaling or running compared to sedentary subjects. For so, urine samples from 9 subjects were obtained before and immediately after physical activities and submitted to Raman spectroscopy (830nm excitation, 250mW laser power, 20s integration time) and compared to urine from 5 sedentary subjects. The Raman spectra of urine from sedentary showed peaks related to urea, creatinine, ketone bodies, phosphate and other nitrogenous compounds. These metabolic biomarkers presented peaks with different intensities in the urine of physically active individuals after exercises compared to before, measured by the intensity of selected peaks the Raman spectra, which means different concentrations after training. These peaks presented different intensity values for each subject before physical activity, also behaving differently compared to the post-training: some subjects presented increase while others decrease the intensity. Raman spectroscopy may allow the development of a rapid and non-destructive test for metabolic evaluation of the physical training in active and trained subjects using urine samples, allowing nutrition adjustment with the sport's performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Micro-Raman spectroscopy on oral tissues (United States)

    Zenone, F.; Lepore, M.; Perna, G.; Carmone, P.; Riccio, R.; Gaeta, G. M.; Capozzi, V.


    Micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μ-RS) provides a unique tool in medicine for a not invasive and real time analysis of biological tissue for biopsy and "in vivo" investigation. Based on the evaluation of molecular vibration frequencies, the μ-RS is able to detect the main molecular bonds of protein constituents, as the C-H and C-C ones. Changes in frequency or in the relative intensity of the vibration modes revealed by μ-RS can be related to changes of chemical bond and of protein structure induced by pathology. The μ-RS has been performed on samples of oral tissue from informed patients, affected by pemphigus vulgaris (an oral pathology) in an advanced regression state. The biopsies were thin slices (about 1mm thick) with 6mm diameter. The sample was measured through a 170 μm thick cover-glass. The experimental set-up was mainly composed by a He-Ne laser and a monochromator equipped with a Peltier cell and with a grating of 1800 grooves/mm. The laser light was focused on the sample surface by means of a long focal length 50X optical objective. The main protein bonds are clearly detectable in the considered samples and this give important information on the integrity and on the state of tissue components (lipids and proteins), and consequently on the occurrence of pathology. The potential application of this method for in vivo analysis is an invaluable alternative to biopsy and pathological examinations for many medical application as screening diagnostic, therapy progress examination, and surgical support.

  8. Integrated fingerprint and high wavenumber confocal Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of cervical precancer (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Ng, Joseph; Low, Jeffrey J. H.; Ilancheran, A.; Huang, Zhiwei


    Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational spectroscopic technique capable of optically probing the compositional, conformational, and structural changes in the tissue associated with disease progression. The main goal of this work is to develop an integrated fingerprint (FP) and high wavenumber (HW) in vivo confocal Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous FP/HW tissue Raman spectral measurements. This work further explores the potential of integrated FP/HW Raman spectroscopy developed as a diagnostic tool for in vivo detection of cervical precancer. A total of 473 in vivo integrated FP/HW Raman spectra (340 normal and 133 precancer) were acquired from 35 patients within 1 s during clinical colposcopy. The major tissue Raman peaks are noticed around 854, 937, 1001, 1095, 1253, 1313, 1445, 1654, 2946 and 3400 cm-1, related to the molecular changes (e.g., proteins, lipids, glycogen, nucleic acids, water, etc.) that accompany the dysplastic transformation of tissue. The FP (800 - 1800 cm-1), HW (2800 - 3800 cm-1) and the integrated FP/HW Raman spectra were analyzed using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with the leave-one patient-out, cross-validation. The developed PLS-DA classification models and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for the FP, HW and integrated FP/HW spectroscopy further discloses that the performance of integrated FP/HW Raman spectroscopy is superior to that of all others in discriminating the dysplastic cervix. The results of this work indicate that the co-contributions of underlying rich biochemical information revealed by the complementary spectral modalities (FP and HW Raman) can improve the in vivo early diagnosis of cervical precancer at clinical colposcopy

  9. Analysis of disulphide bonds found in human hair by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Pina-Ruiz, A. L.; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Plascencia-Castro, A. S.; Hernandez-Rayas, A.; Ruvalcaba, J. M.


    Raman spectroscopy offers information-rich spectra, making it a technique easy to use in areas such as biology, chemistry, and in the field. Human hair spectra has been recorded obtaining interesting information about its composition. Correlating information obtained from these spectra to bone health and determining if Raman spectroscopy could be used as a diagnostic tool of bone health is proposed. Spectra from healthy women were compared to the spectra of women who have suffered a bone fracture, all which were aged 39-60. This technique has potential to become a regular diagnostic tool and further investigation to improve and validate this method are needed.

  10. Stand-off laser Raman spectroscopy and its advancement in explosives detection (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-run; Xue, Bin; Li, Yi-zhe; Wang, Hui


    The explosives detection has been a hot and difficult issue in the field of security it is particularly important to detect explosives quickly and reliably. There are many methods to detect explosives currently, stand-off Raman spectroscopy is one of the most promising and practical technologies, this technique can be used for non-contact and nondestructive detection, ensure the safety of attendants, at the same time the precision and speed of detection are also very high and be characterized by rapid response. This paper mainly gives an account of the fundamental principle of Raman spectroscopy, as well as recount major challenges of Standoff Laser Raman Spectroscopy applied in explosives detection and corresponding solutions. From the perspective of the system, this paper sums up related theories and techniques of the excitation laser and telescopic system etc.. Ultimately, a brief analysis and summary of the development trend of this technology is given.

  11. In situ monitoring of cocrystals in formulation development using low-frequency Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Otaki, Takashi; Tanabe, Yuta; Kojima, Takashi; Miura, Masaru; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Koide, Tatsuo; Fukami, Toshiro


    In recent years, to guarantee a quality-by-design approach to the development of pharmaceutical products, it is important to identify properties of raw materials and excipients in order to determine critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Feedback obtained from real-time analyses using various process analytical technology (PAT) tools has been actively investigated. In this study, in situ monitoring using low-frequency (LF) Raman spectroscopy (10-200 cm -1 ), which may have higher discriminative ability among polymorphs than near-infrared spectroscopy and conventional Raman spectroscopy (200-1800 cm -1 ), was investigated as a possible application to PAT. This is because LF-Raman spectroscopy obtains information about intermolecular and/or lattice vibrations in the solid state. The monitoring results obtained from Furosemide/Nicotinamide cocrystal indicate that LF-Raman spectroscopy is applicable to in situ monitoring of suspension and fluidized bed granulation processes, and is an effective technique as a PAT tool to detect the conversion risk of cocrystals. LF-Raman spectroscopy is also used as a PAT tool to monitor reactions, crystallizations, and manufacturing processes of drug substances and products. In addition, a sequence of conversion behaviors of Furosemide/Nicotinamide cocrystals was determined by performing in situ monitoring for the first time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel non-imaging optics based Raman spectroscopy device for transdermal blood analyte measurement (United States)

    Kong, Chae-Ryon; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Kang, Jeon Woong; Galindo, Luis; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.


    Due to its high chemical specificity, Raman spectroscopy has been considered to be a promising technique for non-invasive disease diagnosis. However, during Raman excitation, less than one out of a million photons undergo spontaneous Raman scattering and such weakness in Raman scattered light often require highly efficient collection of Raman scattered light for the analysis of biological tissues. We present a novel non-imaging optics based portable Raman spectroscopy instrument designed for enhanced light collection. While the instrument was demonstrated on transdermal blood glucose measurement, it can also be used for detection of other clinically relevant blood analytes such as creatinine, urea and cholesterol, as well as other tissue diagnosis applications. For enhanced light collection, a non-imaging optical element called compound hyperbolic concentrator (CHC) converts the wide angular range of scattered photons (numerical aperture (NA) of 1.0) from the tissue into a limited range of angles accommodated by the acceptance angles of the collection system (e.g., an optical fiber with NA of 0.22). A CHC enables collimation of scattered light directions to within extremely narrow range of angles while also maintaining practical physical dimensions. Such a design allows for the development of a very efficient and compact spectroscopy system for analyzing highly scattering biological tissues. Using the CHC-based portable Raman instrument in a clinical research setting, we demonstrate successful transdermal blood glucose predictions in human subjects undergoing oral glucose tolerance tests. PMID:22125761

  13. Preliminary detection of explosive standard components with Laser Raman Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, S.; Ciardi, R.


    Presently, our section is leader of the ISOTREX project (Integrated System for On-line TRace EXplosives detection in solid, liquid and vapour state), funded in the frame of the PASR 2006 action (Preparatory Action on the enhancement of the European industrial potential in the field of Security Research Preparatory Action) of the 6. EC framework. ISOTREX project will exploit the capabilities of different laser techniques as LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), LPA (Laser Photo Acustic) and CRDS (Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy) to monitor explosive traces. In this frame, we extended our investigation also to the laser induced Raman effect spectroscopy, in order to investigate its capabilities and possible future integration. We analysed explosive samples in bulk solid phase, diluted liquid phase and as evaporated films over suitable substrate. In the following, we present the main results obtained, outlining preliminary conclusions [it

  14. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Zauner, Dan


    In this paper we report low resolution surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) conducted with a chip based spectrometer. The flat field spectrometer presented here is fabricated in SU-8 on silicon, showing a resolution of around 3 nm and a free spectral range of around 100 nm. The output facet...... fiber. The obtained spectra show that chip based spectrometer together with the SERS active surface can be used as Raman sensor....

  15. Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality Monitoring—Instrumentation and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyun Li


    Full Text Available Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring.

  16. The Raman effect and its application to electronic spectroscopies in metal-centered species : Techniques and investigations in ground and excited states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, W.R.; J. McGarvey, J.

    In the decades since its discovery and somewhat limited early applications, Raman scattering has become the basis for the development of a variety of methods for probing molecular structure both in ground and electronically excited states. In this review, following a brief look at the underlying

  17. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies on celestite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yenhua; Yu Shucheng; Huang, Eugene; Lee, P.-L.


    High-pressure Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies of celestite (SrSO 4 ) were carried out in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. Variation in the Raman vibrational frequency and change of lattice parameters with pressure indicate that a transformation occurs in celestite. This transformation caused an adjustment in the Sr-O polyhedra that affected the stretching-force constant of SO 4 . Moreover, compressibilities along the crystallographic axes decreased in the order a to c to b. From the compression data, the bulk modulus of the celestite was 87 GPa. Both X-ray and Raman data show that the transition in celestite is reversible.

  18. Raman Spectroscopy of Isotactic Polypropylene-Halloysite Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elamin E. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy investigations on nanocomposites obtained by dispersing halloysite within isotactic polypropylene are reported. A detailed analysis of the modifications of the regularity band associated to the polymeric matrix is presented. The Raman lines assigned to the polymeric matrix are broadened and weakened as the loading with halloysite is increased. The analysis of Raman lines indicates that the polymeric matrix becomes less crystalline upon the loading with halloysite and that the nanofiller is experiencing a weak dehydration upon dispersion within the polymeric matrix, probably due to the related thermal processing used to achieve the dispersion of halloysite.

  19. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface (United States)

    Xu, Weigao; Ling, Xi; Xiao, Jiaqi; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kong, Jing; Xu, Hongxing; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin


    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an attractive analytical technique, which enables single-molecule sensitive detection and provides its special chemical fingerprints. During the past decades, researchers have made great efforts towards an ideal SERS substrate, mainly including pioneering works on the preparation of uniform metal nanostructure arrays by various nanoassembly and nanotailoring methods, which give better uniformity and reproducibility. Recently, nanoparticles coated with an inert shell were used to make the enhanced Raman signals cleaner. By depositing SERS-active metal nanoislands on an atomically flat graphene layer, here we designed a new kind of SERS substrate referred to as a graphene-mediated SERS (G-SERS) substrate. In the graphene/metal combined structure, the electromagnetic “hot” spots (which is the origin of a huge SERS enhancement) created by the gapped metal nanoislands through the localized surface plasmon resonance effect are supposed to pass through the monolayer graphene, resulting in an atomically flat hot surface for Raman enhancement. Signals from a G-SERS substrate were also demonstrated to have interesting advantages over normal SERS, in terms of cleaner vibrational information free from various metal-molecule interactions and being more stable against photo-induced damage, but with a comparable enhancement factor. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a freestanding, transparent and flexible “G-SERS tape” (consisting of a polymer-layer-supported monolayer graphene with sandwiched metal nanoislands) to enable direct, real time and reliable detection of trace amounts of analytes in various systems, which imparts high efficiency and universality of analyses with G-SERS substrates. PMID:22623525

  20. Correlative Raman spectroscopy and focused ion beam for targeted phase boundary analysis of titania polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangum, John S.; Chan, Lisa H.; Schmidt, Ute; Garten, Lauren M.; Ginley, David S.; Gorman, Brian P.


    Site-specific preparation of specimens using focused ion beam instruments for transmission electron microscopy is at the forefront of targeting regions of interest for nanoscale characterization. Typical methods of pinpointing desired features include electron backscatter diffraction for differentiating crystal structures and energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy for probing compositional variations. Yet there are situations, notably in the titanium dioxide system, where these techniques can fail. Differentiating between the brookite and anatase polymorphs of titania is either excessively laborious or impossible with the aforementioned techniques. However, due to differences in bonding structure, Raman spectroscopy serves as an ideal candidate for polymorph differentiation. In this work, a correlative approach utilizing Raman spectroscopy for targeted focused ion beam specimen preparation was employed. Dark field imaging and diffraction in the transmission electron microscope confirmed the region of interest located via Raman spectroscopy and demonstrated the validity of this new method. Correlative Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and focused ion beam is shown to be a promising new technique for identifying site-specific preparation of nanoscale specimens in cases where conventional approaches do not suffice.

  1. A combined laser-induced breakdown and Raman spectroscopy Echelle system for elemental and molecular microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehse, Marek [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter Str. 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Mory, David [LTB Lasertechnik Berlin, Rudower Chaussee 29, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Florek, Stefan [ISAS - Institute for Analytical Science, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Weritz, Friederike [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter Str. 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Gornushkin, Igor, E-mail: igor.gornushkin@bam.d [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter Str. 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Panne, Ulrich [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Richard-Willstaetter Str. 11, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Humboldt Universitaet zu Berlin, Chemistry Department, Brook-Taylor-Strasse 2, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)


    Raman and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is integrated into a single system for molecular and elemental microanalyses. Both analyses are performed on the same approx 0.002 mm{sup 2} sample spot allowing the assessment of sample heterogeneity on a micrometric scale through mapping and scanning. The core of the spectrometer system is a novel high resolution dual arm Echelle spectrograph utilized for both techniques. In contrast to scanning Raman spectroscopy systems, the Echelle-Raman spectrograph provides a high resolution spectrum in a broad spectral range of 200-6000 cm{sup -1} without moving the dispersive element. The system displays comparable or better sensitivity and spectral resolution in comparison to a state-of-the-art scanning Raman microscope and allows short analysis times for both Raman and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. The laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy performance of the system is characterized by ppm detection limits, high spectral resolving power (15,000), and broad spectral range (290-945 nm). The capability of the system is demonstrated with the mapping of heterogeneous mineral samples and layer by layer analysis of pigments revealing the advantages of combining the techniques in a single unified set-up.

  2. Characterization of oil-producing microalgae using Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Samek, O.; Zemánek, P.; Jonáš, A.; Telle, H. H.


    Raman spectroscopy offers a powerful alternative analytical method for the detection and identification of lipids/oil in biological samples, such as algae and fish. Recent research in the authors' groups, and experimental data only very recently published by us and a few other groups suggest that Raman spectroscopy can be exploited in instances where fast and accurate determination of the iodine value (associated with the degree of lipid unsaturation) is required. Here the current status of Raman spectroscopy applications on algae is reviewed, and particular attention is given to the efforts of identifying and selecting oil-rich algal strains for the potential mass production of commercial biofuels and for utilization in the food industry.

  3. Raman Spectroscopy Studies of Normal and Burned Biological Tissue (United States)

    Zarnani, Faranak; Maass, David; Idris, Ahamed; Glosser, Robert


    Burn injuries are a significant medical problem, and need to be treated quickly and precisely. Burned skin needs to be removed early, within hours (less than 24 hrs) of injury, when the margins of the burn are still hard to define. Studies show that treating and excising burn wounds soon after the injury prevents the wound from becoming deeper, reduces the release of proinflammatory mediators, and reduces or prevents the systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome. Also, removing burned skin prepares the affected region for skin grafting. Raman spectroscopy could be used as an objective diagnostic method that will assist burn surgeons in removing burned skin precisely. As a first step in developing a diagnostic tool, we present Raman spectroscopy information from normal and burned ex vivo rat skin, and a comparison of our findings. Raman spectroscopy is explored for its specificity and sensitivity.

  4. Noise and artifact characterization of in vivo Raman spectroscopy skin measurements. (United States)

    Ramírez-Elías, Miguel G; Alda, Javier; González, Francisco J


    In this work principal component analysis (PCA), a multivariate pattern recognition technique, is used to characterize the noise contribution of the experimental apparatus and two commonly used methods for fluorescence removal used in biomedical Raman spectroscopy measurements. These two methods are a fifth degree polynomial fitting and an iterative variation of it commonly known as the Vancouver method. The results show that the noise in Raman spectroscopy measurements is related to the spectral resolution of the measurement equipment, the intrinsic variability of the biological measurements, and the fluorescence removal algorithm used.

  5. Raman spectroscopy of optical properties in CdS thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajić J.


    Full Text Available Properties of CdS thin films were investigated applying atomic force microscopy (AFM and Raman spectroscopy. CdS thin films were prepared by using thermal evaporation technique under base pressure 2 x 10-5 torr. The quality of these films was investigated by AFM spectroscopy. We apply Raman scattering to investigate optical properties of CdS thin films, and reveal existence of surface optical phonon (SOP mode at 297 cm-1. Effective permittivity of mixture were modeled by Maxwell - Garnet approximation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45003

  6. Implementation of Deep Ultraviolet Raman Spectroscopy


    Liu, Chuan; Berg, Rolf W.


    Denne afhandling, "Implementation of Deep Ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy”, består i hovedsagen af to dele. Deep Ultraviolet – også kaldt DUV – står for bølgelængdeområdet 200 til 300 nm. Første del, kapitlerne 1 til 4, handler om den instrumentelle teknologi i DUV Raman-systemet. Anden del, kapitlerne 5 og 6 fokuserer på nogle få anvendelser af DUV Ramanspektroskopien. Kapitel 1 giver en kort introduktion til Ramanspektroskopi i almindelighed og DUVs relation hertil. DUV Ramanspektrometrien h...

  7. Raman and IR Spectroscopy Studies on Propane at Pressures of Up to 40 GPa. (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Daniil; Serovaiskii, Alexander; Mukhina, Elena; Kolesnikov, Anton; Gasharova, Biliana; Kutcherov, Vladimir; Dubrovinsky, Leonid


    Raman and IR spectroscopy studies on propane were performed at pressures of up to 40 GPa at ambient temperatures using the diamond anvil cell technique. Propane undergoes three phase transitions at 6.4(5), 14.5(5), and 26.5(5) GPa in Raman spectroscopy and at 7.0(5), 14.0(5), and 27.0(5) GPa in IR spectroscopy. The phase transitions were identified using the Raman and IR splitting modes and the appearance or disappearance of peaks, which clearly corresponded to the changes in the frequencies of the modes as the pressure changed. Our results demonstrate the complex high-pressure behavior of solid propane.

  8. Raman spectroscopy and optical trapping of 20 nm polystyrene particles in plasmonic nanopores (United States)

    Kerman, Sarp; Chen, Chang; Li, Yi; Lagae, Liesbet; Stakenborg, Tim; Van Dorpe, Pol


    The detection and identification of nanoparticles has caught the attention in the last decade due to its potential application on small bio-particles. Raman spectroscopy stands out as a label-free technique for the detection of such particles. However, it may require a high concentration of particles. In a solution with low concentration of particles to detect Raman spectroscopy, the number of particles in the detection area can be increased by optical trapping. The optical trapping force applied to a dielectric nanoparticle is proportional to the gradient of the optical intensity field. Plasmonic nanopores are efficient platforms for trapping nanoparticles due to highly enhanced localized field and its high gradient. Here, we report our work on the optical trapping and assembly of 20 nm polystyrene nanoparticles in a plasmonic nanopore and its detection by Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Race Differentiation Based on Raman Spectroscopy of Semen Traces for Forensic Purposes. (United States)

    Muro, Claire K; Lednev, Igor K


    Several novel methods to determine externally visible characteristics of body fluid donors have been developed in recent years. These tests can help forensic investigators make predictions about the appearance of a suspect or victim, such as their sex, race, hair color, or age. While their potential benefit is undeniable, these methods destroy the physical evidence in the process. Raman spectroscopy has recently been used as a nondestructive technique to test for many of these characteristics. Here, we present the results from a study to determine the race of semen donors. Using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis, we were able to build a statistical model that accurately identified the race of all 18 semen donors in the calibration data set, as well as seven additional external validation donors. These results demonstrate Raman spectroscopy's potential to differentiate Caucasian and Black semen donors using chemometrics.

  10. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of urine by an ingenious near-infrared Raman spectrometer (United States)

    Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Weiwei; Li, Yongzeng; Chen, Guannan; Huang, Zufang; Liao, Xiaohua; Xie, Zhiming; Chen, Rong


    This paper demonstrates the potential of an elaborately devised near-infrared Raman system in analysis of urine. The broad band in the long-wavelength region of the electronic absorption spectra of the sol with added adsorbent at certain concentrations has been explained in terms of the aggregation of the colloidal silver particles. We have reported the surface-enhanced Raman (SERS) spectra of urine, and studied the silver solution enhanced effects on the urine Raman scattering. The Raman bands of human's urine was assigned to certain molecule vibrations. We have found that different donators have dissimilar SERS of urine in different physiological condition. Comparatively few studies have explored the ability of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of urine acid. In the present report, we investigated the ability of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy to measure uric acid in the human urine. The results suggested that the present Raman system holds considerable promise for practical use. Practical applications such as the quantitative medical examination of urine metabolites may also be feasible in the near future.

  11. Review of multidimensional data processing approaches for Raman and infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautam, R.; Vanga, S.; Ariese, F.


    Raman and Infrared (IR) spectroscopies provide information about the structure, functional groups and environment of the molecules in the sample. In combination with a microscope, these techniques can also be used to study molecular distributions in heterogeneous samples. Over the past few decades

  12. Continuous Flow-Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of an Intermediate Redox State of Cytochrome-C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forster, M.; Hester, R. E.; Cartling, B.


    An intermediate redox state of cytochrome c at alkaline pH, generated upon rapid reduction by sodium dithionite, has been observed by resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy in combination with the continuous flow technique. The RR spectrum of the intermediate state is reported for excitation both...

  13. Raman spectroscopy-based detection of chemical contaminants in food powders (United States)

    Raman spectroscopy technique has proven to be a reliable method for qualitative detection of chemical contaminants in food ingredients and products. For quantitative imaging-based detection, each contaminant particle in a food sample must be detected and it is important to determine the necessary sp...

  14. Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the non invasive diagnosis of clinically inconclusive vulval lichen sclerosus. (United States)

    Frost, Jonathan; Ludeman, Linmarie; Hillaby, Kathryn; Gornall, Robert; Lloyd, Gavin; Kendall, Catherine; Shore, Angela C; Stone, Nick


    Vulval lichen sclerosus (LS) is a common inflammatory condition associated with an increased risk of developing vulval carcinoma. Diagnosis is usually clinical although biopsy is necessary if the diagnosis is uncertain or if there is a failure to respond to adequate initial treatment. Raman spectroscopy has the potential to be applied in vivo for near real time objective non-invasive optical diagnosis, avoiding the need for invasive tissue biopsies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of Raman spectroscopy for differentiating LS from other vulval conditions in fresh vulval biopsies. Biopsies were analysed from 27 women with suspected LS in whom the attending gynaecologist could not establish the diagnosis on clinical presentation alone. Spectral variance was explored using principal component analysis and in conjunction with the histological diagnoses was used to develop and test a multivariate linear discriminant classification model. This model was validated with leave one sample out cross validation and the diagnostic performance of the technique assessed in comparison with the pathology gold standard. After cross validation the technique was able to correctly differentiate LS from other inflammatory vulval conditions with a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 80%. This study demonstrates Raman spectroscopy has potential as a technique for in vivo non-invasive diagnosis of vulval skin conditions. Applied in the clinical setting this technique may reduce the need for invasive tissue biopsy. Further in vivo study is needed to assess the ability of Raman spectroscopy to diagnose other vulval conditions before clinical application.

  15. Developments in enzyme immobilization and near-infrared Raman spectroscopy with downstream renewable energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupoi, Jason [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This dissertation focuses on techniques for (1) increasing ethanol yields from saccharification and fermentation of cellulose using immobilized cellulase, and (2) the characterization and classification of lignocellulosic feedstocks, and quantification of useful parameters such as the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) lignin monomer content using 1064 nm dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.

  16. Polymorph characterization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using low-frequency Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Larkin, Peter J; Dabros, Marta; Sarsfield, Beth; Chan, Eric; Carriere, James T; Smith, Brian C


    Polymorph detection, identification, and quantitation in crystalline materials are of great importance to the pharmaceutical industry. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques used for this purpose include Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and terahertz (THz) and far-infrared (FIR) spectroscopy. Typically, the fundamental molecular vibrations accessed using high-frequency Raman and MIR spectroscopy or the overtone and combination of bands in the NIR spectra are used to monitor the solid-state forms of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The local environmental sensitivity of the fundamental molecular vibrations provides an indirect probe of the long-range order in molecular crystals. However, low-frequency vibrational spectroscopy provides access to the lattice vibrations of molecular crystals and, hence, has the potential to more directly probe intermolecular interactions in the solid state. Recent advances in filter technology enable high-quality, low-frequency Raman spectra to be acquired using a single-stage spectrograph. This innovation enables the cost-effective collection of high-quality Raman spectra in the 200-10 cm(-1) region. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy for the polymorphic characterization of APIs. This approach provides several benefits over existing techniques, including ease of sampling and more intense, information-rich band structures that can potentially discriminate among crystalline forms. An improved understanding of the relationship between the crystalline structure and the low-frequency vibrational spectrum is needed for the more widespread use of the technique.

  17. Discriminating basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding tissue by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Nijssen, Annieke; Bakker Schut, Tom C; Heule, Freerk; Caspers, Peter J; Hayes, Donal P; Neumann, Martino H A; Puppels, Gerwin J


    The objective of this in vitro study was to explore the applicability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish basal cell carcinoma from its surrounding noncancerous tissue; therefore, identifying possibilities for the development of an in vivo diagnostic technique for tumor border demarcation. Raman spectra were obtained in a two-dimensional grid from unstained frozen sections of 15 basal cell carcinoma specimens. Pseudo-color Raman images were generated by multivariate statistical analysis and clustering analysis of spectra and compared with histopathology. In this way a direct link between histologically identifiable skin layers and structures and their Raman spectra was made. A tissue classification model was developed, which discriminates between basal cell carcinoma and surrounding nontumorous tissue, based on Raman spectra. The logistic regression model, shows a 100% sensitivity and 93% selectivity for basal cell carcinoma. The Raman spectra were, furthermore, used to obtain information about the differences in molecular composition between different skin layers and structures. An interesting finding was that in four samples of nodular basal cell carcinoma, the collagen signal contribution in spectra of dermis close to a basal cell carcinoma, was markedly reduced. The study demonstrates the sensitivity of Raman spectroscopy to biochemical changes in tissue accompanying malignancy, resulting in a high accuracy when discriminating between basal cell carcinoma and noncancerous tissue.

  18. Vibrational characterization of pheomelanin and trichochrome F by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Jorge, Alberto; Solano, Francisco; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa


    We characterize for the first time the vibrational state of natural pheomelanin using Raman spectroscopy and model pigment synthesized from 5-S-cysteinyldopa. The shape of the Raman spectrum was very different from that of eumelanin. Four Raman bands were visible in the 500-2000 cm-1 wavenumber region about 500, 1150, 1490 and 2000 cm-1, which we assigned to the out-of-plane deformation and the stretching vibration of the phenyl rings, to the stretching vibration of C-N bonds or the stretching and wagging vibration of CH2, and to overtone or combination bands. Interestingly, we also show that the Raman spectrum of synthetic trichochrome F, a pigment that may be produced along with pheomelanin during pheomelanogenesis, is different from that of pheomelanin and similar to the spectrum of eumelanin. We could detect Raman signal of both eumelanin and pheomelanin in feathers and hairs where both pigments simultaneously occur without the need of isolating the pigment. This indicates that Raman spectroscopy represents a non-invasive method to detect pheomelanin and distinguish it from other pigments. This may be especially relevant to detect pheomelanin in animal skin including humans, where it has been associated with animal appearance and classification, human phototypes, prevention of skin diseases and cancer risk.

  19. Use of Raman spectroscopy in the analysis of nickel allergy (United States)

    Alda, Javier; Castillo-Martinez, Claudio; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo; Hernández-Blanco, Diana; Moncada, Benjamin; González, Francisco J.


    Raman spectra of the skin of subjects with nickel allergy are analyzed and compared to the spectra of healthy subjects to detect possible biochemical differences in the structure of the skin that could help diagnose metal allergies in a noninvasive manner. Results show differences between the two groups of Raman spectra. These spectral differences can be classified using principal component analysis. Based on these findings, a novel computational technique to make a fast evaluation and classification of the Raman spectra of the skin is presented and proposed as a noninvasive technique for the detection of nickel allergy.

  20. Differential laser-induced perturbation Raman spectroscopy: a comparison with Raman spectroscopy for analysis and classification of amino acids and dipeptides. (United States)

    Oztekin, Erman K; Smith, Sarah E; Hahn, David W


    Differential-laser induced perturbation spectroscopy (DLIPS) is a new spectral analysis technique for classification and identification, with key potential applications for analysis of complex biomolecular systems. DLIPS takes advantage of the complex ultraviolet (UV) laser–material interactions based on difference spectroscopy by coupling low intensity UV laser perturbation with a traditional spectroscopy probe. Here, we quantify the DLIPS performance using a Raman scattering probe in classification of basic constituents of collagenous tissues, namely, the amino acids glycine, L-proline, and L-alanine, and the dipeptides glycine–glycine, glycine–alanine and glycine–proline and compare the performance to a traditional Raman spectroscopy probe via several multivariate analyses. We find that the DLIPS approach yields an ~40% improvement in discrimination among these tissue building blocks. The effects of the 193-nm perturbation laser are further examined by assessing the photodestruction of targeted material molecular bonds. The DLIPS method with a Raman probe holds promise for future tissue diagnosis, either as a stand-alone technique or as part of an orthogonal biosensing scheme.

  1. Raman spectroscopy as a tool to understand Kerogen production potential (United States)

    Khatibi, S.; Ostadhassan, M.; Mohammed, R. A.; Alexeyev, A.


    A lot attention has given to unconventional reservoirs specifically oil shale in North America during the last decades. Understanding Kerogen properties in terms of maturity and production potential are crucial for unconventional reservoir. Since, the amount of hydrocarbon generation is a function of kerogen type and content in the formation, and the magnitude and duration in which heat and pressure were applied. This study presents a non-destructive and fast method to determine Kerogen properties in terms of Rock-Eval parameters by means of Raman Spectroscopy. Samples were gathered from upper and lower Bakken formation, with different maturities at different depth. Raman spectroscopy as a powerful nondestructive analytical tool for molecular reconstruction was employed to find Raman spectra of different samples. In the next step, Rock-Eval was performed for each sample and different measurements were made. Then in an original approach, correlation between Rock-Eval parameters with Raman Spectroscopy results was established to fully understand how kerogen productivity potentials can be reflected on the Raman response. Results showed, maturity related parameters (RO, Tmax), S1 (already generated oil in the rock), S2 (potential hydrocarbon) and OSI (oil saturation index as indication of potential oil flow zones) can be correlated to band separation, D band intensity, G band intensity and G/D intensity, respectively. Proposed method provide a fast nondestructive method to evaluate Kerogen quality even at field without any special sample preparation.

  2. Identifying a common origin of toner printed counterfeit banknotes by micro-Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Skenderović Božičević, Martina; Gajović, Andreja; Zjakić, Igor


    This study explores the applicability of micro-Raman spectroscopy as a non-destructive technique for the analysis of color toner printed counterfeits. The main aim of the research paper was to find out whether Raman spectroscopy is a suitable method for establishing the connection between different specimens of counterfeits suspected to be printed with the same toner on the same machine. Specimens of different types of toners printed on different types of paper are analyzed by means of the micro-Raman spectroscopy system with the excitation line at 514.5 nm. For each specimen cyan, magenta and yellow toners are analyzed separately. The yellow toners displayed the most distinctive Raman spectra. The results show that micro-Raman spectroscopy can be successfully applied as a method for the analysis of color toner printed counterfeits, such as banknotes and documents, in order to establish links between more or less different specimens of counterfeits by measuring the properties of a color toner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Using Raman spectroscopy and SERS for in situ studies of rhizosphere bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohseni, Hooman; Agahi, Massoud H.; Razeghi, Manijeh; Polisetti, Sneha; Baig, Nameera; Bible, Amber; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Doktycz, Mitchel; Bohn, Paul W.


    Bacteria colonize plant roots to form a symbiotic relationship with the plant and can play in important role in promoting plant growth. Raman spectroscopy is a useful technique to study these bacterial systems and the chemical signals they utilize to interact with the plant. We present a Raman study of Pantoea YR343 that was isolated from the rhizosphere of Populus deltoides (Eastern Cottonwood). Pantoea sp. YR343 produce yellowish carotenoid pigment that play a role in protection against UV radiation, in the anti-oxidative pathways and in membrane fluidity. Raman spectroscopy is used to non-invasively characterize the membrane bound carotenoids. The spectra collected from a mutant strain created by knocking out the crtB gene that encodes a phytoene synthase responsible for early stage of carotenoid biosynthesis, lack the carotenoid peaks. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy is being employed to detect the plant phytoharmone indoleacetic acid that is synthesized by the bacteria. This work describes our recent progress towards utilizing Raman spectroscopy as a label free, non-destructive method of studying plant-bacteria interactions in the rhizosphere.

  4. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali


    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  5. Quantitative monitoring of yeast fermentation using Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jens A.; Berg, Rolf W.; Ahring, Birgitte K.


    of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation process using a Raman spectroscopy instrument equipped with a robust sapphire ball probe.A method was developed to correct the Raman signal for the attenuation caused by light scattering cell particulate, hence enabling quantification of reaction components and possibly...... measurement of yeast cell concentrations. Extinction of Raman intensities to more than 50 % during fermentation was normalized with approximated extinction expressions using Raman signal of water around 1,627 cm−1 as internal standard to correct for the effect of scattering. Complicated standard multi...... was followed by linear regression. In situ quantification measurements of the fermentation resulted in root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.357, 1.611, and 0.633 g/L for glucose, ethanol, and yeast concentrations, respectively....

  6. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of chemically vapour deposited diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Weiser, P.S.


    Polarized micro-Raman spectra of chemically vapour deposited diamond films are presented. It is shown that important parameters often extracted from the Raman spectra such as the ratio of the diamond to non-diamond component of the films and the estimation of the level of residual stress depend on the orientation of the diamond crystallites with respect to the polarization of the incident laser beam. The dependence originates from the fact that the Raman scattering from the non-diamond components in the films is almost completely depolarized whilst the scattering from the diamond components is strongly polarized. The results demonstrate the importance of taking polarization into account when attempting to use Raman spectroscopy in even a semi-quantitative fashion for the assessment of the purity, perfection and stress in CVD diamond films. 8 refs., 1 tab. 2 figs

  7. Measuring depth profiles of residual stress with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enloe, W.S.; Sparks, R.G.; Paesler, M.A.


    Knowledge of the variation of residual stress is a very important factor in understanding the properties of machined surfaces. The nature of the residual stress can determine a part`s susceptibility to wear deformation, and cracking. Raman spectroscopy is known to be a very useful technique for measuring residual stress in many materials. These measurements are routinely made with a lateral resolution of 1{mu}m and an accuracy of 0.1 kbar. The variation of stress with depth; however, has not received much attention in the past. A novel technique has been developed that allows quantitative measurement of the variation of the residual stress with depth with an accuracy of 10nm in the z direction. Qualitative techniques for determining whether the stress is varying with depth are presented. It is also demonstrated that when the stress is changing over the volume sampled, errors can be introduced if the variation of the stress with depth is ignored. Computer aided data analysis is used to determine the depth dependence of the residual stress.

  8. Dielectrophoretic positioning of single nanoparticles on atomic force microscope tips for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Leiterer, Christian; Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Singh, Prabha; Wirth, Janina; Deckert, Volker; Fritzsche, Wolfgang


    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, a combination of Raman spectroscopy and scanning probe microscopy, is a powerful technique to detect the vibrational fingerprint of molecules at the nanometer scale. A metal nanoparticle at the apex of an atomic force microscope tip leads to a large enhancement of the electromagnetic field when illuminated with an appropriate wavelength, resulting in an increased Raman signal. A controlled positioning of individual nanoparticles at the tip would improve the reproducibility of the probes and is quite demanding due to usually serial and labor-intensive approaches. In contrast to commonly used submicron manipulation techniques, dielectrophoresis allows a parallel and scalable production, and provides a novel approach toward reproducible and at the same time affordable tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy tips. We demonstrate the successful positioning of an individual plasmonic nanoparticle on a commercial atomic force microscope tip by dielectrophoresis followed by experimental proof of the Raman signal enhancing capabilities of such tips. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cone penetrometer fiber optic raman spectroscopy probe assembly (United States)

    Kyle, Kevin R.; Brown, Steven B.


    A chemically and mechanically robust optical Raman spectroscopy probe assembly that can be incorporated in a cone penetrometer (CPT) for subsurface deployment. This assembly consists of an optical Raman probe and a penetrometer compatible optical probe housing. The probe is intended for in-situ chemical analysis of chemical constituents in the surrounding environment. The probe is optically linked via fiber optics to the light source and the detection system at the surface. A built-in broadband light source provides a strobe method for direct measurement of sample optical density. A mechanically stable sapphire window is sealed directly into the side-wall of the housing using a metallic, chemically resistant, hermetic seal design. This window permits transmission of the interrogation light beam and the resultant signal. The spectroscopy probe assembly is capable of accepting Raman, Laser induced Fluorescence, reflectance, and other optical probes with collimated output for CPT deployment.

  10. [Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer]. (United States)

    Jin, Shaoqin; Mao, Hua


    To establish a method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. A rapid near-infrared Raman system was used to examine the tissue specimens of pathologically confirmed gastric cancer (33 cases), gastric precancerous lesions (27 cases), and normal gastric mucosa (45 cases). All the specimens were obtained from 105 patients undergoing gastrectomy or endoscopic biopsy of suspected gastric lesions. High-quality Raman spectra ranging from 700 to 1800 cm(-1) were acquired from the gastric tissues within 5 s. The distribution pattern of Raman spectra in gastric cancer differed significantly from those of gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the spectral ranges of 853 cm(-1), 936 cm(-1), 1003 cm(-1), 1032 cm(-1), 1174 cm(-1), 1208 cm(-1), 1323 cm(-1), 1335 cm(-1), 1450 cm(-1), and 1655 cm(-1), which contained signals related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. The diagnostic decision algorithm based on the Raman peak intensity ratios of I1003/ I1337, I1003/I1445, I1003/I1655, and I1156/I1655 yielded remarkable differences in gastric cancer from gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, and the ratios were significantly higher in normal gastric tissues (Pinfrared Raman spectroscopy using PCA-LDA algorithms associated with leave- one-out and cross-validation method showed diagnostic sensitivities of 81.5%, 85.3%, and 100%, and specificities of 86.4%, 100%, and 97.4% for normal gastric mucosa, precancerous lesions and gastric cancer, respectively. near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with intensity ratio algorithms shows the potential for noninvasive diagnosis and detection of gastric malignancy at the molecular level.

  11. Optical trapping and Raman spectroscopy of single nanostructures using standing-wave Raman tweezers (United States)

    Wu, Mu-ying; He, Lin; Chen, Gui-hua; Yang, Guang; Li, Yong-qing


    Optical tweezers integrated with Raman spectroscopy allows analyzing a single trapped micro-particle, but is generally less effective for individual nano-sized objects in the 10-100 nm range. The main challenge is the weak gradient force on nanoparticles that is insufficient to overcome the destabilizing effect of scattering force and Brownian motion. Here, we present standing-wave Raman tweezers for stable trapping and sensitive characterization of single isolated nanostructures with a low laser power by combining a standing-wave optical trap (SWOT) with confocal Raman spectroscopy. This scheme has stronger intensity gradients and balanced scattering forces, and thus is more stable and sensitive in measuring nanoparticles in liquid with 4-8 fold increase in the Raman signals. It can be used to analyze many nanoparticles that cannot be measured with single-beam Raman tweezers, including individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), graphene flakes, biological particles, polystyrene beads (100 nm), SERS-active metal nanoparticles, and high-refractive semiconductor nanoparticles with a low laser power of a few milliwatts. This would enable sorting and characterization of specific SWCNTs and other nanoparticles based on their increased Raman fingerprints.

