WorldWideScience

Sample records for techniques provide similar

  1. Statistical techniques to find similar objects in images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodor, I K

    2003-10-16

    One problem in similarity-based object retrieval (SBOR) is how to define and estimate the similarity between two objects. In this paper we present a shape similarity measure based on thin-plate splines, and compare its performance with several other measures used in SBOR. We evaluate the methods on both artificial and real images.

  2. Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics! series, sponsored by the California Institute for Technology (CalTech), the mathematical concept of similarity is presented. he history of and real life applications are discussed using actual film footage and computer animation. Terms used and various concepts of size, shape, ratio, area, and volume are demonstrated. The similarity of polygons, solids, congruent triangles, internal ratios, perimeters, and line segments using the previous mentioned concepts are shown.

  3. Evaluation of mfcc estimation techniques for music similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Murthi, Manohar

    2006-01-01

    the classical FFT and linear prediction based implementations and an implementation based on the more recent MVDR spectral estimator. The performance of these methods are evaluated in genre classification using a probabilistic classifier based on Gaussian Mixture models. MFCCs based on fixed order, signal......Spectral envelope parameters in the form of mel-frequencycepstral coefficients are often used for capturing timbral information of music signals in connection with genre classification applications. In this paper, we evaluate mel-frequencycepstral coefficient (MFCC) estimation techniques, namely...... independent linear prediction and MVDR spectral estimators did not exhibit any statistically significant improvement over MFCCs based on the simpler FFT....

  4. Quantifying the Diversity and Similarity of Surgical Procedures Among Hospitals and Anesthesia Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Ledolter, Johannes; Hindman, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    In this Statistical Grand Rounds, we review methods for the analysis of the diversity of procedures among hospitals, the activities among anesthesia providers, etc. We apply multiple methods and consider their relative reliability and usefulness for perioperative applications, including calculations of SEs. We also review methods for comparing the similarity of procedures among hospitals, activities among anesthesia providers, etc. We again apply multiple methods and consider their relative reliability and usefulness for perioperative applications. The applications include strategic analyses (e.g., hospital marketing) and human resource analytics (e.g., comparisons among providers). Measures of diversity of procedures and activities (e.g., Herfindahl and Gini-Simpson index) are used for quantification of each facility (hospital) or anesthesia provider, one at a time. Diversity can be thought of as a summary measure. Thus, if the diversity of procedures for 48 hospitals is studied, the diversity (and its SE) is being calculated for each hospital. Likewise, the effective numbers of common procedures at each hospital can be calculated (e.g., by using the exponential of the Shannon index). Measures of similarity are pairwise assessments. Thus, if quantifying the similarity of procedures among cases with a break or handoff versus cases without a break or handoff, a similarity index represents a correlation coefficient. There are several different measures of similarity, and we compare their features and applicability for perioperative data. We rely extensively on sensitivity analyses to interpret observed values of the similarity index.

  5. Structural similarities between brain and linguistic data provide evidence of semantic relations in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen E Crangle

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method of analysis by which structural similarities between brain data and linguistic data can be assessed at the semantic level. It shows how to measure the strength of these structural similarities and so determine the relatively better fit of the brain data with one semantic model over another. The first model is derived from WordNet, a lexical database of English compiled by language experts. The second is given by the corpus-based statistical technique of latent semantic analysis (LSA, which detects relations between words that are latent or hidden in text. The brain data are drawn from experiments in which statements about the geography of Europe were presented auditorily to participants who were asked to determine their truth or falsity while electroencephalographic (EEG recordings were made. The theoretical framework for the analysis of the brain and semantic data derives from axiomatizations of theories such as the theory of differences in utility preference. Using brain-data samples from individual trials time-locked to the presentation of each word, ordinal relations of similarity differences are computed for the brain data and for the linguistic data. In each case those relations that are invariant with respect to the brain and linguistic data, and are correlated with sufficient statistical strength, amount to structural similarities between the brain and linguistic data. Results show that many more statistically significant structural similarities can be found between the brain data and the WordNet-derived data than the LSA-derived data. The work reported here is placed within the context of other recent studies of semantics and the brain. The main contribution of this paper is the new method it presents for the study of semantics and the brain and the focus it permits on networks of relations detected in brain data and represented by a semantic model.

  6. Esomeprazole administered through a nasogastric tube provides bioavailability similar to oral dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostek, M B; Chen, Y; Skammer, W; Winter, H; Zhao, J; Andersson, T

    2003-09-15

    To determine if nasogastric tube administration of the enteric-coated pellets from an opened esomeprazole capsule provides bioavailability similar to oral dosing with the intact capsule. A randomized, single-centre, open-label, two-period crossover pharmacokinetic study consisting of two 5-day dosing periods separated by a 7- to 14-day washout period was conducted. Healthy subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years received esomeprazole 40 mg once daily either orally as an intact capsule, or as a suspension of the enteric-coated pellets from an opened capsule in water through a nasogastric tube. In 47 evaluable subjects, the 90% confidence intervals were 0.87-1.08 and 0.93-1.25 for the geometric mean of the ratio of nasogastric tube administration relative to administration of the intact capsule for the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and for maximum plasma concentration, respectively, on day 1, demonstrating bioequivalence. Oral and nasogastric administration also demonstrated similar bioavailabilities on day 5. Esomeprazole was well tolerated regardless of the mode of administration. Nasogastric tube administration of the enteric-coated pellets from an opened esomeprazole 40 mg capsule provides bioavailability similar to oral dosing. Administration of the contents of an opened esomeprazole 40 mg capsule in water through a nasogastric tube is a practical alternative for patients with feeding tubes who require effective gastric acid suppression, but cannot swallow an oral preparation.

  7. A novel shape-similarity-based elastography technique for prostate cancer assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Reza; Wang, Haisu; Hesabgar, Seyyed Mohammad; Scholl, Timothy J; Samani, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Association between tissue stiffness alteration and pathology is well known. This has formed the basis for prostate elastography imaging techniques where images of prostate tissue mechanical properties are reconstructed. In this paper, the authors present a novel prostate elastography technique which, unlike other techniques, relies on magnitude image data only. This proposed technique works in conjunction with ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging modalities and it requires the prostate's pre- and postdeformation images as input. It uses a constrained reconstruction method where the elastic moduli of the prostate's normal and pathological tissues are determined based on an essential subset of the tissue deformation provided by the images data. The elasticity reconstruction technique uses optimization where similarity between calculated and observed shape features of the postcompression prostate image is maximized. The method was validated with an in silico phantom study followed by studies using ultrasound and MR with tissue-mimicking phantoms. Using the proposed methods, it was observed that the maximum uncertainties of the reconstructed Young's modulus ratios of tumor to normal tissue were 15.6% and 9.7%, which were obtained from the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and MR tissue-mimicking phantom studies, respectively. This novel prostate elastography technique relies on prostate TRUS or MRI images that can be routinely acquired without additional imaging hardware. The phantom studies provided evidence that the proposed technique has a good potential to reconstruct prostate stiffness maps noninvasively particularly when applied in conjunction with MRI. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the technique's merits for clinical use.

  8. Providing QoS guarantees for self-similar traffic flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Jun; Zhang Rui; Lu Xianliang

    2005-01-01

    Provisioning network resource to meet the quality of Service (QoS) demand isa key issue for future network services. Such functions may be realized by an admission control algorithm, which determines whether or not a new traffic flow can be admitted into the network. It is widely accepted that many traffic flows have self-similar character that has detrimental influence on network performance. This characteristic has made old mathematical models invalid, and a new model must work with self-similar fractal instead. This paper applies Fractional Brownian Motion(FBM) model and integrates it into the comprehensive admission control scheme, which takes account of aggregated traffic behavior to get the statistical multiplexing performance gain. Experiment verifies that FBM model can be used to realistically describe packet traffic in modern packet networks and accurately predict their performance.

  9. An efficient similarity measure technique for medical image registration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vilas H Gaidhane; Yogesh V Hote; Vijander Singh

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an efficient similarity measure technique is proposed for medical image registration. The proposed approach is based on the Gerschgorin circles theorem. In this approach, image registration is carried out by considering Gerschgorin bounds of a covariance matrix of two compared images with normalized energy. The beauty of this approach is that there is no need to calculate image features like eigenvalues and eigenvectors. This technique is superior to other well-known techniques such as normalized cross-correlation method and eigenvalue-based similarity measures since it avoids the false registration and requires less computation. The proposed approach is sensitive to small defects and robust to change in illuminations and noise. Experimental results on various synthetic medical images have shown the effectiveness of the proposed technique for detecting and locating the disease in the complicated medical images.

  10. Data mining technique for fast retrieval of similar waveforms in Fusion massive databases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es; Pereira, A.; Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Dormido-Canto, S.; Farias, G.; Dormido, R.; Sanchez, J.; Duro, N. [Departamento de Informatica y Automatica, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Santos, M. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT Para Fusion, Madrid (Spain); Pajares, G. [Departamento de Arquitectura de Computadores y Automatica, UCM, Madrid (Spain)

    2008-01-15

    Fusion measurement systems generate similar waveforms for reproducible behavior. A major difficulty related to data analysis is the identification, in a rapid and automated way, of a set of discharges with comparable behaviour, i.e. discharges with 'similar' waveforms. Here we introduce a new technique for rapid searching and retrieval of 'similar' signals. The approach consists of building a classification system that avoids traversing the whole database looking for similarities. The classification system diminishes the problem dimensionality (by means of waveform feature extraction) and reduces the searching space to just the most probable 'similar' waveforms (clustering techniques). In the searching procedure, the input waveform is classified in any of the existing clusters. Then, a similarity measure is computed between the input signal and all cluster elements in order to identify the most similar waveforms. The inner product of normalized vectors is used as the similarity measure as it allows the searching process to be independent of signal gain and polarity. This development has been applied recently to TJ-II stellarator databases and has been integrated into its remote participation system.

