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Sample records for techniques provide unique

  1. Measurement of MMP-9 and -12 degraded elastin (ELM) provides unique information on lung tissue degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Clausen, Rikke E; Nguyen, Quoc Hai Trieu

    2012-01-01

    Elastin is an essential component of selected connective tissues that provides a unique physiological elasticity. Elastin may be considered a signature protein of lungs where matrix metalloprotease (MMP) -9-and -12, may be considered the signature proteases of the macrophages, which in part...... are responsible for tissue damage during disease progression. Thus, we hypothesized that a MMP-9/-12 generated fragment of elastin may be a relevant biochemical maker for lung diseases....

  2. The generalized Schwinger-DeWitt technique and the unique effective action in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Vilkovisky, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    We consider the one-loop approximation to the recently proposed unique effective action in gauge theory. The Schwinger-DeWitt technique is generalized and applied to the computation of the unique gravitational counterterms. The issue of asymptotic freedom is reexamined. (orig.)

  3. The elite cross-country skier provides unique insights into human exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, H-C

    2015-12-01

    Successful cross-country skiing, one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involves considerable physiological challenges posed by the combined upper- and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration, on hilly terrain, often at moderate altitude and in a cold environment. Over the years, this unique sport has helped physiologists gain novel insights into the limits of human performance and regulatory capacity. There is a long-standing tradition of researchers in this field working together with coaches and athletes to improve training routines, monitor progress, and refine skiing techniques. This review summarizes research on elite cross-country skiers, with special emphasis on the studies initiated by Professor Bengt Saltin. He often employed exercise as a means to learn more about the human body, successfully engaging elite endurance athletes to improve our understanding of the demands, characteristics, and specific effects associated with different types of exercise. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Measurement of MMP-9 and -12 degraded elastin (ELM) provides unique information on lung tissue degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Elastin is an essential component of selected connective tissues that provides a unique physiological elasticity. Elastin may be considered a signature protein of lungs where matrix metalloprotease (MMP) -9-and -12, may be considered the signature proteases of the macrophages, which in part are responsible for tissue damage during disease progression. Thus, we hypothesized that a MMP-9/-12 generated fragment of elastin may be a relevant biochemical maker for lung diseases. Methods Elastin fragments were identified by mass-spectrometry and one sequence, generated by MMP-9 and -12 (ELN-441), was selected for monoclonal antibody generation and used in the development of an ELISA. Soluble and insoluble elastin from lung was cleaved in vitro and the time-dependent release of fragments was assessed in the ELN-441 assay. The release of ELN-441 in human serum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 10) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 29) were compared to healthy matched controls (n = 11). Results The sequence ELN-441 was exclusively generated by MMP-9 and -12 and was time-dependently released from soluble lung elastin. ELN-441 levels were 287% higher in patients diagnosed with COPD (p elastin. This fragment was elevated in serum from patients with the lung diseases IPF and COPD, however these data needs to be validated in larger clinical settings. PMID:22818364

  5. The JRC Nanomaterials Repository: A unique facility providing representative test materials for nanoEHS research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Sara; Cotogno, Giulio; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Pianella, Francesca; Roncaglia, Marco; Olsson, Heidi; Riego Sintes, Juan M; Crutzen, Hugues P

    2016-11-01

    The European Commission has established a Nanomaterials Repository that hosts industrially manufactured nanomaterials that are distributed world-wide for safety testing of nanomaterials. In a first instance these materials were tested in the OECD Testing Programme. They have then also been tested in several EU funded research projects. The JRC Repository of Nanomaterials has thus developed into serving the global scientific community active in the nanoEHS (regulatory) research. The unique Repository facility is a state-of-the-art installation that allows customised sub-sampling under the safest possible conditions, with traceable final sample vials distributed world-wide for research purposes. This paper describes the design of the Repository to perform a semi-automated subsampling procedure, offering high degree of flexibility and precision in the preparation of NM vials for customers, while guaranteeing the safety of the operators, and environmental protection. The JRC nanomaterials are representative for part of the world NMs market. Their wide use world-wide facilitates the generation of comparable and reliable experimental results and datasets in (regulatory) research by the scientific community, ultimately supporting the further development of the OECD regulatory test guidelines. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-09

    We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome--composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence and an estimated 20,000-23,000 genes--provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution, while also improving the annotation of mammalian genomes. For example, the evolutionary distance between chicken and human provides high specificity in detecting functional elements, both non-coding and coding. Notably, many conserved non-coding sequences are far from genes and cannot be assigned to defined functional classes. In coding regions the evolutionary dynamics of protein domains and orthologous groups illustrate processes that distinguish the lineages leading to birds and mammals. The distinctive properties of avian microchromosomes, together with the inferred patterns of conserved synteny, provide additional insights into vertebrate chromosome architecture.

  7. Identification of unique repeated patterns, location of mutation in DNA finger printing using artificial intelligence technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukunthan, B; Nagaveni, N

    2014-01-01

    In genetic engineering, conventional techniques and algorithms employed by forensic scientists to assist in identification of individuals on the basis of their respective DNA profiles involves more complex computational steps and mathematical formulae, also the identification of location of mutation in a genomic sequence in laboratories is still an exigent task. This novel approach provides ability to solve the problems that do not have an algorithmic solution and the available solutions are also too complex to be found. The perfect blend made of bioinformatics and neural networks technique results in efficient DNA pattern analysis algorithm with utmost prediction accuracy.

  8. Unique Phrenic Nerve-Sparing Regional Anesthetic Technique for Pain Management after Shoulder Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason K. Panchamia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ipsilateral phrenic nerve blockade is a common adverse event after an interscalene brachial plexus block, which can result in respiratory deterioration in patients with preexisting pulmonary conditions. Diaphragm-sparing nerve block techniques are continuing to evolve, with the intention of providing satisfactory postoperative analgesia while minimizing hemidiaphragmatic paralysis after shoulder surgery. Case Report. We report the successful application of a combined ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block and suprascapular nerve block in a patient with a complicated pulmonary history undergoing a total shoulder replacement. Conclusion. This case report briefly reviews the important innervations to the shoulder joint and examines the utility of the infraclavicular brachial plexus block for postoperative pain management.

  9. Protection provided by masks sinkers in interventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pera Cegarra, O.; Alejo Luque, L.; Pifarre Martinez, J.

    2011-01-01

    The high doses that are taught in laboratories worked indispensable the use of shields and armor. In this context, the use of sinkers glasses is widespread, but not the sinkers of the masks. Qur goal is to study the effectiveness of such masks for later comparison with that provided by leaded glasses with side shields. Specifically, compare the reduction in lens dose rate for different positions and orientations of the head of specialist intervention.

  10. A Unique Surgical Technique for Tracheostomy in Heterotopic Ossification: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Esther; Thorpe, Eric

    2016-11-01

    To describe a technique for tracheostomy in heterotopic ossification that has not yet been described in the literature. We report a case of difficult tracheostomy while using conventional techniques in a 68-year-old patient who underwent mitral valve replacement requiring warfarin therapy three months prior. Imaging revealed heterotopic ossification overlying the trachea. A literature review was performed to identify similar cases or techniques. Extensive surgical planning was pursued after the initial attempted tracheostomy failed, and the airway was eventually accessed using a lighted intubation stylet for guidance and a drill. Heterotopic ossification has been described after orthopedic and abdominal surgeries. We identified one case report in the literature of tracheostomy performed in the setting of heterotopic ossification by an unspecified mechanism. There are few reported cases of tracheobronchial calcification in cardiac patients receiving warfarin therapy; however, these patients had characteristic imaging findings that were not consistent with those of our patient. We illustrate a safe and effective technique for tracheostomy in heterotopic ossification that has not been reported. Coordination with the anesthesia service was paramount for a successful operation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. A Unique Technique to get Kaprekar Iteration in Linear Programming Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, P.; Preethy, V.

    2018-04-01

    This paper explores about a frivolous number popularly known as Kaprekar constant and Kaprekar numbers. A large number of courses and the different classroom capacities with difference in study periods make the assignment between classrooms and courses complicated. An approach of getting the minimum value of number of iterations to reach the Kaprekar constant for four digit numbers and maximum value is also obtained through linear programming techniques.

  12. Neutron diffraction tomography: a unique, 3D inspection technique for crystals using an intensifier TV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.B.; Case, A.L.

    1978-01-01

    The application of phosphor-intensifier-TV techniques to neutron topography and tomography of crystals is described. The older, analogous x-ray topography using wavelengths approximately 1.5A is widely used for surface inspection. However, the crystal must actually be cut in order to see diffraction anomalies beneath the surface. Because 1.5-A thermal neutrons are highly penetrating, much larger and thicker specimens can be used. Also, since neutrons have magnetic moments, they are diffracted by magnetic structures within crystals. In neutron volume topography, the entire crystal or a large part of it is irradiated, and the images obtained are superimposed reflections from the total volume. In neutron tomography (or section topography), a collimated beam irradiates a slice (0.5 to 10 mm) of the crystal. The diffracted image is a tomogram from this part only. A series of tomograms covering the crystal can be taken as the specimen is translated in steps across the narrow beam. Grains, voids, twinning, and other defects from regions down to 1 mm in size can be observed and isolated. Although at present poorer in resolution than the original neutron and film methods, the TV techniques are much faster and, in some cases, permit real-time viewing. Two camera systems are described: a counting camera having a 150 mm 6 Li-ZnS screen for low-intensity reflections which are integrated in a digital memory, and a 300-mm system using analog image storage. Topographs and tomograms of several crystals ranging in size from 4 mm to 80 mm are shown

  13. AmeriFlux and EuroFlux: History of a Strong Collaboration that Provided Unique Resources to the Scientific Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Biraud, S.; Canfora, E.; Pastorello, G.; Torn, M. S.; Trotta, C.

    2017-12-01

    In 1995 scientific communities in Europe and North America using the eddy covariance technique to measure carbon, water, and energy exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere started to organize their respective regional networks. Although there was a general interest and agreement to collaborate and exchange information and data between the two communities, these mainly occurred at the single site or individual levels through direct communications rather than systematically across networks. Between 2000 and 2008 common strategies to facilitate data sharing, promote data use across the two networks, and outreach to the scientific community, started to be more deeply discussed. Early on, harmonization across networks was deemed necessary to the success of both networks. This actually required major effort including lengthy discussions, compromises, and interactions between the networks for concrete implementation of common platforms and tools. Topics such as measurement units, variable definitions and labeling, data processing methods, data sharing policy, data distribution systems and formats, were key elements that had to be addressed and agreed upon carefully to build integrated and inter-operable research infrastructures (RIs). Today, AmeriFlux and EuroFlux are the basis, not only of the continental research infrastructures (ICOS in Europe), but they are also the driving force behind FLUXNET, where other regional networks are joining this coalition and contributing to the definition of a common system to make complex measurements accessible and comparable across continents. The latest dataset produced from this collaboration includes data contributed by over 200 sites around the world, with records spanning over two decades of data, and has been downloaded by over 900 users in the first 1.5 years of its publication. The core strategy of this collaboration, critical aspects and implemented solutions, as well as the current state of this effort

  14. Providing Coverage for the Unique Lifelong Health Care Needs of Living Kidney Donors Within the Framework of Financial Neutrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J S; Delmonico, F; Klarenbach, S; Capron, A M

    2017-05-01

    Organ donation should neither enrich donors nor impose financial burdens on them. We described the scope of health care required for all living kidney donors, reflecting contemporary understanding of long-term donor health outcomes; proposed an approach to identify donor health conditions that should be covered within the framework of financial neutrality; and proposed strategies to pay for this care. Despite the Affordable Care Act in the United States, donors continue to have inadequate coverage for important health conditions that are donation related or that may compromise postdonation kidney function. Amendment of Medicare regulations is needed to clarify that surveillance and treatment of conditions that may compromise postdonation kidney function following donor nephrectomy will be covered without expense to the donor. In other countries lacking health insurance for all residents, sufficient data exist to allow the creation of a compensation fund or donor insurance policies to ensure appropriate care. Providing coverage for donation-related sequelae as well as care to preserve postdonation kidney function ensures protection against the financial burdens of health care encountered by donors throughout their lives. Providing coverage for this care should thus be cost-effective, even without considering the health care cost savings that occur for living donor transplant recipients. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  15. Clubes de Ciencia: Intensive science workshops in Mexico provide a unique opportunity for teaching, scientific and cultural exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, I.; Rosengard, S.; Estefania, M.; Jinich, A.

    2016-02-01

    Clubes de Ciencia, which translates to "Science Clubs" is an initiative started by a group of graduate students at Harvard University in 2014 to encourage scientific exchange between the US and Mexico. These science clubs are one-week long intensive workshops taught by graduate students and/or postdocs on a subject of their choice in six Mexican cities. Instructors apply to teach a workshop by sending a proposal to the organizing committee, who is looking for workshops that emphasize hands-on, practical ideas. The instructors, primarily graduate students in the US, are paired with local co-instructors who assist and often co-teach the workshop. Local student participants, who are in their last two years of high school and the first two years of college, are selected based on their interest and enthusiasm. Each class has about 15-20 students, so that the classroom setting is intimate and interactive Sponsors, who fund instructor stipends, class supplies and program development, include the Mexican department of energy (SENER), the Mexican national science foundation (CONACYT), Harvard and MIT. Host universities also provide space and resources. In this presentation we focus on clubs that were taught in January 2015 on ocean physics and July 2015 on ocean chemistry, both taught in Ensenada, Baja California at the national autonomous university. Both workshops included a combination of data analysis, lectures, experiments and computational modeling. The ocean physics class was also recorded intermittently and is being used as a test case for an online course. The format provided an intensive teaching and networking experience and could be interesting to implement in other contexts.

  16. Unique genome organization of non-mammalian papillomaviruses provides insights into the evolution of viral early proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Schmidt, Annie; Lescroël, Amelie; Jongsomjit, Dennis; Elrod, Megan; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Dugger, Katie M; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G; Varsani, Arvind

    2017-07-01

    estimated the divergence time between Northern fulmar-associated papillomavirus and the other Sauropsid papillomaviruses be to around 250 million years ago, during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition and our analysis dates the root of the papillomavirus tree between 400 and 600 million years ago. Our analysis shows evidence for niche adaptation and that these non-mammalian viruses have highly divergent E6 and E7 proteins, providing insights into the evolution of the early viral (onco-)proteins.

  17. Unique genome organization of non-mammalian papillomaviruses provides insights into the evolution of viral early proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Schmidt, Annie; Lescroël, Amelie; Jongsomjit, Dennis; Elrod, Megan; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Dugger, Katie M.; Ballard, Grant; Ainley, David G.; Varsani, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    divergence time between Northern fulmar-associated papillomavirus and the other Sauropsid papillomaviruses be to around 250 million years ago, during the Paleozoic-Mesozoic transition and our analysis dates the root of the papillomavirus tree between 400 and 600 million years ago. Our analysis shows evidence for niche adaptation and that these non-mammalian viruses have highly divergent E6 and E7 proteins, providing insights into the evolution of the early viral (onco-)proteins.

  18. Orthogonal Electric Field Measurements near the Green Fluorescent Protein Fluorophore through Stark Effect Spectroscopy and pKa Shifts Provide a Unique Benchmark for Electrostatics Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Joshua D; First, Jeremy T; Webb, Lauren J

    2017-07-20

    Measurement of the magnitude, direction, and functional importance of electric fields in biomolecules has been a long-standing experimental challenge. pK a shifts of titratable residues have been the most widely implemented measurements of the local electrostatic environment around the labile proton, and experimental data sets of pK a shifts in a variety of systems have been used to test and refine computational prediction capabilities of protein electrostatic fields. A more direct and increasingly popular technique to measure electric fields in proteins is Stark effect spectroscopy, where the change in absorption energy of a chromophore relative to a reference state is related to the change in electric field felt by the chromophore. While there are merits to both of these methods and they are both reporters of local electrostatic environment, they are fundamentally different measurements, and to our knowledge there has been no direct comparison of these two approaches in a single protein. We have recently demonstrated that green fluorescent protein (GFP) is an ideal model system for measuring changes in electric fields in a protein interior caused by amino acid mutations using both electronic and vibrational Stark effect chromophores. Here we report the changes in pK a of the GFP fluorophore in response to the same mutations and show that they are in excellent agreement with Stark effect measurements. This agreement in the results of orthogonal experiments reinforces our confidence in the experimental results of both Stark effect and pK a measurements and provides an excellent target data set to benchmark diverse protein electrostatics calculations. We used this experimental data set to test the pK a prediction ability of the adaptive Poisson-Boltzmann solver (APBS) and found that a simple continuum dielectric model of the GFP interior is insufficient to accurately capture the measured pK a and Stark effect shifts. We discuss some of the limitations of this

  19. Web-based KAP Intervention on Office Ergonomics: A Unique Technique for Prevention of Musculoskeletal Discomfort in Global Corporate Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhwani, Kishore P; Nag, P K

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate web-based Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) intervention on office ergonomics - a unique method for prevention of musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) - in corporate offices that influences behavior modification. With the increasing use of computers, laptops and hand-held communication devices globally among office employees, creating awareness on office ergonomics has become a top priority. Emphasis needs to be given on maintaining ideal work postures, ergonomic arrangement of workstations, optimizing chair functions, as well as performing desk stretches to reduce MSD arising from the use of these equipment, thereby promoting safe work practices at offices and home, as in the current scenario many employees work from home with flexible work hours. Hence, this justifies the importance of our study. To promote safe working by exploring cost-effective communication methods to achieve behavior change at distant sites when an on-site visit may not be feasible. An invitation was sent by the Medical and Occupational Health Team of a multinational corporation to all employees at their offices in Sri Lanka, Singapore, and Malaysia to take up an online Nordic questionnaire, a screening tool for musculoskeletal symptoms, shared in local languages on two occasions - baseline evaluation ( n = 240) and a follow-up evaluation after 3 months ( n = 203). After completing the baseline questionnaire, employees were immediately trained on correct postures and office ergonomics with animation graphics. The same questionnaire was sent again after a 12-week gap only to those employees who responded to the baseline questionnaire on initial assessment. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 software and variables were compared using odds ratio as well as Chi-square test. Of the 203 employees who responded, 47.35% had some musculoskeletal symptoms. Among them 58.7% had lower back pain

  20. Swarm Intelligence: New Techniques for Adaptive Systems to Provide Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2012-01-01

    The notion of a system adapting itself to provide support for learning has always been an important issue of research for technology-enabled learning. One approach to provide adaptivity is to use social navigation approaches and techniques which involve analysing data of what was previously selected by a cluster of users or what worked for…

  1. The Spiritual Form of Ancient Art and Culture - Bharatanatyam (Visual Art Depicted Using Unique Techniques on Scratchboard (Fine Art Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpitha Parthasarathy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The most ancient form of dance that is prevailing todays is a form of classical Indian dance, Bharatanatyam. In Sanskrit (and Devanagri, bharatanatyam means "Indian dance", is believed to have divine origin and is of the most ancient form of classical dance. Bharatanatyam is a two thousand-year-old dance form, originally practiced in the temples of ancient India. The art today remains purely devotional even today and this performing art is yet to gain awareness and interest in the western world. This dance form has various implications in improving the higher order thinking in children and provides health benefits in adults apart from cultural preservation. The current study uses scratchboard as a medium to display the artistic movements and emotions. Scratchboard, a fine art is one means by which the visual art is expressed in this current study using sharp tools, namely X-acto 11 scalpel and tattoo needles. This unique medium made up of a masonite hardboard coated with soft clay and Indian ink has been used to not only show the details of the ancient dance form and expression but also to comprehend and transcribe both visual art and fine art. It is for the first time that scratchboard medium has been the innovatively used to show various textures of flower, glistening gold jewels, hand woven silk and the divine expression in the same art ‘devotion’. The current study was carried out in-order to perpetuate, conserve and disseminate these classic forms of visual art and fine art.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE METERED-DOSE INHALER TECHNIQUE AMONG HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nadi F. Zeraati

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Poor inhaler technique is a common problem both in asthmatic patients and healthcare providers, which contributes to poor asthma control. This study was performed to evaluate the adequacy of metered-dose inhaler (MDI technique in a sample of physicians and nurses practicing in hospitals of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. A total of 173 healthcare providers voluntary participated in this study. After the participants answered a questionnaire aimed at identifying their involvement in MDI prescribing and counseling, a trained observer assessed their MDI technique using a checklist of nine steps. Of the 173 participants, 35 (20.2% were physicians and 138 (79.8% were nurses. Only 12 participants (6.93% performed all steps correctly. Physicians performed essential steps significantly better than nurses (85.7% vs. 63.8%, P < 0.05. The majority of healthcare providers responsible for instructing patients on the correct MDI technique were unable to perform this technique correctly, indicating the need for regular formal training programs on inhaler techniques.

  3. Requesting a unique personal identifier or providing a souvenir incentive did not affect overall consent to health record linkage: evidence from an RCT nested within a cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Michael Y; Li, Tom K; Hui, Rex W H; McDowell, Ian; Leung, Gabriel M

    2017-04-01

    It is unclear if unique personal identifiers should be requested from participants for health record linkage: this permits high-quality data linkage but at the potential cost of lower consent rates due to privacy concerns. Drawing from a sampling frame based on the FAMILY Cohort, using a 2 × 2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 1,200 participants to (1) request for Hong Kong Identity Card number (HKID) or no request and (2) receiving a souvenir incentive (valued at USD4) or no incentive. The primary outcome was consent to health record linkage. We also investigated associations between demographics, health status, and postal reminders with consent. Overall, we received signed consent forms from 33.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.6-36.0%) of respondents. We did not find an overall effect of requesting HKID (-4.3%, 95% CI -9.8% to 1.2%) or offering souvenir incentives (2.4%, 95% CI -3.1% to 7.9%) on consent to linkage. In subgroup analyses, requesting HKID significantly reduced consent among adults aged 18-44 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 95% CI 0.30-0.94, compared to no request). Souvenir incentives increased consent among women (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.13-2.11, compared to no souvenirs). Requesting a unique personal identifier or providing a souvenir incentive did not affect overall consent to health record linkage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. How a Training Program Is Transforming the Role of Traditional Birth Attendants from Cultural Practitioners to Unique Health-care Providers: A Community Case Study in Rural Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Hernandez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, where the rates of maternal mortality continue to be inappropriately high, there has been recognition of the importance of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs to help improve outcomes during pregnancy and childbirth. In Guatemala, there is no national comprehensive training program in place despite the fact that the majority of women rely on TBAs during pregnancy and childbirth. This community case study presents a unique education program led by TBAs for TBAs in rural Guatemala. Discussion of this training program focuses on programming implementation, curriculum development, sustainable methodology, and how an educational partnership with the current national health-care system can increase access to health care for women in LMICs. Recent modifications to this training model are also discussed including how a change in the clinical curriculum is further integrating TBAs into the national health infrastructure. The training program has demonstrated that Guatemalan TBAs are able to improve their basic obstetrical knowledge, are capable of identifying and referring early complications of pregnancy and labor, and can deliver basic prenatal care that would otherwise not be provided. This training model is helping transform the role of the TBA from a sole cultural practitioner to a validated health-care provider within the health-care infrastructure of Guatemala and has the potential to do the same in other LMICs.

  5. How a Training Program Is Transforming the Role of Traditional Birth Attendants from Cultural Practitioners to Unique Health-care Providers: A Community Case Study in Rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sasha; Oliveira, Jessica Bastos; Shirazian, Taraneh

    2017-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where the rates of maternal mortality continue to be inappropriately high, there has been recognition of the importance of training traditional birth attendants (TBAs) to help improve outcomes during pregnancy and childbirth. In Guatemala, there is no national comprehensive training program in place despite the fact that the majority of women rely on TBAs during pregnancy and childbirth. This community case study presents a unique education program led by TBAs for TBAs in rural Guatemala. Discussion of this training program focuses on programming implementation, curriculum development, sustainable methodology, and how an educational partnership with the current national health-care system can increase access to health care for women in LMICs. Recent modifications to this training model are also discussed including how a change in the clinical curriculum is further integrating TBAs into the national health infrastructure. The training program has demonstrated that Guatemalan TBAs are able to improve their basic obstetrical knowledge, are capable of identifying and referring early complications of pregnancy and labor, and can deliver basic prenatal care that would otherwise not be provided. This training model is helping transform the role of the TBA from a sole cultural practitioner to a validated health-care provider within the health-care infrastructure of Guatemala and has the potential to do the same in other LMICs.

  6. A unique collaboration of female medical providers within the United States Armed Forces: rehabilitation of a marine with post-concussive vestibulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottshall, Kim; Gray, Nicola; Drake, Angela I

    2005-01-01

    Uncle Sam's loyal nieces have come a long way from the days of World War I. The development of occupational and physical therapy was heavily influenced by an early relationship with medical specialists during the First World War. This relationship can be considered largely responsible for the eventual acceptance (by the Armed Forces) of women working in this area. Over the past decade active duty women have seen many changes in opportunities to serve and are now stationed aboard aircraft carriers, performing roles previously considered for male personnel. We report a case study of the medical care provided by both military and civilian women working for the United States Armed Forces. Initial assessment was conducted in a battalion aid station of a United States Marine Corp base and the subject was then referred to a military medical center with highly technical vestibular assessment and rehabilitation services. The subject's case represents a unique collaboration of women therapists, enabling a Marines' access to timely and accurate assessment, treatment and ultimately, successful return to active duty. This case study is one of many examples of the acceptance and successful integration of women as providers of medical care within the Military's medical framework.

  7. Using a computerized provider order entry system to meet the unique prescribing needs of children: description of an advanced dosing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberger Patricia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that the information requirements necessary to safely treat children with therapeutic medications cannot be met with the same approaches used in adults. Over a 1-year period, Duke University Hospital engaged in the challenging task of enhancing an established computerized provider order entry (CPOE system to address the unique medication dosing needs of pediatric patients. Methods An advanced dosing model (ADM was designed to interact with our existing CPOE application to provide decision support enabling complex pediatric dose calculations based on chronological age, gestational age, weight, care area in the hospital, indication, and level of renal impairment. Given that weight is a critical component of medication dosing that may change over time, alerting logic was added to guard against erroneous entry or outdated weight information. Results Pediatric CPOE was deployed in a staggered fashion across 6 care areas over a 14-month period. Safeguards to prevent miskeyed values became important in allowing providers the flexibility to override the ADM logic if desired. Methods to guard against over- and under-dosing were added. The modular nature of our model allows us to easily add new dosing scenarios for specialized populations as the pediatric population and formulary change over time. Conclusions The medical needs of pediatric patients vary greatly from those of adults, and the information systems that support those needs require tailored approaches to design and implementation. When a single CPOE system is used for both adults and pediatrics, safeguards such as redirection and suppression must be used to protect children from inappropriate adult medication dosing content. Unlike other pediatric dosing systems, our model provides active dosing assistance and dosing process management, not just static dosing advice.

  8. Techniques and Tools Providing Strategic Decision Support: A Framework, Review, and Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    associations in a dream (Lacan, 1977). But the cognitive operations at level 5 are in themselves beyond the language or the person carrying them out (Jameson...formalizing techniques. A major problem for the design of systems able to provide support at this level is that, as in dream interpretation, what needs to...the development of object relations and affects. International Journal of Psychoanalysis , 59, 285-296. Savage, L.J., 1954. The foundations of

  9. Collage technique may provide new perspectives for Alzheimer patients by exploring messages from their inner world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Meguro

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the collage art technique has been introduced as a psychotherapeutic method, it has not been fully applied in dementia. Objectives: To analyze characteristics of the collage articles produced by patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Twenty AD patients were asked to select and place several clippings as they wished. The MMSE was used for cognitive assessments. Results: Simplification and poor organization in their articles were found. The themes of one patient were found to change according to behavior. We discussed the images of the articles, especially spiritual images in the early stage and family images in the later stage. Conclusions: We concluded that the collage technique could provide new perspectives for dementia patients by exploring messages from their inner world.

  10. Collage technique may provide new perspectives for Alzheimer patients by exploring messages from their inner world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, Mitsue; Ishizaki, Junichi; Meguro, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    Although the collage art technique has been introduced as a psychotherapeutic method, it has not been fully applied in dementia. To analyze characteristics of the collage articles produced by patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Twenty AD patients were asked to select and place several clippings as they wished. The MMSE was used for cognitive assessments. Simplification and poor organization in their articles were found. The themes of one patient were found to change according to behavior. We discussed the images of the articles, especially spiritual images in the early stage and family images in the later stage. We concluded that the collage technique could provide new perspectives for dementia patients by exploring messages from their inner world.

  11. Hepatoblastoma Biology Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Utility of a Unique Technique for the Analysis of Oncological Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran, Katarzyna; Frączek, Tomasz; Sitkiewicz, Anna; Sikora-Szubert, Anita; Kobos, Józef; Paneth, Piotr

    2016-07-07

    Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver tumor in children. However, it occurs rarely, with an incidence of 0.5-1.5 cases per million children. There is no clear explanation of the relationship between clinicopathologic features, therapy, and outcome in hepatoblastoma cases, so far. One of the most widely accepted prognostic factors in hepatoblastoma is histology of the tumor. The aim of the study was to determine the potential differences in biology of hepatoblastoma histological subtypes at the atomic level using the unique method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry, which is especially valuable in examination of small groups of biological samples. Twenty-four measurements of nitrogen stable isotope ratio, carbon stable isotope ratio and total carbon to nitrogen mass ratio in fetal and embryonal hepatoblastoma tissue were performed using a Sercon 20-22 Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS) coupled with a Sercon SL elemental analyzer for simultaneous carbon-nitrogen-sulfur (NCS) analysis. A difference of about 1.781‰ in stable nitrogen isotope 15N/14N ratio was found between examined hepatoblastoma histological subtypes. The prognosis in liver tumors cases in children may be challenging particularly because of the lack of versatile methods of its evaluation. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry allows one to determine the difference between hepatoblastoma histological subtypes and clearly indicates the cases with the best outcome.

  12. Hepatoblastoma Biology Using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry: Utility of a Unique Technique for the Analysis of Oncological Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Taran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatoblastoma is the most common primary liver tumor in children. However, it occurs rarely, with an incidence of 0.5-1.5 cases per million children. There is no clear explanation of the relationship between clinicopathologic features, therapy, and outcome in hepatoblastoma cases, so far. One of the most widely accepted prognostic factors in hepatoblastoma is histology of the tumor. The aim of the study was to determine the potential differences in biology of hepatoblastoma histological subtypes at the atomic level using the unique method of isotope ratio mass spectrometry, which is especially valuable in examination of small groups of biological samples.Material/Methods: Twenty-four measurements of nitrogen stable isotope ratio, carbon stable isotope ratio and total carbon to nitrogen mass ratio in fetal and embryonal hepatoblastoma tissue were performed using a Sercon 20-22 Continuous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (CF-IRMS coupled with a Sercon SL elemental analyzer for simultaneous carbon-nitrogen-sulfur (NCS analysis.Results: A difference of about 1.781‰ in stable nitrogen isotope 15N/14N ratio was found between examined hepatoblastoma histological subtypes.Conclusions: The prognosis in liver tumors cases in children may be challenging particularly because of the lack of versatile methods of its evaluation. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry allows one to determine the difference between hepatoblastoma histological subtypes and clearly indicates the cases with the best outcome.

  13. Multistage bioassociation of uranium onto an extremely halophilic archaeon revealed by a unique combination of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Miriam; Müller, Katharina; Foerstendorf, Harald; Drobot, Björn [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Schmidt, Matthias; Musat, Niculina [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research–UFZ, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Swanson, Juliet S.; Reed, Donald T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Repository Science and Operations, 1400 University Drive, Carlsbad, NM, 88220 (United States); Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Cherkouk, Andrea, E-mail: a.cherkouk@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf, Institute of Resource Ecology, Bautzner Landstraße 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • First prolonged kinetics study of uranium to halophilic archaea was performed. • An atypical time-dependent bioassociation behavior of uranium was observed. • Unique combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods was used. • In situ ATR FT-IR showed association of U(VI) to phosphoryl and carboxylate groups. • Time-dependent changes of U(VI) localization could be monitored by SEM/EDX. - Abstract: The interactions of two extremely halophilic archaea with uranium were investigated at high ionic strength as a function of time, pH and uranium concentration. Halobacterium noricense DSM-15987 and Halobacterium sp. putatively noricense, isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository, were used for these investigations. The kinetics of U(VI) bioassociation with both strains showed an atypical multistage behavior, meaning that after an initial phase of U(VI) sorption, an unexpected interim period of U(VI) release was observed, followed by a slow reassociation of uranium with the cells. By applying in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the involvement of phosphoryl and carboxylate groups in U(VI) complexation during the first biosorption phase was shown. Differences in cell morphology and uranium localization become visible at different stages of the bioassociation process, as shown with scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate for the first time that association of uranium with the extremely halophilic archaeon is a multistage process, beginning with sorption and followed by another process, probably biomineralization.

  14. Multistage bioassociation of uranium onto an extremely halophilic archaeon revealed by a unique combination of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, Miriam; Müller, Katharina; Foerstendorf, Harald; Drobot, Björn; Schmidt, Matthias; Musat, Niculina; Swanson, Juliet S.; Reed, Donald T.; Stumpf, Thorsten; Cherkouk, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • First prolonged kinetics study of uranium to halophilic archaea was performed. • An atypical time-dependent bioassociation behavior of uranium was observed. • Unique combination of spectroscopic and microscopic methods was used. • In situ ATR FT-IR showed association of U(VI) to phosphoryl and carboxylate groups. • Time-dependent changes of U(VI) localization could be monitored by SEM/EDX. - Abstract: The interactions of two extremely halophilic archaea with uranium were investigated at high ionic strength as a function of time, pH and uranium concentration. Halobacterium noricense DSM-15987 and Halobacterium sp. putatively noricense, isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository, were used for these investigations. The kinetics of U(VI) bioassociation with both strains showed an atypical multistage behavior, meaning that after an initial phase of U(VI) sorption, an unexpected interim period of U(VI) release was observed, followed by a slow reassociation of uranium with the cells. By applying in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the involvement of phosphoryl and carboxylate groups in U(VI) complexation during the first biosorption phase was shown. Differences in cell morphology and uranium localization become visible at different stages of the bioassociation process, as shown with scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate for the first time that association of uranium with the extremely halophilic archaeon is a multistage process, beginning with sorption and followed by another process, probably biomineralization.

  15. Plutonium uniqueness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A standard is suggested against which the putative uniqueness of plutonium may be tested. It is common folklore that plutonium is unique among the chemical elements because its four common oxidation states can coexist in the same solution. Whether this putative uniqueness appears only during transit to equilibrium, or only at equilibrium, or all of the time, is not generally made clear. But while the folklore may contain some truth, it cannot be put to test until some measure of 'uniqueness' is agreed upon so that quantitative comparisons are possible. One way of measuring uniqueness is as the magnitude of the product of the mole fractions of the element at equilibrium. A 'coexistence index' is defined and discussed. (author)

  16. Android-Stego: A Novel Service Provider Imperceptible MMS Steganography Technique Robust to Message Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Srinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information hiding techniques, especially steganography, have been extensively researched for over two decades. Nonetheless, steganography on smartphones over cellular carrier networks is yet to be fully explored. Today, smartphones, which are at the epitome of ubiquitous and pervasive computing, make steganography an easily accessible covert communication channel. In this paper, we propose Android-Stego - a framework for steganography employing smart-phones. Android-Stego has been evaluated and confirmed to achieve covert communication over real world cellular service providers' communication networks such as Verizon and Sprint. A key contribution of our research presented in this paper is the benchmark results we have provided by analyzing real world cellular carriers network restrictions on MMS message size. We have also analyzed the actions the carriers take - such as compression and/or format conversion - on MMS messages that fall outside the established MMS communication norm, which varies for each service provider. Finally, We have used these benchmark results in implementing Android-Stego such that it is sensitive to carrier restrictions and robust to message loss.

  17. Optimal support techniques when providing mechanical ventilation to patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parissopoulos, Stelios; Mpouzika, Meropi DA; Timmins, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a type of acute diffuse lung injury characterized by severe inflammation, increased pulmonary vascular permeability and a loss of aerated lung tissue. The effects of high fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2 ) include oxygen toxicity manifested by damage to the lung parenchyma in the acute phase of lung injury. There is still a high mortality rate among this group of patients, so clinically sensitive evidence-based interventions are paramount to maximize survival chances during critical care. The aim of this article is to explore the current opinion concerning optimal mechanical ventilation support techniques for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. A literature search of clinical trials and observation studies, reviews, discussion papers, meta-analyses and clinical guidelines written in English up to 2015, derived from the databases of Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane Library databases and PubMed was conducted. Low tidal volume, pressure limitation and prone positioning in severe ARDS patients appear to be of some benefit. More research is required and further development and use of standardized protocols is an important strategy for reducing practice variations across disciplines, as well as giving clear guidelines to nurses practising in critical care. There is also evidence that this syndrome is under-diagnosed and the utilization of lung protective ventilation is still variable. It is important that nurses have underlying knowledge of both aetiology of ARDS and ventilation management, and that they monitor patients very closely. The adoption of a low tidal ventilation protocol, which is based on quality evidence guidelines, the value of rescue therapies and patient observation practices in the overall patient management, and the need to place emphasis on long-term patient outcomes, all these emerge as key factors for consideration and future research. However, there is also a need for more research that would

  18. Younger children's nursing students are uniquely placed to provide emotional care for young people in hospital and promote for them a sense of normalcy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Jean M

    2014-06-01

    To highlight the emotional impact of being in the hospital for young people and to explore the impact of the care by younger student nurses on promoting a sense of "normalcy" for them. Adolescence is strongly influenced by peer relationships and is a unique period in life that requires the achievement of many developmental tasks. An important task of adolescent is developing relationships with peers and feeling part of a recognised peer group. Young people prefer engaging in conversation with people of their own age because they feel less likely to be judged by their peers. Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenological study. A Heideggerian phenomenological study was undertaken. Individual unstructured interviews were conducted with eleven younger student nurses (aged l7 years and 5 months-l8 years and 11 months) and nine young people with a chronic illness (aged 13 years and 7 months-18 years and 1 month). The data was collected in 2009. Young people in the hospital with a chronic illness experienced moments in time when they had nothing to think about but the business of getting better. During unique caring interactions, younger children's nursing students were able to help them temporarily forget about their illness and promote for them a sense of normalcy. Younger children's nursing students are in a unique position to engage in ontological caring interactions with the young people due to their similarity in age and stage of development. They are uniquely placed to help the young people reintegrate back into their known "lifeworlds" and promote for them a sense of "normalcy". Clinical staff need to be alerted to the emotional distress caused to young people during long periods of time in the hospital. Practitioners and nurse educators should be facilitating younger student nurses to interact with the young people in a therapeutic way and the care delivered to young people in the hospital should promote a sense of normalcy for them. © 2013.

  19. Applying BI Techniques To Improve Decision Making And Provide Knowledge Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on BI techniques and especially data mining algorithms that can support and improve the decision making process, with applications within the financial sector. We consider the data mining techniques to be more efficient and thus we applied several techniques, supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms The case study in which these algorithms have been implemented regards the activity of a banking institution, with focus on the management of lending activities.

  20. The Strengths of Wisdom Provide Unique Contributions to Improved Leadership, Sustainability, Inequality, Gross National Happiness, and Civic Discourse in the Face of Contemporary World Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Grossmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence for the strengths of the intellectual virtues that philosophers and behavioral scientists characterize as key cognitive elements of wisdom. Wisdom has been of centuries-long interest for philosophical scholarship, but relative to intelligence largely neglected in public discourse on educational science, public policy, and societal well-being. Wise reasoning characteristics include intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty, consideration of diverse viewpoints, and an attempt to integrate these viewpoints. Emerging scholarship on these features of wisdom suggest that they uniquely contribute to societal well-being, improve leadership, shed light on societal inequality, promote cooperation in Public Goods Games and reduce political polarization and intergroup-hostility. We review empirical evidence about macro-cultural, ecological, situational, and person-level processes facilitating and inhibiting wisdom in daily life. Based on this evidence, we speculate about ways to foster wisdom in education, organizations, and institutions.

  1. In situ tagging technique for fishes provides insight into growth and movement of invasive lionfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, John L; Morris, James A; Green, Stephanie J

    2014-10-01

    's mass. Our study offers a novel in situ tagging technique that can be used to provide critical information on fish site fidelity, movement patterns, and growth in cases where ex situ tagging is not feasible.

  2. Kinematic characteristics of a sprinting technique and morphofunctional structures of its providing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Druz

    2017-02-01

    Tomazin, Stephanie Letzelter, Akira Ito, Masaki Ishivaka, etc., and also the executed model constructions. Conclusion The modern requirements of the development of sport define conditions of the organization of the training process in which it is necessary to provide the systematic control and the analysis of dynamics of the passing changes in biomechanics of the mastered movements, physiological processes of the training and competitive loads providing performance, psychological preparedness of the sportsman for extreme and special conditions. The implementation of such control demands the corresponding preparation of the coach's structure and necessary technical providing. The existence of modern control methods of the dynamics of the development of exhaustion in change of movements of biokinematic links of a body allow to carry out in real time on video filming this task. However, the coach can't provide the performance of all these functions at full satisfaction of these conditions. The trained professional has to be appropriately in ensuring the training process, and the training in the contents has to consist of not only the direct physical activities, but also the subsequent analysis of the video record of the actions and computer processing of their performance. The solution of these tasks assumes opening of the new specialization in specialized educational institutions, which provides the scientific and technical maintenance of the educational-training process and competitive performances. It is natural that the solution of this task has to be carried out step by step, but now there are all bases to start the beginning of its realization.     Key words: kinematic characteristic, sprinting technique, morphofunctional structures.

  3. Vis-A-Plan /visualize a plan/ management technique provides performance-time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranck, N. H.

    1967-01-01

    Vis-A-Plan is a bar-charting technique for representing and evaluating project activities on a performance-time basis. This rectilinear method presents the logic diagram of a project as a series of horizontal time bars. It may be used supplementary to PERT or independently.

  4. Using non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to detect unique aspects of protein Amide functional groups and chemical properties of modeled forage from different sourced-origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuiying; Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-03-05

    The non-invasive molecular spectroscopic technique-FT/IR is capable to detect the molecular structure spectral features that are associated with biological, nutritional and biodegradation functions. However, to date, few researches have been conducted to use these non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques to study forage internal protein structures associated with biodegradation and biological functions. The objectives of this study were to detect unique aspects and association of protein Amide functional groups in terms of protein Amide I and II spectral profiles and chemical properties in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa L.) from different sourced-origins. In this study, alfalfa hay with two different origins was used as modeled forage for molecular structure and chemical property study. In each forage origin, five to seven sources were analyzed. The molecular spectral profiles were determined using FT/IR non-invasive molecular spectroscopy. The parameters of protein spectral profiles included functional groups of Amide I, Amide II and Amide I to II ratio. The results show that the modeled forage Amide I and Amide II were centered at 1653 cm(-1) and 1545 cm(-1), respectively. The Amide I spectral height and area intensities were from 0.02 to 0.03 and 2.67 to 3.36 AI, respectively. The Amide II spectral height and area intensities were from 0.01 to 0.02 and 0.71 to 0.93 AI, respectively. The Amide I to II spectral peak height and area ratios were from 1.86 to 1.88 and 3.68 to 3.79, respectively. Our results show that the non-invasive molecular spectroscopic techniques are capable to detect forage internal protein structure features which are associated with forage chemical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial community composition of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provides insight into functional adaption to a unique environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthig, Till; Yum, Lauren K; Kremb, Stephan G; Roik, Anna; Voolstra, Christian R

    2017-03-17

    Microbes associated with deep-sea corals remain poorly studied. The lack of symbiotic algae suggests that associated microbes may play a fundamental role in maintaining a viable coral host via acquisition and recycling of nutrients. Here we employed 16 S rRNA gene sequencing to study bacterial communities of three deep-sea scleractinian corals from the Red Sea, Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. We found diverse, species-specific microbiomes, distinct from the surrounding seawater. Microbiomes were comprised of few abundant bacteria, which constituted the majority of sequences (up to 58% depending on the coral species). In addition, we found a high diversity of rare bacteria (taxa at 90% of all bacteria). Interestingly, we identified anaerobic bacteria, potentially providing metabolic functions at low oxygen conditions, as well as bacteria harboring the potential to degrade crude oil components. Considering the presence of oil and gas fields in the Red Sea, these bacteria may unlock this carbon source for the coral host. In conclusion, the prevailing environmental conditions of the deep Red Sea (>20 °C, <2 mg oxygen L -1 ) may require distinct functional adaptations, and our data suggest that bacterial communities may contribute to coral functioning in this challenging environment.

  6. Microbial community composition of deep-sea corals from the Red Sea provides insight into functional adaption to a unique environment

    KAUST Repository

    Röthig, Till

    2017-03-17

    Microbes associated with deep-sea corals remain poorly studied. The lack of symbiotic algae suggests that associated microbes may play a fundamental role in maintaining a viable coral host via acquisition and recycling of nutrients. Here we employed 16 S rRNA gene sequencing to study bacterial communities of three deep-sea scleractinian corals from the Red Sea, Dendrophyllia sp., Eguchipsammia fistula, and Rhizotrochus typus. We found diverse, species-specific microbiomes, distinct from the surrounding seawater. Microbiomes were comprised of few abundant bacteria, which constituted the majority of sequences (up to 58% depending on the coral species). In addition, we found a high diversity of rare bacteria (taxa at <1% abundance comprised >90% of all bacteria). Interestingly, we identified anaerobic bacteria, potentially providing metabolic functions at low oxygen conditions, as well as bacteria harboring the potential to degrade crude oil components. Considering the presence of oil and gas fields in the Red Sea, these bacteria may unlock this carbon source for the coral host. In conclusion, the prevailing environmental conditions of the deep Red Sea (>20 °C, <2 mg oxygen L−1) may require distinct functional adaptations, and our data suggest that bacterial communities may contribute to coral functioning in this challenging environment.