  12. Raman spectroscopy in quality control of Chinese herbal medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Chen


    Conclusion: An updated systematic review of the published literature has been conducted to analyze the most important milestones and latest achievements in this topic. Raman spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in the quality control of CHM and effectively promotes the modernization of CHM.

  13. Determination of cellulose I crystallinity by FT-Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph


    Two new methods based on FT-Raman spectroscopy, one simple, based on band intensity ratio, and the other, using a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model, are proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. In the simple method, crystallinity in semicrystalline cellulose I samples was determined based on univariate regression that was first developed using the...

  14. Analysis of scorpion venom composition by Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Martínez-Zérega, Brenda E.; González-Solís, José L.


    In this work we study the venom of two Centruroides scorpion species using Raman spectroscopy. The spectra analysis allows to determine the venoms chemical composition and to establish the main differences and similarities among the species. It is also shown that the use of Principal Component Analysis may help to tell apart between the scorpion species.

  15. Stress Analysis of SiC MEMS Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Ness, Stanley J.; Marciniak, M. A.; Lott, J. A.; Starman, L. A.; Busbee, J. D.; Melzak, J. M.


    During the fabrication of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS), residual stress is often induced in the thin films that are deposited to create these systems. These stresses can cause the device to fail due to buckling, curling, or fracture. Industry is looking for ways to characterize the stress during the deposition of thin films in order to reduce or eliminate device failure. Micro-Raman spectroscopy has been successfully used to characterize poly-Si MEMS devices made with the MUMPS® process. Raman spectroscopy was selected because it is nondestructive, fast and has the potential for in situ stress monitoring. This research attempts to use Raman spectroscopy to analyze the stress in SiC MEMS made with the MUSiC® process. Raman spectroscopy is performed on 1-2-micron-thick SiC thin films deposited on silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon oxide substrates. The most common poly-type of SiC found in thin film MEMS made with the MUSiC® process is 3C-SiC. Research also includes baseline spectra of 6H, 4H, and 15R poly-types of bulk SiC.

  16. Strong overtones and combination bands in ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efremov, E.V.; Ariese, F.; Mank, A.J.G.; Gooijer, C.


    Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy is carried out using a continuous wave frequency-doubled argon ion laser operated at 229, 244, and 257 nm in order to characterize the overtones and combination bands for several classes of organic compounds in liquid solutions. Contrary to what is generally

  17. Diffusion measurements in binary liquid mixtures by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Shapiro, Alexander


    It is shown that Raman spectroscopy allows determination of the molar fractions in mixtures subjected to molecular diffusion. Spectra of three binary systems, benzene/n-hexane, benzene/cyclohexane, and benzene/ acetone, were obtained during vertical (exchange) diffusion at several different heights...

  18. Fabricating a UV-Vis and Raman Spectroscopy Immunoassay Platform. (United States)

    Hanson, Cynthia; Israelsen, Nathan D; Sieverts, Michael; Vargis, Elizabeth


    Immunoassays are used to detect proteins based on the presence of associated antibodies. Because of their extensive use in research and clinical settings, a large infrastructure of immunoassay instruments and materials can be found. For example, 96- and 384-well polystyrene plates are available commercially and have a standard design to accommodate ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy machines from various manufacturers. In addition, a wide variety of immunoglobulins, detection tags, and blocking agents for customized immunoassay designs such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are available. Despite the existing infrastructure, standard ELISA kits do not meet all research needs, requiring individualized immunoassay development, which can be expensive and time-consuming. For example, ELISA kits have low multiplexing (detection of more than one analyte at a time) capabilities as they usually depend on fluorescence or colorimetric methods for detection. Colorimetric and fluorescent-based analyses have limited multiplexing capabilities due to broad spectral peaks. In contrast, Raman spectroscopy-based methods have a much greater capability for multiplexing due to narrow emission peaks. Another advantage of Raman spectroscopy is that Raman reporters experience significantly less photobleaching than fluorescent tags 1 . Despite the advantages that Raman reporters have over fluorescent and colorimetric tags, protocols to fabricate Raman-based immunoassays are limited. The purpose of this paper is to provide a protocol to prepare functionalized probes to use in conjunction with polystyrene plates for direct detection of analytes by UV-Vis analysis and Raman spectroscopy. This protocol will allow researchers to take a do-it-yourself approach for future multi-analyte detection while capitalizing on pre-established infrastructure.

  19. Click chemistry based biomolecular conjugation monitoring using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palla, Mirko; Kumar, Shiv; Li, Zengmin


    We describe here a novel surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based technique for monitoring the conjugation of small molecules by the well-known click reaction between an alkyne and azido moiety on the partner molecules. The monitoring principle is based on the loss of the characteristic...... such as bioconjugation, material science or drug discovery. Additionally, as an attractive advantage of this technique, no significant background signal is expected during the measurements, since these signals reside in a Raman silent region of 2000–2300 cm−1, where virtually all biological molecules are transparent....

  20. Shot-Noise Limited Time-Encoded Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Karpf


    Full Text Available Raman scattering, an inelastic scattering mechanism, provides information about molecular excitation energies and can be used to identify chemical compounds. Albeit being a powerful analysis tool, especially for label-free biomedical imaging with molecular contrast, it suffers from inherently low signal levels. This practical limitation can be overcome by nonlinear enhancement techniques like stimulated Raman scattering (SRS. In SRS, an additional light source stimulates the Raman scattering process. This can lead to orders of magnitude increase in signal levels and hence faster acquisition in biomedical imaging. However, achieving a broad spectral coverage in SRS is technically challenging and the signal is no longer background-free, as either stimulated Raman gain (SRG or loss (SRL is measured, turning a sensitivity limit into a dynamic range limit. Thus, the signal has to be isolated from the laser background light, requiring elaborate methods for minimizing detection noise. Here, we analyze the detection sensitivity of a shot-noise limited broadband stimulated time-encoded Raman (TICO-Raman system in detail. In time-encoded Raman, a wavelength-swept Fourier domain mode locking (FDML laser covers a broad range of Raman transition energies while allowing a dual-balanced detection for lowering the detection noise to the fundamental shot-noise limit.

  1. Raman spectroscopy for the detection of explosives and their precursors on clothing in fingerprint concentration: a reliable technique for security and counterterrorism issues (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Botti, S.; Cantarini, L.; Palucci, A.; Puiu, A.; Schnuerer, F.; Schweikert, W.; Romolo, F. S.


    In this work we report the results of RS measurements on some common military explosives and some of the most common explosives precursors deposited on clothing fabrics, both synthetic and natural, such as polyester, leather and denim cotton at concentration comparable to those obtained from a single fingerprint. RS Spectra were obtained using an integrated portable Raman system equipped with an optical microscope, focusing the light of a solid state GaAlAs laser emitting at 785 nm. A maximum exposure time of 10 s was used, focusing the beam in a 45 μm diameter spot on the sample. The substances were deposited starting from commercial solutions with a Micropipetting Nano-Plotter, ideal for generating high-quality spots by non-contact dispensing of sub-nanoliter volumes of liquids, in order to simulate a homogeneous stain on the fabric surface. Images acquired with a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope provided further details of the deposition process showing single particles of micrometric volume trapped or deposited on the underlying tissues. The spectral features of each substance was clearly identified and discriminated from those belonging to the substrate fabric or from the surrounding fluorescence. Our results show that the application of RS using a microscope-based apparatus can provide interpretable Raman spectra in a fast, in-situ analysis, directly from explosive particles of some μm3 as the ones that it could be found in a single fingerprint, despite the contribution of the substrate, leaving the sample completely unaltered for further, more specific and propaedeutic laboratory analysis. The same approach can be envisaged for the detection of other illicit substances like drugs.

  2. Fourier-Transform Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers Caractérisation de polymères par spectroscopie Raman à transformée de Fourier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siesler H. W.


    Full Text Available The recent extension of the Fourier-Transform (FT technique to the Raman effect has launched Raman spectroscopy into a new era of polymer chemical and physical applications. Thus, the increase in signal-to-noise ratio and the improvement in time resolution have largely enhanced the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy for analytical applications, the characterization of time-dependent phenomena and the on-line combination with other techniques. Primarily the suppression of fluorescence by shifting the excitation line to the near-infrared (NIR region has contributed to the fast acceptance as an industrial routine tool. Furthermore, the application of fiber optics has opened up the areas of process-control and remote sensing. Les applications de la spectroscopie Raman dans le domaine des polymères sont entrées dans une ère nouvelle, grâce aux récents développements de la technique à transformée de Fourier avec excitation dans le proche infrarouge. L'augmentation du rapport signal sur bruit et l'amélioration de la résolution temporelle ont fortement renforcé les potentialités de la technique en ce qui concerne les applications analytiques, la caractérisation de phénomènes qui dépendent du temps et le couplage en ligne avec d'autres techniques. La suppression du phénomène de fluorescence par déplacement de la longueur d'onde de l'excitatrice dans le proche infrarouge a contribué à l'intégration rapide de l'outil en site industriel. L'emploi de fibres optiques a permis l'accroissement des applications dans le domaine du contrôle des procédés et d'analyser à distance.

  3. Fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of gastric dysplasia. (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Ho, Khek Yu; Teh, Ming; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Huang, Zhiwei


    This study aims to assess the clinical utility of a rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique developed for enhancing in vivo diagnosis of gastric precancer during endoscopic examination. We have developed a real-time fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy system capable of simultaneously acquiring both fingerprint (FP) (i.e., 800-1800 cm(-1)) and high-wavenumber (HW) (i.e., 2800-3600 cm(-1)) Raman spectra from gastric tissue in vivo at endoscopy. A total of 5792 high-quality in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra (normal (n = 5160); dysplasia (n = 155), and adenocarcinoma (n = 477)) were acquired in real-time from 441 tissue sites (normal (n = 396); dysplasia (n = 11), and adenocarcinoma (n = 34)) of 191 gastric patients (normal (n = 172); dysplasia (n = 6), and adenocarcinoma (n = 13)) undergoing routine endoscopic examinations. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with leave-one-patient-out cross validation (LOPCV) were implemented to develop robust spectral diagnostic models. The FP/HW Raman spectra differ significantly between normal, dysplasia and adenocarcinoma of the stomach, which can be attributed to changes in proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and the bound water content. PLS-DA and LOPCV show that the fiber-optic FP/HW Raman spectroscopy provides diagnostic sensitivities of 96.0%, 81.8% and 88.2%, and specificities of 86.7%, 95.3% and 95.6%, respectively, for the classification of normal, dysplastic and cancerous gastric tissue, superior to either the FP or HW Raman techniques alone. Further dichotomous PLS-DA analysis yields a sensitivity of 90.9% (10/11) and specificity of 95.9% (380/396) for the detection of gastric dysplasia using FP/HW Raman spectroscopy, substantiating its clinical advantages over white light reflectance endoscopy (sensitivity: 90.9% (10/11), and specificity: 51.0% (202/396)). This work demonstrates that the fiber-optic FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique has great promise for enhancing in vivo diagnosis of gastric

  4. Analysis of tooth tissues using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timchenko, E.V.; Timchenko, P.E.; Kulabukhova, A.Yu.; Volova, L.T.; Rosenbaum, A.Yu.


    The results of experimental studies of healthy tooth tissue and tooth tissues during caries disease are presented. Features of Raman spectrum of tooth tissues during caries disease are obtained: the main changes are detected at wavenumbers 956 cm -1 .1069 cm -1 . corresponding to phosphates. and 1241 cm -1 . 1660 cm -1 . corresponding to collagen III and collagen I. respectively. Were introduced criteria allowing to detect caries and to identify weakening of tooth tissues. preceding the caries. The reliability of research results is confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. (paper)

  5. Raman Spectroscopy and in Situ Raman Spectroelectrochemistry of Isotopically Engineered Graphene Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frank, Otakar; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Kalbáč, Martin


    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2015), s. 111-118 ISSN 0001-4842 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13022; GA MŠk LL1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * spectroelectrochemistry * graphene Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 22.003, year: 2015

  6. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy using a diode laser and CCD detector for tissue diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, U.


    This paper surveys the possibility to observe high-quality NIR Raman spectra of both fluorescent and non-fluorescent samples with the use of a diode laser, a fibre optic sample, a single spectrometer and a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector. A shifted excitation difference technique was implemented for removing the broad-band fluorescence emission from Raman spectra of the highly fluorescent samples. Raman spectra of 1.4-dioxane, toluene, rhodamine 6G, and HITCI in the 640 to 1840 cm -1 spectral region and 1.4-dioxane and toluene in the 400 to 3400 cm -1 spectral region have been recorded. The results open the field of sensitive tissue characterisation and the possibility of optical biopsy in vivo by using NIR Raman spectroscopy with fibre optic sampling, a single spectrometer, and a CCD detector

  7. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wróbel, M.S.


    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described

  8. Raman spectroscopy for intracellular monitoring of carotenoid in Blakeslea trispora. (United States)

    Papaioannou, Emmanouil H; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria; Christofilos, Dimitrios; Arvanitidis, Ioannis; Kourouklis, Gerasimos


    In the present study, we explore the feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for intracellular monitoring of carotenoid in filamentous fungi Blakeslea trispora. Although carotenoid production from this fungus has been extensively studied through various chromatographic methods and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, no intracellular monitoring has been demonstrated until now. The intensity of the Raman spectrum, and more conveniently that of the strongest nu(1) carotenoid band at approximately 1,519 cm(-1), exhibits a good linear correlation with the carotenoid content of the sample as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Our results suggest that Raman spectroscopy can serve as an alternative method for the study and quantification of carotenoid in batch-mated submerged cultivations of B. trispora and similar organisms. Although not as accurate as HPLC, it allows a rapid sampling and analysis, avoiding the prolonged and tedious classical isolation procedures required for carotenoid determination by HPLC and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

  9. In vitro quantitation of human femoral artery atherosclerosis using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Dykes, Ava C.; Anastasiadis, Pavlos; Allen, John S., III; Sharma, Shiv K.


    Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy has been used in vitro to identify calcified atherosclerotic plaques in human femoral arteries. Raman techniques allow for the identification of these plaques in a nondestructive manner, which may allow for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in cardiac patients in the future. As Raman spectroscopy also reveals chemical information about the composition of the arteries, it can also be used as a prognostic tool. The in vivo detection of atherosclerotic plaques at risk for rupture in cardiac patients will enhance treatment methods while improving clinical outcomes for these procedures. Raman spectra were excited by an Invictus 785-nm NIR laser and measured with a fiber-coupled micro-Raman RXN system (Kaiser Optical Systems, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI) equipped with a 785 nm CW laser and CCD detector. Chemical mapping of arteries obtained post mortem allowed for the discrete location of atherosclerotic plaques. Raman peaks at 961 and 1073 cm-1 reveal the presence of calcium hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite, which are known to be present in calcified plaques. By mapping the locations of these peaks the boundaries of the plaques can be precisely determined. Areas of varying degrees of calcification were also identified. Because this can be useful in determining the degree of plaque calcification and vessel stenosis, this may have a significant impact on the clinical treatment of atherosclerotic plaques in the future.

  10. Transcutaneous Raman spectroscopy of murine bone in vivo. (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Cole, Jacqueline H; Kreider, Jaclynn M; Esmonde-White, Francis; Dooley, Kathryn A; Goldstein, Steven A; Morris, Michael D


    Raman spectroscopy can provide valuable information about bone tissue composition in studies of bone development, biomechanics, and health. In order to study the Raman spectra of bone in vivo, instrumentation that enhances the recovery of subsurface spectra must be developed and validated. Five fiber-optic probe configurations were considered for transcutaneous bone Raman spectroscopy of small animals. Measurements were obtained from the tibia of sacrificed mice, and the bone Raman signal was recovered for each probe configuration. The configuration with the optimal combination of bone signal intensity, signal variance, and power distribution was then evaluated under in vivo conditions. Multiple in vivo transcutaneous measurements were obtained from the left tibia of 32 anesthetized mice. After collecting the transcutaneous Raman signal, exposed bone measurements were collected and used as a validation reference. Multivariate analysis was used to recover bone spectra from transcutaneous measurements. To assess the validity of the transcutaneous bone measurements cross-correlations were calculated between standardized spectra from the recovered bone signal and the exposed bone measurements. Additionally, the carbonate-to-phosphate height ratios of the recovered bone signals were compared to the reference exposed bone measurements. The mean cross-correlation coefficient between the recovered and exposed measurements was 0.96, and the carbonate-to-phosphate ratios did not differ significantly between the two sets of spectra (p > 0.05). During these first systematic in vivo Raman measurements, we discovered that probe alignment and animal coat color influenced the results and thus should be considered in future probe and study designs. Nevertheless, our noninvasive Raman spectroscopic probe accurately assessed bone tissue composition through the skin in live mice.

  11. Effect of laser irradiation on cell function and its implications in Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaofei; Song, Yanqing; Song, Yizhi; Xu, Jiabao; Wu, Yinhu; Glidle, Andrew; Cusack, Maggie; Ijaz, Umer Z; Cooper, Jonathan M; Huang, Wei E; Yin, Huabing


    Lasers are instrumental in advanced bioimaging and Raman spectroscopy. However, they are also well known for their destructive effects on living organisms, leading to concerns about the adverse effects of laser technologies. To implement Raman spectroscopy for cell analysis and manipulation, such as Raman activated cell sorting, it is crucial to identify non-destructive conditions for living cells. Here, we evaluated quantitatively the effect of 532 nm laser irradiation on bacterial cell fate and growth at the single-cell level. Using a purpose-built microfluidic platform, we were able to quantify the growth characteristics i.e. specific growth rate and lag time of individual cells as well as the survival rate of a population in conjunction with Raman spectroscopy. Representative Gram-negative and Gram-positive species show a similar trend in response to laser irradiation dose. Laser irradiation could compromise physiological function of cells and the degree of destruction is both dose and strain dependent, ranging from reduced cell growth to a complete loss of cell metabolic activity and finally to physical disintegration. Gram-positive bacterial cells are more susceptible than Gram-negative bacterial strains to irradiation-induced damage. By directly correlating Raman acquisition with single cell growth characteristics, we provide evidence of non-destructive characteristics of Raman spectroscopy on individual bacterial cells. However, while strong Raman signals can be obtained without causing cell death, the variety of responses from different strains and from individual cells justify careful evaluation of Raman acquisition conditions if cell viability is critical. IMPORTANCE In Raman spectroscopy, the use of powerful monochromatic light in laser-based systems facilitates detection of the inherently weak signals. This allows environmentally and clinically relevant microorganisms to be measured at the single cell level. The significance of being able to perform

  12. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of collotelinite, fusinite and macrinite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guedes, A.; Valentim, B.; Rodrigues, S.; Noronha, F. [Centro de Geologia e Departamento de Geociencias, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Territorio da Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, 4169-007-Porto (Portugal); Prieto, A.C. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Cristalografia y Mineralogia Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011-Valladolid (Spain)


    The Raman spectra and the Raman parameters have been correlated with changes in the structure of carbon materials, and most of the studies have revealed different development of the Raman spectrum. In the present study micro-Raman spectroscopy was conducted on coal bulk samples and on individual coal macerals (collotelinite, fusinite, and macrinite) from a set of Penn State Coal Bank coals of increasing rank to study the variation of their spectral parameters with rank, and considering coal heterogeneity. The spectral parameters that better correlate with the increasing coal rank, for the coals studied are the full width at half maximum of graphitic band (G: at {proportional_to} 1580 cm{sup -} {sup 1}), the position of disordered band (D: at {proportional_to} 1350 cm{sup -} {sup 1}), and the integrated intensity ratio of the D band to G band (ID/IG). With increasing coal rank a narrower G band, a shift of D band to lower wavenumber, and an increase of integrated intensity ratio ID/IG are observed. For each coal, the Raman parameters obtained on fusinites and macrinites are similar and differ from those obtained on coal bulk samples and collotelinites. The variation of the Raman parameters with rank is very well reflected on the analyses of collotelinites. (author)

  13. Femtosecond Raman induced polarization spectroscopy studies of coherent rotational dynamics in molecular fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgen, Michael Mark [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    We develop a polarization-sensitive femtosecond pump probe technique, Raman induced polarization spectroscopy (RIPS), to study coherent rotation in molecular fluids. By observing the collisional dephasing of the coherently prepared rotational states, we are able to extract information concerning the effects of molecular interactions on the rotational motion. The technique is quite sensitive because of the zero background detection method, and is also versatile due to its nonresonant nature.

  14. Discrimination analysis of human lung cancer cells associated with histological type and malignancy using Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Oshima, Yusuke; Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Takenaka, Tatsuji; Furihata, Chie; Sato, Hidetoshi


    The Raman spectroscopic technique enables the observation of intracellular molecules without fixation or labeling procedures in situ. Raman spectroscopy is a promising technology for diagnosing cancers-especially lung cancer, one of the most common cancers in humans-and other diseases. The purpose of this study was to find an effective marker for the identification of cancer cells and their malignancy using Raman spectroscopy. We demonstrate a classification of cultured human lung cancer cells using Raman spectroscopy, principal component analysis (PCA), and linear discrimination analysis (LDA). Raman spectra of single, normal lung cells, along with four cancer cells with different pathological types, were successfully obtained with an excitation laser at 532 nm. The strong appearance of bands due to cytochrome c (cyt-c) indicates that spectra are resonant and enhanced via the Q-band near 550 nm with excitation light. The PCA loading plot suggests a large contribution of cyt-c in discriminating normal cells from cancer cells. The PCA results reflect the nature of the original cancer, such as its histological type and malignancy. The five cells were successfully discriminated by the LDA.

  15. Temperature-dependent Photodegradation in UV-resonance Raman Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yoshino, Hikaru; Saito, Yuika; Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atushi; Verma, Prabhat; Kawata, Satoshi


    Temperature-dependent photodegradation during UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy was investigated. Photodegradation was quantitatively probed by monitoring the temporal evolution of UV-resonance Raman spectra obtained from bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) showing, resonance effect at a 355-nm excitation wavelength. At 80 K, the molecular photodecomposition rate was 5-times lower than that at room temperature. The decomposition rates of BChl were analyzed by the Arrhenius formula, indicating that the mechanism of photodegradation includes a thermal process having an activation energy of 1.4 kJ/mol.

  16. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy as a tool to detect molecular vibrations in ground and excited electronic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelin, Maxim F.; Domcke, Wolfgang [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Rao, B. Jayachander [Departamento de Química and Centro de Química, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)


    We give a detailed theoretical analysis of the simplest variant of femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy, where a picosecond Raman pump pulse and a femtosecond Raman probe pulse are applied resonantly to a chromophore in thermal equilibrium in the ground electronic state. We demonstrate that this technique is capable of the detection of dephasing-free Raman-like lines revealing vibrational modes not only in the electronic ground state but also in the excited electronic state of the chromophore. The analytical results obtained with simplifying assumptions for the shape of the laser pulses are substantiated by numerical simulations with realistic laser pulses, employing the equation-of-motion phase-matching approach.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of tellurate-tungstate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugov, I.B.; Brovchenko, I.M.; Kabanov, V.O.; Yanush, O.V.


    The Raman spectra of xTeO 2 - (1-x)WO 3 glasses, where 0.75 4 , WO 4 and WO 6 structural groups observed. This is in accordance with the absence of some chemical compounds between TeO 2 and WO 3 in the phase diagram of the system. The presence of WO 4 tetrahedra in the glasses, not observed in the different WO 3 crystalline modifications and the crystallized glasses, was defined as a feature of WO 3 g lassy state . It was suggested that the WO 4 tetrahedron does not replace equivalently the TeO 4 polyhedron in the glass structure, as it was reported previously, because of the different valency state of both cations. (author)

  18. Sum-Frequency-Generation-Based Laser Sidebands for Tunable Femtosecond Raman Spectroscopy in the Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangdong Zhu


    Full Text Available Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS is an emerging molecular structural dynamics technique for functional materials characterization typically in the visible to near-IR range. To expand its applications we have developed a versatile FSRS setup in the ultraviolet region. We use the combination of a narrowband, ~400 nm Raman pump from a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor and a tunable broadband probe pulse from sum-frequency-generation-based cascaded four-wave mixing (SFG-CFWM laser sidebands in a thin BBO crystal. The ground state Raman spectrum of a laser dye Quinolon 390 in methanol that strongly absorbs at ~355 nm is systematically studied as a standard sample to provide previously unavailable spectroscopic characterization in the vibrational domain. Both the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectra can be collected by selecting different orders of SFG-CFWM sidebands as the probe pulse. The stimulated Raman gain with the 402 nm Raman pump is >21 times larger than that with the 550 nm Raman pump when measured at the 1317 cm−1 peak for the aromatic ring deformation and ring-H rocking mode of the dye molecule, demonstrating that pre-resonance enhancement is effectively achieved in the unique UV-FSRS setup. This added tunability in the versatile and compact optical setup enables FSRS to better capture transient conformational snapshots of photosensitive molecules that absorb in the UV range.

  19. Cell identification using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical trapping and microfluidics (United States)

    Krafft, Christoph; Dochow, Sebastian; Beleites, Claudia; Popp, Jürgen


    Cell identification by Raman spectroscopy has evolved to be an attractive complement to established optical techniques. Raman activated cell sorting (RACS) offers prospects to complement the widely applied fluorescence activated cell sorting. RACS can be realized by combination with optical traps and microfluidic devices. The progress of RACS is reported for a cellular model system that can be found in peripheral blood of tumor patients. Lymphocytes and erythrocytes were extracted from blood samples. Breast carcinoma derived tumor cells (MCF-7, BT-20) and acute myeloid leukemia cells (OCI-AML3) were grown in cell cultures. First, Raman images were collected from dried cells on calcium fluoride slides. Support vector machines (SVM) classified 99.7% of the spectra to the correct cell type. Second, a 785 nm laser was used for optical trapping of single cells in aqueous buffer and for excitation of the Raman spectrum. SVM distinguished 1210 spectra of tumor and normal cells with a sensitivity of >99.7% and a specificity of >99.5%. Third, a microfluidic glass chip was designed to inject single cells, modify the flow speed, accommodate fibers of an optical trap and sort single cells after Raman based identification with 514 nm for excitation. Forth, the microfluidic chip was fabricated by quartz which improved cell identification results with 785 nm excitation. Here, partial least squares discriminant analysis gave classification rates of 98%. Finally, a Raman-on-chip approach was developed that integrates fibers for trapping, Raman excitation and signal detection in a single compact unit.

  20. Spectroscopy techniques for human disease diagnosis (United States)

    Navas-Moreno, Maria


    Modern medicine would benefit from the pursuit of new, more specific and easier to implement diagnosis tools. In recent years, Raman scattering, surface-enhanced Raman scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy have proven to be successful diagnostic techniques for a wide range of diseases including atherosclerosis, kidney stones, bone diseases, diabetes, and a wide collection of neoplasms. Optical spectroscopy has several advantages over more traditional diagnostic methods (i.e., histopathology, quantitative PCR, etc.) such as faster data analysis, nonspecific sample preparation, nonspecific labels/reagents/antibodies usage requirements, and immediate on-site implementation. In the present work, label-free in vitro fluorescence and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy have been used to differentiate between blood cells of patients affected with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and those of healthy subjects. The SERS technique has also been applied to hemoglobin variants as well as to serum obtained from patients affected with chronic heart failure who positively or negatively responded to the seasonal influenza vaccine. We found that spectral ratios of the background fluorescence intensity that accompanies the SERS spectra of granulocytes serve as excellent markers for the presence of MPNs. In addition, we also found expression dysregulation of two hypoxia induced factor regulated genes, which correlates with our results obtained by SERS spectroscopy assay in MPN patients and supports the presence of the Warburg effect in MPNs. We hypothesize that SERS measures metabolic change in granulocytes through two possible mechanisms: (i) Changes in dielectric properties of the environment surrounding the silver-cell interface; and (ii) changes in flavin adenine dinucleotide concentrations, which in turn changes the relative contribution of the autofluorescence to the emission spectrum. These hypotheses are supported by SERS measurement of 2-deoxy

  1. Applications of the Raman spectroscopy in the materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez S, S.; Escobar A, L.; Camacho L, M. A.


    The study field of the science and technology of surfaces and materials have been of primordial importance in the last years due to the impact that they have the knowledge that it generates in diverse areas. For this reason, the Mexican Society of Science and Technology of Surfaces and Materials has focused a good part of their investigation activities toward the materials science and technology development. Inside the investigation fields carried out by members of this Society, are the following: semiconductors, thin films, hard coatings, deposit techniques, plasmas, biomaterials, Ab-initio calculations, characterization techniques, photo-thermal properties, solar cells, nano science, magnetism, superconductivity and related topics. Among the techniques used for this purpose is the Raman Spectroscopy (Rs), which has demonstrated to be a powerful and versatile tool in the materials study. In the last three congresses that the Society has organized, an average of 42 works related with this topic have been presented, what gave the rule to prepare this book whose objective is on one hand diffusing part of the works that carry out different groups integrated with members of the Society that use the Rs like an important tool in its investigation work. A second objective is that it can serve like support to the students that begin to be involved, or that they are already involved, in topics where the Rs can have a decisive paper in the development of its projects. It is also expected that some of the topics included in the book are of utility for professors and researches that already uses the Rs, or that it can be of help for those who are beginning in this technique as alternative or like complementary analysis tool. (Author)

  2. Raman spectroscopy of WO{sub 3} nano-wires and thermo-chromism study of VO{sub 2} belts produced by ultrasonic spray and laser pyrolysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwakikunga, B.W. [CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, P.O. Wits, Johanneburg 2050 (South Africa); Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, University of Malawi, The Polytechnic, Private Bag 303, Chichiri, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, P.O. Wits, Johanneburg 2050 (South Africa); Forbes, A. [CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); School of Physics, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Arendse, C. [CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)


    Novel optical and electrical properties of newly synthesized nano-wires of monoclinic WO{sub 3} and nano-belts of rutile VO{sub 2} have been investigated by Raman spectroscopy and thermo-chromism studies respectively. Phonon confinement is observed in the WO{sub 3} nano-wires and the previously modified Richter equation is fitted to the experimental Raman spectroscopy data to obtain the optical phonon dispersion relations for the 713 cm{sup -1} branch and the 808 cm{sup -1} branch of WO{sub 3} phonon spectra for the first time. Electrical measurements on the VO{sub 2} nano-belts at varying temperature reveal an enhanced hysteresis width of about 83 C surpassing previously reported values on the thermo-chromism studies on VO{sub 2}. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. The discrimination of 72 nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate salts using IR and Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Zapata, Félix; García-Ruiz, Carmen


    Inorganic oxidizing energetic salts including nitrates, chlorates and perchlorates are widely used in the manufacture of not only licit pyrotechnic compositions, but also illicit homemade explosive mixtures. Their identification in forensic laboratories is usually accomplished by either capillary electrophoresis or ion chromatography, with the disadvantage of dissociating the salt into its ions. On the contrary, vibrational spectroscopy, including IR and Raman, enables the non-invasive identification of the salt, i.e. avoiding its dissociation. This study focuses on the discrimination of all nitrate, chlorate and perchlorate salts that are commercially available, using both Raman and IR spectroscopy, with the aim of testing whether every salt can be unequivocally identified. Besides the visual spectra comparison by assigning every band with the corresponding molecular vibrational mode, a statistical analysis based on Pearson correlation was performed to ensure an objective identification, either using Raman, IR or both. Positively, 25 salts (out of 72) were unequivocally identified using Raman, 30 salts when using IR and 44 when combining both techniques. Negatively, some salts were undistinguishable even using both techniques demonstrating there are some salts that provide very similar Raman and IR spectra.

  4. Micro-Raman spectroscopy study of cancerous and normal nasopharyngeal tissues (United States)

    Li, Yongzeng; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Guannan; Li, Chao; Lin, Shaojun; Shao, Yonghong; Feng, Shangyuan; Huang, Zufang; Xie, Shusen; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong


    The capabilities of micro-Raman spectroscopy for differentiating normal and malignant nasopharyngeal tissues were evaluated. Raman scattering signals were acquired from 22 normal and 52 malignant nasopharyngeal tissue samples. Distinctive spectral differences in Raman spectra between normal and malignant nasopharyngeal tissues were found, particularly in the spectral ranges of 853, 937, 1094, 1209, 1268, 1290 to 1340, 1579, and 1660 cm-1, which primarily contain signals related to proteins, DNA, and lipids. Compared to normal tissues, the band intensity located at 853, and 937 cm-1 were significantly lower for cancerous tissues (p0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) were employed to generate diagnostic algorithms for classification of Raman spectra of the two nasopharyngeal tissue types. The PCA-LDA algorithms together with leave-one-out, cross-validation technique yielded diagnostic sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 82%. This work demonstrated that the Raman spectroscopy technique associated with PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms has potential for improving the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal cancers.

  5. Optical Coherence Tomography and Raman Spectroscopy of the retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J W; Zawadzki, R J; Liu, R; Chan, J; Lane, S; Werner, J S


    Imaging the structure and correlating it with the biochemical content of the retina holds promise for fundamental research and for clinical applications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is commonly used to image the 3D structure of the retina and while the added functionality of biochemical analysis afforded by Raman scattering could provide critical molecular signatures for clinicians and researchers, there are many technical challenges to combining these imaging modalities. We present an ex vivo OCT microscope combined with Raman spectroscopy capable of collecting morphological and molecular information about a sample simultaneously. The combined instrument will be used to investigate remaining technical challenges to combine these imaging modalities, such as the laser power levels needed to achieve a Raman signal above the noise level without damaging the sample.

  6. Resonance Raman spectroscopy in one-dimensional carbon materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dresselhaus Mildred S.


    Full Text Available Brazil has played an important role in the development and use of resonance Raman spectroscopy as a powerful characterization tool for materials science. Here we present a short history of Raman scattering research in Brazil, highlighting the important contributions to the field coming from Brazilian researchers in the past. Next we discuss recent and important contributions where Brazil has become a worldwide leader, that is on the physics of quasi-one dimensional carbon nanotubes. We conclude this article by presenting results from a very recent resonance Raman study of exciting new materials, that are strictly one-dimensional carbon chains formed by the heat treatment of very pure double-wall carbon nanotube samples.

  7. Gate dependent Raman spectroscopy of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride. (United States)

    Chattrakun, Kanokporn; Huang, Shengqiang; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Sandhu, A; LeRoy, B J


    Raman spectroscopy, a fast and nondestructive imaging method, can be used to monitor the doping level in graphene devices. We fabricated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene on atomically flat hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) flakes and SiO2 substrates. We compared their Raman response as a function of charge carrier density using an ion gel as a top gate. The G peak position, the 2D peak position, the 2D peak width and the ratio of the 2D peak area to the G peak area show a dependence on carrier density that differs for hBN compared to SiO2. Histograms of two-dimensional mapping are used to compare the fluctuations in the Raman peak properties between the two substrates. The hBN substrate has been found to produce fewer fluctuations at the same charge density owing to its atomically flat surface and reduced charged impurities.

  8. Diagnostic potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in the stomach: differentiating dysplasia from normal tissue (United States)

    Teh, S K; Zheng, W; Ho, K Y; Teh, M; Yeoh, K G; Huang, Z


    Raman spectroscopy is a molecular vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of optically probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The purpose of this study was to explore near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy for identifying dysplasia from normal gastric mucosa tissue. A rapid-acquisition dispersive-type NIR Raman system was utilised for tissue Raman spectroscopic measurements at 785 nm laser excitation. A total of 76 gastric tissue samples obtained from 44 patients who underwent endoscopy investigation or gastrectomy operation were used in this study. The histopathological examinations showed that 55 tissue specimens were normal and 21 were dysplasia. Both the empirical approach and multivariate statistical techniques, including principal components analysis (PCA), and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), together with the leave-one-sample-out cross-validation method, were employed to develop effective diagnostic algorithms for classification of Raman spectra between normal and dysplastic gastric tissues. High-quality Raman spectra in the range of 800–1800 cm−1 can be acquired from gastric tissue within 5 s. There are specific spectral differences in Raman spectra between normal and dysplasia tissue, particularly in the spectral ranges of 1200–1500 cm−1 and 1600–1800 cm−1, which contained signals related to amide III and amide I of proteins, CH3CH2 twisting of proteins/nucleic acids, and the C=C stretching mode of phospholipids, respectively. The empirical diagnostic algorithm based on the ratio of the Raman peak intensity at 875 cm−1 to the peak intensity at 1450 cm−1 gave the diagnostic sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 80.0%, whereas the diagnostic algorithms based on PCA-LDA yielded the diagnostic sensitivity of 95.2% and specificity 90.9% for separating dysplasia from normal gastric tissue. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed that the most effective

  9. Raman spectroscopy as a PAT for pharmaceutical blending: Advantages and disadvantages. (United States)

    Riolo, Daniela; Piazza, Alessandro; Cottini, Ciro; Serafini, Margherita; Lutero, Emilio; Cuoghi, Erika; Gasparini, Lorena; Botturi, Debora; Marino, Iari Gabriel; Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Lottici, Pier Paolo


    Raman spectroscopy has been positively evaluated as a tool for the in-line and real-time monitoring of powder blending processes and it has been proved to be effective in the determination of the endpoint of the mixing, showing its potential role as process analytical technology (PAT). The aim of this study is to show advantages and disadvantages of Raman spectroscopy with respect to the most traditional HPLC analysis. The spectroscopic results, obtained directly on raw powders, sampled from a two-axis blender in real case conditions, were compared with the chromatographic data obtained on the same samples. The formulation blend used for the experiment consists of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, concentrations 6.0% and 0.5%), lactose and magnesium stearate (as excipients). The first step of the monitoring process was selecting the appropriate wavenumber region where the Raman signal of API is maximal and interference from the spectral features of excipients is minimal. Blend profiles were created by plotting the area ratios of the Raman peak of API (A API ) at 1598cm -1 and the Raman bands of excipients (A EXC ), in the spectral range between 1560 and 1630cm -1 , as a function of mixing time: the API content can be considered homogeneous when the time-dependent dispersion of the area ratio is minimized. In order to achieve a representative sampling with Raman spectroscopy, each sample was mapped in a motorized XY stage by a defocused laser beam of a micro-Raman apparatus. Good correlation between the two techniques has been found only for the composition at 6.0% (w/w). However, standard deviation analysis, applied to both HPLC and Raman data, showed that Raman results are more substantial than HPLC ones, since Raman spectroscopy enables generating data rich blend profiles. In addition, the relative standard deviation calculated from a single map (30 points) turned out to be representative of the degree of homogeneity for that blend time. Copyright © 2017

  10. Probing cytochrome c in living mitochondria with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda A.; Evlyukhin, Andrey B.; Goodilin, Eugene A.


    due to the lack of non-invasive techniques. Here we suggest a novel label-free approach based on the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to monitor the redox state and conformation of cytochrome c in the electron transport chain in living mitochondria. We demonstrate that SERS spectra of living...... mitochondria placed on hierarchically structured silver-ring substrates provide exclusive information about cytochrome c behavior under modulation of inner mitochondrial membrane potential, proton gradient and the activity of ATP-synthetase. Mathematical simulation explains the observed enhancement of Raman...

  11. Raman spectroscopy of human vitreous collagen in diabetic retinopathy (United States)

    Sebag, Jerry; Nie, Shuming; Reiser, Karen M.; Yu, Nai-Teng


    In diabetes nonenzymatic glycation alters collagen throughout the body resulting in the histopathology that underlies diabetic disease in several organs. In the eye such changes in vitreous collagen could contribute to vitreous degeneration and the progression of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Previous studies have demonstrated early glycation and advanced endproducts in the vitreous of humans with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Near-infrared Fourier-transform Raman spectroscopy was performed on vitreous obtained at surgery from diabetic patients and from non-diabetic control subjects. The findings were compared to measurements obtained in untreated and glycated (in vitro) rat-tail tendon collagen. The results demonstrated substantial changes in diabetic vitreous collagen resulting from glycation, most likely advanced glycation endproducts. This approach appears to be useful as a means of characterizing the molecular changes induced by diabetes. Furthermore, this technique could be developed as a way of quantifying these changes in vivo in several tissues, so as to gauge the severity of non-enzymatic glycation and monitor the response to therapy.

  12. Application of Raman spectroscopy for direct analysis of Carlina acanthifolia subsp. utzka root essential oil. (United States)

    Strzemski, Maciej; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz; Agacka-Mołdoch, Monika; Drączkowski, Piotr; Matosiuk, Dariusz; Kurach, Łukasz; Kocjan, Ryszard; Dresler, Sławomir


    Carlina genus plants e.g. Carlina acanthifolia subsp. utzka have been still used in folk medicine of many European countries and its biological activity is mostly associated with root essential oils. In the present paper, Raman spectroscopy (RS) was applied for the first time for evaluation of essential oil distribution in root of C. acnthifolia subsp. utzka and identification of root structures containing the essential oil. Furthermore, RS technique was applied to assess chemical stability of oil during drying of plant material or distillation process. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the essential oil. The identity of compounds was confirmed using Raman, ATR-IR and NMR spectroscopy. Carlina oxide was found to be the main component of the oil (98.96% ± 0.15). The spectroscopic study showed the high stability of essential oil and Raman distribution analysis indicated that the oil reservoirs were localized mostly in the structures of outer layer of the root while the inner part showed nearly no signal assigned to the oil. Raman spectroscopy technique enabled rapid, non-destructive direct analysis of plant material with minimal sample preparation and allowed straightforward, unambiguous identification of the essential oil in the sample. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of polyacrylamide gels for radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.; Murry, P.; Pope, J.; Rintoul, L.; George, G.