  11. Sparse regularization techniques provide novel insights into outcome integration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Holger; Wolfensteller, Uta; Frimmel, Steffi; Ruge, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    By exploiting information that is contained in the spatial arrangement of neural activations, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) can detect distributed brain activations which are not accessible by standard univariate analysis. Recent methodological advances in MVPA regularization techniques have made it feasible to produce sparse discriminative whole-brain maps with highly specific patterns. Furthermore, the most recent refinement, the Graph Net, explicitly takes the 3D-structure of fMRI data into account. Here, these advanced classification methods were applied to a large fMRI sample (N=70) in order to gain novel insights into the functional localization of outcome integration processes. While the beneficial effect of differential outcomes is well-studied in trial-and-error learning, outcome integration in the context of instruction-based learning has remained largely unexplored. In order to examine neural processes associated with outcome integration in the context of instruction-based learning, two groups of subjects underwent functional imaging while being presented with either differential or ambiguous outcomes following the execution of varying stimulus-response instructions. While no significant univariate group differences were found in the resulting fMRI dataset, L1-regularized (sparse) classifiers performed significantly above chance and also clearly outperformed the standard L2-regularized (dense) Support Vector Machine on this whole-brain between-subject classification task. Moreover, additional L2-regularization via the Elastic Net and spatial regularization by the Graph Net improved interpretability of discriminative weight maps but were accompanied by reduced classification accuracies. Most importantly, classification based on sparse regularization facilitated the identification of highly specific regions differentially engaged under ambiguous and differential outcome conditions, comprising several prefrontal regions previously associated with

  12. Molecular and pedigree measures of relatedness provide similar estimates of inbreeding depression in a bottlenecked population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S M; Jamieson, I G

    2013-04-01

    Individual-based estimates of the degree of inbreeding or parental relatedness from pedigrees provide a critical starting point for studies of inbreeding depression, but in practice wild pedigrees are difficult to obtain. Because inbreeding increases the proportion of genomewide loci that are identical by descent, inbreeding variation within populations has the potential to generate observable correlations between heterozygosity measured using molecular markers and a variety of fitness related traits. Termed heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs), these correlations have been observed in a wide variety of taxa. The difficulty of obtaining wild pedigree data, however, means that empirical investigations of how pedigree inbreeding influences HFCs are rare. Here, we assess evidence for inbreeding depression in three life-history traits (hatching and fledging success and juvenile survival) in an isolated population of Stewart Island robins using both pedigree- and molecular-derived measures of relatedness. We found results from the two measures were highly correlated and supported evidence for significant but weak inbreeding depression. However, standardized effect sizes for inbreeding depression based on the pedigree-based kin coefficients (k) were greater and had smaller standard errors than those based on molecular genetic measures of relatedness (RI), particularly for hatching and fledging success. Nevertheless, the results presented here support the use of molecular-based measures of relatedness in bottlenecked populations when information regarding inbreeding depression is desired but pedigree data on relatedness are unavailable. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. Construction of Weak and Strong Similarity Measures for Ordered Sets of Documents Using Fuzzy Set Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, L.; Michel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ordered sets (OS) of documents are encountered more and more in information distribution systems, such as information retrieval systems. Classical similarity measures for ordinary sets of documents need to be extended to these ordered sets. This is done in this article using fuzzy set techniques. The practical usability of the OS-measures is…

  14. Similarity in food cleaning techniques within matrilines in wild vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waal, Erica; Krützen, Michael; Hula, Josephine; Goudet, Jérôme; Bshary, Redouan

    2012-01-01

    Social learning and the formation of traditions rely on the ability and willingness to copy one another. A central question is under which conditions individuals adapt behaviour to social influences. Here, we demonstrate that similarities in food processing techniques emerge on the level of matrilines (mother-offspring) but not on the group level in an experiment on six groups of wild vervet monkeys that involved grapes covered with sand. Monkeys regularly ate unclean grapes but also used four cleaning techniques more similarly within matrilines: rubbing in hands, rubbing on substrate, open with mouth, and open with hands. Individual cleaning techniques evolved over time as they converged within matrilines, stabilised at the end and remained stable in a follow-up session more than one year later. The similarity within matrilines persisted when we analyzed only foraging events of individuals in the absence of other matriline members and matriline members used more similar methods than adult full sisters. Thus, momentary conversion or purely genetic causation are unlikely explanations, favouring social learning as mechanism for within matriline similarities. The restriction of traditions to matriline membership rather than to the group level may restrict the development of culture in monkeys relative to apes or humans.

  15. Retrieval of Similar Objects in Simulation Data Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantu-Paz, E; Cheung, S-C; Kamath, C

    2003-06-19

    Comparing the output of a physics simulation with an experiment is often done by visually comparing the two outputs. In order to determine which simulation is a closer match to the experiment, more quantitative measures are needed. This paper describes our early experiences with this problem by considering the slightly simpler problem of finding objects in a image that are similar to a given query object. Focusing on a dataset from a fluid mixing problem, we report on our experiments using classification techniques from machine learning to retrieve the objects of interest in the simulation data. The early results reported in this paper suggest that machine learning techniques can retrieve more objects that are similar to the query than distance-based similarity methods.

  16. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques using RDX and C-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.J. Miller; T.S. Yoder

    2010-06-01

    The amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the original amount of explosive on the surface, temperature, humidity, rain, etc. This laboratory study focused on looking at similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used when performance testing explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards, and fingerprinting of actual explosives. Explosives were deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each surface type using each contamination technique. The surface types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, and metal obtained from a car hood at a junk yard. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal, oil and dirt. The substrates were photographed using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera to determine the difference in the crystalline structure and surface contamination in an attempt to determine differences and similarities associated with current contamination techniques.

  17. Olympic weightlifting and plyometric training with children provides similar or greater performance improvements than traditional resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Hammami, Raouf; Kaabi, Sofiene; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2014-06-01

    A number of organizations recommend that advanced resistance training (RT) techniques can be implemented with children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Olympic-style weightlifting (OWL), plyometrics, and traditional RT programs with children. Sixty-three children (10-12 years) were randomly allocated to a 12-week control OWL, plyometric, or traditional RT program. Pre- and post-training tests included body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds, countermovement jump (CMJ), horizontal jump, balance, 5- and 20-m sprint times, isokinetic force and power at 60 and 300° · s(-1). Magnitude-based inferences were used to analyze the likelihood of an effect having a standardized (Cohen's) effect size exceeding 0.20. All interventions were generally superior to the control group. Olympic weightlifting was >80% likely to provide substantially better improvements than plyometric training for CMJ, horizontal jump, and 5- and 20-m sprint times, whereas >75% likely to substantially exceed traditional RT for balance and isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1). Plyometric training was >78% likely to elicit substantially better training adaptations than traditional RT for balance, isokinetic force at 60 and 300° · s(-1), isokinetic power at 300° · s(-1), and 5- and 20-m sprints. Traditional RT only exceeded plyometric training for BMI and isokinetic power at 60° · s(-1). Hence, OWL and plyometrics can provide similar or greater performance adaptations for children. It is recommended that any of the 3 training modalities can be implemented under professional supervision with proper training progressions to enhance training adaptations in children.

  18. Reformulation: A Technique for Providing Advanced Feedback in Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew D.

    1989-01-01

    The typical writing feedback situation in a language classroom is examined, followed by a discussion of reformulation as an alternative approach. An example is provided. Issues to be considered as well as benefits of the reformulation approach are described for both classroom and individual settings. (six references) (LB)

  19. 29 CFR 778.214 - Benefit plans; including profit-sharing plans or trusts providing similar benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fide plan for providing old age, retirement, life, accident, or health insurance or similar benefits... such employees. Accordingly, reference should be made to § 5.32 of this title as well as to § 778.215... satisfaction of his obligation to provide the specified benefits are also excludable from the regular rate...

  20. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques Using RDX and C-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.; Yoder, T. S.

    2010-06-01

    Explosive trace detection equipment has been deployed to airports for more than a decade. During this time, the need for standardized procedures and calibrated trace amounts for ensuring that the systems are operating properly and detecting the correct explosive has been apparent but a standard representative of a fingerprint has been elusive. Standards are also necessary to evaluate instrumentation in the laboratories during development and prior to deployment to determine sample throughput, probability of detection, false positive/negative rates, ease of use by operator, mechanical and/or software problems that may be encountered, and other pertinent parameters that would result in the equipment being unusable during field operations. Since many laboratories do not have access to nor are allowed to handle explosives, the equipment is tested using techniques aimed at simulating the actual explosives fingerprint. This laboratory study focused on examining the similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used to performance test explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples and to offer scenarios where each contamination technique is applicable. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of standard solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory’s (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards onto substrates, and fingerprinting of actual explosives onto substrates. RDX was deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each substrate type using each contamination technique. The substrate types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that

  1. Semantic Web Techniques for Yellow Page Service Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghu Anantharangachar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Applications providing “yellow pages information” for use over the web should ideally be based on structured information. Use of web pages providing unstructured information poses variety of problems to the user, such as use of arbitrary formats, unsuitability for machine processing and likely incompleteness of information. Structured data alleviates these problems but we require more. Capturing the semantics of a domain in the form of an ontology is necessary to ensure that unforeseen application can easily be created at a later date. Very often yellow page systems are implemented using a centralized database. In some cases, human intermediaries accessible over the phone network examine a centralized database and use their reasoning ability to deal with the user’s need for information. Centralized operation and considerable central administration make these systems expensive to operate. Scaling up such systems is difficult. They behave like isolated systems and it is common for such systems to be highly domain specific, for instance systems dealing with accommodation and travel. This paper explores an alternative – a highly distributed system design meeting a variety of needs – considerably reducing efforts required at a central organization, enabling large numbers of vendors to enter information about their own products and services, enablingend-users to contribute information such as their own ratings, using an ontology to describe each domain of application in a flexible manner for uses foreseen and unforeseen, enabling distributed search and mashups, use of vendor independent standards, using reasoning to find the best matches to a given query, geospatial reasoning and a simple, interactive, mobile application/interface. We view this design as one in which vendors and end-users do the bulk of the work in building large distributed collections of information in a Web 2.0 style. We give importance to geo-spatial information and

  2. An Efficient Technique to Implement Similarity Measures in Text Document Clustering using Artificial Neural Networks Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Selvi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition, envisaging supervised and unsupervised method, optimization, associative memory and control process are some of the diversified troubles that can be resolved by artificial neural networks. Problem identified: Of late, discovering the required information in massive quantity of data is the challenging tasks. The model of similarity evaluation is the central element in accomplishing a perceptive of variables and perception that encourage behavior and mediate concern. This study proposes Artificial Neural Networks algorithms to resolve similarity measures. In order to apply singular value decomposition the frequency of word pair is established in the given document. (1 Tokenization: The splitting up of a stream of text into words, phrases, signs, or other significant parts is called tokenization. (2 Stop words: Preceding or succeeding to processing natural language data, the words that are segregated is called stop words. (3 Porter stemming: The main utilization of this algorithm is as part of a phrase normalization development that is characteristically completed while setting up in rank recovery technique. (4 WordNet: The compilation of lexical data base for the English language is called as WordNet Based on Artificial Neural Networks, the core part of this study work extends n-gram proposed algorithm. All the phonemes, syllables, letters, words or base pair corresponds in accordance to the application. Future work extends the application of this same similarity measures in various other neural network algorithms to accomplish improved results.

  3. Utilizing Statistical Semantic Similarity Techniques for Ontology Mapping——with Applications to AEC Standard Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiayi; Chin-Pang Jack Cheng; Gloria T. Lau; Kincho H. Law

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce three semi-automated approaches for ontology mapping using relatedness analysis techniques. In the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, there exist a number of ontological standards to describe the semantics of building models. Although the standards share similar scopes of interest, the task of comparing and mapping concepts among standards is challenging due to their differences in terminologies and perspectives. Ontology mapping is therefore necessary to achieve information interoperability, which allows two or more information sources to exchange data and to re-use the data for further purposes. The attribute-based approach, corpus-based approach, and name-based approach presented in this paper adopt the statistical relatedness analysis techniques to discover related concepts from heterogeneous ontologies. A pilot study is conducted on IFC and CIS/2 ontologies to evaluate the approaches. Preliminary results show that the attribute-based approach outperforms the other two approaches in terms of precision and F-measure.

  4. DISTINCTION OF MECHANICALLY PROCESSED WOOD SURFACES WITH SIMILAR QUALITIES USING SUNSET LASER TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carolina de Almeida Andrade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ASTM D 1666-11 (2011 norm classifies the quality of wood surface pieces after its mechanical processing. Although this classification is difficult to achieve visually, the use of some tools, such as solid state laser, can facilitate this classification. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of sunset laser to qualify mechanically processed surfaces with similar visual qualities. We used a log from the base of a Khaya ivorensis tree and one from a K. senegalensis tree, both 11 years old. 22 specimens of dimensions 600x140x30 mm (CxLxE were made of each species. The specimens were flattened with speeds of 2400, 3600 and 4000 min-1 and advanced speeds were predetermined in 6 and 15 m.min-1. Then the samples were illuminated with sunset laser and photographed at high resolution, the images were transferred to the software Image J. To evaluate the sunset laser, areas of defects in wood that are classified as regular and bad by ASTM D 1666-11 (2011 were used. There was a difference in classification of wood defects between the two methods used, from the 31 specimens classified as regularly by visual analysis, 8 of them were classified as bad by the laser method. The use of solid-state laser in the sunset laser technique was more efficient in evaluating small differences in mechanically processed wood defects compared to visual evaluation.