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the onychophoran Epiperipatus biolleyi reveals a unique transfer RNA set and provides further support for the ecdysozoa hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlowski, Lars; Braband, Anke; Mayer, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Onychophora (velvet worms) play a crucial role in current discussions on position of arthropods. The ongoing Articulata/Ecdysozoa debate is in need of additional ground pattern characters for Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Tardigrada, and Onychophora). Hence, Onychophora is an important outgroup taxon in resolving the relationships among arthropods, irrespective of whether morphological or molecular data are used. To date, there has been a noticeable lack of mitochondrial genome data from onychophorans. Here, we present the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of an onychophoran, Epiperipatus biolleyi (Peripatidae), which shows several characteristic features. Specifically, the gene order is considerably different from that in other arthropods and other bilaterians. In addition, there is a lack of 9 tRNA genes usually present in bilaterian mitochondrial genomes. All these missing tRNAs have anticodon sequences corresponding to 4-fold degenerate codons, whereas the persisting 13 tRNAs all have anticodons pairing with 2-fold degenerate codons. Sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes provides a robust support for a clade consisting of Onychophora, Priapulida, and Arthropoda, which confirms the Ecdysozoa hypothesis. However, resolution of the internal ecdysozoan relationships suffers from a cluster of long-branching taxa (including Nematoda and Platyhelminthes) and a lack of data from Tardigrada and further nemathelminth taxa in addition to nematodes and priapulids.

  8. A Unique Set of the Burkholderia Collagen-Like Proteins Provides Insight into Pathogenesis, Genome Evolution and Niche Adaptation, and Infection Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachert, Beth A; Choi, Soo J; Snyder, Anna K; Rio, Rita V M; Durney, Brandon C; Holland, Lisa A; Amemiya, Kei; Welkos, Susan L; Bozue, Joel A; Cote, Christopher K; Berisio, Rita; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei, classified as category B priority pathogens, are significant human and animal pathogens that are highly infectious and broad-spectrum antibiotic resistant. Currently, the pathogenicity mechanisms utilized by Burkholderia are not fully understood, and correct diagnosis of B. pseudomallei and B. mallei infection remains a challenge due to limited detection methods. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of a set of 13 novel Burkholderia collagen-like proteins (Bucl) that were identified among B. pseudomallei and B. mallei select agents. We infer that several Bucl proteins participate in pathogenesis based on their noncollagenous domains that are associated with the components of a type III secretion apparatus and membrane transport systems. Homology modeling of the outer membrane efflux domain of Bucl8 points to a role in multi-drug resistance. We determined that bucl genes are widespread in B. pseudomallei and B. mallei; Fischer's exact test and Cramer's V2 values indicate that the majority of bucl genes are highly associated with these pathogenic species versus nonpathogenic B. thailandensis. We designed a bucl-based quantitative PCR assay which was able to detect B. pseudomallei infection in a mouse with a detection limit of 50 CFU. Finally, chromosomal mapping and phylogenetic analysis of bucl loci revealed considerable genomic plasticity and adaptation of Burkholderia spp. to host and environmental niches. In this study, we identified a large set of phylogenetically unrelated bucl genes commonly found in Burkholderia select agents, encoding predicted pathogenicity factors, detection targets, and vaccine candidates.

  9. High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Providing Emergency Telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton

    2008-05-01

    Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

  10. Novel experimental measuring techniques required to provide data for CFD validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, H.-M.

    2008-01-01

    CFD code validation requires experimental data that characterize the distributions of parameters within large flow domains. On the other hand, the development of geometry-independent closure relations for CFD codes have to rely on instrumentation and experimental techniques appropriate for the phenomena that are to be modelled, which usually requires high spatial and time resolution. The paper reports about the use of wire-mesh sensors to study turbulent mixing processes in single-phase flow as well as to characterize the dynamics of the gas-liquid interface in a vertical pipe flow. Experiments at a pipe of a nominal diameter of 200 mm are taken as the basis for the development and test of closure relations describing bubble coalescence and break-up, interfacial momentum transfer and turbulence modulation for a multi-bubble-class model. This is done by measuring the evolution of the flow structure along the pipe. The transferability of the extended CFD code to more complicated 3D flow situations is assessed against measured data from tests involving two-phase flow around an asymmetric obstacle placed in a vertical pipe. The obstacle, a half-moon-shaped diaphragm, is movable in the direction of the pipe axis; this allows the 3D gas fraction field to be recorded without changing the sensor position. In the outlook, the pressure chamber of TOPFLOW is presented, which will be used as the containment for a test facility, in which experiments can be conducted in pressure equilibrium with the inner atmosphere of the tank. In this way, flow structures can be observed by optical means through large-scale windows even at pressures of up to 5 MPa. The so-called 'Diving Chamber' technology will be used for Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) tests. Finally, some important trends in instrumentation for multi-phase flows will be given. This includes the state-of-art of X-ray and gamma tomography, new multi-component wire-mesh sensors, and a discussion of the potential of other non

  11. Novel experimental measuring techniques required to provide data for CFD validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasser, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    CFD code validation requires experimental data that characterize distributions of parameters within large flow domains. On the other hand, the development of geometry-independent closure relations for CFD codes have to rely on instrumentation and experimental techniques appropriate for the phenomena that are to be modelled, which usually requires high spatial and time resolution. The presentation reports about the use of wire-mesh sensors to study turbulent mixing processes in the single-phase flow as well as to characterize the dynamics of the gas-liquid interface in a vertical pipe flow. Experiments at a pipe of a nominal diameter of 200 mm are taken as the basis for the development and test of closure relations describing bubble coalescence and break-up, interfacial momentum transfer and turbulence modulation for a multi-bubble-class model. This is done by measuring the evolution of the flow structure along the pipe. The transferability of the extended CFD code to more complicated 3D flow situations is assessed against measured data from tests involving two-phase flow around an asymmetric obstacle placed in a vertical pipe. The obstacle, a half-moon-shaped diaphragm, is movable in the direction of the pipe axis; this allows the 3D gas fraction field to be recorded without changing the sensor position. In the outlook, the pressure chamber of TOPFLOW is presented, which will be used as the containment for a test facility, in which experiments can be conducted in pressure equilibrium with the inner atmosphere of the tank. In this way, flow structures can be observed by optical means through large-scale windows even at pressures of up to 5 MPa. The so-called 'Diving Chamber' technology will be used for Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) tests. Finally, some important trends in instrumentation for multi-phase flows will be given. This includes the state-of-art of X-ray and gamma tomography, new multi-component wire-mesh sensors, and a discussion of the potential of

  12. Providing Nutritional Care in the Office Practice: Teams, Tools, and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F

    2016-11-01

    Provision of dietary counseling in the office setting is enhanced by using team-based care and electronic tools. Effective provider-patient communication is essential for fostering behavior change: the key component of lifestyle medicine. The principles of communication and behavior change are skill-based and grounded in scientific theories and models. Motivational interviewing and shared decision making, a collaboration process between patients and their providers to reach agreement about a health decision, is an important process in counseling. The stages of change, self-determination, health belief model, social cognitive model, theory of planned behavior, and cognitive behavioral therapy are used in the counseling process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New techniques provide low-cost X-ray inspection of highly attenuating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupin, D.M.; Mueller, K.H.; Viskoe, D.A.; Howard, B.; Poland, R.W.; Schneberk, D.; Dolan, K.; Thompson, K.; Stoker, G.

    1995-01-01

    As a result of an arms reduction treaty between the United States and the Russian Federation, both countries will each be storing over 40,000 containers of plutonium. To help detect any deterioration of the containers and prevent leakage, the authors are designing a digital radiography and computed tomography system capable of handling this volume reliably, efficiently, and at a lower cost. The materials to be stored have very high x-ray attenuations, and, in the past, were inspected using 1- to 24-MV x-ray sources. This inspection system, however, uses a new scintillating (Lockheed) glass and an integrating CCD camera. Preliminary experiments show that this will permit the use of a 450-kV x-ray source. This low-energy system will cost much less than others designed to use a higher-energy x-ray source because it will require a less expensive source, less shielding, and less floor space. Furthermore, they can achieve a tenfold improvement in spatial resolution by using their knowledge of the point-spread function of the x-ray imaging system and a least-squares fitting technique

  14. Protection provided by masks sinkers in interventional techniques; Proteccion ofrecida por mascaras plomadas en tecnicas intervencionistas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pera Cegarra, O.; Alejo Luque, L.; Pifarre Martinez, J.

    2011-07-01

    The high doses that are taught in laboratories worked indispensable the use of shields and armor. In this context, the use of sinkers glasses is widespread, but not the sinkers of the masks. Our goal is to study the effectiveness of such masks for later comparison with that provided by leaded glasses with side shields. Specifically, compare the reduction in lens dose rate for different positions and orientations of the head of specialist intervention.

  15. Evaluation of the Metered-Dose Inhaler Technique among Health Care Providers Practicing in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nadi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Poor inhaler technique is a common problem both in asthma patients and health care providers , which contributes to poor asthma control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correctness of metered-dose inhaler (MDI technique in a sample of physicians , pharmacists and nurses practicing in Hamadan University hospitals. A total of 176 healthcare providers (35 internists and general physicians , 138 nurses and 3 pharmacists were participated voluntary in this study. After the participants answered a questionnaire aimed at identifying their involvement in MDI prescribing and counseling , a trained observer assessed their MDI technique using a checklist of ten steps.Of the 176 participants , 35(20% were physician , and 3 subjects (2% were pharmacists , and 138 (78% were nurses. However only 6 participants (3.4% performed all steps correctly. Physicians performed significantly better than non-physicians (8.6% vs. 2.13%.The majority of healthcare providers responsible for instructing patients on the correct MDI technique were unable to perform this technique correctly ‘indicating the need for regular formal training programmes on inhaler techniques.

  16. Toxic Microalgal Blooms: What Can Nuclear Techniques Provide for Their Management?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reguera, B. [Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo (Spain); Boisson, F. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Environment Laboratories (Monaco); Darius, H. T. [Institut Louis Malarde, Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Microalgues Toxiques, Tahiti, French Polynesia (France); Dechraoui Bottein, M. -Y. [NOAA, National Ocean Service, Marine Biotoxins Programme, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Some harmful algal blooms (HABs) produce potent toxins that accumulate in shellfish and fish and represent a major threat to human health, international trade and sustainable coastal fisheries development. In the context of climate change and displacement of endemic toxigenic species (via ship ballast waters and other vectors) to new coastal areas, HABs appear to be more frequent and widespread. The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory and its partners have been developing and transferring isotopic based analytical methods and instrumentation for monitoring HAB species, their biotoxins, and radiometric dating of sediment cores. The extremely sensitive and robust Receptor Binding Assay (RBA) for toxins associated with Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) and Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) provides an alternative method to the standard mouse bioassay, and radiometric sediment core dating combined with fossil cyst abundance allows reconstruction of the prior history of blooms and their relationship to climate. (author)

  17. Could lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy provide oncological providence for local resectional techniques for colon cancer? A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Joel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic resectional techniques for colon cancer are undermined by their inability to determine lymph node status. This limits their application to only those lesions at the most minimal risk of lymphatic dissemination whereas their technical capacity could allow intraluminal or even transluminal address of larger lesions. Sentinel node biopsy may theoretically address this breach although the variability of its reported results for this disease is worrisome. Methods Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were interrogated back to 1999 to identify all publications concerning lymphatic mapping for colon cancer with reference cross-checking for completeness. All reports were examined from the perspective of in vivo technique accuracy selectively in early stage disease (i.e. lesions potentially within the technical capacity of endoscopic resection. Results Fifty-two studies detailing the experiences of 3390 patients were identified. Considerable variation in patient characteristics as well as in surgical and histological quality assurances were however evident among the studies identified. In addition, considerable contamination of the studies by inclusion of rectal cancer without subgroup separation was frequent. Indeed such is the heterogeneity of the publications to date, formal meta-analysis to pool patient cohorts in order to definitively ascertain technique accuracy in those with T1 and/or T2 cancer is not possible. Although lymphatic mapping in early stage neoplasia alone has rarely been specifically studied, those studies that included examination of false negative rates identified high T3/4 patient proportions and larger tumor size as being important confounders. Under selected circumstances however the technique seems to perform sufficiently reliably to allow it prompt consideration of its use to tailor operative extent. Conclusion The specific question of whether sentinel node biopsy can augment the oncological

  18. Tissue-Specific Floral Transcriptome Analysis of the Sexually Deceptive Orchid Chiloglottis trapeziformis Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis and Regulation of Its Unique UV-B Dependent Floral Volatile, Chiloglottone 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren C. J. Wong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Australian sexually deceptive orchid, Chiloglottis trapeziformis, employs a unique UV-B-dependent floral volatile, chiloglottone 1, for specific male wasp pollinator attraction. Chiloglottone 1 and related variants (2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones, represent a unique class of specialized metabolites presumed to be the product of cyclization between two fatty acid (FA precursors. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of precursors, intermediates, and transcriptional regulation remains to be discovered. Chiloglottone 1 production occurs in the aggregation of calli (callus on the labellum under continuous UV-B light. Therefore, deep sequencing, transcriptome assembly, and differential expression (DE analysis were performed across different tissue types and UV-B treatments. Transcripts expressed in the callus and labellum (∼23,000 transcripts were highly specialized and enriched for a diversity of known and novel metabolic pathways. DE analysis between chiloglottone-emitting callus versus the remainder of the labellum showed strong coordinated induction of entire FA biosynthesis and β-oxidation pathways including genes encoding Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase, Acyl-CoA Oxidase, and Multifunctional Protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed potential gene duplicates with tissue-specific differential regulation including two Acyl-ACP Thioesterase B and a Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase genes. UV-B treatment induced the activation of UVR8-mediated signaling and large-scale transcriptome changes in both tissues, however, neither FA biosynthesis/β-oxidation nor other lipid metabolic pathways showed clear indications of concerted DE. Gene co-expression network analysis identified three callus-specific modules enriched with various lipid metabolism categories. These networks also highlight promising candidates involved in the cyclization of chiloglottone 1 intermediates (e.g., Bet v I and dimeric α,β barrel proteins and orchestrating regulation of precursor

  19. Building unique surface structure on aramid fibers through a green layer-by-layer self-assembly technique to develop new high performance fibers with greatly improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lifang; Yuan, Li; Guan, Qingbao; Gu, Aijuan, E-mail: ajgu@suda.edu.cn; Liang, Guozheng, E-mail: lgzheng@suda.edu.cn

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • A green technology is setup to build unique surface structure on aramid fiber (AF). • The method is layer-by-layer self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and layered double hydroxide. • The surface of AF is adjustable by controlling the self-assembly cycle number. • New AF has excellent surface activity, anti-UV, thermal and mechanical properties. • The origin behind attractive performances of new AFs was intensively studied. - Abstract: Combining green preparation and high performance is becoming the direction of sustainable development of materials. How to simultaneously overcome the two bottlenecks (poor surface activity and UV resistance) of aramid fibers (AFs) while improving thermal and mechanical properties through a green process is still an interesting issue with big challenge. Herein, new AFs (BL-AFs) were prepared by alternately self-assembling SiO{sub 2} and MgAlFe layered double hydroxide (LDH) on surfaces of AFs, successively, through a green layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique without using high temperature and organic solvent. The structures and properties of BL-AFs were systematically studied, which are controllable by adjusting the number of self-assembly cycle. The new fibers with three or more self-assembly cycles have remarkably improved surface activity, thermal resistance, mechanical properties and UV resistance compared with AFs. Typically, with three self-assembly cycles, the initial degradation temperature and char yield of the new fiber (3BL-AF) are as high as 552.9 °C and 81.2%, about 92 °C and 25.2% higher than those of AF, respectively; after 168 h-UV irradiation, the retention of tensile performances of 3BL-AF fiber is as high as 91–95%, about 29–14% higher than that of AF, showing the best overall performances among all modified AFs prepared using a green technique reported so far. The origin behind the attractive performances of BL-AFs is revealed through correlating with structures of original and

  20. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Urinary Incontinence Related Documents PDF Choosing Wisely: Diabetes Tests and Treatments Download Related Video Join our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ...

  1. Intraclass reliability for assessing how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services using statistical process control chart techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chou, Ming-Ting; Wang, Wen-Chung; Tsai, Li-Shu; Lin, Weir-Sen

    2012-05-15

    Few studies discuss the indicators used to assess the effect on cost containment in healthcare across hospitals in a single-payer national healthcare system with constrained medical resources. We present the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to assess how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services in such a system. A custom Excel-VBA routine to record the distances of standard deviations (SDs) from the central line (the mean over the previous 12 months) of a control chart was used to construct and scale annual medical expenditures sequentially from 2000 to 2009 for 421 hospitals in Taiwan to generate the ICC. The ICC was then used to evaluate Taiwan's year-based convergent power to remain unchanged in hospital-provided constrained medical services. A bubble chart of SDs for a specific month was generated to present the effects of using control charts in a national healthcare system. ICCs were generated for Taiwan's year-based convergent power to constrain its medical services from 2000 to 2009. All hospital groups showed a gradually well-controlled supply of services that decreased from 0.772 to 0.415. The bubble chart identified outlier hospitals that required investigation of possible excessive reimbursements in a specific time period. We recommend using the ICC to annually assess a nation's year-based convergent power to constrain medical services across hospitals. Using sequential control charts to regularly monitor hospital reimbursements is required to achieve financial control in a single-payer nationwide healthcare system.

  2. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  3. Total arsenic concentrations in toenails quantified by two techniques provide a useful biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, Blakely M.; Hudgens, Edward E.; Schmitt, Michael T.; Calderon, Rebecca L.; Thomas, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate quantitation of any contaminant of interest is critical for exposure assessment and metabolism studies that support risk assessment. A preliminary step in an arsenic exposure assessment study in Nevada quantified total arsenic (TAs) concentrations in tissues as biomarkers of exposure. Participants in this study (n=95) were at least 45 years old, had lived in the area for more than 20 years, and were exposed to a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water (3-2100ppb). Concentrations of TAs in blood, urine, and toenails determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) ranged from below detection to 0.03, 0.76, and 12ppm, respectively; TAs in blood rarely exceeded the limit of detection. For comparison, TAs in toenails determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) ranged from below detection to 16ppm. Significant (P 2 =0.3557 HG-AFS, adjusted r 2 =0.3922 NAA); TAs concentrations in urine were not described by drinking water As (adjusted r 2 =0.0170, P=0.1369). Analyses of TAs in toenails by HGAFS and NAA yielded highly concordant estimates (r=0.7977, P<0.0001). These results suggest that toenails are a better biomarker of chronic As exposure than urine in the current study, because the sequestration of As in toenails provides an integration of exposure over time that does not occur in urine

  4. The Turn the Tables Technique (T[cube]): A Program Activity to Provide Group Facilitators Insight into Teen Sexual Behaviors and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Merves, Marni Loiacono; Rivera, Angelic; Long, Laura; Wilson, Ken; Bauman, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    The Turn the Tables Technique (T[cube]) is an activity designed to provide group facilitators who lead HIV/STI prevention and sexual health promotion programs with detailed and current information on teenagers' sexual behaviors and beliefs. This information can be used throughout a program to tailor content. Included is a detailed lesson plan of…

  5. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  6. A unique gesture of sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, T.

    1985-01-01

    The Atoms for Peace program was a unique gesture of sharing on the part of the leading industrialized nation, and has very few parallels in modern history. The author says one of the major advantages of the program for developing nations was the much needed stimulation of their indigenous science and technology efforts and the awakening of their governments to the multifaceted benefits of atomic energy. The author discusses how the program benefited Pakistan in the production of electrical energy and in the application of nuclear techniques in the fields of agriculture and medicine, which help to alleviate hunger and combat disease

  7. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John

    1971-01-01

    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  8. Lattices with unique complements

    CERN Document Server

    Saliĭ, V N

    1988-01-01

    The class of uniquely complemented lattices properly contains all Boolean lattices. However, no explicit example of a non-Boolean lattice of this class has been found. In addition, the question of whether this class contains any complete non-Boolean lattices remains unanswered. This book focuses on these classical problems of lattice theory and the various attempts to solve them. Requiring no specialized knowledge, the book is directed at researchers and students interested in general algebra and mathematical logic.

  9. Is Life Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Is life physicochemically unique? No. Is life unique? Yes. Life manifests innumerable formalisms that cannot be generated or explained by physicodynamics alone. Life pursues thousands of biofunctional goals, not the least of which is staying alive. Neither physicodynamics, nor evolution, pursue goals. Life is largely directed by linear digital programming and by the Prescriptive Information (PI) instantiated particularly into physicodynamically indeterminate nucleotide sequencing. Epigenomic controls only compound the sophistication of these formalisms. Life employs representationalism through the use of symbol systems. Life manifests autonomy, homeostasis far from equilibrium in the harshest of environments, positive and negative feedback mechanisms, prevention and correction of its own errors, and organization of its components into Sustained Functional Systems (SFS). Chance and necessity—heat agitation and the cause-and-effect determinism of nature’s orderliness—cannot spawn formalisms such as mathematics, language, symbol systems, coding, decoding, logic, organization (not to be confused with mere self-ordering), integration of circuits, computational success, and the pursuit of functionality. All of these characteristics of life are formal, not physical. PMID:25382119

  10. Word from the CSO - CERN’s unique scientific breadth

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Whilst we are all clearly focused on completion of the LHC and the detectors around it and look forward to a successful start of operations later this year, we should not forget that CERN has yet more to offer in addition to this highest priority programme ‘at the energy frontier’. Indeed, CERN also attracts a large scientific community seizing the opportunities offered by its other facilities. Sometimes I wonder whether we are not too modest and should not emphasize more CERN’s unique scientific breadth. ISOLDE, at the PS Booster, relies on innovative techniques to produce results at the forefront of nuclear physics very cost-effectively. nTOF has provided unique measurements of interest to nuclear technology, nuclear astrophysics and basic nuclear physics, and still has an ambitious programme ahead of it after refurbishment of the target. Another unique facility is the Antiproton Decelerator, at which the study of antimatter is being pursued with ingenious experiment...

  11. Intraoperative radiation therapy in patients with bladder cancer. A review of techniques allowing improved tumor doses and providing high cure rates without loss of bladder function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipley, W.U.; Kaufman, S.D.; Prout, G.R. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Conventional external beam irradiation, using modern megavoltage techniques and doses that do not harm bladder function, will permanently eradicate local bladder cancer in 30% to 50% of patients, compared with 70% to 90% with cystectomy. In appropriately chosen patients, open surgery can safely provide excellent exposure for the selective delivery of more radiant energy directly to the tumor and less to the uninvolved portion of the bladder. Intraoperative radiation therapy, by either a removable radium or iridium implant or a large single dose of electrons, has been reported to be safe and can permanently cure the bladder of cancer and also preserve bladder function in more than 75% of patients with solitary tumors that invade into but not beyond the bladder muscle. With the increasing interest in and availability of intraoperative radiation therapy in the US, this curative and bladder-sparing treatment for operable patients with bladder cancer invading the trigone is appropriate for careful clinical trial. 13 references

  12. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  13. Tissue welding tonsillectomy provides an enhanced recovery compared to that after monopolar electrocautery technique in adults: a prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvola, Juha; Salonen, Aarre; Nieminen, Jouko; Kokki, Hannu

    2011-02-01

    We have compared tonsillectomy (TE) with tissue welding (TW) technology using a specially designed forceps versus conventional monopolar electrocautery to evaluate whether this new technology may improve recovery after TE. This was a single-blind, randomized clinical trial with two parallel groups. Sixty healthy adult day-surgery patients were allocated into the TW-TE group (n = 31) and the monopolar electrocautery-TE group (n = 29). We recorded intraoperative events and short- and long-term recovery for 2 weeks postoperatively. The patients and study nurses evaluating patients during recovery were blinded to the operation method used. All patients in the TW-TE group completed the study as per protocol, but in the monopolar electrocautery-TE group, there was one drop-out in the hospital and another after discharge. There was no difference in the perioperative parameters and early recovery between the two groups. After discharge, recovery was significantly faster in the TW group than in the monopolar group: (1) the duration of postoperative pain was 2 days shorter, and (2) activities of normal daily living were less affected, and (3) the need for hospital contacts after discharge, and (4) the incidence of postoperative bleeding was less in the TW group than that in the monopolar group. No patients in the TW group developed secondary bleeding versus three patients in the monopolar group requiring electrocautery to control bleeding. In conclusion; our results indicate that, TW technique may provide reduced pain, faster recovery, and fewer complications compared to electrocautery TE.

  14. Cancer: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A to Z › Cancer › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... group with other older people with the same type of cancer. Researchers have found that support groups ...

  15. Using data mining techniques to explore physicians' therapeutic decisions when clinical guidelines do not provide recommendations: methods and example for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussi, Massoud; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Venot, Alain

    2009-06-10

    Clinical guidelines carry medical evidence to the point of practice. As evidence is not always available, many guidelines do not provide recommendations for all clinical situations encountered in practice. We propose an approach for identifying knowledge gaps in guidelines and for exploring physicians' therapeutic decisions with data mining techniques to fill these knowledge gaps. We demonstrate our method by an example in the domain of type 2 diabetes. We analyzed the French national guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes to identify clinical conditions that are not covered or those for which the guidelines do not provide recommendations. We extracted patient records corresponding to each clinical condition from a database of type 2 diabetic patients treated at Avicenne University Hospital of Bobigny, France. We explored physicians' prescriptions for each of these profiles using C5.0 decision-tree learning algorithm. We developed decision-trees for different levels of detail of the therapeutic decision, namely the type of treatment, the pharmaco-therapeutic class, the international non proprietary name, and the dose of each medication. We compared the rules generated with those added to the guidelines in a newer version, to examine their similarity. We extracted 27 rules from the analysis of a database of 463 patient records. Eleven rules were about the choice of the type of treatment and thirteen rules about the choice of the pharmaco-therapeutic class of each drug. For the choice of the international non proprietary name and the dose, we could extract only a few rules because the number of patient records was too low for these factors. The extracted rules showed similarities with those added to the newer version of the guidelines. Our method showed its usefulness for completing guidelines recommendations with rules learnt automatically from physicians' prescriptions. It could be used during the development of guidelines as a complementary source from

  16. Using data mining techniques to explore physicians' therapeutic decisions when clinical guidelines do not provide recommendations: methods and example for type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toussi Massoud

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical guidelines carry medical evidence to the point of practice. As evidence is not always available, many guidelines do not provide recommendations for all clinical situations encountered in practice. We propose an approach for identifying knowledge gaps in guidelines and for exploring physicians' therapeutic decisions with data mining techniques to fill these knowledge gaps. We demonstrate our method by an example in the domain of type 2 diabetes. Methods We analyzed the French national guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes to identify clinical conditions that are not covered or those for which the guidelines do not provide recommendations. We extracted patient records corresponding to each clinical condition from a database of type 2 diabetic patients treated at Avicenne University Hospital of Bobigny, France. We explored physicians' prescriptions for each of these profiles using C5.0 decision-tree learning algorithm. We developed decision-trees for different levels of detail of the therapeutic decision, namely the type of treatment, the pharmaco-therapeutic class, the international non proprietary name, and the dose of each medication. We compared the rules generated with those added to the guidelines in a newer version, to examine their similarity. Results We extracted 27 rules from the analysis of a database of 463 patient records. Eleven rules were about the choice of the type of treatment and thirteen rules about the choice of the pharmaco-therapeutic class of each drug. For the choice of the international non proprietary name and the dose, we could extract only a few rules because the number of patient records was too low for these factors. The extracted rules showed similarities with those added to the newer version of the guidelines. Conclusion Our method showed its usefulness for completing guidelines recommendations with rules learnt automatically from physicians' prescriptions. It could be used

  17. Clinical EPR: Unique Opportunities and Some Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Zaki, Bassem I.; Hartford, Alan C.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Chen, Eunice; Comi, Richard J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Hou, Huagang; Khan, Nadeem; Swarts, Steven G.; Flood, Ann B.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2014-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been well established as a viable technique for measurement of free radicals and oxygen in biological systems, from in vitro cellular systems to in vivo small animal models of disease. However, the use of EPR in human subjects in the clinical setting, although attractive for a variety of important applications such as oxygen measurement, is challenged with several factors including the need for instrumentation customized for human subjects, probe and regulatory constraints. This paper describes the rationale and development of the first clinical EPR systems for two important clinical applications, namely, measurement of tissue oxygen (oximetry), and radiation dose (dosimetry) in humans. The clinical spectrometers operate at 1.2 GHz frequency and use surface loop resonators capable of providing topical measurements up to 1 cm depth in tissues. Tissue pO2 measurements can be carried out noninvasively and repeatedly after placement of an oxygen-sensitive paramagnetic material (currently India ink) at the site of interest. Our EPR dosimetry system is capable of measuring radiation-induced free radicals in the tooth of irradiated human subjects to determine the exposure dose. These developments offer potential opportunities for clinical dosimetry and oximetry, which include guiding therapy for individual patients with tumors or vascular disease, by monitoring of tissue oxygenation. Further work is in progress to translate this unique technology to routine clinical practice. PMID:24439333

  18. TDRSS S-shuttle unique receiver equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, A.; Schwartz, J. J.; Spearing, R.

    1985-01-01

    Beginning with STS-9, the Tracking and Date Relay Satellite system (TDRSS) will start providing S- and Ku-band communications and tracking support to the Space Shuttle and its payloads. The most significant element of this support takes place at the TDRSS White Sands Ground Terminal, which processes the Shuttle return link S- and Ku-band signals. While Ku-band hardware available to other TDRSS users is also applied to Ku-Shuttle, stringent S-Shuttle link margins have precluded the application of the standard TDRSS S-band processing equipment to S-Shuttle. It was therfore found necessary to develop a unique S-Shuttle Receiver that embodies state-of-the-art digital technology and processing techniques. This receiver, developed by Motorola, Inc., enhances link margins by 1.5 dB relative to the standard S-band equipment and its bit error rate performance is within a few tenths of a dB of theory. An overview description of the Space Shuttle Receiver Equipment (SSRE) is presented which includes the presentation of block diagrams and salient design features. Selected, measured performance results are also presented.

  19. Tattoos and piercings: bodily expressions of uniqueness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Hopkins, Louise A

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed to investigate the motivations underlying the body modification practices of tattooing and piercing. There were 80 participants recruited from an Australian music store, who provided descriptions of their tattoos and piercings and completed measures of need for uniqueness, appearance investment and distinctive appearance investment. It was found that tattooed individuals scored significantly higher on need for uniqueness than non-tattooed individuals. Further, individuals with conventional ear piercings scored significantly lower on need for uniqueness than individuals with no piercings or with facial and body piercings. Neither appearance investment nor distinctive appearance investment differed significantly among tattoo or piercing status groups. Strength of identification with music was significantly correlated with number of tattoos, but not number of piercings. It was concluded that tattooing, but not body piercing, represents a bodily expression of uniqueness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uniquely Strongly Clean Group Rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XIU-LAN

    2012-01-01

    A ring R is called clean if every element is the sum of an idempotent and a unit,and R is called uniquely strongly clean (USC for short) if every element is uniquely the sum of an idempotent and a unit that commute.In this article,some conditions on a ring R and a group G such that RG is clean are given.It is also shown that if G is a locally finite group,then the group ring RG is USC if and only if R is USC,and G is a 2-group.The left uniquely exchange group ring,as a middle ring of the uniquely clean ring and the USC ring,does not possess this property,and so does the uniquely exchange group ring.

  1. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettleworth, Sara J

    2012-10-05

    Darwin's claim 'that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind' is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference in cognitive capabilities and/or mechanisms between adult humans and other animals. Dual-process theories for some cognitive domains propose that adult human cognition shares simple basic processes with that of other animals while additionally including slower-developing and more explicit uniquely human processes. These theories are consistent with a modular account of cognition and the 'core knowledge' account of children's cognitive development. A complementary proposal is that human infants have unique social and/or cognitive adaptations for uniquely human learning. A view of human cognitive architecture as a mosaic of unique and species-general modular and domain-general processes together with a focus on uniquely human developmental mechanisms is consistent with modern evolutionary-developmental biology and suggests new questions for comparative research.

  2. Esperanto: A Unique Model for General Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulichenko, Aleksandr D.

    1988-01-01

    Esperanto presents a unique model for linguistic research by allowing the study of language development from project to fully functioning language. Esperanto provides insight into the growth of polysemy and redundancy, as well as into language universals and the phenomenon of social control. (Author/CB)

  3. Using Quantum Confinement to Uniquely Identify Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J.; Bagci, I. E.; Zawawi, M. A. M.; Sexton, J.; Hulbert, N.; Noori, Y. J.; Young, M. P.; Woodhead, C. S.; Missous, M.; Migliorato, M. A.; Roedig, U.; Young, R. J.

    2015-11-01

    Modern technology unintentionally provides resources that enable the trust of everyday interactions to be undermined. Some authentication schemes address this issue using devices that give a unique output in response to a challenge. These signatures are generated by hard-to-predict physical responses derived from structural characteristics, which lend themselves to two different architectures, known as unique objects (UNOs) and physically unclonable functions (PUFs). The classical design of UNOs and PUFs limits their size and, in some cases, their security. Here we show that quantum confinement lends itself to the provision of unique identities at the nanoscale, by using fluctuations in tunnelling measurements through quantum wells in resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs). This provides an uncomplicated measurement of identity without conventional resource limitations whilst providing robust security. The confined energy levels are highly sensitive to the specific nanostructure within each RTD, resulting in a distinct tunnelling spectrum for every device, as they contain a unique and unpredictable structure that is presently impossible to clone. This new class of authentication device operates with minimal resources in simple electronic structures above room temperature.

  4. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on nuclear and atomic data: Providing values for science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The IAEA supports nuclear research activities in Member States by providing essential nuclear data and serving as the central agency for the collection and dissemination of data from laboratories worldwide. The EXFOR database contains a compilation of experimental reaction data from all around the world, and this effort - led by the IAEA - has been very well received, as it provides invaluable data for nuclear calculations and evaluations to researchers in Member States. ENSDF is a collection of evaluated data on the structure and decay properties of radioactive nuclides collected worldwide through a network coordinated by the IAEA. The IAEA has also developed tools to allow users to visualize data, since visual presentation of data in the form of a plot makes them easier to understand and appreciate. Two important applications are available from the Nuclear Data Services web site: LiveChart interactively presents nuclide properties, and ZVView plots reaction cross-sections, both from evaluated files and from EXFOR, as 2-D or 3-D plots. Concerted efforts by the IAEA include coordination of activities in Member States, such as EXFOR and ENSDF, coordinated research project (CRP) implementation, and also staff efforts, which have resulted in data libraries of immense value. IBANDL and RIPL-3 are examples of two databases resulting from CRPs. IBANDL is a database of experimental and evaluated nuclear cross-sections relevant to ion beam analysis. RIPL-3 is a library of reference input parameters which are essential ingredients of theoretical modelling codes. By providing a complete set of verified parameters, it is ensured that evaluations carried out around the world are compatible and can be produced easily and efficiently.

  5. The liberal illusion of uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed.

  6. Tectonic Inversion Along the Algerian and Ligurian Margins: On the Insight Provided By Latest Seismic Processing Techniques Applied to Recent and Vintage 2D Offshore Multichannel Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenini, L.; Beslier, M. O.; Sage, F.; Badji, R.; Galibert, P. Y.; Lepretre, A.; Dessa, J. X.; Aidi, C.; Watremez, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on the Algerian and the North-Ligurian margins in the Western Mediterranean have evidenced inversion-related superficial structures, such as folds and asymmetric sedimentary perched basins whose geometry hints at deep compressive structures dipping towards the continent. Deep seismic imaging of these margins is difficult due to steep slope and superficial multiples, and, in the Mediterranean context, to the highly diffractive Messinian evaporitic series in the basin. During the Algerian-French SPIRAL survey (2009, R/V Atalante), 2D marine multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data were collected along the Algerian Margin using a 4.5 km, 360 channel digital streamer and a 3040 cu. in. air-gun array. An advanced processing workflow has been laid out using Geocluster CGG software, which includes noise attenuation, 2D SRME multiple attenuation, surface consistent deconvolution, Kirchhoff pre-stack time migration. This processing produces satisfactory seismic images of the whole sedimentary cover, and of southward dipping reflectors in the acoustic basement along the central part of the margin offshore Great Kabylia, that are interpreted as inversion-related blind thrusts as part of flat-ramp systems. We applied this successful processing workflow to old 2D marine MCS data acquired on the North-Ligurian Margin (Malis survey, 1995, R/V Le Nadir), using a 2.5 km, 96 channel streamer and a 1140 cu. in. air-gun array. Particular attention was paid to multiple attenuation in adapting our workflow. The resulting reprocessed seismic images, interpreted with a coincident velocity model obtained by wide-angle data tomography, provide (1) enhanced imaging of the sedimentary cover down to the top of the acoustic basement, including the base of the Messinian evaporites and the sub-salt Miocene series, which appear to be tectonized as far as in the mid-basin, and (2) new evidence of deep crustal structures in the margin which the initial processing had failed to

  7. Humanistic Wellness Services for Community Mental Health Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Jolynn V.

    2007-01-01

    The author examines the unique ability of mental health providers to offer humanistic services in a highly competitive atmosphere by using a wellness approach. J. E. Myers and T. J. Sweeney's (2005) 5 second-order factors are offered as a conceptual model. Therapeutic techniques and humanizing benefits for individuals, families, and communities…

  8. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  9. Modularity, comparative cognition and human uniqueness

    OpenAIRE

    Shettleworth, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Darwin's claim ‘that the difference in mind between man and the higher animals … is certainly one of degree and not of kind’ is at the core of the comparative study of cognition. Recent research provides unprecedented support for Darwin's claim as well as new reasons to question it, stimulating new theories of human cognitive uniqueness. This article compares and evaluates approaches to such theories. Some prominent theories propose sweeping domain-general characterizations of the difference ...

  10. Kosovo case: A unique arbitrariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakarada Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The end of Cold war, contrary to expectations has brought new conflicts and forms of violence, new divisions and new relativizations of the international legal order. Taking as an example the endeavors to resolve the Kosovo conflict, the author attempts to indicate the broader implications of the international efforts to constitute an independent state on part of the territory of an existing sovereign state. The arguments used to justify the redefinition of the borders of the Serbian state without its consent, the moral, democratic, peace arguments, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the argument that Kosovo is a unique case and therefore unique rules should be applied. The author seeks to understand the deeper significance of these efforts, concluding that dismantling the present international legal order is not only a potential danger but a possible aim.

  11. Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossett, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

  12. Temporal information partitioning: Characterizing synergy, uniqueness, and redundancy in interacting environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwell, Allison E.; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-07-01

    Information theoretic measures can be used to identify nonlinear interactions between source and target variables through reductions in uncertainty. In information partitioning, multivariate mutual information is decomposed into synergistic, unique, and redundant components. Synergy is information shared only when sources influence a target together, uniqueness is information only provided by one source, and redundancy is overlapping shared information from multiple sources. While this partitioning has been applied to provide insights into complex dependencies, several proposed partitioning methods overestimate redundant information and omit a component of unique information because they do not account for source dependencies. Additionally, information partitioning has only been applied to time-series data in a limited context, using basic pdf estimation techniques or a Gaussian assumption. We develop a Rescaled Redundancy measure (Rs) to solve the source dependency issue, and present Gaussian, autoregressive, and chaotic test cases to demonstrate its advantages over existing techniques in the presence of noise, various source correlations, and different types of interactions. This study constitutes the first rigorous application of information partitioning to environmental time-series data, and addresses how noise, pdf estimation technique, or source dependencies can influence detected measures. We illustrate how our techniques can unravel the complex nature of forcing and feedback within an ecohydrologic system with an application to 1 min environmental signals of air temperature, relative humidity, and windspeed. The methods presented here are applicable to the study of a broad range of complex systems composed of interacting variables.

  13. The Uniqueness of Milton Friedman

    OpenAIRE

    J. Daniel Hammond

    2013-01-01

    That there is no Milton Friedman today is not a mystery; the mystery is how Milton Friedman could have been. The facts of Friedman’s biography make him unique among twentieth-century public figures. He had extensive knowledge and expertise in mathematics and statistics. Yet he became a critic of ‘formal’ theory, exemplified by mathematical economics, that failed to engage with real-world facts and data, and of econometric modeling that presumed more knowledge of economic structure than Friedm...

  14. Unique Features of Halophilic Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Proteins from moderate and extreme halophiles have unique characteristics. They are highly acidic and hydrophilic, similar to intrinsically disordered proteins. These characteristics make the halophilic proteins soluble in water and fold reversibly. In addition to reversible folding, the rate of refolding of halophilic proteins from denatured structure is generally slow, often taking several days, for example, for extremely halophilic proteins. This slow folding rate makes the halophilic proteins a novel model system for folding mechanism analysis. High solubility and reversible folding also make the halophilic proteins excellent fusion partners for soluble expression of recombinant proteins.

  15. Oncologic applications of diagnostic imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, L.J.; Thrall, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Before appropriate therapy can be instituted for a cancer patient, the presence and extent of tumor must be evaluated. Deciding which imaging technique to use depends on tumor location, type, and biologic behavior. Conventional radiography provides important information at a relatively low cost compared with other imaging modalities. Ultrasound is a valuable adjunct to radiography, but does not replace it because both imaging modalities provide unique information. Nuclear medicine procedures contribute additional, unique data by providing physiological information, but specificity is lacking. Both CT and MRI provide images with exquisite anatomic detail, but availability and cost prohibit their general use

  16. A technique for determining the optimum mix of logistics service providers of a make-to-order supply chain by formulating and solving a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjoy Roy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a technique has been developed to determine the optimum mix of logistic service providers of a make-to-order (MTO supply chain. A serial MTO supply chain with different stages/ processes has been considered. For each stage different logistic service providers with different mean processing lead times, but same lead time variances are available. A realistic assumption that for each stage, the logistic service provider who charges more for his service consumes less processing lead time and vice-versa has been made in our study. Thus for each stage, for each service provider, a combination of cost and mean processing lead time is available. Using these combinations, for each stage, a polynomial curve, expressing cost of that stage as a function of mean processing lead time is fit. Cumulating all such expressions of cost for the different stages along with incorporation of suitable constraints arising out of timely delivery, results in the formulation of a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem. On solving the problem using mathematica, optimum processing lead time for each stage is obtained. Using these optimum processing lead times and by employing a simple technique the optimum logistic service provider mix of the supply chain along with the corresponding total cost of processing is determined. Finally to examine the effect of changes in different parameters on the optimum total processing cost of the supply chain, sensitivity analysis has been carried out graphically.

  17. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhindra Mahoorkar; Anoop Jain

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  18. Denture identification using unique identification authority of India barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoorkar, Sudhindra; Jain, Anoop

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature for personal identification. They have been broadly divided into surface marking and inclusion methods. In this technique, patient's unique identification number and barcode printed in the patient's Aadhaar card issued by Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) are used as denture markers. This article describes a simple, quick, and economical method for identification of individual.

  19. Unique Features of Mobile Commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiaojun; IIJIMA Junichi; HO Sho

    2004-01-01

    While the market potentials and impacts of web-based e-commerce are still in the ascendant, the advances in wireless technologies and mobile networks have brought about a new business opportunity and research attention, what is termed mobile commerce. Commonly, mobile commerce is considered to be another new application of existing web-based e-commerce onto wireless networks, but as an independent business area, mobile commerce has its own advantages and challenges as opposed to traditional e-commerce applications. This paper focuses on exploring the unique features of mobile commerce as. Compared with traditional e-commerce. Also, there are still some limitations arisen in m-commerce in contrast to web-based e-commerce. Finally, current state of mobile commerce in Japan is presented in brief, with an introduction of several cases involving mobile commerce applications in today 's marketplace.

  20. Unique features of space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on space reactors that are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K

  1. The Uniqueness of Islamic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan YILMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the main reasons behind why Islamic culture is different than other cultures. In the introduction part of the paper, the usage area of the words culture and civilization were tackled. In the first part of the paper, an evaluation of the uniqueness of Islamic culture was made and examples about this were given. In the second part of the paper, evaluations about how Islamic culture has struggled with modernization and secularization and how it has shaped itself as a result of this were made. In the third part of the paper, the situation in which Islamic civilization has regressed against the Western civilization causing emerging arguments and the current situation in Islamic civilization have been addressed by making evaluations on culture and civilization. In the final part, evaluations on thesis this paper has used were made.

  2. Customization: Ideal Varieties, Product Uniqueness and Price Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Henry Wang

    2009-01-01

    We study customization in the Hotelling model with two firms. In addition to providing ideal varieties, the perceived uniqueness of a customized product contributes independently to consumer utility. We show that only when consumer preferences for uniqueness are high customization occurs in equilibrium.