    Polyacrylamide (PAG) gels are used in magnetic resonance imaging radiation dosimetry. The PAG dosimeter is based on the radiation-induced co-polymerisation and cross-linking of acrylic monomers infused in a gel matrix. PAG was manufactured with a composition of 5% gelatine, 3% acrylamide and 3% N,N'methylene-bis-acrylamide by mass, with distilled water as the remaining constituent [Baldock, 1998]. FT-Raman spectroscopy studies were undertaken to investigate cross-linking changes during the co-polymerisation of PAG in the spectral range of 200 - 3500 cm -1 . Vibrational bands of 1285 cm -1 and 1256 cm -1 were assigned to the acrylamide and bis-acrylamide single CH 2 δ CH2 binding modes. These bands were found to decrease in amplitude with increasing absorbed radiation dose, as a result of co-polymerisation. Principal Component Regression was performed on FT-Raman spectra of PAG samples irradiated to 50 Gy and two components were found to be sufficient to account for 98.7% of variance in the data. Cross validation was used to establish the absorbed radiation dose of an unknown PAG sample from the FT-Raman spectra. The calculated correlation coefficient between measured and predictive samples was 0.997 with a standard error of estimate of 0.976 and a standard error of prediction of 1.140. These results demonstrate the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy for ionising radiation dosimetry using polyacrylamide gels

  14. NIR Raman spectroscopy in medicine and biology: results and aspects (United States)

    Schrader, B.; Dippel, B.; Erb, I.; Keller, S.; Löchte, T.; Schulz, H.; Tatsch, E.; Wessel, S.


    Analyses of biomaterial by 'classical' Raman spectroscopy with excitation in the visible range has not been possible since the fluorescence of many essential constituents of all animal and plant cells and tissues overlays the Raman spectra completely. Fluorescence, however, is virtually avoided, when Raman spectra are excited with the Nd : YAG laser line at 1064 nm. Within seven dissertations we explored different fields of potential applications to medical diagnostics. Identification and qualification of tissues and cells is possible. Tumors show small but significant differences to normal tissues; in order to develop a reliable tool for tumor diagnostics more research is necessary, especially a collection of reference spectra in a data bank is needed. Raman spectra of biomineralization structures in teeth and bones show pathological tissues as well as the development of new mineralized structures. NIR Raman spectra of flowers, leaves, and fruit show, without special preparation, their constituents: alkaloids, the essential oils, natural dyes, flavors, spices and drugs. They allow application to taxonomy, optimizing plant breeding and control of food.

  15. [The Raman Spectroscopy (RS): A new tool for the analytical quality control of injectable in health settings. Comparison of RS technique versus HPLC and UV/Vis-FTIR, applied to anthracyclines as anticancer drugs]. (United States)

    Bourget, P; Amin, A; Moriceau, A; Cassard, B; Vidal, F; Clement, R


    The study compares the performances of three analytical methods devoted to Analytical Quality Control (AQC) of therapeutic solutions formed into care environment, we are talking about Therapeutics Objects(TN) (TOs(TN)). We explored the pharmacological model of two widely used anthracyclines i.e. adriamycin and epirubicin. We compared the performance of the HPLC versus two vibrational spectroscopic techniques: a tandem UV/Vis-FTIR on one hand and Raman Spectroscopy (RS) on the other. The three methods give good results for the key criteria of repeatability, of reproducibility and, of accuracy. A Spearman and a Kendall correlation test confirms the noninferiority of the vibrational techniques as an alternative to the reference method (HPLC). The selection of bands for characterization and quantification by RS is the results of a gradual process adjustment, at the intercept of matrix effects. From the perspective of a AQC associated to release of TOs, RS displays various advantages: (a) to decide quickly (~2min), simultaneously and without intrusion or withdrawal on both the nature of a packaging than on a solvant and this, regardless of the compound of interest; it is the founder asset of the method, (b) to explore qualitatively and quantitatively any kinds of TOs, (c) operator safety is guaranteed during production and in the laboratory, (d) the suppression of analytical releases or waste contribute to protects the environment, (e) the suppression.of consumables, (f) a negligible costs of maintenance, (g) a small budget of technicians training. These results already show that the SR technology is potentially a strong contributor to the safety of the medication cycle and fight against the iatrogenic effects of drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of butter adulteration with margarine using Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Uysal, Reyhan Selin; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki; Genis, Hüseyin Efe; Tamer, Ugur


    In this study, adulteration of butter with margarine was analysed using Raman spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods (principal component analysis (PCA), principal component regression (PCR), partial least squares (PLS)) and artificial neural networks (ANNs). Different butter and margarine samples were mixed at various concentrations ranging from 0% to 100% w/w. PCA analysis was applied for the classification of butters, margarines and mixtures. PCR, PLS and ANN were used for the detection of adulteration ratios of butter. Models were created using a calibration data set and developed models were evaluated using a validation data set. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) values between actual and predicted values obtained for PCR, PLS and ANN for the validation data set were 0.968, 0.987 and 0.978, respectively. In conclusion, a combination of Raman spectroscopy with chemometrics and ANN methods can be applied for testing butter adulteration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interference-free optical detection for Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Fischer, David G (Inventor); Kojima, Jun (Inventor)


    An architecture for spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) that utilizes a frame-transfer charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor operating in a subframe burst gating mode to realize time-resolved combustion diagnostics is disclosed. The technique permits all-electronic optical gating with microsecond shutter speeds (<5 .mu.s), without compromising optical throughput or image fidelity. When used in conjunction with a pair of orthogonally-polarized excitation lasers, the technique measures time-resolved vibrational Raman scattering that is minimally contaminated by problematic optical background noise.

  18. Feasibility of Raman spectroscopy in vitro after 5-ALA-based fluorescence diagnosis in the bladder (United States)

    Grimbergen, M. C. M.; van Swol, C. F. P.; van Moorselaar, R. J. A.; Mahadevan-Jansen, A.,; Stone, N.


    Photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) has become popular in bladder cancer detection. Several studies have however shown an increased false positive biopsies rate under PDD guidance compared to conventional cystoscopy. Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that utilizes molecular specific, inelastic scattering of light photons to interrogate biological tissues, which can successfully differentiate epithelial neoplasia from normal tissue and inflammations in vitro. This investigation was performed to show the feasibility of NIR Raman spectroscopy in vitro on biopsies obtained under guidance of 5-ALA induced PPIX fluorescence imaging. Raman spectra of a PPIX solution was measured to obtain a characteristic signature for the photosensitzer without contributions from tissue constituents. Biopsies were obtained from patients with known bladder cancer instilled with 50ml, 5mg 5-ALA two hours prior to trans-urethral resection of tumor (TURT). Additional biopsies were obtained at a fluorescent and non-fluorescent area, snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Each biopsy was thawed before measurements (10sec integration time) with a confocal Raman system (Renishaw Gloucestershire, UK). The 830 nm excitation (300mW) source is focused on the tissue by a 20X ultra-long-working-distance objective. Differences in fluorescence background between the two groups were removed by means of a special developed fluorescence subtraction algorithm. Raman spectra from ALA biopsies showed different fluorescence background which can be effectively removed by a fluorescence subtraction algorithm. This investigation shows that the interaction of the ALA induced PPIX with Raman spectroscopy in bladder samples. Combination of these techniques in-vivo may lead to a viable method of optical biopsies in bladder cancer detection.

  19. Comparison of Fresh and Aged TNT with Multiwavelength Raman Spectroscopy (United States)


    bulk TNT in the UV resulted in poor data quality. Because of this, we switched to visible illumination wavelengths between 420nm to 620nm. To...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6730--14-9572 Comparison of Fresh and Aged TNT with Multiwavelength Raman Spectroscopy ...RobeRt LunsfoRd Jacob GRun Laser Plasma Branch Plasma Physics Division PRatima KunaPaReddy Research Support Instruments Lanham, Maryland December 4

  20. Influence of Culture Media on Microbial Fingerprints Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mlynariková, K.; Samek, Ota; Bernatová, Silvie; Růžička, F.; Ježek, Jan; Hároniková, A.; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, V.


    Roč. 15, č. 11 (2015), s. 29635-29647 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * bacteria * yeasts * culture media Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2015

  1. Probing strain in bent semiconductor nanowires with Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Conache, Gabriela; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Gray, Struan M; Borgström, Magnus T; Xu, Hongxing; Xu, H Q; Samuelson, Lars; Håkanson, Ulf


    We present a noninvasive optical method to determine the local strain in individual semiconductor nanowires. InP nanowires were intentionally bent with an atomic force microscope and variations in the optical phonon frequency along the wires were mapped using Raman spectroscopy. Sections of the nanowires with a high curvature showed significantly broadened phonon lines. These observations together with deformation potential theory show that compressive and tensile strain inside the nanowires is the physical origin of the observed phonon energy variations.

  2. Evaluation of Raman spectroscopy to detect fullerenes in geological materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jehlička, J.; Frank, O.; Pokorný, Jan; Rouzaud, J. N.


    Roč. 61, - (2005), s. 2364-2367 ISSN 1386-1425 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/03/1468 Grant - others:MŠk(XX) 2003-046-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * fullerenes * rocks * minerals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2005

  3. Looking behind the scenes: Raman spectroscopy of top-gated epitaxial graphene through the substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, F; Wehrfritz, P; Seyller, Th; Hundhausen, M


    Raman spectroscopy is frequently used to study the properties of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC). In this work, we present a confocal micro-Raman study of epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001) in top-down geometry, i.e. in a geometry where both the primary laser light beam as well as the back-scattered light is guided through the SiC substrate. Compared to the conventional top-up configuration, in which confocal micro-Raman spectra are measured from the air side, we observe a significant intensity enhancement in top-down configuration, indicating that most of the Raman-scattered light is emitted into the SiC substrate. The intensity enhancement is explained in terms of dipole radiation at a dielectric surface. The new technique opens the possibility to probe graphene layers in devices where the graphene layer is covered by non-transparent materials. We demonstrate this by measuring gate-modulated Raman spectra of a top-gated epitaxial graphene field effect device. Moreover, we show that these measurements enable us to disentangle the effects of strain and charge on the positions of the prominent Raman lines in epitaxial graphene on SiC. (paper)

  4. Selectivity/Specificity Improvement Strategies in Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang


    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS is a powerful technique for the discrimination, identification, and potential quantification of certain compounds/organisms. However, its real application is challenging due to the multiple interference from the complicated detection matrix. Therefore, selective/specific detection is crucial for the real application of SERS technique. We summarize in this review five selective/specific detection techniques (chemical reaction, antibody, aptamer, molecularly imprinted polymers and microfluidics, which can be applied for the rapid and reliable selective/specific detection when coupled with SERS technique.

  5. The potential of Raman spectroscopy for the identification of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samek, O; Al-Marashi, J F M; Telle, H H


    We report on an investigation into a common problem in microbiology laboratories, which is associated with the difficulty of distinguishing/recognising different strains of the genus Staphylococcus. We demonstrate the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a rapid techniques allowing for the identification of different isolates for the detection of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. For this, the recorded spectra were interpreted using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA)

  6. Measuring the One-Particle Excitations of Ultracold Fermionic Atoms by Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, T.-L.; Georges, Antoine; Dalibard, Jean; Salomon, Christophe; Carusotto, Iacopo


    We propose a Raman spectroscopy technique which is able to probe the one-particle Green function, the Fermi surface, and the quasiparticles of a gas of strongly interacting ultracold atoms. We give quantitative examples of experimentally accessible spectra. The efficiency of the method is validated by means of simulated images for the case of a usual Fermi liquid as well as for more exotic states: specific signatures of, e.g., a d-wave pseudogap are clearly visible

  7. Mathematical model for biomolecular quantification using large-area surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palla, Mirkó; Bosco, Filippo; Yang, Jaeyoung


    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on nanostructured platforms is a promising technique for quantitative and highly sensitive detection of biomolecules in the field of analytical biochemistry. Here, we report a mathematical model to predict experimental SERS signal (or hotspot......) intensity distributions of target molecules on receptor-functionalized nanopillar substrates for biomolecular quantification. We demonstrate that by utilizing only a small set of empirically determined parameters, our general theoretical framework agrees with the experimental data particularly well...

  8. Ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy of catalysts: Adsorption and coke formation in zeolites and vibrational spectra of supported metal oxides (United States)

    Chua, Yek Tann


    The primary goal of this dissertation is to study the physicochemical and catalytic properties of zeolites and supported metal oxide catalysts using UV Raman spectroscopy. In order to reduce the thermal degradation and possible photodecomposition of adsorbates by UV radiation, we have developed a novel fluidized bed method for measuring the UV Raman spectra of catalysts and adsorbates. The UV Raman spectra of various organic compounds adsorbed in zeolites H-USY and H-ZSM-5 are recorded. When measurements are performed on stationary and spinning samples, the Raman spectra show the presence of coke, a typical end product of heat and photochemistry. In contrast, the Raman peaks of the unreacted adsorbates dominate the spectra measured using the fluidized bed method. These results indicate that the fluidized bed technique is a good method for measuring UV Raman spectra of catalysts and adsorbates. The formation of coke in the methanol-to-gasoline conversion over zeolite H-ZSM-5 causes deactivation of the catalyst. To gain insight into the formation of coke, we have studied this reaction using UV Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectral changes suggest coke is produced from conjugated olefins via cyclopentadiene intermediates. Aromatic compounds in gasoline may also be produced from cyclopentadienes. The adsorbate-induced structural changes of zeolites may alter the molecular sieving characteristics of these materials which ultimately affect their performance as catalysts and adsorbents. We have quantified the adsorbate-induced structural changes of zeolite H-RHO using UV Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of the zeolite after the adsorption of water, methanol or acetonitrile are consistent with an increase in the average T-O-T angle of the zeolite of 5-8°. The adsorption of ammonia, on the other hand, decreases the average T-O-T angle by 5°. Because of certain advantages of UV Raman spectroscopy over visible Raman spectroscopy, recently there is a strong interest in

  9. Operando plasmon-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in silicon anodes for Li-ion battery (United States)

    Miroshnikov, Yana; Zitoun, David


    Silicon, an attractive candidate for high-energy lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), displays an alloying mechanism with lithium and presents several unique characteristics which make it an interesting scientific topic and also a technological challenge. In situ local probe measurements have been recently developed to understand the lithiation process and propose an effective remedy to the failure mechanisms. One of the most specific techniques, which is able to follow the phase changes in poorly crystallized electrode materials, makes use of Raman spectroscopy within the battery, i.e., in operando mode. Such an approach has been successful but is still limited by the rather signal-to-noise ratio of the spectroscopy. Herein, the operando Raman signal from the silicon anodes is enhanced by plasmonic nanoparticles following the known surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Coinage metals (Ag and Au) display a surface plasmon resonance in the visible and allow the SERS effect to take place. We have found that the as-prepared materials reach high specific capacities over 1000 mAh/g with stability over more than 1000 cycles at 1C rate and can be suitable to perform as anodes in LIB. Moreover, the incorporation of coinage metals enables SERS to take place specifically on the surface of silicon. Consequently, by using a specially designed Raman cell, it is possible to follow the processes in a silicon-coinage metal-based battery trough operando SERS measurements.

  10. Interfacing capillary electrophoresis and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy for the determination of dye compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arraez Roman, D.; Efremov, E.V.; Ariese, F.; Segura Carretero, A.; Gooijer, C.


    The at-line coupling of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) was optimized for the separation and subsequent spectroscopic identification of charged analytes (dye compounds). Raman spectra were recorded following deposition of the electropherogram

  11. Subframe burst gating for Raman spectroscopy in combustion. (United States)

    Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David; Nguyen, Quang-Viet


    We describe an architecture for spontaneous Raman scattering utilizing a frame-transfer CCD sensor operating in a subframe burst-gating mode to realize time-resolved combustion diagnostics. The technique permits all-electronic optical gating with microsecond shutter speeds (noise.

  12. Single-cell Raman spectroscopy of irradiated tumour cells (United States)

    Matthews, Quinn

    This work describes the development and application of a novel combination of single-cell Raman spectroscopy (RS), automated data processing, and principal component analysis (PCA) for investigating radiation induced biochemical responses in human tumour cells. The developed techniques are first validated for the analysis of large data sets (˜200 spectra) obtained from single cells. The effectiveness and robustness of the automated data processing methods is demonstrated, and potential pitfalls that may arise during the implementation of such methods are identified. The techniques are first applied to investigate the inherent sources of spectral variability between single cells of a human prostate tumour cell line (DU145) cultured in vitro. PCA is used to identify spectral differences that correlate with cell cycle progression and the changing confluency of a cell culture during the first 3-4 days after sub-culturing. Spectral variability arising from cell cycle progression is (i) expressed as varying intensities of protein and nucleic acid features relative to lipid features, (ii) well correlated with known biochemical changes in cells as they progress through the cell cycle, and (iii) shown to be the most significant source of inherent spectral variability between cells. This characterization provides a foundation for interpreting spectral variability in subsequent studies. The techniques are then applied to study the effects of ionizing radiation on human tumour cells. DU145 cells are cultured in vitro and irradiated to doses between 15 and 50 Gy with single fractions of 6 MV photons from a medical linear accelerator. Raman spectra are acquired from irradiated and unirradiated cells, up to 5 days post-irradiation. PCA is used to distinguish radiation induced spectral changes from inherent sources of spectral variability, such as those arising from cell cycle. Radiation induced spectral changes are found to correlate with both the irradiated dose and the

  13. Classification of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV) infected watermelon seeds using Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Lee, Hoonsoo; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Cho, Byoung-Kwan


    The Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) is a globally distributed plant virus. CGMMV-infected plants exhibit severe mosaic symptoms, discoloration, and deformation. Therefore, rapid and early detection of CGMMV infected seeds is very important for preventing disease damage and yield losses. Raman spectroscopy was investigated in this study as a potential tool for rapid, accurate, and nondestructive detection of infected seeds. Raman spectra of healthy and infected seeds were acquired in the 400 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1 wavenumber range and an algorithm based on partial least-squares discriminant analysis was developed to classify infected and healthy seeds. The classification model's accuracies for calibration and prediction data sets were 100% and 86%, respectively. Results showed that the Raman spectroscopic technique has good potential for nondestructive detection of virus-infected seeds.

  14. Examining live cell cultures during apoptosis by digital holographic phase imaging and Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Khmaladze, Alexander


    Cellular apoptosis is a unique, organized series of events, leading to programmed cell death. In this work, we present a combined digital holography/Raman spectroscopy technique to study live cell cultures during apoptosis. Digital holographic microscopy measurements of live cell cultures yield information about cell shape and volume, changes to which are indicative of alterations in cell cycle and initiation of cell death mechanisms. Raman spectroscopic measurements provide complementary information about cells, such as protein, lipid and nucleic acid content, and the spectral signatures associated with structural changes in molecules. Our work indicates that the chemical changes in proteins, which were detected by Raman measurements, preceded morphological changes, which were seen with digital holographic microscopy.

  15. Next generation hazard detection via ultrafast coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Brady, John J.; Pellegrino, Paul M.


    Multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (MCARS) is used to detect an explosive precursor material and two chemical warfare simulants. The spectral bandwidth of the femtosecond laser pulse used in these studies is sufficient to coherently and simultaneously drive all the vibrational modes in the molecule of interest. The research performed here demonstrates that MCARS has the capability to detect an explosive precursor (e.g., acetone) and hazardous materials, such as dimethyl methylphosphonate and 2-chloroethyl methyl sulfide (a sarin and a mustard gas chemical warfare simulant, respectively), with high specificity. Evidence shows that MCARS is capable of overcoming common the sensitivity limitations of spontaneous Raman scattering, thus allowing for the detection of the target material in milliseconds with standard USB spectrometers as opposed to seconds with intensified spectrometers. The exponential increase in the number of scattered photons suggests that the MCARS technique may be capable of overcoming range detection challenges common to spontaneous Raman scattering.

  16. A baseline correction algorithm for Raman spectroscopy by adaptive knots B-spline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Xian-guang; Xu, Ying-jie; Wang, Xiu-fen; He, Hao; Zuo, Yong


    The Raman spectroscopy technique is a powerful and non-invasive technique for molecular fingerprint detection which has been widely used in many areas, such as food safety, drug safety, and environmental testing. But Raman signals can be easily corrupted by a fluorescent background, therefore we presented a baseline correction algorithm to suppress the fluorescent background in this paper. In this algorithm, the background of the Raman signal was suppressed by fitting a curve called a baseline using a cyclic approximation method. Instead of the traditional polynomial fitting, we used the B-spline as the fitting algorithm due to its advantages of low-order and smoothness, which can avoid under-fitting and over-fitting effectively. In addition, we also presented an automatic adaptive knot generation method to replace traditional uniform knots. This algorithm can obtain the desired performance for most Raman spectra with varying baselines without any user input or preprocessing step. In the simulation, three kinds of fluorescent background lines were introduced to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. We showed that two real Raman spectra (parathion-methyl and colza oil) can be detected and their baselines were also corrected by the proposed method. (paper)

  17. A baseline correction algorithm for Raman spectroscopy by adaptive knots B-spline (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Fan, Xian-guang; Xu, Ying-jie; Wang, Xiu-fen; He, Hao; Zuo, Yong


    The Raman spectroscopy technique is a powerful and non-invasive technique for molecular fingerprint detection which has been widely used in many areas, such as food safety, drug safety, and environmental testing. But Raman signals can be easily corrupted by a fluorescent background, therefore we presented a baseline correction algorithm to suppress the fluorescent background in this paper. In this algorithm, the background of the Raman signal was suppressed by fitting a curve called a baseline using a cyclic approximation method. Instead of the traditional polynomial fitting, we used the B-spline as the fitting algorithm due to its advantages of low-order and smoothness, which can avoid under-fitting and over-fitting effectively. In addition, we also presented an automatic adaptive knot generation method to replace traditional uniform knots. This algorithm can obtain the desired performance for most Raman spectra with varying baselines without any user input or preprocessing step. In the simulation, three kinds of fluorescent background lines were introduced to test the effectiveness of the proposed method. We showed that two real Raman spectra (parathion-methyl and colza oil) can be detected and their baselines were also corrected by the proposed method.

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of sixteenth century panel painting references using Raman, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and helium-Raman system for in situ analysis of Ibero-American Colonial paintings. (United States)

    García-Bucio, María Angélica; Casanova-González, Edgar; Ruvalcaba-Sil, José Luis; Arroyo-Lemus, Elsa; Mitrani-Viggiano, Alejandro


    Colonial panel paintings constitute an essential part of Latin-American cultural heritage. Their study is vital for understanding the manufacturing process, including its evolution in history, as well as its authorship, dating and other information significant to art history and conservation purposes. Raman spectroscopy supplies a non-destructive characterization tool, which can be implemented for in situ analysis, via portable equipment. Specific methodologies must be developed, comprising the elaboration of reference panel paintings using techniques and materials similar to those of the analysed period, as well as the determination of the best analysis conditions for different pigments and ground preparations. In order to do so, Raman spectroscopy at 532, 785 and 1064 nm, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and a helium-Raman system were applied to a panel painting reference, in combination with X-ray fluorescence analysis. We were able to establish the analysis conditions for a number of sixteenth century pigments and dyes, and other relevant components of panel paintings from this period, 1064 nm Raman and SERS being the most successful. The acquired spectra contain valuable specific information for their identification and they conform a very useful database that can be applied to the analysis of Ibero-American Colonial paintings.This article is part of the themed issue 'Raman spectroscopy in art and archaeology'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Micro spatial analysis of seashell surface using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan; Li, Yuandong; Li, Ying [Optics and Optoelectronics Lab, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin [Life Science College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Zheng, Ronger, E-mail: [Optics and Optoelectronics Lab, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)


    The seashell has been studied as a proxy for the marine researches since it is the biomineralization product recording the growth development and the ocean ecosystem evolution. In this work a hybrid of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Raman spectroscopy was introduced to the composition analysis of seashell (scallop, bivalve, Zhikong). Without any sample treatment, the compositional distribution of the shell was obtained using LIBS for the element detection and Raman for the molecule recognition respectively. The elements Ca, K, Li, Mg, Mn and Sr were recognized by LIBS; the molecule carotene and carbonate were identified with Raman. It was found that the LIBS detection result was more related to the shell growth than the detection result of Raman. The obtained result suggested the shell growth might be developing in both horizontal and vertical directions. It was indicated that the LIBS–Raman combination could be an alternative way for the shell researches. - Highlights: • A LIBS–Raman hybrid system was developed. • A seashell has been analyzed for the elementary and molecular distribution with a system. • The shell growth development was studied on the surface and in the depth.

  20. Raman scattering technique in characterization of glasses containing nanoparticles for integrated optoelectronics (United States)

    Ivanda, M.; Furic, K.; Music, S.; Ristic, M.; Gotic, M.; Montagna, M.; Ferrari, M.; Righini, G. C.


    Low frequency Raman scattering on the acoustic vibrational modes of nanoparticles has been used for determining the size of dielectric, semiconductor and metal nanoparticles embedded in glass. This contribution reports on application of low-frequency Raman scattering on acoustical vibrational modes of nanoparticles. The theoretical background as well as the experimental results of free non-interacting nanoparticles as well as glass containing different nanoparticles for optoelectronics will be presented. The approach is based on a 1/ν dependence of the Raman light of the vibration coupling coefficient and on the fact that each nanocrystallite of diameter D vibrates with its eigenfrequency ν~1/D. The Raman scattering spectra are analyzed using confined acoustical vibrations model. The model-calculation considered homogeneous broadening of the confined acoustical modes due to interaction of the particles with matrix and inhomogeneous broadening due to the contribution of the Raman scattering from the particles of different sizes. The low frequency Raman spectra of different nanoparticles (nc-TiO II, nc-SnO II, nc-CdS xSe 1-x, and nc-Si) prepared by Physical Vapour Deposition, thermal quenching and thereafter annealing of glass and sol-gel techniques was used for determination of particles size distribution and results were compared to TEM. The Raman spectroscopy technique has proved to be a simple and fast method that has favorable statistical characteristics due to the macroscopic probe volume and makes in situ measurements possible.

  1. Raman spectroscopy for the microbiological characterization and identification of medically relevant bacteria (United States)

    Hamasha, Khozima Mahmoud

    The detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria has become more important than ever due to the increase of potential bioterrorism threats and the high mortality rate of bacterial infections worldwide. Raman spectroscopy has recently gained popularity as an attractive robust approach for the molecular characterization, rapid identification, and accurate classification of a wide range of bacteria. In this dissertation, Raman spectroscopy utilizing advanced statistical techniques was used to identify and discriminate between different pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strains of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial species by probing the molecular compositions of the cells. The five-carbon sugar xylitol, which cannot be metabolized by the oral and nasopharyngeal bacteria, had been recognized by clinicians as a preventive agents for dental caries and many studies have demonstrated that xylitol causes a reduction in otitis media (chronic inner ear infections) and other nasopharyngeal infections. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the uptake and metabolic activity of xylitol in pathogenic (viridans group Streptococcus) and nonpathogenic (E. coli) bacteria by taking their Raman spectra before xylitol exposure and after growing with xylitol and quantifying the significant differences in the molecular vibrational modes due to this exposure. The results of this study showed significant stable spectral changes in the S. viridians bacteria induced by xylitol and those changes were not the same as in some E. coli strains. Finally, Raman spectroscopy experiments were conducted to provide important information about the function of a certain protein (wag31) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a relative non-pathogenic bacterium called Mycobacterium smegmatis. Raman spectra of conditional mutants of bacteria expressing three different phosphorylation forms of wag31 were collected and analyzed. The results show that that the phosphorylation of wag31

  2. Cavity-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Food Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenz Sandfort


    Full Text Available Comprehensive food chain management requires the monitoring of many parameters including temperature, humidity, and multiple gases. The latter is highly challenging because no low-cost technology for the simultaneous chemical analysis of multiple gaseous components currently exists. This contribution proposes the use of cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy to enable online monitoring of all relevant components using a single laser source. A laboratory scale setup is presented and characterized in detail. Power enhancement of the pump light is achieved in an optical resonator with a Finesse exceeding 2500. A simulation for the light scattering behavior shows the influence of polarization on the spatial distribution of the Raman scattered light. The setup is also used to measure three relevant showcase gases to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, including carbon dioxide, oxygen and ethene.

  3. Discrimination of wine lactic acid bacteria by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Susan B; Thornton, Mark A; Thornton, Roy J


    Species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Oenococcus, and Leuconostoc play an important role in winemaking, as either inoculants or contaminants. The metabolic products of these lactic acid bacteria have considerable effects on the flavor, aroma, and texture of a wine. However, analysis of a wine's microflora, especially the bacteria, is rarely done unless spoilage becomes evident, and identification at the species or strain level is uncommon as the methods required are technically difficult and expensive. In this work, we used Raman spectral fingerprints to discriminate 19 strains of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Oenococcus. Species of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus and strains of O. oeni and P. damnosus were classified with high sensitivity: 86-90 and 84-85%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that a simple, inexpensive method utilizing Raman spectroscopy can be used to accurately identify lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine.

  4. Controlling protected designation of origin of wine by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Mandrile, Luisa; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Giovannozzi, Andrea Mario; Rossi, Andrea Mario


    In this paper, a Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy method, to authenticate the provenience of wine, for food traceability applications was developed. In particular, due to the specific chemical fingerprint of the Raman spectrum, it was possible to discriminate different wines produced in the Piedmont area (North West Italy) in accordance with i) grape varieties, ii) production area and iii) ageing time. In order to create a consistent training set, more than 300 samples from tens of different producers were analyzed, and a chemometric treatment of raw spectra was applied. A discriminant analysis method was employed in the classification procedures, providing a classification capability (percentage of correct answers) of 90% for validation of grape analysis and geographical area provenance, and a classification capability of 84% for ageing time classification. The present methodology was applied successfully to raw materials without any preliminary treatment of the sample, providing a response in a very short time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid Classification of Ordinary Chondrites Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.


    Classification of ordinary chondrites is typically done through measurements of the composition of olivine and pyroxenes. Historically, this measurement has usually been performed via electron microprobe, oil immersion or other methods which can be costly through lost sample material during thin section preparation. Raman microscopy can perform the same measurements but considerably faster and with much less sample preparation allowing for faster classification. Raman spectroscopy can facilitate more rapid classification of large amounts of chondrites such as those retrieved from North Africa and potentially Antarctica, are present in large collections, or are submitted to a curation facility by the public. With development, this approach may provide a completely automated classification method of all chondrite types.

  6. Raman spectroscopy for DNA quantification in cell nucleus. (United States)

    Okotrub, K A; Surovtsev, N V; Semeshin, V F; Omelyanchuk, L V


    Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a novel approach to quantify DNA in cell nuclei. This approach is based on spectroscopy analysis of Raman light scattering, and avoids the problem of nonstoichiometric binding of dyes to DNA, as it directly measures the signal from DNA. Quantitative analysis of nuclear DNA contribution to Raman spectrum could be reliably performed using intensity of a phosphate mode at 1096 cm(-1) . When compared to the known DNA standards from cells of different animals, our results matched those values at error of 10%. We therefore suggest that this approach will be useful to expand the list of DNA standards, to properly adjust the duration of hydrolysis in Feulgen staining, to assay the applicability of fuchsines for DNA quantification, as well as to measure DNA content in cells with complex hydrolysis patterns, when Feulgen densitometry is inappropriate. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  7. Comprehensive Detection and Discrimination of Campylobacter Species by Use of Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy and Multilocus Sequence Typing (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Huang, Qian; Miller, William G.; Aston, D. Eric; Xu, Jie; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Hongwei; Rasco, Barbara A.


    A novel strategy for the rapid detection and identification of traditional and emerging Campylobacter strains based upon Raman spectroscopy (532 nm) is presented here. A total of 200 reference strains and clinical isolates of 11 different Campylobacter species recovered from infected animals and humans from China and North America were used to establish a global Raman spectroscopy-based dendrogram model for Campylobacter identification to the species level and cross validated for its feasibility to predict Campylobacter-associated food-borne outbreaks. Bayesian probability coupled with Monte Carlo estimation was employed to validate the established Raman classification model on the basis of the selected principal components, mainly protein secondary structures, on the Campylobacter cell membrane. This Raman spectroscopy-based typing technique correlates well with multilocus sequence typing and has an average recognition rate of 97.21%. Discriminatory power for the Raman classification model had a Simpson index of diversity of 0.968. Intra- and interlaboratory reproducibility with different instrumentation yielded differentiation index values of 4.79 to 6.03 for wave numbers between 1,800 and 650 cm−1 and demonstrated the feasibility of using this spectroscopic method at different laboratories. Our Raman spectroscopy-based partial least-squares regression model could precisely discriminate and quantify the actual concentration of a specific Campylobacter strain in a bacterial mixture (regression coefficient, >0.98; residual prediction deviation, >7.88). A standard protocol for sample preparation, spectral collection, model validation, and data analyses was established for the Raman spectroscopic technique. Raman spectroscopy may have advantages over traditional genotyping methods for bacterial epidemiology, such as detection speed and accuracy of identification to the species level. PMID:22740711

  8. Determination of ripeness stages of Mazafati variety of date fruit by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khodabakhshian


    Full Text Available Introduction: The economical yield of date fruits depends on many factors (Al-Shahib and Marshall, 2003. One of them is harvesting in optimum stage. Generally, date fruits have four distinct stages of ripeness to satisfy different consumption requirements (e.g., fresh and processed. They are known throughout the world by their Arabic names which are Kimri, Khalal, Rutab and Tamr in order of ripeness (Imad and Abdul Wahab, 1995; Al-Shahib and Marshall, 2003; Sahari et al., 2007. Decreasing moisture content and increasing sugar content happens gradually while the date ripeness approaches to Tamr stage. From Kimri to Khalal stage, the size and acidity decreases when the color of Mazafati variety changes from green to red. The change in acidity continues from Rutab to Tamr stage while color transforms from brown to black. At the final stage of ripeness, Mazafati variety is soft and has a good storability (Al-Shahib and Marshall, 2003. The main Raman techniques commonly applied in agricultural product and food analyzing include dispersive Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform (FT, Raman spectroscopy, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS and Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS. Synytsya et al. (2003 illustrated that FT-Raman spectroscopy is a valuable tool in structural analysis of commercial citrus and sugar beet pectin. Yang and Irudayaraj (2003 employed an FT-Raman approach to detect and classify foodborne microorganisms on the whole apple surface for the first time. Schulz et al., (2005 revealed the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy in natural carotenoid analysis. Also, many researchers have attempted to apply FT-Raman spectra on the whole fruits and vegetables. FT-Raman spectroscopy was used by Veraverbeke et al. (2005 to evaluate the natural, intact wax layers on the surface of whole fruits. Nikbakht et al. (2011 used a FT-Raman spectroscopy for qualitative and quantitative analysis of tomato ripeness parameters. The scope of this

  9. Amino acid quantification in bulk soybeans by transmission Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Schulmerich, Matthew V; Gelber, Matthew K; Azam, Hossain M; Harrison, Sandra K; McKinney, John; Thompson, Dennis; Owen, Bridget; Kull, Linda S; Bhargava, Rohit


    Soybeans are a commodity crop of significant economic and nutritional interest. As an important source of protein, buyers of soybeans are interested in not only the total protein content but also in the specific amino acids that comprise the total protein content. Raman spectroscopy has the chemical specificity to measure the twenty common amino acids as pure substances. An unsolved challenge, however, is to quantify varying levels of amino acids mixed together and bound in soybeans at relatively low concentrations. Here we report the use of transmission Raman spectroscopy as a secondary analytical approach to nondestructively measure specific amino acids in intact soybeans. With the employment of a transmission-based Raman instrument, built specifically for nondestructive measurements from bulk soybeans, spectra were collected from twenty-four samples to develop a calibration model using a partial least-squares approach with a random-subset cross validation. The calibration model was validated on an independent set of twenty-five samples for oil, protein, and amino acid predictions. After Raman measurements, the samples were reduced to a fine powder and conventional wet chemistry methods were used for quantifying reference values of protein, oil, and 18 amino acids. We found that the greater the concentrations (% by weight component of interest), the better the calibration model and prediction capabilities. Of the 18 amino acids analyzed, 13 had R(2) values greater than 0.75 with a standard error of prediction c.a. 3-4% by weight. Serine, histidine, cystine, tryptophan, and methionine showed poor predictions (R(2) protein, oil, and specific amino acids in intact soybeans.

  10. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of polyacrylamide gels for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldock, C.; Murry, P.; Pope, J. [Queensland University of Tehchnology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Centres for Medical and Health Physics; Rintoul, L.; George, G. [Queensland University of Tehchnology, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Instrumental and Development Chemistry


    Polyacrylamide (PAG) gels are used in magnetic resonance imaging radiation dosimetry. The PAG dosimeter is based on the radiation-induced co-polymerisation and cross-linking of acrylic monomers infused in a gel matrix. PAG was manufactured with a composition of 5% gelatine, 3% acrylamide and 3% N,N`methylene-bis-acrylamide by mass, with distilled water as the remaining constituent [Baldock, 1998]. FT-Raman spectroscopy studies were undertaken to investigate cross-linking changes during the co-polymerisation of PAG in the spectral range of 200 - 3500 cm{sup -1}. Vibrational bands of 1285 cm{sup -1} and 1256 cm{sup -1} were assigned to the acrylamide and bis-acrylamide single CH{sub 2} {delta}{sub CH2} binding modes. These bands were found to decrease in amplitude with increasing absorbed radiation dose, as a result of co-polymerisation. Principal Component Regression was performed on FT-Raman spectra of PAG samples irradiated to 50 Gy and two components were found to be sufficient to account for 98.7% of variance in the data. Cross validation was used to establish the absorbed radiation dose of an unknown PAG sample from the FT-Raman spectra. The calculated correlation coefficient between measured and predictive samples was 0.997 with a standard error of estimate of 0.976 and a standard error of prediction of 1.140. These results demonstrate the potential of FT-Raman spectroscopy for ionising radiation dosimetry using polyacrylamide gels

  11. New Insight into Erythrocyte through In Vivo Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda A.; Abdali, Salim; Brazhe, Alexey R.


    The article presents a noninvasive approach to the study of erythrocyte properties by means of a comparative analysis of signals obtained by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonance Raman spectroscopy (RS). We report step-by-step the procedure for preparing experimental samples...... containing erythrocytes in their normal physiological environment in a mixture of colloid solution with silver nanoparticles and the procedure for the optimization of SERS conditions to achieve high signal enhancement without affecting the properties of living erythrocytes. By means of three independent...... techniques, we demonstrate that under the proposed conditions a colloid solution of silver nanoparticles does not affect the properties of erythrocytes. For the first time to our knowledge, we describe how to use the SERS-RS approach to study two populations of hemoglobin molecules inside an intact living...

  12. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy in Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing: A Short Review. (United States)

    Buckley, Kevin; Ryder, Alan G


    The production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is currently undergoing its biggest transformation in a century. The changes are based on the rapid and dramatic introduction of protein- and macromolecule-based drugs (collectively known as biopharmaceuticals) and can be traced back to the huge investment in biomedical science (in particular in genomics and proteomics) that has been ongoing since the 1970s. Biopharmaceuticals (or biologics) are manufactured using biological-expression systems (such as mammalian, bacterial, insect cells, etc.) and have spawned a large (>€35 billion sales annually in Europe) and growing biopharmaceutical industry (BioPharma). The structural and chemical complexity of biologics, combined with the intricacy of cell-based manufacturing, imposes a huge analytical burden to correctly characterize and quantify both processes (upstream) and products (downstream). In small molecule manufacturing, advances in analytical and computational methods have been extensively exploited to generate process analytical technologies (PAT) that are now used for routine process control, leading to more efficient processes and safer medicines. In the analytical domain, biologic manufacturing is considerably behind and there is both a huge scope and need to produce relevant PAT tools with which to better control processes, and better characterize product macromolecules. Raman spectroscopy, a vibrational spectroscopy with a number of useful properties (nondestructive, non-contact, robustness) has significant potential advantages in BioPharma. Key among them are intrinsically high molecular specificity, the ability to measure in water, the requirement for minimal (or no) sample pre-treatment, the flexibility of sampling configurations, and suitability for automation. Here, we review and discuss a representative selection of the more important Raman applications in BioPharma (with particular emphasis on mammalian cell culture). The review shows that

  13. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for estimating biochemical changes associated with different pathological conditions of cervix (United States)

    Daniel, Amuthachelvi; Prakasarao, Aruna; Ganesan, Singaravelu


    The molecular level changes associated with oncogenesis precede the morphological changes in cells and tissues. Hence molecular level diagnosis would promote early diagnosis of the disease. Raman spectroscopy is capable of providing specific spectral signature of various biomolecules present in the cells and tissues under various pathological conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a non-linear multi-class statistical methodology for discrimination of normal, neoplastic and malignant cells/tissues. The tissues were classified as normal, pre-malignant and malignant by employing Principal Component Analysis followed by Artificial Neural Network (PC-ANN). The overall accuracy achieved was 99%. Further, to get an insight into the quantitative biochemical composition of the normal, neoplastic and malignant tissues, a linear combination of the major biochemicals by non-negative least squares technique was fit to the measured Raman spectra of the tissues. This technique confirms the changes in the major biomolecules such as lipids, nucleic acids, actin, glycogen and collagen associated with the different pathological conditions. To study the efficacy of this technique in comparison with histopathology, we have utilized Principal Component followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA) to discriminate the well differentiated, moderately differentiated and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with an accuracy of 94.0%. And the results demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy has the potential to complement the good old technique of histopathology.