  5. Comparing the processing of music and language meaning using EEG and FMRI provides evidence for similar and distinct neural representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Steinbeis

    Full Text Available Recent demonstrations that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful information has raised several questions as to what the underlying mechanisms of establishing meaning in music are, and if the meaning of music is represented in comparable fashion to language meaning. This paper presents evidence showing that expressed affect is a primary pathway to music meaning and that meaning in music is represented in a very similar fashion to language meaning. In two experiments using EEG and fMRI, it was shown that single chords varying in harmonic roughness (consonance/dissonance and thus perceived affect could prime the processing of subsequently presented affective target words, as indicated by an increased N400 and activation of the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG. Most importantly, however, when primed by affective words, single chords incongruous to the preceding affect also elicited an N400 and activated the right posterior STS, an area implicated in processing meaning of a variety of signals (e.g. prosody, voices, motion. This provides an important piece of evidence in support of music meaning being represented in a very similar but also distinct fashion to language meaning: Both elicit an N400, but activate different portions of the right temporal lobe.

  6. Comparing the processing of music and language meaning using EEG and FMRI provides evidence for similar and distinct neural representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2008-05-21

    Recent demonstrations that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful information has raised several questions as to what the underlying mechanisms of establishing meaning in music are, and if the meaning of music is represented in comparable fashion to language meaning. This paper presents evidence showing that expressed affect is a primary pathway to music meaning and that meaning in music is represented in a very similar fashion to language meaning. In two experiments using EEG and fMRI, it was shown that single chords varying in harmonic roughness (consonance/dissonance) and thus perceived affect could prime the processing of subsequently presented affective target words, as indicated by an increased N400 and activation of the right middle temporal gyrus (MTG). Most importantly, however, when primed by affective words, single chords incongruous to the preceding affect also elicited an N400 and activated the right posterior STS, an area implicated in processing meaning of a variety of signals (e.g. prosody, voices, motion). This provides an important piece of evidence in support of music meaning being represented in a very similar but also distinct fashion to language meaning: Both elicit an N400, but activate different portions of the right temporal lobe.

  7. Could structural similarity of specific domains between animal globins and plant antenna proteins provide hints important for the photoprotection mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2015-01-07

    Non photochemical quenching is a fundamental mechanism in photosynthesis, which protects plants against excess excitation energy and is of crucial importance for their survival and fitness. In the last decades hundreds of papers have appeared that describe the role of antenna regulation in protection or the so called qE response. However, the exact quenching site is still obscure. Previously overlooked features of the antenna may provide hints towards the elucidation of its functionality and of the quenching mechanism. Recently it was demonstrated that the catalytic domain of human myoglobin that binds the pigment (i.e. heme) is similar in structure to the domain of the light harvesting complex II of pea that binds Chl a 614 (former known as b3). In addition, it is well accepted that conformational changes of the chlorophyll macrocycle result in reversible changes of fluorescence (the lowest fluorescence corresponds to non planar macrocycle). Here we put forward a hypothesis regarding the molecular mechanism that leads to the formation of a quenching center inside the antenna proteins. Our main suggestion is that a conformational change of helix H5 (known also as helix D) forces conformational changes in the macrocycle of Chl a 614 is implicated in the ΔA535 absorbance change and quenching during photoprotective qE. The specific features (some of them similar to those of heme domain of globins) of the b3 domain account for these traits. The model predicts that antenna proteins having b3 pigments (i.e. LHCII, CP29, CP26) can act as potential quenchers.

  8. 454 Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing of tropical mycorrhizal fungi provide similar results but reveal substantial methodological biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Nilsson, R Henrik; Abarenkov, Kessy; Jairus, Teele; Sadam, Ave; Saar, Irja; Bahram, Mohammad; Bechem, Eneke; Chuyong, George; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2010-10-01

    • Compared with Sanger sequencing-based methods, pyrosequencing provides orders of magnitude more data on the diversity of organisms in their natural habitat, but its technological biases and relative accuracy remain poorly understood. • This study compares the performance of pyrosequencing and traditional sequencing for species' recovery of ectomycorrhizal fungi on root tips in a Cameroonian rain forest and addresses biases related to multi-template PCR and pyrosequencing analyses. • Pyrosequencing and the traditional method yielded qualitatively similar results, but there were slight, but significant, differences that affected the taxonomic view of the fungal community. We found that most pyrosequencing singletons were artifactual and contained a strongly elevated proportion of insertions compared with natural intra- and interspecific variation. The alternative primers, DNA extraction methods and PCR replicates strongly influenced the richness and community composition as recovered by pyrosequencing. • Pyrosequencing offers a powerful alternative for the identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi in pooled root samples, but requires careful selection of molecular tools. A well-populated backbone database facilitates the detection of biological and technical artifacts. The pyrosequencing pipeline is available at http://unite.ut.ee/454pipeline.tgz.

  9. Statistical Techniques for Analyzing Process or "Similarity" Data in TID Hardness Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, R.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate techniques for estimating the contributions to TID hardness variability for families of linear bipolar technologies, determining how part-to-part and lot-to-lot variability change for different part types in the process.

  10. Budesonide/formoterol and formoterol provide similar rapid relief in patients with acute asthma showing refractoriness to salbutamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardi DM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort® with formoterol (Oxis® in the treatment of patients with acute asthma who showed evidence of refractoriness to short-acting β2-agonist therapy. Methods In a 3 hour, randomized, double-blind study, a total of 115 patients with acute asthma (mean FEV1 40% of predicted normal and a refractory response to salbutamol (mean reversibility 2% of predicted normal after inhalation of 400 μg, were randomized to receive either budesonide/formoterol (320/9 μg, 2 inhalations at t = -5 minutes and 2 inhalations at 0 minutes [total dose 1280/36 μg] or formoterol (9 μg, 2 inhalations at t = -5 minutes and 2 inhalations at 0 minutes [total dose 36 μg]. The primary efficacy variable was the average FEV1 from the first intake of study medication to the measurement at 90 minutes. Secondary endpoints included changes in FEV1 at other timepoints and change in respiratory rate at 180 minutes. Treatment success, treatment failure and patient assessment of the effectiveness of the study medication were also measured. Results FEV1 increased after administration of the study medication in both treatment groups. No statistically significant difference between the treatment groups was apparent for the primary outcome variable, or for any of the other efficacy endpoints. There were no statistically significant between-group differences for treatment success, treatment failure or patient assessment of medication effectiveness. Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion Budesonide/formoterol and formoterol provided similarly rapid relief of acute bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma who showed evidence of refractoriness to a short-acting β2-agonist.

  11. Retest Reliability of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study and Similar Semiprojective Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Saul; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The research dealing with the reliability of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study is surveyed. Analysis of various split-half, and retest procedures are reviewed and their relative effectiveness evaluated. Reliability measures as applied to projective techniques in general are discussed. (Author/DEP)

  12. Power-Management Techniques for Wireless Sensor Networks and Similar Low-Power Communication Devices Based on Nonrechargeable Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnelo Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the well-known advantages of communication solutions based on energy harvesting, there are scenarios where the absence of batteries (supercapacitor only or the use of rechargeable batteries is not a realistic option. Therefore, the alternative is to extend as much as possible the lifetime of primary cells (nonrechargeable batteries. By assuming low duty-cycle applications, three power-management techniques are combined in a novel way to provide an efficient energy solution for wireless sensor networks nodes or similar communication devices powered by primary cells. Accordingly, a customized node is designed and long-term experiments in laboratory and outdoors are realized. Simulated and empirical results show that the battery lifetime can be drastically enhanced. However, two trade-offs are identified: a significant increase of both data latency and hardware/software complexity. Unattended nodes deployed in outdoors under extreme temperatures, buried sensors (underground communication, and nodes embedded in the structure of buildings, bridges, and roads are some of the target scenarios for this work. Part of the provided guidelines can be used to extend the battery lifetime of communication devices in general.

  13. Image similarity ranking of focal computed tomography liver lesions using a 2AFC technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Jessica; Antani, Sameer; Long, Rodney; Kim, Lauren; Thoma, George

    2016-03-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) for radiological images has experienced massive growth over the past two decades, and shows great potential as a tool for use in precision medicine. A recurring challenge in CBIR evaluation has been in obtaining reference sets of images from human viewers of the system. Our work seeks to determine the feasibility of creating a reference set from images ranked by similarity from human viewers of the images. We obtained 2 sets each of 10 images of CT focal liver lesions from a database of open-access publications with and without markings showing the region containing the lesions, respectively. We created 2 sets of all 45 pair-wise combinations of the images, and displayed them to 10 volunteers, of which 2 had medical training. We used a Two-Alternative Forced Choice (2AFC) paradigm to obtain complete rankings of similarity levels in these image pairs. Analysis showed that inter-reader agreement for rankings ranged from Tau=0.21-0.69 (median=0.37) for the image pairs without any markings, and Tau=0.21-0.57 (median=0.33) for the image pairs with markings. A comparison of the regions of interests drawn by the study participants outlining the lesions in images without markings showed that participants tended to agree on images containing a single focal lesion of a single density, and inter-reader agreement for image rankings in which the regions of interest agree ranged from Tau=0.39-0.85 (median=0.58). These results show that the use of image ranking using 2AFC may be a feasible method for creating reference sets for CBIR system validation.

  14. Classification of highly similar crude oils using data sets from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and multivariate techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mispelaar, V.G. van; Smilde, A.K.; Noord, O.E. de; Blomberg, J.; Schoenmakers, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) has proven to be an extremely powerful separation technique for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures. This separation power can be used to discriminate between highly similar samples. In this article we will describe the use of GC × GC

  15. Swarm Intelligence: New Techniques for Adaptive Systems to Provide Learning Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2012-01-01

    The notion of a system adapting itself to provide support for learning has always been an important issue of research for technology-enabled learning. One approach to provide adaptivity is to use social navigation approaches and techniques which involve analysing data of what was previously selected by a cluster of users or what worked for…

  16. Providing an Approach to Locating the Semantic Error of Application Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Rahimi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of the efforts taken to produce a computer program, the program may still have some bugs and defects. In fact, the larger and more complex programs are more likely to contain errors. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to detect erroneous performance of application using clustering technique. Because the program paased different execution paths based on different inputs, there is impossible to discover all errors in the program before delivery the software. Monitoring all execution paths before delivery of program is very difficult or maybe impossible, so a lot of errors are hidden in the program and is revealed after delivery. Solutions that have been proposed to achieve this goal are trying to compare the information in the implementation of the program to be successful or unsuccessful which called determinant and introduces the points suspended to the error to programmer. But the main problem is that the analysis carried out at the decisive time information regardless of affiliation between predicate, leading to the inability of these methods to detect certain types of errors. To solve these problems, in this paper a new solution based on behavior analysis and runtime of executable paths in the form of taking into account the interactions between determinants are provided. For this purpose, a clustering method was used for classification of graphs based on the similarities and the ultimate determination of areas suspected of error in the erroneous code paths. Assessment of the proposed strategy on the collection of real programs shows the success of the proposed approach more accurate in detecting errors compared to previous.