  3. Consciousness: a unique way of processing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2018-02-08

    In this article, I argue that consciousness is a unique way of processing information, in that: it produces information, rather than purely transmitting it; the information it produces is meaningful for us; the meaning it has is always individuated. This uniqueness allows us to process information on the basis of our personal needs and ever-changing interactions with the environment, and consequently to act autonomously. Three main basic cognitive processes contribute to realize this unique way of information processing: the self, attention and working memory. The self, which is primarily expressed via the central and peripheral nervous systems, maps our body, the environment, and our relations with the environment. It is the primary means by which the complexity inherent to our composite structure is reduced into the "single voice" of a unique individual. It provides a reference system that (albeit evolving) is sufficiently stable to define the variations that will be used as the raw material for the construction of conscious information. Attention allows for the selection of those variations in the state of the self that are most relevant in the given situation. Attention originates and is deployed from a single locus inside our body, which represents the center of the self, around which all our conscious experiences are organized. Whatever is focused by attention appears in our consciousness as possessing a spatial quality defined by this center and the direction toward which attention is focused. In addition, attention determines two other features of conscious experience: periodicity and phenomenal quality. Self and attention are necessary but not sufficient for conscious information to be produced. Complex forms of conscious experiences, such as the various modes of givenness of conscious experience and the stream of consciousness, need a working memory mechanism to assemble the basic pieces of information selected by attention.

  4. Data mining and visualization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pak Chung [Richland, WA; Whitney, Paul [Richland, WA; Thomas, Jim [Richland, WA

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  5. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  6. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Z › Heart Failure › Unique to Older Adults Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Unique ... will suffer from depression at some point. This type of severe depression is more serious than the ...

  7. Landsat imagery: a unique resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.; Sexton, N.; Koontz, L.

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites provide high-quality, multi-spectral imagery of the surface of the Earth. These moderate-resolution, remotely sensed images are not just pictures, but contain many layers of data collected at different points along the visible and invisible light spectrum. These data can be manipulated to reveal what the Earth’s surface looks like, including what types of vegetation are present or how a natural disaster has impacted an area (Fig. 1).

  8. Computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Grochow, Joshua A.; Tucker-Foltz, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Covering spaces of graphs have long been useful for studying expanders (as "graph lifts") and unique games (as the "label-extended graph"). In this paper we advocate for the thesis that there is a much deeper relationship between computational topology and the Unique Games Conjecture. Our starting point is Linial's 2005 observation that the only known problems whose inapproximability is equivalent to the Unique Games Conjecture - Unique Games and Max-2Lin - are instances of Maximum Section of...

  9. The effect of providing feedback on inhaler technique and adherence from an electronic audio recording device, INCA®, in a community pharmacy setting: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Susan Mary; MacHale, Elaine; Sulaiman, Imran; Holmes, Martin; Hughes, Cian; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; Taylor, Terence; Boland, Fiona; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Reilly, Richard B; Ryder, Sheila A; Costello, Richard W

    2016-05-04

    Poor adherence to inhaled medication may lead to inadequate symptom control in patients with respiratory disease. In practice it can be difficult to identify poor adherence. We designed an acoustic recording device, the INCA® (INhaler Compliance Assessment) device, which, when attached to an inhaler, identifies and records the time and technique of inhaler use, thereby providing objective longitudinal data on an individual's adherence to inhaled medication. This study will test the hypothesis that providing objective, personalised, visual feedback on adherence to patients in combination with a tailored educational intervention in a community pharmacy setting, improves adherence more effectively than education alone. The study is a prospective, cluster randomised, parallel-group, multi-site study conducted over 6 months. The study is designed to compare current best practice in care (i.e. routine inhaler technique training) with the use of the INCA® device for respiratory patients in a community pharmacy setting. Pharmacies are the unit of randomisation and on enrolment to the study they will be allocated by the lead researcher to one of the three study groups (intervention, comparator or control groups) using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Given the nature of the intervention neither pharmacists nor participants can be blinded. The intervention group will receive feedback from the acoustic recording device on inhaler technique and adherence three times over a 6-month period along with inhaler technique training at each of these times. The comparator group will also receive training in inhaler use three times over the 6-month study period but no feedback on their habitual performance. The control group will receive usual care (i.e. the safe supply of medicines and advice on their use). The primary outcome is the rate of participant adherence to their inhaled medication, defined as the proportion of correctly taken doses of medication at the correct

  10. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource

  11. ARAC: A unique command and control resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M.M.; Baskett, R.L.; Ellis, J.S. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a centralized federal facility designed to provide real-time, world-wide support to military and civilian command and control centers by predicting the impacts of inadvertent or intentional releases of nuclear, biological, or chemical materials into the atmosphere. ARAC is a complete response system consisting of highly trained and experienced personnel, continually updated computer models, redundant data collection systems, and centralized and remote computer systems. With over 20 years of experience responding to domestic and international incidents, strong linkages with the Department of Defense, and the ability to conduct classified operations, ARAC is a unique command and control resource.

  12. MRI: unique costing and pricing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, H W; Jarl, D F

    1985-01-01

    Acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) involves a plethora of costs not traditionally encountered in radiology procedure cost accounting models. Experiences with MRI gained at the University of Minnesota Hospitals and Clinics during 1984 uncovered a wide variety of unique costing issues which were eventually identified at the time when the MRI hospital charge was being established. Our experience at UMHC can provide those radiology departments now acquiring MRI with an earlier awareness of these special costing issues, hopefully resulting in better and more timely data collection. Current reimbursement and pricing issues are also having a dramatic impact on MRI costs at each institution and must be assessed in terms of third-party payor intentions.

  13. Guide to good practices for operations aspects of unique processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Operations Aspects of Facility Chemistry and Unique Processes, Chapter XIII of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered when planning or reviewing employee training and facility management programs. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Operations Aspects of Unique Processes is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for all personnel to coordinate interrelated activities affecting unique processes.

  14. A unique collaboration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  15. Uniquely positioned for future success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, D.

    2001-01-01

    The author began this presentation by giving a corporate profile of PanCanadian, discussing its evolution over time to it being spun-off of PanCanadian Petroleum Limited from Canadian Pacific to form PanCanadian Energy Corporation in 2001. The worldwide activities were mentioned. PanCanadian Petroleum Limited is one of the country's largest producers, experiencing emerging international exploration success, and marketing energy throughout North America. It is also a company that is financially strong. PanCanadian is involved in natural gas, crude, natural gas liquids, and power. An outline of PanCanadian Energy Services was provided, along with its strategic positioning. The next section of the presentation focused on Nova Scotia natural gas, beginning with a map displaying the Eastern Canada development. The focus shifted to the Deep Panuke field, where exploration began in early 1999. PanCanadian holds 20 per cent of the Scotian Shelf. The industry activity offshore Nova Scotia began with the first well in 1967, and to date 178 wells have been drilled, of which 106 were exploration wells. There have been 21 significant discoveries. Production in the Deep Panuke is expected to begin during the first quarter of 2005. The various approval agencies were listed. With large interests held in the offshore Nova Scotia and extensive exploration plans, PanCanadian opportunity in Eastern Canada, New England and the Mid-Atlantic markets has greatly increased. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Bender, C.E.; James, E.M.; Brown, M.L.; McLeod, R.A.; Broderick, D.F.; Welch, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proper application of imaging procedures is essential to obtain needed information for diagnosis and therapy planning in patients with suspected foot and/or ankle pathology. This paper provides basic background data for the numerous imaging techniques

  17. Alpbach Summer School - a unique learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, K.; Aulinas, J.; Clifford, D.; Krejci, D.; Topham, R.

    2011-12-01

    The Alpbach Summer School is a ten-day program that provides a unique opportunity for young european science and engineering students, both undergraduate and graduate, to learn how to approach the entire design process of a space mission. The theme of the 2010 Summer School was "New Space Missions to Understand Climate Change", a current, challenging, very broad and complex topic. The program was established more than 35 years ago and is organised in two interrelated parts: a series of lectures held by renowned experts in the field (in the case of this specific year, climate change and space engineering experts) that provides a technical and scientific background for the workshops that follow, the core of the Summer School. For the workshops the students are split into four international, interdisciplinary teams of about 15 students. In 2010 every team had to complete a number of tasks, four in total: (1) identify climate change research gaps and design a space mission that has not yet been flown or proposed, (2) define the science objectives and requirements of the mission, (3) design a spacecraft that meets the mission requirements, which includes spacecraft design and construction, payload definition, orbit calculations, but also the satellite launch, operation and mission costs and (4) write up a short mission proposal and present the results to an expert review panel. Achieving these tasks in only a few days in a multicultural, interdisciplinary team represents a major challenge for all participants and provides an excellent practical learning experience. Over the course of the program, students do not just learn facts about climate change and space engineering, but scientists also learn from engineers and engineers from scientists. The participants have to deepen their knowledge in an often unfamiliar field, develop organisational and team-work skills and work under pressure. Moreover, teams are supported by team and roving tutors and get the opportunity to

  18. Whole Genome Amplification of Day 3 or Day 5 Human Embryos Biopsies Provides a Suitable DNA Template for PCR-Based Techniques for Genotyping, a Complement of Preimplantation Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schaeffer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine if whole genome amplification (WGA provides suitable DNA for qPCR-based genotyping for human embryos. Single blastomeres (Day 3 or trophoblastic cells (Day 5 were isolated from 342 embryos for WGA. Comparative Genomic Hybridization determined embryo sex as well as Trisomy 18 or Trisomy 21. To determine the embryo’s sex, qPCR melting curve analysis for SRY and DYS14 was used. Logistic regression indicated a 4.4%, 57.1%, or 98.8% probability of a male embryo when neither gene, SRY only, or both genes were detected, respectively (accuracy = 94.1%, kappa = 0.882, and p<0.001. Fluorescent Capillary Electrophoresis for the amelogenin genes (AMEL was also used to determine sex. AMELY peak’s height was higher and this peak’s presence was highly predictive of male embryos (AUC = 0.93, accuracy = 81.7%, kappa = 0.974, and p<0.001. Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 21 were determined using the threshold cycle difference for RPL17 and TTC3, respectively, which were significantly lower in the corresponding embryos. The Ct difference for TTC3 specifically determined Trisomy 21 (AUC = 0.89 and RPL17 for Trisomy 18 (AUC = 0.94. Here, WGA provides adequate DNA for PCR-based techniques for preimplantation genotyping.

  19. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  20. Tendon 'turnover lengthening' technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerovac, S; Miranda, B H

    2013-11-01

    Tendon defect reconstruction is amongst the most technically challenging areas in hand surgery. Tendon substance deficiency reconstruction techniques include lengthening, grafting, two-stage reconstruction and tendon transfers, however each is associated with unique challenges over and above direct repair. We describe a novel 'turnover lengthening' technique for hand tendons that has successfully been applied to the repair of several cases, including a case of attritional flexor and traumatic extensor tendon rupture in two presented patients where primary tenorrhaphy was not possible. In both cases a good post-operative outcome was achieved, as the patients were happy having returned back to normal activities of daily living such that they were discharged 12 weeks post-operatively. Our technique avoids the additional morbidity and complications associated with grafting, transfers and two stage reconstructions. It is quick, simple and reproducible for defects not exceeding 3-4 cm, provides a means of immediate one stage reconstruction, no secondary donor site morbidity and does not compromise salvage by tendon transfer and/or two-stage reconstruction in cases of failure. To our knowledge no such technique has been previously been described to reconstruct such hand tendon defects. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. It's magic: a unique practice management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Steven

    2003-11-15

    For thousands of years prior to the advent of modern dentistry, magic has been used to entertain, impress, and motivate individuals. Today's dental professionals are using the concept of The Magic of a Healthy Smile through their use of modern clinical techniques and as a means for practice marketing, patient education, and the reduction of patient stress and fear. This article describes how dentists/magicians have incorporated magic into their practices and the benefits of this useful patient management strategy. A script of the "Happy Tooth Magic Show" and resources for dentists to create their own dental magic show are provided.

  2. Uniqueness of time-independent electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1974-01-01

    As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics......As a comment on a recent paper by Steele, a more general uniqueness theorem for time-independent fields is mentioned. ©1974 American Institute of Physics...

  3. Unique specification of Yang-Mills solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.B.; Joseph, D.W.; Morgan, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    Screened time-independent cylindrically-symmetric solutions of Yang-Mills equations are given which show that the source does not uniquely determine the field. However, these particular solutions suggest a natural way of uniquely specifying solutions in terms of a physical realization of a symmetry group. (orig.)

  4. Constructing Dense Graphs with Unique Hamiltonian Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mark A. M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not difficult to construct dense graphs containing Hamiltonian cycles, but it is difficult to generate dense graphs that are guaranteed to contain a unique Hamiltonian cycle. This article presents an algorithm for generating arbitrarily large simple graphs containing "unique" Hamiltonian cycles. These graphs can be turned into dense graphs…

  5. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  6. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Harris (Ohio State University)

    2008-06-24

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  7. Detecting Beer Intake by Unique Metabolite Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian; Bech, Lene; Lund, Erik; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2016-12-02

    Evaluation of the health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1), 18 participants were given, one at a time, four different test beverages: strong, regular, and nonalcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort, and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e., N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum of iso-α-acids and tricyclohumols) and the production process (i.e., pyro-glutamyl proline and 2-ethyl malate), was selected to establish a compliance biomarker model for detection of beer intake based on MSt1. The model predicted the MSt2 samples collected before and up to 12 h after beer intake correctly (AUC = 1). A biomarker model including four metabolites representing both beer raw materials and production steps provided a specific and accurate tool for measurement of beer consumption.

  8. The AD: The unique anti-accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Slide show by Maximilien Brice. Voice (French only): Jacques Fichet. Content: Paola Catapano, Django Manglunki, CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other machines whose performance is measured in terms of energy records, AD's uniqueness resides in the fact that it can very effectively decelerate beams. At the hearth of antimatter production at CERN, the AD is making headlines in the world's press. This provides an excellent opportunity for us to retrace its history in images.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-0480-kbps-384x288-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'http://mediaarchive.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083/CERN-MOVIE-2011-083-posterframe-480x360-at-5-percent.jpg', '1357551', true, '');  

  9. A Unique Civil Engineering Capstone Design Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Padmanabhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The North Dakota State University, USA, capstone course was developed as a unique model in response to the effort of the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology, USA, to streamline and improve design instruction in the curriculum and has steadily evolved to keep pace with the ever-changing technology and the expectations of the profession and the society we serve. A capstone design course by definition should be a design experience for students in the final year before graduation integrating all major design concepts they have learned up until then in the program. Carefully chosen real world projects with design content in all sub-disciplines of civil engineering are assigned in this team-taught course. Faculty and practicing professionals make presentations on design process; project management; leadership in an engineering environment; and public policy; global perspectives in engineering; and professional career and licensure. Practicing professionals also critique the final student presentations. Students work in teams with number of faculty serving as technical consultants, and a faculty mentor for each team to provide non-technical guidance and direction. The course requires students to demonstrate mastery of the curriculum and to work with others in a team environment. Course assessment includes evaluation of the final design, presentations, written technical reports, project design schedule, a project design journal, and reaction papers.

  10. Phase change events of volatile liquid perfluorocarbon contrast agents produce unique acoustic signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeran, Paul S; Dayton, Paul A; Matsunaga, Terry O

    2014-01-01

    Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) provide a dynamic platform to approach problems in medical ultrasound (US). Upon US-mediated activation, the liquid core vaporizes and expands to produce a gas bubble ideal for US imaging and therapy. In this study, we demonstrate through high-speed video microscopy and US interrogation that PCCAs composed of highly volatile perfluorocarbons (PFCs) exhibit unique acoustic behavior that can be detected and differentiated from standard microbubble contrast agents. Experimental results show that when activated with short pulses PCCAs will over-expand and undergo unforced radial oscillation while settling to a final bubble diameter. The size-dependent oscillation phenomenon generates a unique acoustic signal that can be passively detected in both time and frequency domain using confocal piston transducers with an ‘activate high’ (8 MHz, 2 cycles), ‘listen low’ (1 MHz) scheme. Results show that the magnitude of the acoustic ‘signature’ increases as PFC boiling point decreases. By using a band-limited spectral processing technique, the droplet signals can be isolated from controls and used to build experimental relationships between concentration and vaporization pressure. The techniques shown here may be useful for physical studies as well as development of droplet-specific imaging techniques. (paper)

  11. Practical relevance of pattern uniqueness in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, Paul T

    2013-09-10

    Uniqueness being unprovable, it has recently been argued that individualization in forensic science is irrelevant and, probability, as applied for DNA profiles, should be applied for all identifications. Critiques against uniqueness have omitted physical matching, a realistic and tangible individualization that supports uniqueness. Describing case examples illustrating pattern matches including physical matching, it is indicated that individualizations are practically relevant for forensic science as they establish facts on a definitive basis providing firm leads benefitting criminal investigation. As a tenet of forensic identification, uniqueness forms a fundamental paradigm relevant for individualization. Evidence on the indeterministic and stochastic causal pathways of characteristics in patterns available in the related fields of science sufficiently supports the proposition of uniqueness. Characteristics involved in physical matching and matching achieved in patterned evidence existing in the state of nature are not events amenable for counting; instead these are ensemble of visible units occupying the entire pattern area stretching the probability of re-occurrence of a verisimilitude pattern into infinity offering epistemic support to uniqueness. Observational methods are as respectable as instrumental or statistical methods since they are capable of generating results that are tangible and obviously valid as in physical matching. Applying the probabilistic interpretation used for DNA profiles to the other patterns would be unbefitting since these two are disparate, the causal pathways of the events, the loci, in the manipulated DNA profiles being determinable. While uniqueness enables individualizations, it does not vouch for eliminating errors. Instead of dismissing uniqueness and individualization, accepting errors as human or system failures and seeking remedial measures would benefit forensic science practice and criminal investigation. Copyright © 2013

  12. Doppler ultrasound surveillance in deep tunneling compressed-air work with Trimix breathing: bounce dive technique compared to saturation-excursion technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, T. P. Van Rees; Sterk, W.; de Boer, A. G. E. M.; van der Beek, A. J.; Verhoeven, A. C.; van Dijk, F. J. H.

    2008-01-01

    The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in The Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate two deep-diving techniques with Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Divers used the bounce diving techniques for repair and maintenance of the TBM. The tunnel boring machine jammed at its deepest depth.

  13. Lourdes: A uniquely Catholic approach to medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichoso, Travis Jon

    2015-02-01

    As an American medical student, I spent the summer break between my first and second year in Lourdes, France, the site where the Immaculate Conception appeared eighteen times to St. Bernadette in 1858 as proclaimed approved by the Catholic Church and whose water is associated with over seven thousand unexplained cures. During this time I volunteered with St. Joseph's Service and Poste Secour, followed several medical teams taking care of large pilgrim groups, and shadowed Dr. Alessandro de Franciscis the president of Le Bureau des Constations Médicales, the office in Lourdes charged with investigating claims of miracles. Through my experiences, I found the mission of medicine in Lourdes to be twofold: to provide the critical care needed to give sick persons the chance to transform their experience of disease through their faith; and secondly, through the efforts of the Medical Bureau, to be an instrument by which we can comprehend the wonders of the work of God. I conclude that this twofold mission should inform the work of every Catholic in health care or research, and Lourdes provides the venue par excellence to cultivate this mission. Lay Summary: Lourdes is a pilgrimage site in southern France that has been associated with medical miracles for the past 150 years. The site is unique in that throughout its history, physicians, of any or no faith, have been invited to participate in the proceedings of the investigations of each claimed cure. The investigations have formalized into a process handled by the Lourdes Medical Bureau and the Lourdes International Medical Association. Travis Dichoso, an American medical student, writes about his experiences as part of this process.

  14. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Uniqueness conditions for finitely dependent random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrushin, R.L.; Pecherski, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The authors consider a random field for which uniqueness and some additional conditions guaranteeing that the correlations between the variables of the field decrease rapidly enough with the distance between the values of the parameter occur. The main result of the paper states that in such a case uniqueness is true for any other field with transition probabilities sufficiently close to those of the original field. Then they apply this result to some ''degenerate'' classes of random fields for which one can check this condition of correlation to decay, and thus obtain some new conditions of uniqueness. (Auth.)

  16. Classical many-particle systems with unique disordered ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2017-10-01

    Classical ground states (global energy-minimizing configurations) of many-particle systems are typically unique crystalline structures, implying zero enumeration entropy of distinct patterns (aside from trivial symmetry operations). By contrast, the few previously known disordered classical ground states of many-particle systems are all high-entropy (highly degenerate) states. Here we show computationally that our recently proposed "perfect-glass" many-particle model [Sci. Rep. 6, 36963 (2016), 10.1038/srep36963] possesses disordered classical ground states with a zero entropy: a highly counterintuitive situation . For all of the system sizes, parameters, and space dimensions that we have numerically investigated, the disordered ground states are unique such that they can always be superposed onto each other or their mirror image. At low energies, the density of states obtained from simulations matches those calculated from the harmonic approximation near a single ground state, further confirming ground-state uniqueness. Our discovery provides singular examples in which entropy and disorder are at odds with one another. The zero-entropy ground states provide a unique perspective on the celebrated Kauzmann-entropy crisis in which the extrapolated entropy of a supercooled liquid drops below that of the crystal. We expect that our disordered unique patterns to be of value in fields beyond glass physics, including applications in cryptography as pseudorandom functions with tunable computational complexity.

  17. Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease provide a unique opportunity to take care of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Beghé

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (ECOPD identifies the acute phase of COPD. The COPD patient is often frail and elderly with concomitant chronic diseases. This requires the physician not only looks at specific symptoms or organs, but to consider the patient in all his or her complexity.

  18. Sodium provides unique insights into transgenerational effects of ocean acidification on bivalve shell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liqiang; Schöne, Bernd R; Mertz-Kraus, Regina; Yang, Feng

    2017-01-15

    Ocean acidification is likely to have profound impacts on marine bivalves, especially on their early life stages. Therefore, it is imperative to know whether and to what extent bivalves will be able to acclimate or adapt to an acidifying ocean over multiple generations. Here, we show that reduced seawater pH projected for the end of this century (i.e., pH7.7) led to a significant decrease of shell production of newly settled juvenile Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum. However, juveniles from parents exposed to low pH grew significantly faster than those from parents grown at ambient pH, exhibiting a rapid transgenerational acclimation to an acidic environment. The sodium composition of the shells may shed new light on the mechanisms responsible for beneficial transgenerational acclimation. Irrespective of parental exposure, the amount of Na incorporated into shells increased with decreasing pH, implying active removal of excessive protons through the Na + /H + exchanger which is known to depend on the Na + gradient actively built up by the Na + /K + -ATPase as a driving force. However, the shells with a prior history of transgenerational exposure to low pH recorded significantly lower amounts of Na than those with no history of acidic exposure. It therefore seems very likely that the clams may implement less costly and more ATP-efficient ion regulatory mechanisms to maintain pH homeostasis in the calcifying fluid following transgenerational acclimation. Our results suggest that marine bivalves may have a greater capacity to acclimate or adapt to ocean acidification by the end of this century than currently understood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Specific radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Beside radiography testing using x-ray machine and gamma source, there are several technique that developed specifically to complete the testing that cannot be done with the two earlier. This technique was specific based on several factor, for the example, the advantages of neutron and electron using to show the image was unique compare to x-ray and gamma. Besides that, these special radiography techniques maybe differ in how to detect the radiation get through the object. These technique can used to inspect thin or specimen that contained radioactive material. There are several technique will discussed in this chapter such as neutron radiography, electron radiography, fluoroscopy and also autoradiography.

  20. Laboratory reptile surgery: principles and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne C; Hernandez, Sonia M; Divers, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles used for research and instruction may require surgical procedures, including biopsy, coelomic device implantation, ovariectomy, orchidectomy, and esophogostomy tube placement, to accomplish research goals. Providing veterinary care for unanticipated clinical problems may require surgical techniques such as amputation, bone or shell fracture repair, and coeliotomy. Although many principles of surgery are common between mammals and reptiles, important differences in anatomy and physiology exist. Veterinarians who provide care for these species should be aware of these differences. Most reptiles undergoing surgery are small and require specific instrumentation and positioning. In addition, because of the wide variety of unique physiologic and anatomic characteristics among snakes, chelonians, and lizards, different techniques may be necessary for different reptiles. This overview describes many common reptile surgery techniques and their application for research purposes or to provide medical care to research subjects.

  1. Computational techniques of the simplex method

    CERN Document Server

    Maros, István

    2003-01-01

    Computational Techniques of the Simplex Method is a systematic treatment focused on the computational issues of the simplex method. It provides a comprehensive coverage of the most important and successful algorithmic and implementation techniques of the simplex method. It is a unique source of essential, never discussed details of algorithmic elements and their implementation. On the basis of the book the reader will be able to create a highly advanced implementation of the simplex method which, in turn, can be used directly or as a building block in other solution algorithms.

  2. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  3. On uniqueness in evolution quasivariational inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brokate, M.; Krejčí, Pavel; Schnabel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2004), s. 111-130 ISSN 0944-6532 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : evolution quasivariational inequality * uniqueness * sweeping process Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2004 http://www.heldermann-verlag.de/jca/jca11/jca0386.pdf

  4. Weeping dragon, a unique ornamenal citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Weeping Dragon’ is a new ornamental citrus cultivar developed by intercrossing of two unusual and unique citrus types, Poncirus trifoliata cultivated variety (cv.) Flying Dragon, and Citrus sinensis cv. ‘Cipo’. This new hybrid cultivar combines strongly contorted and weeping growth traits in a smal...

  5. The end of the unique myocardial band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacIver, David H; Partridge, John B; Agger, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Two of the leading concepts of mural ventricular architecture are the unique myocardial band and the myocardial mesh model. We have described, in an accompanying article published in this journal, how the anatomical, histological and high-resolution computed tomographic studies strongly favour th...

  6. Flexible and efficient genome tiling design with penalized uniqueness score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a powerful tool in whole genome analysis, tiling array has been widely used in the answering of many genomic questions. Now it could also serve as a capture device for the library preparation in the popular high throughput sequencing experiments. Thus, a flexible and efficient tiling array design approach is still needed and could assist in various types and scales of transcriptomic experiment. Results In this paper, we address issues and challenges in designing probes suitable for tiling array applications and targeted sequencing. In particular, we define the penalized uniqueness score, which serves as a controlling criterion to eliminate potential cross-hybridization, and a flexible tiling array design pipeline. Unlike BLAST or simple suffix array based methods, computing and using our uniqueness measurement can be more efficient for large scale design and require less memory. The parameters provided could assist in various types of genomic tiling task. In addition, using both commercial array data and experiment data we show, unlike previously claimed, that palindromic sequence exhibiting relatively lower uniqueness. Conclusions Our proposed penalized uniqueness score could serve as a better indicator for cross hybridization with higher sensitivity and specificity, giving more control of expected array quality. The flexible tiling design algorithm incorporating the penalized uniqueness score was shown to give higher coverage and resolution. The package to calculate the penalized uniqueness score and the described probe selection algorithm are implemented as a Perl program, which is freely available at http://www1.fbn-dummerstorf.de/en/forschung/fbs/fb3/paper/2012-yang-1/OTAD.v1.1.tar.gz.

  7. Review of the book: MUPO Program. Unique Minds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rodríguez-Arias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Unique Minds (Mentes Únicas and its version for teachers and counsellors, MUPO, are programs full of good ideas and tools for teachers and families. Both programs help to address learning disabilities in the natural context in which they take place and help children, families and teachers in their search for solutions based on their own resources. The programs are grounded on General Systems Theory and Multiple Intelligences Theory. They accessibly explain how our brain works and use techniques from Systemic Brief Family Therapy, such as Externalization, especially appropriate for the target ages - 8 to 12 years old, the ages when children learn to learn-.

  8. Space - A unique environment for process modeling R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overfelt, Tony

    1991-01-01

    Process modeling, the application of advanced computational techniques to simulate real processes as they occur in regular use, e.g., welding, casting and semiconductor crystal growth, is discussed. Using the low-gravity environment of space will accelerate the technical validation of the procedures and enable extremely accurate determinations of the many necessary thermophysical properties. Attention is given to NASA's centers for the commercial development of space; joint ventures of universities, industries, and goverment agencies to study the unique attributes of space that offer potential for applied R&D and eventual commercial exploitation.

  9. Providing solutions to engineering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connop, R.P.P.

    1991-01-01

    BNFL has acquired unique experience over a period of 40 years in specifying, designing and constructing spent fuel reprocessing and associated waste management plant. This experience is currently used to support a pound 5.5 billion capital investment programme. This paper reviews a number of engineering problems and their solutions to highlight BNFL experience in providing comprehensive specification, design and engineering and project management services. (author)

  10. [Uniqueness seeking behavior as a self-verification: an alternative approach to the study of uniqueness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, S

    1995-06-01

    Uniqueness theory explains that extremely high perceived similarity between self and others evokes negative emotional reactions and causes uniqueness seeking behavior. However, the theory conceptualizes similarity so ambiguously that it appears to suffer from low predictive validity. The purpose of the current article is to propose an alternative explanation of uniqueness seeking behavior. It posits that perceived uniqueness deprivation is a threat to self-concepts, and therefore causes self-verification behavior. Two levels of self verification are conceived: one based on personal categorization and the other on social categorization. The present approach regards uniqueness seeking behavior as the personal-level self verification. To test these propositions, a 2 (very high or moderate similarity information) x 2 (with or without outgroup information) x 2 (high or low need for uniqueness) between-subject factorial-design experiment was conducted with 95 university students. Results supported the self-verification approach, and were discussed in terms of effects of uniqueness deprivation, levels of self-categorization, and individual differences in need for uniqueness.

  11. Sufficient conditions for uniqueness of the weak value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressel, J; Jordan, A N

    2012-01-01

    We review and clarify the sufficient conditions for uniquely defining the generalized weak value as the weak limit of a conditioned average using the contextual values formalism introduced in Dressel, Agarwal and Jordan (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.240401). We also respond to criticism of our work by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v1) concerning a proposed counter-example to the uniqueness of the definition of the generalized weak value. The counter-example does not satisfy our prescription in the case of an underspecified measurement context. We show that when the contextual values formalism is properly applied to this example, a natural interpretation of the measurement emerges and the unique definition in the weak limit holds. We also prove a theorem regarding the uniqueness of the definition under our sufficient conditions for the general case. Finally, a second proposed counter-example by Parrott (arXiv:1105.4188v6) is shown not to satisfy the sufficiency conditions for the provided theorem. (paper)

  12. Multiple floating metatarsals: a unique injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trikha Vivek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Concomitant dislocation of the tar-sometatarsal and metatarsophalangeal joints of foot is an extremely rare injury. Such injuries presenting in a single or adjacent dual rays have been described in few cases previously. We describe such an injury in adjacent three metatarsals of a polytrauma patient. These injuries are likely to be missed in the initial assessment of a polytrauma patient. These patients are at risk of an overlooked diagnosis but the consequences of missing this type of injury may be Vivek Trikha*, Tarun Goyal, Amit K Agarwal quite severe. This case is presented in view of its unique-ness along with possible mechanism of injury, the sequence of reduction and follow-up. Knowledge of such injury and its proper management may be useful to the trauma surgeons. Key words: Metatarsal bones; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Wounds and injuries

  13. A unique theory of all forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    In discussing the construction of a consistent theory of quantum gravity unified with the gauge interactions we are naturally led to a string theory. We review its properties and the five consistent supersymmetric string theories in ten dimensions. We finally discuss the evidence that these theories are actually special limits of a unique 11-dimensional theory, called M-theory, and a recent conjecture for its explicit formulation as a supersymmetric Matrix theory

  14. Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManus, T M; Spada, L La; Hao, Y

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques. (paper)

  15. Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. M.; La Spada, L.; Hao, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques.

  16. Two Galaxies for a Unique Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    To celebrate the 100 Hours of Astronomy, ESO is sharing two stunning images of unusual galaxies, both belonging to the Sculptor group of galaxies. The images, obtained at two of ESO's observatories at La Silla and Paranal in Chile, illustrate the beauty of astronomy. ESO PR Photo 14a/09 Irregular Galaxy NGC 55 ESO PR Photo 14b/09 Spiral Galaxy NGC 7793 As part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 Cornerstone project, 100 Hours of Astronomy, the ambitious "Around the World in 80 Telescopes" event is a unique live webcast over 24 hours, following night and day around the globe to some of the most advanced observatories on and off the planet. To provide a long-lasting memory of this amazing world tour, observatories worldwide are revealing wonderful, and previously unseen, astronomical images. For its part, ESO is releasing outstanding pictures of two galaxies, observed with telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal observatories. The first of these depicts the irregular galaxy NGC 55, a member of the prominent Sculptor group of galaxies in the southern constellation of Sculptor. The galaxy is about 70 000 light-years across, that is, a little bit smaller than our own Milky Way. NGC 55 actually resembles more our galactic neighbour, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), although the LMC is seen face-on, whilst NGC 55 is edge-on. By studying about 20 planetary nebulae in this image, a team of astronomers found that NGC 55 is located about 7.5 million light-years away. They also found that the galaxy might be forming a bound pair with the gorgeous spiral galaxy NGC 300 . Planetary nebulae are the final blooming of Sun-like stars before their retirement as white dwarfs. This striking image of NGC 55, obtained with the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, is dusted with a flurry of reddish nebulae, created by young, hot massive stars. Some of the more extended ones are not unlike those seen in the LMC, such as the Tarantula Nebula. The quality

  17. New techniques in television to provide research in three-dimensional real-time or near real-time imagery and reduced cost systems for teleconferencing and educational uses, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Y. H.; Claspy, P.; Allen, J. E.; Merat, F.

    1979-01-01

    The results are presented of a continuing research and development program the objective of which is to develop a reduced bandwidth television system and a technique for television transmission of holograms. The result of the former is a variable frame rate television system, the operation of which was demonstrated for both black-and-white and color signals. This system employs a novel combination of the inexpensive mass storage capacity of a magnetic disc with the reliability of a digital system for time expansion and compression. Also reported are the results of a theoretical analysis and preliminary feasibility experiment of an innovative system for television transmission of holograms using relatively conventional TV equipment along with a phase modulated reference wave for production of the original interference pattern.

  18. Uniqueness and non-uniqueness of semigroups generated by singular diffusion operators

    CERN Document Server

    Eberle, Andreas

    1999-01-01

    This book addresses both probabilists working on diffusion processes and analysts interested in linear parabolic partial differential equations with singular coefficients. The central question discussed is whether a given diffusion operator, i.e., a second order linear differential operator without zeroth order term, which is a priori defined on test functions over some (finite or infinite dimensional) state space only, uniquely determines a strongly continuous semigroup on a corresponding weighted Lp space. Particular emphasis is placed on phenomena causing non-uniqueness, as well as on the relation between different notions of uniqueness appearing in analytic and probabilistic contexts.

  19. Unique properties of Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Riparbelli

    2013-09-01

    The primary cilium is an essential organelle required for animal development and adult homeostasis that is found on most animal cells. The primary cilium contains a microtubule-based axoneme cytoskeleton that typically grows from the mother centriole in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle as a membrane-bound compartment that protrudes from the cell surface. A unique system of bidirectional transport, intraflagellar transport (IFT, maintains the structure and function of cilia. While the axoneme is dynamic, growing and shrinking at its tip, at the same time it is very stable to the effects of microtubule-targeting drugs. The primary cilia found on Drosophila spermatocytes diverge from the general rules of primary cilium biology in several respects. Among these unique attributes, spermatocyte cilia assemble from all four centrioles in an IFT-independent manner in G2 phase, and persist continuously through two cell divisions. Here, we show that Drosophila spermatocyte primary cilia are extremely sensitive to microtubule-targeting drugs, unlike their mammalian counterparts. Spermatocyte cilia and their axonemes fail to assemble or be maintained upon nocodazole treatment, while centriole replication appears unperturbed. On the other hand, paclitaxel (Taxol, a microtubule-stabilizing drug, disrupted transition zone assembly and anchoring to the plasma membrane while causing spermatocyte primary cilia to grow extensively long during the assembly/elongation phase, but did not overtly affect the centrioles. However, once assembled to their mature length, spermatocyte cilia appeared unaffected by Taxol. The effects of these drugs on axoneme dynamics further demonstrate that spermatocyte primary cilia are endowed with unique assembly properties.

  20. Non-unique factorizations algebraic, combinatorial and analytic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geroldinger, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    From its origins in algebraic number theory, the theory of non-unique factorizations has emerged as an independent branch of algebra and number theory. Focused efforts over the past few decades have wrought a great number and variety of results. However, these remain dispersed throughout the vast literature. For the first time, Non-Unique Factorizations: Algebraic, Combinatorial, and Analytic Theory offers a look at the present state of the theory in a single, unified resource.Taking a broad look at the algebraic, combinatorial, and analytic fundamentals, this book derives factorization results and applies them in concrete arithmetical situations using appropriate transfer principles. It begins with a basic introduction that can be understood with knowledge of standard basic algebra. The authors then move to the algebraic theory of monoids, arithmetic theory of monoids, the structure of sets of lengths, additive group theory, arithmetical invariants, and the arithmetic of Krull monoids. They also provide a s...

  1. Unique supply function equilibrium with capacity constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, Paer

    2008-01-01

    Consider a market where producers submit supply functions to a procurement auction with uncertain demand, e.g. an electricity auction. In the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE), every firm commits to the supply function that maximises expected profit in the one-shot game given the supply functions of competitors. A basic weakness of the SFE is the presence of multiple equilibria. This paper shows that with (i) symmetric producers, (ii) perfectly inelastic demand, (iii) a price cap, and (iv) capacity constraints that bind with a positive probability, there exists a unique, symmetric SFE. (author)

  2. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heusler Markus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has increased in an unexpected way during the last decade. In particular, it has turned out that not all black hole equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black hole space-times ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some of the recent developments and to discuss them in the light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  3. Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr T. Chruściel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.

  4. On uniqueness in diffuse optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrach, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A prominent result of Arridge and Lionheart (1998 Opt. Lett. 23 882–4) demonstrates that it is in general not possible to simultaneously recover both the diffusion (aka scattering) and the absorption coefficient in steady-state (dc) diffusion-based optical tomography. In this work we show that it suffices to restrict ourselves to piecewise constant diffusion and piecewise analytic absorption coefficients to regain uniqueness. Under this condition both parameters can simultaneously be determined from complete measurement data on an arbitrarily small part of the boundary

  5. UNiquant, a Program for Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Using Stable Isotope Labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xin; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Shen, Yulei; Liu, Miao; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Zhixin; Anderson, Gordon A.; Smith, Richard D.; Chan, Wing C.; Hinrichs, Steven; Fu, Kai; Ding, Shi-Jian

    2011-03-04

    We present UNiquant, a new software program for analyzing stable isotope labeling (SIL) based quantitative proteomics data. UNiquant surpassed the performance of two other platforms, MaxQuant and Mascot Distiller, using complex proteome mixtures having either known or unknown heavy/light ratios. UNiquant is compatible with a broad spectrum of search engines and SIL methods, providing outstanding peptide pair identification and accurate measurement of the relative peptide/protein abundance.

  6. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  7. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  8. Young children's preference for unique owned objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Susan A; Davidson, Natalie S

    2016-10-01

    An important aspect of human thought is the value we place on unique individuals. Adults place higher value on authentic works of art than exact replicas, and young children at times value their original possessions over exact duplicates. What is the scope of this preference in early childhood, and when do children understand its subjective nature? On a series of trials, we asked three-year-olds (N=36) to choose between two toys for either themselves or the researcher: an old (visibly used) toy vs. a new (more attractive) toy matched in type and appearance (e.g., old vs. brand-new blanket). Focal pairs contrasted the child's own toy with a matched new object; Control pairs contrasted toys the child had never seen before. Children preferred the old toys for Focal pairs only, and treated their own preferences as not shared by the researcher. By 3years of age, young children place special value on unique individuals, and understand the subjective nature of that value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Event segmentation ability uniquely predicts event memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jesse Q; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Kurby, Christopher A; Bailey, Heather R; Eisenberg, Michelle L; Beck, Taylor M

    2013-11-01

    Memory for everyday events plays a central role in tasks of daily living, autobiographical memory, and planning. Event memory depends in part on segmenting ongoing activity into meaningful units. This study examined the relationship between event segmentation and memory in a lifespan sample to answer the following question: Is the ability to segment activity into meaningful events a unique predictor of subsequent memory, or is the relationship between event perception and memory accounted for by general cognitive abilities? Two hundred and eight adults ranging from 20 to 79years old segmented movies of everyday events and attempted to remember the events afterwards. They also completed psychometric ability tests and tests measuring script knowledge for everyday events. Event segmentation and script knowledge both explained unique variance in event memory above and beyond the psychometric measures, and did so as strongly in older as in younger adults. These results suggest that event segmentation is a basic cognitive mechanism, important for memory across the lifespan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Unique Outcomes in the Narratives of Young Adults Who Experienced Dating Violence as Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Smith, Carolyn; Mazurczyk, Jill; Thomas, Destini; Ramirez, Patricia; McNealy, Kim; Thomas, Jade; Martsolf, Donna S

    2016-01-01

    Narrative therapy, an approach based on the reauthoring of life narratives, may be a useful psychotherapeutic strategy for youth who have experienced dating violence. A cornerstone of narrative therapy is the concept of unique outcomes, which are moments that stand in contrast to a client's otherwise problem-saturated narratives. The purpose of this study was to identify and categorize unique outcomes embedded in narratives about adolescent dating violence. Text units representing unique outcomes were extracted from transcripts of interviews with 88 young adults who had experienced dating violence and were categorized using standard content analytic techniques. Six categories of unique outcome stories were identified: facing-facts stories, standing-up-for-myself stories, cutting-it-off stories, cutting-'em-loose stories, getting-back-on-track stories, and changing-it-up stories. This typology of unique outcomes can inform clinicians who work with clients who have a history of adolescent dating violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Global Existence and Uniqueness of Weak and Regular Solutions of Shallow Shells with Thermal Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzala, G. Perla, E-mail: perla@lncc.br [National Laboratory of Scientific Computation, (LNCC/MCTI) (Brazil); Cezaro, F. Travessini De, E-mail: fabianacezaro@furg.br [Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG/IMEF), Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Physics (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    We study a dynamical thin shallow shell whose elastic deformations are described by a nonlinear system of Marguerre–Vlasov’s type under the presence of thermal effects. Our main result is the proof of a global existence and uniqueness of a weak solution in the case of clamped boundary conditions. Standard techniques for uniqueness do not work directly in this case. We overcame this difficulty using recent work due to Lasiecka (Appl Anal 4:1376–1422, 1998).

  12. Detecting beer intake by unique metabolite patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde; Jensen, Morten Georg; Meier, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of health related effects of beer intake is hampered by the lack of accurate tools for assessing intakes (biomarkers). Therefore, we identified plasma and urine metabolites associated with recent beer intake by untargeted metabolomics and established a characteristic metabolite pattern...... representing raw materials and beer production as a qualitative biomarker of beer intake. In a randomized, crossover, single-blinded meal study (MSt1) 18 participants were given one at a time four different test beverages: strong, regular and non-alcoholic beers and a soft drink. Four participants were...... assigned to have two additional beers (MSt2). In addition to plasma and urine samples, test beverages, wort and hops extract were analyzed by UPLC-QTOF. A unique metabolite pattern reflecting beer metabolome, including metabolites derived from beer raw material (i.e. N-methyl tyramine sulfate and the sum...

  13. Is physical space unique or optional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstein, H.; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 13 - Marseille

    1975-02-01

    There are two concepts of the physical space-time. One, S(F), is that of a fixed arena in which events take place. The other S(D), is that of a space-time shaped by events. The second depends on the state (initial conditions) or on the external field, the first does not. The main assertions of the present paper are: 1) the fixed space-time S(F) is neither incompatibles with nor made superfluous, by Einstein's theory. S(F) is experimentally explorable, unique, and probably identical with Minkowski space M. 2) The dynamical space S(D) is largely optional. It can be chosen to be M, but the natural choice is Einstein's pseudo-Riemanian manifold [fr

  14. Unique computer system for safeguards use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Pratt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessors have been used to implement specialized scientific data processing systems since 1976. One such system, the LeCroy 3500, is presently being used by the Detection and Verification Group of the Energy Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory for a large variety of tasks involving measurement of various nuclear parameters associated with radioactive materials. The system is unique because it can do not only sophisticated pulse height and multi-scale analyses but also other analyses that are limited only by the availability fo CAMAC modules that would acquire data from exotic experiments. The system is also field portable which extends the range of experiments that it can control. Four applications of this system are described in this paper: (1) plutonium storage vault monitoring, (2) coded aperture image reconstruction, (3) spatial distribution of gamma radiation, and (4) nuclear waste management. 7 figures

  15. 2XIIB vacuum vessel: a unique design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Calderon, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror confinement experiment makes unique demands on its vacuum system. The confinement coil set encloses a cavity whose surface is comprised of both simple and compound curves. Within this cavity and at the core of the machine is the operating vacuum which is on the order of 10 -9 Torr. The vacuum container fits inside the cavity, presenting an inside surface suitable for titanium getter pumping and a means of removing the heat load imposed by incandescent sublimator wires. In addition, the cavity is constructed of nonmagnetic and nonconducting materials (nonmetals) to avoid distortion of the pulsed confinement field. It is also isolated from mechanical shocks induced in the machine's main structure when the coils are pulsed. This paper describes the design, construction, and operation of the 2XIIB high-vacuum vessel that has been performing successfully since early 1974

  16. The unique ethics of sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rob

    2004-04-01

    The ethical code by which physicians traditionally conduct themselves is based on the relationship between the physician and the patient: both work toward the goal of improving or maintaining health. Constraints on this relationship may be behaviors of patient choice (tobacco use, excessive alcohol use, sedentary behavior, and so on). The athlete-physician relationship is ethically different. Influences such as the physician's employer, the athlete's desire to play with pain and injury, and the economic consequences of playing or not complicate medical decisions. This perspective suggests something different and even unique about the ethics of the sports medicine practitioner. This article explores the differences fostering the ethical tight ropes that sports physicians walk in their sports medicine practices.