  14. Raman spectroscopy in combination with background near-infrared autofluorescence enhances the in vivo assessment of malignant tissues. (United States)

    Huang, Zhiwei; Lui, Harvey; McLean, David I; Korbelik, Mladen; Zeng, Haishan


    The diagnostic ability of optical spectroscopy techniques, including near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy, NIR autofluorescence spectroscopy and the composite Raman and NIR autofluorescence spectroscopy, for in vivo detection of malignant tumors was evaluated in this study. A murine tumor model, in which BALB/c mice were implanted with Meth-A fibrosarcoma cells into the subcutaneous region of the lower back, was used for this purpose. A rapid-acquisition dispersive-type NIR Raman system was employed for tissue Raman and NIR autofluorescence spectroscopic measurements at 785-nm laser excitation. High-quality in vivo NIR Raman spectra associated with an autofluorescence background from mouse skin and tumor tissue were acquired in 5 s. Multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were used to develop diagnostic algorithms for differentiating tumors from normal tissue based on their spectral features. Spectral classification of tumor tissue was tested using a leave-one-out, cross-validation method, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to further evaluate the performance of diagnostic algorithms derived. Thirty-two in vivo Raman, NIR fluorescence and composite Raman and NIR fluorescence spectra were analyzed (16 normal, 16 tumors). Classification results obtained from cross-validation of the LDA model based on the three spectral data sets showed diagnostic sensitivities of 81.3%, 93.8% and 93.8%; specificities of 100%, 87.5% and 100%; and overall diagnostic accuracies of 90.6%, 90.6% and 96.9% respectively, for tumor identification. ROC curves showed that the most effective diagnostic algorithms were from the composite Raman and NIR autofluorescence techniques.

  15. Identification of different forms of cocaine and substances used in adulteration using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy and infrared absorption spectroscopy. (United States)

    Penido, Ciro A F O; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu T; Zângaro, Renato A; Silveira, Landulfo


    Identification of cocaine and subsequent quantification immediately after seizure are problems for the police in developing countries such as Brazil. This work proposes a comparison between the Raman and FT-IR techniques as methods to identify cocaine, the adulterants used to increase volume, and possible degradation products in samples seized by the police. Near-infrared Raman spectra (785 nm excitation, 10 sec exposure time) and FT-IR-ATR spectra were obtained from different samples of street cocaine and some substances commonly used as adulterants. Freebase powder, hydrochloride powder, and crack rock can be distinguished by both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies, revealing differences in their chemical structure. Most of the samples showed characteristic peaks of degradation products such as benzoylecgonine and benzoic acid, and some presented evidence of adulteration with aluminum sulfate and sodium carbonate. Raman spectroscopy is better than FT-IR for identifying benzoic acid and inorganic adulterants in cocaine. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. A review of Raman spectroscopy advances with an emphasis on clinical translation challenges in oncology (United States)

    Jermyn, Michael; Desroches, Joannie; Aubertin, Kelly; St-Arnaud, Karl; Madore, Wendy-Julie; De Montigny, Etienne; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Trudel, Dominique; Wilson, Brian C.; Petrecca, Kevin; Leblond, Frederic


    There is an urgent need for improved techniques for disease detection. Optical spectroscopy and imaging technologies have potential for non- or minimally-invasive use in a wide range of clinical applications. The focus here, in vivo Raman spectroscopy (RS), measures inelastic light scattering based on interaction with the vibrational and rotational modes of common molecular bonds in cells and tissue. The Raman ‘signature’ can be used to assess physiological status and can also be altered by disease. This information can supplement existing diagnostic (e.g. radiological imaging) techniques for disease screening and diagnosis, in interventional guidance for identifying disease margins, and in monitoring treatment responses. Using fiberoptic-based light delivery and collection, RS is most easily performed on accessible tissue surfaces, either on the skin, in hollow organs or intra-operatively. The strength of RS lies in the high biochemical information content of the spectra, that characteristically show an array of very narrow peaks associated with specific chemical bonds. This results in high sensitivity and specificity, for example to distinguish malignant or premalignant from normal tissues. A critical issue is that the Raman signal is often very weak, limiting clinical use to point-by-point measurements. However, non-linear techniques using pulsed-laser sources have been developed to enable in vivo Raman imaging. Changes in Raman spectra with disease are often subtle and spectrally distributed, requiring full spectral scanning, together with the use of tissue classification algorithms that must be trained on large numbers of independent measurements. Recent advances in instrumentation and spectral analysis have substantially improved the clinical feasibility of RS, so that it is now being investigated with increased success in a wide range of cancer types and locations, as well as for non-oncological conditions. This review covers recent advances and

  17. Titania supported tungsten oxide species studied by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hack Sung; Kim, Kwan


    Laser Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the tungsta catalyst supported on titania. The surface tungsten species which forms on titania after calcination appeared to possess a structure that is independent of the initial impregnation condition. The surface polytungstate seemed to be stable only at the interfacial region since the crystalline WO 3 phase was observed as long as the tungsta loading was in excess of monolayer coverage. The close intact and strong interaction between the polytungstate and the titania could be evidenced from the inhibition of the phase transition of TiO 2 from anatase to rutile.(Author)

  18. Monitoring of blood oxygenation in brain by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda A; Thomsen, Kirsten; Lønstrup, Micael


    Blood oxygenation in cerebral vessels is an essential parameter to evaluate brain function and to investigate the coupling between local blood flow and neuronal activity. We apply resonance Raman spectroscopy in vivo to study hemoglobin oxygenation in cortex vessels of anesthetized ventilated mice...... of oxyhemoglobin in venules, arterioles, and capillaries. In vivo measurements of blood oxygenation in the cortex of mice ventilated with inspiratory gas mixtures containing different amounts of oxygen - normoxia, hyperoxia and hypoxia - validate the proposed approach. Our method allows to visualize blood...

  19. Raman spectroscopy for the control of the atmospheric bioindicators (United States)

    Timchenko, E. V.; Timchenko, P. E.; Shamina, L. A.; Zherdeva, L. A.


    Experimental studies of optical parameters of different atmospheric bioindicators (arboreous and terricolous types of plants) have been performed with Raman spectroscopy. The change in the optical parameters has been explored for the objects under direct light exposure, as well as for the objects placed in the shade. The age peculiarities of the bioindicators have also been taken into consideration. It was established that the statistical variability of optical parameters for arboreous bioindicators was from 9% to 15% and for plants from 4% to 8.7%. On the basis of these results dandelion (Taraxacum) was chosen as a bioindicator of atmospheric emissions.

  20. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for nanoscale strain characterization. (United States)

    Tarun, Alvarado; Hayazawa, Norihiko; Kawata, Satoshi


    Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS), which utilizes the strong localized optical field generated at the apex of a metallic tip when illuminated, has been shown to successfully probe the vibrational spectrum of today's and tomorrow's state-of-the-art silicon and next-generation semiconductor devices, such as quantum dots. Collecting and analyzing the vibrational spectrum not only aids in material identification but also provides insight into strain distributions in semiconductors. Here, the potential of TERS for nanoscale characterization of strain in silicon devices is reviewed. Emphasis will be placed on the key challenges of obtaining spectroscopic images of strain in actual strained silicon devices.

  1. Negative Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Graphene Measured by Raman Spectroscopy


    Yoon, Duhee; Son, Young-Woo; Cheong, Heonsik


    The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of single-layer graphene is estimated with temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range between 200 and 400 K. It is found to be strongly dependent on temperature but remains negative in the whole temperature range, with a room temperature value of -8.0x10^{-6} K^{-1}. The strain caused by the TEC mismatch between graphene and the substrate plays a crucial role in determining the physical properties of graphene, and hence its effect...

  2. Negative thermal expansion coefficient of graphene measured by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yoon, Duhee; Son, Young-Woo; Cheong, Hyeonsik


    The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of single-layer graphene is estimated with temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy in the temperature range between 200 and 400 K. It is found to be strongly dependent on temperature but remains negative in the whole temperature range with a room temperature value of (-8.0 ± 0.7) × 10(-6) K(-1). The strain caused by the TEC mismatch between graphene and the substrate plays a crucial role in determining the physical properties of graphene, and hence its effect must be accounted for in the interpretation of experimental data taken at cryogenic or elevated temperatures.

  3. Characterization of oil-producing microalgae using Raman spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Jonáš, Alexandr; Telle, H.H.


    Roč. 8, č. 10 (2011), s. 701-709 ISSN 1612-2011 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC08034; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Grant - others:EC(XE) PERG 06-GA-2009-256526 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * algae * lipids * biofuel * iodine value * microorganisms Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 9.970, year: 2011

  4. Chemotaxonomy of mints of genus Mentha by applying Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Rösch, P; Kiefer, W; Popp, J


    The characterization of mints is often problematic because Mentha is a taxonomically complex genus. In order to provide a fast and easy characterization method, we use a combination of micro-Raman spectroscopy and hierarchical cluster analysis. A classification trial of different mint taxa is possible for one collection time. For spectra measured at different points during the growing season, a more sophisticated pretreatment of the data is necessary to receive good discrimination between the species, as well as between the subspecies and varieties of the mints. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Raman Spectroscopic Techniques for Planetary Exploration: Detecting Microorganisms through Minerals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, M.F.C.; Hooijschuur, J.H.; Davies, G.R.; Ariese, F.


    Raman spectroscopy can provide highly specific chemical fingerprints of inorganic and organic materials and is therefore expected to play a significant role in interplanetary missions, especially for the search for life elsewhere in our solar system. A major challenge will be the unambiguous

  6. High-performance dispersive Raman and absorption spectroscopy as tools for drug identification (United States)

    Pawluczyk, Olga; Andrey, Sam; Nogas, Paul; Roy, Andrew; Pawluczyk, Romuald


    Due to increasing availability of pharmaceuticals from many sources, a need is growing to quickly and efficiently analyze substances in terms of the consistency and accuracy of their chemical composition. Differences in chemical composition occur at very low concentrations, so that highly sensitive analytical methods become crucial. Recent progress in dispersive spectroscopy with the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays, permits for signal integration along a long (up to 12 mm long) entrance slit of a spectrometer, thereby increasing signal to noise ratio and improving the ability to detect small concentration changes. This is achieved with a non-scanning, non-destructive system. Two different methods using P&P Optica high performance spectrometers were used. High performance optical dispersion Raman and high performance optical absorption spectroscopy were employed to differentiate various acetaminophen-containing drugs, such as Tylenol and other generic brands, which differ in their ingredients. A 785 nm excitation wavelength was used in Raman measurements and strong Raman signals were observed in the spectral range 300-1800 cm-1. Measurements with the absorption spectrometer were performed in the wavelength range 620-1020 nm. Both Raman and absorption techniques used transmission light spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings and provided sufficient spectral differences, often structural, allowing for drug differentiation.

  7. Application of Raman Spectroscopy for Quality Monitoring in the Meat Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Daniel Tsegay

    for authentication of the cooked then chill stored samples to determine if the EPT of the cooked meat reached to the intended EPT or not. For this purpose, pork longissimus dorsi was heat treated at 50 oC to 70 oC (2 oC interval) for 2 to 10 h (2 h interval) (paper-I) and at 50 oC to 80 oC (2 oC interval) for 2 h......The objective of this thesis was to test the potential application of Raman spectroscopy for quality monitoring in the meat processing industry. Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique, which can provide rapid chemical information at the molecular level. It can, therefore, be used for non......-destructive quality monitoring in the meat processing industry as it requires no further sample preparation. Water, which is the main component of meat, is also not a problem for Raman spectroscopic measurement because water is a poor Raman scatter. Two major product quality related issues, cooking of meat and fat...

  8. Resonance-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on Explosives Vapor at Standoff Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Ehlerding


    Full Text Available Resonance-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has been used to perform standoff measurements on nitromethane (NM, 2,4-DNT, and 2,4,6-TNT in vapor phase. The Raman cross sections for NM, DNT, and TNT in vapor phase have been measured in the wavelength range 210–300 nm under laboratory conditions, in order to estimate how large resonance enhancement factors can be achieved for these explosives. The results show that the signal is enhanced up to 250,000 times for 2,4-DNT and up to 60,000 times for 2,4,6-TNT compared to the nonresonant signal at 532 nm. Realistic outdoor measurements on NM in vapor phase at 13 m distance were also performed, which indicate a potential for resonance Raman spectroscopy as a standoff technique for detection of vapor phase explosives. In addition, the Raman spectra of acetone, ethanol, and methanol were measured at the same wavelengths, and their influence on the spectrum from NM was investigated.

  9. Oxidative damage in DNA bases revealed by UV resonant Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    D'Amico, Francesco; Cammisuli, Francesca; Addobbati, Riccardo; Rizzardi, Clara; Gessini, Alessandro; Masciovecchio, Claudio; Rossi, Barbara; Pascolo, Lorella


    We report on the use of the UV Raman technique to monitor the oxidative damage of deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dATP, dGTP, dCTP and dTTP) and DNA (plasmid vector) solutions. Nucleotide and DNA aqueous solutions were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and iron containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to produce Fenton's reaction and induce oxidative damage. UV Raman spectroscopy is shown to be maximally efficient to reveal changes in the nitrogenous bases during the oxidative mechanisms occurring on these molecules. The analysis of Raman spectra, supported by numerical computations, revealed that the Fenton's reaction causes an oxidation of the nitrogenous bases in dATP, dGTP and dCTP solutions leading to the production of 2-hydroxyadenine, 8-hydroxyguanine and 5-hydroxycytosine. No thymine change was revealed in the dTTP solution under the same conditions. Compared to single nucleotide solutions, plasmid DNA oxidation has resulted in more radical damage that causes the breaking of the adenine and guanine aromatic rings. Our study demonstrates the advantage of using UV Raman spectroscopy for rapidly monitoring the oxidation changes in DNA aqueous solutions that can be assigned to specific nitrogenous bases.

  10. Dual-wavelength external cavity laser device for fluorescence suppression in Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Zhang, Xuting; Cai, Zhijian; Wu, Jianhong


    Raman spectroscopy has been widely used in the detection of drugs, pesticides, explosives, food additives and environmental pollutants, for its characteristics of fast measurement, easy sample preparation, and molecular structure analyzing capability. However, fluorescence disturbance brings a big trouble to these applications, with strong fluorescence background covering up the weak Raman signals. Recently shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) not only can completely remove the fluorescence background, but also can be easily integrated into portable Raman spectrometers. Usually, SERDS uses two lasers with small wavelength gap to excite the sample, then acquires two spectra, and subtracts one to the other to get the difference spectrum, where the fluorescence background will be rejected. So, one key aspects of successfully applying SERDS method is to obtain a dual-wavelength laser source. In this paper, a dual-wavelength laser device design based on the principles of external cavity diode laser (ECDL) is proposed, which is low-cost and compact. In addition, it has good mechanical stability because of no moving parts. These features make it an ideal laser source for SERDS technique. The experiment results showed that the device can emit narrow-spectral-width lasers of two wavelengths, with the gap smaller than 2 nanometers. The laser power corresponding to each wavelength can be up to 100mW.

  11. Raman micro-spectroscopy can be used to investigate the developmental stage of the mouse oocyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony Davidson

    Full Text Available In recent years, the uptake of assisted reproductive techniques such as in vitro fertilisation has risen exponentially. However, there is much that is still not fully understood about the biochemical modifications that take place during the development and maturation of the oocyte. As such, it is essential to further the understanding of how oocyte manipulation during these procedures ultimately affects its developmental potential; yet, there are few methods currently available which are capable of providing a quantitative measure of oocyte quality. Raman spectroscopy enables investigation of the global biochemical profile of intact cells without the need for labelling. Here, Raman spectra were acquired from the ooplasm of mouse oocytes at various stages of development, from late pre-antral follicles, collected after in vitro maturation within their ovarian follicles and from unstimulated and stimulated ovulatory cycles. Using a combination of univariate and multivariate statistical methods, it was found that ooplasm lipid content could be used to discriminate between different stages of oocyte development. Furthermore, the spectral profiles of mature oocytes revealed that oocytes which have developed in vitro are protein-deficient when compared to in vivo grown oocytes. Finally, the ratio of two Raman peak intensities, namely 1605∶1447 cm⁻¹, used as a proxy for the protein-to-lipid ratio of the ooplasm, was shown to be indicative of the oocyte's quality. Together, results indicate that Raman spectroscopy may present an alternative analytical tool for investigating the biochemistry of oocyte developmental stage and quality.

  12. Raman spectroscopy detects biomolecular changes associated with nanoencapsulated hesperetin treatment in experimental oral carcinogenesis (United States)

    Gurushankar, K.; Gohulkumar, M.; Kumar, Piyush; Krishna, C. Murali; Krishnakumar, N.


    Recently it has been shown that Raman spectroscopy possesses great potential in the investigation of biomolecular changes of tumor tissues with therapeutic drug response in a non-invasive and label-free manner. The present study is designed to investigate the antitumor effect of hespertin-loaded nanoparticles (HETNPs) relative to the efficacy of native hesperetin (HET) in modifying the biomolecular changes during 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis using a Raman spectroscopic technique. Significant differences in the intensity and shape of the Raman spectra between the control and the experimental tissues at 1800-500 cm-1 were observed. Tumor tissues are characterized by an increase in the relative amount of proteins, nucleic acids, tryptophan and phenylalanine and a decrease in the percentage of lipids when compared to the control tissues. Further, oral administration of HET and its nanoparticulates restored the status of the lipids and significantly decreased the levels of protein and nucleic acid content. Treatment with HETNPs showed a more potent antitumor effect than treatment with native HET, which resulted in an overall reduction in the intensity of several biochemical Raman bands in DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis being observed. Principal component and linear discriminant analysis (PC-LDA), together with leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) on Raman spectra yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 100%, 80%, 91.6% and 65% and specificities of 100%, 65%, 60% and 55% for classification of control versus DMBA, DMBA versus DMBA  +  HET, DMBA versus DMBA  +  HETNPs and DMBA  +  HET versus DMBA  +  HETNPs treated tissue groups, respectively. These results further demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy associated with multivariate statistical algorithms could be a valuable tool for developing a comprehensive understanding of the process of biomolecular changes, and could reveal the signatures of the

  13. Raman spectroscopy analysis of air grown oxide scale developed on pure zirconium substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurpaska, L., E-mail: [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France); National Center for Nuclear Research, St. A. Soltana 7/23, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Favergeon, J. [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France); Lahoche, L. [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France); Laboratoire des Technologies Innovantes, Université de Picardie Jules-Verne, EA 3899, Avenue des Facultés – Le Bailly, 80025 Amiens Cedex (France); El-Marssi, M. [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Université de Picardie Jules-Verne, 33 rue St. Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex (France); Grosseau Poussard, J.-L. [LaSIE UMR-CNRS 7356, Pole Sciences et Technologie, Universite de La Rochelle, av. M Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle, Cedex (France); Moulin, G.; Roelandt, J.-M. [Laboratoire Roberval, UMR 7337, Université de Technologie de Compiègne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, CS 60319, 60203 Compiègne Cedex (France)


    Using Raman spectroscopy technique, external and internal parts of zirconia oxide films developed at 500 °C and 600 °C on pure zirconium substrate under air at normal atmospheric pressure have been examined. Comparison of Raman peak positions of tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia phases, recorded during the oxide growth at elevated temperature, and after cooling at room temperature have been presented. Subsequently, Raman peak positions (or shifts) were interpreted in relation with the stress evolution in the growing zirconia scale, especially closed to the metal/oxide interface, where the influence of compressive stress in the oxide is the biggest. Reported results, for the first time show the presence of a continuous layer of tetragonal zirconia phase developed in the proximity of pure zirconium substrate. Based on the Raman peak positions we prove that this tetragonal layer is stabilized by the high compressive stress and sub-stoichiometry level. Presence of the tetragonal phase located in the outer part of the scale have been confirmed, yet its Raman characteristics suggest a stress-free tetragonal phase, therefore different type of stabilization mechanism. Presented study suggest that its stabilization could be related to the lattice defects introduced by highstoichiometry of zirconia or presence of heterovalent cations. - Highlights: • The oxide layer consists of a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phases, clearly distinguishable by Raman spectroscopy. • The layer located close to the metal/oxide interphase consists mainly of the tetragonal phase. • Small amount of tetragonal layer located in the external oxide scale have been observed. • Stabilization mechanism of the tetragonal phase located in the external part of the oxide have been proposed.

  14. Raman spectroscopy: in vivo quick response code of skin physiological status (United States)

    Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Tfayli, Ali; Piot, Olivier; Le Guillou, Maud; Guichard, Nathalie; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette


    Dermatologists need to combine different clinically relevant characteristics for a better understanding of skin health. These characteristics are usually measured by different techniques, and some of them are highly time consuming. Therefore, a predicting model based on Raman spectroscopy and partial least square (PLS) regression was developed as a rapid multiparametric method. The Raman spectra collected from the five uppermost micrometers of 11 healthy volunteers were fitted to different skin characteristics measured by independent appropriate methods (transepidermal water loss, hydration, pH, relative amount of ceramides, fatty acids, and cholesterol). For each parameter, the obtained PLS model presented correlation coefficients higher than R2=0.9. This model enables us to obtain all the aforementioned parameters directly from the unique Raman signature. In addition to that, in-depth Raman analyses down to 20 μm showed different balances between partially bound water and unbound water with depth. In parallel, the increase of depth was followed by an unfolding process of the proteins. The combinations of all these information led to a multiparametric investigation, which better characterizes the skin status. Raman signal can thus be used as a quick response code (QR code). This could help dermatologic diagnosis of physiological variations and presents a possible extension to pathological characterization.

  15. Precise determination of graphene functionalization by in situ Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Vecera, Philipp; Chacón-Torres, Julio C.; Pichler, Thomas; Reich, Stephanie; Soni, Himadri R.; Görling, Andreas; Edelthalhammer, Konstantin; Peterlik, Herwig; Hauke, Frank; Hirsch, Andreas


    The verification of a successful covalent functionalization of graphene and related carbon allotropes can easily be carried out by Raman spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the unequivocal assignment and resolution of individual lattice modes associated with the covalent binding of addends was elusive up to now. Here we present an in situ Raman study of a controlled functionalization of potassium intercalated graphite, revealing several new bands appearing in the D-region of the spectrum. The evolution of these bands with increasing degree of functionalization from low to moderate levels provides a basis for the deconvolution of the different components towards quantifying the extent of functionalization. By complementary DFT calculations we were able to identify the vibrational changes in the close proximity of the addend bearing lattice carbon atoms and to assign them to specific Raman modes. The experimental in situ observation of the developing functionalization along with the reoxidation of the intercalated graphite represents an important step towards an improved understanding of the chemistry of graphene. PMID:28480893

  16. Antenna Design for Directivity-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmed


    Full Text Available Antenna performance can be described by two fundamental parameters: directivity and radiation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate nanoantenna designs in terms of improved directivity. Performance of the antennas is demonstrated in Raman scattering experiments. The radiated beam is directed out of the plane by using a ground plane reflector for easy integration with commercial microscopes. Parasitic elements and parabolic and waveguide nanoantennas with a ground plane are explored. The nanoantennas were fabricated by a series of electron beam evaporation steps and focused ion beam milling. As we have shown previously, the circular waveguide nanoantenna boosts the measured Raman signal by 5.5x with respect to a dipole antenna over a ground plane; here, we present the design process that led to the development of that circular waveguide nanoantenna. This work also shows that the parabolic nanoantenna produces a further fourfold improvement in the measured Raman signal with respect to a circular waveguide nanoantenna. The present designs are nearly optimal in the sense that almost all the beam power is coupled into the numerical aperture of the microscope. These designs can find applications in microscopy, spectroscopy, light-emitting devices, photovoltaics, single-photon sources, and sensing.

  17. A novel extremophile strategy studied by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.


    A case is made for the classification of the colonisation by Dirina massiliensis forma sorediata of pigments on ancient wall-paintings as extremophilic behaviour. The lichen encrustations studied using FT-Raman spectroscopy have yielded important molecular information which has assisted in the identification of the survival strategy of the organism in the presence of significant levels of heavy metal toxins. The production of a carotenoid, probably astaxanthin, at the surface of the lichen thalli is identified from its characteristic biomolecular signatures in the Raman spectrum, whereas the presence of calcium oxalate dihydrate (weddellite) has been identified at both the upper and lower surfaces of the thalli and in core samples taken from depths of up to 10 mm through the encrustation into the rock substrate. The latter observation explains the significant disintegrative biodeteriorative effect of the colonisation upon the integrity of the wall-paintings and can be used to direct conservatorial and preservation efforts of the art work. A surprising result proved to be the absence of Raman spectroscopic evidence for the complexation of the metal pigments by the oxalic acid produced by the metabolic action of the organisms, unlike several cases that have been reported in the literature.

  18. Terahertz mechanical vibrations in lysozyme: Raman spectroscopy vs modal analysis (United States)

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Lacidogna, Giuseppe; Piana, Gianfranco; Bassani, Andrea


    The mechanical behaviour of proteins is receiving an increasing attention from the scientific community. Recently it has been suggested that mechanical vibrations play a crucial role in controlling structural configuration changes (folding) which govern proteins biological function. The mechanism behind protein folding is still not completely understood, and many efforts are being made to investigate this phenomenon. Complex molecular dynamics simulations and sophisticated experimental measurements are conducted to investigate protein dynamics and to perform protein structure predictions; however, these are two related, although quite distinct, approaches. Here we investigate mechanical vibrations of lysozyme by Raman spectroscopy and linear normal mode calculations (modal analysis). The input mechanical parameters to the numerical computations are taken from the literature. We first give an estimate of the order of magnitude of protein vibration frequencies by considering both classical wave mechanics and structural dynamics formulas. Afterwards, we perform modal analyses of some relevant chemical groups and of the full lysozyme protein. The numerical results are compared to experimental data, obtained from both in-house and literature Raman measurements. In particular, the attention is focused on a large peak at 0.84 THz (29.3 cm-1) in the Raman spectrum obtained analyzing a lyophilized powder sample.

  19. Searching for brine on Mars using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, E.


    In the last few years, water ice and perchlorate salts capable of melting this ice and producing liquid solutions have been discovered at the surface and shallow subsurface of Mars. In addition to via melting of ice, perchlorate salts may also form liquid solutions by absorbing water vapor when the relative humidity is above a certain threshold in a process known as deliquescence. Formed either by melting or deliquescence, liquid solutions (brine) are the most likely way of liquid water activity on the Martian surface and in the shallow subsurface and are therefore important to understand the habitability of Mars. Using Raman spectroscopy, we provide reference spectra of various mixing states of liquid water, water ice and calcium perchlorate, all of which can occur during brine formation. We focus on the perchlorate symmetric stretching band and the O-H stretching vibrational band to distinguish brine from crystalline salt and water ice. We show that perchlorate brines can be identified by analyzing the peaks and their widths in the decomposed Raman spectra of the investigated samples. This serves as an important reference for future in-situ Raman spectrometers on Mars, such as those on the ExoMars and Mars 2020 rovers and can aid in the detection of brine formation on Mars. (Author)

  20. Silicon Nitride Background in Nanophotonic Waveguide Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashim Dhakal


    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that evanescent Raman spectroscopy using a silicon nitride (SiN nanophotonic waveguide platform has higher signal enhancement when compared to free-space systems. However, signal-to-noise ratio from the waveguide at a low analyte concentration is constrained by the shot-noise from the background light originating from the waveguide itself. Hence, understanding the origin and properties of this waveguide background luminescence (WGBL is essential to developing mitigation strategies. Here, we identify the dominating component of the WGBL spectrum composed of a broad Raman scattering due to momentum selection-rule breaking in amorphous materials, and several peaks specific to molecules embedded in the core. We determine the maximum of the Raman scattering efficiency of the WGBL at room temperature for 785 nm excitation to be 4.5 ± 1 × 10−9 cm−1·sr−1, at a Stokes shift of 200 cm−1. This efficiency decreases monotonically for higher Stokes shifts. Additionally, we also demonstrate the use of slotted waveguides and quasi-transverse magnetic polarization as some mitigation strategies.

  1. The determination of captopril in Solution by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Gao, Junxiang; Gu, Huaimin; Dong, Xiao; liu, fangfang


    Captopril, 1-[(2S)-3-mercapto-2-methyl propionyl]-Lproline, is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which reduces peripheral resistance and lowers blood pressure. It is widely used in the hypertensive ailments and incongestive heart failure treatment. Due to such crucial pharmacological importance, development of simple and accurate methods for the determination of captopril is desired. In this work, the normal Raman spectra of the captopril in different concentrations were studied, and the relationship between the Raman intensity and the concentrations of the captopril was quantificationally analysed. By selecting appropriate characteristic Raman bands of the cptopril, the solution of some captopril purchased in a local pharmacy was quantificationally determined. A quantificational linear relationship between the Raman intensity and the concentrations of captopril was obtained, and it is little affected by other compounds in the solution of captopril. This study provides an effective technique for the quantificational determination of captopril in solutions, and it has a potential application in the analysis of medicament.

  2. Summary of recent Raman Spectroscopy testing of SRS processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Lascola, R. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    This report describes several scoping projects conducted at SRNL using Raman spectroscopic methods for monitoring different aspects of nuclear waste and materials processing. One project examined the suitability of a Raman telescope for in situ measurement of solid residues in waste tanks. Characteristics evaluated for this equipment included radiation resistance, ease of use, and sensitivity. A second project monitored the nitrate content in liquid filtrate from the testing of a rotary microfilter using a fiber-based insertion probe. The third project made Raman measurements of various gases, including H2 and NOx, in the headspace of a vessel while dissolving aluminum coupons in nitric acid. Measurements followed the evolution of these species in real time. Although the majority of these projects occurred in the laboratory environment, SRNL has substantial experience with implementing other optical techniques into nuclear materials processing environments. The work described in this report shows the potential of the Raman technology to provide real time measurements of species such as nitrate or hydroxide during sludge washing or evolved gases such as hydrogen or NOx during waste processing.

  3. Raman Spectroscopy and in Situ Raman Spectroelectrochemistry of Bilayer 12C/13C Graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalbáč, Martin; Farhat, H.; Kong, J.; Janda, Pavel; Kavan, Ladislav; Dresselhaus, M. S.


    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2011), s. 1957-1963 ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400911; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA MŠk ME09060; GA MŠk LC510; GA ČR GC203/07/J067; GA ČR GAP204/10/1677 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : graphene * bilayer * Raman Spectroscopy Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 13.198, year: 2011

  4. Raman Spectroscopy Differentiates Each Tissue From the Skin to the Spinal Cord: A Novel Method for Epidural Needle Placement? (United States)

    Anderson, T. Anthony; Kang, Jeon Woong; Gubin, Tatyana; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; So, Peter T. C.


    BACKGROUND Neuraxial anesthesia and epidural steroid injection techniques require precise anatomical targeting to ensure successful and safe analgesia. Previous studies suggest that only some of the tissues encountered during these procedures can be identified by spectroscopic methods, and no previous study has investigated the use of Raman, diffuse reflectance, and fluorescence spectroscopies. The authors hypothesized that real-time needle-tip spectroscopy may aid epidural needle placement and tested the ability of spectroscopy to distinguish each of the tissues in the path of neuraxial needles. METHODS For comparison of detection methods, the spectra of individual, dissected ex vivo paravertebral and neuraxial porcine tissues were collected using Raman spectroscopy (RS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and fluorescence spectroscopy (FS). Real-time spectral guidance was tested using a 2 mm inner diameter fiber optic probe-in-needle device. Raman spectra were collected during the needle’s passage through intact paravertebral and neuraxial porcine tissue and analyzed afterward. The RS tissue signatures were verified as mapping to individual tissue layers using histochemical staining and widefield microscopy. RESULTS Raman spectroscopy revealed a unique spectrum for all ex vivo paravertebral and neuraxial tissue layers; DRS and FS spectra were not distinct for all tissues. Moreover, when accounting for the expected order of tissues, real-time Raman spectra recorded during needle insertion also permitted identification of each paravertebral and neuraxial porcine tissue. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates Raman spectroscopy can distinguish the tissues encountered during epidural needle insertion. This technology may prove useful during needle placement by providing evidence of its anatomical localization. PMID:27466032

  5. Characterization of acetaminophen: molecular microanalysis with Raman microprobe spectroscopy. (United States)

    Pestaner, J P; Mullick, F G; Centeno, J A


    The in situ spectroscopic identification of acetaminophen in a fatal overdose case is described. Numerous techniques have been used to analyze acetaminophen in biological fluids, however, the use of nondestructive spectroscopic techniques has not been documented. In this investigation, the demonstration of the drug material was established by using the laser Raman microprobe technique, providing an accurate identification by virtue of the drug's molecular fingerprint characteristics. Material found on the deceased was collected and placed on metal (aluminum-coated) plated slides and excited with the 514.5 nm line of an argon ion laser, which was focused to a 1 micron spot size using a high-resolution optical microscope. Spectra of acetaminophen particles with an average size of 5 to 8 microns were obtained. The Raman spectrum of this drug contains characteristic group frequencies assigned to the C = O at 1649 cm-1, the N-H deformation mode at 1620 to 1612 cm-1, the bendstretch mode of the H-N-C = O at 1562 cm-1, the C-H bending mode at 1325 cm-1, and the phenyl ring stretch at 799 cm-1, respectively. The results reported here demonstrate the capability of laser Raman microprobe as a useful adjunct tool for the identification of foreign materials in forensic pathology.


    Advances in instrumentation are making Raman spectroscopy the tool of choice for an increasing number of chemical applications. For example, many recalcitrant industrial process monitoring problems have been solved in recent years with in-line Raman spectrometers. Raman is attr...

  7. Novel Chiroptical Analysis of Hemoglobin by Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Optical Activity Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Brazhe, Alexey; Sosnovtseva, Olga


    The metalloprotein hemoglobin (Hb) was studied using surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) and surface enhanced resonance Raman optical activity (SERROA). The SERROA results are analyzed and compared with the SERRS, and the later to the resonance Raman (RRS) performed on Hb...

  8. Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy (United States)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Yu Ho, Khek; Teh, Ming; Guan Yeoh, Khay; Huang, Zhiwei


    This work aims to evaluate clinical value of a fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique developed for in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) during clinical endoscopy. We have developed a rapid fiber-optic Raman endoscopic system capable of simultaneously acquiring both fingerprint (FP)(800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber (HW)(2800-3600 cm-1) Raman spectra from esophageal tissue in vivo. A total of 1172 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra were acquired from 48 esophageal patients undergoing endoscopic examination. The total Raman dataset was split into two parts: 80% for training; while 20% for testing. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and leave-one patient-out, cross validation (LOPCV) were implemented on training dataset to develop diagnostic algorithms for tissue classification. PLS-DA-LOPCV shows that simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy on training dataset provides a diagnostic sensitivity of 97.0% and specificity of 97.4% for ESCC classification. Further, the diagnostic algorithm applied to the independent testing dataset based on simultaneous FP/HW Raman technique gives a predictive diagnostic sensitivity of 92.7% and specificity of 93.6% for ESCC identification, which is superior to either FP or HW Raman technique alone. This work demonstrates that the simultaneous FP/HW fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique improves real-time in vivo diagnosis of esophageal neoplasia at endoscopy.

  9. Comparison of FTIR-ATR and Raman spectroscopy in determination of VLDL triglycerides in blood serum with PLS regression (United States)

    Oleszko, Adam; Hartwich, Jadwiga; Wójtowicz, Anna; Gąsior-Głogowska, Marlena; Huras, Hubert; Komorowska, Małgorzata


    Hypertriglyceridemia, related with triglyceride (TG) in plasma above 1.7 mmol/L is one of the cardiovascular risk factors. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are the main TG carriers. Despite being time consuming, demanding well-qualified staff and expensive instrumentation, ultracentrifugation technique still remains the gold standard for the VLDL isolation. Therefore faster and simpler method of VLDL-TG determination is needed. Vibrational spectroscopy, including FT-IR and Raman, is widely used technique in lipid and protein research. The aim of this study was assessment of Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in determination of VLDL-TG directly in serum with the isolation step omitted. TG concentration in serum and in ultracentrifugated VLDL fractions from 32 patients were measured with reference colorimetric method. FT-IR and Raman spectra of VLDL and serum samples were acquired. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for calibration and leave-one-out cross validation. Our results confirmed possibility of reagent-free determination of VLDL-TG directly in serum with both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Quantitative VLDL testing by FT-IR and/or Raman spectroscopy applied directly to maternal serum seems to be promising screening test to identify women with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and patient friendly method of choice based on ease of performance, accuracy and efficiency.

  10. Characterization of un-irradiated MIMAS MOX fuel by Raman spectroscopy and EPMA (United States)

    Talip, Zeynep; Peuget, Sylvain; Magnin, Magali; Tribet, Magaly; Valot, Christophe; Vauchy, Romain; Jégou, Christophe


    In this study, Raman spectroscopy technique was implemented to characterize un-irradiated MIMAS (MIcronized - MASter blend) MOX fuel samples with average 7 wt.% Pu content and different damage levels, 13 years after fabrication, one year after thermal recovery and soon after annealing, respectively. The impacts of local Pu content, deviation from stoichiometry and self-radiation damage on Raman spectrum of the studied MIMAS MOX samples were assessed. MIMAS MOX fuel has three different phases Pu-rich agglomerate, coating phase and uranium matrix. In order to distinguish these phases, Raman results were associated with Pu content measurements performed by Electron Microprobe Analysis. Raman results show that T2g frequency significantly shifts from 445 to 453 cm-1 for Pu contents increasing from 0.2 to 25 wt.%. These data are satisfactorily consistent with the calculations obtained with Gruneisen parameters. It was concluded that the position of the T2g band is mainly controlled by Pu content and self-radiation damage. Deviation from stoichiometry does not have a significant influence on T2g band position. Self-radiation damage leads to a shift of T2g band towards lower frequency (∼1-2 cm-1 for the UO2 matrix of damaged sample). However, this shift is difficult to quantify for the coating phase and Pu agglomerates given the dispersion of high Pu concentrations. In addition, 525 cm-1 band, which was attributed to sub-stoichiometric structural defects, is presented for the first time for the self-radiation damaged MOX sample. Thanks to the different oxidation resistance of each phase, it was shown that laser induced oxidation could be alternatively used to identify the phases. It is demonstrated that micro-Raman spectroscopy is an efficient technique for the characterization of heterogeneous MOX samples, due to its low spatial resolution.

  11. Investigation of the composition of anabolic tablets using near infrared spectroscopy and Raman chemical imaging. (United States)

    Rebiere, Hervé; Ghyselinck, Céline; Lempereur, Laurent; Brenier, Charlotte


    The use of performance enhancing drugs is a widespread phenomenon in professional and leisure sports. A spectroscopic study was carried out on anabolic tablets labelled as 5 mg methandienone tablets provided by police departments. The analytical approach was based on a two-step methodology: a fast analysis of tablets using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to assess sample homogeneity based on their global composition, followed by Raman chemical imaging of one sample per NIR profile to obtain information on sample formulation. NIR spectroscopy assisted by a principal components analysis (PCA) enabled fast discrimination of different profiles based on the excipient formulation. Raman hyperspectral imaging and multivariate curve resolution - alternating least square (MCR-ALS) provided chemical images of the distribution of the active substance and excipients within tablets and facilitated identification of the active compounds. The combination of NIR spectroscopy and Raman chemical imaging highlighted dose-to-dose variations and succeeded in the discrimination of four different formulations out of eight similar samples of anabolic tablets. Some samples contained either methandienone or methyltestosterone whereas one sample did not contain an active substance. Other ingredients were sucrose, lactose, starch or talc. Both techniques were fast and non-destructive and therefore can be carried out as exploratory methods prior to destructive screening methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Non-targeted detection of milk powder adulteration using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics: melamine case study. (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Farris, Samantha; Mossoba, Magdi M; Moore, Jeffrey C; Yakes, Betsy Jean


    Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics was explored as a rapid, non-targeted screening method for the detection of milk powder (MP) adulteration using melamine as an example contaminant. Raman spectroscopy and an unsupervised pattern-recognition method, principal component analysis (PCA), allowed for the differentiation of authentic MPs from adulterated ones at concentrations > 1.0% for dry-blended (DB) samples and > 0.30% for wet-blended (WB) ones. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), a supervised pattern-recognition method, was also used to classify test samples as adulterated or authentic. Combined statistics at a 97% confidence level from the SIMCA models correctly classified adulteration of MP with melamine at concentrations ≥ 0.5% for DB samples and ≥ 0.30% for WB ones, while no false-positives from authentic MPs were found when the spectra in the 600-700 cm - 1 range were pre-processed using standard normal variate (SNV) followed by a gap-segment derivatisation. The combined technique of Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics proved to be a useful tool for the rapid and cost-efficient non-targeted detection of adulteration in MP at per cent spiking levels.