  17. A Similarity-Ranking Method on Semantic Computing for Providing Information-Services in Station-Concierge System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoki Yokoyama

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of smartphones and wireless broadband networks have been progressing as a new Railway infomration environment. According to the spread of such devices and information technology, various types of information can be obtained from databases connected to the Internet. One scenario of obtaining such a wide variety of information resources is in the phase of user’s transportation. This paper proposes an information provision system, named the Station Concierge System that matches the situation and intention of passengers. The purpose of this system is to estimate the needs of passengers like station staff or hotel concierge and to provide information resources that satisfy user’s expectations dynamically. The most important module of the system is constructed based on a new information ranking method for passenger intention prediction and service recommendation. This method has three main features, which are (1 projecting a user to semantic vector space by using her current context, (2 predicting the intention of a user based on selecting a semantic vector subspace, and (3 ranking the services by a descending order of relevant scores to the user’ intention. By comparing the predicted results of our method with those of two straightforward computation methods, the experimental studies show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. Using this system, users can obtain transit information and service map that dynamically matches their context.

  18. Flat and complex temperate reefs provide similar support for fish: Evidence for a unimodal species-habitat relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Avery B; Pickering, Emily A; Adler, Alyssa M; Taylor, J Christopher; Peterson, Charles H

    2017-01-01

    Structural complexity, a form of habitat heterogeneity, influences the structure and function of ecological communities, generally supporting increased species density, richness, and diversity. Recent research, however, suggests the most complex habitats may not harbor the highest density of individuals and number of species, especially in areas with elevated human influence. Understanding nuances in relationships between habitat heterogeneity and ecological communities is warranted to guide habitat-focused conservation and management efforts. We conducted fish and structural habitat surveys of thirty warm-temperate reefs on the southeastern US continental shelf to quantify how structural complexity influences fish communities. We found that intermediate complexity maximizes fish abundance on natural and artificial reefs, as well as species richness on natural reefs, challenging the current paradigm that abundance and other fish community metrics increase with increasing complexity. Naturally occurring rocky reefs of flat and complex morphologies supported equivalent abundance, biomass, species richness, and community composition of fishes. For flat and complex morphologies of rocky reefs to receive equal consideration as essential fish habitat (EFH), special attention should be given to detecting pavement type rocky reefs because their ephemeral nature makes them difficult to detect with typical seafloor mapping methods. Artificial reefs of intermediate complexity also maximized fish abundance, but human-made structures composed of low-lying concrete and metal ships differed in community types, with less complex, concrete structures supporting lower numbers of fishes classified largely as demersal species and metal ships protruding into the water column harboring higher numbers of fishes, including more pelagic species. Results of this study are essential to the process of evaluating habitat function provided by different types and shapes of reefs on the seafloor

  19. Brief: market research techniques--a synopsis for continuing education providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S G

    1990-01-01

    Any organization that attempts to attract and hold customers must face the necessity of determining what people want and value, and then cater to those wants and values (Levitt, 1983). Educational providers can use these market research techniques to strengthen the design and implementation of nursing CE offerings. In addition to alleviating the monotony of pen and paper questionnaires for our learners, these techniques can strengthen our programming by gathering a wealth of information about the qualitative and quantitative nature of the needs of our customers. The marketing knowledge gained from these tools can help to ensure the continued success of our educational endeavors despite growing fiscal constraints.

  20. Assessing Suitability of Rural Settlements Using an Improved Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yanfang; CUI Jiaxing; KONG Xuesong; ZENG Chen

    2016-01-01

    Land suitability assessment is a prerequisite phase in land use planning;it guides toward optimal land use by providing information on the opportunities and constraints involved in the use of a given land area.A geographic information system-based procedure,known as rural settlement suitability evaluation (RSSE) using an improved technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS),was adopted to determine the most suitable area for constructing rural settlements in different geographical locations.Given the distribution and independence of rural settlements,a distinctive evaluation criteria system that differed from that of urban suitability was established by considering the level of rural infrastructure services as well as living and working conditions.The unpredictable mutual interference among evaluation factors has been found in practical works.An improved TOPSIS using Mahalanobis distance was applied to solve the unpredictable correlation among the criteria in a suitability evaluation.Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses obtained via Monte Carlo simulation were performed to examine the robustness of the model.Daye,a resource-based city with rapid economic development,unsatisfied rural development,and geological environmental problems caused by mining,was used as a case study.Results indicate the following findings:1) The RSSE model using the improved TOPSIS can assess the suitability of rural settlements,and the suitability maps generated using the improved TOPSIS have higher information density than those generated using traditional TOPSIS.The robustness of the model is improved,and the uncertainty is reduced in the suitability results.2) Highly suitable land is mainly distributed in the northeast of the study area,and the majority of which is cultivated land,thereby leading to tremendous pressure on the loss of cultivated land.3) Lastly,12.54% of the constructive expansion permitted zone and 8.36% of the constructive expansion

  1. Android-Stego: A Novel Service Provider Imperceptible MMS Steganography Technique Robust to Message Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Srinivasan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information hiding techniques, especially steganography, have been extensively researched for over two decades. Nonetheless, steganography on smartphones over cellular carrier networks is yet to be fully explored. Today, smartphones, which are at the epitome of ubiquitous and pervasive computing, make steganography an easily accessible covert communication channel. In this paper, we propose Android-Stego - a framework for steganography employing smart-phones. Android-Stego has been evaluated and confirmed to achieve covert communication over real world cellular service providers' communication networks such as Verizon and Sprint. A key contribution of our research presented in this paper is the benchmark results we have provided by analyzing real world cellular carriers network restrictions on MMS message size. We have also analyzed the actions the carriers take - such as compression and/or format conversion - on MMS messages that fall outside the established MMS communication norm, which varies for each service provider. Finally, We have used these benchmark results in implementing Android-Stego such that it is sensitive to carrier restrictions and robust to message loss.

  2. Matching seed to site by climate similarity: techniques to prioritize plant materials development and use in restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kyle; Butterfield, Bradley J.; Wood, Troy E.

    2017-01-01

    Land management agencies are increasing the use of native plant materials for vegetation treatments to restore ecosystem function and maintain natural ecological integrity. This shift toward the use of natives has highlighted a need to increase the diversity of materials available. A key problem is agreeing on how many, and which, new accessions should be developed. Here we describe new methods that address this problem. Our methods use climate data to calculate a climate similarity index between two points in a defined extent. This index can be used to predict relative performance of available accessions at a target site. In addition, the index can be used in combination with standard cluster analysis algorithms to quantify and maximize climate coverage (mean climate similarity), given a modeled range extent and a specified number of accessions. We demonstrate the utility of this latter feature by applying it to the extents of 11 western North American species with proven or potential use in restoration. First, a species-specific seed transfer map can be readily generated for a species by predicting performance for accessions currently available; this map can be readily updated to accommodate new accessions. Next, the increase in climate coverage achieved by adding successive accessions can be explored, yielding information that managers can use to balance ecological and economic considerations in determining how many accessions to develop. This approach identifies sampling sites, referred to as climate centers, which contribute unique, complementary, climate coverage to accessions on hand, thus providing explicit sampling guidance for both germplasm preservation and research. We examine how these and other features of our approach add to existing methods used to guide plant materials development and use. Finally, we discuss how these new methods provide a framework that could be used to coordinate native plant materials development, evaluation, and use across

  3. Applying BI Techniques To Improve Decision Making And Provide Knowledge Based Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on BI techniques and especially data mining algorithms that can support and improve the decision making process, with applications within the financial sector. We consider the data mining techniques to be more efficient and thus we applied several techniques, supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms The case study in which these algorithms have been implemented regards the activity of a banking institution, with focus on the management of lending activities.

  4. Evaluating sugarcane families by the method of Dynamic Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (DTOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enlarging the quantity of seedlings of elite families and discarding inferior sugarcane (Saccharum spp. families could improve sugarcane breeding and selection efficiency. The feasibility of using the method Dynamic Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (DTOPSIS method was explored to identify superior sugarcane families. Data on 5 traits: Brix, millable stalks per stool (MS, stalk diameter (SD, plant height (PH, and percent pith were collected from two family trials having 17 families and two check cultivars at two sites including plant-cane and first-ratoon crops. The rest of the seedlings were planted into field for routine selection in the regular program. The DTOPSIS method calculates a comprehensive index (Ci which expresses the closeness of a solution to the ideal solution and was used in this study to test the distance of each family to the ideal family. The Ci of the families was compared to the family selection rate in the regular program by determining the selection rate at Stage 1 to Stage 4 for each family in the regular program. The result indicated that the Ci values calculated from family trials were significantly (p<0.01 correlated to the selection rate at Stage 2 (r=0.8059, Stage3 (r=0.7967, and Stage 4 (r=0.8202, and indicating that promising clones were selected from families with higher Ci values in the family trial. Thus, it could be feasible to use DTOPSIS to determine elite sugarcane families and to eliminate inferior families and thereby, increasing the variety selection efficiency.

  5. Using Expectation Maximization and Resource Overlap Techniques to Classify Species According to Their Niche Similarities in Mutualistic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fort

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mutualistic networks in nature are widespread and play a key role in generating the diversity of life on Earth. They constitute an interdisciplinary field where physicists, biologists and computer scientists work together. Plant-pollinator mutualisms in particular form complex networks of interdependence between often hundreds of species. Understanding the architecture of these networks is of paramount importance for assessing the robustness of the corresponding communities to global change and management strategies. Advances in this problem are currently limited mainly due to the lack of methodological tools to deal with the intrinsic complexity of mutualisms, as well as the scarcity and incompleteness of available empirical data. One way to uncover the structure underlying complex networks is to employ information theoretical statistical inference methods, such as the expectation maximization (EM algorithm. In particular, such an approach can be used to cluster the nodes of a network based on the similarity of their node neighborhoods. Here, we show how to connect network theory with the classical ecological niche theory for mutualistic plant-pollinator webs by using the EM algorithm. We apply EM to classify the nodes of an extensive collection of mutualistic plant-pollinator networks according to their connection similarity. We find that EM recovers largely the same clustering of the species as an alternative recently proposed method based on resource overlap, where one considers each party as a consuming resource for the other party (plants providing food to animals, while animals assist the reproduction of plants. Furthermore, using the EM algorithm, we can obtain a sequence of successfully-refined classifications that enables us to identify the fine-structure of the ecological network and understand better the niche distribution both for plants and animals. This is an example of how information theoretical methods help to systematize and

  6. Enhanced conformational sampling technique provides an energy landscape view of large-scale protein conformational transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qiang

    2016-10-26

    Large-scale conformational changes in proteins are important for their functions. Tracking the conformational change in real time at the level of a single protein molecule, however, remains a great challenge. In this article, we present a novel in silico approach with the combination of normal mode analysis and integrated-tempering-sampling molecular simulation (NMA-ITS) to give quantitative data for exploring the conformational transition pathway in multi-dimensional energy landscapes starting only from the knowledge of the two endpoint structures of the protein. The open-to-closed transitions of three proteins, including nCaM, AdK, and HIV-1 PR, were investigated using NMA-ITS simulations. The three proteins have varied structural flexibilities and domain communications in their respective conformational changes. The transition state structure in the conformational change of nCaM and the associated free-energy barrier are in agreement with those measured in a standard explicit-solvent REMD simulation. The experimentally measured transition intermediate structures of the intrinsically flexible AdK are captured by the conformational transition pathway measured here. The dominant transition pathways between the closed and fully open states of HIV-1 PR are very similar to those observed in recent REMD simulations. Finally, the evaluated relaxation times of the conformational transitions of three proteins are roughly at the same level as reported experimental data. Therefore, the NMA-ITS method is applicable for a variety of cases, providing both qualitative and quantitative insights into the conformational changes associated with the real functions of proteins.