  17. Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.

  18. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  19. Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Farhan; Berggren, Diana; Holmlund, Thorbjörn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva; Stål, Per

    2016-03-01

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for β-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, β-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  20. Might "Unique" Factors Be "Common"? On the Possibility of Indeterminate Common-Unique Covariances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Dave

    2006-01-01

    The present paper shows that the usual factor analytic structured data dispersion matrix lambda psi lambda' + delta can readily arise from a set of scores y = lambda eta + epsilon, shere the "common" (eta) and "unique" (epsilon) factors have nonzero covariance: gamma = Cov epsilon,eta) is not equal to 0. Implications of this finding are discussed…

  1. Unique features in the ARIES glovebox line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, H.E.; Brown, W.G.; Flamm, B.; James, C.A.; Laskie, R.; Nelson, T.O.; Wedman, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    A series of unique features have been incorporated into the Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, TA-55 Plutonium Facility. The features enhance the material handling in the process of the dismantlement of nuclear weapon primaries in the glovebox line. Incorporated into these features are the various plutonium process module's different ventilation zone requirements that the material handling systems must meet. These features include a conveyor system that consists of a remotely controlled cart that transverses the length of the conveyor glovebox, can be operated from a remote location and can deliver process components to the entrance of any selected module glovebox. Within the modules there exists linear motion material handling systems with lifting hoist, which are controlled via an Allen Bradley control panel or local control panels. To remove the packaged products from the hot process line, the package is processed through an air lock/electrolytic decontamination process that removes the radioactive contamination from the outside of the package container and allows the package to be removed from the process line

  2. Hausdorff dimension of unique beta expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Derong; Li, Wenxia

    2015-01-01

    Given an integer N ⩾ 2 and a real number β > 1, let Γ β, N be the set of all x=∑ i=1 ∞ d i /β i with d i  ∈ {0, 1, ···, N − 1} for all i ⩾ 1. The infinite sequence (d i ) is called a β-expansion of x. Let U β,N be the set of all x's in Γ β,N which have unique β-expansions. We give explicit formula of the Hausdorff dimension of U β,N for β in any admissible interval [β L , β U ], where β L is a purely Parry number while β U is a transcendental number whose quasi-greedy expansion of 1 is related to the classical Thue–Morse sequence. This allows us to calculate the Hausdorff dimension of U β,N for almost every β > 1. In particular, this improves the main results of Gábor Kallós (1999, 2001). Moreover, we find that the dimension function f(β) = dim H U β,N fluctuates frequently for β ∈ (1, N). (paper)

  3. Unique type of isolated cardiac valvular amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reehana Salma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid deposition in heart is a common occurrence in systemic amyloidosis. But localised valvular amyloid deposits are very uncommon. It was only in 1922 that the cases of valvular amyloidosis were reported. Then in 1980, Goffin et al reported another type of valvular amyloidosis, which he called the dystrophic valvular amyloidosis. We report a case of aortic valve amyloidosis which is different from the yet described valvular amyloidosis. Case presentation A 72 years old gentleman underwent urgent aortic valve replacement. Intraoperatively, a lesion was found attached to the inferior surface of his bicuspid aortic valve. Histopathology examination of the valve revealed that the lesion contained amyloid deposits, identified as AL amyloidosis. The serum amyloid A protein (SAP scan was normal and showed no evidence of systemic amyloidosis. The ECG and echocardiogram were not consistent with cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion Two major types of cardiac amyloidosis have been described in literature: primary-myelomatous type (occurs with systemic amyolidosis, and senile type(s. Recently, a localised cardiac dystrophic valvular amyloidosis has been described. In all previously reported cases, there was a strong association of localised valvular amyloidosis with calcific deposits. Ours is a unique case which differs from the previously reported cases of localised valvular amyloidosis. In this case, the lesion was not associated with any scar tissue. Also there was no calcific deposit found. This may well be a yet unknown type of isolated valvular amyloidosis.

  4. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise; Vinding, Mads S; Rydtoft, Louise M; Mortensen, Martin B; Karring, Henrik; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Wang, Tobias; Thøgersen, Ida B; Enghild, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  5. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanggaard, Kristian W; Danielsen, Carl Chr; Wogensen, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed...... that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko) and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM) rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail...

  6. Unique Results and Lessons Learned From the TSS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H.

    2016-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Space Shuttle missions, TSS-1 in 1993 and TSS-1R in 1996, were the height of space tether technology development in the U.S. Altogether, the investment made by NASA and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) over the thirteen-year period of the TSS Program totaled approximately $400M-exclusive of the two Space Shuttle flights provided by NASA. Since those two pioneering missions, there have been several smaller tether flight experiments, but interest in this promising technology has waned within NASA as well as the DOD agencies. This is curious in view of the unique capabilities of space tether systems and the fact that they have been flight validated in earth orbit and shown to perform better than the preflight dynamic or electrodynamic theoretical predictions. While it is true that the TSS-1 and TSS-1R missions experienced technical difficulties, the causes of these early developmental problems are now known to have been engineering design flaws, material selection, and procedural issues that (1) are unrelated to the basic viability of space tether technology, and (2) can be readily corrected. The purpose of this paper is to review the dynamic and electrodynamic fundamentals of space tethers and the unique capabilities they afford (that are enabling to certain types of space missions); to elucidate the nature, cause, and solution of the early developmental problems; and to provide an update on progress made in development of the technology.

  7. External ear: An analysis of its uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Purkait

    2016-06-01

    Hence, the individuality of every ear has been confirmed which may find use in personal identification studies. The study is a step towards providing scientific support for admitting ear evidence in the Court of Law.

  8. Peatlands as a unique climatic hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowinska, S.; Marcisz, K.; Slowinski, M. M.; Blazejczyk, K.; Lamentowicz, M.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands are unique environments, often acting as microrefugia of various taxa. High groundwater table, organic soils, specific vegetation and topography are important determinants of their local climatic conditions. However, relations between those determinants are not stable. For example, seasonal changes in weather patterns, hydrological dynamics, and local vegetation may alter microclimate. Additionally, long-term changes are important factor, as for example overgrowing due to significant change of microclimate conditions, what in turn changes geochemical and biological processes in the peat layer. We have been investigating interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of a small Sphagnum mire (ca. 6.0 ha) for over ten years now. The mire is located in Poland in transitional temperate climate and is the only place in polish lowlands where glacial relict Betula nana occurs. Identification of local climate of the mire, its microclimatic differentiation and its influence on surroundings were objectives of the study. We recorded water level fluctuations, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature and humidity, and peat temperature at five monitoring plots at the mire and observed significant differences between them. We also investigated Sphagnum mosses growth and testate amoeba diversity and community structure to understand biological response of those differences. We observed that local climate of the mire was significantly different from open area reference place, it was much colder especially during nights. The average minimal temperature at the height 30 cm for growing seasons 2010-2012 was 3.7oC lower there and ground frosts occurred even in the summer. The climate of the mire affected the forest directly adjacent to it, and depending on weather conditions the strength and the distance of this interaction was different. Our results show that micro-environmental changes affects on biological processes and should be taken into consideration

  9. Evolution of a Unique Systems Engineering Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Caliva; James A. Murphy; Kyle B. Oswald

    2011-06-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is a science-based, applied engineering laboratory dedicated to supporting U.S. Department of Energy missions in nuclear and energy research, science, and national security. The INL’s Systems Engineering organization supports all of the various programs under this wide array of missions. As with any multifaceted organization, strategic planning is essential to establishing a consistent culture and a value discipline throughout all levels of the enterprise. While an organization can pursue operational excellence, product leadership or customer intimacy, it is extremely difficult to excel or achieve best-in-class at all three. In fact, trying to do so has resulted in the demise of a number of organizations given the very intricate balancing act that is necessary. The INL’s Systems Engineering Department has chosen to focus on customer intimacy where the customer’s needs are first and foremost and a more total solution is the goal. Frequently a total solution requires the employment of specialized tools to manage system complexity. However, it is only after understanding customer needs that tool selection and use would be pursued. This results in using both commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) tools and, in some cases, requires internal development of specialized tools. This paper describes how a unique systems engineering capability, through the development of customized tools, evolved as a result of this customer-focused culture. It also addresses the need for a common information model or analysis framework and presents an overview of the tools developed to manage and display relationships between entities, support trade studies through the application of utility theory, and facilitate the development of a technology roadmap to manage system risk and uncertainty.

  10. Topical Review: Unique Contributions of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Pediatric Psychology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Chad D; Duraccio, Kara M; Carbine, Kaylie M; Kirwan, C Brock

    2016-03-01

    This review aims to provide a brief introduction of the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods in pediatric psychology research, describe several exemplar studies that highlight the unique benefits of MRI techniques for pediatric psychology research, and detail methods for addressing several challenges inherent to pediatric MRI research. Literature review. Numerous useful applications of MRI research in pediatric psychology have been illustrated in published research. MRI methods yield information that cannot be obtained using neuropsychological or behavioral measures. Using MRI in pediatric psychology research may facilitate examination of neural structures and processes that underlie health behaviors. Challenges inherent to conducting MRI research with pediatric research participants (e.g., head movement) may be addressed using evidence-based strategies. We encourage pediatric psychology researchers to consider adopting MRI techniques to answer research questions relevant to pediatric health and illness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. SESAR: Addressing the need for unique sample identification in the Solid Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Goldstein, S. L.; Lenhardt, C.; Vinayagamoorthy, S.

    2004-12-01

    The study of solid earth samples is key to our knowledge of Earth's dynamical systems and evolution. The data generated provide the basis for models and hypotheses in all disciplines of the Geosciences from tectonics to magmatic processes to mantle dynamics to paleoclimate research. Sample-based data are diverse ranging from major and trace element abundances, radiogenic and stable isotope ratios of rocks, minerals, fluid or melt inclusions, to age determinations and descriptions of lithology, texture, mineral or fossil content, stratigraphic context, physical properties. The usefulness of these data is critically dependent on their integration as a coherent data set for each sample. If different data sets for the same sample cannot be combined because the sample cannot be unambiguously recognized, valuable information is lost. The ambiguous naming of samples has been a major problem in the geosciences. Different samples are often given identical names, and there is a tendency for different people analyzing the same sample to rename it in their publications according to local conventions. This situation has generated significant confusion, with samples often losing their "history", making it difficult or impossible to link available data. This has become most evident through the compilation of geochemical data in relational databases such as PetDB, NAVDAT, and GEOROC. While the relational data structure allows linking of disparate data for samples published in different references, linkages cannot be established due to ambiguous sample names. SESAR is a response to this problem of ambiguous naming of samples. SESAR will create a common clearinghouse that provides a centralized registry of sample identifiers, to avoid ambiguity, to systematize sample designation, and ensure that all information associated with a sample would in fact be unique. The project will build a web-based digital registry for solid earth samples that will provide for the first time a way to

  12. A unique funding opportunity for public health in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the "Triple Aim" goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation.

  13. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  14. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  15. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.H.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for selectively extracting and storing only krypton and xenon in the waste gases that are released from a pressurized water nuclear power reactor are described. The illustrative fluorocarbon absorption system has three separation stages: an initial gas-fluorocarbon absorber, a flash chamber and fractionator for segregating all of the absorbed gases from the loaded absorber stage fluorocarbon (save for the krypton and xenon), and a stripper that receives the partially loaded fluorocarbon liquid directly from the fractionator in order to separate only the krypton and xenon. A molecular sieve filter dries the input process gas, a cartridge type solvent filter is used to remove radiation degradation products from the loaded liquid that flows from the absorber, a cold trap gas drier is provided to remove residual solvent vapor from the separated krypton and xenon, and radiation detectors automatically activate valves to establish safe conditions in the event of an accident or plant failure. (U.S.)

  16. Unique structural features facilitate lizard tail autotomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian W Sanggaard

    Full Text Available Autotomy refers to the voluntary shedding of a body part; a renowned example is tail loss among lizards as a response to attempted predation. Although many aspects of lizard tail autotomy have been studied, the detailed morphology and mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tail shedding by the Tokay gecko (Gekko gecko and the associated extracellular matrix (ECM rupture were independent of proteolysis. Instead, lizard caudal autotomy relied on biological adhesion facilitated by surface microstructures. Results based on bio-imaging techniques demonstrated that the tail of Gekko gecko was pre-severed at distinct sites and that its structural integrity depended on the adhesion between these segments.

  17. Kerala: a unique model of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K P; Thankappan, K R; Ramankutty, V; Aravindan, K P

    1991-12-01

    This article capsules health in terms of morbidity, mortality, and maternal and child health; sex ratios, and population density in Kerala state in India from a more expanded report. Kerala state is known for its highly literate and female literate, and poor income population, but its well advanced state of demographic transition. There is a declining population growth rate, a high average marriage age, a low fertility rate, and a high degree of population mobility. One of the unique features of Kerala is the high female literacy, and the favorable position of women in decision making and a matrilineal inheritance mode. The rights of the poor and underprivileged have been upheld. The largest part of government revenue is spent on education followed by health. Traditional healing systems such the ayurveda are strong in Kerala, and Christian missionaries have contributed to a caring tradition. Morbidity is high and mortality is low because medical interventions have affected morality only. The reduction of poverty and environmentally related diseases has not been accomplished inspite of land reform, mass schooling, and general egalitarian policies. Mortality declines and a decline in birth rates have lead to a more adult and aged population, which increases the prevalence of chronic degenerative diseases. Historically, the death rate in Kerala was always lower (25/1000 in 1930 and 6.4 in 1986). The gains in mortality were made in reducing infant mortality (27/1000), which is 4 times less than India as a whole and comparable to Korea, Panama, Yugoslavia, Sri Lanka, and Colombia. Lower female mortality occurs in the 0-4 years. Life expectancy which was the same as India's in 1930 is currently 12 years higher than India's. Females have a higher expectation of life. The sex ratio in 1981 was 1032 compared to India's of 935. Kerala had almost replacement level in 1985. The crude birth rate is 21 versus 32 for India. In addition to the decline in death rates of those 5

  18. Unitary Evolution as a Uniqueness Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, J.; Mena Marugán, G. A.; Olmedo, J.; Velhinho, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the process of quantizing field theories is plagued with ambiguities. First, there is ambiguity in the choice of basic variables describing the system. Second, once a choice of field variables has been made, there is ambiguity concerning the selection of a quantum representation of the corresponding canonical commutation relations. The natural strategy to remove these ambiguities is to demand positivity of energy and to invoke symmetries, namely by requiring that classical symmetries become unitarily implemented in the quantum realm. The success of this strategy depends, however, on the existence of a sufficiently large group of symmetries, usually including time-translation invariance. These criteria are therefore generally insufficient in non-stationary situations, as is typical for free fields in curved spacetimes. Recently, the criterion of unitary implementation of the dynamics has been proposed in order to select a unique quantization in the context of manifestly non-stationary systems. Specifically, the unitarity criterion, together with the requirement of invariance under spatial symmetries, has been successfully employed to remove the ambiguities in the quantization of linearly polarized Gowdy models as well as in the quantization of a scalar field with time varying mass, propagating in a static background whose spatial topology is either of a d-sphere (with d = 1, 2, 3) or a three torus. Following Ref. 3, we will see here that the symmetry and unitarity criteria allows for a complete removal of the ambiguities in the quantization of scalar fields propagating in static spacetimes with compact spatial sections, obeying field equations with an explicitly time-dependent mass, of the form ddot φ - Δ φ + s(t)φ = 0 . These results apply in particular to free fields in spacetimes which, like e.g. in the closed FRW models, are conformal to a static spacetime, by means of an exclusively time-dependent conformal factor. In fact, in such

  19. Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

  20. Uniqueness of the joint measurement and the structure of the set of compatible quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerini, Leonardo; Terra Cunha, Marcelo

    2018-04-01

    We address the problem of characterising the compatible tuples of measurements that admit a unique joint measurement. We derive a uniqueness criterion based on the method of perturbations and apply it to show that extremal points of the set of compatible tuples admit a unique joint measurement, while all tuples that admit a unique joint measurement lie in the boundary of such a set. We also provide counter-examples showing that none of these properties are both necessary and sufficient, thus completely describing the relation between the joint measurement uniqueness and the structure of the compatible set. As a by-product of our investigations, we completely characterise the extremal and boundary points of the set of general tuples of measurements and of the subset of compatible tuples.

  1. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Unique phytochrome responses of the holoparasitic plant Orobanche minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Kazuteru; Okazawa, Atsushi; Wada, Yu; Mongkolchaiyaphruek, Anchaya; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Yoneyama, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yasutomo; Kobayashi, Akio

    2009-06-01

    Holoparasitic plants such as Orobanche spp. have lost their photosynthetic ability, so photoresponses to optimize photosynthesis are not necessary in these plants. Photoresponses are also involved in the regulation of plant development but the photoresponses of holoparasites have not been characterized in detail. In this study, the phytochrome (phy)-related photoresponse of Orobanche minor was investigated. Its photoreceptor, phytochrome A (OmphyA), was also characterized. Light effects on germination, shoot elongation, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and OmphyA expression and subcellular localization were analyzed. Red light (R):far-red light (FR) reversible inhibition of O. minor seed germination demonstrated that phy-mediated responses are retained in this holoparasite. Shoot elongation was inhibited by FR but not by R. This pattern is unique among known patterns of plant photoresponses. Additionally, molecular analysis showed that OmphyA is able to respond to the light signals. Interestingly, the unique pattern of photoresponses in O. minor seems to have been modified for adaptation to its parasitic life cycle. We hypothesize that this alteration has resulted from the loss or alteration of some phy-signaling components. Elucidation of altered components in phy signaling in this parasite will provide useful information not only about its physiological characteristics but also about general plant photoreception systems.

  3. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  4. ROSAT Discovers Unique, Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Brightest X-ray Cluster Acts as Strong Gravitational Lens Based on exciting new data obtained with the ROSAT X-ray satellite and a ground-based telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, a team of European astronomers [2] has just discovered a very distant cluster of galaxies with unique properties. It emits the strongest X-ray emission of any cluster ever observed by ROSAT and is accompanied by two extraordinarily luminous arcs that represent the gravitationally deflected images of even more distant objects. The combination of these unusual characteristics makes this cluster, now known as RXJ1347.5-1145, a most interesting object for further cosmological studies. DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS This strange cluster of galaxies was discovered during the All Sky Survey with the ROSAT X-ray satellite as a moderately intense X-ray source in the constellation of Virgo. It could not be identified with any already known object and additional ground-based observations were therefore soon after performed with the Max-Planck-Society/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile. These observations took place within a large--scale redshift survey of X-ray clusters of galaxies detected by the ROSAT All Sky Survey, a so-called ``ESO Key Programme'' led by astronomers from the Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik and the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera. The main aim of this programme is to identify cluster X-ray sources, to determine the distance to the X-ray emitting clusters and to investigate their overall properties. These observations permitted to measure the redshift of the RXJ1347.5-1145 cluster as z = 0.45, i.e. it moves away from us with a velocity (about 106,000 km/sec) equal to about one-third of the velocity of light. This is an effect of the general expansion of the universe and it allows to determine the distance as about 5,000 million light-years (assuming a Hubble constant of 75 km/sec/Mpc). In other words, we see these

  5. Novel criteria of uniqueness for signal reconstruction from phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, C.

    1991-01-01

    An approach for ascertaining whether a signal is uniquely determined by its Fourier transform phase is proposed. It is shown that uniqueness corresponds to the nonsingularity of a matrix which can be formed from the finite-length real sequence. The criterion of uniqueness for reconstructing a

  6. Father involvement: Identifying and predicting family members' shared and unique perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, W Justin; Day, Randal D; Harper, James M

    2014-08-01

    Father involvement research has typically not recognized that reports of involvement contain at least two components: 1 reflecting a view of father involvement that is broadly recognized in the family, and another reflecting each reporter's unique perceptions. Using a longitudinal sample of 302 families, this study provides a first examination of shared and unique views of father involvement (engagement and warmth) from the perspectives of fathers, children, and mothers. This study also identifies influences on these shared and unique perspectives. Father involvement reports were obtained when the child was 12 and 14 years old. Mother reports overlapped more with the shared view than father or child reports. This suggests the mother's view may be more in line with broadly recognized father involvement. Regarding antecedents, for fathers' unique view, a compensatory model partially explains results; that is, negative aspects of family life were positively associated with fathers' unique view. Children's unique view of engagement may partially reflect a sentiment override with father antisocial behaviors being predictive. Mothers' unique view of engagement was predicted by father and mother work hours and her unique view of warmth was predicted by depression and maternal gatekeeping. Taken, together finding suggests a far more nuanced view of father involvement should be considered.

  7. New techniques for imaging and analyzing lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggli, V.L.; Ingram, P.; Linton, R.W.; Gutknecht, W.F.; Mastin, P.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The recent technological revolution in the field of imaging techniques has provided pathologists and toxicologists with an expanding repertoire of analytical techniques for studying the interaction between the lung and the various exogenous materials to which it is exposed. Analytical problems requiring elemental sensitivity or specificity beyond the range of that offered by conventional scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis are particularly appropriate for the application of these newer techniques. Electron energy loss spectrometry, Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and laser microprobe mass analysis each offer unique advantages in this regard, but also possess their own limitations and disadvantages. Diffraction techniques provide crystalline structural information available through no other means. Bulk chemical techniques provide useful cross-checks on the data obtained by microanalytical approaches. It is the purpose of this review to summarize the methodology of these techniques, acknowledge situations in which they have been used in addressing problems in pulmonary toxicology, and comment on the relative advantages and disadvantages of each approach. It is necessary for an investigator to weigh6 each of these factors when deciding which technique is best suited for any given analytical problem; often it is useful to employ a combination of two or more of the techniques discussed. It is anticipated that there will be increasing utilization of these technologies for problems in pulmonary toxicology in the decades to come. 92 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  8. Creativity and technical innovation: spatial ability's unique role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Harrison J; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P; Steiger, James H

    2013-09-01

    In the late 1970s, 563 intellectually talented 13-year-olds (identified by the SAT as in the top 0.5% of ability) were assessed on spatial ability. More than 30 years later, the present study evaluated whether spatial ability provided incremental validity (beyond the SAT's mathematical and verbal reasoning subtests) for differentially predicting which of these individuals had patents and three classes of refereed publications. A two-step discriminant-function analysis revealed that the SAT subtests jointly accounted for 10.8% of the variance among these outcomes (p development of creativity, beyond the roles played by the abilities traditionally measured in educational selection, counseling, and industrial-organizational psychology. Spatial ability plays a key and unique role in structuring many important psychological phenomena and should be examined more broadly across the applied and basic psychological sciences.

  9. MYRRHA. An innovative and unique research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Rafaeol; Neerdael, Bernard; Schyns, Marc; Dyck, Steven Van; Michiels, Sidney; Ait Abderrahim, Hamid, E-mail: myrrha@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)

    2012-03-15

    implementation of such a project will in addition trigger the development of various innovative technologies and techniques that are of interest for various nuclear fission and fusion applications. Since March 2010, MYRRHA received the financial support from the Belgian government for 40% share of the 960 million Euros investment. A 60 million Euros funding has been received for the first stage (2010-2014) additional to the SCK{center_dot}CEN regular investment in the MYRRHA project. In this paper the present status of the project and its capabilities as an irradiation facility as well as the ISOL(a)MYRRHA (Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility) characteristics will be presented. (author)

  10. Medical service provider networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, Michel; Naegelen, Florence

    2018-05-17

    In many countries, health insurers or health plans choose to contract either with any willing providers or with preferred providers. We compare these mechanisms when two medical services are imperfect substitutes in demand and are supplied by two different firms. In both cases, the reimbursement is higher when patients select the in-network provider(s). We show that these mechanisms yield lower prices, lower providers' and insurer's profits, and lower expense than in the uniform-reimbursement case. Whatever the degree of product differentiation, a not-for-profit insurer should prefer selective contracting and select a reimbursement such that the out-of-pocket expense is null. Although all providers join the network under any-willing-provider contracting in the absence of third-party payment, an asymmetric equilibrium may exist when this billing arrangement is implemented. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Mushroom immunomodulators: unique molecules with unlimited applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Enshasy, Hesham A; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2013-12-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been used as food and medicine in different cultures. More recently, many bioactive compounds have been isolated from different types of mushrooms. Among these, immunomodulators have gained much interest based on the increasing growth of the immunotherapy sector. Mushroom immunomodulators are classified under four categories based on their chemical nature as: lectins, terpenoids, proteins, and polysaccharides. These compounds are produced naturally in mushrooms cultivated in greenhouses. For effective industrial production, cultivation is carried out in submerged culture to increase the bioactive compound yield, decrease the production time, and reduce the cost of downstream processing. This review provides a comprehensive overview on mushroom immunomodulators in terms of chemistry, industrial production, and applications in medical and nonmedical sectors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhivaki, Dania; Lo-Man, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided. Advancement in our understanding of age-related remodelling of immune networks and the consequent tuning of immune responsiveness will open up new possibilities for immune intervention and vaccine strategies that are designed specifically for early life.

  13. Dismantling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule

  14. Dismantling techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiese, E.

    1998-03-13

    Most of the dismantling techniques used in a Decontamination and Dismantlement (D and D) project are taken from conventional demolition practices. Some modifications to the techniques are made to limit exposure to the workers or to lessen the spread of contamination to the work area. When working on a D and D project, it is best to keep the dismantling techniques and tools as simple as possible. The workers will be more efficient and safer using techniques that are familiar to them. Prior experience with the technique or use of mock-ups is the best way to keep workers safe and to keep the project on schedule.

  15. Pancreatic cancer vaccine: a unique potential therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappello P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paola Cappello, Moitza Principe, Francesco Novelli Department of Molecular Biotechnologies and Health Sciences, Center for Experimental Research and Medical Studies, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Abstract: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is a lethal disease and is one of the cancers that is most resistant to traditional therapies. Historically, neither chemotherapy nor radiotherapy has provided any significant increase in the survival of patients with PDA. Despite intensive efforts, any attempts to improve the survival in the past 15 years have failed. This holds true even after the introduction of molecularly targeted agents, chosen on the basis of their involvement in pathways that are considered to be important in PDA development and progression. Recently, however, FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin treatment has provided a limited survival advantage in patients with advanced PDA. Therefore, effective therapeutic strategies are urgently needed to improve the survival rate of patients with PDA. Results from the last 10 years of research in the field of PDA have helped to identify new immunological targets and develop new vaccines that are capable of stimulating an immune response. In addition, the information obtained about the role of the tumor microenvironment in suppressing the immune response and the possibility of targeting PDA microenvironment to limit immune suppression and enhance the response of effector T-cells has opened new avenues for treating this incurable disease. The time is ripe for developing new therapeutic approaches that are able to effectively counteract the progression and spreading of PDA. This review discusses the potential prospects in the care of patients with pancreatic cancer through vaccination and its combination therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, targeting of the tumor microenvironment, and inhibition of immunological

  16. Study of Wind Effects on Unique Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenkov, V.; Puzyrev, P.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with a numerical simulation of wind effects on the building of the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin in the village Bulzi of the Chelyabinsk region. We presented a calculation algorithm and obtained pressure fields, velocity fields and the fields of kinetic energy of a wind stream, as well as streamlines. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) evolved three decades ago at the interfaces of calculus mathematics and theoretical hydromechanics and has become a separate branch of science the subject of which is a numerical simulation of different fluid and gas flows as well as the solution of arising problems with the help of methods that involve computer systems. This scientific field which is of a great practical value is intensively developing. The increase in CFD-calculations is caused by the improvement of computer technologies, creation of multipurpose easy-to-use CFD-packagers that are available to a wide group of researchers and cope with various tasks. Such programs are not only competitive in comparison with physical experiments but sometimes they provide the only opportunity to answer the research questions. The following advantages of computer simulation can be pointed out: a) Reduction in time spent on design and development of a model in comparison with a real experiment (variation of boundary conditions). b) Numerical experiment allows for the simulation of conditions that are not reproducible with environmental tests (use of ideal gas as environment). c) Use of computational gas dynamics methods provides a researcher with a complete and ample information that is necessary to fully describe different processes of the experiment. d) Economic efficiency of computer calculations is more attractive than an experiment. e) Possibility to modify a computational model which ensures efficient timing (change of the sizes of wall layer cells in accordance with the chosen turbulence model).

  17. Digital audio watermarking fundamentals, techniques and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage on the most important aspects of audio watermarking, from classic techniques to the latest advances, from commonly investigated topics to emerging research subdomains, and from the research and development achievements to date, to current limitations, challenges, and future directions. It also addresses key topics such as reversible audio watermarking, audio watermarking with encryption, and imperceptibility control methods. The book sets itself apart from the existing literature in three main ways. Firstly, it not only reviews classical categories of audio watermarking techniques, but also provides detailed descriptions, analysis and experimental results of the latest work in each category. Secondly, it highlights the emerging research topic of reversible audio watermarking, including recent research trends, unique features, and the potentials of this subdomain. Lastly, the joint consideration of audio watermarking and encryption is also reviewed. With the help of this...

  18. Duality based direct resolution of unique profiles using zero concentration region information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, Elnaz; Rajkó, Róbert; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2018-07-01

    Self Modeling Curve Resolution (SMCR) is a class of techniques concerned with estimating pure profiles underlying a set of measurements on chemical systems. In general, the estimated profiles are ambiguous (non-unique) except if some special conditions fulfilled. Implementing the adequate information can reduce the so-called rotational ambiguity effectively, and in the most desirable cases lead to the unique solution. Therefore, studies on circumstances resulting in unique solution are of particular importance. The conditions of unique solution can particularly be studied based on duality principle. In bilinear chemical (e.g., spectroscopic) data matrix, there is a natural duality between its row and column vector spaces using minimal constraints (non-negativity of concentrations and absorbances). In this article, the conditions of the unique solution according to duality concept and using zero concentration region information is intended to show. A simulated dataset of three components and an experimental system with synthetic mixtures containing three amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan are analyzed. It is shown that in the presence of sufficient information, the reliable unique solution is obtained that is valuable in analytical qualification and for quantitative verification analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Unique properties of highly radioresistant bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovskaia, V A; Rokitko, P V; Malashenko, Iu R

    2000-01-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident and the negative ecological after-effects for biota in this zone the interest has arisen to radioresistant bacteria, as to the most dynamic model of the given ecosystem, and to mechanisms which provide resistance of bacteria to ionizing radiation. The analysis of published data has shown that the radioresistant bacteria are not interrelated taxonomically and phylogenetically. The extreme radioresistant bacteria are represented by the Deinococcus species, which form a group phylogenetically close to the line Thermus-Meiothermus. Other radioresistant bacteria are the representatives of the genera Rubrobacter, Methylobacterium, Kocuria, Bacillus and some archebacteria. Data on natural habitats, of radioresistant bacteria are not numerous. In a number of cases it is difficult to distinguish their natural habitats, as they were isolated from the samples which were previously exposed to X-ray or gamma-irradiation, or from the ecosystems with the naturally raised radioactivity. To understand the strategy of survival of radioresistant bacteria, we briefly reviewed the mechanism of action of various species of radiation on cells and macromolecules; physiological signs of the cell damage caused by radiation; mechanisms eliminating (repairing) these damages. More details on mechanisms of the DNA repair in D. radiodurans are described. The extreme resistance of D. radiodurans to the DNA damaging factors is defined by 1) repair mechanisms which fundamentally differ from those in other procaryotes; 2) ability to increase the efficiency of a standard set of the DNA repairing proteins. Literary and own data on the effect of radiation on survival of various groups of bacteria in natural ecosystems are summarized. The ecological consequences of the ChNPP accident for soil bacteria in this region were estimated. The reduction of the number of soil bacteria and recession of microbial diversity under the effect of

  20. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention discloses a technique for disassembling a nuclear reactor fuel element without destroying the individual fuel pins and other structural components from which the element is assembled. A traveling bridge and trolley that span a water-filled spent fuel storage pool support a strongback. The strongback is under water and provides a working surface on which the spent fuel element is placed for inspection and for the manipulation that is associated with disassembly and assembly. To remove, in a non-destructive manner, the grids that hold the fuel pins in the proper relative positions within the element, bars are inserted through apertures in the grids with the aid of special tools. These bars are rotated to flex the adjacent grid walls and, in this way relax the physical engagement between protruding portions of the grid walls and the associated fuel pins. With the grid structure so flexed to relax the physical grip on the individual fuel pins, these pins can be withdrawn for inspection or replacement as necessary without imposing a need to destroy fuel element components. (U.S.)

  1. Providing free autopoweroff plugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    2012-01-01

    Experimental evidence of the effect of providing households with cheap energy saving technology is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs were provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...

  2. Translation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because a...

  3. Interdependencies of Arctic land surface processes: A uniquely sensitive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, L. C.

    2007-12-01

    The circumpolar arctic drainage basin is composed of several distinct ecoregions including steppe grassland and cropland, boreal forest and tundra. Land surface hydrology throughout this diverse region shares several unique features such as dramatic seasonal runoff differences controlled by snowmelt and ice break-up; the storage of significant portions of annual precipitation as snow and in lakes and wetlands; and the effects of ephemeral and permanently frozen soils. These arctic land processes are delicately balanced with the climate and are therefore important indicators of change. The litany of recently-detected changes in the Arctic includes changes in snow precipitation, trends and seasonal shifts in river discharge, increases and decreases in the extent of surface water, and warming soil temperatures. Although not unique to the arctic, increasing anthropogenic pressures represent an additional element of change in the form of resource extraction, fire threat and reservoir construction. The interdependence of the physical, biological and social systems mean that changes in primary indicators have large implications for land cover, animal populations and the regional carbon balance, all of which have the potential to feed back and induce further change. In fact, the complex relationships between the hydrological processes that make the Artic unique also render observed historical change difficult to interpret and predict, leading to conflicting explanations. For example, a decrease in snow accumulation may provide less insulation to the underlying soil resulting in greater frost development and increased spring runoff. Similarly, melting permafrost and ground ice may lead to ground subsidence and increased surface saturation and methane production, while more complete thaw may enhance drainage and result in drier soil conditions. The threshold nature of phase change around the freezing point makes the system especially sensitive to change. In addition, spatial

  4. Unique Turbinal Morphology in Horseshoe Bats (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Abigail A; Simmons, Nancy B

    2017-02-01

    The mammalian nasal fossa contains a set of delicate and often structurally complex bones called turbinals. Turbinals and associated mucosae function in regulating respiratory heat and water loss, increasing surface area for olfactory tissue, and directing airflow within the nasal fossa. We used high-resolution micro-CT scanning to investigate a unique maxilloturbinal morphology in 37 species from the bat family Rhinolophidae, which we compared with those of families Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae, and Pteropodidae. Rhinolophids exhibit numerous structural modifications along the nasopharyngeal tract associated with emission of high duty cycle echolocation calls via the nostrils. In rhinolophids, we found that the maxilloturbinals and a portion of ethmoturbinal I form a pair of strand-like bony structures on each side of the nasal chamber. These structures project anteriorly from the transverse lamina and complete a hairpin turn to project posteriorly down the nasopharyngeal duct, and vary in length among species. The strand-like maxilloturbinals in Rhinolophidae were not observed in our outgroups and represent a synapomorphy for this family, and are unique in form among mammals. Within Rhinolophidae, maxilloturbinal size and cross-sectional shape were correlated with phylogeny. We hypothesize that strand-shaped maxilloturbinals may function to reduce respiratory heat and water loss without greatly impacting echolocation call transmission since they provide increased mucosal surface area for heat and moisture exchange but occupy minimal space. Alternatively, they may play a role in transmission of echolocation calls since they are located directly along the path sound travels between the larynx and nostrils during call emission. Anat Rec, 300:309-325, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Skipper genome sheds light on unique phenotypic traits and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Qian; Borek, Dominika; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Grishin, Nick V

    2015-08-27

    Butterflies and moths are emerging as model organisms in genetics and evolutionary studies. The family Hesperiidae (skippers) was traditionally viewed as a sister to other butterflies based on its moth-like morphology and darting flight habits with fast wing beats. However, DNA studies suggest that the family Papilionidae (swallowtails) may be the sister to other butterflies including skippers. The moth-like features and the controversial position of skippers in Lepidoptera phylogeny make them valuable targets for comparative genomics. We obtained the 310 Mb draft genome of the Clouded Skipper (Lerema accius) from a wild-caught specimen using a cost-effective strategy that overcomes the high (1.6 %) heterozygosity problem. Comparative analysis of Lerema accius and the highly heterozygous genome of Papilio glaucus revealed differences in patterns of SNP distribution, but similarities in functions of genes that are enriched in non-synonymous SNPs. Comparison of Lepidoptera genomes revealed possible molecular bases for unique traits of skippers: a duplication of electron transport chain components could result in efficient energy supply for their rapid flight; a diversified family of predicted cellulases might allow them to feed on cellulose-enriched grasses; an expansion of pheromone-binding proteins and enzymes for pheromone synthesis implies a more efficient mate-recognition system, which compensates for the lack of clear visual cues due to the similarities in wing colors and patterns of many species of skippers. Phylogenetic analysis of several Lepidoptera genomes suggested that the position of Hesperiidae remains uncertain as the tree topology varied depending on the evolutionary model. Completion of the first genome from the family Hesperiidae allowed comparative analyses with other Lepidoptera that revealed potential genetic bases for the unique phenotypic traits of skippers. This work lays the foundation for future experimental studies of skippers and

  6. Credential Service Provider (CSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides a VA operated Level 1 and Level 2 credential for individuals who require access to VA applications, yet cannot obtain a credential from another VA accepted...

  7. MAX Provider Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MAX Provider Characteristics (PC) File Implementation Report describes the design, implementation, and results of the MAXPC prototype, which was based on three...

  8. Achievements obtained in agricultural research by using nuclear techniques in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M. B.

    2002-01-01

    Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences (ANRCAAS) is one of the four unique research centers belonging to Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. ANRCAAS is unique because it is the only center in Turkey which uses nuclear techniques as a tool to solve problems for agriculture or animal sciences which cannot be solved using conventional techniques. Training and Research in the areas of agriculture, animal science, food preservation and sterilization via nuclear techniques are among the objectives of the Center. In this paper, the research activities carried out and the achievements so far obtained in the agricultural specialties of Plant Breeding, Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition, Plant Protection and Pesticide Residues -all by using nuclear techniques- are provided

  9. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  10. Coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiangdong.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping also coexist in the same way as minimal sets do. To do this we give some notations in section 2. In section 3 we define D-function of a uniquely ergodic system and show its basic properties. We prove the coexistence of uniquely ergodic subsystems of interval mapping in section 4. Lastly we give the examples of uniquely ergodic systems with given D-functions in section 5. 27 refs

  11. Prehospital Providers' Perceptions on Providing Patient and Family Centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Emily M; Sampayo, Esther M; Shah, Manish I; Doughty, Cara B

    2017-01-01

    emotional support and effective communication as important components to the delivery of PFCC. Other providers revealed several perceived barriers to providing PFCC, though potential solutions to overcome many of these barriers were also identified. These findings can be utilized to integrate effective communication and emotional support techniques into EMS protocols and provider training to overcome perceived barriers to PFCC in the prehospital setting.

  12. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeffries, Thomas C; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B

    2015-01-01

    microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a 'citizen oceanography' approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic...

  13. Short Term Culture of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Commercial Osteoconductive Carriers Provides Unique Insights into Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Murphy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available For spinal fusions and the treatment of non-union fractures, biological substrates, scaffolds, or carriers often are applied as a graft to support regeneration of bone. The selection of an appropriate material critically influences cellular function and, ultimately, patient outcomes. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are regarded as a critical component of bone healing. However, the interactions of BMSCs and commercial bone matrices are poorly reported. BMSCs were cultured with several commercially available bone substrates (allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM, collagen, and various forms of calcium phosphates for 48 h to understand their response to graft materials during surgical preparation and the first days following implantation (cell retention, gene expression, pH. At 30 and 60 min, bone chips and inorganic substrates supported significantly more cell retention than other materials, while collagen-containing materials became soluble and lost their structure. At 48 h, cells bound to β-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite (βTCP-HA and porous hydroxyapatite (HA granules exhibited osteogenic gene expression statistically similar to bone chips. Through 24 h, the DBM strip and βTCP-collagen became mildly acidic (pH 7.1–7.3, while the DBM poloxamer-putties demonstrated acidity (pH 10. The dissolution of DBM and collagen led to a loss of cells, while excessive pH changes potentially diminish cell viability and metabolism. Extracts from DBM-poloxamers induced osteogenic gene expression at 48 h. This study highlights the role that biochemical and structural properties of biomaterials play in cellular function, potentially enhancing or diminishing the efficacy of the overall therapy.

  14. RFCM Techniques Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to develop radio-frequency countermeasure (RFCM) techniques in a controlled environment from 2.0 to 40.0 GHz. The configuration of...

  15. Techniques de combustion Combustin Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perthuis E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'efficacité d'un processus de chauffage par flamme est étroitement liée à la maîtrise des techniques de combustion. Le brûleur, organe essentiel de l'équipement de chauffe, doit d'une part assurer une combustion complète pour utiliser au mieux l'énergie potentielle du combustible et, d'autre part, provoquer dans le foyer les conditions aérodynamiques les plus propices oux transferts de chaleur. En s'appuyant sur les études expérimentales effectuées à la Fondation de Recherches Internationales sur les Flammes (FRIF, au Groupe d'Étude des Flammes de Gaz Naturel (GEFGN et à l'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP et sur des réalisations industrielles, on présente les propriétés essentielles des flammes de diffusion aux combustibles liquides et gazeux obtenues avec ou sans mise en rotation des fluides, et leurs répercussions sur les transferts thermiques. La recherche des températures de combustion élevées conduit à envisager la marche à excès d'air réduit, le réchauffage de l'air ou son enrichissement à l'oxygène. Par quelques exemples, on évoque l'influence de ces paramètres d'exploitation sur l'économie possible en combustible. The efficiency of a flame heating process is closely linked ta the mastery of, combustion techniques. The burner, an essential element in any heating equipment, must provide complete combustion sa as to make optimum use of the potential energy in the fuel while, at the same time, creating the most suitable conditions for heat transfers in the combustion chamber. On the basis of experimental research performed by FRIF, GEFGN and IFP and of industrial achievements, this article describesthe essential properties of diffusion flames fed by liquid and gaseous fuels and produced with or without fluid swirling, and the effects of such flames on heat transfers. The search for high combustion temperatures means that consideration must be given to operating with reduced excess air, heating the air or

  16. Provider software buyer's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    To help long term care providers find new ways to improve quality of care and efficiency, Provider magazine presents the fourth annual listing of software firms marketing computer programs for all areas of nursing facility operations. On the following five pages, more than 80 software firms display their wares, with programs such as minimum data set and care planning, dietary, accounting and financials, case mix, and medication administration records. The guide also charts compatible hardware, integration ability, telephone numbers, company contacts, and easy-to-use reader service numbers.

  17. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  18. What HERA may provide?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hannes; De Roeck, Albert; Bartles, Jochen

    2008-09-01

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  19. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  20. Exact criteria for uniqueness and multiplicity of an nth order chemical reaction via catastrophe theory approach. [Determines boundaries between unique and multiple steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H C; Calo, J M

    1979-01-01

    A simple, generalized technique for the exact determination of the boundaries between regions of unique and of multiple solutions to certain nonlinear equations was developed by applying catastrophe theory to the mapping of implicit and explicit functions. Its application to an nth order reaction in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) yields exact, explicit expressions for the boundaries between regions of single and multiple steady states, expressed in terms of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient and activation energy. An exact implicit expression for the boundaries between regions of uniqueness and multiplicity was also derived for an nth order reaction in a catalyst particle with an intraparticle concentration gradient and uniform temperature and is fully demonstrated for the first-order reaction. In addition, explicit criteria were developed by assuming the limits on d ln g/d ln q, where g is the effectiveness factor and q the Thiele modulus, proposed by van den Bosch and Luss.

  1. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  2. DOE transporation programs - computerized techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    One of the major thrusts of the transportation programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been the development of a number of computerized transportation programs and data bases. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting these efforts through the Transportation Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories and the Tranportation Operations and Traffic Management (TOTM) organization at DOE Headquarters. Initially this project was centered upon research activities. However, since these tools provide traffic managers and key personnel involved in preshipment planning with a unique resource for ensuring that the movement of radioactive materials can be properly accomplished, additional interest and support is coming from the operational side of DOE. The major accomplishments include the development of two routing models (one for rail shipments and the other for highway shipments), an emergency response assistance program, and two data bases containing pertinent legislative and regulatory information. This paper discusses the mose recent advances in, and additions to, these computerized techniques and provides examples of how they are used.