  13. Structural refinement, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of wurtzite Mn-doped Zn O pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquina, J.; Martin, J.; Luengo, J.; Vera, F.; Roa, L. [Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Optica, Universidad de los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Gonzalez, J. [Centro de Estudios de Semiconductores, Universidad de los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Rodriguez, F.; Renero L, C.; Valiente, R. [Malta-Consolider Team, CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, Santander 69005 (Spain); Delgado, G. E., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Cristalografia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes, Merida 5101 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)


    We report the results of the Rietveld refinement, photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of Mn-doped Zn O ceramic pellets. Rietveld refinement shows that samples crystallize in the wurtzite structure and for the Mn-doped sample indicated that the Mn atoms substitute the Zn tetrahedral crystallographic sites in the Zn O host lattice. The emission and absorption spectra of Mn-doped Zn O have been investigated in the visible-UV region and the data have been interpreted in terms of the wurtzite Zn O electronic structure. Two broad bands, one due to superposition between donor bound excitons (DX) and free excitons (FX) and other due free-to bond excitonic recombination (FB) dominates the low-temperature photoluminescence spectra of Mn-doped Zn O bulk. In the Raman spectrum, an extra mode at ∼520 cm{sup -1} has been observed in agreement with earlier works, and it is an indicator for the incorporation of Mn{sup +2} ions into the Zn O host matrix since it is not is observed in Zn O pristine. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) technique, and Raman spectroscopies were performed to study these effects. (Author)

  14. Raman spectroscopy of bio fluids: an exploratory study for oral cancer detection (United States)

    Brindha, Elumalai; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu


    ion for various disease diagnosis including cancers. Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in India and it accounts for one third of the global oral cancer burden. Raman spectroscopy of tissues has gained much attention in the diagnostic oncology, as it provides unique spectral signature corresponding to metabolic alterations under different pathological conditions and micro-environment. Based on these, several studies have been reported on the use of Raman spectroscopy in the discrimination of diseased conditions from their normal counterpart at cellular and tissue level but only limited studies were available on bio-fluids. Recently, optical characterization of bio-fluids has also geared up for biomarker identification in the disease diagnosis. In this context, an attempt was made to study the metabolic variations in the blood, urine and saliva of oral cancer patients and normal subjects using Raman spectroscopy. Principal Component based Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA) followed by Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation (LOOCV) was employed to find the statistical significance of the present technique in discriminating the malignant conditions from normal subjects.

  15. OCT of early dental caries: a comparative study with histology and Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Hewko, Mark D.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine; Sowa, Michael G.


    Early dental caries result from destruction of the tooth's outer mineral matrix by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaques. Early caries begin as surface disruptions where minerals are leached from the teeth resulting in regions of decreased mineral matrix integrity. Visually, these early carious regions appear as white spots due to the higher backscattering of incident light. With age these areas may become stained by organic compounds. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination of human teeth demonstrates a difference in penetration depth of the OCT signal into the carious region in comparison with sound enamel. However, while OCT demonstrates a structural difference in the enamel in the region of the caries, this technique provides little insight into the source of this difference. Raman spectroscopy provides biochemical measures derived from hydroxyapatite within the enamel as well as information on the crystallinity of the enamel matrix. The differences in the biochemical and morphological features of early caries and intact sound enamel are compared. Histological thin sections confirm the observations by OCT morphological imaging while Raman spectroscopy allows for biochemical identification of carious regions by a non-destructive method. Visual examination and conventional radiographic imaging of the intact tooth are used in clinical assessment prior to optical measurements. The combination of OCT, Raman spectroscopy and thin section histology aid in determining the changes that give rise to the visual white spot lesions.

  16. Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of 1,3,5-hexatrienes in the lowest excited triplet state. The potential energy surface in T1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilbrandt, R.; Langkilde, F.W.; Brouwer, A.M.; Negri, F.; Orlandi, G.


    Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy is applied to the study of the T1 state of 1,3,5-hexatriene and deuteriated and methylated derivatives in solution. The technique is described briefly. The experimentally obtained resonance Raman spectra are discussed in the light of theoretical Quantum

  17. In operando Raman spectroscopy as a tool for investigation of solid oxide electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund; Holtappels, Peter; Walker, Robert

    in situ monitoring with techniques capable of resolving specific chemical changes that occur in real time. For instance Raman spectroscopy may yield insight into the presence of segregated oxide species or contaminating impurities on the electrodes during operation. In the work presented here, Raman...... polarisation. Conventionally, the solid oxide electrodes have been studied by electrochemical techniques during operation, and then analyzed post-mortem using electron microscopy, elemental analyses etc. However, accurate interpretation of the electrochemical response from the electrodes requires careful......Solid oxide electrodes are important in a number of technologies including solid oxide fuel cells, solid oxide electrolysis cells, gas sensors and electrochemical gas purification. The electrodes operate at elevated temperatures (300-900 °C), while they are subjected to gas flow and electrical...

  18. Application of the Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of organic pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato B, R.Y.; Medina G, C.; Medina V, J.; Frausto R, C.


    Raman spectra of organophosphate, organo chlorine and bipyridyl pesticides are presented in this study. They have been obtained satisfactorily by the NlR-Raman spectroscopy technique. Pesticides have been analyzed in solution or as a solid in glass containers and on aluminum substrates. This analytic technique can be an alternative tool for the detection of pesticides in the agriculture, presenting advantages as be quick, not destructive and require little or no sample preparation. Moreover, samples can be analyzed through transparent containers avoiding contact with the toxic substances. The implementation of the aluminium substrate is easy and practical. Moreover, it is commercially available and does not need a previous preparation. The analysis of a mixture of two pesticides in a β carotene solution is shown. (Author) 25 refs., 8 figs

  19. Application of Raman spectroscopy to identification and sorting of post-consumer plastics for recycling (United States)

    Sommer, Edward J.; Rich, John T.


    A high accuracy rapid system for sorting a plurality of waste products by polymer type. The invention involves the application of Raman spectroscopy and complex identification techniques to identify and sort post-consumer plastics for recycling. The invention reads information unique to the molecular structure of the materials to be sorted to identify their chemical compositions and uses rapid high volume sorting techniques to sort them into product streams at commercially viable throughput rates. The system employs a laser diode (20) for irradiating the material sample (10), a spectrograph (50) is used to determine the Raman spectrum of the material sample (10) and a microprocessor based controller (70) is employed to identify the polymer type of the material sample (10).

  20. Photoluminescence and Raman Spectroscopy Studies of Carbon Nitride Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernández-Torres


    Full Text Available Amorphous carbon nitride films with N/C ratios ranging from 2.24 to 3.26 were deposited by reactive sputtering at room temperature on corning glass, silicon, and quartz as substrates. The average chemical composition of the films was obtained from the semiquantitative energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Photoluminescence measurements were performed to determine the optical band gap of the films. The photoluminescence spectra displayed two peaks: one associated with the substrate and the other associated with CNx films located at ≈2.13±0.02 eV. Results show an increase in the optical band gap from 2.11 to 2.15 eV associated with the increase in the N/C ratio. Raman spectroscopy measurements showed a dominant D band. ID/IG ratio reaches a maximum value for N/C ≈ 3.03 when the optical band gap is 2.12 eV. Features observed by the photoluminescence and Raman studies have been associated with the increase in the carbon sp2/sp3 ratio due to presence of high nitrogen content.

  1. Will Raman meet bacteria on Mars? An overview of the optimal Raman spectroscopic techniques for carotenoid biomarkers detection on mineral backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijschuur, J.H.; Verkaaik, M.F.C.; Davies, G.R.; Ariese, F.


    Raman spectroscopy appears to be an ideal technique for the initial detection of biomarkers, molecules that are potentially indicative of life on planetary bodies elsewhere in our solar system. Carotenoids are particularly useful biomarkers as they are used widely across the species, relatively

  2. UV photostability of insect repellents evaluated through Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Bório, Viviane G.; Fernandes, Adjaci U.; Silveira, Landulfo


    The use of insect repellents either indoors or at places with incidence of solar radiation has been common due to dengue epidemics in Brazil. The lack of studies on the photostability of these substances has motivated this study, where the main goal was to verify the photostability and photodegradation of some of the commercially insect repellents available under the simulated ultraviolet (UV) radiation, by evaluating the molecular changes using dispersive Raman spectroscopy (830 nm excitation). A laboratory-made chamber was used for irradiating the repellents, where UV-A + UV-B radiations (UV-A: 5.5 mW/cm2 and UV-B 1.5 mW/cm2) can be obtained. The chamber internal temperature did not exceed 31 °C during experiments. The compounds n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), IR-3535, andiroba and citronella oils, used as active ingredients in insect repellents, and commercial formula containing DEET (14.5% in ethanol and isopropyl myristate) and IR-3535 (16% in carbopol) were continuously irradiated for 8 h. The Raman spectrum of each sample was obtained before and after UV exposure. The compounds and the commercial formula containing IR-3535 showed photo-stability when irradiated, since no changes in the peaks were found. The commercial formula containing DEET showed spectral decrease at 524, 690, 1003 and 1606 cm-1, assigned to the DEET, and increase at 884 cm-1, assigned to the ethanol. These results indicate that the excipient could influence the photostability of the active ingredient. The Raman spectroscopy can be suitable to monitor the photodegradation under UV irradiation rapidly and reliably.

  3. Raman, Infrared, and Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Identification of Particles in Raw Materials. (United States)

    Lee, Kathryn; Lankers, Markus; Valet, Oliver


    Raw materials need to be of a certain quality with respect to physical and chemical composition. They also need to have no contaminants, including particles, because these could indicate raw material impurities or contaminate the product. Particle identification allows determination of process conditions that caused them and whether the quality of the final product is acceptable. Particles may appear to the eye to be very different things than they actually are. They may be coated with the raw material and may consist of several components; therefore, chemical and elemental analyses are required for accuracy in proper identification and definitive information about their source. Thus, microscope versions of Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are excellent tools for identifying particles in materials. Those tools are fast and accurate, and can provide chemical and elemental composition as well as images that can aid identification. The micro-analysis capabilities allow for easy analysis of different portions of samples so that multiple components can be identified and sample preparation can be reduced or eliminated. The differences in sensitivities of Raman and IR spectroscopies to different functional groups as well as the elemental analysis provided by LIBS and the image analysis provided by the microscopy makes these complementary techniques and provides the advantage of identifying various chemical components. Proper spectral searching techniques and interpretation of the results are important for interpretation and identification of trace contaminants.

  4. Biochemical and molecular characterization of thyroid tissue by micro-Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis (United States)

    Neto, Lázaro P. M.; Martin, Aírton A.; Soto, Claudio A. T.; Santos, André B. O.; Mello, Evandro S.; Pereira, Marina A.; Cernea, Cláudio R.; Brandão, Lenine G.; Canevari, Renata A.


    Thyroid carcinomas represent the main endocrine malignancy and their diagnosis may produce inconclusive results. Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis have shown excellent results on the differentiation of carcinomas. This study aimed to improve the discrimination between different thyroid pathologies combining of both analyses. A total of 35 thyroid tissues samples including normal tissue (n=10), goiter (n=10), papillary (n=10) and follicular carcinomas (n=5) were analyzed. Confocal Raman spectra was obtain by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and CCD detector. The data was processed by the software Labspec5 and Origin 8.5 and analyzed by Minitab® program. The gene expression analysis was performed by qRT-PCR technique for TG, TPO, PDGFB, SERPINA1, LGALS3 and TFF3 genes and statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. The confocal Raman spectroscopy allowed a maximum discrimination of 91.1% between normal and tumor tissues, 84.8% between benign and malignant pathologies and 84.6% among carcinomas analyzed. Significant differences was observed for TG, LGALS3, SERPINA1 and TFF3 genes between benign lesions and carcinomas, and SERPINA1 and TFF3 genes between papillary and follicular carcinomas. Principal component analysis was performed using PC1 and PC2 in the papillary carcinoma samples that showed over gene expression when compared with normal sample, where 90% of discrimination was observed at the Amide 1 (1655 cm-1), and at the tyrosine spectra region (856 cm-1). The discrimination of tissues thyroid carried out by confocal Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis indicate that these techniques are promising tools to be used in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

  5. In Vivo Human Skin Penetration Study of Sunscreens by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Tippavajhala, Vamshi Krishna; de Oliveira Mendes, Thiago; Martin, Airton Abrahão


    This research work mainly deals with the application of confocal Raman spectroscopic technique to study in vivo human skin penetration of sunscreen products, as there are a lot of controversies associated with their skin penetration. Healthy human volunteers were tested for penetration of two commercial sunscreen products into their volar forearm skin for a period of 2 h. Measurements were taken before and after application of these sunscreen products. All the confocal Raman spectra were pre-processed and then subjected to multivariate two-dimensional principal component analysis and classical least squares analysis to determine the skin penetration of these sunscreens in comparison to the "sunscreen product spectrum" which was considered as the control. Score plots of principal component analysis of confocal Raman spectra indicated clear separation between the spectra before and after application of sunscreen products. Loading plots showed the maximum differences in the spectral region from 1590 to 1626 cm -1 where the characteristic peak of the pure sunscreen products was observed. Classical least squares analysis has shown a significant penetration to a depth of 10 μm in the volar forearm skin of healthy human volunteers for both these sunscreen products. The results confirm that the penetration of these tested sunscreen products was restricted to stratum corneum and also prove that confocal Raman spectroscopy is a simple, fast, nondestructive, and noninvasive semi-quantitative analytical technique for these studies.

  6. Blink and You Miss It-Catching Fleeting Catalytic Intermediates by High-Speed 785 nm NIR Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unjaroen, Duenpen; Browne, Wesley R.; Illy, Elizabeth

    It is only in the last two decades that Raman spectros-copy has begun to realize its potential as an almost universally applicable analytical technique from materials and life sciences applications to point of care analysis. This is primarily thanks to the availability of compact laser sources, high

  7. Combined operando Raman/UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy as a tool to study supported metal oxide catalysts at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinnemans, Stanislaus Josephus


    A novel set-up has been developed in which two complementary spectroscopic techniques, namely operando Raman and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy, are combined. With this set-up it is possible to characterize catalytic materials under reaction conditions (high temperature, normal pressure) and in this way on

  8. Profilometry of thin films on rough substrates by Raman spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Ledinský, Martin


    Thin, light-absorbing films attenuate the Raman signal of underlying substrates. In this article, we exploit this phenomenon to develop a contactless thickness profiling method for thin films deposited on rough substrates. We demonstrate this technique by probing profiles of thin amorphous silicon stripes deposited on rough crystalline silicon surfaces, which is a structure exploited in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. Our spatially-resolved Raman measurements enable the thickness mapping of amorphous silicon over the whole active area of test solar cells with very high precision; the thickness detection limit is well below 1 nm and the spatial resolution is down to 500 nm, limited only by the optical resolution. We also discuss the wider applicability of this technique for the characterization of thin layers prepared on Raman/photoluminescence-active substrates, as well as its use for single-layer counting in multilayer 2D materials such as graphene, MoS2 and WS2.

  9. Real-time understanding of lignocellulosic bioethanol fermentation by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewanick Shannon M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A substantial barrier to commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol production is a lack of process specific sensors and associated control strategies that are essential for economic viability. Current sensors and analytical techniques require lengthy offline analysis or are easily fouled in situ. Raman spectroscopy has the potential to continuously monitor fermentation reactants and products, maximizing efficiency and allowing for improved process control. Results In this paper we show that glucose and ethanol in a lignocellulosic fermentation can be accurately monitored by a 785 nm Raman spectroscopy instrument and novel immersion probe, even in the presence of an elevated background thought to be caused by lignin-derived compounds. Chemometric techniques were used to reduce the background before generating calibration models for glucose and ethanol concentration. The models show very good correlation between the real-time Raman spectra and the offline HPLC validation. Conclusions Our results show that the changing ethanol and glucose concentrations during lignocellulosic fermentation processes can be monitored in real-time, allowing for optimization and control of large scale bioconversion processes.

  10. Discrimination of Corsican honey by FT-Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Pierna, JA.


    Full Text Available Honey is a complex and challenging product to analyze due mainly to its composition consisting on various botanical sources. The discrimination of the origin of honey is of prime importance in order to reinforce the consumer trust in this typical food product. But this is not an easy task as usually no single chemical or physical parameter is sufficient. The aim of our paper is to investigate whether FT-Raman spectroscopy as spectroscopic fingerprint technique combined with some chemometric tools can be used as a rapid and reliable method for the discrimination of honey according to their source. In addition to that, different chemometric models are constructed in order to discriminate between Corsican honeys and honey coming from other regions in France, Italy, Austria, Germany and Ireland based on their FT-Raman spectra. These regions show a large variation in their plants. The developed models include the use of exploratory techniques as the Fisher criterion for wavenumber selection and supervised methods as Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA or Support Vector Machines (SVM. All these models showed a correct classification ratio between 85% and 90% of average showing that Raman spectroscopy combined to chemometric treatments is a promising way for rapid and non-expensive discrimination of honey according to their origin.

  11. Raman spectroscopy for the identification of pigments and color measurement in Dugès watercolors (United States)

    Frausto-Reyes, C.; Ortiz-Morales, M.; Bujdud-Pérez, J. M.; Magaña-Cota, G. E.; Mejía-Falcón, R.


    Spectroscopic and colorimetric analysis of a representative set of Dugès watercolor paintings was performed. These paintings were the result of scientific studies carried out by the zoologist Alfredo Dugès, who recorded the fauna of the Mexican Republic between 1853 and 1910. Micro-Raman spectroscopy, with an excitation wavelength of 830 nm, and colorimetric techniques were employed in order to understand if different colors with the same hue were reproduced using the same pigments. The color coordinates of the measured areas were obtained in the CIE L* a* b* color space. Raman analysis showed that, in some cases, to reproduce colors with the same hue the pigment employed was not the same. Pigments identified in the watercolors were vermilion, carbon-based black, lead white, gamboge and chrome yellow, Prussian and ultramarine blue. Some of these pigments have been used since ancient times, others as Prussian blue, chrome yellow and synthetic ultramarine blue arrived to the market at the beginning of the 18th and 19th centuries, respectively. Furthermore, regarding the white color, instead of left the paper unpainted, lead white was detected in the eye of a bird. The green color was obtained by mixing Prussian blue with chrome yellow. The results of this work show the suitability of using Raman spectroscopy for watercolor pigment analysis and colorimetric techniques to measure the color of small areas (246 μm × 246 μm) that was the case for the lead white pigment.

  12. Profiling of liquid crystal displays with Raman spectroscopy: preprocessing of spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanimirovic, Olja; Boelens, Hans F. M.; Mank, Arjan J. G.; Hoefsloot, Huub C. J.; Smilde, Age K.


    Raman spectroscopy is applied for characterizing paintable displays. Few other options than Raman spectroscopy exist for doing so because of the liquid nature of functional materials. The challenge is to develop a method that can be used for estimating the composition of a single display cell on the

  13. Profiling of liquid crystal displays with Raman spectroscopy: Preprocessing of spectra.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanimirovic, O.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Mank, A.J.G.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Smilde, A.K.


    Raman spectroscopy is applied for characterizing paintable displays. Few other options than Raman spectroscopy exist for doing so because of the liquid nature of functional materials. The challenge is to develop a method that can be used for estimating the composition of a single display cell on the

  14. Raman spectroscopy as a tool for the characterization and classification of pollen; Raman-Spektroskopie als Werkzeug fuer die Charakterisierung und Klassifizierung von Pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Franziska


    The chemical composition of pollen, the physiological containers that produce the male gametophytes of seed plants, has been a subject of research of plant physiologists, biochemists, and lately even material scientists for various reasons. The aim of this work was the analysis of whole pollen grains and pollen components by Raman Spectroscopy. These experiments were complemented by other techniques such as Enviromental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), High-Performance- Thin-Layer-Chromatography (HPTLC), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Nuclear-Magnetic-Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR). As reported here, individual fresh pollen grains and their morphological constituents can be characterized and also classified in situ without prior preparation. Classification of pollen is based on their biochemical fingerprint revealed in their Raman spectrum. Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive and can be carried out with single pollen grains or fragments. It could be shown that the biochemical makeup of the pollen (as a part of the recognition/mating system) is altered during formation of a new biological species and that the species-specific chemical similarities and dissimilarities indeed reflect in the Raman spectral fingerprint. On the basis of the chemical information, unsupervised multivariate analysis consisting of hierarchical clustering revealed in most cases chemical similarities between species that were indicative of both phylogenetic relationship and matin behavior. Therefore experiments were conducted that gave the in situ Raman spectroscopic signatures ot the carotenoid molecules. As the data indicates, the in situ Raman spectra of the carotenoid molecules measured in single intact pollen grains provide in situ evidence of interspecies variations in pollen carotenoid content, structure, and/or assembly without prior purification. Results from HPTLC confirmed that carotenoid composition varied greatly between species and that the different in situ spectral

  15. [Research Progress of Raman Spectroscopy on Dyestuff Identification of Ancient Relics and Artifacts]. (United States)

    He, Qiu-ju; Wang, Li-qin


    As the birthplace of Silk Road, China has a long dyeing history. The valuable information about the production time, the source of dyeing material, dyeing process and preservation status were existed in organic dyestuff deriving from cultural relics and artifacts. However, because of the low contents, complex compositions and easily degraded of dyestuff, it is always a challenging task to identify the dyestuff in relics analyzing field. As a finger-print spectrum, Raman spectroscopy owns unique superiorities in dyestuff identification. Thus, the principle, characteristic, limitation, progress and development direction of micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS/µ-Raman), near infrared reflection and Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (NIR-FT-Raman), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonance raman spectroscopy (RRS) have been introduced in this paper. Furthermore, the features of Raman spectra of gardenia, curcumin and other natural dyestuffs were classified by MRS technology, and then the fluorescence phenomena of purpurin excitated with different wavelength laser was compared and analyzed. At last, gray green silver colloidal particles were made as the base, then the colorant of madder was identified combining with thin layer chromatography (TLC) separation technology and SERS, the result showed that the surface enhancement effect of silver colloidal particles could significantly reduce fluorescence background of the Raman spectra. It is pointed out that Raman spectroscopy is a rapid and convenient molecular structure qualitative methodology, which has broad application prospect in dyestuff analysis of cultural relics and artifacts. We propose that the combination of multi-Raman spectroscopy, separation technology and long distance transmission technology are the development trends of Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Towards Environmental Microbial Analysis with Deep UV fluorescence and Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Wanger, G.; Bhartia, R.; Orphan, V. J.; Rowe, A. R.


    The study of microbes from the environment is often facilitated by the fixation of samples prior to analyses in the laboratory. Samples not appropriately preserved can show dramatic changes e.g. unwanted growth, loss of biomass and sample degradation between collection and analysis. To move Deep-UV Raman analyses from model lab organisms to environmental samples the effect of preservation must be evaluated. Deep UV Raman and Fluorescence (i.e. excitation discriminating various types of microbes as well as giving some information on the growth stage of the culture. The fluorescence signal is typically 3-4 orders of magnitude more intense than the Raman signal and enables rapid location of bacteria on a surface and crudely split them into categories. However it suffers from broad spectral features making discrete classification of bacteria problematic. While a far weaker phenomenon, the chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy has been shown capable of discriminating between different bacterial species and has even shown spectral variation in same species under differing growth conditions or growth stages and has even been used to measure microbial activity by measuring the incorporation of stable isotope labeled substrates. Typically these analyses are carried out on well-studied, lab-grown model organisms and while relatively easy, these analyses are performed on cells grow under non-environmentally relevant conditions using rich media types not often found in nature. Here we show the effect on the Raman and fluorescence signal (248 nm Deep-UV excitation) from E. coli and other bacteria, grown in more nutrient limited environments, and fixed/preserved in ethanol, PFA and formalin. These fixatives not only preserve the cells for spectroscopic analysis but are compatible with many common techniques that can be used for further characterization of environmental microbial samples. Ethanol appears to heavily degrade the signals from both Raman and fluorescence while

  17. Identification of anisodamine tablets by Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics. (United States)

    Li, Lian; Zang, Hengchang; Li, Jun; Chen, Dejun; Li, Tao; Wang, Fengshan


    Vibrational spectroscopy including Raman and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has become an attractive tool for pharmaceutical analysis. In this study, effective calibration models for the identification of anisodamine tablet and its counterfeit and the distinguishment of manufacturing plants, based on Raman and NIR spectroscopy, were built, respectively. Anisodamine counterfeit tablets were identified by Raman spectroscopy with correlation coefficient method, and the results showed that the predictive accuracy was 100%. The genuine anisodamine tablets from 5 different manufacturing plants were distinguished by NIR spectroscopy using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models based on interval principal component analysis (iPCA) method. And the results showed the recognition rate and rejection rate were 100% respectively. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy and NIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics are feasible and potential tools for rapid pharmaceutical tablet discrimination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Accurate and Rapid Differentiation of Acinetobacter baumannii Strains by Raman Spectroscopy: a Comparative Study. (United States)

    Ghebremedhin, Meron; Heitkamp, Rae; Yesupriya, Shubha; Clay, Bradford; Crane, Nicole J


    In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the standard for routine bacterial species identification due to its rapidity and low costs for consumables compared to those of traditional DNA-based methods. However, it has been observed that strains of some bacterial species, such as Acinetobacter baumannii strains, cannot be reliably identified using mass spectrometry (MS). Raman spectroscopy is a rapid technique, as fast as MALDI-TOF, and has been shown to accurately identify bacterial strains and species. In this study, we compared hierarchical clustering results for MS, genomic, and antimicrobial susceptibility test data to hierarchical clustering results from Raman spectroscopic data for 31 A. baumannii clinical isolates labeled according to their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis data for strain differentiation. In addition to performing hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), multiple chemometric methods of analysis, including principal-component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), were performed on the MS and Raman spectral data, along with a variety of spectral preprocessing techniques for best discriminative results. Finally, simple HCA algorithms were performed on all of the data sets to explore the relationships between, and natural groupings of, the strains and to compare results for the four data sets. To obtain numerical comparison values of the clustering results, the external cluster evaluation criteria of the Rand index of the HCA dendrograms were calculated. With a Rand index value of 0.88, Raman spectroscopy outperformed the other techniques, including MS (with a Rand index value of 0.58). Copyright © 2017 Ghebremedhin et al.

  19. Application of Raman spectroscopy to identify microcalcifications and underlying breast lesions at stereotactic core needle biopsy (United States)

    Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Saha, Anushree; McGee, Sasha; Galindo, Luis H.; Liu, Wendy; Plecha, Donna; Klein, Nina; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Fitzmaurice, Maryann


    Microcalcifications are a feature of diagnostic significance on a mammogram and a target for stereotactic breast needle biopsy. Here, we report development of a Raman spectroscopy technique to simultaneously identify microcalcification status and diagnose the underlying breast lesion, in real-time, during stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures. Raman spectra were obtained ex vivo from 146 tissue sites from fresh stereotactic breast needle biopsy tissue cores from 33 patients, including 50 normal tissue sites, 77 lesions with microcalcifications, and 19 lesions without microcalcifications, using a compact clinical system. The Raman spectra were modeled based on the breast tissue components and a support vector machine framework was used to develop a single-step diagnostic algorithm to distinguish normal tissue, fibrocystic change (FCC), fibroadenoma (FA) and breast cancer, in the absence and presence of microcalcifications. This algorithm was subjected to leave-one-site-out cross-validation, yielding a positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of 100%, 95.6%, 62.5% and 100% for diagnosis of breast cancer (with or without microcalcifications) and an overall accuracy of 82.2% for classification into specific categories of normal tissue, FCC, FA or breast cancer (with and without microcalcifications). Notably, the majority of breast cancers diagnosed are ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the most common lesion associated with microcalcifications, which could not be diagnosed using previous Raman algorithm(s). Our study demonstrates the potential of Raman spectroscopy to concomitantly detect microcalcifications and diagnose associated lesions, including DCIS, and thus provide real-time feedback to radiologists during such biopsy procedures, reducing non-diagnostic and false negative biopsies. PMID:23729641

  20. Raman spectroscopy application in frozen carrot cooked in different ways and the relationship with carotenoids. (United States)

    Camorani, Paolo; Chiavaro, Emma; Cristofolini, Luigi; Paciulli, Maria; Zaupa, Maria; Visconti, Attilio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta


    Raman spectroscopy, in its confocal micro-Raman variation, has been recently proposed as a spatially resolved method to identify carotenoids in various food matrices, being faster, non-destructive, and avoiding sample extraction, but no data are present in the literature concerning its application to the evaluation of carotenoid pattern changes after thermal treatment of carrots. The effect of three cooking methods (i.e. boiling, steaming and microwaving) was evaluated on frozen carrot, comparing changes on carotenoid profiles measured by means of Raman spectroscopy with their high-performance liquid chromatographic determination and colour. A more pronounced detrimental effect on carotenoids was detected in steamed carrots, in accordance with colour data. Conversely, boiling and, to a lesser extent, microwaving caused an increase in carotenoid concentration. Cooking procedures affected the Raman spectral features of carotenoids, causing a shift of vibration frequencies towards a higher energy, increase in the spectral baseline and peak intensities as well as a broadening of their width, probably in relation to the thermal degradation of longer carotenoids (i.e. the all-trans form) and the isomerization process. In particular, steamed samples showed a significantly higher increase of centre frequency, in accordance with a more pronounced isomerization and changes in colour parameters. This work showed that the evolution of Raman spectral parameters could provide information on carotenoid bioaccessibility for carrots cooked using various methods. This paves the way for a future use of this technique to monitor and optimize cooking processes aimed at maximizing carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Determination of counterfeit medicines by Raman spectroscopy: Systematic study based on a large set of model tablets. (United States)

    Neuberger, Sabine; Neusüß, Christian


    In the last decade, counterfeit pharmaceutical products have become a widespread issue for public health. Raman spectroscopy which is easy, non-destructive and information-rich is particularly suitable as screening method for fast characterization of chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Combined with chemometric techniques, it provides a powerful tool for the analysis and determination of counterfeit medicines. Here, for the first time, a systematic study of the benefits and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of pharmaceutical samples on a large set of model tablets, varying with respect to chemical and physical properties, was performed. To discriminate between the different mixtures, a combination of dispersive Raman spectroscopy performing in backscattering mode and principal component analysis was used. The discrimination between samples with different coatings, a varying amount of active pharmaceutical ingredients and a diversity of excipients were possible. However, it was not possible to distinguish between variations of the press power, mixing quality and granulation. As a showcase, the change in Raman signals of commercial acetylsalicylic acid effervescent tablets due to five different storage conditions was monitored. It was possible to detect early small chemical changes caused by inappropriate storage conditions. These results demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis provides a powerful methodology for the fast and easy characterization of genuine and counterfeit medicines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Classification of oral cancers using Raman spectroscopy of serum (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Talathi, Sneha; Sawant, Sharada; Krishna, C. Murali


    Oral cancers are the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with low 5-year disease free survival rates, attributable to late detection due to lack of reliable screening modalities. Our in vivo Raman spectroscopy studies have demonstrated classification of normal and tumor as well as cancer field effects (CFE), the earliest events in oral cancers. In view of limitations such as requirement of on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions of this approach, feasibility of classification of normal and cancer using serum was explored using 532 nm excitation. In this study, strong resonance features of β-carotenes, present differentially in normal and pathological conditions, were observed. In the present study, Raman spectra of sera of 36 buccal mucosa, 33 tongue cancers and 17 healthy subjects were recorded using Raman microprobe coupled with 40X objective using 785 nm excitation, a known source of excitation for biomedical applications. To eliminate heterogeneity, average of 3 spectra recorded from each sample was subjected to PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Findings indicate average classification efficiency of ~70% for normal and cancer. Buccal mucosa and tongue cancer serum could also be classified with an efficiency of ~68%. Of the two cancers, buccal mucosa cancer and normal could be classified with a higher efficiency. Findings of the study are quite comparable to that of our earlier study, which suggest that there exist significant differences, other than β- carotenes, between normal and cancerous samples which can be exploited for the classification. Prospectively, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

  3. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in blood sera of domestic cats (United States)

    Duarte, Janaina; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Martins, Rodrigo A. L.; Zangaro, Renato A.; Villaverde, Antonio G. J. B.


    Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy has been studied for the last years for many biomedical applications. It is a powerful tool for biological materials analysis. Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis in public health, cats being the principal responsible for the transmission of the disease in Brazil. The objective of this work is to investigate a new method of diagnosis of this disease. NIR Raman spectroscopy was used to detect anti Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in blood sera from domestic cats, without sample preparation. In all, six blood serum samples were used for this study. A previous serological test was done by the Indirect Immunoenzymatic Assay (ELISA) to permit a comparative study between both techniques and it showed that three serum samples were positive and the other three were negative to toxoplasmosis. Raman spectra were taken for all the samples and analyzed by using the principal components analysis (PCA). A diagnosis parameter was defined from the analysis of the second and third principal components of the Raman spectra. It was found that this parameter can detect the infection level of the animal. The results have indicated that NIR Raman spectroscopy, associated to the PCA can be a promising technique for serological analysis, such as toxoplasmosis, allowing a fast and sensitive method of diagnosis.

  4. Investigation of the Brill transition in nylon 6,6 by Raman, THz-Raman, and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (United States)

    Bertoldo Menezes, D.; Reyer, A.; Musso, M.


    The Brill transition is a phase transition process in polyamides related with structural changes between the hydrogen bonds of the lateral functional groups (Cdbnd O) and (Nsbnd H). In this study, we have used the potential of Raman spectroscopy for exploring this phase transition in polyamide 6,6 (nylon 6,6), due to the sensitivity of this spectroscopic technique to small intermolecular changes affecting vibrational properties of relevant functional groups. During a step by step heating and cooling process of the sample we collected Raman spectra allowing us from two-dimensional Raman correlation spectroscopy to identify which spectral regions suffered the largest influence during the Brill transition, and from Terahertz Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy to obtain complementary information, e.g. on the temperature of the sample. This allowed us to grasp signatures of the Brill transition from peak parameters of vibrational modes associated with (Csbnd C) skeletal stretches and (CNH) bending, and to verify the Brill transition temperature at around 160 °C, as well as the reversibility of this phase transition.

  5. Probing of different conformations of piperazine using Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SenGupta, Sumana, E-mail:; Maiti, Nandita, E-mail:; Chadha, Ridhima; Kapoor, Sudhir


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Most stable conformation of piperazine molecule is equatorial–equatorial chair form. • Equatorial–equatorial chair form is predominant in pure solid. • Strongly dipolar equatorial–axial form is most stabilized in aqueous solution. • Equatorial–axial form vertically binds to Ag/Ag{sup +} through axial N-atom. - Abstract: Piperazine exists in a number of energetically close structural conformations, and here, we investigated the dependence of their relative abundance on the surrounding conditions by using Raman and SERS spectroscopy in pure solid, aqueous solution and Ag hydrosol. The experimental results were interpreted by DFT calculations using B3LYP functional with aug-cc-pvdz/LANL2DZ basis sets. In the chair form of piperazine, which is more stable than the skewed boat by ∼8 kcal mol{sup −1}, the two N–H bonds can remain equatorial or axial, leading to three different conformations, eq–eq, eq–ax and ax–ax. The calculated Raman spectrum of the lowest energy eq–eq conformation corresponds well with the experimental spectrum in pure solid, indicating eq–eq to be predominant. But, the contribution of the eq–ax conformation was found to be maximum in aqueous solution. The SERS spectrum revealed that eq–ax conformation was preferably adopted as piperazine was adsorbed vertically through its axial N-atom over silver nanoparticle surface.

  6. Two-step Raman spectroscopy method for tumor diagnosis (United States)

    Zakharov, V. P.; Bratchenko, I. A.; Kozlov, S. V.; Moryatov, A. A.; Myakinin, O. O.; Artemyev, D. N.


    Two-step Raman spectroscopy phase method was proposed for differential diagnosis of malignant tumor in skin and lung tissue. It includes detection of malignant tumor in healthy tissue on first step with identification of concrete cancer type on the second step. Proposed phase method analyze spectral intensity alteration in 1300-1340 and 1640-1680 cm-1 Raman bands in relation to the intensity of the 1450 cm-1 band on first step, and relative differences between RS intensities for tumor area and healthy skin closely adjacent to the lesion on the second step. It was tested more than 40 ex vivo samples of lung tissue and more than 50 in vivo skin tumors. Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine were used for tumors type classification on phase planes. It is shown that two-step phase method allows to reach 88.9% sensitivity and 87.8% specificity for malignant melanoma diagnosis (skin cancer); 100% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity for adenocarcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer); 90.9% sensitivity and 77.8% specificity for squamous cell carcinoma diagnosis (lung cancer).

  7. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease (United States)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.


    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  8. Ultra-violet resonance Raman spectroscopy for the rapid discrimination of urinary tract infection bacteria. (United States)

    Jarvis, Roger M; Goodacre, Royston


    The ability to identify pathogenic organisms rapidly provides significant benefits to clinicians; in particular, with respect to best prescription practices and tracking of recurrent infections. Conventional bioassays require 3-5 days before identification of an organism can be made, thus compromising the effectiveness with which patients can be treated for bacterial infections. We analysed 20 clinical isolates of urinary tract infections (UTI) by ultra-violet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy, utilising 244 nm excitation delivering approximately 0.1 mW laser power at the sample, with typical spectral collection times of 120 s. UVRR results in resonance-enhanced Raman signals for certain chromophoric segments of macromolecules, intensifying those selected bands above what would otherwise be observed for a normal Raman experiment. Utilising the whole-organism 'fingerprints' obtained by UVRR we were able to discriminate successfully between UTI pathogens using chemometric cluster analyses. This work demonstrates significant improvements in the speed with which spectra can be obtained by Raman spectroscopic techniques for the discrimination of clinical bacterial samples.

  9. Handheld Raman Spectroscopy for the Distinction of Essential Oils Used in the Cosmetics Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vargas Jentzsch


    Full Text Available Essential oils are highly appreciated by the cosmetics industry because they have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among others. Since essential oils are natural products, their inclusion in cosmetic formulations is a common practice. Currently, low-quality and/or adulterated essential oils can be found on the market; therefore, analytical methods for control are required. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that can be used for quality control tasks; the portability of modern devices expand the analytical possibilities also to in situ measurements. Fifteen essential oils of interest for the cosmetics industry were measured using a handheld Raman spectrometer, and the assignment of the main bands observed in their average spectra was proposed. In most cases, it is possible to distinguish the essential oils by a simple visual inspection of their characteristic Raman bands. However, for essential oils extracted from closely-related vegetable species and containing the same main component in a very high proportion, the visual inspection of the spectra may be not enough, and the application of chemometric methods is suggested. Characteristic Raman bands for each essential oil can be used to both identify the essential oils and detect adulterations.

  10. Characterization of human skin cells for tissue engineering applications by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Pudlas, Marieke; Koch, Steffen; Bolwien, Carsten; Walles, Heike


    In the field of cell culture and tissue engineering is an increasing need for non-invasive methods to analyze living cells in vitro. One important application is the cell characterization in tissue engineering products. Raman spectroscopy is a method which analyzes cells without lysis, fixation or the use of any chemicals and do not affect cell vitality adversely if suitable laser powers and wavelength are used. This purely optical technique is based on inelastic scattering of laser photons by molecular vibrations of biopolymers. Basically Raman spectra of cells contain typical fingerprint regions and information about cellular properties. Characteristic peaks in Raman spectra could be assigned to biochemical molecules like proteins, nucleic acid or lipids. The distinction of cell types by a multivariate analysis of Raman spectra is possible due to their biochemical differences. As this method allows a characterization of cells without any cell damage it is a promising technology for the quality control of cells in tissue engineering or cell culture applications.

  11. Shifted excitation resonance Raman difference spectroscopy using a microsystem light source at 488 nm (United States)

    Maiwald, M.; Sowoidnich, K.; Schmidt, H.; Sumpf, B.; Erbert, G.; Kronfeldt, H.-D.


    Experimental results in shifted excitation resonance Raman difference spectroscopy (SERRDS) at 488 nm will be presented. A novel compact diode laser system was used as excitation light source. The device is based on a distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser as a pump light source and a nonlinear frequency doubling using a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide crystal. All elements including micro-optics are fixed on a micro-optical bench with a footprint of 25 mm × 5 mm. An easy temperature management of the DFB laser and the crystal was used for wavelength tuning. The second harmonic generation (SHG) provides an additional suppression of the spontaneous emission. Raman spectra of polystyrene demonstrate that no laser bandpass filter is needed for the Raman experiments. Resonance-Raman spectra of the restricted food colorant Tartrazine (FD&C Yellow 5, E 102) in distilled water excited at 488 nm demonstrate the suitability of this light source for SERRDS. A limit of detection (LOD) of 0.4 μmol.l-1 of E102 enables SERRDS at 488 nm for trace detection in e.g. food safety control as an appropriate contactless spectroscopic technique.