  7. Vis-A-Plan /visualize a plan/ management technique provides performance-time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranck, N. H.

    1967-01-01

    Vis-A-Plan is a bar-charting technique for representing and evaluating project activities on a performance-time basis. This rectilinear method presents the logic diagram of a project as a series of horizontal time bars. It may be used supplementary to PERT or independently.

  8. Evaluating Exploratory Factor Analysis: Which Initial-Extraction Techniques Provide the Best Factor Fidelity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buley, Jerry L.

    1995-01-01

    States that attacks by communication scholars have cast doubt on the validity of exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Tests EFA's ability to produce results that replicate known dimensions in a data set. Concludes that EFA should be viewed with cautious optimism and be evaluated according to the findings of this and similar studies. (PA)

  9. Android-Stego: A Novel Service Provider Imperceptible MMS Steganography Technique Robust to Message Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Srinivasan; Jie Wu; Justin Shi

    2015-01-01

    Information hiding techniques, especially steganography, have been extensively researched for over two decades. Nonetheless, steganography on smartphones over cellular carrier networks is yet to be fully explored. Today, smartphones, which are at the epitome of ubiquitous and pervasive computing, make steganography an easily accessible covert communication channel. In this paper, we propose Android-Stego - a framework for steganography employing smart-phones. Android-Stego has been evaluated ...

  10. 3D-2D image registration for target localization in spine surgery: investigation of similarity metrics providing robustness to content mismatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Ketcha, M. D.; Reaungamornrat, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S.; Aygun, N.; Lo, S.-F.; Wolinsky, J.-P.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    In image-guided spine surgery, robust three-dimensional to two-dimensional (3D-2D) registration of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative radiographs can be challenged by the image content mismatch associated with the presence of surgical instrumentation and implants as well as soft-tissue resection or deformation. This work investigates image similarity metrics in 3D-2D registration offering improved robustness against mismatch, thereby improving performance and reducing or eliminating the need for manual masking. The performance of four gradient-based image similarity metrics (gradient information (GI), gradient correlation (GC), gradient information with linear scaling (GS), and gradient orientation (GO)) with a multi-start optimization strategy was evaluated in an institutional review board-approved retrospective clinical study using 51 preoperative CT images and 115 intraoperative mobile radiographs. Registrations were tested with and without polygonal masks as a function of the number of multistarts employed during optimization. Registration accuracy was evaluated in terms of the projection distance error (PDE) and assessment of failure modes (PDE  >  30 mm) that could impede reliable vertebral level localization. With manual polygonal masking and 200 multistarts, the GC and GO metrics exhibited robust performance with 0% gross failures and median PDE  registration to fail at a rate of  >14% however, GO maintained robustness with a 0% gross failure rate. Overall, the GI, GC, and GS metrics were susceptible to registration errors associated with content mismatch, but GO provided robust registration (median PDE  =  5.5 mm, 2.6 mm IQR) without manual masking and with an improved runtime (29.3 s). The GO metric improved the registration accuracy and robustness in the presence of strong image content mismatch. This capability could offer valuable assistance and decision support in spine level localization in a

  11. High Altitude Platforms for Disaster Recovery: Capabilities, Strategies, and Techniques for Providing Emergency Telecommunications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan D. Deaton

    2008-05-01

    Natural disasters and terrorist acts have significant potential to disrupt emergency communication systems. These emergency communication networks include first-responder, cellular, landline, and emergency answering services such as 911, 112, or 999. Without these essential emergency communications capabilities, search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be severely debilitated. High altitude platforms could be fitted with telecommunications equipment and used to support these critical communications missions once the catastrophic event occurs. With the ability to be continuously on station, HAPs provide excellent options for providing emergency coverage over high-risk areas before catastrophic incidents occur. HAPs could also provide enhanced 911 capabilities using either GPS or reference stations. This paper proposes potential emergency communications architecture and presents a method for estimating emergency communications systems traffic patterns for a catastrophic event.

  12. Do experienced physiotherapists and final year physiotherapy trainees apply similar force during posterior-to-anterior lumbar mobilization techniques?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Dany H; Longtin, Christian; Berbiche, Djamal; Gaudreault, Nathaly

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to quantify the force applied during posterior-to-anterior lumbar vertebrae mobilizations of different grades (I to IV) and compare that force between experienced physiotherapists and final year physiotherapy students. Four experienced physiotherapists and four final year physiotherapy students participated in this study along with five healthy asymptomatic individuals. A manual therapy table positioned over three force plates allowed for measurements of the force oscillation frequency and intensity applied during grade I, II, III and IV posterior-to-anterior (PA) mobilizations at two lumbar vertebral levels (L2 and L4). Mixed model ANOVAs were used to compare the force applied between the experienced physiotherapists and students, and between the various grades. The results showed that the mean oscillation frequency was similar between the groups for all grades. Grade I and grade IV PA mobilizations showed similar mean oscillation frequency as did grade II and III PA mobilizations. The minimum and maximum force applied was higher for the physiotherapists than for the students for all mobilization grades (p values < 0.05). Similar mean maximum force values were recorded for PA mobilizations between grade I and II and between grade III and grade IV. Grade III and IV PA mobilizations yielded higher mean maximum force values than those recorded during grade I and grade II PA mobilizations. The method used in this study allowed for quantification of the force applied during lumbar PA mobilizations. Experienced physiotherapists apply greater force than physiotherapy students across all grades, despite similar oscillation frequency.

  13. Providing Nutritional Care in the Office Practice: Teams, Tools, and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F

    2016-11-01

    Provision of dietary counseling in the office setting is enhanced by using team-based care and electronic tools. Effective provider-patient communication is essential for fostering behavior change: the key component of lifestyle medicine. The principles of communication and behavior change are skill-based and grounded in scientific theories and models. Motivational interviewing and shared decision making, a collaboration process between patients and their providers to reach agreement about a health decision, is an important process in counseling. The stages of change, self-determination, health belief model, social cognitive model, theory of planned behavior, and cognitive behavioral therapy are used in the counseling process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Safety and health instruction in mechanics provided using Job Safety Analysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Shamseddin Alizadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Annually a large numbers of workers in different countries are injured or die. According to statistics provided by the ILO in 2000, the number of occupational accidents in the world has been announced abaut 25 million items that one million people have died as a result of them. In Iran more than 17 million people are working in two million workshops. According to studies, about 80% to 90% of accidents are caused because of employee unsafe behaviors and only cause of 10% to 20% of them is the unsafe conditions. According to the statistics provided in 2005, each year 2.2 million people, men and women, due to work-related accidents and illnesses are deprived from their rights. Work-related deaths and injuries impose heavy costs on societies especially in developing countries.

  15. 3D–2D image registration for target localization in spine surgery: investigation of similarity metrics providing robustness to content mismatch

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, T.; Uneri, A.; Ketcha, M. D.; Reaungamornrat, S.; Kleinszig, G.; Vogt, S; Aygun, N; Lo, S-F; Wolinsky, J-P; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    In image-guided spine surgery, robust three-dimensional to two-dimensional (3D–2D) registration of preoperative computed tomography (CT) and intraoperative radiographs can be challenged by the image content mismatch associated with the presence of surgical instrumentation and implants as well as soft-tissue resection or deformation. This work investigates image similarity metrics in 3D–2D registration offering improved robustness against mismatch, thereby improving performance and reducing or...

  16. Similar hand shaping in reaching-for-food (skilled reaching) in rats and humans provides evidence of homology in release, collection, and manipulation movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Alaverdashvili, Mariam; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2009-12-01

    Many animal species use their forelimbs to assist in eating, such as occurs in a reach-to-eat task (skilled reaching) in which a forelimb is extended to grasp food that is placed in the mouth for eating. It is unclear the extent to which the skilled reaching movements of different species share common ancestry and so are homologous or evolved independently and so are analogous (homoplasy). Here hand shaping (the movements of the hand and digits) that occur as the hand is transported to the target, were examined using high-speed (1000 frames/s) video recording and kinematic measurement (Peak Motus) in the rat (Rattus norvegicus) and human (Homo sapiens). Ten movement similarities were identified from the point that the limb initiated transport towards the food item to the point that the food was grasped. The digits were closed and semi-flexed as the hand was lifted (released from a substrate) and supinated. They closed further as the hand was collected for aiming. They then extended as the hand was transported to the target and then opened in conjunction with pronation to orient the hand for grasping (manipulation). Finally the digits were flexed and closed for grasping. These movements occurred at approximately the same point of limb transport in both species even though the rat used a whole paw grasp and the humans used a pincer grasp. Bushbabies (Galago garnettii), titi monkeys (Callicebus brunneus), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus) displayed similar hand shaping in skilled reaching despite species differences in grasping movements. Homologous hand shaping in the rodent clade and the primate clade and within the primate lineage is discussed in relation to its possible derivation from hand shaping movements associated with stepping.

  17. Could lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy provide oncological providence for local resectional techniques for colon cancer? A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Joel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endoscopic resectional techniques for colon cancer are undermined by their inability to determine lymph node status. This limits their application to only those lesions at the most minimal risk of lymphatic dissemination whereas their technical capacity could allow intraluminal or even transluminal address of larger lesions. Sentinel node biopsy may theoretically address this breach although the variability of its reported results for this disease is worrisome. Methods Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were interrogated back to 1999 to identify all publications concerning lymphatic mapping for colon cancer with reference cross-checking for completeness. All reports were examined from the perspective of in vivo technique accuracy selectively in early stage disease (i.e. lesions potentially within the technical capacity of endoscopic resection. Results Fifty-two studies detailing the experiences of 3390 patients were identified. Considerable variation in patient characteristics as well as in surgical and histological quality assurances were however evident among the studies identified. In addition, considerable contamination of the studies by inclusion of rectal cancer without subgroup separation was frequent. Indeed such is the heterogeneity of the publications to date, formal meta-analysis to pool patient cohorts in order to definitively ascertain technique accuracy in those with T1 and/or T2 cancer is not possible. Although lymphatic mapping in early stage neoplasia alone has rarely been specifically studied, those studies that included examination of false negative rates identified high T3/4 patient proportions and larger tumor size as being important confounders. Under selected circumstances however the technique seems to perform sufficiently reliably to allow it prompt consideration of its use to tailor operative extent. Conclusion The specific question of whether sentinel node biopsy can augment the oncological

  18. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree.

  19. ESTABLISHING A STEREOSCOPIC TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE KINEMATIC PROPERTIES OF SOLAR WIND TRANSIENTS BASED ON A GENERALIZED SELF-SIMILARLY EXPANDING CIRCULAR GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J. A.; Perry, C. H.; Harrison, R. A. [RAL Space, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Trines, R. M. G. M. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Lugaz, N. [Space Science Centre, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Möstl, C. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Liu, Y. D. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Centre, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Steed, K., E-mail: jackie.davies@stfc.ac.uk [Centre for mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-10

    The twin-spacecraft STEREO mission has enabled simultaneous white-light imaging of the solar corona and inner heliosphere from multiple vantage points. This has led to the development of numerous stereoscopic techniques to investigate the three-dimensional structure and kinematics of solar wind transients such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Two such methods—triangulation and the tangent to a sphere—can be used to determine time profiles of the propagation direction and radial distance (and thereby radial speed) of a solar wind transient as it travels through the inner heliosphere, based on its time-elongation profile viewed by two observers. These techniques are founded on the assumption that the transient can be characterized as a point source (fixed φ, FP, approximation) or a circle attached to Sun-center (harmonic mean, HM, approximation), respectively. These geometries constitute extreme descriptions of solar wind transients, in terms of their cross-sectional extent. Here, we present the stereoscopic expressions necessary to derive propagation direction and radial distance/speed profiles of such transients based on the more generalized self-similar expansion (SSE) geometry, for which the FP and HM geometries form the limiting cases; our implementation of these equations is termed the stereoscopic SSE method. We apply the technique to two Earth-directed CMEs from different phases of the STEREO mission, the well-studied event of 2008 December and a more recent event from 2012 March. The latter CME was fast, with an initial speed exceeding 2000 km s{sup –1}, and highly geoeffective, in stark contrast to the slow and ineffectual 2008 December CME.