  3. Unique strategies for technical information management at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, Vijay

    1994-01-01

    In addition to the current NASA manned programs, the maturation of Space Station and the introduction of the Space Exploration programs are anticipated to add substantially to the number and variety of data and documentation at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). This growth in the next decade has been estimated at five to ten fold compared to the current numbers. There will be an increased requirement for the tracking and currency of space program data and documents with National pressures to realize economic benefits from the research and technological developments of space programs. From a global perspective the demand for NASA's technical data and documentation is anticipated to increase at local, national, and international levels. The primary users will be government, industry, and academia. In our present national strategy, NASA's research and technology will assume a great role in the revitalization of the economy and gaining international competitiveness. Thus, greater demand will be placed on NASA's data and documentation resources. In this paper the strategies and procedures developed by DDMS, Inc., to accommodate the present and future information utilization needs are presented. The DDMS, Inc., strategies and procedures rely on understanding user requirements, library management issues, and technological applications for acquiring, searching, storing, and retrieving specific information accurately and quickly. The proposed approach responds to changing customer requirements and product deliveries. The unique features of the proposed strategy include: (1) To establish customer driven data and documentation management through an innovative and unique methods to identify needs and requirements. (2) To implement a structured process which responds to user needs, aimed at minimizing costs and maximizing services, resulting in increased productivity. (3) To provide a process of standardization of services and procedures. This standardization is the central

  4. The uniqueness and complexity of kampung city Bustaman Semarang Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarwanto, Budi; Hardiman, Gagoek; Suprapti, Atiek; Sarjono, Agung B.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the uniqueness and complexity of one village town Bustaman Semarang Indonesia. This research is in the domain of qualitative research paradigm with ethnography research strategy. The critical ethnography technique is chosen with the consideration of the purpose of this research, that is besides describing also the analysing urban spatial condition over its complexity. Bustaman town village has artifacts outdated and local economic activities namely culinary processed goat meat. Kampung Bustaman shows the common character as a city hometown, which is chaotic and shabby. Some artifacts and historical value of Bustaman village as well as community culture become potential to be developed and conserved. But for that the quality of Bustaman village hometown should be improved. Bustaman's urban halls are under distress by changes in urban modernization, including the pattern of life of Bustaman villagers. However, the existing phenomenon that the potential of local and cultural communities are still able to survive and exist, within the limitations of space and resources available. The process of culinary production of goat meat, the limitation of the kampong space, the social awareness of the villagers, the role of community leaders, and the necessities of daily life are the drivers of the complexity of Bustaman village space. The village road corridor and the house terrace become the victim room for all the activities of the town. Clutter seems clear can be found in every corner of Bustaman village space. Kampung Bustaman can be categorized as a spontaneous and compact informal village, but still survive on the urban spatial locality.

  5. Unique Protein Signature of Circulating Microparticles in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer; Iversen, Line V

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases.......To characterize the unique qualities of proteins associated with circulating subcellular material in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared with healthy controls and patients with other chronic autoimmune diseases....

  6. Can facial uniqueness be inferred from impostor scores?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, A.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2013-01-01

    In Biometrics, facial uniqueness is commonly inferred from impostor similarity scores. In this paper, we show that such uniqueness measures are highly unstable in the presence of image quality variations like pose, noise and blur. We also experimentally demonstrate the instability of a recently

  7. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  8. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....... of the services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...

  9. Unique prediction of cannabis use severity and behaviors by delay discounting and behavioral economic demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Lile, Joshua A; Stoops, William W

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have simultaneously evaluated delay discounting and behavioral economic demand to determine their unique contribution to drug use. A recent study in cannabis users found that monetary delay discounting uniquely predicted cannabis dependence symptoms, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency. This study sought to replicate and extend this research by evaluating delay discounting and behavioral economic demand measures for multiple commodities and including a use quantity measure. Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk was used to sample individuals reporting recent cannabis use (n=64) and controls (n=72). Participants completed measures of monetary delay discounting as well as alcohol and cannabis delay discounting and demand. Cannabis users and controls did not differ on monetary delay discounting or alcohol delay discounting and demand. Among cannabis users, regression analyses indicated that cannabis delay discounting uniquely predicted use severity, whereas cannabis demand uniquely predicted use frequency and quantity. These effects remained significant after controlling for other delay discounting and demand measures. This research replicates previous outcomes relating delay discounting and demand with cannabis use and extends them by accounting for the contribution of multiple commodities. This research also demonstrates the ability of online crowdsourcing methods to complement traditional human laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Providing x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallozzi, P.J.; Epstein, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    This invention provides an apparatus for providing x-rays to an object that may be in an ordinary environment such as air at approximately atmospheric pressure. The apparatus comprises: means (typically a laser beam) for directing energy onto a target to produce x-rays of a selected spectrum and intensity at the target; a fluid-tight enclosure around the target; means for maintaining the pressure in the first enclosure substantially below atmospheric pressure; a fluid-tight second enclosure adjoining the first enclosure, the common wall portion having an opening large enough to permit x-rays to pass through but small enough to allow the pressure reducing means to evacuate gas from the first enclosure at least as fast as it enters through the opening; the second enclosure filled with a gas that is highly transparent to x-rays; the wall of the second enclosure to which the x-rays travel having a portion that is highly transparent to x-rays (usually a beryllium or plastic foil), so that the object to which the x-rays are to be provided may be located outside the second enclosure and adjacent thereto and thus receive the x-rays substantially unimpeded by air or other intervening matter. The apparatus is particularly suited to obtaining EXAFS (extended x-ray fine structure spectroscopy) data on a material

  11. Why healthcare providers merge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Jeroen; Roos, Anne-Fleur

    2016-04-01

    In many OECD countries, healthcare sectors have become increasingly concentrated as a result of mergers. However, detailed empirical insight into why healthcare providers merge is lacking. Also, we know little about the influence of national healthcare policies on mergers. We fill this gap in the literature by conducting a survey study on mergers among 848 Dutch healthcare executives, of which 35% responded (resulting in a study sample of 239 executives). A total of 65% of the respondents was involved in at least one merger between 2005 and 2012. During this period, Dutch healthcare providers faced a number of policy changes, including increasing competition, more pressure from purchasers, growing financial risks, de-institutionalisation of long-term care and decentralisation of healthcare services to municipalities. Our empirical study shows that healthcare providers predominantly merge to improve the provision of healthcare services and to strengthen their market position. Also efficiency and financial reasons are important drivers of merger activity in healthcare. We find that motives for merger are related to changes in health policies, in particular to the increasing pressure from competitors, insurers and municipalities.

  12. PROVIDING WOMEN, KEPT MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojola, Sanyu A

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming providing women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and providing for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to provide a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121

  13. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  14. Advanced flow MRI: emerging techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markl, M.; Schnell, S.; Wu, C.; Bollache, E.; Jarvis, K.; Barker, A.J.; Robinson, J.D.; Rigsby, C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide non-invasive and non-ionising methods for the highly accurate anatomical depiction of the heart and vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. In addition, the intrinsic sensitivity of MRI to motion offers the unique ability to acquire spatially registered blood flow simultaneously with the morphological data, within a single measurement. In clinical routine, flow MRI is typically accomplished using methods that resolve two spatial dimensions in individual planes and encode the time-resolved velocity in one principal direction, typically oriented perpendicular to the two-dimensional (2D) section. This review describes recently developed advanced MRI flow techniques, which allow for more comprehensive evaluation of blood flow characteristics, such as real-time flow imaging, 2D multiple-venc phase contrast MRI, four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, quantification of complex haemodynamic properties, and highly accelerated flow imaging. Emerging techniques and novel applications are explored. In addition, applications of these new techniques for the improved evaluation of cardiovascular (aorta, pulmonary arteries, congenital heart disease, atrial fibrillation, coronary arteries) as well as cerebrovascular disease (intra-cranial arteries and veins) are presented.

  15. Plant Tolerance: A Unique Approach to Control Hemipteran Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kyle G; Chapman, Kaitlin; Louis, Joe; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Sarath, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant's ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through growth and compensatory physiological processes. Because plant tolerance involves plant compensatory characteristics, the plant is able to harbor large numbers of herbivores without interfering with the insect pest's physiology or behavior. Some studies have observed that tolerant plants can compensate photosynthetically by avoiding feedback inhibition and impaired electron flow through photosystem II that occurs as a result of insect feeding. Similarly, the up-regulation of peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes during insect feeding, in conjunction with elevated levels of phytohormones can play an important role in providing plant tolerance to insect pests. Hemipteran insects comprise some of the most economically important plant pests (e.g., aphids, whiteflies), due to their ability to achieve high population growth and their potential to transmit plant viruses. In this review, results from studies on plant tolerance to hemipterans are summarized, and potential models to understand tolerance are presented.

  16. Unique Education and Workforce Development for NASA Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsgren, Roger C.; Miller, Lauren L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA engineers are some of the world's best-educated graduates, responsible for technically complex, highly significant scientific programs. Even though these professionals are highly proficient in traditional analytical competencies, there is a unique opportunity to offer continuing education that further enhances their overall scientific minds. With a goal of maintaining the Agency's passionate, "best in class" engineering workforce, the NASA Academy of Program/Project & Engineering Leadership (APPEL) provides educational resources encouraging foundational learning, professional development, and knowledge sharing. NASA APPEL is currently partnering with the scientific community's most respected subject matter experts to expand its engineering curriculum beyond the analytics and specialized subsystems in the areas of: understanding NASA's overall vision and its fundamental basis, and the Agency initiatives supporting them; sharing NASA's vast reservoir of engineering experience, wisdom, and lessons learned; and innovatively designing hardware for manufacturability, assembly, and servicing. It takes collaboration and innovation to educate an organization that possesses such a rich and important historyand a future that is of great global interest. NASA APPEL strives to intellectually nurture the Agency's technical professionals, build its capacity for future performance, and exemplify its core valuesalJ to better enable NASA to meet its strategic visionand beyond.

  17. Hawadith Street Initiative: A unique Sudanese childhood charity experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad Mohamed; A-Rahman, Nada Hassan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Due to escalating conflicts and resultant economic constraints, different social services in low income and low-middle income countries have witnessed a decline in its standards, and increase in the costs. This situation has led to emergence of large numbers of patients and their families who cannot afford the costs of health services provided by public hospitals. On this background, and the old heritage of the Sudanese to help the needy, the Hawadith Street Initiative (HSI) was established. Named after the street on which it was founded - which translates indirectly to "Accidents Lane", HSI was established in 2012 by a group of youths, most of them in their twenties of age, and recently graduated. The main activity of the initiative is helping the needy hospital patients, especially with regards to their treatment costs, in Khartoum and other cities in Sudan. Starting with recreational programs for cancer patients, and public campaigns for donation of blood, the initiative's youths changed their activities. Using the social media, Facebook, they adopted the strategy of communication with potential donors, after sending posts containing brief anonymous presentations and call of help for needy cases. Currently HSI includes more than 2000 volunteers in Khartoum and 17 other cities. The most important achievement of HSI is the establishment of an intensive care unit at a children hospital in Omdurman city costing 435,880 US dollars. HSI demonstrates the possibility of delivering great services with minimum resources, and constitutes a unique organization, worldwide, in a new wave of Internet-based initiatives.

  18. On defining a unique phylogenetic tree with homoplastic characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloboff, Pablo A; Wilkinson, Mark

    2018-05-01

    This paper discusses the problem of whether creating a matrix with all the character state combinations that have a fixed number of steps (or extra steps) on a given tree T, produces the same tree T when analyzed with maximum parsimony or maximum likelihood. Exhaustive enumeration of cases up to 20 taxa for binary characters, and up to 12 taxa for 4-state characters, shows that the same tree is recovered (as unique most likely or most parsimonious tree) as long as the number of extra steps is within 1/4 of the number of taxa. This dependence, 1/4 of the number of taxa, is discussed with a general argumentation, in terms of the spread of the character changes on the tree used to select character state distributions. The present finding allows creating matrices which have as much homoplasy as possible for the most parsimonious or likely tree to be predictable, and examination of these matrices with hill-climbing search algorithms provides additional evidence on the (lack of a) necessary relationship between homoplasy and the ability of search methods to find optimal trees. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unique topics and issues in rheumatology and clinical immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Clinicians are facing unexpected issues in everyday practice, and these may become counterintuitive or challenging. Illustrative examples are provided by the hypersensitivity to universally used immunosuppressants such as corticosteroids or antibiotics such as beta-lactam. Secondly, additional issues are represented by the discovery of new pathogenetic mechanisms involved in rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis or other chronic inflammatory diseases, genomic susceptibility to enigmatic diseases such as giant cell arteritis, or the shared role of specific mediators such as semaphorins. Third, the therapeutic armamentarium has dramatically changed over the past decade following the introduction of biotechnological drugs, and new mechanisms are being proposed to reduce adverse events or increase the drug effectiveness, particularly on cardiovascular comorbidities. Finally, rare diseases continue to represent difficult cases, as for Cogan's syndrome, with limited literature available for clinical recommendations. For these reason, the present issue of Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology is timely and dedicated to these and other unique topics in clinical immunology and allergy. The aim of this issue is thus to help clinicians involved in internal medicine as well as allergists and clinical immunologists while discussing new pathways that will prove important in the near future.

  20. Unique proteomic signatures distinguish macrophages and dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Becker

    Full Text Available Monocytes differentiate into heterogeneous populations of tissue macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs that regulate inflammation and immunity. Identifying specific populations of myeloid cells in vivo is problematic, however, because only a limited number of proteins have been used to assign cellular phenotype. Using mass spectrometry and bone marrow-derived cells, we provided a global view of the proteomes of M-CSF-derived macrophages, classically and alternatively activated macrophages, and GM-CSF-derived DCs. Remarkably, the expression levels of half the plasma membrane proteins differed significantly in the various populations of cells derived in vitro. Moreover, the membrane proteomes of macrophages and DCs were more distinct than those of classically and alternatively activated macrophages. Hierarchical cluster and dual statistical analyses demonstrated that each cell type exhibited a robust proteomic signature that was unique. To interrogate the phenotype of myeloid cells in vivo, we subjected elicited peritoneal macrophages harvested from wild-type and GM-CSF-deficient mice to mass spectrometric and functional analysis. Unexpectedly, we found that peritoneal macrophages exhibited many features of the DCs generated in vitro. These findings demonstrate that global analysis of the membrane proteome can help define immune cell phenotypes in vivo.

  1. Decomposition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Sample decomposition is a fundamental and integral step in the procedure of geochemical analysis. It is often the limiting factor to sample throughput, especially with the recent application of the fast and modern multi-element measurement instrumentation. The complexity of geological materials makes it necessary to choose the sample decomposition technique that is compatible with the specific objective of the analysis. When selecting a decomposition technique, consideration should be given to the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the sample, elements to be determined, precision and accuracy requirements, sample throughput, technical capability of personnel, and time constraints. This paper addresses these concerns and discusses the attributes and limitations of many techniques of sample decomposition along with examples of their application to geochemical analysis. The chemical properties of reagents as to their function as decomposition agents are also reviewed. The section on acid dissolution techniques addresses the various inorganic acids that are used individually or in combination in both open and closed systems. Fluxes used in sample fusion are discussed. The promising microwave-oven technology and the emerging field of automation are also examined. A section on applications highlights the use of decomposition techniques for the determination of Au, platinum group elements (PGEs), Hg, U, hydride-forming elements, rare earth elements (REEs), and multi-elements in geological materials. Partial dissolution techniques used for geochemical exploration which have been treated in detail elsewhere are not discussed here; nor are fire-assaying for noble metals and decomposition techniques for X-ray fluorescence or nuclear methods be discussed. ?? 1992.

  2. The novel programmable riometer for in-depth ionospheric and magnetospheric observations (PRIAMOS) using direct sampling DSP techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dekoulis, G.; Honary, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the feasibility study and simulation results for the unique multi-frequency, multi-bandwidth, Programmable Riometer for in-depth Ionospheric And Magnetospheric ObservationS (PRIAMOS) based on direct sampling digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. This novel architecture is based on sampling the cosmic noise wavefront at the antenna. It eliminates the usage of any intermediate frequency (IF) mixer stages (-6 dB) and the noise balancing technique (-3 dB), providing a m...

  3. Large Field Photogrammetry Techniques in Aircraft and Spacecraft Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.

    2010-01-01

    The Landing and Impact Research Facility (LandIR) at NASA Langley Research Center is a 240 ft. high A-frame structure which is used for full-scale crash testing of aircraft and rotorcraft vehicles. Because the LandIR provides a unique capability to introduce impact velocities in the forward and vertical directions, it is also serving as the facility for landing tests on full-scale and sub-scale Orion spacecraft mass simulators. Recently, a three-dimensional photogrammetry system was acquired to assist with the gathering of vehicle flight data before, throughout and after the impact. This data provides the basis for the post-test analysis and data reduction. Experimental setups for pendulum swing tests on vehicles having both forward and vertical velocities can extend to 50 x 50 x 50 foot cubes, while weather, vehicle geometry, and other constraints make each experimental setup unique to each test. This paper will discuss the specific calibration techniques for large fields of views, camera and lens selection, data processing, as well as best practice techniques learned from using the large field of view photogrammetry on a multitude of crash and landing test scenarios unique to the LandIR.

  4. Changes in unique hues induced by chromatic surrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Susanne; Wachtler, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    A chromatic surround can have a strong influence on the perceived hue of a stimulus. We investigated whether chromatic induction has similar effects on the perception of colors that appear pure and unmixed (unique red, green, blue, and yellow) as on other colors. Subjects performed unique hue settings of stimuli in isoluminant surrounds of different chromaticities. Compared with the settings in a neutral gray surround, unique hue settings altered systematically with chromatic surrounds. The amount of induced hue shift depended on the difference between stimulus and surround hues, and was similar for unique hue settings as for settings of nonunique hues. Intraindividual variability in unique hue settings was roughly twice as high as for settings obtained in asymmetric matching experiments, which may reflect the presence of a reference stimulus in the matching task. Variabilities were also larger with chromatic surrounds than with neutral gray surrounds, for both unique hue settings and matching of nonunique hues. The results suggest that the neural representations underlying unique hue percepts are influenced by the same neural processing mechanisms as the percepts of other colors.

  5. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridham, N.F.

    1997-01-01

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  6. Non-unique Product Groups on Two Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William Paul

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to better understand groups that do not have the unique product property. In particular, the goal is to better understand Promislow's example, G, of such a group. In doing so, we will develop methods for generating examples of other sets that do not have the unique product property. With these methods we can show that there exists other distinct 14 element, square, non-unique product sets in G that are not inversions or translations. Also, this paper answers ...

  7. PET-CT in the typification of unique pulmonary injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobos, P.; San Roman, Jose L.; Dalurzo, L.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this document is to evaluate the usefulness of the PET-CT for the characterization of the unique pulmonary injuries. Retrospective analysis was made to patients with unique pulmonary injuries who carried out a PET-CT in the Italian Hospital between May of 2003 - March of 2005. Those patients with pulmonary outlying nodule, or unique pulmonary mass that had pathological anatomy of injury or follow-up through a computed tomography of thorax made with an interval of time not minor at 2 years of the PET-CT were included [es

  8. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  9. Addressing Unison and Uniqueness of Reliability and Safety for Better Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaofeng; Safie, Fayssal

    2015-01-01

    reliability and safety, a better understanding of unison and commonalities will further help in understanding the interaction between reliability and safety. This paper discusses the unison and uniqueness of reliability and safety. It presents some suggestions for better integration of the two disciplines in terms of technical approaches, tools, techniques, and skills to enhance the role of reliability and safety in supporting a product design and development life cycle. The paper also discusses eliminating the redundant effort and minimizing the overlap of reliability and safety analyses for an efficient implementation of the two disciplines.

  10. Neutron techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which neutrons interact with matter such as slowing-down, diffusion, neutron absorption and moderation are described. The use of neutron techniques in industry, in moisture gages, level and interface measurements, the detection of blockages, boron analysis in ore feedstock and industrial radiography are discussed. (author)

  11. Holistic Leadership-Nursing's Unique Contribution to Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Pamela N; Bleich, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    This dialogue is focused on holistic leadership from the perspective of a well-known leader in nursing. He frames the changing healthcare environment and nursing's unique contribution on the interprofessional team.

  12. The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tankwa Karoo National Park feral goat population: A unique genetic ... The feral goats from Tankwa Karoo National Park in the Northern Cape, South Africa, ... Park and former Tankwa goats, now kept on a private farm were genotyped, ...

  13. Protein nanoparticle: A unique system as drug delivery vehicles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... Nanobiotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Iran. ... as potential carriers with unique advantages including ..... for intracellular uptake in BT/20 human breast cancer.

  14. Unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malwela, T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports a unique morphology of dispersed clay particles in a polymer nanocomposite. A nanocomposite of poly[butylene succinate)-co-adipate] (PBSA) with 3 wt% of organically modified montmorillonite was prepared by melt...

  15. Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-07-15

    Jul 15, 2014 ... 1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, ... a first-ever attempt to utilise various sets of unique historical data ..... Even though the aquifer shows characteristics of all major ...... Earth Sci.

  16. The Munich MIDY Pig Biobank – A unique resource for studying organ crosstalk in diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Blutke

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: The broad spectrum of well-defined biosamples in the Munich MIDY Pig Biobank that will be available to the scientific community provides a unique resource for systematic studies of organ crosstalk in diabetes in a multi-organ, multi-omics dimension.

  17. A unique concept for automatically controlling the braking action of wheeled vehicles during minimum distance stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthlome, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Test results of a unique automatic brake control system are outlined and a comparison is made of its mode of operation to that of an existing skid control system. The purpose of the test system is to provide automatic control of braking action such that hydraulic brake pressure is maintained at a near constant, optimum value during minimum distance stops.

  18. The end of the unique myocardial band: Part I. Anatomical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacIver, David H.; Stephenson, Robert S.; Jensen, Bjarke; Agger, Peter; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián; Jarvis, Jonathan C.; Partridge, John B.; Anderson, Robert H.

    2018-01-01

    The concept of the 'unique myocardial band', which proposes that the ventricular myocardial cone is arranged like skeletal muscle, provides an attractive framework for understanding haemodynamics. The original idea was developed by Francisco Torrent-Guasp. Using boiled hearts and blunt dissection,

  19. Unique Associations between Peer Relations and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Kelly S.; Erath, Stephen A.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the unique associations between feelings of social anxiety and multiple dimensions of peer relations (positive peer nominations, peer- and self-reported peer victimization, and self-reported friendship quality) among 383 sixth- and seventh-grade students. Hierarchical regression analysis provided evidence for the unique…

  20. Uniqueness of the electrostatic solution in Schwarzschild space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, Pal G.; Elsaesser, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    In this Brief Report we give the proof that the solution of any static test charge distribution in Schwarzschild space is unique. In order to give the proof we derive the first Green's identity written with p-forms on (pseudo) Riemannian manifolds. Moreover, the proof of uniqueness can be shown for either any purely electric or purely magnetic field configuration. The spacetime geometry is not crucial for the proof

  1. Investigation of unique hue setting changes with ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenyang Fu; Kaida Xiao; Dimosthenis Karatzas; Sophie Wuerger

    2011-01-01

    Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed. Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions. Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed. Based on the chromatic (protan, deutan, tritan) thresholds and using scaled cone signals, we predict the unique hue changes with ageing. A dependency on age for unique red and unique yellow for predicted hue angle is found. We conclude that the chromatic sensitivity deteriorates significantly with age, whereas the appearance of unique hues is much less affected, remaining almost constant despite the known changes in the ocular media.%@@ Clromatic sensitivity along the protan, deutan, and tritan lines and the loci of the unique hues (red, green,yellow, blue) for a very large sample (n = 185) of colour-normal observers ranging from 18 to 75 years of age are assessed.Visual judgments are obtained under normal viewing conditions using colour patches on self-luminous display under controlled adaptation conditions.Trivector discrimination thresholds show an increase as a function of age along the protan, deutan, and tritan axes, with the largest increase present along the tritan line, less pronounced shifts in unique hue settings are also observed.

  2. Improved biomass utilization through the use of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Biomass is a major by-product resource of agriculture and food manufacturing, but it is under-utilized as a source of food, fibre, and chemicals. Nuclear techniques provide unique tools for studies of the capabilities of micro-organisms in methane digestor operation and in the transformation of lignocellulosic materials to useful products. Nuclear techniques have also been effectively employed as mutagenic agents in the preparation of more efficient microbial strains for the conversion of biomass. This report reviews the variety and diversity of such applications with focus on the development of microbial processes to utilize agricultural wastes and by-products. The value of nuclear techniques is manifestly demonstrated in the production of efficient microbial mutant strains, in the tracing of metabolic pathways, in the monitoring of lignin degradation and also of fermenter operation. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Flow theory and MR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listerud, J.; Altas, S.W.; Axel, L.

    1991-01-01

    One of the unique characteristics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is its depiction of flow, even without the administration of intravascular contrast agents. Flow-related phenomena were recognized early in the development of nuclear magnetic resonance, well before imaging techniques were even devised. The appearance of flowing fluid (e.g., blood or CSF) is important to understand for several reasons. First, its signal intensity is quite variable, even in normal physiologic states, so the possibility of misinterpreting normal findings as representing pathologic conditions, such as vascular thrombosis, is reduced if one has a solid conceptualization of the physical basis of flow effects. Second, signal emanating from flowing spins often generates significant artifacts that can obscure anatomy and degrade images, thereby reducing the radiologist's ability to interpret images and identify lesions. The understanding of flow artifacts allows one to recognize them and implement maneuvers to eliminate or compensate for such effects. Third, it has become apparent that the signal information from flow can be exploited to provide previously unavailable physiologic information

  4. Fifty years of levelling measurements at Askja volcano, Iceland: New Bayesian interpretations of a unique dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnie, Talfan; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sturkell, Erik

    2017-04-01

    The year 2016 marks the 50th anniversary of the start of geodetic levelling surveys at Askja volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland. Askja has produced frequent basaltic fissural eruptions and rarer silicic caldera forming eruptions during the Holocene, the most recent of each type in 1961 and 1875 respectively. The potential for widespread disruption from larger eruptions and the popularity of the site with tourists makes Askja an important target for observation. Geodetic monitoring started in 1966 with the installation of a 12 station survey line on the 1961 lava flow, which provided a stable, extensive surface close to the putative source of magma. This was infilled and extended over the following two decades to give a finished levelling line of 35 stations spaced approximately 50 m apart (Tryggvason, Nordic Volcanological Institute, 1989). With the exception of the period 1972 to 1983, this line has been surveyed every year, providing a unique record of post eruptive deformation at a spreading rift segment capable of capturing magma motions at depth and any potential recharging in anticipation of future activity. The levelling has so far revealed that after an initial period of complicated inflations and deflations the volcano settled into a pattern of slowly decaying deflation from 1983 onwards (Sturkell and Sigmundsson, JGR, 105, 2000), a pattern that has been confirmed by newer geodetic techniques as they have become available (e.g. Pagli et al., JVGR, 152, 2005). The strength of the levelling data at Askja is its long time span, high accuracy and same measurement type over a period of 50 years. However, the small extent of the levelling line limits the power of the network to resolve changes in the magma plumbing system and requires the addition of constraints from other sources. This lends itself to Bayesian modelling techniques where assumptions are made explicit as priors and uncertainties in retrieved parameters can be comprehensibly modelled

  5. Applying contemporary statistical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Rand R

    2003-01-01

    Applying Contemporary Statistical Techniques explains why traditional statistical methods are often inadequate or outdated when applied to modern problems. Wilcox demonstrates how new and more powerful techniques address these problems far more effectively, making these modern robust methods understandable, practical, and easily accessible.* Assumes no previous training in statistics * Explains how and why modern statistical methods provide more accurate results than conventional methods* Covers the latest developments on multiple comparisons * Includes recent advanc

  6. Symmetry breaking and uniqueness for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dascaliuc, Radu; Thomann, Enrique; Waymire, Edward C.; Michalowski, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The present article establishes connections between the structure of the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations and the structure of (similarity) equations that govern self-similar solutions as expected values of certain naturally associated stochastic cascades. A principle result is that explosion criteria for the stochastic cascades involved in the probabilistic representations of solutions to the respective equations coincide. While the uniqueness problem itself remains unresolved, these connections provide interesting problems and possible methods for investigating symmetry breaking and the uniqueness problem for Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, new branching Markov chains, including a dilogarithmic branching random walk on the multiplicative group (0, ∞), naturally arise as a result of this investigation

  7. Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups.

  8. Symmetry breaking and uniqueness for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dascaliuc, Radu; Michalowski, Nicholas; Thomann, Enrique; Waymire, Edward C

    2015-07-01

    The present article establishes connections between the structure of the deterministic Navier-Stokes equations and the structure of (similarity) equations that govern self-similar solutions as expected values of certain naturally associated stochastic cascades. A principle result is that explosion criteria for the stochastic cascades involved in the probabilistic representations of solutions to the respective equations coincide. While the uniqueness problem itself remains unresolved, these connections provide interesting problems and possible methods for investigating symmetry breaking and the uniqueness problem for Navier-Stokes equations. In particular, new branching Markov chains, including a dilogarithmic branching random walk on the multiplicative group (0, ∞), naturally arise as a result of this investigation.

  9. Existence, uniqueness, monotonicity and asymptotic behaviour of travelling waves for epidemic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung; Yang, Tzi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the existence, uniqueness, monotonicity and asymptotic behaviour of travelling wave solutions for a general epidemic model arising from the spread of an epidemic by oral–faecal transmission. First, we apply Schauder's fixed point theorem combining with a supersolution and subsolution pair to derive the existence of positive monotone monostable travelling wave solutions. Then, applying the Ikehara's theorem, we determine the exponential rates of travelling wave solutions which converge to two different equilibria as the moving coordinate tends to positive infinity and negative infinity, respectively. Finally, using the sliding method, we prove the uniqueness result provided the travelling wave solutions satisfy some boundedness conditions. (paper)

  10. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  11. Astrophysical techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kitchin, CR

    2013-01-01

    DetectorsOptical DetectionRadio and Microwave DetectionX-Ray and Gamma-Ray DetectionCosmic Ray DetectorsNeutrino DetectorsGravitational Radiation Dark Matter and Dark Energy Detection ImagingThe Inverse ProblemPhotographyElectronic ImagingScanningInterferometrySpeckle InterferometryOccultationsRadarElectronic ImagesPhotometryPhotometryPhotometersSpectroscopySpectroscopy SpectroscopesOther TechniquesAstrometryPolarimetrySolar StudiesMagnetometryComputers and The Internet.

  12. Presentation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froejmark, M.

    1992-10-01

    The report presents a wide, easily understandable description of presentation technique and man-machine communication. General fundamentals for the man-machine interface are illustrated, and the factors that affect the interface are described. A model is presented for describing the operators work situation, based on three different levels in the operators behaviour. The operator reacts routinely in the face of simple, known problems, and reacts in accordance with predetermined plans in the face of more complex, recognizable problems. Deep fundamental knowledge is necessary for truly complex questions. Today's technical status and future development have been studied. In the future, the operator interface will be based on standard software. Functions such as zooming, integration of video pictures, and sound reproduction will become common. Video walls may be expected to come into use in situations in which several persons simultaneously need access to the same information. A summary of the fundamental rules for the design of good picture ergonomics and design requirements for control rooms are included in the report. In conclusion, the report describes a presentation technique within the Distribution Automation and Demand Side Management area and analyses the know-how requirements within Vattenfall. If different systems are integrated, such as geographical information systems and operation monitoring systems, strict demands are made on the expertise of the users for achieving a user-friendly technique which is matched to the needs of the human being. (3 figs.)

  13. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  14. Generative Algorithmic Techniques for Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Martin

    2012-01-01

    Architectural design methodology is expanded through the ability to create bespoke computational methods as integrated parts of the design process. The rapid proliferation of digital production techniques within building industry provides new means for establishing seamless flows between digital...... form-generation and the realisation process. A tendency in recent practice shows an increased focus on developing unique tectonic solutions as a crucial ingredient in the design solution. These converging trajectories form the contextual basis for this thesis. In architectural design, digital tools....... The principles are further developed to form new modes of articulation in architectural design. Certain methods are contributions, which suggest a potential for future use and development. Thus, a method is directed towards bottom-up generation of surface topology through the use of an agentbased logic. Another...

  15. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: Infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-01-01

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the 'Hayflick limit'. However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to 'passage' a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the 'passage' of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels

  16. Somatic cell nuclear transfer: infinite reproduction of a unique diploid genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Wakayama, Sayaka; Hosoi, Yoshihiko; Iritani, Akira; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2008-06-10

    In mammals, a diploid genome of an individual following fertilization of an egg and a spermatozoon is unique and irreproducible. This implies that the generated unique diploid genome is doomed with the individual ending. Even as cultured cells from the individual, they cannot normally proliferate in perpetuity because of the "Hayflick limit". However, Dolly, the sheep cloned from an adult mammary gland cell, changes this scenario. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) enables us to produce offspring without germ cells, that is, to "passage" a unique diploid genome. Animal cloning has also proven to be a powerful research tool for reprogramming in many mammals, notably mouse and cow. The mechanism underlying reprogramming, however, remains largely unknown and, animal cloning has been inefficient as a result. More momentously, in addition to abortion and fetal mortality, some cloned animals display possible premature aging phenotypes including early death and short telomere lengths. Under these inauspicious conditions, is it really possible for SCNT to preserve a diploid genome? Delightfully, in mouse and recently in primate, using SCNT we can produce nuclear transfer ES cells (ntES) more efficiently, which can preserve the eternal lifespan for the "passage" of a unique diploid genome. Further, new somatic cloning technique using histone-deacetylase inhibitors has been developed which can significantly increase the previous cloning rates two to six times. Here, we introduce SCNT and its value as a preservation tool for a diploid genome while reviewing aging of cloned animals on cellular and individual levels.

  17. Unique in the shopping mall: On the reidentifiability of credit card metadata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre; Radaelli, Laura; Singh, Vivek Kumar

    2015-01-01

    . We study 3 months of credit card records for 1.1 million people and show that four spatiotemporal points are enough to uniquely reidentify 90% of individuals. We show that knowing the price of a transaction increases the risk of reidentification by 22%, on average. Finally, we show that even data...... sets that provide coarse information at any or all of the dimensions provide little anonymity and that women are more reidentifiable than men in credit card metadata....

  18. Psychological aspects of human cloning and genetic manipulation: the identity and uniqueness of human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, N M

    2009-01-01

    Human cloning has become one of the most controversial debates about reproduction in Western civilization. Human cloning represents asexual reproduction, but the critics of human cloning argue that the result of cloning is not a new individual who is genetically unique. There is also awareness in the scientific community, including the medical community, that human cloning and the creation of clones are inevitable. Psychology and other social sciences, together with the natural sciences, will need to find ways to help the healthcare system, to be prepared to face the new challenges introduced by the techniques of human cloning. One of those challenges is to help the healthcare system to find specific standards of behaviour that could be used to help potential parents to interact properly with cloned babies or children created through genetic manipulation. In this paper, the concepts of personality, identity and uniqueness are discussed in relationship to the contribution of twin studies in these areas. The author argues that an individual created by human cloning techniques or any other type of genetic manipulation will not show the donor's characteristics to the extent of compromising uniqueness. Therefore, claims to such an effect are needlessly alarmist.

  19. Future development, innovation and promotion of European unique food: an interdisciplinary research framework perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Derek V; Waehrens, Sandra S; O'Sullivan, Maurice G

    2013-11-01

    Unique food products constitute a very important element of European food business, culture, identity and heritage. Understanding the uniqueness of food in Europe from a research-based interdisciplinary perspective will be a critical factor in promoting the competitiveness of artisanal food industries going forward both locally and internationally. Success will support the competitiveness of the European food industry, in particular, small and medium enterprises, by enabling substantial product differentiation potential for producers and providing ample variety in food choice for the consumer. In addition, it will contribute to promotion of sustainable agriculture and development of rural areas, protecting them from depopulation. In order to meet the demands of a developing fundamental shift in European Union agricultural focus to greener, sustainable farming practices and wider rural development and to ensure success for local small-scale producers, this paper discusses the future direction of research in the field of unique European foods. The paper presents a perspective which promotes optimisation and innovation in unique food products in Europe through the integration of advanced knowledge and technologies. A framework is presented covering location, identity, perception and well-being as research areas needing synergy to bridge the research knowledge deficit in determination and specification of food identity in the European Union. The ultimate aim being promotion of sustainable agriculture and rural development, particularly in territories across the European Union where unique food is strategically and scientifically under-defined. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Executive Functions Contribute Uniquely to Reading Competence in Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Koriakin, Taylor; Lipkin, Paul; Boada, Richard; Frijters, Jan; Lovett, Maureen; Hill, Dina; Willcutt, Erik; Gottwald, Stephanie; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2018-01-01

    Competent reading requires various skills beyond those for basic word reading (i.e., core language skills, rapid naming, phonological processing). Contributing “higher-level” or domain-general processes include information processing speed and executive functions (working memory, strategic problem solving, attentional switching). Research in this area has relied on largely Caucasian samples, with limited representation of children from racial or ethnic minority groups. This study examined contributions of executive skills to reading competence in 761 children of minority backgrounds. Hierarchical linear regressions examined unique contributions of executive functions (EF) to word reading, fluency, and comprehension. EF contributed uniquely to reading performance, over and above reading-related language skills; working memory contributed uniquely to all components of reading; while attentional switching, but not problem solving, contributed to isolated and contextual word reading and reading fluency. Problem solving uniquely predicted comprehension, suggesting that this skill may be especially important for reading comprehension in minority youth. Attentional switching may play a unique role in development of reading fluency in minority youth, perhaps as a result of the increased demand for switching between spoken versus written dialects. Findings have implications for educational and clinical practice with regard to reading instruction, remedial reading intervention, and assessment of individuals with reading difficulty. PMID:26755569

  1. Ethical Use of Gestalt Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Jane A.

    The purpose of this paper is to engender a healthy respect for Gestalt theory and techniques and the use of the techniques in the client's best interest and in the interest of positive professional and self-development in the practitioner. An overview of Gestalt techniques is provided, concentrating on the two category divisions of experiments and…

  2. Unique natural exopolysaccharides for biomimetic protective effect against urban pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Magali; Lamarque, Elisabeth; Loing, Estelle

    estimated at 154 mg/g (1.37 mmol/g) of EPS-299 for cadmium and at 250 mg/g (1.21 mmol/g) of EPS-229 for lead. In the skin explant model of pollution exposure, EPS-229 (0.03% w/v) reduced MDA production by 44%, preserved cell integrity, improved dermal-epidermal cohesion, and normalized the collagen network. In vivo , treatment of skin with EPS-229 before exposure to PM 2.5 created a protective film limiting particle adhesion. When used in a cleansing solution after exposure to PM 2.5 , EPS-229 formed a mesh that entrapped particles and removed them from the skin surface. Inspired by the French Polynesia Kopara unique ecosystem, a bioactive exopolysaccharide (EPS-229) has been developed that offers protection from environmental aggression. As a biomimetic shield at the surface of the skin, EPS-229 provides an immediate multiprotective action that efficiently fights the harmful effects of urban pollution and smog.

  3. Astrophysical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitchin, C R

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: detectors (optical and infrared detection; radio and microwave detection; X-ray and gamma-ray detection; cosmic ray detectors; neutrino detectors; gravitational radiation); imaging (photography; electronic imaging; scanning; interferometry; speckle interferometry; occultations; radar); photometry and photometers; spectroscopy and spectroscopes; other techniques (astrometry; polarimetry; solar studies; magnetometry). Appendices: magnitudes and spectral types of bright stars; north polar sequence; standard stars for the UBV photometric system; standard stars for the UVBY photometric system; standard stars for MK spectral types; standard stars for polarimetry; Julian date; catalogues; answers to the exercises.

  4. Llizarov technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankman, S.; Rosenberg, Z.S.; Frankel, V.; Golyakhovsky, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper illustrates the radiographic manifestations of the Ilizarov distraction technique for the correction of short and deformed limbs. The radiographs of 130 patients who underwent Ilizarov distraction at 160 sites since December 1986 were reviewed retrospectively. Reasons for correction included fracture nonunion and malunion idiopathic leg length discrepancy, achondroplasia, and neurofibromatosis with tibial pseudarthrosis. Ninety patients were adults, and 40 were children. In order to assess cortical bone development during the fixation phase, CT of the regenerate bone was performed in 17 patients. Conventional tomograms were obtained in 20 patients for the evaluation of delayed or hypoplastic union at the distraction site

  5. Experimental Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Serin, L.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental techniques to be used in the new generation of high energy physics are presented. The emphasis is put on the new ATLAS and CMS detectors for the CERN LHC. For the most important elements of these detectors, a description of the underlying physics processes is given, sometimes with reference to comparable detectors used in the past. Some comparative global performances of the two detectors are also given, with reference to benchmark physics processes (detection of the Higgs boson in various mass regions, etc). (author)

  6. Uniqueness of non-linear ground states for fractional Laplacians in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert L.; Lenzmann, Enno

    2013-01-01

    We prove uniqueness of ground state solutions Q = Q(|x|) ≥ 0 of the non-linear equation (−Δ)sQ+Q−Qα+1=0inR,where 0 fractional Laplacian in one dimension. In particular, we answer affirmatively an open question...... recently raised by Kenig–Martel–Robbiano and we generalize (by completely different techniques) the specific uniqueness result obtained by Amick and Toland for s=12 and α = 1 in [5] for the Benjamin–Ono equation. As a technical key result in this paper, we show that the associated linearized operator L...... + = (−Δ) s +1−(α+1)Q α is non-degenerate; i.e., its kernel satisfies ker L + = span{Q′}. This result about L + proves a spectral assumption, which plays a central role for the stability of solitary waves and blowup analysis for non-linear dispersive PDEs with fractional Laplacians, such as the generalized...

  7. Lip prints- A study of its uniqueness among students of MediCiti Medical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzapur, Archana; Nagothu, Rajani S; Nalluri, Hima B

    2017-01-01

    "Cheiloscopy" is a technique that deals with lip prints. The pattern of fine creases on the lips are unique to the individual. They are similar to finger prints and useful in crime investigation. To study the uniqueness, prevalence, and gender significance of lip print patterns in human subjects. The study was conducted on 100 randomly selected male and female undergraduate medical students. The lip print of each subject was obtained and its pattern was analyzed according to Suzuki and Tsuchihashi classification. The study showed that Type I lip pattern was the commonest. Our study has added to confirmation of the distinctiveness of cheiloscopy, which can be used as an additional tool for identification. Studies on lip prints being very scanty, our findings add significantly to the meager literature on this subject. Further in-depth studies to establish prevalence of patterns in lip prints will certainly help as useful evidence in forensic investigations.

  8. Nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation as a unique electronic, structural and thermodynamic probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alp, E. Ercan; Sturhahn, Wolfgang; Toellner, Thomas S.; Zhao, Jiyong; Leu, Bogdan M.

    2012-01-01

    Discovery of Moessbauer effect in a nuclear transition was a remarkable development. It revealed how long-lived nuclear states with relatively low energies in the kiloelectron volt (keV) region can be excited without recoil. This new effect had a unique feature involving a coupling between nuclear physics and solid-state physics, both in terms of physics and sociology. Physics coupling originates from the fact that recoilless emission and absorption or resonance is only possible if the requirement that nuclei have to be bound in a lattice with quantized vibrational states is fulfilled, and that the finite electron density on the nucleus couples to nuclear degrees of freedom leading to hyperfine interactions. thus, Moessbauer spectroscopy allows peering into solid-state effects using unique nuclear transitions. Sociological aspects of this coupling had been equally startling and fruitful. The interaction between diverse scientific communities, who learned to use Moessbauer spectroscopy proved to be very valuable. For example, biologists, geologists, chemists, physics, materials scientists, and archeologists, all sharing a common spectroscopic technique, also learned to appreciate the beauty and intricacies of each other's fields. As a laboratory-based technique, Moessbauer spectroscopy matured by the end of the 1970s. Further exciting developments took place when accelerator-based techniques were employed, like synchrotron radiation or 'in-beam'Moessbauer experiments with implanted radioactive ions. More recently, two Moessbauer spectrometers on the surface of the Mars kept the technique vibrant and viable up until present time. In this chapter, the authors look into some of the unique aspects of nuclear resonance excited with synchrotron radiation as a probe of condensed matter, including magnetism, valence, vibrations, and lattice dynamics, and review the development of nuclear resonance inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) and synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy

  9. Uniqueness: skews bit occurrence frequencies in randomly generated fingerprint libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nelson G

    2016-08-01

    Requiring that randomly generated chemical fingerprint libraries have unique fingerprints such that no two fingerprints are identical causes a systematic skew in bit occurrence frequencies, the proportion at which specified bits are set. Observed frequencies (O) at which each bit is set within the resulting libraries systematically differ from frequencies at which bits are set at fingerprint generation (E). Observed frequencies systematically skew toward 0.5, with the effect being more pronounced as library size approaches the compound space, which is the total number of unique possible fingerprints given the number of bit positions each fingerprint contains. The effect is quantified for varying library sizes as a fraction of the overall compound space, and for changes in the specified frequency E. The cause and implications for this systematic skew are subsequently discussed. When generating random libraries of chemical fingerprints, the imposition of a uniqueness requirement should either be avoided or taken into account.