  12. Application of FT-Raman spectroscopy for in situ detection of microorganisms on the surface of textiles. (United States)

    Rygula, Anna; Jekiel, Katarzyna; Szostak-Kot, Jadwiga; Wrobel, Tomasz P; Baranska, Malgorzata


    In this work we present the usefulness of FT-Raman spectroscopy for microbiological analysis of textiles. This technique was used for non-destructive identification of Escherichia coli bacteria on cotton and polyester fabrics. It was possible to discriminate between infected and non-infected materials. Moreover, this technique allowed detection of detergent traces as well as investigation of the influence of microorganisms on different textiles. Raman analysis supported by chemometrics (cluster analysis and principal component analysis) was shown to be a method for identification of textiles with inoculum of microorganisms in a short time. The results can be potentially used in the fabric industry and related areas.

  13. Probing charged impurities in suspended graphene using Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ni, Zhen Hua; Yu, Ting; Luo, Zhi Qiang; Wang, Ying Ying; Liu, Lei; Wong, Choun Pei; Miao, Jianmin; Huang, Wei; Shen, Ze Xiang


    Charged impurity (CI) scattering is one of the dominant factors that affects the carrier mobility in graphene. In this paper, we use Raman spectroscopy to probe the charged impurities in suspended graphene. We find that the 2D band intensity is very sensitive to the CI concentration in graphene, while the G band intensity is not affected. The intensity ratio between the 2D and G bands, I(2D)/I(G), of suspended graphene is much stronger compared to that of nonsuspended graphene, due to the extremely low CI concentration in the former. This finding is consistent with the ultrahigh carrier mobility in suspended graphene observed in recent transport measurements. Our results also suggest that at low CI concentrations that are critical for device applications, the I(2D)/I(G) ratio is a better criterion in selecting high quality single layer graphene samples than is the G band blue shift.

  14. High-pressure Raman spectroscopy of phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Wen-Pin, E-mail:; Mao, Wendy L. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zalden, Peter [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut (IA), RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); JARA – Fundamentals of Future Information Technology, RWTH Aachen University, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Lindenberg, Aaron M. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, PULSE Institute, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)


    We used high-pressure Raman spectroscopy to study the evolution of vibrational frequencies of the phase change materials (PCMs) Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, and SnSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}. We found that the critical pressure for triggering amorphization in the PCMs decreases with increasing vacancy concentration, demonstrating that the presence of vacancies, rather than differences in the atomic covalent radii, is crucial for pressure-induced amorphization in PCMs. Compared to the as-deposited amorphous phase, the pressure-induced amorphous phase has a similar vibrational spectrum but requires much lower laser power to transform into the crystalline phase, suggesting different kinetics of crystallization, which may have implications for applications of PCMs in non-volatile data storage.

  15. Monitoring the healing process of rat bones using Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Gamulin, O.; Serec, K.; Bilić, V.; Balarin, M.; Kosović, M.; Drmić, D.; Brčić, L.; Seiwerth, S.; Sikirić, P.


    The healing effect of BPC 157 on rat femoral head osteonecrosis was monitored by Raman spectroscopy. Three groups of rats were defined: an injured group treated with BPC 157 (10 μg/kg/daily ip), an injured control group (treated with saline, 5 ml/kg/daily ip), and an uninjured healthy group. The spectra were recorded and the healing effect assessed on samples harvested from animals which were sacrificed 3 and 6 weeks after being injured. The statistical analysis of the recorded spectra showed statistical differences between the BPC 157-treated, control, and healthy groups of animals. In particular, after 6 weeks the spectral resemblance between the healthy and BPC 157 samples indicated a positive BPC 157 influence on the healing process of rat femoral head.

  16. Engineering Plasmonic Nanopillar Arrays for Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kaiyu

    This Ph.D. thesis presents (i) an in-depth understanding of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in the nanopillar arrays (NPs) for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and (ii) systematic ways of optimizing the fabrication process of NPs to improve their SERS efficiencies.......e., the particle mode and the cavity mode. The particle mode can be hybridized via leaning of pillars. The LSPR wavelength of the cavity mode is dominant only by the diameter of the Si pillar. The presence of a substrate dramatically changes the intensities of these two LSPR modes, by introducing constructive...... displaying a very large average SERS EF of >108. From a practical point of view, the developed SERS substrates are particularity interesting, since they are easy to handle and store and the fabrication is scalable, facilitating a wide and simple use of SERS in sensing applications....

  17. Horizontal silicon nanowires for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Gebavi, Hrvoje; Ristić, Davor; Baran, Nikola; Mikac, Lara; Mohaček-Grošev, Vlasta; Gotić, Marijan; Šikić, Mile; Ivanda, Mile


    The main purpose of this paper is to focus on details of the fabrication process of horizontally and vertically oriented silicon nanowires (SiNWs) substrates for the application of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The fabrication process is based on the vapor-liquid-solid method and electroless-assisted chemical etching, which, as the major benefit, resulting in the development of economical, easy-to-prepare SERS substrates. Furthermore, we examined the fabrication of Au coated Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on the SiNWs substrates in such a way as to diminish the influence of silver NPs corrosion, which, in turn, enhanced the SERS time stability, thus allowing for wider commercial applications. The substances on which high SERS sensitivity was proved are rhodamine (R6G) and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA), with the detection limits of 10-8 M and 10-6 M, respectively.

  18. High-pressure polymorphism of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin): Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Crowell, Ethan L.; Dreger, Zbigniew A.; Gupta, Yogendra M.


    Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to elucidate the high-pressure polymorphic behavior of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an important pharmaceutical compound known as aspirin. Using a diamond anvil cell (DAC), single crystals of the two polymorphic phases of aspirin existing at ambient conditions (ASA-I and ASA-II) were compressed to 10 GPa. We found that ASA-I does not transform to ASA-II, but instead transforms to a new phase (ASA-III) above ∼2 GPa. It is demonstrated that this transformation primarily introduces structural changes in the bonding and arrangement of the acetyl groups and is reversible upon the release of pressure. In contrast, a less dense ASA-II shows no transition in the pressure range studied, though it appears to exhibit a disordered structure above 7 GPa. Our results suggest that ASA-III is the most stable polymorph of aspirin at high pressures.

  19. Confocal mapping of myelin figures with micro-Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Huang, Jung-Ren; Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Hung Ji; Chiang, Hai-Pang


    We employ confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (CMRS) with submicron spatial resolution to study the myelin structures (cylindrical lamellae) composed of nested surfactant C12E3 or lipid DMPC bilayers. The CMRS mapping indicates that for a straight C12E3 myelin, the surfactant concentration increases with the myelin width and is higher in the center region than in the peripheral region. For a curved C12E3 myelin, the convex side has a higher surfactant concentration than the corresponding concave side. The spectrum of DMPC myelins undergoes a qualitative change as the temperature increases above 60 °C, suggesting that the surfactant molecules may be damaged. Our work demonstrates the utility of CMRS in bio-soft material research.

  20. Detection of Pistachio Aflatoxin Using Raman Spectroscopy and Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mohammadigol


    Full Text Available Pistachio contamination to aflatoxin has been known as a serious problem for pistachio exportation. With regards to the increasing demand for Raman spectroscopy to detect and classify different materials and also the current experimental and technical problems for measuring toxin (such as being expensive and time-consuming, the main objective of this study was to detect aflatoxin contamination in pistachio by using Raman spectroscopy technique and artificial neural networks. Three sets of samples were prepared: non-contaminated (healthy and contaminated samples with 20 and 100 ppb of the total aflatoxins (B1+B2+G1+G2. After spectral acquisition, considering to the results, spectral data were normalized and then principal components (PCs were extracted to reduce the data dimensions. For classification of the samples spectra, an artificial neural network was used with a feed forward back propagation algorithm for 4 inputs and 3 neurons in hidden layer. Mean overall accuracy was achieved to be 98 percent; therefore, non-liner Raman spectra data modeling by ANN for samples classification was successful.

  1. Raman spectroscopy method for subsurface detection of food powders through plastic layers (United States)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Schmidt, Walter F.; Kim, Moon S.; Chan, Diane E.; Bae, Abigail


    Proper chemical analyses of materials in sealed containers are important for quality control purpose. Although it is feasible to detect chemicals at top surface layer, it is relatively challenging to detect objects beneath obscuring surface. This study used spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) method to detect urea, ibuprofen and acetaminophen powders contained within one or more (up to eight) layers of gelatin capsules to demonstrate subsurface chemical detection and identification. A 785 nm point-scan Raman spectroscopy system was used to acquire spatially offset Raman spectra for an offset range of 0 to 10 mm from the surfaces of 24 encapsulated samples, using a step size of 0.1 mm to obtain 101 spectral measurements per sample. With increasing offset distance, the fraction of information from the deeper subsurface material increased compared to that from the top surface material. The series of measurements was analyzed to differentiate and identify the top surface and subsurface materials. Containing mixed contributions from the powder and capsule, the SORS of each sample was decomposed using self modeling mixture analysis (SMA) to obtain pure component spectra of each component and corresponding components were identified using spectral information divergence values. Results show that SORS technique together with SMA method has a potential for non-invasive detection of chemicals at deep subsurface layer.

  2. Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Essendoubi, M; Gobinet, C; Reynaud, R; Angiboust, J F; Manfait, M; Piot, O


    Topical delivery of molecules into the human skin is one of the main issues in dermatology and cosmetology. Several techniques were developed to study molecules penetration into the human skin. Although widely accepted, the conventional methods such as Franz diffusion cells are unable to provide the accurate localization of actives in the skin layers. A different approach based on Raman spectroscopy has been proposed to follow-up the permeation of actives. It presents a high molecular specificity to distinguish exogenous molecules from skin constituents. Raman micro-imaging was applied to monitor the skin penetration of hyaluronic acids (HA) of different molecular weights. The first step, was the spectral characterization of these HA. After, we have determined spectral features of HA by which they can be detected in the skin. In the second part, transverse skin sections were realized and spectral images were recorded. Our results show a difference of skin permeation of the three HA. Indeed, HA with low molecular weight (20-300 kDa) passes through the stratum corneum in contrast of the impermeability of high molecular weight HA (1000-1400 kDa). Raman spectroscopy represents an analytical, non-destructive, and dynamic method to evaluate the permeation of actives in the skin layers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Advances in Raman spectroscopy for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (United States)

    Sudworth, Caroline D.; Archer, John K. J.; Black, Richard A.; Mann, David


    Within the next 50 years Alzheimer's disease is expected to affect 100 million people worldwide. The progressive decline in the mental health of the patient is caused by severe brain atrophy generated by the breakdown and aggregation of proteins, resulting in β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The greatest challenge to Alzheimer's disease lies in the pursuit of an early and definitive diagnosis, in order that suitable treatment can be administered. At the present time, definitive diagnosis is restricted to post-mortem examination. Alzheimer's disease also remains without a long-term cure. This research demonstrates the potential role of Raman spectroscopy, combined with principle components analysis (PCA), as a diagnostic method. Analyses of ethically approved ex vivo post-mortem brain tissues (originating from frontal and occipital lobes) from control (3 normal elderly subjects and 3 Huntingdon's disease subjects) and Alzheimer's disease (12 subjects) brain sections, and a further set of 12 blinded samples are presented. Spectra originating from these tissues are highly reproducible, and initial results indicate a vital difference in protein content and conformation, relating to the abnormally high levels of aggregated proteins in the diseased tissues. Further examination of these spectra using PCA allows for the separation of control from diseased tissues. The validation of the PCA models using blinded samples also displays promise for the identification of Alzheimer's disease, in conjunction with secondary information regarding other brain diseases and dementias. These results provide a route for Raman spectroscopy as a possible non-invasive, non-destructive tool for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry of isotopically engineered graphene systems. (United States)

    Frank, Otakar; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Kalbac, Martin


    CONSPECTUS: The special properties of graphene offer immense opportunities for applications to many scientific fields, as well as societal needs, beyond our present imagination. One of the important features of graphene is the relatively simple tunability of its electronic structure, an asset that extends the usability of graphene even further beyond present experience. A direct injection of charge carriers into the conduction or valence bands, that is, doping, represents a viable way of shifting the Fermi level. In particular, electrochemical doping should be the method of choice, when higher doping levels are desired and when a firm control of experimental conditions is needed. In this Account, we focus on the electrochemistry of graphene in combination with in situ Raman spectroscopy, that is, in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry. Such a combination of methods is indeed very powerful, since Raman spectroscopy not only can readily monitor the changes in the doping level but also can give information on eventual stress or disorder in the material. However, when Raman spectroscopy is employed, one of its main strengths lies in the utilization of isotope engineering during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of the graphene samples. The in situ Raman spectroelectrochemical study of multilayered systems with smartly designed isotope compositions in individual layers can provide a plethora of knowledge about the mutual interactions (i) between the graphene layers themselves, (ii) between graphene layers and their directly adjacent environment (e.g., substrate or electrolyte), and (iii) between graphene layers and their extended environment, which is separated from the layer by a certain number of additional graphene layers. In this Account, we show a few examples of such studies, from monolayer to two-layer and three-layer specimens and considering both turbostratic and AB interlayer ordering. Furthermore, the concept and the method can be extended further

  5. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures. A lithography and Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J.


    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic, developer for exposed PMMA. We also have found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data shows that there both tightly bonded –OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded –OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded –OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA. The impact of the understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream.

  6. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures: a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study. (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas E; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J


    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic developer for exposed PMMA. We have also found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data show that both tightly bonded -OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded -OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded -OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA, pointing to possible ordering or reduced amorphization due to the liquid state. The impact of understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream.

  7. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures: a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J.


    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic, developer for exposed PMMA. We also have found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data shows that there both tightly bonded –OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded –OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded –OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA. The impact of the understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream.

  8. Development characteristics of polymethyl methacrylate in alcohol/water mixtures: a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study (United States)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Costales, Maya; Gosztola, David J.


    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely used resist in electron beam lithography. This paper reports on a lithography and Raman spectroscopy study of development characteristics of PMMA in methanol, ethanol and isopropanol mixtures with water as developers. We have found that ethanol/water mixtures at a 4:1 volume ratio are an excellent, high resolution, non-toxic developer for exposed PMMA. We have also found that the proper methodology to use so that contrast data can be compared to techniques used in polymer science is not to rinse the developed resist but to immediately dry with nitrogen. Our results show how powerful simple lithographic techniques can be used to study ternary polymer solvent solutions when compared to other techniques used in the literature. Raman data show that both tightly bonded -OH groups and non-hydrogen bonded -OH groups play a role in the development of PMMA. Tightly hydrogen bonded -OH groups show pure Lorentzian Raman absorption only in the concentration ranges where ethanol/water and IPA/water mixtures are effective developers of PMMA, pointing to possible ordering or reduced amorphization due to the liquid state. The impact of understanding these interactions may open doors to a new developers of other electron beam resists that can reduce the toxicity of the waste stream.

  9. Width-Increased Dual-Pump Enhanced Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (WIDECARS) (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Cutler, Andrew D.


    WIDECARS is a dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy technique that is capable of simultaneously measuring temperature and species mole fractions of N2, O2, H2, C2H4, CO, and CO2. WIDECARS is designed for measurements of all the major species (except water) in supersonic combustion flows fueled with hydrogen and hydrogen/ethylene mixtures. The two lowest rotational energy levels of hydrogen detectable by WIDECARS are H2 S(3) and H2 S(4). The detection of these lines gives the system the capability to measure temperature and species concentrations in regions of the flow containing pure hydrogen fuel at room temperature.

  10. In-situ Raman spectroscopy as a characterization tool for carbon electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitz, J.-C.; Joho, F.B.; Novak, P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Lithium intercalation and de-intercalation into/from graphite electrodes in a nonaqueous electrolyte has been studied using in-situ Raman spectroscopy. Our experiments give information on the electrode-electrolyte interface with improved spatial resolution. The spectra taken from the electrode surface change with electrode potential. In this way, information on the nature of the chemical species present during charging and discharging half cycles is gained. For the first time, mapping techniques were applied to investigate if lithium intercalation proceeds homogeneously on the carbon electrode. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs.

  11. Identification of Pigments in Colored Layers of a Painting by Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Petrova, O. I.; Pankin, D. V.; Povolotckaia, A. V.; Borisov, E. V.; Beznosova, M. O.; Krivul'ko, T. A.; Kurochkin, A. V.


    Using the method of Raman spectroscopy the pigment composition is investigated of, and the brushwork technique used in, the original layer of a 19th century painting is established. It is an overdoor worked, presumably, by Antoine Jean-Etienne Faivre. It is established that the artist used the following pigments: cinnabar and dyes on the basis of goethite and hematite (for red, yellow-orange, and brown shades), ultramarine and Prussian blue (for blue shades), and Emerald green and a mixture of blue and yellow shades (to obtain a green color). It is determined that white lead was used a primer.

  12. Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of amino acids and nucleotide bases for target bacterial vibrational mode identification (United States)

    Guicheteau, Jason; Argue, Leanne; Hyre, Aaron; Jacobson, Michele; Christesen, Steven D.


    Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies of bacteria have reported a wide range of vibrational mode assignments associated with biological material. We present Raman and SER spectra of the amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, glutamine, cysteine, alanine, proline, methionine, asparagine, threonine, valine, glycine, serine, leucine, isoleucine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid and the nucleic acid bases adenosine, guanosine, thymidine, and uridine to better characterize biological vibrational mode assignments for bacterial target identification. We also report spectra of the bacteria Bacillus globigii, Pantoea agglomerans, and Yersinia rhodei along with band assignments determined from the reference spectra obtained.

  13. Microfluidic device for continuous single cells analysis via Raman spectroscopy enhanced by integrated plasmonic nanodimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; De Grazia, Antonio


    In this work a Raman flow cytometer is presented. It consists of a microfluidic device that takes advantages of the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and flow cytometry. The microfluidic device integrates calibrated microfluidic channels-where the cells can flow one-by-one -, allowing single...... cell Raman analysis. The microfluidic channel integrates plasmonic nanodimers in a fluidic trapping region. In this way it is possible to perform Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on single cell. These allow a label-free analysis, providing information about the biochemical content of membrane and cytoplasm...

  14. Combined SEM/EDX and micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis of uranium minerals from a former uranium mine. (United States)

    Stefaniak, Elzbieta A; Alsecz, Anita; Frost, Ray; Máthé, Zoltán; Sajó, István E; Török, Szabina; Worobiec, Anna; Van Grieken, René


    Samples of the secondary uranium minerals collected in the abandoned uranium mine at Pecs (Hungary) were investigated by two micro-techniques: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) and micro-Raman spectroscopy (MRS). They were applied to locate U-rich particles and identify the chemical form and oxidation state of the uranium compounds. The most abundant mineral was a K and/or Na uranyl sulphate (zippeite group). U(VI) was also present in the form showing intensive Raman scattering at 860 cm(-1) which can be attributed to uranium trioxide. This research has shown the successful application of micro-Raman spectroscopy for the identification of uranyl mineral species on the level of individual particles.

  15. Monitoring the recrystallisation of amorphous xylitol using Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering. (United States)

    Palomäki, Emmi; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Ehlers, Henrik; Svedström, Kirsi; Huotari, Simo; Yliruusi, Jouko


    In this paper we present a fast model system for monitoring the recrystallization of quench-cooled amorphous xylitol using Raman spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering. The use of these two methods enables comparison between surface and bulk crystallization. Non-ordered mesoporous silica micro-particles were added to the system in order to alter the rate of crystallization of the amorphous xylitol. Raman measurements showed that adding silica to the system increased the rate of surface crystallization, while X-ray measurements showed that the rate of bulk crystallization decreased. Using this model system it is possible to measure fast changes, which occur in minutes or within a few hours. Raman-spectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering were found to be complementary techniques when assessing surface and bulk crystallization of amorphous xylitol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Raman spectroscopy of boron-doped single-layer graphene. (United States)

    Kim, Yoong Ahm; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Takuya; Endo, Morinobu; Fujimori, Toshihiko; Kaneko, Katsumi; Terrones, Mauricio; Behrends, Jan; Eckmann, Axel; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Novoselov, Kostya S; Saito, Riichiro; Dresselhaus, Mildred S


    The introduction of foreign atoms, such as nitrogen, into the hexagonal network of an sp(2)-hybridized carbon atom monolayer has been demonstrated and constitutes an effective tool for tailoring the intrinsic properties of graphene. Here, we report that boron atoms can be efficiently substituted for carbon in graphene. Single-layer graphene substitutionally doped with boron was prepared by the mechanical exfoliation of boron-doped graphite. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that the amount of substitutional boron in graphite was ~0.22 atom %. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the boron atoms were spaced 4.76 nm apart in single-layer graphene. The 7-fold higher intensity of the D-band when compared to the G-band was explained by the elastically scattered photoexcited electrons by boron atoms before emitting a phonon. The frequency of the G-band in single-layer substitutionally boron-doped graphene was unchanged, which could be explained by the p-type boron doping (stiffening) counteracting the tensile strain effect of the larger carbon-boron bond length (softening). Boron-doped graphene appears to be a useful tool for engineering the physical and chemical properties of graphene.

  17. Exploring type II microcalcifications in benign and premalignant breast lesions by shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) (United States)

    Liang, Lijia; Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Haipeng; Xu, Shuping; Zhang, Zhe; Hu, Chengxu; Bi, Lirong; Fan, Zhimin; Han, Bing; Xu, Weiqing


    The characteristics of type II microcalcifications in fibroadenoma (FB), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) breast tissues has been analyzed by the fingerprint features of Raman spectroscopy. Fresh breast tissues were first handled to frozen sections and then they were measured by normal Raman spectroscopy. Due to inherently low sensitivity of Raman scattering, Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) technique was utilized. A total number of 71 Raman spectra and 70 SHINERS spectra were obtained from the microcalcifications in benign and premalignant breast tissues. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish the type II microcalcifications between these tissues. This is the first time to detect type II microcalcifications in premalignant (ADH and DCIS) breast tissue frozen sections, and also the first time SHINERS has been utilized for breast cancer detection. Conclusions demonstrated in this paper confirm that SHINERS has great potentials to be applied to the identification of breast lesions as an auxiliary method to mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  18. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy of single diamond nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, K. W.; Wang, J. Y.; Ko, T. Y.


    The article reports techniques that we have devised for immobilizing and allocating a single nanodiamond on the electron beam (E-beam) lithography patterned semiconductor substrate. By combining the E-beam patterned smart substrate with the high throughput of a confocal microscope, we are able to overcome the limitation of the spatial resolution of optical techniques (∼1 μm) to obtain the data on individual nano-object with a size range between 100 and 35 nm. We have observed a broad photoluminescence centered at about 700 nm from a single nanodiamond which is due to the defects, vacancies in the nanodiamonds, and the disordered carbon layer covered on the nanodiamond surface. We also observe red-shift in energy and broadening in linewidth of the sp 3 bonding Raman peak when the size of the single nanodiamond is reduced due to the phonon-confinement effects.

  19. Characterization and noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer with serum surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and genetic algorithms (United States)

    Li, Shaoxin; Li, Linfang; Zeng, Qiuyao; Zhang, Yanjiao; Guo, Zhouyi; Liu, Zhiming; Jin, Mei; Su, Chengkang; Lin, Lin; Xu, Junfa; Liu, Songhao


    This study aims to characterize and classify serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra between bladder cancer patients and normal volunteers by genetic algorithms (GAs) combined with linear discriminate analysis (LDA). Two group serum SERS spectra excited with nanoparticles are collected from healthy volunteers (n = 36) and bladder cancer patients (n = 55). Six diagnostic Raman bands in the regions of 481-486, 682-687, 1018-1034, 1313-1323, 1450-1459 and 1582-1587 cm-1 related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids are picked out with the GAs and LDA. By the diagnostic models built with the identified six Raman bands, the improved diagnostic sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 100% were acquired for classifying bladder cancer patients from normal serum SERS spectra. The results are superior to the sensitivity of 74.6% and specificity of 97.2% obtained with principal component analysis by the same serum SERS spectra dataset. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves further confirmed the efficiency of diagnostic algorithm based on GA-LDA technique. This exploratory work demonstrates that the serum SERS associated with GA-LDA technique has enormous potential to characterize and non-invasively detect bladder cancer through peripheral blood.

  20. Distinction of gastric cancer tissue based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhou, Hanjing; Gong, Longjing; Liu, Shu; Zhou, Zhenghua; Mao, Weizheng; Zheng, Rong-er


    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors with high recurrence rate and mortality rate in China. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on gold colloids for distinguishing gastric tissues. Gold colloids were directly mixed with the supernatant of homogenized tissues to heighten the Raman signal of various biomolecule. A total of 56 samples were collected from normal (30) and cancer (26). Raman spectra were obtained with a 785nm excitation in the range of 600-1800 cm-1. Significant spectral differences in SERS mainly belong to nucleic acid, proteins and lipids, particularly in the range of 653, 726, 828, 963, 1004, 1032, 1088, 1130, 1243, 1369, 1474, 1596, 1723 cm-1. PCA-LDA algorithms with leave-one-patient-out cross validation yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 90% (27/30), specificities of 88.5% (23/26), and accuracy of 89.3% (50/56), for classification of normal and cancer tissues. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) surface is 0.917, illustrating the diagnostic utility of SERS together with PCA-LDA to identify gastric cancer from normal tissue. This work demonstrated the SERS techniques can be useful for gastric cancer detection, and it is also a potential technique for accurately identifying cancerous tumor, which is of considerable clinical importance to real-time diagnosis.

  1. Quick detection of traditional Chinese medicine ‘Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma’ pieces by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hao; Shi, Hong; Chen, Weiwei; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Xu, Qian; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Chen, Rong


    A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method was developed for the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine ‘Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma’ pieces (AMRP) for the first time with the aim to develop a quick method for traditional Chinese medicine detection. Both Raman spectra and SERS spectra were obtained from AMRP, and tentative assignments of the Raman bands in the measured spectra suggested that only a few weak Raman peaks could be observed in the regular Raman spectra, while primary Raman peaks at around 536, 555, 619, 648, 691, 733, 790, 958, 1004, 1031, 1112, 1244, 1324, 1395, 1469, 1574 and 1632 cm −1 could be observed in the SERS spectra, with the strongest signals at 619, 733, 958, 1324, 1395 and 1469 cm −1 . This was due to a strong interaction between the silver colloids and the AMRP, which led to an extraordinary enhancement in the intensity of the Raman scattering in AMRP. This exploratory study suggests the SERS technique has great potential for providing a novel non-destructive method for effectively and accurately detecting traditional Chinese medicine without complicated separation and extraction. (paper)

  2. Dual-modal cancer detection based on optical pH sensing and Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Kim, Soogeun; Lee, Seung Ho; Min, Sun Young; Byun, Kyung Min; Lee, Soo Yeol


    A dual-modal approach using Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing was investigated to discriminate between normal and cancerous tissues. Raman spectroscopy has demonstrated the potential for in vivo cancer detection. However, Raman spectroscopy has suffered from strong fluorescence background of biological samples and subtle spectral differences between normal and disease tissues. To overcome those issues, pH sensing is adopted to Raman spectroscopy as a dual-modal approach. Based on the fact that the pH level in cancerous tissues is lower than that in normal tissues due to insufficient vasculature formation, the dual-modal approach combining the chemical information of Raman spectrum and the metabolic information of pH level can improve the specificity of cancer diagnosis. From human breast tissue samples, Raman spectra and pH levels are measured using fiber-optic-based Raman and pH probes, respectively. The pH sensing is based on the dependence of pH level on optical transmission spectrum. Multivariate statistical analysis is performed to evaluate the classification capability of the dual-modal method. The analytical results show that the dual-modal method based on Raman spectroscopy and optical pH sensing can improve the performance of cancer classification.

  3. A hybrid least squares and principal component analysis algorithm for Raman spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Van de Sompel

    Full Text Available Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for detecting and quantifying analytes in chemical mixtures. A critical part of Raman spectroscopy is the use of a computer algorithm to analyze the measured Raman spectra. The most commonly used algorithm is the classical least squares method, which is popular due to its speed and ease of implementation. However, it is sensitive to inaccuracies or variations in the reference spectra of the analytes (compounds of interest and the background. Many algorithms, primarily multivariate calibration methods, have been proposed that increase robustness to such variations. In this study, we propose a novel method that improves robustness even further by explicitly modeling variations in both the background and analyte signals. More specifically, it extends the classical least squares model by allowing the declared reference spectra to vary in accordance with the principal components obtained from training sets of spectra measured in prior characterization experiments. The amount of variation allowed is constrained by the eigenvalues of this principal component analysis. We compare the novel algorithm to the least squares method with a low-order polynomial residual model, as well as a state-of-the-art hybrid linear analysis method. The latter is a multivariate calibration method designed specifically to improve robustness to background variability in cases where training spectra of the background, as well as the mean spectrum of the analyte, are available. We demonstrate the novel algorithm's superior performance by comparing quantitative error metrics generated by each method. The experiments consider both simulated data and experimental data acquired from in vitro solutions of Raman-enhanced gold-silica nanoparticles.

  4. Residual stress measurements in polycrystalline graphite with micro-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Ram; Jones, Abbie N.; Edge, Ruth; Marsden, Barry J.


    Micro-Raman microscopy technique is applied to evaluate unevenly distributed residual stresses in the various constituents of polygranular reactor grades graphite. The wavenumber based Raman shift (cm −1 ) corresponds to the local residual stress and measurements of stress dependent first order Raman spectra in graphite have enabled localized residual stress values to be determined. The bulk polygranular graphite of reactor grades – Gilsocarbon, NBG-18 and PGA – are examined to illustrate the residual stress variations in their constituents. Binder phase and filler particles have shown to be under compressive and tensile stresses, respectively. Among the studied graphite grades, the binder phase in Gilsocarbon has the highest residual stress and NBG-18 has the lowest value. Filler particles in Gilsocarbon have the highest residual stress and PGA showed the lowest, this is most likely due to the morphology of the coke particles used in the manufacturing and applied processing techniques for fabrications. Stresses have also been evaluated along the peripheral of pores and at the tips of the cracks. Cracks in filler and binder phases have shown mixed behaviour, compressive as well as tensile, whereas pores in binder and filler particles have shown compressive behaviour. The stresses in these graphitic constituents are of the order of MPa. Non-destructive analyses presented in this study make the current state-of-the-art technique a powerful method for the study of stress variations near the graphite surface and are expected to increase its use further in property determination analysis of low to highly fluence irradiated graphite samples from the material test reactors. - Highlights: • Micro-Raman spectroscopy can measure significantly small residual stresses. • Gilsocarbon, NBG-18 and PGA graphite were evaluated for residual stresses. • Residual stresses in the constituents of graphite were evaluated. • Binder and filler particles are often found under

  5. Investigation of stratigraphic mapping in paintings using micro-Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Karagiannis, Georgios Th.; Apostolidis, Georgios K.


    In this work, microRaman spectroscopy is used to investigate the stratigraphic mapping in paintings. The objective of mapping imaging is to segment the dataset, here spectra, into clusters each of which consisting spectra that have similar characteristics; hence, similar chemical composition. The spatial distribution of such clusters can be illustrated in pseudocolor images, in which each pixel of image is colored according to its cluster membership. Such mapping images convey information about the spatial distribution of the chemical substances in an object. Moreover, the laser light source that is used has excitation in 1064 nm, i.e., near infrared (NIR), allowing the penetration of the radiation in deeper layers. Thus, the mapping images that are produced by clustering the acquired spectra (specifying specific bands of Raman shifts) can provide stratigraphic information in the mapping images, i.e., images that convey information of the distribution of substances from deeper, as well. To cluster the spectra, unsupervised machine learning algorithms are applied, e.g., hierarchical clustering. Furthermore, the optical microscopy camera (×50), where the Raman probe (B and WTek iRaman EX) is plugged in, is attached to a computerized numerical control (CNC) system which is driven by a software that is specially developed for Raman mapping. This software except for the conventional CNC operation allows the user to parameterize the spectrometer and check each and every measurement to ensure proper acquisition. This facility is important in painting investigation because some materials are vulnerable to such specific parameterization that other materials demand. The technique is tested on a portable experimental overpainted icon of a known stratigraphy. Specifically, the under icon, i.e., the wavy hair of "Saint James", can be separated from upper icon, i.e., the halo of Mother of God in the "Descent of the Cross".

  6. Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies to Probiotic Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio I. Santos


    Full Text Available In this review, we overview the most important contributions of vibrational spectroscopy based techniques in the study of probiotics and lactic acid bacteria. First, we briefly introduce the fundamentals of these techniques, together with the main multivariate analytical tools used for spectral interpretation. Then, four main groups of applications are reported: (a bacterial taxonomy (Subsection 4.1; (b bacterial preservation (Subsection 4.2; (c monitoring processes involving lactic acid bacteria and probiotics (Subsection 4.3; (d imaging-based applications (Subsection 4.4. A final conclusion, underlying the potentialities of these techniques, is presented.

  7. Applications of Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies to Probiotic Investigation (United States)

    Santos, Mauricio I.; Gerbino, Esteban; Tymczyszyn, Elizabeth; Gomez-Zavaglia, Andrea


    In this review, we overview the most important contributions of vibrational spectroscopy based techniques in the study of probiotics and lactic acid bacteria. First, we briefly introduce the fundamentals of these techniques, together with the main multivariate analytical tools used for spectral interpretation. Then, four main groups of applications are reported: (a) bacterial taxonomy (Subsection 4.1); (b) bacterial preservation (Subsection 4.2); (c) monitoring processes involving lactic acid bacteria and probiotics (Subsection 4.3); (d) imaging-based applications (Subsection 4.4). A final conclusion, underlying the potentialities of these techniques, is presented. PMID:28231205

  8. Calibration Transfer in LIBS and Raman Spectroscopy for Planetary Applications (United States)

    Dyar, M. D.; Thomas, B. F.; Parente, M.; Gemp, I.; Mullen, T. H.


    Planetary scientists rely on spectral libraries and instrument reproducibility to interpret results from missions. Major investments have been made into assembling libraries, but they often naively assume that spectra of single crystals versus powders and from varying instruments will be the same. Calibration transfer (CT) seeks to algorithmically resolve discrepancies among datasets from different instruments or conditions. It offers the ability to align suites of spectra with a small number of common samples, allowing better models to be built with combined data sets. LIBS and Raman data present different challenges for CT. Quantitative geochemical analyses by LIBS spectroscopy are limited by lack of consistency among repeated laser shots and across instruments. Many different factors affect the presence/absence of emission lines and their intensities, such as laser power/plasma temperature, angle of incidence, detector sensitivity/resolution. To overcome these, models in which disparate datasets are projected into a joint low-dimensional subspace where all data can be aligned before quantitative analysis, such as Correlation Analysis for Domain Adaptation (CADA), have proven very effective. They require some overlap between the populations of spectra to be aligned. For example, prediction of SiO2 on 80 samples from two different LIBS labs show errors of ±16-29 wt.% when the training and test sets have no overlap, and ±4.94 wt% SiO2 when CADA is used. Uncorrected Earth-Mars spectral differences are likely to cause errors with the same order of magnitude. As with other types of reflectance spectroscopy, Raman data are plagued by differences among single crystal/powder samples and laser wavelength that affect peak intensities, and by spectral offsets from instruments with varying resolution and wavenumber alignment schemes. These problems persist even within the archetypal RRUFF database. Pre-processing transformation functions such as optimized baseline removal

  9. Real-time Raman spectroscopy for in vivo, online gastric cancer diagnosis during clinical endoscopic examination (United States)

    Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Sylvest Bergholt, Mads; Zheng, Wei; Yu Ho, Khek; Teh, Ming; Guan Yeoh, Khay; Bok Yan So, Jimmy; Shabbir, Asim; Huang, Zhiwei


    Optical spectroscopic techniques including reflectance, fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy have shown promising potential for in vivo precancer and cancer diagnostics in a variety of organs. However, data-analysis has mostly been limited to post-processing and off-line algorithm development. In this work, we develop a fully automated on-line Raman spectral diagnostics framework integrated with a multimodal image-guided Raman technique for real-time in vivo cancer detection at endoscopy. A total of 2748 in vivo gastric tissue spectra (2465 normal and 283 cancer) were acquired from 305 patients recruited to construct a spectral database for diagnostic algorithms development. The novel diagnostic scheme developed implements on-line preprocessing, outlier detection based on principal component analysis statistics (i.e., Hotelling's T2 and Q-residuals) for tissue Raman spectra verification as well as for organ specific probabilistic diagnostics using different diagnostic algorithms. Free-running optical diagnosis and processing time of partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models based on the randomly resampled training database (80% for learning and 20% for testing) provide the diagnostic accuracy of 85.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 82.9% to 88.2%] [sensitivity of 80.5% (95% CI: 71.4% to 89.6%) and specificity of 86.2% (95% CI: 83.6% to 88.7%)] for the detection of gastric cancer. The PLS-DA algorithms are further applied prospectively on 10 gastric patients at gastroscopy, achieving the predictive accuracy of 80.0% (60/75) [sensitivity of 90.0% (27/30) and specificity of 73.3% (33/45)] for in vivo diagnosis of gastric cancer. The receiver operating characteristics curves further confirmed the efficacy of Raman endoscopy together with PLS-DA algorithms for in vivo prospective diagnosis of gastric cancer. This work successfully moves biomedical Raman spectroscopic technique into real-time, on-line clinical cancer diagnosis, especially in routine

  10. Ion beam nanopatterning and micro-Raman spectroscopy analysis on HOPG for testing FIB performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archanjo, B.S., E-mail: [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias 25250-020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Maciel, I.O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Martins Ferreira, E.H.; Peripolli, S.B.; Damasceno, J.C. [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias 25250-020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Achete, C.A. [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias 25250-020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais (PEMM), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68505, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jorio, A. [Divisao de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizacao e Qualidade Industrial (INMETRO), Duque de Caxias 25250-020, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)


    This work reports Ga{sup +} focused ion beam nanopatterning to create amorphous defects with periodic square arrays in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and the use of Raman spectroscopy as a new protocol to test and compare progresses in ion beam optics, for low fluence bombardment or fast writing speed. This can be ultimately used as a metrological tool for comparing different FIB machines and can contribute to Focused Ion Beam (FIB) development in general for tailoring nanostructures with higher precision. In order to do that, the amount of ion at each spot was varied from about 10{sup 6} down to roughly 1 ion per dot. These defects were also analyzed by using high resolution scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The sensitivities of these techniques were compared and a geometrical model is proposed for micro-Raman spectroscopy in which the intensity of the defect induced D band, for a fixed ion dose, is associated with the diameter of the ion beam. In addition, the lateral increase in the bombarded spot due to the cascade effect of the ions on graphite surface was extracted from this model. A semi-quantitative analysis of the distribution of ions at low doses per dot or high writing speed for soft modification of materials is discussed. -- Highlights: {yields} Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface is bombarded using a focused ion beam. {yields} Raman spectroscopy is used to propose a new protocol to test focused ion beam optics. {yields} Scattering diameter of the ions on HOPG surface is experimentally obtained. {yields} Optical limitations of the ion column in fast writing speed are discussed. {yields} Small level of modifications is considered for changing graphene conductive properties.

  11. Raman tweezers spectroscopy of live, single red and white blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseefhali Bankapur

    Full Text Available An optical trap has been combined with a Raman spectrometer to make high-resolution measurements of Raman spectra of optically-immobilized, single, live red (RBC and white blood cells (WBC under physiological conditions. Tightly-focused, near infrared wavelength light (1064 nm is utilized for trapping of single cells and 785 nm light is used for Raman excitation at low levels of incident power (few mW. Raman spectra of RBC recorded using this high-sensitivity, dual-wavelength apparatus has enabled identification of several additional lines; the hitherto-unreported lines originate purely from hemoglobin molecules. Raman spectra of single granulocytes and lymphocytes are interpreted on the basis of standard protein and nucleic acid vibrational spectroscopy data. The richness of the measured spectrum illustrates that Raman studies of live cells in suspension are more informative than conventional micro-Raman studies where the cells are chemically bound to a glass cover slip.

  12. Fast single-photon avalanche diode arrays for laser Raman spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blacksberg, J.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.; Rossman, G.R.


    We incorporate newly developed solid-state detector technology into time-resolved laser Raman spectroscopy, demonstrating the ability to distinguish spectra from Raman and fluorescence processes. As a proof of concept, we show fluorescence rejection on highly fluorescent mineral samples willemite

  13. Determination of ethylenic residues in wood and TMP of spruce by FT-Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph


    A method based on FT-Raman spectroscopy is proposed for determining in situ concentrations of ethylenic residues in softwood lignin. Raman contributions at 1133 and 1654 cm-1, representing coniferaldehyde and coniferyl alcohol structures, respectively, were used in quantifying these units in spruce wood with subsequent conversion to concentrations in lignin. For...