  20. Web Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.R.; Vitányi, P.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Normalized web distance (NWD) is a similarity or normalized semantic distance based on the World Wide Web or any other large electronic database, for instance Wikipedia, and a search engine that returns reliable aggregate page counts. For sets of search terms the NWD gives a similarity on a scale fr

  1. What should primary care providers know about pediatric skin conditions? A modified Delphi technique for curriculum development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigenbaum, Dana F; Boscardin, Christy K; Frieden, Ilona J; Mathes, Erin F D

    2014-10-01

    There is limited access to pediatric dermatology in the United States, resulting in inadequate education and patient care. This Delphi study aimed to identify important objectives for a pediatric dermatology curriculum for general practitioners. A modified, 2-round Delphi technique was used to develop consensus on objectives developed by expert pediatric dermatologists. A panel of 20 experts (pediatric dermatologists, family practitioners, and general pediatricians) rated objectives using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Items with group medians 4.0 or greater with at least 70% agreement reached consensus. In round 1, the expert panel rated 231 objectives from 16 categories for inclusion in an online curriculum. In round 2, experts were given group feedback and rated 235 objectives. A total of 170 items met consensus. Generally, objectives surrounding common conditions including acne, molluscum, warts, atopic dermatitis, and newborn skin met consensus whereas objectives on rare growths, birthmarks, and inherited conditions failed to meet consensus. The Delphi panel consisted of US-based physicians, most in urban areas with a dedicated pediatric specialist at their institution. The accepted objectives encompass management of common conditions and referral of potentially dangerous diseases and can be used to develop a pediatric dermatology curriculum for primary care providers. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of a network system for providing proper inhalation technique by community pharmacists on clinical outcomes in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemura M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Masaya Takemura,1 Katsumi Mitsui,2 Masako Ido,2 Masataka Matsumoto,1 Misuzu Koyama,3 Daiki Inoue,1 Kazufumi Takamatsu,1 Ryo Itotani,1 Manabu Ishitoko,1 Shinko Suzuki,1 Kensaku Aihara,1 Minoru Sakuramoto,1 Hitoshi Kagioka,1 Motonari Fukui11Respiratory Disease Center, Kitano-Hospital, the Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Osaka, Japan; 2Division of Pharmacy, Kitano-Hospital, The Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Osaka, Japan; 3Kita-ku Pharmaceutical Association, Osaka, JapanIntroduction: Nonadherence to inhalation therapy is very common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Few data are available to support the role of community pharmacists in optimizing inhalation therapy in COPD patients. Since 2007, the Kitano Hospital and the Kita-ku Pharmaceutical Association have provided a network system for delivering correct inhalation techniques through certified community pharmacists. The effects of this network system on clinical outcomes in COPD patients were examined.Methods: A total of 88 consecutive outpatients with COPD at baseline and 82 of those 4 years later were recruited from the respiratory clinic of Kitano Hospital Medical Research Institute. Measurements included the frequency of COPD exacerbations, patients’ adherence to inhalation therapy using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire, and patients’ health status both prior to this system and 4 years later.Results: Usable information was obtained from 55 patients with COPD at baseline, and from 51 patients 4 years later. Compared with baseline values, a significant decrease was observed in the frequency of COPD exacerbations (1.5 ± 1.6 versus 0.8 ± 1.4 times/year, P = 0.017. Adherence to the inhalation regimen increased significantly (4.1 ± 0.7 versus 4.4 ± 0.8, P = 0.024, but health status was unchanged. At 4 years, of 51 COPD patients, 39 (76% patients who visited the certified pharmacies showed significantly higher medication adherence

  3. Similarity Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In Lecture 10, we introduced a non-dimensional parameter called the Lundquist number, denoted by S. This is just one of many non-dimensional parameters that can appear in the formulations of both hydrodynamics and MHD. These generally express the ratio of the time scale associated with some dissipative process to the time scale associated with either wave propagation or transport by flow. These are important because they define regions in parameter space that separate flows with different physical characteristics. All flows that have the same non-dimensional parameters behave in the same way. This property is called similarity scaling.

  4. Outsourced similarity search on metric data assets

    KAUST Repository

    Yiu, Man Lung

    2012-02-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example. Outsourcing offers the data owner scalability and a low-initial investment. The need for privacy may be due to the data being sensitive (e.g., in medicine), valuable (e.g., in astronomy), or otherwise confidential. Given this setting, the paper presents techniques that transform the data prior to supplying it to the service provider for similarity queries on the transformed data. Our techniques provide interesting trade-offs between query cost and accuracy. They are then further extended to offer an intuitive privacy guarantee. Empirical studies with real data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of offering privacy while enabling efficient and accurate processing of similarity queries.

  5. Z-Spectrum analysis provides proton environment data (ZAPPED: a new two-pool technique for human gray and white matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Miyazaki

    Full Text Available A new technique - Z-spectrum Analysis Provides Proton Environment Data (ZAPPED - was used to map cross-relaxing free and restricted protons in nine healthy subjects plus two brain tumor patients at 3T. First, MT data were acquired over a wide symmetric range of frequency offsets, and then a trio of quantitative biomarkers, i.e., the apparent spin-spin relaxation times (T2,f, T2,r in both free and restricted proton pools as well as the restricted pool fraction Fr, were mapped by fitting the measured Z-spectra to a simple two-Lorentzian compartment model on a voxel-by-voxel basis. The mean restricted exchangeable proton fraction, Fr, was found to be 0.17 in gray matter (GM and 0.28 in white matter (WM in healthy subjects. Corresponding mean values for apparent spin-spin relaxation times were 785 µs (T2,f and 17.7 µs (T2,r in GM, 672 µs (T2,f and 23.4 µs (T2,r in WM. The percentages of Ff and Fr in GM are similar for all ages, whereas Fr shows a tendency to decrease with age in WM among healthy subjects. The patient ZAPPED images show higher contrast between tumor and normal tissues than traditional T2-weighted and T1-weighted images. The ZAPPED method provides a simple phenomenological approach to estimating fractions and apparent T2 values of free and restricted MT-active protons, and it may offer clinical useful information.

  6. Using data mining techniques to explore physicians' therapeutic decisions when clinical guidelines do not provide recommendations: methods and example for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussi, Massoud; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Le Toumelin, Philippe; Venot, Alain

    2009-06-10

    Clinical guidelines carry medical evidence to the point of practice. As evidence is not always available, many guidelines do not provide recommendations for all clinical situations encountered in practice. We propose an approach for identifying knowledge gaps in guidelines and for exploring physicians' therapeutic decisions with data mining techniques to fill these knowledge gaps. We demonstrate our method by an example in the domain of type 2 diabetes. We analyzed the French national guidelines for the management of type 2 diabetes to identify clinical conditions that are not covered or those for which the guidelines do not provide recommendations. We extracted patient records corresponding to each clinical condition from a database of type 2 diabetic patients treated at Avicenne University Hospital of Bobigny, France. We explored physicians' prescriptions for each of these profiles using C5.0 decision-tree learning algorithm. We developed decision-trees for different levels of detail of the therapeutic decision, namely the type of treatment, the pharmaco-therapeutic class, the international non proprietary name, and the dose of each medication. We compared the rules generated with those added to the guidelines in a newer version, to examine their similarity. We extracted 27 rules from the analysis of a database of 463 patient records. Eleven rules were about the choice of the type of treatment and thirteen rules about the choice of the pharmaco-therapeutic class of each drug. For the choice of the international non proprietary name and the dose, we could extract only a few rules because the number of patient records was too low for these factors. The extracted rules showed similarities with those added to the newer version of the guidelines. Our method showed its usefulness for completing guidelines recommendations with rules learnt automatically from physicians' prescriptions. It could be used during the development of guidelines as a complementary source from

  7. Features Based Text Similarity Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, Chow Kok

    2010-01-01

    As the Internet help us cross cultural border by providing different information, plagiarism issue is bound to arise. As a result, plagiarism detection becomes more demanding in overcoming this issue. Different plagiarism detection tools have been developed based on various detection techniques. Nowadays, fingerprint matching technique plays an important role in those detection tools. However, in handling some large content articles, there are some weaknesses in fingerprint matching technique especially in space and time consumption issue. In this paper, we propose a new approach to detect plagiarism which integrates the use of fingerprint matching technique with four key features to assist in the detection process. These proposed features are capable to choose the main point or key sentence in the articles to be compared. Those selected sentence will be undergo the fingerprint matching process in order to detect the similarity between the sentences. Hence, time and space usage for the comparison process is r...

  8. Ultrasound-Guided Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Technique Provides Benefit as an Analgesic Adjunct for Patients Undergoing Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, W Michael; Yalamuri, Suraj M; Gregory, Stephen H; Auyong, David B; Grant, Stuart A

    2017-02-01

    Analgesia after total hip arthroplasty is often accomplished by the fascia iliaca compartment block, traditionally performed below the inguinal ligament, to anesthetize both femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves. The course of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve below the inguinal ligament is variable as opposed to consistent above the inguinal ligament in the pelvis. In this case series including 5 patients, we demonstrate that an ultrasound-guided suprainguinal fascia iliaca approach would consistently anesthetize the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve along with anterior cutaneous femoral nerve branches and provide cutaneous analgesia after total hip arthroplasty, as shown by decreased opioid consumption.

  9. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Wang

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China. Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  10. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals similar types of NBS genes in hybrid Citrus sinensis genome and original Citrus clementine genome and provides new insights into non-TIR NBS genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunsheng; Zhou, Lijuan; Li, Dazhi; Dai, Liangying; Lawton-Rauh, Amy; Srimani, Pradip K; Duan, Yongping; Luo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we identified and compared nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain-containing genes from three Citrus genomes (C. clementina, C. sinensis from USA and C. sinensis from China). Phylogenetic analysis of all Citrus NBS genes across these three genomes revealed that there are three approximately evenly numbered groups: one group contains the Toll-Interleukin receptor (TIR) domain and two different Non-TIR groups in which most of proteins contain the Coiled Coil (CC) domain. Motif analysis confirmed that the two groups of CC-containing NBS genes are from different evolutionary origins. We partitioned NBS genes into clades using NBS domain sequence distances and found most clades include NBS genes from all three Citrus genomes. This suggests that three Citrus genomes have similar numbers and types of NBS genes. We also mapped the re-sequenced reads of three pomelo and three mandarin genomes onto the C. sinensis genome. We found that most NBS genes of the hybrid C. sinensis genome have corresponding homologous genes in both pomelo and mandarin genomes. The homologous NBS genes in pomelo and mandarin suggest that the parental species of C. sinensis may contain similar types of NBS genes. This explains why the hybrid C. sinensis and original C. clementina have similar types of NBS genes in this study. Furthermore, we found that sequence variation amongst Citrus NBS genes were shaped by multiple independent and shared accelerated mutation accumulation events among different groups of NBS genes and in different Citrus genomes. Our comparative analyses yield valuable insight into the structure, organization and evolution of NBS genes in Citrus genomes. Furthermore, our comprehensive analysis showed that the non-TIR NBS genes can be divided into two groups that come from different evolutionary origins. This provides new insights into non-TIR genes, which have not received much attention.