  10. RUCS: Rapid identification of PCR primers for unique core sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Hasman, Henrik; Westh, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Designing PCR primers to target a specific selection of whole genome sequenced strains can be a long, arduous, and sometimes impractical task. Such tasks would benefit greatly from an automated tool to both identify unique targets, and to validate the vast number of potential primer pairs...... for the targets in silico . Here we present RUCS, a program that will find PCR primer pairs and probes for the unique core sequences of a positive genome dataset complement to a negative genome dataset. The resulting primer pairs and probes are in addition to simple selection also validated through a complex...... in silico PCR simulation. We compared our method, which identifies the unique core sequences, against an existing tool called ssGeneFinder, and found that our method was 6.5-20 times more sensitive. We used RUCS to design primer pairs that would target a set of genomes known to contain the mcr-1 colistin...

  11. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1988-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century

  12. Advanced enrichment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    1987-01-01

    BNFL is in a unique position in that it has commercial experience of diffusion enrichment, and of centrifuge enrichment through its associate company Urenco. In addition BNFL is developing laser enrichment techniques as part of a UK development programme in this area. The paper describes the development programme which led to the introduction of competitive centrifuge enrichment technology by Urenco and discusses the areas where improvements have and will continue to be made in the centrifuge process. It also describes the laser development programme currently being undertaken in the UK. The paper concludes by discussing the relative merits of the various methods of uranium enrichment, with particular reference to the enrichment market likely to obtain over the rest of the century. (author)

  13. Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Tribble, R.E.; Blokhintsev, L.D.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Kroha, V.; Nunes, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)

  14. Human uniqueness-self-interest and social cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Daijiro; Bingham, Paul M

    2008-07-21

    Humans are unique among all species of terrestrial history in both ecological dominance and individual properties. Many, or perhaps all, of the unique elements of this nonpareil status can be plausibly interpreted as evolutionary and strategic elements and consequences of the unprecedented intensity and scale of our social cooperation. Convincing explanation of this unique human social adaptation remains a central, unmet challenge to the scientific enterprise. We develop a hypothesis for the ancestral origin of expanded cooperative social behavior. Specifically, we present a game theoretic analysis demonstrating that a specific pattern of expanded social cooperation between conspecific individuals with conflicts of interest (including non-kin) can be strategically viable, but only in animals that possess a highly unusual capacity for conspecific violence (credible threat) having very specific properties that dramatically reduce the costs of coercive violence. The resulting reduced costs allow preemptive or compensated coercion to be an instantaneously self-interested behavior under diverse circumstances rather than in rare, idiosyncratic circumstances as in actors (animals) who do not have access to inexpensive coercive threat. Humans are apparently unique among terrestrial organisms in having evolved conspecific coercive capabilities that fulfill these stringent requirements. Thus, our results support the proposal that access to a novel capacity for projection of coercive threat might represent the essential initiating event for the evolution of a human-like pattern of social cooperation and the subsequent evolution of the diverse features of human uniqueness. Empirical evidence indicates that these constraints were, in fact, met only in our evolutionary lineage. The logic for the emergence of uniquely human cooperation suggested by our analysis apparently accounts simply for the human fossil record.

  15. Radiotracer techniques in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladipo, M.O.A.; Funtua, I.I.

    2000-07-01

    The use of radioactive tracers particularly short-lived radioisotopes frequently offers advantages over conventional methods of analyses. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. Essentially, radiotracer techniques offer a safe, cost effective and powerful tool in the assessment, management and protection of water resources. The Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria of late has been offering consultancy services to some industries in the area of radiotracer technique. The first nuclear reactor in Nigeria, the MNSR, is expected to be commissioned in the Centre very soon. Many short-lived radioisotopes such as Cu-64, Ga-72, Br-82, Hg-197 etc which are very important in hydrological studies can be produced by the MNSR facility. This article reports on the basic principles of the technique and its roles in hydrology

  16. A note on unique solvability of the absolute value equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Lotfi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is proved that applying sufficient regularity conditions to the interval matrix $[A-|B|,A+|B|]$‎, ‎we can create a new unique solvability condition for the absolute value equation $Ax+B|x|=b$‎, ‎since regularity of interval matrices implies unique solvability of their corresponding absolute value equation‎. ‎This condition is formulated in terms of positive definiteness of a certain point matrix‎. ‎Special case $B=-I$ is verified too as an application.

  17. Increasing Need for Uniqueness in Contemporary China: Empirical Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajian Cai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Past research has documented various cultural and psychological changes in contemporary China. In two studies, we examine how Chinese people’s need for uniqueness (NFU also has changed. In Study 1, we found a significant cross-generational increase in Chinese participants’ self-reported NFU. In Study 2, we sampled the names of Chinese newborn babies over the last five decades and found that parents have been increasingly likely to use unique characters to name their children. These findings suggest that the NFU has been rising in China, a historically collectivistic-oriented society. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings were discussed.

  18. Doppler ultrasound surveillance in deep tunneling compressed-air work with Trimix breathing: bounce dive technique compared to saturation-excursion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellinga, T P van Rees; Sterk, W; de Boer, A G E M; van der Beek, A J; Verhoeven, A C; van Dijk, F J H

    2008-01-01

    The Western Scheldt Tunneling Project in The Netherlands provided a unique opportunity to evaluate two deep-diving techniques with Doppler ultrasound surveillance. Divers used the bounce diving techniques for repair and maintenance of the TBM. The tunnel boring machine jammed at its deepest depth. As a result the work time was not sufficient. The saturation diving technique was developed and permitted longer work time at great depth. Thirty-one divers were involved in this project. Twenty-three divers were examined using Doppler ultrasound. Data analysis addressed 52 exposures to Trimix at 4.6-4.8 bar gauge using the bounce technique and 354 exposures to Trimix at 4.0-6.9 bar gauge on saturation excursions. No decompression incidents occurred with either technique during the described phase of the project. Doppler ultrasound revealed that the bubble loads assessed in both techniques were generally low. We find out, that despite longer working hours, shorter decompression times and larger physical workloads, the saturation-excursion technique was associated with significant lower bubble grades than in the bounce technique using Doppler Ultrasound. We conclude that the saturation-excursion technique with Trimix is a good option for deep and long exposures in caisson work. The Doppler technique proved valuable, and it should be incorporated in future compressed-air work.

  19. Radio techniques for probing the terrestrial ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, R. D.

    The subject of the book is a description of the basic principles of operation, plus the capabilities and limitations of all generic radio techniques employed to investigate the terrestrial ionosphere. The purpose of this book is to present to the reader a balanced treatment of each technique so they can understand how to interpret ionospheric data and decide which techniques are most effective for studying specific phenomena. The first two chapters outline the basic theory underlying the techniques, and each following chapter discusses a separate technique. This monograph is entirely devoted to techniques in aeronomy and space physics. The approach is unique in its presentation of the principles, capabilities and limitations of the most important presently used radio techniques. Typical examples of data are shown for the various techniques, and a brief historical account of the technique development is presented. An extended annotated bibliography of the salient papers in the field is included.

  20. Provider-based Medicare risk contracting and subcontracting: opportunities and risks for provider sponsored organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, H A; Zenner, P A; Kipp, R A; Whitney, E L

    1997-01-01

    Provider sponsored organizations (PSOs) are increasingly acquiring the risk for the management of Medicare Risk patients by accepting capitation directly from the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) or through contracts with HMOs or other organizations contracting with HCFA. The Medicare population and the requirements that the federal administration has put into place with respect to risk contracting are unique and demand specific responses on the part of the PSO for a contract to be successful. The PSO is cautioned to understand the actuarial risk, the clinical uniqueness of the Medicare beneficiary, Medicare reimbursement regulatory requirements, utilization management needs, and necessary reporting before entering into a contractual arrangement. This article attempts to describe some of the more common issues a provider organization must consider.

  1. Providing value in ambulatory anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosnot, Caroline D; Fleisher, Lee A; Keogh, John

    2015-12-01

    colonoscopies. With this projected increase in the demand for anesthesia services nationwide comes the analysis of its financial feasibility. Some early data looking at endoscopist-administered sedation conclude that it offers higher patient satisfaction, there were less adverse effects than anesthesiologist-administered sedation, and is economically advantageous. This and future retrospective studies will help to guide healthcare policymakers and physicians to come to a conclusion about providing ambulatory services for these millions of patients. Ambulatory anesthesia's popularity continues to rise and anesthetic techniques will continue to morph and adapt to the needs of patients seeking ambulatory surgery. Alterations in already existing medications are promising as these modifications allow for quicker recovery from anesthesia or minimization of the already known undesirable side-effects. PONV, pain, obstructive sleep apnea, and chronic comorbidities (hypertension, cardiac disease, and diabetes mellitus) are perioperative concerns in ambulatory settings as more patients are safely being treated in ambulatory settings. Regional anesthesia stands out as a modality that has multiple advantages to general anesthesia, providing a minimal recovery period and a decrease in postanesthesia care unit stay. The implementation of the Affordable Healthcare Act specifically affects ambulatory settings as the demand and need for patients to have screening procedures with anesthesia. The question remains what the best strategy is to meet the needs of our future patients while preserving economically feasibility within an already strained healthcare system.

  2. Experimental techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P.

    2007-01-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, γ detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  3. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  4. Parent-provider communication during hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark J; Broome, Marion E

    2011-02-01

    Parents and health care providers interact and communicate with each other during a child's hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to compare communication experiences of parents, nurses, and physicians. A unique aspect of this study involved combining three individual data sources into a collective unit of study (triad). Triads involved in the care of three children in the inpatient setting of an urban children's hospital served as the sample for this study (n = 10). Participants were asked semistructured questions during face-to-face interviews. Findings included (a) the importance of providing information by health care providers using a caring and inclusive approach, (b) the benefits of establishing interpersonal connections and nurturing relationships, and (c) the identification of specific behaviors in all members of the triad that contribute to and sustain positively perceived communication. Future research directions examining triadic interactions, communication, and relationships among parents, nurses, and physicians are recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Unique small RNA signatures uncovered in the tammar wallaby genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay James

    2012-10-01

    discovered crasiRNAs. These small RNAs are derived largely from centromere-enriched retroelements, including a novel SINE. Conclusions This study encompasses the first analyses of the major classes of small RNAs for the newly completed tammar genome, validates preliminary annotations using deep sequencing and computational approaches, and provides a foundation for future work on tammar-specific as well as conserved, but previously unknown small RNA progenitors and targets identified herein. The characterization of new miRNA target genes and a unique profile for crasiRNAs has allowed for insight into multiple RNA mediated processes in the tammar, including gene regulation, species incompatibilities, centromere and chromosome function.

  6. Regional cluster policy between best practices and cultural uniqueness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.; Beugelsdijk, S.; Boneschansker, E.; van Dijk, J.; Jansma, L.G.J.; Verhaar, K.H.A.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter deals with an intriguing paradox in current regional economic policy: whereas unique local factors are increasingly seen as the determinants of regional economic success, more and more governments simultaneously try to copy policy experiences that have proved successful in a particular

  7. Teen camp: a unique approach to recruit future nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Donna A; Riech, Sandy; Prater, Marsha A

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative and unique approach to interest high school students in nursing. To inform educators and nursing departments about an innovative approach to recruit future nurses. Professional literature and authors' experience. All students related positive experiences. The initial camp evaluation produced innovative input from the students, and each camp met its goal of creating career interest in the nursing profession.

  8. Differentiating Performance Approach Goals and Their Unique Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ordene V.

    2014-01-01

    The study differentiates between two types of performance approach goals (competence demonstration performance approach goal and normative performance approach goal) by examining their unique effects on self-efficacy, interest, and fear of failure. Seventy-nine students completed questionnaires that measure performance approach goals,…

  9. On the Existence of Unique Equilibria in Location Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webers, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we study a two-stage location-then-price game where consumers are distributed piecewise uniformly, each piece being referred to as an interval.Although the firms face a coordination problem, it is obvious that, for any given locations and prices, there is a unique indifferent

  10. Secondary metabolites from the unique bamboo, Melocanna baccifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Balaji; Johnson, Anil John; Viswanathan, Gayathri; Ramaswamy, Venkataraman; Koshy, Konnath Chacko; Baby, Sabulal

    2018-02-15

    Phytochemistry of fruits and leaves of the unique bamboo Melocanna baccifera resulted in the isolation of 27 secondary metabolites, including 4-Oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1(7),5,8-triene and Verbacine. Biological activity studies of Verbacine revealed it as an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and as cytotoxic against C6 cancer cells.

  11. Uniqueness in inverse elastic scattering with finitely many incident waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elschner, Johannes; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    We consider the third and fourth exterior boundary value problems of linear isotropic elasticity and present uniqueness results for the corresponding inverse scattering problems with polyhedral-type obstacles and a finite number of incident plane elastic waves. Our approach is based on a reflection principle for the Navier equation. (orig.)

  12. Unique case of esophageal rupture after a fall from height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijl, Mark; Saltzherr, Teun P.; van Berge Henegouwen, Mark I.; Goslings, J. Carel

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Traumatic ruptures of the esophagus are relatively rare. This condition is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most traumatic ruptures occur after motor vehicle accidents. Case Presentation: We describe a unique case of a 23 year old woman that presented at our trauma

  13. DECISIONS ET COMPETITIVITE SUR LE MARCHE UNIQUE EUROPEEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available L’un des traits importants du marché unique européen, a comme source le męme énoncé du principal objectif de l’intégration européenne ainsi que: l’harmonisation des niveaux du développement des Etats Membres et l’augmentation du niveau de vie dans l’ensemble de la communauté. Pour le marché unique européen, cet aspect se traduit par une permanente et soutenue augmentation de la demande. Cet ouvrage présente au début une analyse des éléments spécifiques du marché européen. Ensuite on identifie les opportunités et les risques au niveau macroéconomique adjointes aux perspectives du marché unique européen. Comme fondement on présente des stratégies du développement réalisables au niveau microéconomique que puissent assurer l’augmentation du niveau sur la compétitivité des sociétés sur le marché unique européen.

  14. Is Self-Assessment in Religious Education Unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Val; Fancourt, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question: is self-assessment in religious education unique? It first presents an overview of some challenges for assessment from subject differences, and then reviews the generic literature on self-assessment. It builds on earlier empirical research on self-assessment in religious education, carried out in an English state…

  15. Three Unique Implementations of Processes for PyCSP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg, Rune Møllegaard; Bjørndalen, John Markus; Vinter, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this work we motivate and describe three unique implementations of processes for PyCSP: process, thread and greenlet based. The overall purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of Communicating Sequential Processes as a framework for different application types and target platforms. The result...

  16. Zeros and uniqueness of Q-difference polynomials of meromorphic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meromorphic functions; Nevanlinna theory; logarithmic order; uniqueness problem; difference-differential polynomial. Abstract. In this paper, we investigate the value distribution of -difference polynomials of meromorphic function of finite logarithmic order, and study the zero distribution of difference-differential polynomials ...

  17. Why Is Family Firms' Internationalization Unique? : A Meta-Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arregle, Jean-Luc; Duran, Patricio; Hitt, Michael A.; van Essen, M.

    Despite its importance, there is no clear understanding of the uniqueness of family firms' internationalization. This article sheds new light on this issue with a meta-analysis of 76 studies covering 41 countries. We show that the considerable study and cross-country differences in the relationship

  18. Meeting Each Student's Unique Potential: One Approach to Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Joseph W.

    1996-01-01

    By championing extrinsic motivation, the achievement-reward system short-circuits individuals' innate inner power. Achievement-oriented adults rely on their knowledge, skills, and abilities, not their deeper potential. Hyde School, in Bath, Maine, solves this problem by committing the entire school community to development of unique potential via…

  19. Determining hydraulic parameters of a karst aquifer using unique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although karst aquifers constitute some of the most important water resources worldwide, generally accepted methods for reliably characterising their hydraulic properties are still elusive. This paper aims at contributing to the discussion by a first-ever attempt to utilise various sets of unique historical data derived from ...

  20. Uniqueness and zeros of q-shift difference polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we consider the zero distributions of -shift difference polynomials of meromorphic functions with zero order, and obtain two theorems that extend the classical Hayman results on the zeros of differential polynomials to -shift difference polynomials. We also investigate the uniqueness problem of -shift ...

  1. Crossover Can Be Constructive When Computing Unique Input Output Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Unique input output (UIO) sequences have important applications in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSMs). Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can compute UIOs efficiently on many FSM instance classes, but fail on others. However...

  2. review article how unique is south african military integration?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roy Licklider

    Rutgers University. The study of civil war ... South Africa has a strong case to be the poster child of military integration after civil violence.6 In a .... One aspect of the South African response to this problem was unique: a. Defence White Paper ...

  3. Uniqueness of inverse scattering problem in local quantum physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, Bert [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: schroer@cbpf.br

    2001-06-01

    It is shown that the a Bisognano-Wichmann-Unruh inspired formulation of local quantum physics which starts from wedge-localized algebras, leads to a uniqueness proof for the scattering problem. The important mathematical tool is the thermal KMS aspect of localization and its strengthening by the requirement of crossing symmetry for generalized formfactors. (author)

  4. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph W Pridmore

    Full Text Available This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0 in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones. Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  5. Cone photoreceptor sensitivities and unique hue chromatic responses: correlation and causation imply the physiological basis of unique hues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Ralph W

    2013-01-01

    This paper relates major functions at the start and end of the color vision process. The process starts with three cone photoreceptors transducing light into electrical responses. Cone sensitivities were once expected to be Red Green Blue color matching functions (to mix colors) but microspectrometry proved otherwise: they instead peak in yellowish, greenish, and blueish hues. These physiological functions are an enigma, unmatched with any set of psychophysical (behavioral) functions. The end-result of the visual process is color sensation, whose essential percepts are unique (or pure) hues red, yellow, green, blue. Unique hues cannot be described by other hues, but can describe all other hues, e.g., that hue is reddish-blue. They are carried by four opponent chromatic response curves but the literature does not specify whether each curve represents a range of hues or only one hue (a unique) over its wavelength range. Here the latter is demonstrated, confirming that opponent chromatic responses define, and may be termed, unique hue chromatic responses. These psychophysical functions also are an enigma, unmatched with any physiological functions or basis. Here both enigmas are solved by demonstrating the three cone sensitivity curves and the three spectral chromatic response curves are almost identical sets (Pearson correlation coefficients r from 0.95-1.0) in peak wavelengths, curve shapes, math functions, and curve crossover wavelengths, though previously unrecognized due to presentation of curves in different formats, e.g., log, linear. (Red chromatic response curve is largely nonspectral and thus derives from two cones.) Close correlation combined with deterministic causation implies cones are the physiological basis of unique hues. This match of three physiological and three psychophysical functions is unique in color vision.

  6. Special irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomez, Gerard; Veyrat, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Irradiation trials conducted on materials-testing reactors should provide a better understanding of the phenomena which characterize the working and evolution in time of electricity-generating nuclear reactors. The authors begin by outlining the objectives behind experimental irradiation (applied to the various nuclear chains) and then describe the special techniques deployed to achieve these objectives [fr

  7. Merchandising Techniques and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sylvie A.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that libraries employ modern booksellers' merchandising techniques to improve circulation of library materials. Using displays in various ways, the methods and reasons for weeding out books, replacing worn book jackets, and selecting new books are discussed. Suggestions for learning how to market and 11 references are provided. (RBF)

  8. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention provides a control rod system locking device adapted to engage an elongated extension shaft, releasably coupled at one end to the control rod assembly and releasably coupled at its other end to the control rod drive, to prevent rotation of the shaft about its longitudinal axis with respect to the control rod assembly

  9. Unique Association of Rare Cardiovascular Disease in an Athlete With Ventricular Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, V; Contursi, M; Dellegrottaglie, S; Borsellino, G

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias are a leading cause of non-elegibility to competitive sport. The failure to detect a significant organic substrate in the initial stage of screening does not preclude the identification of structural pathologies in the follow-up by using advanced imaging techniques. Here we report the case of a senior athlete judged not elegible because an arrhythmia with the morphology consistent with the origin of the left ventricle, in which subsequent execution of a cardiac MR and a thoracic CT scan has allowed the identification of an unique association between an area of myocardial damage, probable site of origine of the arrhythma, and a rare aortic malformation.

  10. RPERT: Repetitive-Projects Evaluation and Review Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimating expected completion probability of any repetitive construction project with a specified/certain duration including repetitive identical activities by using program evaluation and review technique is the most essential part in construction areas since the activities were had optimistic, most likely and pessimistic durations. This paper focuses on the calculation of expected completion probability of any repetitive construction project within a specified/certain duration (contract duration by using Line Of Balance technique (LOB in case of single or multiple number of crews integrated with Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT. Repetitive-Projects Evaluation and Review Technique (RPERT, which is a simplified software, will generate the expected project completion probability of a specified/certain duration (contract duration. RPERT software is designed by java programming code system to provide a number of new and unique capabilities, including: (1 Viewing the expected project completion probability according to a set of specified durations per each identical activity (optimistic time, most likely time, and pessimistic time in the analyzed project; (2 Providing seamless integration with available project time calculations. In order to provide the aforementioned capabilities of RPERT, the system is implemented and developed in four main modules: (1 A user interface module; (2 A database module; (3 A running module; and (4 A processing module. At the end, an illustrative example will be presented to demonstrate and verify the applications of proposed software (RPERT, by using probabilistic calculations for repetitive construction projects.

  11. Health Care Provider Accommodations for Patients with Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Michael I.; Baylor, Carolyn; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Starks, Helene; Yorkston, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Health care providers can experience increased diffculty communicating with adult patients during medical interactions when the patients have communication disorders. Meeting the communication needs of these patients can also create unique challenges for providers. The authors explore Communication Accommodation Theory (H. Giles, 1979) as a guide…

  12. Unique interconnected graphene/SnO2 nanoparticle spherical multilayers for lithium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingguo; Tang, Jie; Sun, Yige; Li, Jing; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Jinshi; Zhu, Da-Ming; Qin, Lu-Chang

    2017-03-30

    We have designed and synthesized a unique structured graphene/SnO 2 composite, where SnO 2 nanoparticles are inserted in between interconnected graphene sheets which form hollow spherical multilayers. The hollow spherical multilayered structure provides much flexibility to accommodate the configuration and volume changes of SnO 2 in the material. When it is used as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, such a novel nanostructure can not only provide a stable conductive matrix and suppress the mechanical stress, but also eliminate the need of any binders for constructing electrodes. Electrochemical tests show that the unique graphene/SnO 2 composite electrode as designed could exhibit a large reversible capacity over 1000 mA h g -1 and long cycling life with 88% retention after 100 cycles. These results indicate the great potential of the composite for being used as a high performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries.

  13. NST and NST integration: nuclear science and technique and nano science and technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang; Liu Yuanfang

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear science is considered as a big science and also the frontier in the 20 th century, it developed many big scientific facilities and many technique platforms (e.g., nuclear reactor, synchrotron radiation, accelerator, etc.) Nuclear Science and Technology (NST) provide us with many unique tools such as neutron beams, electron beams, gamma rays, alpha rays, beta rays, energetic particles, etc. These are efficient and essential probes for studying many technique and scientific issues in the fields of new materials, biological sciences, environmental sciences, life sciences, medical science, etc. Nano Science and Technology (NST) is a newly emerging multidisciplinary science and the frontier in the 21 st century, it is expected to dominate the technological revolution in diverse aspects of our life. It involves diverse fields such as nanomaterials, nanobiological sciences, environmental nanotechnology, nanomedicine, etc. nanotechnology was once considered as a futuristic science with applications several decades in the future and beyond. But, the rapid development of nanotechnology has broken this prediction. For example, diverse types of manufactured nanomaterials or nanostructures have been currently utilized in industrial products, semiconductors, electronics, stain-resistant clothing, ski wax, catalysts, other commodity products such as food, sunscreens, cosmetics, automobile parts, etc., to improve their performance of previous functions, or completely create novel functions. They will also be increasingly utilized in medicines for purposes of clinic therapy, diagnosis, and drug delivery. In the talk, we will discuss the possibility of NST-NST integration: how to apply the unique probes of advanced radiochemical and nuclear techniques in nanoscience and nanotechnology. (authors)

  14. Conservation of a Unique Mechanism of Immune Evasion across the Lyssavirus Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzer, L.; Larrous, F.; Oksayan, S.; Ito, N.; Marsh, G. A.; Wang, L. F.; Blondel, D.; Bourhy, H.; Jans, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    The evasion of host innate immunity by Rabies virus, the prototype of the genus Lyssavirus, depends on a unique mechanism of selective targeting of interferon-activated STAT proteins by the viral phosphoprotein (P-protein). However, the immune evasion strategies of other lyssaviruses, including several lethal human pathogens, are unresolved. Here, we show that this mechanism is conserved between the most distantly related members of the genus, providing important insights into the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targeting of lyssaviruses. PMID:22740405

  15. Conservation of a unique mechanism of immune evasion across the Lyssavirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzer, L; Larrous, F; Oksayan, S; Ito, N; Marsh, G A; Wang, L F; Blondel, D; Bourhy, H; Jans, D A; Moseley, G W

    2012-09-01

    The evasion of host innate immunity by Rabies virus, the prototype of the genus Lyssavirus, depends on a unique mechanism of selective targeting of interferon-activated STAT proteins by the viral phosphoprotein (P-protein). However, the immune evasion strategies of other lyssaviruses, including several lethal human pathogens, are unresolved. Here, we show that this mechanism is conserved between the most distantly related members of the genus, providing important insights into the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targeting of lyssaviruses.

  16. Iterative Reconstruction Techniques in Abdominopelvic CT: Technical Concepts and Clinical Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Manuel; Fuentes, Jorge M; Singh, Sarabjeet; Hahn, Peter F; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses the clinical challenge of low-radiation-dose examinations, the commonly used approaches for dose optimization, and their effect on image quality. We emphasize practical aspects of the different iterative reconstruction techniques, along with their benefits, pitfalls, and clinical implementation. The widespread use of CT has raised concerns about potential radiation risks, motivating diverse strategies to reduce the radiation dose associated with CT. CT manufacturers have developed alternative reconstruction algorithms intended to improve image quality on dose-optimized CT studies, mainly through noise and artifact reduction. Iterative reconstruction techniques take unique approaches to noise reduction and provide distinct strength levels or settings.

  17. A Content Analysis of Unique Selling Propositions of Tobacco Print Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson Shen, Megan; Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Carpenter, Amanda; Ostroff, Jamie S

    2017-03-01

    We describe the unique selling propositions (USPs) (propositions used to convince customers to use a particular brand/product by focusing on the unique benefit) of print tobacco ads. A qualitative content analysis was conducted of print tobacco ads (N = 171) selected from August 2012 to August 2013 for cigarettes, moist snuff, e-cigarettes, cigars, and snus to determine the content and themes of USPs for tobacco ads. Cigarette ad USP themes focused on portraying the product as attractive; moist snuff ads focused on portraying product as masculine; cigar ads focused on selling a "high end product;" and new and emerging tobacco products (e-cigarette, snus) focused on directly comparing these products to cigarettes. Whereas traditional tobacco product ads used USPs focused on themes of enjoyment and pleasure (eg, attractive for cigarettes, "high end product" for cigars), new and emerging tobacco product ads offered the unique benefit (USP) of their product being a better and "safer" alternative to traditional tobacco products. Snuff's USPs focused nearly exclusively on the masculinity of their products. Our results provide targets for potential tobacco regulatory actions that could be implemented to reduce demand for tobacco products by reducing their perceived unique benefits.

  18. A Content Analysis of Unique Selling Propositions of Tobacco Print Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Megan Johnson; Banerjee, Smita C.; Greene, Kathryn; Carpenter, Amanda; Ostroff, Jamie S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The present study described the unique selling propositions (USPs) (propositions used to convince customers to use a particular brand/product by focusing on the unique benefit) of print tobacco ads. Methods A qualitative content analysis was conducted of print tobacco ads (N = 171) selected from August 2012-August 2013 for cigarettes, moist snuff, e-cigarettes, cigars, and snus to determine the content and themes of USPs for tobacco ads. Results Cigarette ad USP themes focused on portraying the product as attractive; moist snuff ads focused on portraying product as masculine; cigar ads focused on selling a “high end product;” and new and emerging tobacco products (e-cigarette, snus) focused on directly comparing these products to cigarettes. Conclusions Whereas traditional tobacco product ads used USPs focused on themes of enjoyment and pleasure (eg, attractive for cigarettes, “high end product” for cigars), new and emerging tobacco product ads offered the unique benefit (USP) of their product being a better and “safer” alternative to traditional tobacco products. Snuff’s USPs focused nearly exclusively on the masculinity of their products. Results of this study provide targets for potential tobacco regulatory actions that could be implemented to reduce demand for tobacco products by reducing their perceived unique benefits. PMID:28452697

  19. The method of selecting an integrated development territory for the high-rise unique constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheina, Svetlana; Shevtsova, Elina; Sukhinin, Alexander; Priss, Elena

    2018-03-01

    On the basis of data provided by the Department of architecture and urban planning of the city of Rostov-on-don, the problem of the choice of the territory for complex development that will be in priority for the construction of high-rise and unique buildings is solved. The objective of the study was the development of a methodology for selection of the area and the implementation of the proposed method on the example of evaluation of four-territories complex development. The developed method along with standard indicators of complex evaluation considers additional indicators that assess the territory from the position of high-rise unique building. The final result of the study is the rankings of the functional priority areas that takes into account the construction of both residential and public and business objects of unique high-rise construction. The use of the developed methodology will allow investors and customers to assess the investment attractiveness of the future unique construction project on the proposed site.

  20. The method of selecting an integrated development territory for the high-rise unique constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheina Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of data provided by the Department of architecture and urban planning of the city of Rostov-on-don, the problem of the choice of the territory for complex development that will be in priority for the construction of high-rise and unique buildings is solved. The objective of the study was the development of a methodology for selection of the area and the implementation of the proposed method on the example of evaluation of four-territories complex development. The developed method along with standard indicators of complex evaluation considers additional indicators that assess the territory from the position of high-rise unique building. The final result of the study is the rankings of the functional priority areas that takes into account the construction of both residential and public and business objects of unique high-rise construction. The use of the developed methodology will allow investors and customers to assess the investment attractiveness of the future unique construction project on the proposed site.

  1. Inhaler technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, M L; Dekhuijzen, P R N; Barnes, P J

    2016-01-01

    to each other and thence to patients. The exercise is intended as a pragmatic, evidence-informed review by a group of clinicians with appropriate experience. It is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the literature; rather, we aim to stimulate debate, and to encourage researchers to challenge some...... of these ideas and to provide new, updated evidence on which to base relevant, meaningful advice in the future. The discussion on each item is followed by a formal, expert opinion by members of the ADMIT Working Group. © 2016 Primary Care Respiratory Society UK/Macmillan Publishers Limited....

  2. Industrial technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A typical embodiment of the invention detects leaking fuel rods by means of a radiation detector that measures the concentration of xenon-133 (Xe 133 ) within each individual rod. A collimated detector that provides signals related to the energy of incident radiation is aligned with one of the ends of a fuel rod. A statistically significant sample of the gamma radiation (γ-rays) that characterize Xe 133 is accumulated through the detector. The data so accumulated indicates the presence of a concentration of Xe 133 appropriate to a sound fuel rod, or a significantly different concentration that reflects a leaking fuel rod

  3. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  4. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  5. Nonenhanced MR angiography techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzman, R.S.; Kroepil, P.; Blondin, D.; Schmitt, P.

    2011-01-01

    Especially in regard to the potential risks for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) following the administration of Gadolinium-based contrast material, nonenhanced MR angiography (MRA) methods are becoming ever more important. Besides well-established time-of-flight (TOF) and phase-contrast (PC) MRA, alternative imaging techniques based on balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) and turbo-spin-echo (TSE) sequences are increasingly used in combination with or without arterial spin labeling (ASL) strategies. This article provides an overview of the principles and clinical values of different nonenhanced MRA techniques. In addition, recent nonenhanced MRA developments are presented. (orig.)

  6. Mindfulness meditation-related pain relief: Evidence for unique brain mechanisms in the regulation of pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidan, F.; Grant, J.A.; Brown, C.A.; McHaffie, J.G.; Coghill, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The cognitive modulation of pain is influenced by a number of factors ranging from attention, beliefs, conditioning, expectations, mood, and the regulation of emotional responses to noxious sensory events. Recently, mindfulness meditation has been found attenuate pain through some of these mechanisms including enhanced cognitive and emotional control, as well as altering the contextual evaluation of sensory events. This review discusses the brain mechanisms involved in mindfulness meditation-related pain relief across different meditative techniques, expertise and training levels, experimental procedures, and neuroimaging methodologies. Converging lines of neuroimaging evidence reveal that mindfulness meditation-related pain relief is associated with unique appraisal cognitive processes depending on expertise level and meditation tradition. Moreover, it is postulated that mindfulness meditation-related pain relief may share a common final pathway with other cognitive techniques in the modulation of pain. PMID:22487846

  7. Target Choice and Unique Synergies in Global Mobile Telephony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Köhler, Rebecca; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    their foresight to select specific targets: First, they lower integration costs by selecting geographically close targets. This effect is stronger when buyer and target are in the same country, but only if the market is not so concentrated that it provokes regulatory interventions. Second, they select targets......The success of acquisitions rests on detecting and realizing unique synergies between buyer and target through their dyadic relationships. We study the role of unique dyad-specific synergies in the selection of takeover targets in the global mobile telecommunications industry. Firms use...... that can be acquired at a modest bid premium because they have asymmetric bargaining power. Finally, they select targets which can generate significant synergies due to technological synergies. Our work expands the existing target selection literature by studying dyad-specific factors within a single...

  8. Unique Migraine Subtypes, Rare Headache Disorders, and Other Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goadsby, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    The medical aphorism that common things happen commonly makes unique (and less common) migraine subtypes especially appropriate to review for the general neurologist. This article also identifies some rare headache disorders and other disturbances, and offers strategies to manage them. This article discusses migraine with brainstem aura, which is troublesome clinically and has had a change in terminology in the International Classification of Headache Disorders, Third Edition, beta version (ICHD-3 beta), and hemiplegic migraine, which is also troublesome in practice. The rare headache disorder hypnic headache and the exploding head syndrome are also discussed. When hypnic headache is recognized, it is eminently treatable, while exploding head syndrome is a benign condition with no reported consequences. Unique migraine subtypes, rare headache disorders, and other disturbances present to neurologists. When recognized, they can often be managed very well, which offers significant benefits to patients and practice satisfaction to neurologists.

  9. Solitary intraosseous neurofibroma: Report of a unique case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Satish Jangam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural tumors located centrally in jaw bones are relatively rare compared with soft tissue neurofibromas. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature with a predilection for mandible. This article aims to elucidate a unique case of intraosseous neurofibroma of mandible in a 62-year-old edentulous female patient associated with facial asymmetry due to the swelling extending from the right body of mandible to left body of mandible. The uniqueness of this case is related to the age and extensiveness of this lesion. A review of clinical, radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical features, and the surgical management pertaining to this case are discussed along with a review of the literature.

  10. Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renahan, Navanith; Varma, R Balagopal; Kumaran, Parvathy; Xavier, Arun M

    2017-01-01

    The number of deaf children has dramatically increased in the past few decades. These children present to the pediatric dentist a unique set of challenges mostly pertaining to the establishment of communication with them. There have been very few attempts in the past to break down these challenges and formulate a strategy on how to manage them effectively. This is a case report of a child who was successfully managed using two different modes of communication. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages are mentioned, and a common strategy incorporating the positives of both the methods has been devised. Renahan N, Varma RB, Kumaran P, Xavier AM. Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):107-110.

  11. Concentration and mindfulness meditations: unique forms of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, B R; Hartigan, J A; Mikulas, W L

    1999-09-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1-3 Hz; theta, 4-7 Hz; alpha, 8-12 Hz; beta 1, 13-25 Hz; beta 2, 26-32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude frequency differences between the two meditation conditions and relaxation over numerous cortical sites. Furthermore, significant differences were obtained between concentration and mindfulness states at all bandwidths. Taken together, our results suggest that concentration and mindfulness "meditations" may be unique forms of consciousness and are not merely degrees of a state of relaxation.

  12. On the Existence and Uniqueness of the Scientific Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagensberg, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate utility of science is widely agreed upon: the comprehension of reality. But there is much controversy about what scientific understanding actually means, and how we should proceed in order to gain new scientific understanding. Is there a method for acquiring new scientific knowledge? Is this method unique and universal? There has been no shortage of proposals, but neither has there been a shortage of skeptics about these proposals. This article proffers for discussion a potential scientific method that aspires to be unique and universal and is rooted in the recent and ancient history of scientific thinking. Curiously, conclusions can be inferred from this scientific method that also concern education and the transmission of science to others.

  13. Being and feeling unique: statistical deviance and psychological marginality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frable, D E

    1993-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypothesis that people with culturally stigmatized and concealable conditions (e.g., gays, epileptics, juvenile delinquents, and incest victims) would be more likely to feel unique than people with culturally valued or conspicuous conditions (e.g., the physically attractive, the intellectually gifted, the obese, and the facially scarred). In Study 1, culturally stigmatized individuals with concealable conditions were least likely to perceive consensus between their personal preferences and those of others. In Study 2, they were most likely to describe themselves as unique and to make these self-relevant decisions quickly. Marginality is a psychological reality, not just a statistical one, for those with stigmatized and concealable "master status" conditions.

  14. Uniqueness of rarefaction waves in multidimensional compressible Euler system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Kreml, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2015), s. 489-499 ISSN 0219-8916 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : compressible Euler system * uniqueness * rarefaction wave * Riemann problem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2015 http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S0219891615500149

  15. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine eCashman; Juliet eBiggs

    2014-01-01

    An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behavior over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behavior (or “personali...

  16. Social Capital and Institutions in Rural Kenya: Is Machakos Unique?

    OpenAIRE

    Nyangena, Wilfred; Sterner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In Eastern Africa, the experience of Machakos has been heavily debated between Malthusians and the more optimistic Boserupians. Machakos was the epitome of overpopulation and resource degradation in the 1950s, but has since thrived. The Boserupians view Machakos as an illustration of how population growth can solve rather than exacerbate the vicious cycle of poverty and resource degradation. The question arises whether Machakos is unique. This study investigates the role of social capital in ...

  17. CHID: a unique health information and education database.

    OpenAIRE

    Lunin, L F; Stein, R S

    1987-01-01

    The public's growing interest in health information and the health professions' increasing need to locate health education materials can be answered in part by the new Combined Health Information Database (CHID). This unique database focuses on materials and programs in professional and patient education, general health education, and community risk reduction. Accessible through BRS, CHID suggests sources for procuring brochures, pamphlets, articles, and films on community services, programs ...

  18. Uniqueness of Steiner minimal trees on boundaries in general position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A O; Tuzhilin, A A

    2006-01-01

    The following result is proved: there exists an open dense subset U of R 2n such that each P element of U (regarded as an enumerated subset of the standard Euclidean plane R 2 ) is spanned by a unique Steiner minimal tree, that is, a shortest non-degenerate network. Several interesting consequences are also obtained: in particular, it is proved that each planar Steiner tree is planar equivalent to a Steiner minimal tree.

  19. Recurrent intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis: A unique combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors report an 11-month-old female child, who presented with recurrent episodes of colicky abdominal pain and diarrhea. An abdominal ultrasound revealed small bowel intussusception. She was also noted to have a thick walled gall bladder and a solitary gallstone. Further investigations confirmed the diagnosis of coeliac disease. The combination of small bowel intussusception, coeliac disease and cholelithiasis is unique and has not been reported in the literature.

  20. Diophantine and minimal but not uniquely ergodic (almost)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapisz, Jaroslaw; Mathison, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate that minimal non-uniquely ergodic behaviour can be generated by slowing down a simple harmonic oscillator with diophantine frequency, in contrast with the known examples where the frequency is well approximable by the rationals. The slowing is effected by a singular time change that brings one phase point to rest. The time one-map of the flow has uncountably many invariant measures yet every orbit is dense, with the minor exception of the rest point

  1. On the stability of unique range sets for meromorphic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Huy Khoai; Nguyen Van Khue

    2003-03-01

    For a set S we construct a complex space Z S such that S is a unique range set for meromorphic functions (URS) if and only if Z S is hyperbolic. A consequence of this result is that the set of URS with n elements (considered as a subset of C n ) is open, and then the small deformations of Yi's and Frank-Reinders' sets are URS. (author)

  2. On the Non-Uniqueness of Sediment Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Ivanov, V. Y.; Fatichi, S.

    2014-12-01

    There has been ample experimental evidence that soil erosion does not necessarily occur at the same rate, given the same amount of rainfall or runoff. Such a non-unique phenomenon has been often referred to in literature as due to 'natural variability'. Our recent study hypothesized that uncertainties in the distribution and properties of a sediment layer can be a potential clue to one of the reasons of the non-unique sediment yield. Specifically, numerical experimentation with a sophisticated two-dimensional model showed that a deposited layer plays two conflicting roles: it can both increase and decrease soil erosion, given the same magnitude of runoff. The difference in erodibilities of the "original, intact soil layer" and the "deposited, loose soil layer" and the composition of soil particles in the underlying layers give rise to the non-uniqueness of the amount of eroded materials. In continuing efforts, we attempt to investigate this phenomenon using a comprehensive the Universal Soil Loss Erosion (USLE) database, that contains data on paired hillslopes that show a high degree of non-uniqueness in the response, even though the hillslopes exhibit the same topography, soil type, rainfall and meteorological forcings, and landuse. An underlying hypothesis of this study is that uncertainties in the distribution of soil substrate prior to a rainfall event lead to low predictability skill, i.e., a stochastically-varying outcome. A large number of simulation cases demonstrating the proposed hypothesis are conducted using a coupled numerical model, tRIBS-VEGGIE-FEaST (Triangulated irregular network - based Real time Integrated Basin Simulator- VEGetation Generator for Interactive Evolution -Flow Erosion and Sediment Transport).

  3. Methanophosphagen: Unique cyclic pyrophosphate isolated from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum

    OpenAIRE

    Kanodia, Sushila; Roberts, Mary Fedarko

    1983-01-01

    A unique cyclic pyrophosphate compound has been detected at 10-12 mM intracellular concentration in Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum by in vivo31P NMR. This compound has been extracted from cells and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. Studies with 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR and fast-atom-bombardment mass spectrometry have identified it as 2,3-cyclopyrophosphoglycerate, an intramolecularly cyclized pyrophosphate of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. Chemical degradation to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate an...

  4. Uniqueness of Nash equilibria in a quantum Cournot duopoly game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Yohei; Sakahara, Kiri; Sato, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    A quantum Cournot game whose classical form game has multiple Nash equilibria is examined. Although the classical equilibria fail to be Pareto optimal, the quantum equilibrium exhibits the following two properties: (i) if the measurement of entanglement between strategic variables chosen by the competing firms is sufficiently large, the multiplicity of equilibria vanishes, and (ii) the more strongly the strategic variables are entangled, the more closely the unique equilibrium approaches to the optimal one.

  5. Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria: Unique Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram M Berla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria’s potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as ‘chassis’ strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a ‘green E. coli’. In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  6. Plastic-casting intrinsic-surface unique identifier (tag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; De Volpi, A.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the development of an authenticated intrinsic-surf ace tagging method for unique- identification of controlled items. Although developed for control of items limited by an arms control treaty, this method has other potential applications to keep track of critical or high-value items. Each tag (unique-identifier) consists of the intrinsic, microscopic surface topography of a small designated area on a controlled item. It is implemented by making a baseline plastic casting of the designated tag area and usually placing a cover (for example, a bar-code label) over this area to protect the surface from environmental alteration. The plastic casting is returned to a laboratory and prepared for high-resolution scanning electron microscope imaging. Several images are digitized and stored for use as a standard for authentication of castings taken during future inspections. Authentication is determined by numerically comparing digital images. Commercially available hardware and software are used for this tag. Tag parameters are optimized, so unique casting images are obtained from original surfaces, and images obtained from attempted duplicate surfaces are detected. This optimization uses the modulation transfer function, a first principle of image analysis, to determine the parameters. Surface duplication experiments confirmed the optimization

  7. Unique microstructure and excellent mechanical properties of ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Liu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the cast iron family, ADI has a unique microstructure and an excellent, optimised combination of mechanical properties. The main microstructure of ADI is ausferrite, which is a mixture ofextremely fine acicular ferrite and stable, high carbon austenite. There are two types of austenite in ADI:(1 the coarser and more equiaxed blocks of austenite between non-parallel acicular structures, which exist mainly in the last solidified area, and (2 the thin films of ustenite between the individual ferriteplatelets in the acicular structure. It is this unique microstructure, which gives ADI its excellent static and dynamic properties, and good low temperature impact toughness. The effect of microstructure on the mechanical properties is explained in more detail by examining the microstructure at the atomic scale. Considering the nanometer grain sizes, the unique microstructure, the excellent mechanical properties,good castability, (which enables near net shape components to be produced economically and in large volumes, and the fact that it can be 100% recycled, it is not overemphasized to call ADI a high-tech,nanometer and “green” material. ADI still has the potential to be further improved and its production and the number of applications for ADI will continue to grow, driven by the resultant cost savings over alternative materials.