  14. Cellulose I crystallinity determination using FT-Raman spectroscopy : univariate and multivariate methods (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph


    Two new methods based on FT–Raman spectroscopy, one simple, based on band intensity ratio, and the other using a partial least squares (PLS) regression model, are proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. In the simple method, crystallinity in cellulose I samples was determined based on univariate regression that was first developed using the Raman band...

  15. Following lipids in the food chain: determination of the iodine value using Raman micro-spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samek, Ota; Zemánek, Pavel; Bernatová, Silvie; Pilát, Zdeněk; Telle, H.H.


    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2012), s. 18-21 ISSN 0966-0941 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/1687; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman micro-spectroscopy * Raman laser excitation * lipids Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  16. “Self-absorption” phenomenon in near-infrared Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Nancy Kawai


    While cellulosic and lignocellulosic materials have been studied using conventional Raman spectroscopy, availability of near-infrared (NIR) Fourier transform (FT) Raman instrumentation has made studying these materials much more convenient. This is especially true because the problem of laser-induced fluorescence can be avoided or minimized in FT- Raman (NIR Raman)...

  17. Comparison of fluorescence rejection methods of baseline correction and shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (United States)

    Cai, Zhijian; Zou, Wenlong; Wu, Jianhong


    Raman spectroscopy has been extensively used in biochemical tests, explosive detection, food additive and environmental pollutants. However, fluorescence disturbance brings a big trouble to the applications of portable Raman spectrometer. Currently, baseline correction and shifted-excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) methods are the most prevailing fluorescence suppressing methods. In this paper, we compared the performances of baseline correction and SERDS methods, experimentally and simulatively. Through the comparison, it demonstrates that the baseline correction can get acceptable fluorescence-removed Raman spectrum if the original Raman signal has good signal-to-noise ratio, but it cannot recover the small Raman signals out of large noise background. By using SERDS method, the Raman signals, even very weak compared to fluorescence intensity and noise level, can be clearly extracted, and the fluorescence background can be completely rejected. The Raman spectrum recovered by SERDS has good signal to noise ratio. It's proved that baseline correction is more suitable for large bench-top Raman system with better quality or signal-to-noise ratio, while the SERDS method is more suitable for noisy devices, especially the portable Raman spectrometers.

  18. Probing the Interaction of Ionic Liquids with CO2: A Raman Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eucker, IV, William


    ...) with selected ionic liquids (ILs). Raman spectroscopy and first principle quantum mechanical calculations were performed on selected IL solvents in contact with CO2 in the effort to discover how the solvents interact with the gas. ILs are salts...

  19. Covalent Reactions on Chemical Vapor Deposition Grown Graphene Studied by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovaříček, Petr; Bastl, Zdeněk; Valeš, Václav; Kalbáč, Martin


    Roč. 22, č. 15 (2016), s. 5404-5408 ISSN 1521-3765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : graphene * nanomaterials * Raman spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  20. Ultrastable and Compact Deep UV Laser Source for Raman Spectroscopy, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deep-ultraviolet (DUV) Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method to isolate and extract the unique signatures of numerous chemical bonds present within complex...

  1. Ultrastable and Compact Deep UV Laser Source for Raman Spectroscopy, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deep-ultraviolet (UV) Raman spectroscopy is a powerful method to collect chemically specific information about complex samples because deep-UV (?? < 250 nm)...

  2. Application of the Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of organic pesticides; Aplicacion de la espectroscopia Raman para la caracterizacion de pesticidas organicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato B, R.Y.; Medina G, C.; Medina V, J.; Frausto R, C. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.C., Unidad Aguascalientes, Prol. Constitucion 607, Reserva Loma Bonita, C.P. 20200, Aguascalientes (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    Raman spectra of organophosphate, organo chlorine and bipyridyl pesticides are presented in this study. They have been obtained satisfactorily by the NlR-Raman spectroscopy technique. Pesticides have been analyzed in solution or as a solid in glass containers and on aluminum substrates. This analytic technique can be an alternative tool for the detection of pesticides in the agriculture, presenting advantages as be quick, not destructive and require little or no sample preparation. Moreover, samples can be analyzed through transparent containers avoiding contact with the toxic substances. The implementation of the aluminium substrate is easy and practical. Moreover, it is commercially available and does not need a previous preparation. The analysis of a mixture of two pesticides in a {beta} carotene solution is shown. (Author) 25 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Urinary tract infection diagnosis and response to antibiotics using Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Kastanos, Evdokia; Kyriakides, Alexandros; Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Pitris, Constantinos


    Urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram require a 48 hour waiting period using conventional methods. This results in ineffective treatments, increased costs and most importantly in increased resistance to antibiotics. In this work, a novel method for classifying bacteria and determining their sensitivity to an antibiotic using Raman spectroscopy is described. Raman spectra of three species of gram negative Enterobacteria, most commonly responsible for urinary tract infections, were collected. The study included 25 samples each of E.coli, Klebsiella p. and Proteus spp. A novel algorithm based on spectral ratios followed by discriminant analysis resulted in classification with over 94% accuracy. Sensitivity and specificity for the three types of bacteria ranged from 88-100%. For the development of an antibiogram, bacterial samples were treated with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin to which they were all sensitive. Sensitivity to the antibiotic was evident after analysis of the Raman signatures of bacteria treated or not treated with this antibiotic as early as two hours after exposure. This technique can lead to the development of new technology for urinary tract infection diagnosis and antibiogram with same day results, bypassing urine cultures and avoiding all undesirable consequences of current practice.

  4. Development of a Fiber-Optics Microspatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy Sensor for Probing Layered Materials. (United States)

    Vandenabeele, Peter; Conti, Claudia; Rousaki, Anastasia; Moens, Luc; Realini, Marco; Matousek, Pavel


    Microspatially offset Raman spectroscopy (micro-SORS) has been proposed as a valuable approach to sample molecular information from layers that are covered by a turbid (nontransparent) layer. However, when large magnifications are involved, the approach is not straightforward, as spatial constraints exist to position the laser beam and the objective lens with the external beam delivery or, with internal beam delivery, the maximum spatial offset achievable is restricted. To overcome these limitations, we propose here a prototype of a new micro-SORS sensor, which uses bare glass fibers to transfer the laser radiation to the sample and to collect the Raman signal from a spatially offset zone to the Raman spectrometer. The concept also renders itself amenable to remote delivery and to the miniaturization of the probe head which could be beneficial for special applications, e.g., where access to sample areas is restricted. The basic applicability of this approach was demonstrated by studying several layered structure systems. Apart from proving the feasibility of the technique, also, practical aspects of the use of the prototype sensor are discussed.

  5. Experimental and theoretical studies on the characterization of monocrotaline by infrared and Raman spectroscopies (United States)

    Oliveira, Ramon Prata; Demuner, Antonio Jacinto; Alvarenga, Elson Santiago; Parma, Monica Cropo; Barbosa, Luiz Claudio Almeida; de Moura Guimarães, Luciano; Aguiar, Alex Ramos


    The use of plants in folk medicine has a long and ancient history in the treatment of various diseases. Currently, a large proportion of commercial drugs are based on natural products or are synthetic compounds inspired on such natural substances. Therefore, in this communication to aid that research, structural and spectroscopic analysis of the natural pyrrolizidine alkaloid called monocrotaline was carried out. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids that are commonly found in the Boraginaceae and Asteraceae families are among the great diversity of secondary metabolites which are produced by plants to act as a defense mechanism against herbivores and microbes. In the present study, the natural product, monocrotaline, an alkaloid isolated from the leaves of Crotalaria paulina, with potential application in medicine, was characterized by infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopy with the support of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. IR and Raman spectra of monocrotaline were recorded at room temperature ranging from 4000 to 400 cm-1. DFT calculations with the hybrid functional B3LYP and the basis set 6-31 + G(d,p) were performed with the purpose of obtaining information on the structural and vibrational properties of this structure. A perfect fit between the experimentally measured frequencies of the IR and Raman spectra and the calculated values were observed, and we have performed the complete identification of monocrotaline by these techniques.

  6. [Bone Cell Biology Assessed by Microscopic Approach. Assessment of bone quality using Raman and infrared spectroscopy]. (United States)

    Suda, Hiromi Kimura


    Bone quality, which was defined as "the sum total of characteristics of the bone that influence the bone's resistance to fracture" at the National Institute of Health (NIH) conference in 2001, contributes to bone strength in combination with bone mass. Bone mass is often measured as bone mineral density (BMD) and, consequently, can be quantified easily. On the other hand, bone quality is composed of several factors such as bone structure, bone matrix, calcification degree, microdamage, and bone turnover, and it is not easy to obtain data for the various factors. Therefore, it is difficult to quantify bone quality. We are eager to develop new measurement methods for bone quality that make it possible to determine several factors associated with bone quality at the same time. Analytic methods based on Raman and FTIR spectroscopy have attracted a good deal of attention as they can provide a good deal of chemical information about hydroxyapatite and collagen, which are the main components of bone. A lot of studies on bone quality using Raman and FTIR imaging have been reported following the development of the two imaging systems. Thus, both Raman and FTIR imaging appear to be promising new bone morphometric techniques.

  7. Single Cell Confocal Raman Spectroscopy of Human Osteoarthritic Chondrocytes: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar


    Full Text Available A great deal of effort has been focused on exploring the underlying molecular mechanism of osteoarthritis (OA especially at the cellular level. We report a confocal Raman spectroscopic investigation on human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. The objective of this investigation is to identify molecular features and the stage of OA based on the spectral signatures corresponding to bio-molecular changes at the cellular level in chondrocytes. In this study, we isolated chondrocytes from human osteoarthritic cartilage and acquired Raman spectra from single cells. Major spectral differences between the cells obtained from different International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS grades of osteoarthritic cartilage were identified. During progression of OA, a decrease in protein content and an increase in cell death were observed from the vibrational spectra. Principal component analysis and subsequent cross-validation was able to associate osteoarthritic chondrocytes to ICRS Grade I, II and III with specificity 100.0%, 98.1%, and 90.7% respectively, while, sensitivity was 98.6%, 82.8%, and 97.5% respectively. The overall predictive efficiency was 92.2%. Our pilot study encourages further use of Raman spectroscopy as a noninvasive and label free technique for revealing molecular features associated with osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

  8. In situ TEM Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, F.I., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kim, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Andresen, N.C. [Engineering Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grigoropoulos, C.P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Minor, A.M., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    We present a modular assembly that enables both in situ Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing to be performed in a transmission electron microscope. The system comprises a lensed Raman probe mounted inside the microscope column in the specimen plane and a custom specimen holder with a vacuum feedthrough for a tapered optical fiber. The Raman probe incorporates both excitation and collection optics, and localized laser processing is performed using pulsed laser light delivered to the specimen via the tapered optical fiber. Precise positioning of the fiber is achieved using a nanomanipulation stage in combination with simultaneous electron-beam imaging of the tip-to-sample distance. Materials modification is monitored in real time by transmission electron microscopy. First results obtained using the assembly are presented for in situ pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} combined with Raman spectroscopy, complimented by electron-beam diffraction and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. - Highlights: • Raman spectroscopy and laser-based materials processing in a TEM are demonstrated. • A lensed Raman probe is mounted in the sample chamber for close approach. • Localized laser processing is achieved using a tapered optical fiber. • Raman spectroscopy and pulsed laser ablation of MoS{sub 2} are performed in situ.

  9. New constraints on deformation processes in serpentinite from sub-micron Raman Spectroscopy and TEM (United States)

    Smith, S. A. F.; Tarling, M.; Rooney, J. S.; Gordon, K. C.; Viti, C.


    Extensive work has been performed to characterize the mineralogical and mechanical properties of the various serpentine minerals (i.e. antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile, polyhedral and polygonal serpentine). However, correct identification of serpentine minerals is often difficult or impossible using conventional analytical techniques such as optical- and SEM-based microscopy, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is the best analytical technique to identify the serpentine minerals, but TEM requires complex sample preparation and typically results in very small analysis areas. Sub-micron confocal Raman spectroscopy mapping of polished thin sections provides a quick and relatively inexpensive way of unambiguously distinguishing the main serpentine minerals within their in-situ microstructural context. The combination of high spatial resolution (with a diffraction-limited system, 366 nm), large-area coverage (up to hundreds of microns in each dimension) and ability to map directly on thin sections allows intricate fault rock textures to be imaged at a sample-scale, which can then form the target of more focused TEM work. The potential of sub-micron Raman Spectroscopy + TEM is illustrated by examining sub-micron-scale mineral intergrowths and deformation textures in scaly serpentinites (e.g. dissolution seams, mineral growth in pressure shadows), serpentinite crack-seal veins and polished fault slip surfaces from a serpentinite-bearing mélange in New Zealand. The microstructural information provided by these techniques has yielded new insights into coseismic dehydration and amorphization processes and the interplay between creep and localised rupture in serpentinite shear zones.

  10. Raman spectroscopy based toolkit for mapping bacterial social interactions relevant to human and plant health (United States)

    Couvillion, Sheha Polisetti

    microspectroscopy as a tool for high sensitivity studies of bacterial environmental stressors. The use of PCA in Raman imaging can also discriminate between spectral contributions from plant and bacterial cells. Finally, spectroscopy compatible microfluidic corral platforms are fabricated and a simple microfluidic technique is demonstrated for capturing bacterial cells. This opens up the possibility of studying bacterial communication in settings where it is possible to control population size and microenvironment.

  11. The role of mobile instrumentation in novel applications of Raman spectroscopy: archaeometry, geosciences, and forensics. (United States)

    Vandenabeele, P; Edwards, H G M; Jehlička, J


    The applications of analytical Raman spectroscopy in the characterisation of materials associated with archaeologically excavated artefacts, forensic investigations of drugs of abuse, security and crime scenes, minerals and rocks and future astrobiological space missions are now well established; however, these applications have emphasised the need for new developments in the area of miniaturised instrumentation which extends the concept and breadth of the analytical requirement to facilitate the provision of data from 'in field' studies. In this respect, the apparently unrelated themes of art and archaeology, forensic science, geological science and astrobiology as covered by this review are unified broadly by the ability to record data nondestructively and without resorting to sampling and the subsequent transfer of samples to the analytical laboratory. In studies of works of art there has long been a requirement for on-site analysis, especially for valuable paintings held under strict museum security and for wall paintings which cannot physically be removed from their setting; similarly, the use of portable Raman spectroscopy in archaeological and geological field work as a first-pass screening device which obviates the necessity of multiple and wasteful specimen collection is high on the wish-list of practicing spectroscopists. As a first-pass screening probe for forensic crime scenes, Raman spectroscopy has proved to be of inestimable value for the early detection of dangerous and prohibited materials such as drugs of abuse, explosives and their chemical precursors, and banned contraband biomaterials such as ivories and animal products; in these applications the advantage of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the recognition of spectral signatures from mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds is paramount and not afforded by other less portable instrumental techniques. Finally, in astrobiological work, these requirements also apply but with the

  12. Industrial Applications of the Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Application industrielle du SERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabiev I.


    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS spectroscopy is now a well-established phenomenon, which has been thoroughly characterized in a variety of interfacial and colloidal environments. Although some quantitative aspects of the underlying enhancement mechanisms apparently remain unresolved, attention is now shifting towards application of SERS to explore phenomena of chemical, physical, biological and industrial significance. The goal of this review is to appreciate the industrial value of innovative SERS technique on the basis of our experience in development of new SERS-active substrates and in their biomedical and biotechnological applications. Examples of diverse SERS analytical applications as well as some very recent facilities, as SERS microprobe analysis, SERS fiber optics probes, FT-SERS spectroscopy, SERS detection for high-performance liquid chromatography, etc. , are also discussed. Le SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy est un phénomène aujourd'hui bien connu qui a été étudié dans toute une gamme de milieux interfaciaux et colloïdaux. Si certains aspects quantitatifs des mécanismes d'exaltation restent apparemment non résolus, l'attention se porte à présent vers l'application de la spectroscopie SERS à l'exploration de phénomènes présentant un intérêt chimique, physique, biologique et industriel. L'objectif de cet article est d'estimer la valeur industrielle des nouvelles techniques de spectroscopie SERS à partir de notre expérience dans le développement de nouveaux substrats actifs en SERS et leurs applications biomédicales et biotechnologiques. Les auteurs discutent également des exemples de diverses applications analytiques de la spectroscopie SERS ainsi que de quelques procédés très récents : analyse par microsonde SERS, sondes SERS à fibres optiques, spectroscopie FT-SERS, détection SERS pour la chromatographie haute performance en phase liquide, etc.

  13. A Raman Flow Cytometer: An Innovative Microfluidic Approach for Continuous Label-Free Analysis of Cells via Raman Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    De Grazia, Antonio


    In this work a Raman flow cytometer is presented. It is a whole new microfluidic device that takes advantage of basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and fluorescent flow cytometry mixed together in a system of particularly shaped channels. These are indeed composed by specific shape and sizes – thanks to which cells can flow one-by-one – and a trap by means of which cells are trapped in order to perform Raman analysis on single ones in a constant and passive way. In this sense the microfluidic device promotes a fast method to look for single cells in a whole multicellular sample. It is a label-free analysis and this means that, on the contrary of what happens with fluorescent flow cytometry, the sample does not need to undergo any particular time-consuming pretreatment before being analyzed. Moreover it gives a complete information about the biochemical content of the sample thanks to the involvement of Raman spectroscopy as method of analysis. Many thought about a device like this, but eventually it is the first one being designed, fabricated and tested. The materials involved in the production of the Raman flow cytometer are chosen wisely. In particular the chip – the most important component of the device – is multilayered, being composed by a slide of calcium fluoride (which gives a negligible signal in Raman analyses), a photosensitive resist containing a pattern with channels and another slide of calcium fluoride in order for the channels to be sealed on both sides. The chip is, in turn, connected to gaskets and external frames. Several fabrication processes are followed to ultimately get the complete Raman flow cytometer and experiments on red blood cells demonstrate its validity in this field.

  14. A SHERLOC Study: Detection of Organics in Simulated Martian Soil using Deep UV Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Abbey, W.; Bhartia, R.; Carrier, B. L.; Doloboff, I.; Hara, E. K.; Beegle, L. W.


    The SHERLOC investigation is a vital part of NASA's 2020 Mars payload [1]. It utilizes deep UV Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy to enable non-contact, non-destructive detection and characterization of in situ organics and minerals in the Martian surface and near subsurface. Raman spectroscopy using deep UV excitation wavelengths (noise ratio. Also, it should be noted that this technique requires very low fluence on the sample ( 60 J/cm2), minimizing degradation of organics and allowing their detection in the presence of strong oxidizers without fear of combustion due to heating [5,6]. In this study, perchlorate at 1 wt% was successfully detected in the presence of organic compounds native to the MMS; this concentration is comparable to the amount of perchlorate suspected to be present in Mars soil [6,7]. This work expands on data previously reported in Abbey et al., 2017 [8]. References: [1] Beegle et al., 2015 IEEE Aerospace Conf., 2015; [2] Asher, Anal. Chem. 65 (4), 1993; [3] Bhartia et al., Appl. Spectrosc. 62 (10), 2008; [4] Peters et al., Icarus 197, 2008; [5] Navarro-Gonzalez et al., J. Geophys. Res. 115, 2010; [6] Glavin et al., J. Geophys. Res. 118, 2013; [7] Hecht et al., Science 325, 2009; [8] Abbey et al., Icarus 290, 2017.

  15. Simultaneous Quantification of Three Polymorphic Forms of Carbamazepine in the Presence of Excipients Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Farias


    Full Text Available The occurrence of polymorphic transitions is a serious problem for pharmaceutical companies, because it can affect the bioavailability of the final product. With several known polymorphic forms carbamazepine is one of the most problematic drugs in this respect. Raman spectroscopy is a vibrational technique that is becoming very important in the pharmaceutical field, mainly due to its highly specific molecular fingerprint capabilities and easy use as a process analytical tool. However, multivariate methods are necessary both for identification and quantification. In this work an analytical methodology using Raman spectroscopy and interval Partial Least Squares Regression (iPLS, was developed in order to quantify mixtures of carbamazepine polymorphs in the presence of the most common excipients. The three polymorphs CBZ I, CBZ III and CBZ DH (which is a dihydrate were synthesized and characterized by PXRD and DSC. Subsequently, tablets were manufactured using excipients and 15 different mixtures of carbamazepine polymorphs. The iPLS model presented average prediction validation errors of 1.58%, 1.04% and 0.22% wt/wt, for CBZ I, CBZ III and CBZ DH, respectively, considering the whole mass of the tablet. The model presents a good prediction capacity and the proposed methodology could be used to perform quality control in final products.

  16. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy as a point-of-care diagnostic for infection in wound effluent (United States)

    Ghebremedhin, Meron; Yesupriya, Shubha; Crane, Nicole J.


    In military medicine, one of the challenges in dealing with large combat-related injuries is the prevalence of bacterial infection, including multidrug resistant organisms. This can prolong the wound healing process and lead to wound dehiscence. Current methods of identifying bacterial infection rely on culturing microbes from patient material and performing biochemical tests, which together can take 2-3 days to complete. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful vibrational spectroscopy technique that allows for highly sensitive structural detection of analytes adsorbed onto specially prepared metal surfaces. In the past, we have been able to discriminate between bacterial isolates grown on solid culture media using standard Raman spectroscopic methods. Here, SERS is utilized to assess the presence of bacteria in wound effluent samples taken directly from patients. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt for the application of SERS directly to wound effluent. The utilization of SERS as a point-of-care diagnostic tool would enable physicians to determine course of treatment and drug administration in a matter of hours.

  17. Raman spectroscopy and the spectral correlation index for predicting wound healing outcome: towards in vivo application (United States)

    Berger, Adam G.; Crane, Nicole J.; Elster, Eric A.


    Combat wounds are sometimes confounded by healing complications that are not as prevalent in civilian wounds due to their high energy etiology. One complication of wound healing is dehiscence, where a surgically closed wound reopens after closure. This complication can have serious consequences for the patient, but knowledge about the molecular composition of the wound bed beyond what is readily visible may help clinicians mitigate these complications. It is necessary to develop techniques that can be used in vivo to assess and predict wound healing pointof- care so that care-takers can decide the best way to make informed clinical decisions regarding their patient's healing. Raman spectroscopy is a perfect candidate for predicting wound healing due to its ability to provide a detailed molecular fingerprint of the wound bed noninvasively. Here, we study the spectral correlation index, a measure of orthogonality, with ten reference tissue components to stratify wounds based on how they heal. We analyze these indexes over time to show the modulation of these tissue components over the wound healing process. Results show that qualitative observation of the spectra cannot reveal major differences between the dehisced and normal healing wounds, but the spectral correlation index can. Analysis of the spectral correlations across the wound healing process demonstrates the changes throughout the wound healing process, showing that early differences in tissue components may portend wound healing. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy coupled with the spectral correlation index presents as a possible point-of-care tool for enabling discrimination of wounds with impaired healing.

  18. Application of micro Raman spectroscopy to industrial FC membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikvaidze, G; Gabrusenoks, J; Kleperis, J; Vaivars, G


    Raman spectra of as-received and protonated membranes (Nafion NRE-212, Fumapem F-14100 and Fumasep FAA) were measured with He-Cd and Ar laser. For the first time the Raman and IR spectra are reported of Fumasep membranes. Most of peaks in vibration spectra active in Raman and IR of membranes are interpreted with C-F, C-S, C-O-C, SO 3 , C-C bonds. The vibration region connected with protons and H-O bond in both types of membranes is found in Raman and IR spectra

  19. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy: principles and spectral interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larkin, Peter


    .... The book reviews basic principles, instrumentation, sampling methods, quantitative analysis, origin of group frequencies and qualitative interpretation using generalized Infrared (IR) and Raman spectra...

  20. In vivo Raman spectroscopy for biochemical monitoring of the human cervix throughout pregnancy. (United States)

    O'Brien, Christine M; Vargis, Elizabeth; Rudin, Amy; Slaughter, James C; Thomas, Giju; Newton, J Michael; Reese, Jeff; Bennett, Kelly A; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita


    The cervix must undergo significant biochemical remodeling to allow for successful parturition. This process is not fully understood, especially in instances of spontaneous preterm birth. In vivo Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique that can be used to investigate the biochemical composition of tissue longitudinally and noninvasively in human beings, and has been utilized to measure physiology and disease states in a variety of medical applications. The purpose of this study is to measure in vivo Raman spectra of the cervix throughout pregnancy in women, and to identify biochemical markers that change with the preparation for delivery and postpartum repair. In all, 68 healthy pregnant women were recruited. Raman spectra were measured from the cervix of each patient monthly in the first and second trimesters, weekly in the third trimester, and at the 6-week postpartum visit. Raman spectra were measured using an in vivo Raman system with an optical fiber probe to excite the tissue with 785 nm light. A spectral model was developed to highlight spectral regions that undergo the most changes throughout pregnancy, which were subsequently used for identifying Raman peaks for further analysis. These peaks were analyzed longitudinally to determine if they underwent significant changes over the course of pregnancy (P be used as a noninvasive preterm birth risk assessment tool to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality caused by preterm birth. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Using Raman Spectroscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering to Identify Colorants in Art: An Experiment for an Upper-Division Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Mayhew, Hannah E.; Frano, Kristen A.; Svoboda, Shelley A.; Wustholz, Kristin L.


    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of art represent an attractive way to introduce undergraduate students to concepts in nanoscience, vibrational spectroscopy, and instrumental analysis. Here, we present an undergraduate analytical or physical chemistry laboratory wherein a combination of normal Raman and SERS spectroscopy is used to…

  2. Characterization and differentiation of normal and abnormal spermatozoa via micro-Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Huang, Z. F.; Chen, X. W.; Chen, G. N.; Chen, J. H.; Wang, J.; Lin, J. Q.; Zeng, H. S.; Chen, R.


    Growth in the percentage of spermatozoa with aberrant sperm head morphologies has been correlated with a rise in male infertility. In our study, micro-Raman spectroscopy using a new substrate was utilized to characterize and differentiate the morphologically normal and abnormal human sperm cells based on their different biochemical components by showing their different specific Raman spectra. A detailed classification based on the PCA-LDA method was performed showing a diagnostic sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 91%, with 80% classification accuracy. Our results suggest that micro-Raman spectroscopy can serve as a reliable and non-invasive tool for detection and differentiation of human spermatozoa.

  3. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and chemometrical analysis for the distinction of copper phthalocyanine polymorphs in paint layers. (United States)

    Defeyt, C; Van Pevenage, J; Moens, L; Strivay, D; Vandenabeele, P


    In art analysis, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) is often identified as an important pigment (PB15) in 20th century artworks. Raman spectroscopy is a very valuable technique for the detection of this pigment in paint systems. However, PB15 is used in different polymorphic forms and identification of the polymorph could retrieve information on the production process of the pigment at the moment. Raman spectroscopy, being a molecular spectroscopic method of analysis, is able to discriminate between polymorphs of crystals. However, in the case of PB15, spectral interpretation is not straightforward, and Raman data treatment requires some improvements concerning the PB15 polymorphic discrimination in paints. Here, Raman spectroscopy is combined with chemometrical analysis in order to develop a procedure allowing us to identify the PB15 crystalline structure in painted layers and in artworks. The results obtained by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), using intensity ratios as variables, demonstrate the ability of this procedure to predict the crystalline structure of a PB15 pigment in unknown paint samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wall paintings studied using Raman spectroscopy: a comparative study between various assays of cross sections and external layers. (United States)

    Perez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Robador, Maria Dolores; Centeno, Miguel Angel; Siguenza, Belinda; Duran, Adrian


    This work describes a comparative study between in situ applications of portable Raman spectroscopy and direct laboratory measurements using micro-Raman spectroscopy on the surface of small samples and of cross sections. The study was performed using wall paintings from different sites of the Alcazar of Seville. Little information was obtained using a portable Raman spectrometer due to the presence of an acrylic polymer, calcium oxalate, calcite and gypsum that was formed or deposited on the surface. The pigments responsible for different colours, except cinnabar, were not detected by the micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the surface of small samples taken from the wall paintings due to the presence of surface contaminants. The pigments and plaster were characterised using cross sections. The black colour consisted of carbon black. The red layers were formed by cinnabar and white lead or by iron oxides. The green and white colours were composed of green emerald or atacamite and calcite, respectively. Pb3O4 has also been characterised. The white layers (plaster) located under the colour layers consisted of calcite, quartz and feldspars. The fresco technique was used to create the wall paintings. A wall painting located on a gypsum layer was also studied. The Naples yellow in this wall painting was not characterised due to the presence of glue and oils. This study showed the advantage of studying cross sections to completely characterise the pigments and plaster in the studied wall paintings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Micro Structural Analysis of In2S3 Thin Films by Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Izadneshana, H.; Gremenok, V. F.


    In2S3 thin films with different thicknesses were deposited on glass substrates using the thermal evaporation method. The as-deposited films were annealed in vacuum at 330 and 400°C for 30 and 60 min. We used Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment on the film structures. Raman active modes that can be classified as 9A1 and 14E modes have been observed in the Raman spectra of the In2S3 thin films. Variations in the Raman shift and bandwidth of different In2S3 thin films reveal the influence of the annealing effect. Results of Raman spectroscopy and XRD show that the annealing effect changes the crystallization phase from tetragonal to cubic at high temperatures.

  6. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Based Quantitative Bioassay on Aptamer-Functionalized Nanopillars Using Large-Area Raman Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jaeyoung; Palla, Mirko; Bosco, Filippo


    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been used in a variety of biological applications due to its high sensitivity and specificity. Here, we report a SERS-based biosensing approach for quantitative detection of biomolecules. A SERS substrate bearing gold-decorated silicon nanopillars......-to-spot variation in conventional SERS quantification. Furthermore, we have developed an analytical model capable of predicting experimental intensity distributions on the substrates for reliable quantification of biomolecules. Lastly, we have calculated the minimum needed area of Raman mapping for efficient...

  7. Insights into Protein Structure and Dynamics by Ultraviolet and Visible Resonance Raman Spectroscopy. (United States)

    López-Peña, Ignacio; Leigh, Brian S; Schlamadinger, Diana E; Kim, Judy E


    Raman spectroscopy is a form of vibrational spectroscopy based on inelastic scattering of light. In resonance Raman spectroscopy, the wavelength of the incident light falls within an absorption band of a chromophore, and this overlap of excitation and absorption energy greatly enhances the Raman scattering efficiency of the absorbing species. The ability to probe vibrational spectra of select chromophores within a complex mixture of molecules makes resonance Raman spectroscopy an excellent tool for studies of biomolecules. In this Current Topic, we discuss the type of molecular insights obtained from steady-state and time-resolved resonance Raman studies of a prototypical photoactive protein, rhodopsin. We also review recent efforts in ultraviolet resonance Raman investigations of soluble and membrane-associated biomolecules, including integral membrane proteins and antimicrobial peptides. These examples illustrate that resonance Raman is a sensitive, selective, and practical method for studying the structures of biological molecules, and the molecular bonding, geometry, and environments of protein cofactors, the backbone, and side chains.

  8. Intensity-carrying modes in Raman and Raman optical activity spectroscopy. (United States)

    Luber, Sandra; Reiher, Markus


    We describe a quantum-chemical approach for the determination of modes with maximum Raman and Raman optical activity (ROA) intensity by maximizing the intensities with respect to the Raman and Raman optical activity intensity, respectively, which is shown to lead to eigenvalue equations. The intensity-carrying modes are in general hypothetical modes and do not directly correspond to a certain normal mode in the spectrum. However, they provide information about those molecular distortions leading to intense bands in the spectrum. Modes with maximum Raman intensity are presented for propane-1,3-dione, propane-1,3-dionate, and Lambda-tris(propane-1,3-dionato)cobalt(III). Moreover, the mode with highest ROA intensity is examined for this chiral cobalt complex and also for the (chiral) amino acid L-tryptophan. The Raman and ROA high-intensity modes are an optimal starting guess for intensity-tracking calculations, in which selectively normal modes with high Raman or ROA intensity are converged. We present the first Raman and ROA intensity-tracking calculations. These reveal a high potential for large molecules, for which the selective calculation of normal modes with high intensity is desirable in view of the large computational effort required for the calculation of Raman and ROA polarizability property tensors.

  9. Precision of Raman Spectroscopy Measurements in Detection of Microcalcifications in Breast Needle Biopsies (United States)

    Saha, Anushree; Barman, Ishan; Dingari, Narahara Chari; Galindo, Luis H.; Sattar, Abdus; Liu, Wendy; Plecha, Donna; Klein, Nina; Dasari, Ramachandra Rao; Fitzmaurice, Maryann


    Microcalcifications are an early mammographic sign of breast cancer and a target for stereotactic breast needle biopsy. We developed Raman spectroscopy decision algorithms to detect breast microcalcifications, based on fit coefficients (FC) derived by modeling tissue Raman spectra as a linear combination of the Raman spectra of 9 chemical and morphologic components of breast tissue. However, little or no information is available on the precision of such measurements and its effect on the ability of Raman spectroscopy to make predictions for breast microcalcification detection. Here we report the precision, that is, the closeness of agreement between replicate Raman spectral measurements - and the model FC derived from them - obtained ex vivo from fresh breast biopsies from patients undergoing stereotactic breast needle biopsy, using a compact clinical Raman system. The coefficients of variation of the model FC averaged 0.03 for normal breast tissue sites, 0.12 for breast lesions without and 0.22 for breast lesions with microcalcifications. Imprecision in the FC resulted in diagnostic discordance among replicates only for line-sitters, that is, tissue sites with FC values near the decision line or plane. The source of this imprecision and their implications for the use of Raman spectroscopy for guidance of stereotactic breast biopsies for microcalcifications are also discussed. In summary, we conclude that the precision of Raman spectroscopy measurements in breast tissue obtained using our compact clinical system is more than adequate to make accurate and repeatable predictions of microcalcifications in breast tissue using decision algorithms based on model FC. This provides strong evidence of the potential of Raman spectroscopy guidance of stereotactic breast needle biopsies for microcalcifications. PMID:22746329

  10. Mechanical Anisotropy and Pressure Induced Structural Changes in Piroxicam Crystals Probed by In Situ Indentation and Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Manimunda, Praveena; Hintsala, Eric; Asif, Syed; Mishra, Manish Kumar


    The ability to correlate mechanical and chemical characterization techniques in real time is both lacking and powerful tool for gaining insights into material behavior. This is demonstrated through use of a novel nanoindentation device equipped with Raman spectroscopy to explore the deformation-induced structural changes in piroxicam crystals. Mechanical anisotropy was observed in two major faces ( 0bar{1}1 ) and (011), which are correlated to changes in the interlayer interaction from in situ Raman spectra recorded during indentation. The results of this study demonstrate the considerable potential of an in situ Raman nanoindentation instrument for studying a variety of topics, including stress-induced phase transformation mechanisms, mechanochemistry, and solid state reactivity under mechanical forces that occur in molecular and pharmaceutical solids.

  11. In and ex vivo breast disease study by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raniero, L.; Canevari, R. A.; Ramalho, L. N. Z.


    In this work, Raman spectra in the 900-1,800 cm(-1) wavenumber region of in vivo and ex vivo breast tissues of both healthy mice (normal) and mice with induced mammary gland tumors (abnormal) were measured. In the case of the in vivo tissues, the Raman spectra were collected for both transcutaneo...

  12. Raman spectroscopy of graphene on different substrates and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show the evolution of Raman spectra with a number of graphene layers on different substrates, SiO2/Si and conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) plate. The mode peak position and the intensity ratio of and 2 bands depend on the preparation of sample for the same number of graphene layers. The 2 Raman band ...

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of DNA bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, Cornelis; van den Tweel, T.J.J.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Greve, Jan


    A Raman microprobe has been used to measure the surface-enhanced Raman spectra of adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Comparison of the SERS spectrum with solution spectra shows that some line positions are not influenced by the adsorption process while others show large shifts. In the SERS

  14. Phenotypic Profiling of Antibiotic Response Signatures in Escherichia coli Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Athamneh, A. I. M.; Alajlouni, R. A.; Wallace, R. S.; Seleem, M. N.


    Identifying the mechanism of action of new potential antibiotics is a necessary but time-consuming and costly process. Phenotypic profiling has been utilized effectively to facilitate the discovery of the mechanism of action and molecular targets of uncharacterized drugs. In this research, Raman spectroscopy was used to profile the phenotypic response of Escherichia coli to applied antibiotics. The use of Raman spectroscopy is advantageous because it is noninvasive, label free, and prone to automation, and its results can be obtained in real time. In this research, E. coli cultures were subjected to three times the MICs of 15 different antibiotics (representing five functional antibiotic classes) with known mechanisms of action for 30 min before being analyzed by Raman spectroscopy (using a 532-nm excitation wavelength). The resulting Raman spectra contained sufficient biochemical information to distinguish between profiles induced by individual antibiotics belonging to the same class. The collected spectral data were used to build a discriminant analysis model that identified the effects of unknown antibiotic compounds on the phenotype of E. coli cultures. Chemometric analysis showed the ability of Raman spectroscopy to predict the functional class of an unknown antibiotic and to identify individual antibiotics that elicit similar phenotypic responses. Results of this research demonstrate the power of Raman spectroscopy as a cellular phenotypic profiling methodology and its potential impact on antibiotic drug development research. PMID:24295982

  15. Synthesizing and Characterizing Graphene via Raman Spectroscopy: An Upper-Level Undergraduate Experiment That Exposes Students to Raman Spectroscopy and a 2D Nanomaterial (United States)

    Parobek, David; Shenoy, Ganesh; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Zhenbo; Ward, Michelle; Liu, Haitao


    In this upper-level undergraduate experiment, students utilize micro-Raman spectroscopy to characterize graphene prepared by mechanical exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The mechanically exfoliated samples are prepared by the students while CVD graphene can be purchased or obtained through outside sources. Owing to the intense Raman…

  16. Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of radiation-chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, G.N.R.


    A tunable pulsed laser Raman spectrometer for time resolved Raman studies of radiation-chemical processes is described. This apparatus utilizes the state of art optical multichannel detection and analysis techniques for data acquisition and electron pulse radiolysis for initiating the reactions. By using this technique the resonance Raman spectra of intermediates with absorption spectra in the 248-900 nm region, and mean lifetimes > 30 ns can be examined. This apparatus can be used to time resolve the vibrational spectral overlap between transients absorbing in the same region, and to follow their decay kinetics by monitoring the well resolved Raman peaks. For kinetic measurements at millisecond time scale, the Raman technique is preferable over optical absorption method where low frequency noise is quite bothersome. A time resolved Raman study of the pulse radiolytic oxidation of aqueous tetrafluorohydroquinone and p-methoxyphenol is briefly discussed. 15 references, 5 figures

  17. Electromagnetic theories of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ding, Song-Yuan; You, En-Ming; Tian, Zhong-Qun; Moskovits, Martin


    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and related spectroscopies are powered primarily by the concentration of the electromagnetic (EM) fields associated with light in or near appropriately nanostructured electrically-conducting materials, most prominently, but not exclusively high-conductivity metals such as silver and gold. This field concentration takes place on account of the excitation of surface-plasmon (SP) resonances in the nanostructured conductor. Optimizing nanostructures for SERS, therefore, implies optimizing the ability of plasmonic nanostructures to concentrate EM optical fields at locations where molecules of interest reside, and to enhance the radiation efficiency of the oscillating dipoles associated with these molecules and nanostructures. This review summarizes the development of theories over the past four decades pertinent to SERS, especially those contributing to our current understanding of SP-related SERS. Special emphasis is given to the salient strategies and theoretical approaches for optimizing nanostructures with hotspots as efficient EM near-field concentrating and far-field radiating substrates for SERS. A simple model is described in terms of which the upper limit of the SERS enhancement can be estimated. Several experimental strategies that may allow one to approach, or possibly exceed this limit, such as cascading the enhancement of the local and radiated EM field by the multiscale EM coupling of hierarchical structures, and generating hotspots by hybridizing an antenna mode with a plasmonic waveguide cavity mode, which would result in an increased local field enhancement, are discussed. Aiming to significantly broaden the application of SERS to other fields, and especially to material science, we consider hybrid structures of plasmonic nanostructures and other material phases and strategies for producing strong local EM fields at desired locations in such hybrid structures. In this vein, we consider some of the numerical

  18. Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Zeng, Haishan; Kalia, Sunil; Lui, Harvey


    Background: Raman spectroscopy is a non-invasive optical technique which can measure molecular vibrational modes within tissue. A large-scale clinical study (n = 518) has demonstrated that real-time Raman spectroscopy could distinguish malignant from benign skin lesions with good diagnostic accuracy; this was validated by a follow-up independent study (n = 127). Objective: Most of the previous diagnostic algorithms have typically been based on analyzing the full band of the Raman spectra, either in the fingerprint or high wavenumber regions. Our objective in this presentation is to explore wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy for skin cancer diagnosis. Methods: A wavenumber selection algorithm was implemented using variably-sized wavenumber windows, which were determined by the correlation coefficient between wavenumbers. Wavenumber windows were chosen based on accumulated frequency from leave-one-out cross-validated stepwise regression or least and shrinkage selection operator (LASSO). The diagnostic algorithms were then generated from the selected wavenumber windows using multivariate statistical analyses, including principal component and general discriminant analysis (PC-GDA) and partial least squares (PLS). A total cohort of 645 confirmed lesions from 573 patients encompassing skin cancers, precancers and benign skin lesions were included. Lesion measurements were divided into training cohort (n = 518) and testing cohort (n = 127) according to the measurement time. Result: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) improved from 0.861-0.891 to 0.891-0.911 and the diagnostic specificity for sensitivity levels of 0.99-0.90 increased respectively from 0.17-0.65 to 0.20-0.75 by selecting specific wavenumber windows for analysis. Conclusion: Wavenumber selection based analysis in Raman spectroscopy improves skin cancer diagnostic specificity at high sensitivity levels.