  11. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the

  12. Judgments of brand similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Wedel, M; Pieters, RGM; DeSarbo, WS

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides empirical insight into the way consumers make pairwise similarity judgments between brands, and how familiarity with the brands, serial position of the pair in a sequence, and the presentation format affect these judgments. Within the similarity judgment process both the formatio

  13. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...... assignments. The paper introduces Weighted Feature Distance (WFD), and Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD), two new distance functions that take into account the diversity in feature spaces. WFD functions perform better in supervised and unsupervised methods by comparing data objects on their feature...... spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets...

  14. The semantic similarity ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ballatore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational measures of semantic similarity between geographic terms provide valuable support across geographic information retrieval, data mining, and information integration. To date, a wide variety of approaches to geo-semantic similarity have been devised. A judgment of similarity is not intrinsically right or wrong, but obtains a certain degree of cognitive plausibility, depending on how closely it mimics human behavior. Thus selecting the most appropriate measure for a specific task is a significant challenge. To address this issue, we make an analogy between computational similarity measures and soliciting domain expert opinions, which incorporate a subjective set of beliefs, perceptions, hypotheses, and epistemic biases. Following this analogy, we define the semantic similarity ensemble (SSE as a composition of different similarity measures, acting as a panel of experts having to reach a decision on the semantic similarity of a set of geographic terms. The approach is evaluated in comparison to human judgments, and results indicate that an SSE performs better than the average of its parts. Although the best member tends to outperform the ensemble, all ensembles outperform the average performance of each ensemble's member. Hence, in contexts where the best measure is unknown, the ensemble provides a more cognitively plausible approach.

  15. The Comparison of Organisational pay structures as a salary survey technique in providing a unified Non-Racial market Wage curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Snelgar

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The development and maintenance of an equitable and uniformpay structure is complicated by the existence of the "wage-gap". Choice of a job evaluation plan which does not perpetuate discrimination already found in the market place, and which itself is not discriminatory, has become a topic of debate. Results of this study suggest that it is possible to use a technique for conducting salary surveys which does not rely on subjective techniques such as job evaluation. A comparison of total organisational pay structures, rather than actual salaries, thus provides the basis for a uniform non-racial market wage curve according to which internal pay systems may be competitively structured.OpsommingDie ontwikkeling en instandhouding van 'n regverdige en uniforme besoldigingstruktuur word gekompliseer deur die bestaan van 'n “loongaping?. Die keuse van 'n posevalueringplan wat nie bestaande diskriminasie laat voortbestaan nie, en wat self ook nie diskriminerend is nie, is 'n onderwerp waaroor heelwat debat gevoer word. Die resultate van hierdie studie dui aan dat dit moontlik is om 'n tegniek van salarisopname te gebruik wat nie op subjektiewe tegnieke soos posevaluering staat maak nie. 'n Vergelyking wat die totale organisasie se besoldigingstruktuur in ag neem eerder as die werklike salarisse, voorsien 'n basis vir 'n uniforme mark-salariskurwe wat nie rasseverskille reflekteer nie en waarvolgens die interne besoldigingsisteem mededingend gestruktureer kan word.

  16. Similarity transformed semiclassical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, Troy; Heller, Eric J.

    2003-12-01

    In this article, we employ a recently discovered criterion for selecting important contributions to the semiclassical coherent state propagator [T. Van Voorhis and E. J. Heller, Phys. Rev. A 66, 050501 (2002)] to study the dynamics of many dimensional problems. We show that the dynamics are governed by a similarity transformed version of the standard classical Hamiltonian. In this light, our selection criterion amounts to using trajectories generated with the untransformed Hamiltonian as approximate initial conditions for the transformed boundary value problem. We apply the new selection scheme to some multidimensional Henon-Heiles problems and compare our results to those obtained with the more sophisticated Herman-Kluk approach. We find that the present technique gives near-quantitative agreement with the the standard results, but that the amount of computational effort is less than Herman-Kluk requires even when sophisticated integral smoothing techniques are employed in the latter.

  17. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformatio...

  18. A Short Survey of Document Structure Similarity Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, D

    2004-02-27

    This paper provides a brief survey of document structural similarity algorithms, including the optimal Tree Edit Distance algorithm and various approximation algorithms. The approximation algorithms include the simple weighted tag similarity algorithm, Fourier transforms of the structure, and a new application of the shingle technique to structural similarity. We show three surprising results. First, the Fourier transform technique proves to be the least accurate of any of approximation algorithms, while also being slowest. Second, optimal Tree Edit Distance algorithms may not be the best technique for clustering pages from different sites. Third, the simplest approximation to structure may be the most effective and efficient mechanism for many applications.

  19. Learning Multi-modal Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    McFee, Brian

    2010-01-01

    In many applications involving multi-media data, the definition of similarity between items is integral to several key tasks, e.g., nearest-neighbor retrieval, classification, and recommendation. Data in such regimes typically exhibits multiple modalities, such as acoustic and visual content of video. Integrating such heterogeneous data to form a holistic similarity space is therefore a key challenge to be overcome in many real-world applications. We present a novel multiple kernel learning technique for integrating heterogeneous data into a single, unified similarity space. Our algorithm learns an optimal ensemble of kernel transfor- mations which conform to measurements of human perceptual similarity, as expressed by relative comparisons. To cope with the ubiquitous problems of subjectivity and inconsistency in multi- media similarity, we develop graph-based techniques to filter similarity measurements, resulting in a simplified and robust training procedure.

  20. Sparse Similarity-Based Fisherfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Gomez, David Delgado; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effect of introducing Sparse Principal Component Analysis within the Similarity-based Fisherfaces algorithm is examined. The technique aims at mimicking the human ability to discriminate faces by projecting the faces in a highly discriminative and easy interpretative way. Pixel...... obtain the same recognition results as the technique in a dense version using only a fraction of the input data. Furthermore, the presented results suggest that using SPCA in the technique offers robustness to occlusions....

  1. Assessing treatment-as-usual provided to control groups in adherence trials: Exploring the use of an open-ended questionnaire for identifying behaviour change techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberjé, E.J.M.; Dima, A.L.; Pijnappel, F.J.; Prins, J.M.; Bruin, M. de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reporting guidelines call for descriptions of control group support in equal detail as for interventions. However, how to assess the active content (behaviour change techniques (BCTs)) of treatment-as-usual (TAU) delivered to control groups in trials remains unclear. The objective of this

  2. Gait signal analysis with similarity measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyuk; Shin, Seungsoo

    2014-01-01

    Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons.

  3. Gait Signal Analysis with Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyuk Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait decision was carried out with the help of similarity measure design. Gait signal was selected through hardware implementation including all in one sensor, control unit, and notebook with connector. Each gait signal was considered as high dimensional data. Therefore, high dimensional data analysis was considered via heuristic technique such as the similarity measure. Each human pattern such as walking, sitting, standing, and stepping up was obtained through experiment. By the results of the analysis, we also identified the overlapped and nonoverlapped data relation, and similarity measure analysis was also illustrated, and comparison with conventional similarity measure was also carried out. Hence, nonoverlapped data similarity analysis provided the clue to solve the similarity of high dimensional data. Considered high dimensional data analysis was designed with consideration of neighborhood information. Proposed similarity measure was applied to identify the behavior patterns of different persons, and different behaviours of the same person. Obtained analysis can be extended to organize health monitoring system for specially elderly persons.

  4. Trajectory similarity join in spatial networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2017-09-07

    The matching of similar pairs of objects, called similarity join, is fundamental functionality in data management. We consider the case of trajectory similarity join (TS-Join), where the objects are trajectories of vehicles moving in road networks. Thus, given two sets of trajectories and a threshold θ, the TS-Join returns all pairs of trajectories from the two sets with similarity above θ. This join targets applications such as trajectory near-duplicate detection, data cleaning, ridesharing recommendation, and traffic congestion prediction. With these applications in mind, we provide a purposeful definition of similarity. To enable efficient TS-Join processing on large sets of trajectories, we develop search space pruning techniques and take into account the parallel processing capabilities of modern processors. Specifically, we present a two-phase divide-and-conquer algorithm. For each trajectory, the algorithm first finds similar trajectories. Then it merges the results to achieve a final result. The algorithm exploits an upper bound on the spatiotemporal similarity and a heuristic scheduling strategy for search space pruning. The algorithm\\'s per-trajectory searches are independent of each other and can be performed in parallel, and the merging has constant cost. An empirical study with real data offers insight in the performance of the algorithm and demonstrates that is capable of outperforming a well-designed baseline algorithm by an order of magnitude.

  5. Can intubation harm the brain in critical care situations? A new simple technique may provide a method for controlling brain temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einer-Jensen, N.; Baptiste, K.E.; Madsen, F.

    2002-01-01

    to previous values when the oxygen flushing was stopped. Cooling was found in animals with a rete a similar cooling mechanism is present in man (no rete) under mirabile (pigs), and in animals without a rete (rats). intensive care, a simple flushing of the nasal cavities with gas will protect the brain against...

  6. Development and Optimization of Hybrid Friction Materials Consisting of Nanoclay and Carbon Nanotubes by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS under Fuzzy Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej SINGH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The tribo-performance of nanoclay and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT filled and graphite lubricated phenolic composites, reinforced with a combination of lapinus and kevlar fibers, have been evaluated on a Kraus friction testing machine. The combined fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS approach, taking into account performance defining attributes (PDAs such as friction performance, wear, friction-fade, friction-recovery, stability coefficient, variability coefficient, friction fluctuations and temperature rise of the disc, was used for the performance assessment of fabricated friction composite materials. The weight of different PDAs were evaluated by FAHP; μ-performance (0.144, 0.255, 0.435, wear (0.144, 0.255, 0.435, fade-% (0.073, 0.15, 0.307, recovery-% (0.063, 0.126, 0.268, stability coefficient (0.037, 0.075, 0.156, variability coefficient (0.032, 0.063, 0.136, frictional fluctuations (0.023, 0.037, 0.069, and DTR (0.023, 0.037, 0.069 respectively.  FTOPSIS was employed to determine the optimal ranking of the friction composite materials as NC-7>NC-8>NC-6>NC-5>NC-3>NC-4>NC-2>NC-1. The alternative with kevlar: lapinus, 2.5:27.5 wt-% and graphite: nanoclay: carbon nanotube, 2.25:2.75 wt-% exhibits the optimal properties.

  7. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  8. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  9. Clustering by Pattern Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-xun Wang; Jian Pei

    2008-01-01

    The task of clustering is to identify classes of similar objects among a set of objects. The definition of similarity varies from one clustering model to another. However, in most of these models the concept of similarity is often based on such metrics as Manhattan distance, Euclidean distance or other Lp distances. In other words, similar objects must have close values in at least a set of dimensions. In this paper, we explore a more general type of similarity. Under the pCluster model we proposed, two objects are similar if they exhibit a coherent pattern on a subset of dimensions. The new similarity concept models a wide range of applications. For instance, in DNA microarray analysis, the expression levels of two genes may rise and fall synchronously in response to a set of environmental stimuli. Although the magnitude of their expression levels may not be close, the patterns they exhibit can be very much alike. Discovery of such clusters of genes is essential in revealing significant connections in gene regulatory networks. E-commerce applications, such as collaborative filtering, can also benefit from the new model, because it is able to capture not only the closeness of values of certain leading indicators but also the closeness of (purchasing, browsing, etc.) patterns exhibited by the customers. In addition to the novel similarity model, this paper also introduces an effective and efficient algorithm to detect such clusters, and we perform tests on several real and synthetic data sets to show its performance.