  8. A unique tripartite collision tumor of the esophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schizas, Dimitrios; Michalinos, Adamantios; Alexandrou, Paraskevi; Moris, Demetrios; Baliou, Evangelia; Tsilimigras, Diamantis; Throupis, Theodore; Liakakos, Theodore

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: We report a unique case of a tripartite esophageal collision tumor consisting of three separate histologic types. Patients concerns: Therapeutic dilemmas on the proper treatment of those rare neoplasms remain unanswered considering both proper surgical therapy and adjuvant therapy. Diagnose: In this paper, we report a unique case of a patient with a tripartite esophageal collision tumor consisting of a small cell carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma of medium differentiation and a signet ring cell carcinoma. Diagnosis is difficult as clinical presentation of the patient was undistinguishable from other, commoner tumor types. Interventions: The patient's diagnostic and therapeutic course along with available data on the collisions tumor's biological behavior and treatment are briefly discussed. Outcomes: Esophagectomy is the best treatment options for these patients. Unique nature of this tumor demands aggresive oncologic treatment. Lessons: Collision tumors are rare neoplasms consisting of distinct cell populations developing in juxtaposition to one another without any areas of intermingling. Various cell types can be found. However, collision neoplasms of the esophagus combining adenomatous and neuroendocrine components are exceedingly rare, with only 5 cases described to date in the literature. Given their rarity, limited information is available on their tumorigenesis, biological behavior and clinical course. In general, these tumors are aggressive neoplasms and significantly affect patient treatment and prognosis. PMID:29245236

  9. Uniqueness of the gauge invariant action for cosmological perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In second order perturbation theory different definitions are known of gauge invariant perturbations in single field inflationary models. Consequently the corresponding gauge invariant cubic actions do not have the same form. Here we show that the cubic action for one choice of gauge invariant variables is unique in the following sense: the action for any other, non-linearly related variable can be brought to the same bulk action, plus additional boundary terms. These boundary terms correspond to the choice of hypersurface and generate extra, disconnected contributions to the bispectrum. We also discuss uniqueness of the action with respect to conformal frames. When expressed in terms of the gauge invariant curvature perturbation on uniform field hypersurfaces the action for cosmological perturbations has a unique form, independent of the original Einstein or Jordan frame. Crucial is that the gauge invariant comoving curvature perturbation is frame independent, which makes it extremely helpful in showing the quantum equivalence of the two frames, and therefore in calculating quantum effects in nonminimally coupled theories such as Higgs inflation

  10. Evolutionary theory, human uniqueness and the image of God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert van den Brink

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examined what might be called the evolutionary argument against human uniqueness and human dignity. After having rehearsed briefly the roots of the classical Judeo- Christian view on human uniqueness and human dignity in the first chapters of Genesis, I went on to explore and delineate the nature of the evolutionary argument against this view. Next, I examined whether Christian theology might widen the concept of imago Dei so as to include other beings as well as humans, thus giving up the idea of human uniqueness. I concluded, however, that this move is deeply problematic. Therefore, I turned to a discussion of some recent attempts to define both human uniqueness and the image of God in theological rather than empirical terms. One of these, which is based on the concept of incarnation, is found wanting, but another one is construed in such a way that it enables us to reconcile the idea of human uniqueness as encapsulated in the doctrine of the imago Dei with contemporary evolutionary theory. Thus, this article can be seen as an exercise in bringing classical Christian theology to terms with evolution, further highlighting this theology’s ongoing vitality. Evolusieteorie, menslike uniekheid and die beeld van God. In hierdie artikel ondersoek ek die sogenaamde evolusionêre argument teen menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid. Na ‘n kort oorsig oor die oorsprong van die klassieke Joods-Christelike siening van menslike uniekheid en menswaardigheid soos uit die eerste vyf hoofstukke van Genesis blyk, ondersoek en beeld ek die aard van die evolusionêre argument hierteenoor uit. Vervolgens word die vraag ondersoek of die Christelike teologie die konsep van imago Dei sodanig kan verbreed dat dit ook ander wesens behalwe mense kan insluit, waardeur die idee van menslike uniekheid dus prysgegee word. Ek kom egter tot die slotsom dat hierdie skuif hoogs problematies is. Daarom wend ek my tot ’n bespreking van onlangse pogings om

  11. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Methods: Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Results: Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 overestimated using a tape measure. Sagittal neck landmark distances such as thyroid height, sternal-mental distance, and thyroid-cricoid distance significantly decreased after placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Conclusion: The laryngeal mask airway Unique resulted in significant changes in internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more

  12. Optical inspection techniques for security instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Renesse, Rudolf L.

    1996-03-01

    This paper reviews four optical inspection systems, in which development TNO Institute of Applied Physics was involved: (1) intaglio scanning and recognition, (2) banknote quality inspection, (3) visualization and reading of a finger pattern, and (4) 3DAS authentication. (1) Intaglio is reserved for high security printing. It renders a tactile relief that can be recognized by a laser scanning technique. This technique is applied by various national banks to detect counterfeit banknotes returning from circulation. A new system is proposed that will detect intaglio on arbitrary wrinkled banknotes. (2) A banknote fitness inspection system (BFIS) that inspects banknotes in specularly reflected light is described. As modern banknotes are provided increasingly with reflective security foils, a new system is proposed that inspects banknotes in specular and diffuse reflection, as well as in transmission. (3) An alternative visualization method for visualization of finger patterns is described, employing a reflective elastomer. A CD scanning system reads the finger patterns. (4) A nonwoven structure has two advantageous properties for card authentication: a random structure which renders each few square millimeters of the pattern uniqueness (identification) and a 3D structure which makes it virtually impossible to be counterfeited (authentication). Both properties are inspected by an extremely simple lenseless reader.

  13. Unique Capabilities of the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) Mission Concept to Study the Equatorial Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Minow, J. I.; Gallagher, D. L.; Hoegy, W. R.; Coffey, V. N.; Willis, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present an overview of a mission concept named Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) with a special focus here on low-latitude ionospheric plasma turbulence measurements relevant to equatorial spread-F. SASSI is a suite of sensors that improves Space Situational Awareness for the ISS local space environment, as well as unique ionospheric measurements and support active plasma experiments on the ISS. As such, the mission concept has both operational and basic research objectives. We will describe two compelling measurement techniques enabled by SASSI's unique mission architecture. That is, SASSI provides new abilities to 1) measure space plasma potentials in low Earth orbit over ~100 m relative to a common potential, and 2) to investigate multi-scale ionospheric plasma turbulence morphology simultaneously of both ~ 1 cm and ~ 10 m scale lengths. The first measurement technique will aid in the distinction of vertical drifts within equatorial plasma bubbles from the vertical motions of the bulk of the layer due to zonal electric fields. The second will aid in understanding ionospheric plasma turbulence cascading in scale sizes that affect over the horizon radar. During many years of ISS operation, we have conducted effective (but not perfect) human and robotic extravehicular activities within the space plasma environment surrounding the ISS structure. However, because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the space environment, there remain important sources of unpredictable environmental situations that affect operations. Examples of affected systems include EVA safety, solar panel efficiency, and scientific instrument integrity. Models and heuristically-derived best practices are well-suited for routine operations, but when it comes to unusual or anomalous events or situations, there is no substitute for real-time monitoring. SASSI is being designed to deploy and operate a suite of low-cost, medium/high-TRL plasma sensors on

  14. Spider Silk Violin Strings with a Unique Packing Structure Generate a Soft and Profound Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-04-01

    We overcome the difficulties in pulling long draglines from spiders, twist bundles of dragline filaments, and succeed in preparing violin strings. The twisting is found to change the cross section shapes of filaments from circular to polygonal and to optimize the packing structure with no openings among filaments providing mechanically strong and elastic strings. The spider string signal peaks of overtones for the violin are relatively large at high frequencies, generating a soft and profound timbre. Such a preferable timbre is considered to be due to the unique polygonal packing structure which provides valuable knowledge for developing new types of materials.

  15. Is subjective social status a unique correlate of physical health? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A

    2017-12-01

    Both social stratification (e.g., social rank) as well as economic resources (e.g., income) are thought to contribute to socioeconomic health disparities. It has been proposed that subjective socioeconomic status (an individual's perception of his or her hierarchical rank) provides increased predictive utility for physical health over and above more traditional, well-researched socioeconomic constructs such as education, occupation, and income. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies examining the association of subjective socioeconomic status (SES) and physical health adjusting for at least 1 measure of objective SES. The final sample included 31 studies and 99 unique effects. Meta-analyses were performed to: (a) estimate the overlap among subjective and objective indicators of SES and (b) estimate the cumulative association of subjective SES with physical health adjusting for objective SES. Potential moderators such as race and type of health indicator assessed (global self-reports vs. more specific and biologically based indicators) were also examined. Across samples, subjective SES shows moderate overlap with objective indicators of SES, but associations are much stronger in Whites than Blacks. Subjective SES evidenced a unique cumulative association with physical health in adults, above and beyond traditional objective indicators of SES (Z = .07, SE = .01, p Subjective SES may provide unique information relevant to understanding disparities in health, especially self-rated health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A New Approach to Environmentally Safe Unique Identification of Long-Term Stored Copper Canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikova, D.; Axell, K.; Nordlund, A.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to environmentally safe unique identification of long-term stored copper canisters is suggested in this paper. The approach is based on the use of a tungstenbased insert placed inside a copper cask between a top iron lid and a copper lid. The insert/label is marked with unique code in a form of binary number, which is implemented as a combination of holes in the tungsten plate. In order to provide a necessary redundancy of the identifier, the tungsten label marked with few identical binary codes. The position of code (i.e., holes in tungsten) corresponds to a predefined placement of the spent fuel assembles in the iron container. This is in order to avoid any non-uniformity of the gamma background at the canister surface caused by a presence of iron-filled spaces between spent nuclear fuel assembles. Due to the use of the tungsten material gamma rays emitted by the spent fuel assembles are collimated in a specific way because of strong attenuation properties of tungsten. As a result, the variation in the gamma-counting rate in a detector array placed on the top of copper lid provides the distribution of the holes in the tungsten insert or in other words the unique identifier. Thus, this way of identification of copper cask do not impair the integrity of the cask and it offers a way that the information about spent nuclear fuel is legible for a time scale up to a few thousands years. (author)

  17. Unique aspects of impulsive traits in substance use and overeating: specific contributions of common assessments of impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Derek; Abdi, Hervé; Filbey, Francesca M

    2014-11-01

    Abstract Background: Impulsivity is a complex trait often studied in substance abuse and overeating disorders, but the exact nature of impulsivity traits and their contribution to these disorders are still debated. Thus, understanding how to measure impulsivity is essential for comprehending addictive behaviors. Identify unique impulsivity traits specific to substance use and overeating. Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS) and Barratt's Impulsivity scales (BIS) Scales were analyzed with a non-parametric factor analytic technique (discriminant correspondence analysis) to identify group-specific traits on 297 individuals from five groups: Marijuana (n = 88), Nicotine (n = 82), Overeaters (n = 27), Marijuauna + Nicotine (n = 63), and CONTROLs (n = 37). A significant overall factor structure revealed three components of impulsivity that explained respectively 50.19% (pperm Overeating: lacks focus, but plans (short and long term). Our results reveal impulsivity traits specific to each group. This may provide better criteria to define spectrums and trajectories - instead of categories - of symptoms for substance use and eating disorders. Defining symptomatic spectrums could be an important step forward in diagnostic strategies.

  18. ROMANIA'S MACROECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS FOR JOINING THE UNIQUE EUROPEAN CURENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian government has announced plans to join the eurozone by 2015. Currently, the leu is not yet part of ERM II but plans to join in 2010-2012. The economic advantages of the monetary union grow with expansion of the Euro zone. There is also a high level of skepticism; the main fear about the Euro is the inflation –that is considerable promoted by the Euro currency’s exchange rate in comparison with 2002; another restraint is due to member states inability to establish their own interest rates. The IMF arose the option of joining the Euro zone criteria relaxing. A one-sided Euro’s joining was suggested by International Monetary Fund on March-April 2009, in a confidential report mentioned by The Financial Times as the emergent states in Central and Eastern Europe to be able to pass to the unique currency, but not being represented in the Central European Bank Board. By its side, CEB considers that emergent states of the European Union must not pass to the unique currency unilaterally, because such a fact could under-mine the trust in Euro currency worldwide. This option would hardly deepen the macroeconomic controversies inside the Euro zone and would contradict the previous conditions already imposed. An acceptable solution could be the fastening of emergent countries joining the Exchange Rate Mechanism 2, after they are aware of risks arisen by such a step. The European Commission endorses in the Convergence Report on 2010 that Romania doesn’t meet any criteria needed by passing to the unique European currency, respectively: prices stability; budget position of the government; stability of exchange rate; interest convergence on long run and there are also law impediments. Our paper discusses arguments for a faster passing to the Euro currency versus arguments for a late joining the Euro currency in Romania.

  19. Uniqueness of family therapists as family business systems consultants: a cross-disciplinary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinhee; Danes, Sharon M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to address how the consulting approaches of family therapists working with family businesses differ from those of business consultants. The logic of analytic induction was used to analyze qualitative data from family business consultants with and without training in family therapy. Consultants were asked to respond to two vignettes: one emphasized primarily family system problems, whereas the other emphasized business problems with influencing issues at the family/business intersection. Both similarities and differences were found in reference to problem assessment, consulting goal orientation, intervention strategy focus, consultant role and function, and consulting setting preference between consultants with and without family therapy training. Results indicate that consultants of each discipline provide a unique perspective and expertise that allow them to successfully address the spectrum of issues that family firms face. Further, findings highlight the unique contribution of family therapists to an interdisciplinary consulting team. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. A unique case of craniopagus twins: considerations and challenges for dental rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe oral findings and outline challenges and considerations for general anesthetic (GA) and dental management of 4-year-old female craniopagus (cranially conjoined) twins, at high risk for medical comorbidity, who presented for treatment of severe early childhood caries. This hospital-based procedure required good interdisciplinary communication, cooperation, and presurgical planning to address unique challenges and ensure positive postoperative outcomes. Two separate anesthesia teams delivered GA simultaneously to each twin. To minimize anesthetic exposure, two pediatric dental teams completed dental care concurrently. Extensive plaque accumulation and unusual "mirror-image" caries distribution were attributed to frequency and postural pooling during feeding. The rehabilitation objective was to provide definitive dental management, minimizing future need for dental retreatment under GA. Two-month follow-up revealed intact dental restorations, good oral hygiene, and weight gain. For these unique twins however, the challenge of long-term oral health maintenance remains.

  1. Unique Description for Single Transverse Spin Asymmetries in DIS and Hadronic Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Feng

    2007-01-01

    We derive a unique formula for the single-transverse-spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive hadron production in deep inelastic scattering, valid for all transverse momentum region. Based on this, we further study the integrated asymmetry weighted with transverse-momentum. They can be evaluated in terms of the twist-three quark-gluon correlation functions, which are responsible for the single spin asymmetry in single inclusive hadron production in hadronic collisions. By using the fitted twist-three functions from the hadronic collision data, we find a consistent description for SSAs in deep inelastic scattering. This demonstrates that we have a unique picture for SSAs in these two processes, and shall provide important guidelines for future studies

  2. Attitude Certainty and Attitudinal Advocacy: The Unique Roles of Clarity and Correctness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Lauren; Tormala, Zakary L

    2015-11-01

    When and why do people advocate on behalf of their attitudes? Past research suggests that attitude certainty is one important determinant. The current research seeks to provide more nuanced insight into this relationship by (a) exploring the unique roles of attitude clarity and attitude correctness, and (b) mapping clarity and correctness onto different forms of advocacy (sharing intentions and persuasion intentions). Across four studies, we find that correctness but not clarity plays an important role in promoting persuasion intentions, whereas both correctness and clarity help shape sharing intentions. Thus, this research unpacks the certainty-advocacy relation and helps identify experimental manipulations that uniquely drive persuasion and sharing intentions. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Conditions for uniqueness of product representations for separable quantum channels and separable quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    We give a sufficient condition that an operator sum representation of a separable quantum channel in terms of product operators is the unique product representation for that channel, and then provide examples of such channels for any number of parties. This result has implications for efforts to determine whether or not a given separable channel can be exactly implemented by local operations and classical communication. By the Choi-Jamiolkowski isomorphism, it also translates to a condition for the uniqueness of product state ensembles representing a given quantum state. These ideas follow from considerations concerning whether or not a subspace spanned by a given set of product operators contains at least one additional product operator

  4. Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on a strict extension of the principles of spot pricing and surplus allocation, we propose a new pricing methodology that can yield unique, impartial, and robust solution. The new method has been analyzed and compared with other pricing approaches in accordance with spot pricing theory. Case studies support...

  5. Existence and uniqueness in anisotropic conductivity reconstruction with Faraday's law

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Min-Gi

    2015-03-18

    We show that three sets of internal current densities are the right amount of data that give the existence and the uniqueness at the same time in reconstructing an anisotropic conductivity in two space dimensions. The curl free equation of Faraday’s law is taken instead of the usual divergence free equation of the electrical impedance to- mography. Boundary conditions related to given current densities are introduced which complete a well determined problem for conductivity reconstruction together with Fara- day’s law.

  6. Uniqueness of solution to a stationary boundary kinetic problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhykharsky, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    The paper treats the question of uniqueness of solution to the boundary kinetic problem. This analysis is based on the accurate solutions to the stationary one-dimensional boundary kinetic problem for the limited plasma system. In the paper a simplified problem statement is used (no account is taken of the external magnetic field, a simplest form of boundary conditions is accepted) which, however, covers all features of the problem considered. Omitting the details of the conclusion we will write a set of Vlasov stationary kinetic equations for the cases of plane, cylindrical and spherical geometry of the problem. (author) 1 ref

  7. Bilateral Morgagni Hernia: A Unique Presentation of a Rare Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leshen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morgagni hernia is an unusual congenital herniation of abdominal content through the triangular parasternal gaps of the anterior diaphragm. They are commonly asymptomatic and right-sided. We present a case of a bilateral Morgagni hernia resulting in delayed growth in a 10-month-old boy. The presentation was unique due to its bilateral nature and its symptomatic compression of the mediastinum. Diagnosis was made by 3D reconstructed CT angiogram. The patient underwent medical optimization until he was safely able to tolerate laparoscopic surgical repair of his hernia. Upon laparoscopy, the CT findings were confirmed and the hernia was repaired.

  8. Unique molecular properties of superoxide dismutase from teleost fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, T; Sato, M; Takeuchi, M

    1995-02-27

    A unique Cu,Zn-SOD was found and isolated from plaice Paralichthys olivaceus skin. Surprisingly, the properties of purified fish skin SOD were very different from those of SOD from other sources reported so far. The purified SOD was composed of four same subunits of 16 kDa and the molecular weight of the native SOD was found to be around 65 kDa. The dominant amino acids of the SOD were Ser, Thr, Pro and Glu. Above 70 degrees C, thermostability of the SOD was much lower than that of bovine erythrocyte Cu,Zn-SOD.

  9. Protostylid: As never reported before! A unique case with variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela D Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human jaw and teeth display a high degree of morphological individuality as they represent personal, familial, and population characteristics and one among them are cuspal variations. A protostylid is a supernumerary or accessory cusp located on the mesiobuccal surface of the mandibular molars that seldom pose problems. A forensic odontologist may find significant interest in its classification and identification among victims of mass causalties and bite marks on living and nonliving objects. The authors here are reporting a case of protostylid with a unique presentation which, to best of our knowledge is not reported so far.

  10. Explaining human uniqueness: genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varki, Ajit; Geschwind, Daniel H; Eichler, Evan E

    2008-10-01

    What makes us human? Specialists in each discipline respond through the lens of their own expertise. In fact, 'anthropogeny' (explaining the origin of humans) requires a transdisciplinary approach that eschews such barriers. Here we take a genomic and genetic perspective towards molecular variation, explore systems analysis of gene expression and discuss an organ-systems approach. Rejecting any 'genes versus environment' dichotomy, we then consider genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture, finally speculating that aspects of human uniqueness arose because of a primate evolutionary trend towards increasing and irreversible dependence on learned behaviours and culture - perhaps relaxing allowable thresholds for large-scale genomic diversity.

  11. Unique case of a geminated supernumerary tooth with trifid crown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ather, Amber; Ather, Hunaiza; Sheth, Sanket Milan; Muliya, Vidya Saraswathi

    2012-01-01

    Gemination, a relatively uncommon dental anomaly, is characterized by its peculiar representation as a tooth with a bifid crown and a common root and root canal. It usually occurs in primary dentition. To come across gemination in a supernumerary tooth is a rare phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to present a unique case of hyperdontia wherein gemination in an impacted supernumerary tooth resulted in a trifid crown unlike the usual bifid crown. The role of conventional radiographs as well as computed tomography, to accurately determine the morphology and spatial location, and to arrive at a diagnosis, is also emphasized in this paper.

  12. Granulomatous slack skin syndrome: Report of a unique case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswari, S Uma; Sampath, V; Ramesh, A

    2018-01-01

    Granulomatous slack skin syndrome is a rare variant of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides). It is characterized clinically by redundant skin folds, which show a predilection towards flexural areas such as the axilla and the groin. Histologically, it shows a granulomatous T-cell infiltrate and loss of elastic tissue. It has an indolent but progressive course; and is usually refractory to treatment. We report a unique case of slack skin syndrome, sparing the classical sites with rapid and unusual involvement of non-intertriginous areas.

  13. Unique cerebrovascular anomalies in Noonan syndrome with RAF1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Yuri A; Lichty, Angie W; Champion, Kristen J; Clarkson, L Kate; Holden, Kenton R; Matheus, M Gisele

    2014-08-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by gain-of-function germline mutations affecting components of the Ras-MAPK pathway. The authors present the case of a 6-year-old male with Noonan syndrome, Chiari malformation type I, shunted benign external hydrocephalus in infancy, and unique cerebrovascular changes. A de novo heterozygous change in the RAF1 gene was identified. The patient underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography to further clarify the nature of his abnormal brain vasculature. The authors compared his findings to the few cases of Noonan syndrome reported with cerebrovascular pathology. © The Author(s) 2013.

  14. Introducing COSS: A new and unique oil spill research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchen, R. B.; Bonner, J. S.; Autenrieth, R. L.; Donnelly, K. C.; Ernest, A. N. S.

    1997-01-01

    A new oil spill research facility in Corpus Christi, Texas began operation in April 1997 to address the appropriate use, application and effectiveness of chemical, physical and biological oil spill response agents. The Coastal Oil Spill Simulation (COSS) facility consists of nine meso scale wave tanks and will offer to science and industry a unique opportunity to spill oil in a controlled environment and to study fate, transport and remediation of oil releases in simulated coastal, intertidal, lagunal, channel and porous media. 1 ref

  15. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan R. Schaefer, BExSc, MBBS (Hons

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature.

  16. Uniqueness of KMS states for continuous fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaekel, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989 Prof H. Narnhofer and Prof. W. Thirring established a (nonlocal) model of fermions with pair interactions. The existence of equilibrium states and the appearance of mixing properties was proofed. If this model reflects the basic facts of nature, one has to expect and to require that at high temperatures there is a unique equilibrium state and at low temperatures there are many different equilibrium states. Uniqueness of the equilibrium state at high temperatures is the topic of this dissertation. One may be astonished, that the proof of the uniqueness requires such a huge machinery, while the existence of KMS-states followes from fairly general conditions. Two states differ, if they can be distinguished by experiment. If one considers now that we have to show that two KMS-states at high temperatures result into the same value in all experiments one can think of, one might get an idea how unhandy this problem is. Even a conscious numeration of all experiments was a problem. Surprisingly only a few principal ideas of the treatment of spin-models survive. The temperature is the leading parameter and therefore it is a good idea to make a high temperature perturbation expansion for the KMS-condition, which fixes an equilibrium state in mathematical terms. But when we choose a generating vector for the perturbation expansion the similarities end. We better use physical considerations: at high temperatures we expect that chemical bounds will be broken up and the interacting equilibrium state will differ only slightly from the equilibrium state for the free time evolution. Roughly spoken, one can expect that high-energetic particles neglect interactions and fly in a straight line. In chapter 2.4 the whole machinery is presented in an easy-to-survey manner on a simple interaction. But in the case of pair interactions every particle interacts with each other and so the author was not able to find an easily accessible form of the developed method for this case

  17. Lafora disease offers a unique window into neuronal glycogen metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Matthew S; Guinovart, Joan J; Minassian, Berge A; Roach, Peter J; Serratosa, Jose M

    2018-05-11

    Lafora disease (LD) is a fatal, autosomal recessive, glycogen-storage disorder that manifests as severe epilepsy. LD results from mutations in the gene encoding either the glycogen phosphatase laforin or the E3 ubiquitin ligase malin. Individuals with LD develop cytoplasmic, aberrant glycogen inclusions in nearly all tissues that more closely resemble plant starch than human glycogen. This Minireview discusses the unique window into glycogen metabolism that LD research offers. It also highlights recent discoveries, including that glycogen contains covalently bound phosphate and that neurons synthesize glycogen and express both glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. New techniques in quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornicola, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    GPU Nuclear Corp. has a multifaceted quality assurance (QA) program. This program includes a comprehensive QA organization to help ensure its implementation. The QA organization employs various techniques in assuring quality at GPU Nuclear. These techniques not only include the typical QA/quality-control verification activities, i.e., QA engineering, quality control, and audits, but also include some new innovative techniques. Several new techniques have been developed for verifying activities. These techniques include monitoring and functional audits of safety systems. Several new techniques for assessing performance and adequacy and effectiveness of plant and QA programs, such as plant assessments and QA systems engineering evaluations, have also been developed. This paper provides an overview of these and other new techniques being employed by GPU Nuclear's QA organization

  19. University Involvement with Charter Schools: Unique Opportunities for Service and Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Julie Hentges

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Charter schools are a controversial, but vibrant, component of the current educational landscape, now serving over 3.1 million students in approximately 6900 schools across the United States.  A unique aspect of this movement has been the establishment of alternative authorizers, and specifically universities, to approve and provide oversight to these public schools.  Campus leaders and policy makers must consider numerous variables regarding a university’s involvement with charter schools.  What are the implications of school choice on university policies and practices? Should universities be “authorizers”, granting charters to schools in direct competition with the traditional public school system? Can universities provide the required “oversight” mandated by the charter school laws, as well as providing “support” for the schools? What opportunities for partnerships and practicum experiences exist?  The article provides an overview of issues that arise with public charter schools authorized by universities.  With 18 years of experiences as a public university on the forefront of enabling charter legislation and the “sponsorship” of inner-city public charter schools, the authors provide a historical perspective of the role of universities within the school choice movement, including oversight roles and supportive programs within the unique and growing phenomenon of school choice.

  20. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  1. On the non-uniqueness of the nodal mathematical adjoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate three CMFD schemes for computing the nodal mathematical adjoint. • The nodal mathematical adjoint is not unique and can be non-positive (nonphysical). • Adjoint and forward eigenmodes are compatible if produced by the same CMFD method. • In nodal applications the excited eigenmodes are purely mathematical entities. - Abstract: Computation of the neutron adjoint flux within the framework of modern nodal diffusion methods is often facilitated by reducing the nodal equation system for the forward flux into a simpler coarse-mesh finite-difference form and then transposing the resultant matrix equations. The solution to the transposed problem is known as the nodal mathematical adjoint. Since the coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction of a given nodal formulation can be obtained in a number of ways, different nodal mathematical adjoint solutions can be computed. This non-uniqueness of the nodal mathematical adjoint challenges the credibility of the reduction strategy and demands a verdict as to its suitability in practical applications. This is the matter under consideration in this paper. A selected number of coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction schemes are described and compared. Numerical calculations are utilised to illustrate the differences in the adjoint solutions as well as to appraise the impact on such common applications as the computation of core point kinetics parameters. Recommendations are made for the proper application of the coarse-mesh finite-difference reduction approach to the nodal mathematical adjoint problem

  2. Core and Shell Song Systems Unique to the Parrot Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Mukta; Walløe, Solveig; Nedergaard, Signe; Fridel, Emma E.; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Dorrestein, Gerry M.; Brauth, Steven E.; Durand, Sarah E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to imitate complex sounds is rare, and among birds has been found only in parrots, songbirds, and hummingbirds. Parrots exhibit the most advanced vocal mimicry among non-human animals. A few studies have noted differences in connectivity, brain position and shape in the vocal learning systems of parrots relative to songbirds and hummingbirds. However, only one parrot species, the budgerigar, has been examined and no differences in the presence of song system structures were found with other avian vocal learners. Motivated by questions of whether there are important differences in the vocal systems of parrots relative to other vocal learners, we used specialized constitutive gene expression, singing-driven gene expression, and neural connectivity tracing experiments to further characterize the song system of budgerigars and/or other parrots. We found that the parrot brain uniquely contains a song system within a song system. The parrot “core” song system is similar to the song systems of songbirds and hummingbirds, whereas the “shell” song system is unique to parrots. The core with only rudimentary shell regions were found in the New Zealand kea, representing one of the only living species at a basal divergence with all other parrots, implying that parrots evolved vocal learning systems at least 29 million years ago. Relative size differences in the core and shell regions occur among species, which we suggest could be related to species differences in vocal and cognitive abilities. PMID:26107173

  3. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  4. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A N

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  5. Dissociative absorption: An empirically unique, clinically relevant, dissociative factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan

    2015-11-01

    Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Unique life sciences research facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Vasques, M.; Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Life Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center has a suite of specialized facilities that enable scientists to study the effects of gravity on living systems. This paper describes some of these facilities and their use in research. Seven centrifuges, each with its own unique abilities, allow testing of a variety of parameters on test subjects ranging from single cells through hardware to humans. The Vestibular Research Facility allows the study of both centrifugation and linear acceleration on animals and humans. The Biocomputation Center uses computers for 3D reconstruction of physiological systems, and interactive research tools for virtual reality modeling. Psycophysiological, cardiovascular, exercise physiology, and biomechanical studies are conducted in the 12 bed Human Research Facility and samples are analyzed in the certified Central Clinical Laboratory and other laboratories at Ames. Human bedrest, water immersion and lower body negative pressure equipment are also available to study physiological changes associated with weightlessness. These and other weightlessness models are used in specialized laboratories for the study of basic physiological mechanisms, metabolism and cell biology. Visual-motor performance, perception, and adaptation are studied using ground-based models as well as short term weightlessness experiments (parabolic flights). The unique combination of Life Science research facilities, laboratories, and equipment at Ames Research Center are described in detail in relation to their research contributions.

  7. TIME SERIES ANALYSIS USING A UNIQUE MODEL OF TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Klepac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available REFII1 model is an authorial mathematical model for time series data mining. The main purpose of that model is to automate time series analysis, through a unique transformation model of time series. An advantage of this approach of time series analysis is the linkage of different methods for time series analysis, linking traditional data mining tools in time series, and constructing new algorithms for analyzing time series. It is worth mentioning that REFII model is not a closed system, which means that we have a finite set of methods. At first, this is a model for transformation of values of time series, which prepares data used by different sets of methods based on the same model of transformation in a domain of problem space. REFII model gives a new approach in time series analysis based on a unique model of transformation, which is a base for all kind of time series analysis. The advantage of REFII model is its possible application in many different areas such as finance, medicine, voice recognition, face recognition and text mining.

  8. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Common processes at unique volcanoes – a volcanological conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eCashman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An emerging challenge in modern volcanology is the apparent contradiction between the perception that every volcano is unique, and classification systems based on commonalities among volcano morphology and eruptive style. On the one hand, detailed studies of individual volcanoes show that a single volcano often exhibits similar patterns of behaviour over multiple eruptive episodes; this observation has led to the idea that each volcano has its own distinctive pattern of behaviour (or personality. In contrast, volcano classification schemes define eruption styles referenced to type volcanoes (e.g. Plinian, Strombolian, Vulcanian; this approach implicitly assumes that common processes underpin volcanic activity and can be used to predict the nature, extent and ensuing hazards of individual volcanoes. Actual volcanic eruptions, however, often include multiple styles, and type volcanoes may experience atypical eruptions (e.g., violent explosive eruptions of Kilauea, Hawaii1. The volcanological community is thus left with a fundamental conundrum that pits the uniqueness of individual volcanic systems against generalization of common processes. Addressing this challenge represents a major challenge to volcano research.

  10. Uniqueness of magnetotomography for fuel cells and fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lustfeld, H; Hirschfeld, J; Reissel, M; Steffen, B

    2009-01-01

    The criterion for the applicability of any tomographic method is its ability to construct the desired inner structure of a system from external measurements, i.e. to solve the inverse problem. Magnetotomography applied to fuel cells and fuel cell stacks aims at determining the inner current densities from measurements of the external magnetic field. This is an interesting idea since in those systems the inner electric current densities are large, several hundred mA per cm 2 and therefore relatively high external magnetic fields can be expected. Still the question remains how uniquely the inverse problem can be solved. Here we present a proof that by exploiting Maxwell's equations extensively the inverse problem of magnetotomography becomes unique under rather mild assumptions and we show that these assumptions are fulfilled in fuel cells and fuel cell stacks. Moreover, our proof holds true for any other device fulfilling the assumptions listed here. Admittedly, our proof has one caveat: it does not contain an estimate of the precision requirements the measurements need to fulfil for enabling reconstruction of the inner current densities from external magnetic fields.

  11. Rationality, irrationality and escalating behavior in lowest unique bid auctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Radicchi

    Full Text Available Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions--lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of "bid space". The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets.

  12. Unique sodium phosphosilicate glasses designed through extended topological constraint theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huidan; Jiang, Qi; Liu, Zhao; Li, Xiang; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Liu, Fude; Peng, Shou

    2014-05-15

    Sodium phosphosilicate glasses exhibit unique properties with mixed network formers, and have various potential applications. However, proper understanding on the network structures and property-oriented methodology based on compositional changes are lacking. In this study, we have developed an extended topological constraint theory and applied it successfully to analyze the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg) and hardness of sodium phosphosilicate glasses. It was found that the hardness and Tg of glasses do not always increase with the content of SiO2, and there exist maximum hardness and Tg at a certain content of SiO2. In particular, a unique glass (20Na2O-17SiO2-63P2O5) exhibits a low glass transition temperature (589 K) but still has relatively high hardness (4.42 GPa) mainly due to the high fraction of highly coordinated network former Si((6)). Because of its convenient forming and manufacturing, such kind of phosphosilicate glasses has a lot of valuable applications in optical fibers, optical amplifiers, biomaterials, and fuel cells. Also, such methodology can be applied to other types of phosphosilicate glasses with similar structures.

  13. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  14. Rationality, Irrationality and Escalating Behavior in Lowest Unique Bid Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Baronchelli, Andrea; Amaral, Luís A. N.

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has revolutionized the traditional structure of markets. The removal of geographical and time constraints has fostered the growth of online auction markets, which now include millions of economic agents worldwide and annual transaction volumes in the billions of dollars. Here, we analyze bid histories of a little studied type of online auctions – lowest unique bid auctions. Similarly to what has been reported for foraging animals searching for scarce food, we find that agents adopt Lévy flight search strategies in their exploration of “bid space”. The Lévy regime, which is characterized by a power-law decaying probability distribution of step lengths, holds over nearly three orders of magnitude. We develop a quantitative model for lowest unique bid online auctions that reveals that agents use nearly optimal bidding strategies. However, agents participating in these auctions do not optimize their financial gain. Indeed, as long as there are many auction participants, a rational profit optimizing agent would choose not to participate in these auction markets. PMID:22279553

  15. [Reactance proneness, collectivism, uniqueness, and resistance to persuasion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imajo, Shuzo

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of Japanese psychological reactance scales. A total of 167 undergraduates completed a questionnaire of Therapeutic Reactance Scale (TRS), the Hong Reactance Scale (HRS), the Uniqueness Scale, and the Collectivism Scale. They also received messages involving three persuasion situations that were either high or low in terms of threat, and were asked to describe their reactions to them. The author categorized the reactions into three: acceptance, indirect resistance, and direct resistance. Reliabilities of the reactance scales were satisfactory. Their scores positively correlated with uniqueness scores, and negatively with collectivism scores. Those high on reactance proneness were less persuaded in two of the three situations. But in the third, an HRS by threat interaction was observed, indicating that only those who were high on reactance proneness under the high-threat condition showed resistance to persuasion. These results suggest that the Japanese versions of reactance scale were reliable and valid. However, the assertiveness aspect of TRS may not be appropriate for the definition of reactance. The influence of culture on psychological reactance was also discussed.

  16. Questions of uniqueness and resolution in reconstruction from projections

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Myron Bernard

    1978-01-01

    Reconstruction from projections has revolutionized radiology and as now become one of the most important tools of medical diagnosi- he E. M. I. Scanner is one example. In this text, some fundamental heoretical and practical questions are resolved. Despite recent research activity in the area, the crucial subject ·f the uniqueness of the reconstruction and the effect of noise in the ata posed some unsettled fundamental questions. In particular, Kennan mith proved that if we describe an object by a C~ function, i. e. , nfinitely differentiable with compact support, then there are other bjects with the same shape, i. e. , support, which can differ almost rhitrarily and still have the same projections in finitely many direc­ ions. On the other hand, he proved that objects in finite dimensional unction spaces are uniquely determined by a single projection for almost 11 angles, i. e. , except on a set of measure zero. Along these lines, erman and Rowland in [41) showed that reconstructions obtained from he common...

  17. Unique Stellar System Gives Einstein a Thumbs-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Taking advantage of a unique cosmic coincidence, astronomers have measured an effect predicted by Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity in the extremely strong gravity of a pair of superdense neutron stars. The new data indicate that the famed physicist's 93-year-old theory has passed yet another test. Double Pulsar Graphic Artist's Conception of Double Pulsar System PSR J0737-3039A/B CREDIT: Daniel Cantin, DarwinDimensions, McGill University Click on image for more graphics. The scientists used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to make a four-year study of a double-star system unlike any other known in the Universe. The system is a pair of neutron stars, both of which are seen as pulsars that emit lighthouse-like beams of radio waves. "Of about 1700 known pulsars, this is the only case where two pulsars are in orbit around each other," said Rene Breton, a graduate student at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. In addition, the stars' orbital plane is aligned nearly perfectly with their line of sight to the Earth, so that one passes behind a doughnut-shaped region of ionized gas surrounding the other, eclipsing the signal from the pulsar in back. "Those eclipses are the key to making a measurement that could never be done before," Breton said. Einstein's 1915 theory predicted that, in a close system of two very massive objects, such as neutron stars, one object's gravitational tug, along with an effect of its spinning around its axis, should cause the spin axis of the other to wobble, or precess. Studies of other pulsars in binary systems had indicated that such wobbling occurred, but could not produce precise measurements of the amount of wobbling. "Measuring the amount of wobbling is what tests the details of Einstein's theory and gives a benchmark that any alternative gravitational theories must meet," said Scott Ransom of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The eclipses allowed the astronomers to pin

  18. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans How PPO Plans Work A Medicare ... extra for these benefits. Related Resources Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) Special Needs ...

  19. Would it provide Free Education?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Would it provide Free Education? Would it provide Free Education? Would it provide Compulsory Education? Would it guarantee education of equitable quality? Would it prevent discrimination? Would it stop schools that promote inequality & discrimination? NO! NO!

  20. Staged protocol for the treatment of chronic femoral shaft osteomyelitis with Ilizarov's technique followed by the use of intramedullary locked nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hsin Chou

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: In the treatment of chronic femur osteomyelitis, the staged protocol of Ilizarov distraction osteogenesis followed by intramedullary nailing was safe and successful, and allowed for union, realignment, reorientation, and leg-length restoration. With regard to the soft tissue, this technique provides a unique type of reconstructive closure for infected wounds. It is suggested that the staged protocol is reliable in providing successful simultaneous reconstruction for bone and soft tissue defects without flap coverage.

  1. Mandibular lateral incisor with four root canals: A unique case of double tooth diagnosed using multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Ather, Amber; Gupta, Jaya

    2013-01-01

    Double tooth is a dental anomaly consequent to fusion of two or more teeth or gemination of a single tooth. This report describes a unique case of double tooth in relation to a mandibular lateral incisor exhibiting the presence of four root canals. The role of conventional radiography and advanced three-dimensional imaging techniques in the better assessment of complex root canal systems and their aid in endodontic management has also been highlighted.

  2. The Glory Program: Global Science from a Unique Spacecraft Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpayee Jaya; Durham, Darcie; Ichkawich, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Glory program is an Earth and Solar science mission designed to broaden science community knowledge of the environment. The causes and effects of global warming have become a concern in recent years and Glory aims to contribute to the knowledge base of the science community. Glory is designed for two functions: one is solar viewing to monitor the total solar irradiance and the other is observing the Earth s atmosphere for aerosol composition. The former is done with an active cavity radiometer, while the latter is accomplished with an aerosol polarimeter sensor to discern atmospheric particles. The Glory program is managed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with Orbital Sciences in Dulles, VA as the prime contractor for the spacecraft bus, mission operations, and ground system. This paper will describe some of the more unique features of the Glory program including the integration and testing of the satellite and instruments as well as the science data processing. The spacecraft integration and test approach requires extensive analysis and additional planning to ensure existing components are successfully functioning with the new Glory components. The science mission data analysis requires development of mission unique processing systems and algorithms. Science data analysis and distribution will utilize our national assets at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the University of Colorado's Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP). The Satellite was originally designed and built for the Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) mission, which was terminated in the middle of integration and testing due to payload development issues. The bus was then placed in secure storage in 2001 and removed from an environmentally controlled container in late 2003 to be refurbished to meet the Glory program requirements. Functional testing of all the components was done as a system at the start of the program, very different from a traditional program

  3. US Department of Energy transportation programs: computerized techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently sponsoring the development of four specialized computer-based transportation programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The programs function as research tools that provide unique computerized techniques for planning the safe shipment of radioactive and hazardous materials. Major achievements include the development of interactive rail and highway routing models, an emergency response assistance program, a data base focusing on legislative requirements, and a resource file identifying key state and local contacts. A discussion of the programs and data bases is presented, and several examples reflecting each project's applications to the overall DOE transportation program are provided. The interface of these programs offers a dynamic resource of data for use during preshipment planning stages. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Selenoproteins-What unique properties can arise with selenocysteine in place of cysteine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnér, Elias S J

    2010-05-01

    The defining entity of a selenoprotein is the inclusion of at least one selenocysteine (Sec) residue in its sequence. Sec, the 21st naturally occurring genetically encoded amino acid, differs from its significantly more common structural analog cysteine (Cys) by the identity of a single atom: Sec contains selenium instead of the sulfur found in Cys. Selenium clearly has unique chemical properties that differ from sulfur, but more striking are perhaps the similarities between the two elements. Selenium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, a renowned Swedish scientist instrumental in establishing the institution that would become Karolinska Institutet. Written at the occasion of the bicentennial anniversary of Karolinska Institutet, this mini review focuses on the unique selenium-derived properties that may potentially arise in a protein upon the inclusion of Sec in place of Cys. With 25 human genes encoding selenoproteins and in total several thousand selenoproteins yet described in nature, it seems likely that the presence of that single selenium atom of Sec should convey some specific feature, thereby explaining the existence of selenoproteins in spite of demanding and energetically costly Sec-specific synthesis machineries. Nonetheless, most, if not all, of the currently known selenoproteins are also found as Cys-containing non-selenoprotein orthologues in other organisms, wherefore any potentially unique properties of selenoproteins are yet a matter of debate. The pK(a) of free Sec (approximately 5.2) being significantly lower than that of free Cys (approximately 8.5) has often been proposed as one of the unique features of Sec. However, as discussed herein, this pK(a) difference between Sec and Cys can hardly provide an evolutionary pressure for maintenance of selenoproteins. Moreover, the typically 10- to 100-fold lower enzymatic efficiencies of Sec-to-Cys mutants of selenoprotein oxidoreductases, are also weak arguments for the overall existence of

  5. Exploration Challenges: Transferring Ground Repair Techniques to Space Flight Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Carole A.; Kennedy, James P.; Rose, Frederick A.; Evans, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    Fulfilling NASA's Vision for Space Exploration will demand an extended presence in space at distances from our home planet that exceed our current experience in space logistics and maintenance. The ability to perform repairs in lieu of the customary Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) process where a faulty part is replaced will be elevated from contingency to routine to sustain operations. The use and cost effectiveness of field repairs for ground based operations in industry and the military have advanced with the development of technology in new materials, new repair techniques and new equipment. The unique environments, accessibility constraints and Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) issues of space operations will require extensive assessment and evolution of these technologies to provide an equivalent and expected level of assurance to mission success. Challenges include the necessity of changes in design philosophy and policy, extremes in thermal cycling, disruptive forces (such as static charge and wind entrainment) on developed methods for control of materials, dramatically increased volatility of chemicals for cleaning and other compounds due to extremely low pressures, the limits imposed on dexterity and maneuverability by current EVA equipment and practices, and the necessity of unique verification methodology. This paper describes these challenges in and discusses the effects on the established ground techniques for repair. The paper also describes the leading repair methodology candidates and their beneficial attributes for resolving these issues with the evolution of technology.

  6. Addressing Uniqueness and Unison of Reliability and Safety for a Better Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhaofeng; Safie, Fayssal

    2016-01-01

    Over time, it has been observed that Safety and Reliability have not been clearly differentiated, which leads to confusion, inefficiency, and, sometimes, counter-productive practices in executing each of these two disciplines. It is imperative to address this situation to help Reliability and Safety disciplines improve their effectiveness and efficiency. The paper poses an important question to address, "Safety and Reliability - Are they unique or unisonous?" To answer the question, the paper reviewed several most commonly used analyses from each of the disciplines, namely, FMEA, reliability allocation and prediction, reliability design involvement, system safety hazard analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The paper pointed out uniqueness and unison of Safety and Reliability in their respective roles, requirements, approaches, and tools, and presented some suggestions for enhancing and improving the individual disciplines, as well as promoting the integration of the two. The paper concludes that Safety and Reliability are unique, but compensating each other in many aspects, and need to be integrated. Particularly, the individual roles of Safety and Reliability need to be differentiated, that is, Safety is to ensure and assure the product meets safety requirements, goals, or desires, and Reliability is to ensure and assure maximum achievability of intended design functions. With the integration of Safety and Reliability, personnel can be shared, tools and analyses have to be integrated, and skill sets can be possessed by the same person with the purpose of providing the best value to a product development.