  19. Raman Spectra of High-κ Dielectric Layers Investigated with Micro-Raman Spectroscopy Comparison with Silicon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Borowicz


    Full Text Available Three samples with dielectric layers from high-κ dielectrics, hafnium oxide, gadolinium-silicon oxide, and lanthanum-lutetium oxide on silicon substrate were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The results obtained for high-κ dielectrics were compared with spectra recorded for silicon dioxide. Raman spectra suggest the similarity of gadolinium-silicon oxide and lanthanum-lutetium oxide to the bulk nondensified silicon dioxide. The temperature treatment of hafnium oxide shows the evolution of the structure of this material. Raman spectra recorded for as-deposited hafnium oxide are similar to the results obtained for silicon dioxide layer. After thermal treatment especially at higher temperatures (600°C and above, the structure of hafnium oxide becomes similar to the bulk non-densified silicon dioxide.

  20. Advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012). Abstract book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin (eds.)


    The abstract book of the International workshop on advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012) include contributions concerning the following issues: environmental applications, NMR spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and theory, technical application: separation processes, emission spectroscopy.

  1. Advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012). Abstract book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerstendorf, Harald; Mueller, Katharina; Steudtner, Robin


    The abstract book of the International workshop on advanced techniques for actinide spectroscopy (ATAS 2012) include contributions concerning the following issues: environmental applications, NMR spectroscopy, vibrational spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and theory, technical application: separation processes, emission spectroscopy.

  2. Integration of Correlative Raman microscopy in a dual beam FIB-SEM J. of Raman Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, Frank Jan; Liszka, B.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; van Wolferen, Hendricus A.G.M.; Otto, Cornelis


    We present an integrated confocal Raman microscope in a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB SEM). The integrated system enables correlative Raman and electron microscopic analysis combined with focused ion beam sample modification on the same sample location. This provides new

  3. New capability for hazardous materials ID within sealed containers using a portable spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) device (United States)

    Stokes, Robert J.; Bailey, Mike; Bonthron, Stuart; Stone, Thomas; Maskall, Guy; Presly, Oliver; Roy, Eric; Tombling, Craig; Loeffen, Paul W.


    Raman spectroscopy allows the acquisition of molecularly specific signatures of pure compounds and mixtures making it a popular method for material identification applications. In hazardous materials, security and counter terrorism applications, conventional handheld Raman systems are typically limited to operation by line-of-sight or through relatively transparent plastic bags / clear glass vials. If materials are concealed behind thicker, coloured or opaque barriers it can be necessary to open and take a sample. Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS)[1] is a novel variant of Raman spectroscopy whereby multiple measurements at differing positions are used to separate the spectrum arising from the sub layers of a sample from the spectrum at the surface. For the first time, a handheld system based on SORS has been developed and applied to hazardous materials identification. The system - "Resolve" - enables new capabilities in the rapid identification of materials concealed by a wide variety of non-metallic sealed containers such as; coloured and opaque plastics, paper, card, sacks, fabric and glass. The range of potential target materials includes toxic industrial chemicals, explosives, narcotics, chemical warfare agents and biological materials. Resolve has the potential to improve the safety, efficiency and critical decision making in incident management, search operations, policing and ports and border operations. The operator is able to obtain a positive identification of a potentially hazardous material without opening or disturbing the container - to gain access to take a sample - thus improving safety. The technique is fast and simple thus suit and breathing gear time is used more efficiently. SORS also allows Raman to be deployed at an earlier stage in an event before more intrusive techniques are used. Evidential information is preserved and the chain of custody protected. Examples of detection capability for a number of materials and barrier types are

  4. Inverse spatially offset Raman spectroscopy for deep noninvasive probing of turbid media. (United States)

    Matousek, Pavel


    A new type of highly sensitive spatially offset Raman spectroscopy (SORS) developed for deep noninvasive probing of stratified turbid media is described. The technique, termed inverse SORS, permits much greater depths to be interrogated than those accessible with the conventional SORS approach. This is achieved by enhancing the sensitivity of the technique through the elimination of spectral distortions inherent to the conventional SORS methodology. The method also permits the use of higher laser powers in applications where intensity limits exist, such as when probing human tissue in vivo. In addition, the new approach possesses a much higher degree of flexibility, enabling on-the-spot tailoring of experimental conditions such as the magnitude and number of spatial offsets to individual samples. The scheme uses a reverse SORS geometry whereby Raman light is collected through fibers at the center of the probe and laser radiation is delivered to the sample through a beam in the shape of a ring. The method is demonstrated on a layered powder sample and several practical examples of its uses, presented for the first time, are also given. Potential applications include disease diagnosis, noninvasive probing of pharmaceutical products and chemicals through packaging, probing of polymers, biofilms or paints, and homeland security screening.

  5. Re-thinking surface enhance Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensors with a systems perspective (United States)

    White, Ian M.


    While surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) may not compete with the standard central lab approaches for chemical and biological sensing, SERS may have the potential to provide unique capabilities for analytics away from the central lab. Raman spectrometers have evolved from benchtop systems to high-performing handheld instruments that are compatible with analysis of samples in the field. However, for SERS to truly succeed as a "point-of-sample" analytical technique, the SERS sensor must fit the needs of analysis in the field, including little or no sample preparation, minimal peripheral equipment, and ease of use. Traditional plasmonically-active rigid devices do not meet these requirements. Even microfluidic SERS devices generally are not compatible with point-of-sample analysis, as the "world-to-chip" interface presents challenges, and peripheral equipment is generally required. In this review we will discuss the advances in plasmonic substrates fabricated on porous membranes, leading to SERS sensors that can collect samples via swabbing or dipping, clean up samples through separation, concentrate analytes by lateral flow focusing, and avoid the need for peripheral equipment. In particular, we will focus on inkjet-fabricated devices, which may present the best opportunity for scale-up via roll-to-roll manufacturing. We will also discuss the directions that flexible SERS sensors are moving the field, such as simple fabrication techniques, new support materials, SERS swabs, and SERS-active tapes and films.

  6. Structural studies of WO3-TeO2 glasses by high-Q-neutron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, A.; Kaur, A.; Krishna, P.S.R.; Shinde, A.B.


    Glasses from the system: xWO 3 -(100-x)TeO 2 (x=15, 20 and 25 mol %) were prepared by melt quenching technique and characterized by density, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy and high-Q neutron diffraction measurements. Glass density and glass transition temperature increased with increase in WO 3 concentration, Raman spectroscopy indicated the conversion of TeO 4 units into TeO 3 units with increase in WO 3 content. The increase in glass transition temperature with the incorporation of WO 3 was attributed to the increase in average bond strength of the glass network since the bond dissociation energy of W-O bonds (672 kJ/mol) is significantly higher than that of Te-O bonds (376 kJ/mol). UV-visible studies found a very strong optical absorption band due to W 6+ ions, just below the absorption edge. High-Q neutron diffraction measurements were performed on glasses and radial distribution function analyses revealed changes in W-O and Te-O correlations in the glass network. The findings about changes in glass structure from neutron diffraction studies were consistent with structural information obtained from Raman spectroscopy and structure-property correlations were made. (author)

  7. Combining Raman and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy by double pulse lasing. (United States)

    Lednev, Vasily N; Pershin, Sergey M; Sdvizhenskii, Pavel A; Grishin, Mikhail Ya; Fedorov, Alexander N; Bukin, Vladimir V; Oshurko, Vadim B; Shchegolikhin, Alexander N


    A new approach combining Raman spectrometry and laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) within a single laser event was suggested. A pulsed solid state Nd:YAG laser running in double pulse mode (two frequency-doubled sequential nanosecond laser pulses with dozens microseconds delay) was used to combine two spectrometry methods within a single instrument (Raman/LIBS spectrometer). First, a low-energy laser pulse (power density far below ablation threshold) was used for Raman measurements while a second powerful laser pulse created the plasma suitable for LIBS analysis. A short time delay between two successive pulses allows measuring LIBS and Raman spectra at different moments but within a single laser flash-lamp pumping. Principal advantages of the developed instrument include high quality Raman/LIBS spectra acquisition (due to optimal gating for Raman/LIBS independently) and absence of target thermal alteration during Raman measurements. A series of high quality Raman and LIBS spectra were acquired for inorganic salts (gypsum, anhydrite) as well as for pharmaceutical samples (acetylsalicylic acid). To the best of our knowledge, the quantitative analysis feasibility by combined Raman/LIBS instrument was demonstrated for the first time by calibration curves construction for acetylsalicylic acid (Raman) and copper (LIBS) in gypsum matrix. Combining ablation pulses and Raman measurements (LIBS/Raman measurements) within a single instrument makes it an efficient tool for identification of samples hidden by non-transparent covering or performing depth profiling analysis including remote sensing. Graphical abstract Combining Raman and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy by double pulse lasing.

  8. Raman and infrared techniques for fighting drug-related crime: a preliminary assessment (United States)

    Valussi, Silvia; Underhill, Mark


    A proof-of-concept hand-held Raman spectrometer and a commercial portable system based on Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were assessed for the rapid, "at scene" analysis of illicit drugs. The objectives of such an assessment were twofold: 1) to determine the suitability of the systems in practical forensic casework and 2) to determine the potential of the use of such systems in covert operations. Data obtained are promising and demonstrate the potential advantages and limitations of the use of these techniques in these fields of operation.

  9. Characterization and discrimination of phenolic compounds using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and chemometric tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompeu, DR.


    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Phenolic compounds (PCs are the most abundant secondary metabolites in plants. This work was part of a study that sought to develop rapid screening FT-Raman methods for identifying and quantifying classes and/or types of PCs in the dry extracts of plant products. Objectives. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman coupled with chemometric tools was used to characterize and discriminate four families of phenolic compounds: two important classes of phenolic acids, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as their derivatives and flavonoids. Method. For this study, 25 standards of phenolic compounds were used (47 standards in total, taking account of the different brands. Repeatability and reproducibility studies were conducted to verify the Raman assignments of gallic acid. Raman characterization with the most significant spectral bands of phenolic compounds was done using spectra ranging from 1,800 to 50 cm-1. A Fisher test was applied to pre-processed Raman spectra (SNV and 20 Raman scattering signals were used to differentiate each class of phenolic compounds. Results. Hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, their derivatives and flavonoids have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy; bands have been identified and differentiated within and between groups. Conclusions. The scattering intensities located around 1,600-1,699, 1,300-1,400 and below 200 cm-1 were responsible for differentiating 100% of phenolic compound families, classes and subclasses.

  10. Discrimination of Apple Liqueurs (Nalewka) Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue, UV-Vis and Raman Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Śliwińska, Magdalena; Garcia-Hernandez, Celia; Kościński, Mikołaj; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek; Śliwińska-Bartkowiak, Małgorzata; Jurga, Stefan; Garcia-Cabezon, Cristina; Rodriguez-Mendez, Maria Luz


    The capability of a phthalocyanine-based voltammetric electronic tongue to analyze strong alcoholic beverages has been evaluated and compared with the performance of spectroscopic techniques coupled to chemometrics. Nalewka Polish liqueurs prepared from five apple varieties have been used as a model of strong liqueurs. Principal Component Analysis has demonstrated that the best discrimination between liqueurs prepared from different apple varieties is achieved using the e-tongue and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Raman spectra coupled to chemometrics have not been efficient in discriminating liqueurs. The calculated Euclidean distances and the k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm (kNN) confirmed these results. The main advantage of the e-tongue is that, using PLS-1, good correlations have been found simultaneously with the phenolic content measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method (R² of 0.97 in calibration and R² of 0.93 in validation) and also with the density, a marker of the alcoholic content method (R² of 0.93 in calibration and R² of 0.88 in validation). UV-Vis coupled with chemometrics has shown good correlations only with the phenolic content (R² of 0.99 in calibration and R² of 0.99 in validation) but correlations with the alcoholic content were low. Raman coupled with chemometrics has shown good correlations only with density (R² of 0.96 in calibration and R² of 0.85 in validation). In summary, from the three holistic methods evaluated to analyze strong alcoholic liqueurs, the voltammetric electronic tongue using phthalocyanines as sensing elements is superior to Raman or UV-Vis techniques because it shows an excellent discrimination capability and remarkable correlations with both antioxidant capacity and alcoholic content-the most important parameters to be measured in this type of liqueurs.

  11. Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry of bilayer ¹²C/¹³C graphene. (United States)

    Kalbac, Martin; Farhat, Hootan; Kong, Jing; Janda, Pavel; Kavan, Ladislav; Dresselhaus, Mildred S


    Bilayer graphene was prepared by the subsequent deposition of a (13)C single-layer graphene and a (12)C single-layer graphene on top of a SiO(2)/Si substrate. The bilayer graphene thus prepared was studied using Raman spectroscopy and in situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry. The Raman frequencies of the (13)C graphene bands are significantly shifted with respect to those of (12)C graphene, which allows us to investigate the single layer components of bilayer graphene individually. It is shown that the bottom layer of the bilayer graphene is significantly doped from the substrate, while the top layer does not exhibit a signature of the doping from the environment. The electrochemical doping has the same effect on the charge carrier concentration at the top and the bottom layer despite the top layer being the only layer in contact with the electrolyte. This is here demonstrated by essentially the same frequency shifts of the G and G' bands as a function of the electrode potential for both the top and bottom layers. Nevertheless, analysis of the intensity of the Raman modes showed an anomalous bleaching of the Raman intensity of the G mode with increasing electrode potential, which was not observed previously in one-layer graphene.

  12. Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) As Next Generation Nonlinear LIDAR Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond


    Nonlinear spectroscopy using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and femtosecond laser pulses has been successfully developed as powerful tools for chemical analysis and biological imaging. Recent developments show promising possibilities of incorporating CARS into LIDAR system for remote detection of molecular species in airborne particles. The corresponding theory is being developed to describe nonlinear scattering of a mesoscopic particle composed of complex molecules by laser pulses with arbitrary shape and spectral content. Microscopic many-body transform theory is used to compute the third order susceptibility for CARS in molecules with known absorption spectrum and vibrational modes. The theory is combined with an integral scattering formula and Mie-Lorentz formulae, giving a rigorous formalism which provides powerful numerical experimentation of CARS spectra, particularly on the variations with the laser parameters and the direction of detection.

  13. Could near-infrared Raman spectroscopy be correlated with the METAVIR scores in liver lesions induced by hepatitis C virus? (United States)

    Gaggini, Marcio Cesar Reino; Navarro, Ricardo Scarparo; Stefanini, Aline Reis; Sano, Rubens Sato; Silveira, Landulfo


    The liver is responsible for several basic functions in human body how the syntheses of the most main proteins and degradation process of toxins, drugs and alcohols. In present days, the viral hepatitis C is one of the highest causes of chronic hepatic illness worldwide, affecting around 3% of the world population. The liver biopsy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing hepatic fibrosis; however, the biopsies may be questioned because of potential sampling error, morbidity, possible mortality and relatively high costs. Spectroscopy techniques such as Raman spectroscopy have been used for diagnosis of human tissues, with favorable results. Raman spectroscopy has been employed to distinguish normal from hepatic lesions through spectral features mainly of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. In this study, eleven patients with diagnoses of chronic hepatitis C underwent hepatic biopsies having two hepatic fragments collected: one was scored through METAVIR system and the other one was submitted to near-infrared Raman spectroscopy using a dispersive spectrometer (830 nm wavelength, 300 mW laser power and 20 s exposure time). Five spectra were collected in each fragment and submitted to Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Results showed a good correlation between the Raman spectroscopy features and the stage of hepatic fibrosis and inflammation. PCA showed that samples with higher degree of fibrosis presented higher amount of protein features (collagen), whereas samples of higher degree of inflammation presented higher features of hemoglobin, in accordance to the expected evolution of the chronic hepatitis. It has been found an important biomarker for the beginning of hepatic lesion (quinone) with a spectral feature at 1595 cm-1.

  14. Bithiophene radical cation: Resonance Raman spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grage, M.M.-L.; Keszthelyi, T.; Offersgaard, J.F.


    The resonance Raman spectrum of the photogenerated radical cation of bithiophene is reported. The bithiophene radical cation was produced via a photoinduced electron transfer reaction between excited bithiophene and the electron acceptor fumaronitrile in a room temperature acetonitrile solution...... and the Raman spectrum excited in resonance with the absorption band at 425 nm. The spectrum was interpreted with the help of density functional theory calculations. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V....

  15. Micro-Raman spectroscopy studies of the phase separation mechanisms of transition-metal phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazali, Italo Odone; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz; Gimenez, Iara de Fatima


    Glass-ceramics are prepared by controlled separation of crystal phases in glasses, leading to uniform and dense grain structures. On the other hand, chemical leaching of soluble crystal phases yields porous glass-ceramics with important applications. Here, glass/ceramic interfaces of niobo-, vanado- and titano-phosphate glasses were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, whose spatial resolution revealed the multiphase structures. Phase-separation mechanisms were also determined by this technique, revealing that interface composition remained unchanged as the crystallization front advanced for niobo- and vanadophosphate glasses (interface-controlled crystallization). For titanophosphate glasses, phase composition changed continuously with time up to the equilibrium composition, indicating a spinodal-type phase separation. (author)

  16. Remote Sensing of Dissolved Oxygen and Nitrogen in Water Using Raman Spectroscopy (United States)

    Ganoe, Rene; DeYoung, Russell J.


    The health of an estuarine ecosystem is largely driven by the abundance of dissolved oxygen and nitrogen available for maintenance of plant and animal life. An investigation was conducted to quantify the concentration of dissolved molecular oxygen and nitrogen in water by means of Raman spectroscopy. This technique is proposed for the remote sensing of dissolved oxygen in the Chesapeake Bay, which will be utilized by aircraft in order to survey large areas in real-time. A proof of principle system has been developed and the specifications are being honed to maximize efficiency for the final application. The theoretical criteria of the research, components of the experimental system, and key findings are presented in this report

  17. La spectroscopie Raman au service de l’archéométrie


    Lepot, Laurent


    La spectroscopie Raman est une technique particulièrement bien adaptée à l'analyse des oeuvres d'art et des pièces archéologiques. Cette présentation illustre, sans être exhaustive, plusieurs domaines d'application comme l'étude des pigments, des molécules organiques, des produits de corrosion et des minéraux et gemmes. Elle se focalise ensuite sur deux exemples détaillées concernant l'étude des peintures murales de la Cathédrale de Tournai et celle des restes colorés d'un insigne d'épaule re...

  18. Detection of explosive vapour using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Fang, X.; Ahmad, S. R.


    A commercially available nano-structured gold substrate was used for activating surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Raman spectra of the vapour of explosive material, triacetonetriperoxide (TATP), at trace concentrations produced from adsorbed molecules on such surfaces have been studied. Prominent Raman lines of the explosive molecular species were recorded at a sample temperature of ˜35°C, which is near to human body temperature. For this study, the concentration of the adsorbed TATP molecules on the nano-structured surface was varied by heating the sample to different temperatures and exposing the substrate to the sample vapour for different lengths of time. The intensities of the Raman lines have been found to increase with the increase in temperature and also with the increase in the duration of exposure for a fixed temperature. However, as expected, the Raman intensities have been found to saturate at higher temperatures and longer exposures. These saturation effects of the strengths of the Raman lines in the SERS of TATP vapour have been investigated in this paper. The results indicate that the optimisation for vapour deposition on the surface could be a crucial factor for any quantitative estimate of the concentration of the molecular species adsorbed on the nano-structured substrates.

  19. Raman imaging and spectroscopy of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are unique one-dimensional materials that are promising for many potential applications in various important areas. Their vibrational properties reflect the electron and phonon confinement as well as the structures of the tubes. Resonant Raman spectroscopy has been proven to be an exceedingly powerful tool for the characterization of the vibrational and electronic properties of SWNTs. This thesis focuses on the study of Raman spectroscopy of individual single carbon nanotubes. Single tube spectroscopy allows probing the structure dependent properties of SWNTs. A beam-scanning confocal Raman microscope system capable of large-area Raman imaging is first developed for characterizing SWNTs at the single tube level. Raman images and first-order Raman spectra of nanotubes, consisting of both semicoducting and metallic nanotubes, are systemically studied at room temperature in ambient air. The diameter of the nanotubes is determined from their radial breathing mode (RBM) frequency. A broad diameter distribution is observed for nanotubes synthesized by chemical vapor deposition. The tangential G mode Raman spectra of individual metallic nanotubes are found to exhibit a broad distribution of line shapes, which is attributed to shift of the Fermi level due to O2 adsorption. The doping dependence of Raman spectra of metallic tubes is further studied by both electrostatic gating and electrochemical gating. Significant changes in the G band Raman spectra of nanotubes are observed, suggesting the effect of doping on electron-phonon interaction. The observation of a gradual evolution of G band spectrum from a semiconducting type to the broad BWF type reveals evidence of phonon interaction between two G band modes. Raman imaging and Raman spectra of isolated SWNTs and single-layer graphenen are investigated at both room temperature and low temperature. The temperature-induced Raman spectral change of individual nanotubes is observed to be tube

  20. Discrimination of premalignant conditions of oral cancer using Raman spectroscopy of urinary metabolites (United States)

    Elumalai, Brindha; Rajasekaran, Ramu; Aruna, Prakasarao; Koteeswaran, Dornadula; Ganesan, Singaravelu


    Oral cancers are considered to be one of the most commonly occurring malignancy worldwide. Over 70% of the cases report to the doctor only in advanced stages of the disease, resulting in poor survival rates. Hence it is necessary to detect the disease at the earliest which may increase the five year survival rate up to 90%. Among various optical spectroscopic techniques, Raman spectroscopy has been emerged as a tool in identifying several diseased conditions, including oral cancers. Around 30 - 80% of the malignancies of the oral cavity arise from premalignant lesions. Hence, understanding the molecular/spectral differences at the premalignant stage may help in identifying the cancer at the earliest and increase patient's survival rate. Among various bio-fluids such as blood, urine and saliva, urine is considered as one of the diagnostically potential bio-fluids, as it has many metabolites. The distribution and the physiochemical properties of the urinary metabolites may vary due to the changes associated with the pathologic conditions. The present study is aimed to characterize the urine of 70 healthy subjects and 51 pre-malignant patients using Raman spectroscopy under 785nm excitation, to know the molecular/spectral differences between healthy subjects and premalignant conditions of oral malignancy. Principal component analysis based Linear discriminant analysis were also made to find the statistical significance and the present technique yields the sensitivity and specificity of 86.3% and 92.9% with an overall accuracy of 90.9% in the discrimination of premalignant conditions from healthy subjects urine.

  1. Detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by Raman probe spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Dochow, Sebastian; Egodage, Kokila D.; Schie, Iwan; Romeike, Bernd F.; Brehm, Bernhard R.; Popp, Jürgen


    Visualization and characterization of inner arterial plaque depositions is of vital diagnostic interest. Established intravascular imaging techniques provide valuable morphological information, but cannot deliver information about the chemical composition of individual plaques. Probe based Raman spectroscopy offers the possibility for a biochemical characterization of atherosclerotic plaque formations during an intravascular intervention. From post mortem studies it is well known that the severity of a plaque and its stability are strongly correlated with its biochemical composition. Especially the identification of vulnerable plaques remains one of the most important and challenging aspects in cardiology. Thus, specific information about the composition of a plaque would greatly improve the risk assessment and management. Furthermore, knowledge about the composition can offer new therapeutic and medication strategies. Plaque calcifications as well as major lipid components such as cholesterol, cholesterol esters and triglycerides can be spectroscopically easily differentiated. Intravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT) is currently a prominent catheter based imaging technique for the localization and visualization of atherosclerotic plaque depositions. The high resolution of OCT with 10 to 15 µm allows for very detailed characterization of morphological features such as different plaque formations, thin fibrous caps and accurate measurements of lesion lengths. In combination with OCT imaging the obtained spectral information can provide substantial information supporting on on-site diagnosis of various plaque types and therefor an improved risk assessment. The potential and feasibility of combining OCT with Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated on excised plaque samples, as well as under in vivo conditions. Acknowledgements: Financial support from the Carl Zeiss Foundation is greatly acknowledged.

  2. Characterization of carotenoids in soil bacteria and investigation of their photodegradation by UVA radiation via resonance Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Kumar B N, Vinay; Kampe, Bernd; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen


    A soil habitat consists of an enormous number of pigmented bacteria with the pigments mainly composed of diverse carotenoids. Most of the pigmented bacteria in the top layer of the soil are photoprotected from exposure to huge amounts of UVA radiation on a daily basis by these carotenoids. The photostability of these carotenoids depends heavily on the presence of specific features like a carbonyl group or an ionone ring system on its overall structure. Resonance Raman spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive and powerful techniques to detect and characterize these carotenoids and also monitor processes associated with them in their native system at a single cell resolution. However, most of the resonance Raman profiles of carotenoids have very minute differences, thereby making it extremely difficult to confirm if these differences are attributed to the presence of different carotenoids or if it is a consequence of their interaction with other cellular components. In this study, we devised a method to overcome this problem by monitoring also the photodegradation of the carotenoids in question by UVA radiation wherein a differential photodegradation response will confirm the presence of different carotenoids irrespective of the proximities in their resonance Raman profiles. Using this method, the detection and characterization of carotenoids in pure cultures of five species of pigmented coccoid soil bacteria is achieved. We also shed light on the influence of the structure of the carotenoid on its photodegradation which can be exploited for use in the characterization of carotenoids via resonance Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Measurement of the Euler Angles of Wurtzitic ZnO by Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Liu


    Full Text Available A Raman spectroscopy-based step-by-step measuring method of Euler angles φ,θ,and  ψ was presented for the wurtzitic crystal orientation on a microscopic scale. Based on the polarization selection rule and coordinate transformation theory, a series of analytic expressions for the Euler angle measurement using Raman spectroscopy were derived. Specific experimental measurement processes were presented, and the measurement of Raman tensor elements and Euler angles of the ZnO crystal were implemented. It is deduced that there is a trigonometric functional relationship between the intensity of each Raman bands of wurtzite crystal and Euler angle ψ, the polarization direction of incident light under different polarization configurations, which can be used to measure the Euler angles. The experimental results show that the proposed method can realize the measurement of Euler angles for wurtzite crystal effectively.

  4. High-temperature and high-pressure cubic zirconia anvil cell for Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    Chen, Jinyang; Zheng, Haifei; Xiao, Wansheng; Zeng, Yishan


    A simple and inexpensive cubic zirconia anvil cell has been developed for the performance of in situ Raman spectroscopy up to the conditions of 500 degrees C and 30 kbar pressure. The design and construction of this cell are fully described, as well as its applications for Raman spectroscopy. Molybdenum heater wires wrapped around ceramic tubes encircling two cubic zirconia anvils are used to heat samples, and the temperatures are measured and controlled by a Pt-PtRh thermocouple adhered near the sample chamber and an intelligent digital control apparatus. With this cell, Raman spectroscopic measurements have been satisfactorily performed on water at 6000 bar pressure to 455 degrees C and on ice of room temperature to 24 kbar, in which the determinations of pressures make use of changes of the A1 Raman modes of quartz and the shift of the sharpline (R-line) luminescence of ruby, respectively.

  5. Non-invasive sex assessment in bovine semen by Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    De Luca, A. C.; Managó, S.; Ferrara, M. A.; Rendina, I.; Sirleto, L.; Puglisi, R.; Balduzzi, D.; Galli, A.; Ferraro, P.; Coppola, G.


    X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cell sorting is of great interest, especially for animal production management systems and genetic improvement programs. Here, we demonstrate an optical method based on Raman spectroscopy to separate X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells, overcoming many of the limitations associated with current sex-sorting protocols. A priori Raman imaging of bull spermatozoa was utilized to select the sampling points (head-neck region), which were then used to discriminate cells based on a spectral classification model. Main variations of Raman peaks associated with the DNA content were observed together with a variation due to the sex membrane proteins. Next, we used principal component analysis to determine the efficiency of our device as a cell sorting method. The results (>90% accuracy) demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is a powerful candidate for the development of a highly efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive tool for sperm sexing.

  6. Rapid discrimination of newly isolated Bacillales with industrial applications using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, A H; Sun, Z P; Zhang, G Q; Wu, J; Wen, T Y


    Members of the bacterial order Bacillales have been of great interest for agricultural, horticultural, industrial and medical applications because of their capacity to produce various extracellular enzymes. One of the challenges for Bacillales study is to rapidly and effectively identify and characterize newly isolated strains. In the present study, Raman spectroscopy was performed to identify 14 Bacillales strains isolated from Tibet, China. The biochemical properties of each isolate were characterized, and several Raman bands corresponding to nucleic acids, proteins or saccharides were different between isolates. Multivariate analysis of 112 Raman spectra clearly revealed that all 14 isolates were clustered into 3 groups, which was in accordance with the phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Our results suggest that Raman spectroscopy is an effective and promising approach that could quickly discriminate different phylogenetic groups of Bacillales

  7. Non-invasive sex assessment in bovine semen by Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, A C; Managó, S; Ferrara, M A; Rendina, I; Sirleto, L; Coppola, G; Puglisi, R; Balduzzi, D; Galli, A; Ferraro, P


    X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cell sorting is of great interest, especially for animal production management systems and genetic improvement programs. Here, we demonstrate an optical method based on Raman spectroscopy to separate X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells, overcoming many of the limitations associated with current sex-sorting protocols. A priori Raman imaging of bull spermatozoa was utilized to select the sampling points (head-neck region), which were then used to discriminate cells based on a spectral classification model. Main variations of Raman peaks associated with the DNA content were observed together with a variation due to the sex membrane proteins. Next, we used principal component analysis to determine the efficiency of our device as a cell sorting method. The results (>90% accuracy) demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy is a powerful candidate for the development of a highly efficient, non-invasive, and non-destructive tool for sperm sexing. (letters)

  8. Microfluidic device for continuous single cells analysis via Raman spectroscopy enhanced by integrated plasmonic nanodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo


    In this work a Raman flow cytometer is presented. It consists of a microfluidic device that takes advantages of the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and flow cytometry. The microfluidic device integrates calibrated microfluidic channels- where the cells can flow one-by-one -, allowing single cell Raman analysis. The microfluidic channel integrates plasmonic nanodimers in a fluidic trapping region. In this way it is possible to perform Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on single cell. These allow a label-free analysis, providing information about the biochemical content of membrane and cytoplasm of the each cell. Experiments are performed on red blood cells (RBCs), peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and myelogenous leukemia tumor cells (K562). © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  9. Raman spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis and k nearest neighbour analysis for non-invasive detection of colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Wang, Deli; Li, Siqi; Song, Youtao; Zhang, Su


    This paper attempts to investigate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colon cancer. Serum taken from 75 healthy volunteers, 65 colon cancer patients and 60 post-operation colon cancer patients was measured in this experiment. In the Raman spectra of all three groups, the Raman peaks at 750, 1083, 1165, 1321, 1629 and 1779 cm −1 assigned to nucleic acids, amino acids and chromophores were consistently observed. All of these six Raman peaks were observed to have statistically significant differences between groups. For quantitative analysis, the multivariate statistical techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and k nearest neighbour analysis (KNN) were utilized to develop diagnostic algorithms for classification. In PCA, several peaks in the principal component (PC) loadings spectra were identified as the major contributors to the PC scores. Some of the peaks in the PC loadings spectra were also reported as characteristic peaks for colon tissues, which implies correlation between peaks in PC loadings spectra and those in the original Raman spectra. KNN was also performed on the obtained PCs, and a diagnostic accuracy of 91.0% and a specificity of 92.6% were achieved. (paper)

  10. Estimating the concentration of urea and creatinine in the human serum of normal and dialysis patients through Raman spectroscopy. (United States)

    de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Silveira, Landulfo


    Urea and creatinine are commonly used as biomarkers of renal function. Abnormal concentrations of these biomarkers are indicative of pathological processes such as renal failure. This study aimed to develop a model based on Raman spectroscopy to estimate the concentration values of urea and creatinine in human serum. Blood sera from 55 clinically normal subjects and 47 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis were collected, and concentrations of urea and creatinine were determined by spectrophotometric methods. A Raman spectrum was obtained with a high-resolution dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm). A spectral model was developed based on partial least squares (PLS), where the concentrations of urea and creatinine were correlated with the Raman features. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate dialysis patients from normal subjects. The PLS model showed r = 0.97 and r = 0.93 for urea and creatinine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for the model were 17.6 and 1.94 mg/dL, respectively. PCA showed high discrimination between dialysis and normality (95 % accuracy). The Raman technique was able to determine the concentrations with low error and to discriminate dialysis from normal subjects, consistent with a rapid and low-cost test.

  11. Raman spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis and k nearest neighbour analysis for non-invasive detection of colon cancer (United States)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Li, Siqi; Wang, Deli; Song, Youtao; Zhang, Su


    This paper attempts to investigate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colon cancer. Serum taken from 75 healthy volunteers, 65 colon cancer patients and 60 post-operation colon cancer patients was measured in this experiment. In the Raman spectra of all three groups, the Raman peaks at 750, 1083, 1165, 1321, 1629 and 1779 cm-1 assigned to nucleic acids, amino acids and chromophores were consistently observed. All of these six Raman peaks were observed to have statistically significant differences between groups. For quantitative analysis, the multivariate statistical techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and k nearest neighbour analysis (KNN) were utilized to develop diagnostic algorithms for classification. In PCA, several peaks in the principal component (PC) loadings spectra were identified as the major contributors to the PC scores. Some of the peaks in the PC loadings spectra were also reported as characteristic peaks for colon tissues, which implies correlation between peaks in PC loadings spectra and those in the original Raman spectra. KNN was also performed on the obtained PCs, and a diagnostic accuracy of 91.0% and a specificity of 92.6% were achieved.

  12. Detection and quantitative analysis of ferrocyanide and ferricyanide: FY 93 Florida State University Raman spectroscopy report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, C.K.; Vickers, T.J.


    This report provides a summary of work to develop and investigate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy with tank waste materials. It contains Raman spectra from organics, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetetraacteic acid (HEDTA), imino diacetic acid (IDA), kerosene, tributyl phosphate (TBP), acetone and butanol, anticipated to be present in tank wastes and spectra from T-107 real and BY-104 simulant materials. The results of investigating Raman for determining moisture content in tank materials are also presented. A description of software algorithms developed to process Raman spectra from a dispersive grating spectrometer system and an in initial design for a data base to support qualitative and quantitative application of remote Raman sensing with tank wastes

  13. Detection and quantitative analysis of ferrocyanide and ferricyanide: FY 93 Florida State University Raman spectroscopy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, C.K.; Vickers, T.J. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    This report provides a summary of work to develop and investigate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy with tank waste materials. It contains Raman spectra from organics, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylenediaminetetraacteic acid (HEDTA), imino diacetic acid (IDA), kerosene, tributyl phosphate (TBP), acetone and butanol, anticipated to be present in tank wastes and spectra from T-107 real and BY-104 simulant materials. The results of investigating Raman for determining moisture content in tank materials are also presented. A description of software algorithms developed to process Raman spectra from a dispersive grating spectrometer system and an in initial design for a data base to support qualitative and quantitative application of remote Raman sensing with tank wastes.

  14. Application of NIR Raman spectroscopy for detecting and characterizing early dental caries (United States)

    Ko, A. C.; Choo-Smith, L.-P.; Zhu, R.; Hewko, M.; Dong, C.; Cleghorn, B.; Sowa, M. G.


    Early dental caries detection facilitates implementation of non-surgical methods for arresting caries progression and promoting tooth remineralization. We present a method based on Raman spectroscopy with near-IR laser excitation to provide biochemical contrast for detecting and characterizing incipient carious lesions found in extracted human teeth. Changes in Raman spectra are observed in PO 4 3- vibrations arising from hydroxyapatite of mineralized tooth tissue. Examination of various intensities of the PO 4 3- ν2, ν3, ν4 vibrations showed consistent increased intensities in spectra of carious lesions compared to sound enamel. The spectral changes are attributed to demineralization-induced alterations of enamel crystallite morphology and/or orientation. This hypothesis is supported by reduced Raman polarization anisotropy derived from polarized Raman spectra of carious lesions. Polarized Raman spectral imaging of carious lesions found on whole (i.e. un-sectioned) tooth samples will also be presented.

  15. TH-E-BRF-07: Raman Spectroscopy for Radiation Treatment Response Assessment in a Lung Metastases Mouse Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devpura, S; Barton, K; Brown, S; Siddiqui, F; Chetty, I; Sethi, S; Klein, M


    Purpose: Raman spectroscopy is an optical spectroscopic method used to probe chemical information about a target tissue. Our goal was to investigate whether Raman spectroscopy is able to distinguish lung tumors from normal lung tissue and whether this technique can identify the molecular changes induced by radiation. Methods: 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into the flanks of 6 Balb/C female mice. Four additional mice were used as “normal lung” controls. After 14 days, 3 mice bearing tumors received 6Gy to the left lung with 6MV photons and the other three were treated as “unirradiated tumor” controls. At a 24-hour time point, lungs were excised and the specimens were sectioned using a cryostat; alternating sections were either stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) for evaluation by a pathologist or unstained for Raman measurements. 240 total Raman spectra were collected; 84 from normal lung controls; 63 from unirradiated tumors and 64 from tumors irradiated with 6Gy in a single fraction. Raman spectra were also collected from normal lung tissues of mice with unirradiated tumors. Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) were performed to analyze the data. Results: Raman bands assignable to DNA/RNA showed prominent contributions in tumor tissues while Raman bands associated with hemoglobin showed strong contributions in normal lung tissue. PCA/DFA analysis identified normal lung tissue and tumor with 100% and 98.4% accuracy, respectively, relative to pathologic scoring. Additionally, normal lung tissues from unirradiated mice bearing tumors were classified as normal with 100% accuracy. In a model consisting of unirradiated and irradiated tumors identification accuracy was 79.4% and 93.8% respectively, relative to pathologic assessment. Conclusion: Initial results demonstrate the promise for Raman spectroscopy in the diagnosis normal vs. lung metastases as well as the assessment of

  16. A critical assessment of visual identification of marine microplastic using Raman spectroscopy for analysis improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Robin; Enders, Kristina; Stedmon, Colin


    (n = 1279) were spectroscopically confirmed being plastic. The percentage varied with type, colour and size of the MP. Fibres had a higher success rate (75%) than particles (64%).We tested Raman micro-spectroscopy applicability for MP identification with respect to varying chemical composition...... (additives), degradation state and organic matter coating. Partially UV-degraded postconsumer plastics provided identifiable Raman spectra for polymers most common among marine MP, i.e. polyethylene and polypropylene...

  17. Low-loss tunable all-in-fiber filter for Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara; Scolari, Lara; Lund-Hansen, Toke


    We show a novel in-line Rayleigh-rejection filter for Raman spectroscopy, based on a solid-core Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) filled with a high-index material. The device is low-loss and thermally tunable, and allows for a strong attenuation of the Rayleigh line at 532nm and the transmission...... of the Raman lines in a broad wavenumber range....

  18. Raman spectroscopy for skin cancer diagnosis and characterisation of thin supported lipid films


    Larraona-Puy, Marta


    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool in oncological imaging. Optical biopsies in which an accurate diagnosis of the tumour areas is spectroscopically performed are especially interesting for application to skin cancer treatments. In the first part of this dissertation a study on automated Raman spectral imaging allowed accurate diagnosis and delineation of the borders of a common type of skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Automated detection and imaging of BCC in skin sections exci...

  19. In-situ investigation of the calcination process of mixed oxide xerogels with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitz, J.C. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The controlled calcination of materials derived by sol-gel reactions is important for the evolution of the final structure. Raman spectroscopy is an ideal tool for the identification of surface species under in-situ conditions, as demonstrated in the following for the example of a molybdenum oxide-silica xerogel. Raman spectra of this particular sample were recorded at temperatures as high as 1173 K, and compared with those of a reference material.(author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Applications of Fourier transform Raman and infrared spectroscopy in forensic sciences (United States)

    Kuptsov, Albert N.


    First in the world literature comprehensive digital complementary vibrational spectra collection of polymer materials and search system was developed. Non-destructive combined analysis using complementary FT-Raman and FTIR spectra followed by cross-parallel searching on digital spectral libraries, was applied in different fields of forensic sciences. Some unique possibilities of Raman spectroscopy has been shown in the fields of examination of questioned documents, paper, paints, polymer materials, gemstones and other physical evidences.