  7. A uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Fen; Yu, Shih-Hui; Shiao, Ding-Rui

    2013-04-01

    Connected health care provides new opportunities for improving financial and clinical performance. Many connected health care applications such as telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring have been proposed. Correct and quality care is the goal of connected heath care, and user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. After reviewing authentication schemes for connected health care applications, we find that many of them cannot protect patient privacy such that others can trace users/patients by the transmitted data. And the verification tokens used by these authentication schemes to authenticate users or servers are only password, smart card and RFID tag. Actually, these verification tokens are not unique and easy to copy. On the other hand, biometric characteristics, such as iris, face, voiceprint, fingerprint and so on, are unique, easy to be verified, and hard to be copied. In this paper, a biometrics-based user authentication scheme will be proposed to ensure uniqueness and anonymity at the same time. With the proposed scheme, only the legal user/patient himself/herself can access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data.

  8. Transcriptome profile and unique genetic evolution of positively selected genes in yak lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, DaoLiang; Xiong, XianRong; Ji, WenHui; Li, Jian; Mipam, Tserang-Donko; Ai, Yi; Chai, ZhiXin

    2018-04-01

    The yak (Bos grunniens), which is a unique bovine breed that is distributed mainly in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is considered a good model for studying plateau adaptability in mammals. The lungs are important functional organs that enable animals to adapt to their external environment. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the adaptability of yak lungs to harsh plateau environments remains unknown. To explore the unique evolutionary process and genetic mechanism of yak adaptation to plateau environments, we performed transcriptome sequencing of yak and cattle (Bos taurus) lungs using RNA-Seq technology and a subsequent comparison analysis to identify the positively selected genes in the yak. After deep sequencing, a normal transcriptome profile of yak lung that containing a total of 16,815 expressed genes was obtained, and the characteristics of yak lungs transcriptome was described by functional analysis. Furthermore, Ka/Ks comparison statistics result showed that 39 strong positively selected genes are identified from yak lungs. Further GO and KEGG analysis was conducted for the functional annotation of these genes. The results of this study provide valuable data for further explorations of the unique evolutionary process of high-altitude hypoxia adaptation in yaks in the Tibetan Plateau and the genetic mechanism at the molecular level.

  9. MUSE spectroscopy and deep observations of a unique compact JWST target, lensing cluster CLIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Alex; Conselice, Christopher J.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Frye, Brenda L.; Diego, Jose M.; Zitrin, Adi; Yan, Haojing; Ma, Zhiyuan; Barone-Nugent, Robert; Bhatawdekar, Rachana; Driver, Simon P.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of a VLT MUSE/FORS2 and Spitzer survey of a unique compact lensing cluster CLIO at z = 0.42, discovered through the GAMA survey using spectroscopic redshifts. Compact and massive clusters such as this are understudied, but provide a unique prospective on dark matter distributions and for finding background lensed high-z galaxies. The CLIO cluster was identified for follow-up observations due to its almost unique combination of high-mass and dark matter halo concentration, as well as having observed lensing arcs from ground-based images. Using dual band optical and infra-red imaging from FORS2 and Spitzer, in combination with MUSE optical spectroscopy we identify 89 cluster members and find background sources out to z = 6.49. We describe the physical state of this cluster, finding a strong correlation between environment and galaxy spectral type. Under the assumption of an NFW profile, we measure the total mass of CLIO to be M200 = (4.49 ± 0.25) × 1014 M⊙. We build and present an initial strong-lensing model for this cluster, and measure a relatively low intracluster light (ICL) fraction of 7.21 ± 1.53 per cent through galaxy profile fitting. Due to its strong potential for lensing background galaxies and its low ICL, the CLIO cluster will be a target for our 110 h James Webb Space Telescope `Webb Medium-Deep Field' (WMDF) GTO program.

  10. Seafloor massive sulfide deposits support unique megafaunal assemblages: Implications for seabed mining and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschen, Rachel E; Rowden, Ashley A; Clark, Malcolm R; Pallentin, Arne; Gardner, Jonathan P A

    2016-04-01

    Mining of seafloor massive sulfides (SMS) is imminent, but the ecology of assemblages at SMS deposits is poorly known. Proposed conservation strategies include protected areas to preserve biodiversity at risk from mining impacts. Determining site suitability requires biological characterisation of the mine site and protected area(s). Video survey of a proposed mine site and protected area off New Zealand revealed unique megafaunal assemblages at the mine site. Significant relationships were identified between assemblage structure and environmental conditions, including hydrothermal features. Unique assemblages occurred at both active and inactive chimneys and are particularly at risk from mining-related impacts. The occurrence of unique assemblages at the mine site suggests that the proposed protected area is insufficient alone and should instead form part of a network. These results provide support for including hydrothermally active and inactive features within networks of protected areas and emphasise the need for quantitative survey data of proposed sites. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. On the uniqueness of color patterns in raptor feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    For this study, I compared sequentially molted feathers for a few captive raptors from year to year and symmetrically matched feathers (left/right pairs) for many raptors to see if color patterns of sequential feather pairs were identical or if symmetrical pairs were mirror-image identical. Feather pairs were found to be identical only when without color pattern (e.g., the all-white rectrices of Bald Eagles [Haliaeetus leucocephalus]). Complex patterns were not closely matched, but some simple patterns were sometimes closely matched, although not identical. Previous claims that complex color patterns in feather pairs are fingerprint-identical (and therefore that molted feathers from wild raptors can be used to identify breeding adults from year to year with certainty) were found to be untrue: each feather is unique. Although it is unwise to be certain of bird of origin using normal feathers, abnormal feathers can often be so used. ?? 2009 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  12. Did Lizards Follow Unique Pathways in Sex Chromosome Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Dianne; Georges, Arthur

    2018-01-01

    Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD) and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata) which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity. They also show no particular pattern of sex chromosome degeneration of the kind observed in mammals, birds and or even in snakes. We therefore speculate that sex determination sensu sex chromosome evolution is labile and rapid and largely follows independent trajectories within lizards. Here, we review the current knowledge on the evolution of sex chromosomes in lizards and discuss how sex chromosome evolution within that group differs from other amniote taxa, facilitating unique evolutionary pathways. PMID:29751579

  13. Measles Outbreak with Unique Virus Genotyping, Ontario, Canada, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shari; Hiebert, Joanne; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Gournis, Effie; Sharron, Jennifer; Severini, Alberto; Jiaravuthisan, Manisa; Shane, Amanda; Jaeger, Valerie; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Fediurek, Jill; Sander, Beate; Mazzulli, Tony; Schulz, Helene; Deeks, Shelley L

    2017-07-01

    The province of Ontario continues to experience measles virus transmissions despite the elimination of measles in Canada. We describe an unusual outbreak of measles in Ontario, Canada, in early 2015 that involved cases with a unique strain of virus and no known association among primary case-patients. A total of 18 cases of measles were reported from 4 public health units during the outbreak period (January 25-March 23, 2015); none of these cases occurred in persons who had recently traveled. Despite enhancements to case-patient interview methods and epidemiologic analyses, a source patient was not identified. However, the molecular epidemiologic analysis, which included extended sequencing, strongly suggested that all cases derived from a single importation of measles virus genotype D4. The use of timely genotype sequencing, rigorous epidemiologic investigation, and a better understanding of the gaps in surveillance are needed to maintain Ontario's measles elimination status.

  14. A unique $Z_4^R$ symmetry for the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Min; Ratz, Michael; Ross, Graham G; Schieren, Roland; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Vaudrevange, Patrick K S

    2011-01-01

    We consider the possible anomaly free Abelian discrete symmetries of the MSSM that forbid the mu-term at perturbative order. Allowing for anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism we identify discrete R-symmetries as the only possibility and prove that there is a unique Z_4^R symmetry that commutes with SO(10). We argue that non-perturbative effects will generate a mu-term of electroweak order thus solving the mu-problem. The non-perturbative effects break the Z_4^R symmetry leaving an exact Z_2 matter parity. As a result dimension four baryon- and lepton-number violating operators are absent while, at the non-perturbative level, dimension five baryon- and lepton-number violating operators get induced but are highly suppressed so that the nucleon decay rate is well within present bounds.

  15. The unique predisposition to criminal violations in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    Brain disorders can lead to criminal violations. Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are particularly prone to sociopathic behavior while retaining knowledge of their acts and of moral and conventional rules. This report describes four FTD patients who committed criminal violations in the presence of clear consciousness and sufficiently intact cognition. They understood the nature of their acts and the potential consequences, but did not feel sufficiently concerned to be deterred. FTD involves a unique pathologic combination affecting the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, with altered moral feelings, right anterior temporal loss of emotional empathy, and orbitofrontal changes with disinhibited, compulsive behavior. These case histories and the literature indicate that those with right temporal FTD retain the capacity to tell right from wrong but have the slow and insidious loss of the capacity for moral rationality. Patients with early FTD present a challenge to the criminal justice system to consider alterations in moral cognition before ascribing criminal responsibility.

  16. Electroplating targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavour to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules i.e. monoclonal antibodies and pepetides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators

  17. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. So starting on 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  18. 4th June: AIS and NICE/MAIL unique authentication

    CERN Multimedia

    The AIS and NICE teams

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, the IT department has been in the process of streamlining CERN users' access to all central computing services. The long term goal is to converge on a unique computer account, which will increase computer security and simplify account maintenance. The next step of this process will occur on the 4th June 2007, as of when authenticating on the AIS applications (EDH, HRT, CET, APT, ERT, CRA, Foundation, ...) and on NICE (Windows) and MAIL will be done using the same username and password. As a reminder, this account can also be used on EDMS, INDICO, CDS and SIMBA. Thus starting on the 4th June 2007, authentication on the AIS applications must be done using your AIS username and your MAIL/NICE password. Thanks for your understanding, The AIS and NICE teams

  19. Human Uniqueness, Cognition by Description, and Procedural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bolender

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence will be reviewed suggesting a fairly direct link between the human ability to think about entities which one has never perceived — here called “cognition by description” — and procedural memory. Cognition by description is a uniquely hominid trait which makes religion, science, and history possible. It is hypothesized that cognition by description (in the manner of Bertrand Russell’s “knowledge by description” requires variable binding, which in turn utilizes quantifier raising. Quantifier raising plausibly depends upon the computational core of language, specifically the element of it which Noam Chomsky calls “internal Merge”. Internal Merge produces hierarchical structures by means of a memory of derivational steps, a process plausibly involving procedural memory. The hypothesis is testable, predicting that procedural memory deficits will be accompanied by impairments in cognition by description. We also discuss neural mechanisms plausibly underlying procedural memory and also, by our hypothesis, cognition by description.

  20. Comparative developmental psychology: how is human cognitive development unique?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Wobber, Victoria; Hughes, Kelly; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-04-29

    The fields of developmental and comparative psychology both seek to illuminate the roots of adult cognitive systems. Developmental studies target the emergence of adult cognitive systems over ontogenetic time, whereas comparative studies investigate the origins of human cognition in our evolutionary history. Despite the long tradition of research in both of these areas, little work has examined the intersection of the two: the study of cognitive development in a comparative perspective. In the current article, we review recent work using this comparative developmental approach to study non-human primate cognition. We argue that comparative data on the pace and pattern of cognitive development across species can address major theoretical questions in both psychology and biology. In particular, such integrative research will allow stronger biological inferences about the function of developmental change, and will be critical in addressing how humans come to acquire species-unique cognitive abilities.

  1. Did Lizards Follow Unique Pathways in Sex Chromosome Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayer Mahmood Ibney Alam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reptiles show remarkable diversity in modes of reproduction and sex determination, including high variation in the morphology of sex chromosomes, ranging from homomorphic to highly heteromorphic. Additionally, the co-existence of genotypic sex determination (GSD and temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD within and among sister clades makes this group an attractive model to study and understand the evolution of sex chromosomes. This is particularly so with Lizards (Order Squamata which, among reptiles, show extraordinary morphological diversity. They also show no particular pattern of sex chromosome degeneration of the kind observed in mammals, birds and or even in snakes. We therefore speculate that sex determination sensu sex chromosome evolution is labile and rapid and largely follows independent trajectories within lizards. Here, we review the current knowledge on the evolution of sex chromosomes in lizards and discuss how sex chromosome evolution within that group differs from other amniote taxa, facilitating unique evolutionary pathways.

  2. A Unique Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pelvic Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Traisak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is diverse and vasculitis can be a potential manifestation. Cutaneous lesions involving small vessels are the most frequent presentation. However, medium and large vessel vasculitis may present with life-threatening visceral manifestations. We present a unique case of pelvic vasculitis mimicking a pelvic mass as an initial presentation of SLE. There are case reports of systemic vasculitis involving the female genital tract with giant cell arteritis (GCA, polyarteritis nodosa (PAN, and granulomatous with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis (GPA/MPA, among others, but only a few cases attributed to SLE. Awareness of this condition and a prompt diagnosis are warranted as this is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition.

  3. Embodied history. Uniqueness and exemplarity of South African AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2002-01-01

    The exceptionality of AIDS in South Africa, both for its epidemiological features and public controversies, seems to have its correspondence in the exceptionalism of South African history, with its unprecedented regime of apartheid and its unexpected turn to democracy. The article shows that AIDS in this country can simultaneously be seen as unique (because of the historical context in which it is inscribed) and exemplar (of social determinants observed in other countries characterised by similar past or present of domination). As an alternative to cultural and behavioural models of the epidemic which have been widely spread on the African continent, the concept of embodiment of history is proposed in order to account for both the structural facts underlying the epidemic (inequality, violence, migration) and the construction of collective as well as individual narratives of the disease (including victimisation and accusation).

  4. Ethics in Science: The Unique Consequences of Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the ethical issues unique to the science and practice of chemistry. These issues arise from chemistry's position in the middle between the theoretical and the practical, a science concerned with molecules that are of the right size to directly affect human life. Many of the issues are raised by the central activity of chemistry--synthesis. Chemists make thousands of new substances each year. Many are beneficial, but others are threats. Since the development of the chemical industry in the nineteenth century, chemistry has contributed to the deterioration of the environment but has also helped to reduce pollution. Finally, we discuss the role of codes of ethics and whether the current codes of conduct for chemists are adequate for the challenges of today's world.

  5. A Unique Marine and Environmental Science Program for High School Teachers in Hawai'i: Professional Development, Teacher Confidence, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Malia Ana J.; Manning, Mackenzie M.; Krupp, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hawai'i is a unique and special place to conduct environmental science inquiry through place based learning and scientific investigation. Here, we describe and evaluate a unique professional development program for science teachers in Hawai'i that integrates the traditional approach of providing training to improve content knowledge, with the…

  6. La nephrolithotomie sur rein unique: a propos de vingt cas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through a series of 20 patients, we study the feasibility and morbidity of this technique in a solitary kidney. Patients and methods: we retrospectively reviewed a series of twenty patients with a calculus in a solitary kidney during a 9-year period, all treated with (PCNL). The results were analyzed emphasizing complications ...

  7. Losing memories overnight: a unique form of human amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christine N; Frascino, Jennifer C; Kripke, Donald L; McHugh, Paul R; Treisman, Glenn J; Squire, Larry R

    2010-08-01

    Since an automobile accident in 2005, patient FL has reported difficulty retaining information from one day to the next. During the course of any given day, she describes her memory as normal. However, memory for each day disappears during a night of sleep. She reports good memory for events that occurred before the accident. Although this pattern of memory impairment is, to our knowledge, unique to the medical literature, it was depicted in the fictional film "50 First Dates". On formal testing, FL performed moderately well when trying to remember material that she had learned during the same day, but she exhibited no memory at all for material that she knew had been presented on a previous day. For some tests, unbeknownst to FL, material learned on the previous day was intermixed with material learned on the same day as the test. On these occasions, FL's memory was good. Thus, she was able to remember events from earlier days when memory was tested covertly. FL performed differently in a number of ways from individuals who were instructed to consciously feign her pattern of memory impairment. It was also the impression of those who worked with FL that she believed she had the memory impairment that she described and that she was not intentionally feigning amnesia. On the basis of her neuropsychological findings, together with a normal neurological exam, normal MRI findings, and psychiatric evaluation, we suggest that FL exhibits a unique form of functional amnesia and that its characterization may have been influenced by knowledge of how amnesia was depicted in a popular film. She subsequently improved (and began retaining day-to-day memory) at Johns Hopkins University where she was in a supportive in-patient environment and was shown how to take control of her condition by interrupting her sleep at 4-h intervals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Nature inspired capacitive sensor with unique and unclonable characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuthedath, C. B.; Schwesinger, N.

    2018-02-01

    Background of this paper is the development of sensors showing a nature like characteristic. The sensor is able to detect excitations on inertia bases and operates capacitive. It consists of a miniaturized interdigitated electrode structure on a printed circuit board, a flexible and conductive membrane of PDMS located in a certain distance above and a certain number of steel balls fixed on top of the membrane. The steel ball distribution is random and the conductivity of the membrane is not homogeneous across the membrane. Due to this double random distribution, no sensor equals the other, although the external geometry is equal. The overall size of the sensor is 4.7mm x 4.7mm x 1.7mm. Tilt, acceleration or magnetic fields are capable of causing forces on the steel balls and therefore relative movements between the membrane and the electrode structures. Due to this movement, capacity changes of the arrangement are measurable. This paper describes besides the fabrication of conductive membranes the preparation of regarding sensors. Process technology makes cloning of the sensors impossible. Although all process steps are suited for mass production, no sensor equals the other. Measurements with these sensors prove that each sensor reacts differently to the same excitation. Calculations of the Intra-Concordance-Coefficient show the similarity of the sensors for equal excitations. On the other hand, the maximum Inter-Concordance-Coefficient reveals the differences of such sensors very clearly. Such a characteristic, i.e. equal reaction to equal excitation and an output of significantly different signals allows considering each sensor as a unique device. The sensors obviously behave like receptors in natural organisms. These unusual properties of uniqueness and impossibility to clone make the sensors very interesting for highly secure identification demands. In combination with a very simple measurement procedure, the sensors are an attractive hardware base for

  9. IDGenerator: unique identifier generator for epidemiologic or clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Olden

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating study identifiers and assigning them to study participants is an important feature in epidemiologic studies, ensuring the consistency and privacy of the study data. The numbering system for identifiers needs to be random within certain number constraints, to carry extensions coding for organizational information, or to contain multiple layers of numbers per participant to diversify data access. Available software can generate globally-unique identifiers, but identifier-creating tools meeting the special needs of epidemiological studies are lacking. We have thus set out to develop a software program to generate IDs for epidemiological or clinical studies. Results Our software IDGenerator creates unique identifiers that not only carry a random identifier for a study participant, but also support the creation of structured IDs, where organizational information is coded into the ID directly. This may include study center (for multicenter-studies, study track (for studies with diversified study programs, or study visit (baseline, follow-up, regularly repeated visits. Our software can be used to add a check digit to the ID to minimize data entry errors. It facilitates the generation of IDs in batches and the creation of layered IDs (personal data ID, study data ID, temporary ID, external data ID to ensure a high standard of data privacy. The software is supported by a user-friendly graphic interface that enables the generation of IDs in both standard text and barcode 128B format. Conclusion Our software IDGenerator can create identifiers meeting the specific needs for epidemiologic or clinical studies to facilitate study organization and data privacy. IDGenerator is freeware under the GNU General Public License version 3; a Windows port and the source code can be downloaded at the Open Science Framework website: https://osf.io/urs2g/ .

  10. Stabilizing inverse problems by internal data. II: non-local internal data and generic linearized uniqueness

    KAUST Repository

    Kuchment, Peter

    2015-05-10

    © 2015, Springer Basel. In the previous paper (Kuchment and Steinhauer in Inverse Probl 28(8):084007, 2012), the authors introduced a simple procedure that allows one to detect whether and explain why internal information arising in several novel coupled physics (hybrid) imaging modalities could turn extremely unstable techniques, such as optical tomography or electrical impedance tomography, into stable, good-resolution procedures. It was shown that in all cases of interest, the Fréchet derivative of the forward mapping is a pseudo-differential operator with an explicitly computable principal symbol. If one can set up the imaging procedure in such a way that the symbol is elliptic, this would indicate that the problem was stabilized. In the cases when the symbol is not elliptic, the technique suggests how to change the procedure (e.g., by adding extra measurements) to achieve ellipticity. In this article, we consider the situation arising in acousto-optical tomography (also called ultrasound modulated optical tomography), where the internal data available involves the Green’s function, and thus depends globally on the unknown parameter(s) of the equation and its solution. It is shown that the technique of (Kuchment and Steinhauer in Inverse Probl 28(8):084007, 2012) can be successfully adopted to this situation as well. A significant part of the article is devoted to results on generic uniqueness for the linearized problem in a variety of situations, including those arising in acousto-electric and quantitative photoacoustic tomography.

  11. Elemental mercury: Its unique properties affect its behavior and fate in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Raymat, Hansell; Liu, Guangliang; Liriano, Carolina; Li, Yanbin; Yin, Yongguang; Shi, Jianbo; Jiang, Guibin; Cai, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) has different behavior in the environment compared to other pollutants due to its unique properties. It can remain in the atmosphere for long periods of time and so can travel long distances. Through air-surface (e.g., vegetation or ocean) exchange (dry deposition), Hg 0 can enter terrestrial and aquatic systems where it can be converted into other Hg species. Despite being ubiquitous and playing a key role in Hg biogeochemical cycling, Hg 0 behavior in the environment is not well understood. The objective of this review is to provide a better understanding of how the unique physicochemical properties of Hg 0 affects its cycling and chemical transformations in different environmental compartments. The first part focuses on the fundamental chemistry of Hg 0 , addressing why Hg 0 is liquid at room temperature and the formation of amalgam, Hg halide, and Hg chalcogenides. The following sections discuss the long-range transport of Hg 0 as well as its redistribution in the atmosphere, aquatic and terrestrial systems, in particular, on the sorption/desorption processes that occur in each environmental compartment as well as the involvement of Hg 0 in chemical transformation processes driven by photochemical, abiotic, and biotic reactions. - Highlights: • Unique property of Hg 0 make it to behave differently with other toxic metals. • Hg 0 is considered the only global metal pollutant due to its uniqueness. • Hg 0 can be easily transformed and efficiently redistributed in the environments. - A better understanding of the properties and behavior of Hg 0 is the key to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of mercury, a global pollutant in the environment.

  12. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  13. Topology based data analysis identifies a subgroup of breast cancers with a unique mutational profile and excellent survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Monica; Levine, Arnold J; Carlsson, Gunnar

    2011-04-26

    High-throughput biological data, whether generated as sequencing, transcriptional microarrays, proteomic, or other means, continues to require analytic methods that address its high dimensional aspects. Because the computational part of data analysis ultimately identifies shape characteristics in the organization of data sets, the mathematics of shape recognition in high dimensions continues to be a crucial part of data analysis. This article introduces a method that extracts information from high-throughput microarray data and, by using topology, provides greater depth of information than current analytic techniques. The method, termed Progression Analysis of Disease (PAD), first identifies robust aspects of cluster analysis, then goes deeper to find a multitude of biologically meaningful shape characteristics in these data. Additionally, because PAD incorporates a visualization tool, it provides a simple picture or graph that can be used to further explore these data. Although PAD can be applied to a wide range of high-throughput data types, it is used here as an example to analyze breast cancer transcriptional data. This identified a unique subgroup of Estrogen Receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancers that express high levels of c-MYB and low levels of innate inflammatory genes. These patients exhibit 100% survival and no metastasis. No supervised step beyond distinction between tumor and healthy patients was used to identify this subtype. The group has a clear and distinct, statistically significant molecular signature, it highlights coherent biology but is invisible to cluster methods, and does not fit into the accepted classification of Luminal A/B, Normal-like subtypes of ER(+) breast cancers. We denote the group as c-MYB(+) breast cancer.

  14. Dosimetry tools and techniques for IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Daniel A.; Moran, Jean M.; Dempsey, James F.; Dong Lei; Oldham, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) poses a number of challenges for properly measuring commissioning data and quality assurance (QA) radiation dose distributions. This report provides a comprehensive overview of how dosimeters, phantoms, and dose distribution analysis techniques should be used to support the commissioning and quality assurance requirements of an IMRT program. The proper applications of each dosimeter are described along with the limitations of each system. Point detectors, arrays, film, and electronic portal imagers are discussed with respect to their proper use, along with potential applications of 3D dosimetry. Regardless of the IMRT technique utilized, some situations require the use of multiple detectors for the acquisition of accurate commissioning data. The overall goal of this task group report is to provide a document that aids the physicist in the proper selection and use of the dosimetry tools available for IMRT QA and to provide a resource for physicists that describes dosimetry measurement techniques for purposes of IMRT commissioning and measurement-based characterization or verification of IMRT treatment plans. This report is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of commissioning and QA procedures for IMRT. Instead, this report focuses on the aspects of metrology, particularly the practical aspects of measurements that are unique to IMRT. The metrology of IMRT concerns the application of measurement instruments and their suitability, calibration, and quality control of measurements. Each of the dosimetry measurement tools has limitations that need to be considered when incorporating them into a commissioning process or a comprehensive QA program. For example, routine quality assurance procedures require the use of robust field dosimetry systems. These often exhibit limitations with respect to spatial resolution or energy response and need to themselves be commissioned against more established dosimeters. A chain of

  15. Signal integrity characterization techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bogatin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    "Signal Integrity Characterization Techniques" addresses the gap between traditional digital and microwave curricula all while focusing on a practical and intuitive understanding of signal integrity effects within the data transmission channel. High-speed interconnects such as connectors, PCBs, cables, IC packages, and backplanes are critical elements of differential channels that must be designed using today's most powerful analysis and characterization tools.Both measurements and simulation must be done on the device under test, and both activities must yield data that correlates with each other. Most of this book focuses on real-world applications of signal integrity measurements - from backplane for design challenges to error correction techniques to jitter measurement technologies. The authors' approach wisely addresses some of these new high-speed technologies, and it also provides valuable insight into its future direction and will teach the reader valuable lessons on the industry.

  16. Multistage bioassociation of uranium onto an extremely halophilic archaeon revealed by a unique combination of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Miriam; Müller, Katharina; Foerstendorf, Harald; Drobot, Björn; Schmidt, Matthias; Musat, Niculina; Swanson, Juliet S; Reed, Donald T; Stumpf, Thorsten; Cherkouk, Andrea

    2017-04-05

    The interactions of two extremely halophilic archaea with uranium were investigated at high ionic strength as a function of time, pH and uranium concentration. Halobacterium noricense DSM-15987 and Halobacterium sp. putatively noricense, isolated from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository, were used for these investigations. The kinetics of U(VI) bioassociation with both strains showed an atypical multistage behavior, meaning that after an initial phase of U(VI) sorption, an unexpected interim period of U(VI) release was observed, followed by a slow reassociation of uranium with the cells. By applying in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, the involvement of phosphoryl and carboxylate groups in U(VI) complexation during the first biosorption phase was shown. Differences in cell morphology and uranium localization become visible at different stages of the bioassociation process, as shown with scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results demonstrate for the first time that association of uranium with the extremely halophilic archaeon is a multistage process, beginning with sorption and followed by another process, probably biomineralization. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Ultrasound comparison of external and internal neck anatomy with the LMA Unique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven M; Wojtczak, Jacek A; Cattano, Davide

    2017-12-01

    Internal neck anatomy landmarks and their relation after placement of an extraglottic airway devices have not been studied extensively by the use of ultrasound. Based on our group experience with external landmarks as well as internal landmarks evaluation with other techniques, we aimed use ultrasound to analyze the internal neck anatomy landmarks and the related changes due to the placement of the Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Observational pilot investigation. Non-obese adult patients with no evidence of airway anomalies, were recruited. External neck landmarks were measured based on a validated and standardized method by tape. Eight internal anatomical landmarks, reciprocal by the investigational hypothesis to the external landmarks, were also measured by ultrasound guidance. The internal landmarks were re-measured after optimal placement and inflation of the extraglottic airway devices cuff Laryngeal Mask Airway Unique. Six subjects were recruited. Ultrasound measurements of hyoid-mental distance, thyroid-cricoid distance, thyroid height, and thyroid width were found to be significantly ( p internal neck anatomy. The induced changes and respective specific internal neck anatomy landmarks could help to design devices that would modify their shape accordingly to areas of greatest displacement. Also, while external neck landmark measurements overestimate their respective internal neck landmarks, as we previously reported, the concordance of each measurement and their respective conversion factor could continue to be of help in sizing extraglottic airway devices. Due to the pilot nature of the study, more investigations are warranted.

  18. STIM with energy loss contrast: An imaging modality unique to MeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, H.W.; Schofield, R.M.S.; Bench, G.S.; Legge, G.J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) through measurement of energy loss of individual ions is a quantitative imaging technique with several unique capabilities. The uniqueness derives conjointly from the large penetration with small scattering of MeV ions in low-Z specimens, from the simple relationship between energy loss and projected or areal density, and from the almost 100% efficiency with which one obtains pixel data from individual ions. Since contrast is in energy loss and not in numbers of events, the statistics of energy loss straggling affects the image but the statistics of counting does not. Small scattering makes it possible to observe details within transparent specimens. High efficiency makes it possible to collect large data sets for computed tomography, stereo, or high-definition imaging with a small radiation dose. High efficiency allows one to minimize aberrations by use of small apertures, to achieve good precision in the determination of areal density, or even to image live biological specimens in air since only one or a few ions per pixel are required. This paper includes a bibliography on STIM with MeV ions, it discusses the accuracy that one can achieve in the areal density coloring of a pixel with data from one or a few ions, and it supplements that review with recent examples from the Melbourne and the Eugene microprobes. (orig.)

  19. The zenithal 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope: a unique facility for supernova studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Brajesh; Pandey, Kanhaiya L.; Pandey, S. B.; Hickson, P.; Borra, E. F.; Anupama, G. C.; Surdej, J.

    2018-05-01

    The 4-m International Liquid Mirror Telescope (ILMT) will soon become operational at the newly developed Devasthal observatory near Nainital (Uttarakhand, India). Coupled with a 4k × 4k pixels CCD detector and TDI optical corrector, it will reach approximately 22.8, 22.3, and 21.4 mag in the g΄, r΄, and i΄ spectral bands, respectively, in a single scan. The limiting magnitudes can be further improved by co-adding the consecutive night images in particular filters. The uniqueness to observe the same sky region by looking towards the zenith direction every night makes the ILMT a unique instrument to detect new supernovae (SNe) by applying the image subtraction technique. High cadence (˜24 h) observations will help to construct dense sampling multi-band SNe light curves. We discuss the importance of the ILMT facility in the context of SNe studies. Considering the various plausible cosmological parameters and observational constraints, we perform detailed calculations of the expected SNe rate that can be detected with the ILMT in different spectral bands.

  20. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    Providing health care for a woman with a surrogate pregnancy involves unique challenges. Although the ethical debate surrounding surrogacy continues, Canada has banned commercial, but not altruistic, surrogacy. In the event of a custody dispute between a surrogate mother and the individual(s) intending to parent the child, it is unclear how Canadian courts would rule. The prenatal health care provider must take extra care to protect the autonomy and privacy rights of the surrogate. There is l...

  1. Meeting Nontraditional Medical Information Needs for the Unique Populations and Geographically Remote Locations of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Dana V

    2016-01-01

    The types of information required by hospital and clinical staff can be greatly influenced by the geography and culture of the area in which they operate. In some situations, information must be acquired from sources that fall outside the traditional provisions of a medical or reference library. This article provides examples of the unique information needs of clinical staff serving a primarily Native Alaskan and Native American clientele in Alaska. It also presents sources and personnel utilized to meet those information needs outside of traditional reference sources.

  2. Runtime analysis of the (1+1) EA on computing unique input output sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Computing unique input output (UIO) sequences is a fundamental and hard problem in conformance testing of finite state machines (FSM). Previous experimental research has shown that evolutionary algorithms (EAs) can be applied successfully to find UIOs for some FSMs. However, before EAs can...... in the theoretical analysis, and the variability of the runtime. The numerical results fit well with the theoretical results, even for small problem instance sizes. Together, these results provide a first theoretical characterisation of the potential and limitations of the (1 + 1) EA on the problem of computing UIOs....

  3. On the uniqueness of static perfect-fluid solutions in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beig, R.; Simon, W.

    1990-01-01

    Following earlier work of Masood-ul-Alam, we consider a uniqueness problem for nonrotating stellar models. Given a static, asymptotically flat perfect-fluid spacetime with barotropic equation of state ρ(p), and given another such spacetime which is spherically symmetric and has the same ρ(p) and the same surface potential: we prove that both are identical provided ρ(p) satisfies a certain differential inequality. This inequality is more natural and less restrictive that the conditions required by Masood-ul-Alam. 30 refs. (Authors)

  4. Identifying Non-Volatile Data Storage Areas: Unique Notebook Identification Information as Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikica Budimir

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper introduces new techniques to aid in the identification of recovered notebook computers so they may be returned to the rightful owner. We identify non-volatile data storage areas as a means of facilitating the safe storing of computer identification information. A forensic proof of concept tool has been designed to test the feasibility of several storage locations identified within this work to hold the data needed to uniquely identify a computer. The tool was used to perform the creation and extraction of created information in order to allow the analysis of the non-volatile storage locations as valid storage areas capable of holding and preserving the data created within them.  While the format of the information used to identify the machine itself is important, this research only discusses the insertion, storage and ability to retain such information.

  5. Existence of non-unique steady state solutions to the RMF current drive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugrass, W N [Flinders Univ. of South Australia, Bedford Park. School of Physical Sciences

    1985-05-04

    It is shown that the value of the d.c. current driven in a plasma cylinder by means of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) is not unique for R/delta >= 6 and eBsub(..omega..)/..nu..sub(ei)m approx.R/delta, where R is the radius of the plasma cylinder, delta is the classical skin depth, ..nu..sub(ei) is the electron-ion momentum transfer collision frequency, Bsub(..omega..) is the magnitude of the rotating magnetic field, e is the electron charge and m is the electron mass. This effect is predicted using three distinct approaches: (i) a steady state anaysis which ignores the second and higher harmonics of the fields and currents; (ii) a qualitative model which utilizes the analogy between the RMF current drive technique and the operation of the induction motor; (iii) a solution of the initial boundary value equations describing the RMF current drive in cylindrical plasmas.

  6. Radioimmunochemical characterization of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya: unique antigenic determinants located on hybrid hemoglobins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garver, F.A.; Altay, G.; Baker, M.M.; Gravely, M.; Huisman, T.H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Antisera were produced in rabbits to the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins, which contain hybrid delta-β non-α-chains, and to hemoglobin Kenya, which has a hybrid γ-β non-α-chain. By using a sensitive radioimmunoassay technique, the absorbed antisera were shown to contain an antibody population that was specific for the hybrid hemoglobin and did not cross-react with normal hemoglobins. However, with the absorbed Lepore-specific antisera, the three known types of Lepore hemoglobins were antigenically indistinguishable from each other, suggesting that antibodies are not produced to the primary structural differences which define the three non-α-chains of the Lepore hemoglobins. These studies demonstrate that the non-α-subunits of hemoglobins Lepore and Kenya possess unique antigenic determinant sites, evidently resulting from an altered polypeptide conformation

  7. A century of radiochemistry. Its growth and development as a unique scientific discipline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recognition of the 1997 anniversary of the first century of radiochemistry, a review is made of its unique contribution to the emergence of nuclear science, its development from the use of very basic chemical techniques initially to a battery of more sophisticated procedures, and its changing role as it has become widely applied in many fields of science. Synergistically, these fields have been able to develop with the aid of radiochemistry while at the same time, radiochemical methods developed to meet the demands of such applications, Among these, during the second half of the century, has been radiochemistry applied to quantitative chemical analysis: RAA or, nuclear analytical chemistry, and typical examples of its use in the authors' laboratory are described, including some recent INAA results on development of novel 'activable' tracer coding for forensic use with specialized and high security materials. The specific contributions, during the century, of Japanese pioneers in radiochemistry are also cited. (author)

  8. Separating Common from Unique Variance Within Emotional Distress: An Examination of Reliability and Relations to Worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew J; Evanovich, Emma K; David, Sarah Jo; Mumma, Gregory H

    2018-01-17

    High comorbidity rates among emotional disorders have led researchers to examine transdiagnostic factors that may contribute to shared psychopathology. Bifactor models provide a unique method for examining transdiagnostic variables by modelling the common and unique factors within measures. Previous findings suggest that the bifactor model of the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) may provide a method for examining transdiagnostic factors within emotional disorders. This study aimed to replicate the bifactor model of the DASS, a multidimensional measure of psychological distress, within a US adult sample and provide initial estimates of the reliability of the general and domain-specific factors. Furthermore, this study hypothesized that Worry, a theorized transdiagnostic variable, would show stronger relations to general emotional distress than domain-specific subscales. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the bifactor model structure of the DASS in 456 US adult participants (279 females and 177 males, mean age 35.9 years) recruited online. The DASS bifactor model fitted well (CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.05). The General Emotional Distress factor accounted for most of the reliable variance in item scores. Domain-specific subscales accounted for modest portions of reliable variance in items after accounting for the general scale. Finally, structural equation modelling indicated that Worry was strongly predicted by the General Emotional Distress factor. The DASS bifactor model is generalizable to a US community sample and General Emotional Distress, but not domain-specific factors, strongly predict the transdiagnostic variable Worry.

  9. Transcriptome of interstitial cells of Cajal reveals unique and selective gene signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Young Lee

    Full Text Available Transcriptome-scale data can reveal essential clues into understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms behind specific cellular functions and biological processes. Transcriptomics is a continually growing field of research utilized in biomarker discovery. The transcriptomic profile of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC, which serve as slow-wave electrical pacemakers for gastrointestinal (GI smooth muscle, has yet to be uncovered. Using copGFP-labeled ICC mice and flow cytometry, we isolated ICC populations from the murine small intestine and colon and obtained their transcriptomes. In analyzing the transcriptome, we identified a unique set of ICC-restricted markers including transcription factors, epigenetic enzymes/regulators, growth factors, receptors, protein kinases/phosphatases, and ion channels/transporters. This analysis provides new and unique insights into the cellular and biological functions of ICC in GI physiology. Additionally, we constructed an interactive ICC genome browser (http://med.unr.edu/physio/transcriptome based on the UCSC genome database. To our knowledge, this is the first online resource that provides a comprehensive library of all known genetic transcripts expressed in primary ICC. Our genome browser offers a new perspective into the alternative expression of genes in ICC and provides a valuable reference for future functional studies.

  10. Patient choice of providers in a preferred provider organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, A V; Hester, J

    1988-03-01

    This article is an analysis of patient choice of providers by the employees of the Security Pacific Bank of California and their dependents who have access to the Med Network Preferred Provider Organization (PPO). The empirical results show that not only is the PPO used by individuals who require relatively little medical care (as measured by predicted office visit charges) but that the PPO is most intensively used for low-risk services such as treatment for minor illness and preventive care. Also, the most likely Security Pacific Health Care beneficiary to use a PPO provider is a recently hired employee who lives in the south urban region, has a relatively low income, does not have supplemental insurance coverage, and is without previous attachments to non-PPO primary care providers. In order to maximize their ability to reduce plan paid benefits, insurers who contract with PPOs should focus on increasing PPO utilization among poorer health risks.

  11. Special feature on imaging systems and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George

    2013-07-01

    The IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST'2012) was held in Manchester, UK, on 16-17 July 2012. The participants came from 26 countries or regions: Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Malaysia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, UAE, UK and USA. The technical program of the conference consisted of a series of scientific and technical sessions, exploring physical principles, engineering and applications of new imaging systems and techniques, as reflected by the diversity of the submitted papers. Following a rigorous review process, a total of 123 papers were accepted, and they were organized into 30 oral presentation sessions and a poster session. In addition, six invited keynotes were arranged. The conference not only provided the participants with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and disseminate research outcomes but also paved a way to establish global collaboration. Following the IST'2012, a total of 55 papers, which were technically extended substantially from their versions in the conference proceeding, were submitted as regular papers to this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology . Following a rigorous reviewing process, 25 papers have been finally accepted for publication in this special feature and they are organized into three categories: (1) industrial tomography, (2) imaging systems and techniques and (3) image processing. These papers not only present the latest developments in the field of imaging systems and techniques but also offer potential solutions to existing problems. We hope that this special feature provides a good reference for researchers who are active in the field and will serve as a catalyst to trigger further research. It has been our great pleasure to be the guest editors of this special feature. We would like to thank the authors for their contributions, without which it would

  12. Perspectives of addiction treatment providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. General practitioners are referring patients with codeine-related problems to specialist treatment facilities, but little is known about the addiction treatment providers, the kinds of treatment they provide, and whether training or other interventions are needed to strengthen this sector. Objectives. To investigate the ...

  13. Babesiosis for Health Care Providers

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-25

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing babesiosis and providing patients at risk with tick bite prevention messages.  Created: 4/25/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 4/25/2012.

  14. Protecting Online Transactions with Unique Embedded Key Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Zenner, Erik

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel approach for protecting transactions over networks. While we use the example of a netbank application, the proposal is relevant for many security-critical transactions. The approach is based on two major changes compared to current solutions. The first one is the use...... difficult. In combination, these techniques allow to build a secure channel between the client program and the server, while current solutions only build such a channel between the client computer and the server....

  15. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  16. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  17. Argonne National Laboratory's thermal plume measurements: instruments and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, L.S.; Frigo, A.A.; Paddock, R.A.

    1977-12-01

    Instrumentation and techniques were developed at Argonne National Laboratory for measuring the three-dimensional temperature structure of thermal plumes from power plants, along with the limnological, meteorological, and plant operating conditions affecting their behavior. The equipment and procedures were designed to provide field data for use in evaluating predictive models that describe thermal plume behavior, and over 100 sets of these data have been collected. The instrument systems and techniques employed in a typical thermal discharge survey are highly integrated. Continuous monitoring of ambient and plant conditions is coupled with plume mapping from a moving survey boat. The instantaneous location of the boat together with subsurface temperature measurements from a towed thermistor chain provide a quasisynoptic view of the plume structure. Real-time, onboard display of the boat path and vertical temperatures supply feedback to investigators for determining the extent and spatial resolution of measurements required. The unique design, reliability, accuracy, calibration, and historical development of the components of these integrated systems are described. Survey system interfaces with data handling and processing techniques are also explained. Special supportive studies to investigate plume dynamics, values of eddy diffusivities, time-temperature histories of water parcels in thermal plumes, and rapid changes in plume shape are also described along with instrumentation used

  18. The cost of uniqueness in groundwater model calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catherine; Doherty, John

    2006-04-01

    Calibration of a groundwater model requires that hydraulic properties be estimated throughout a model domain. This generally constitutes an underdetermined inverse problem, for which a solution can only be found when some kind of regularization device is included in the inversion process. Inclusion of regularization in the calibration process can be implicit, for example through the use of zones of constant parameter value, or explicit, for example through solution of a constrained minimization problem in which parameters are made to respect preferred values, or preferred relationships, to the degree necessary for a unique solution to be obtained. The "cost of uniqueness" is this: no matter which regularization methodology is employed, the inevitable consequence of its use is a loss of detail in the calibrated field. This, in turn, can lead to erroneous predictions made by a model that is ostensibly "well calibrated". Information made available as a by-product of the regularized inversion process allows the reasons for this loss of detail to be better understood. In particular, it is easily demonstrated that the estimated value for an hydraulic property at any point within a model domain is, in fact, a weighted average of the true hydraulic property over a much larger area. This averaging process causes loss of resolution in the estimated field. Where hydraulic conductivity is the hydraulic property being estimated, high averaging weights exist in areas that are strategically disposed with respect to measurement wells, while other areas may contribute very little to the estimated hydraulic conductivity at any point within the model domain, this possibly making the detection of hydraulic conductivity anomalies in these latter areas almost impossible. A study of the post-calibration parameter field covariance matrix allows further insights into the loss of system detail incurred through the calibration process to be gained. A comparison of pre- and post

  19. Development of Curriculum Content for a Unique Career Ladder Multi-Entry/Multi-Exit Nursing Program. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbach, Ellen M.

    A project was undertaken to develop the curriculum content for a unique career ladder multi-entry/multi-exit nursing program that would provide training for nurse aides, practical nurses, and registered nurses. The major objectives of the project were to conduct a review of the literature on curriculum materials presently in use, to develop 11…

  20. Taking Care of You: Body, Mind, Spirit--A Unique Stress Management Program That Improves Lifestyle Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter-Smith, Molly; Massey, Vera; Rellergert, Linda; Wissmann, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Taking Care of You: Body, Mind, Spirit is a multi-session group program developed by University of Missouri Extension that provides a unique and practical approach to helping adults better managing their stress and bounce back from life's challenges while improving lifestyle behaviors. The program combines mindfulness and a variety of other…