  10. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    In data science, there are important parameters that affect the accuracy of the algorithms used. Some of these parameters are: the type of data objects, the membership assignments, and distance or similarity functions. This paper discusses similarity functions as fundamental elements in membership...

  11. Image Steganalysis with Binary Similarity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharrazi Mehdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel technique for steganalysis of images that have been subjected to embedding by steganographic algorithms. The seventh and eighth bit planes in an image are used for the computation of several binary similarity measures. The basic idea is that the correlation between the bit planes as well as the binary texture characteristics within the bit planes will differ between a stego image and a cover image. These telltale marks are used to construct a classifier that can distinguish between stego and cover images. We also provide experimental results using some of the latest steganographic algorithms. The proposed scheme is found to have complementary performance vis-à-vis Farid's scheme in that they outperform each other in alternate embedding techniques.

  12. Use of multiple attributes decision-making Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS for Ghare-Gheshlagh calcite in determination of optimum geochemical sampling sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rezaei Azizi

    2015-04-01

    for green, white and pink calcites were varied 0.087, 0.247 and 0.997 respectively. The low amounts of Eu anomaly for green and white calcites attributed to low rock/fluid ratio (Nesbitt et al., 1990 and relatively more pH value (Cheng et al., 2013, however, increasing the Eu anomaly may be due to high rock/fluid ratio and less pH value. Ce anomalies are 0.0241, 0.0113 and 0.0131 in pink, white and green calcites respectively. The most negative Ce anomaly values show that calcite have precipitated under reduction conditions (Nesbitt et al., 1990. Discussion Recently, multiple attributes decision-making techniques help scientist to solve decision-making problems related to various controlling factors (Zhijun et al., 2013. One of these techniques is a Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS which is a quantitative weighted method (Momenei 2006. The identified criteria are CaO abundant in solution (C1, Eu anomaly (C2, Ce anomaly (C3, Sr abundant (C4 and volume (C5. The Index-Rock matrix also includes A1, A2 and A3 alternatives; as pink, green and white calcite respectively. The weighted normalized decision matrix can be calculated by multiplying the normalized evaluation matrix with its associated weight to obtain the result. The result show that Eu anomaly, volume, Sr abundant and Ce anomaly in order have higher role to investigate the geochemical study of area. Calculation of the relative closeness to the ideal solution (Cl * for pink, green and white calcites are 0.837, 0.445 and 0.157 respectively. It can be deduced that the most preferable calcite to be sampled for investigating geochemically are pink and green calcites. References Cheng, D.L., Jiang-haob, L., Shou-pengc, Z., Lianga, L., Zhao-bina, Y., Guo-lina, G. and Tinga, L., 2013. Geochemical characteristics of calcite and dolomite in sandstone of Dongying Sinking, Shandong Province, China. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, 7(4: 504 – 507. Eftekharnezhad, J., 1973

  13. Similarity measures for protein ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of similarities and changes in protein conformation can provide important information regarding protein function and evolution. Many scores, including the commonly used root mean square deviation, have therefore been developed to quantify the similarities of different protein conformations...... a synthetic example from molecular dynamics simulations. We then apply the algorithms to revisit the problem of ensemble averaging during structure determination of proteins, and find that an ensemble refinement method is able to recover the correct distribution of conformations better than standard single...

  14. Tectonic Inversion Along the Algerian and Ligurian Margins: On the Insight Provided By Latest Seismic Processing Techniques Applied to Recent and Vintage 2D Offshore Multichannel Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenini, L.; Beslier, M. O.; Sage, F.; Badji, R.; Galibert, P. Y.; Lepretre, A.; Dessa, J. X.; Aidi, C.; Watremez, L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies on the Algerian and the North-Ligurian margins in the Western Mediterranean have evidenced inversion-related superficial structures, such as folds and asymmetric sedimentary perched basins whose geometry hints at deep compressive structures dipping towards the continent. Deep seismic imaging of these margins is difficult due to steep slope and superficial multiples, and, in the Mediterranean context, to the highly diffractive Messinian evaporitic series in the basin. During the Algerian-French SPIRAL survey (2009, R/V Atalante), 2D marine multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data were collected along the Algerian Margin using a 4.5 km, 360 channel digital streamer and a 3040 cu. in. air-gun array. An advanced processing workflow has been laid out using Geocluster CGG software, which includes noise attenuation, 2D SRME multiple attenuation, surface consistent deconvolution, Kirchhoff pre-stack time migration. This processing produces satisfactory seismic images of the whole sedimentary cover, and of southward dipping reflectors in the acoustic basement along the central part of the margin offshore Great Kabylia, that are interpreted as inversion-related blind thrusts as part of flat-ramp systems. We applied this successful processing workflow to old 2D marine MCS data acquired on the North-Ligurian Margin (Malis survey, 1995, R/V Le Nadir), using a 2.5 km, 96 channel streamer and a 1140 cu. in. air-gun array. Particular attention was paid to multiple attenuation in adapting our workflow. The resulting reprocessed seismic images, interpreted with a coincident velocity model obtained by wide-angle data tomography, provide (1) enhanced imaging of the sedimentary cover down to the top of the acoustic basement, including the base of the Messinian evaporites and the sub-salt Miocene series, which appear to be tectonized as far as in the mid-basin, and (2) new evidence of deep crustal structures in the margin which the initial processing had failed to

  15. Similar component analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong; WANG Xin; LI Junwei; CAO Xianguang

    2006-01-01

    A new unsupervised feature extraction method called similar component analysis (SCA) is proposed in this paper. SCA method has a self-aggregation property that the data objects will move towards each other to form clusters through SCA theoretically,which can reveal the inherent pattern of similarity hidden in the dataset. The inputs of SCA are just the pairwise similarities of the dataset,which makes it easier for time series analysis due to the variable length of the time series. Our experimental results on many problems have verified the effectiveness of SCA on some engineering application.

  16. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  17. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  18. Compression-based Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanyi, Paul M B

    2011-01-01

    First we consider pair-wise distances for literal objects consisting of finite binary files. These files are taken to contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books. The distances are based on compression of the objects concerned, normalized, and can be viewed as similarity distances. Second, we consider pair-wise distances between names of objects, like "red" or "christianity." In this case the distances are based on searches of the Internet. Such a search can be performed by any search engine that returns aggregate page counts. We can extract a code length from the numbers returned, use the same formula as before, and derive a similarity or relative semantics between names for objects. The theory is based on Kolmogorov complexity. We test both similarities extensively experimentally.

  19. Self-similar aftershock rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, Jörn; Baiesi, Marco

    2016-08-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise—an intermittent avalanchelike relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes—the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is particularly true for the case of seismicity, and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high-resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing particularly clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved framework for time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  20. Self-similar aftershock rates

    CERN Document Server

    Davidsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    In many important systems exhibiting crackling noise --- intermittent avalanche-like relaxation response with power-law and, thus, self-similar distributed event sizes --- the "laws" for the rate of activity after large events are not consistent with the overall self-similar behavior expected on theoretical grounds. This is in particular true for the case of seismicity and a satisfying solution to this paradox has remained outstanding. Here, we propose a generalized description of the aftershock rates which is both self-similar and consistent with all other known self-similar features. Comparing our theoretical predictions with high resolution earthquake data from Southern California we find excellent agreement, providing in particular clear evidence for a unified description of aftershocks and foreshocks. This may offer an improved way of time-dependent seismic hazard assessment and earthquake forecasting.

  1. Similarity or difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Anders Ryom

    2013-01-01

    While the organizational structures and strategies of public organizations have attracted substantial research attention among public management scholars, little research has explored how these organizational core dimensions are interconnected and influenced by pressures for similarity....... In this paper I address this topic by exploring the relation between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in Danish municipalities. Different literatures suggest that organizations exist in concurrent pressures for being similar to and different from other organizations in their field......-shaped relation exists between expenditure strategy isomorphism and structure isomorphism in a longitudinal quantitative study of Danish municipalities....

  2. Segmentation Similarity and Agreement

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new segmentation evaluation metric, called segmentation similarity (S), that quantifies the similarity between two segmentations as the proportion of boundaries that are not transformed when comparing them using edit distance, essentially using edit distance as a penalty function and scaling penalties by segmentation size. We propose several adapted inter-annotator agreement coefficients which use S that are suitable for segmentation. We show that S is configurable enough to suit a wide variety of segmentation evaluations, and is an improvement upon the state of the art. We also propose using inter-annotator agreement coefficients to evaluate automatic segmenters in terms of human performance.

  3. Incremental Similarity and Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Hedevang, Emil; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    This paper discusses the mathematical representation of an empirically observed phenomenon, referred to as Incremental Similarity. We discuss this feature from the viewpoint of stochastic processes and present a variety of non-trivial examples, including those that are of relevance for turbulence...

  4. A technique for determining the optimum mix of logistics service providers of a make-to-order supply chain by formulating and solving a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrityunjoy Roy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a technique has been developed to determine the optimum mix of logistic service providers of a make-to-order (MTO supply chain. A serial MTO supply chain with different stages/ processes has been considered. For each stage different logistic service providers with different mean processing lead times, but same lead time variances are available. A realistic assumption that for each stage, the logistic service provider who charges more for his service consumes less processing lead time and vice-versa has been made in our study. Thus for each stage, for each service provider, a combination of cost and mean processing lead time is available. Using these combinations, for each stage, a polynomial curve, expressing cost of that stage as a function of mean processing lead time is fit. Cumulating all such expressions of cost for the different stages along with incorporation of suitable constraints arising out of timely delivery, results in the formulation of a constrained nonlinear cost optimization problem. On solving the problem using mathematica, optimum processing lead time for each stage is obtained. Using these optimum processing lead times and by employing a simple technique the optimum logistic service provider mix of the supply chain along with the corresponding total cost of processing is determined. Finally to examine the effect of changes in different parameters on the optimum total processing cost of the supply chain, sensitivity analysis has been carried out graphically.

  5. More Similar Than Different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin

    2015-01-01

    What role do employee features play into the success of different personnel management practices for serving high performance? Using data from a randomized survey experiment among 5,982 individuals of all ages, this article examines how gender conditions the compliance effects of different...... incentive treatments—each relating to the basic content of distinct types of personnel management practices. The findings show that males and females are more similar than different in terms of the incentive treatments’ effects: Significant average effects are found for three out of five incentive...

  6. Similar dissection of sets

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Shigeki; Okazaki, Ryotaro; Steiner, Wolfgang; Thuswaldner, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Martin Gardner stated a set of questions concerning the dissection of a square or an equilateral triangle in three similar parts. Meanwhile, Gardner's questions have been generalized and some of them are already solved. In the present paper, we solve more of his questions and treat them in a much more general context. Let $D\\subset \\mathbb{R}^d$ be a given set and let $f_1,...,f_k$ be injective continuous mappings. Does there exist a set $X$ such that $D = X \\cup f_1(X) \\cup ... \\cup f_k(X)$ is satisfied with a non-overlapping union? We prove that such a set $X$ exists for certain choices of $D$ and $\\{f_1,...,f_k\\}$. The solutions $X$ often turn out to be attractors of iterated function systems with condensation in the sense of Barnsley. Coming back to Gardner's setting, we use our theory to prove that an equilateral triangle can be dissected in three similar copies whose areas have ratio $1:1:a$ for $a \\ge (3+\\sqrt{5})/2$.

  7. Distance learning for similarity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Amores, Jaume; Sebe, Nicu; Radeva, Petia; Tian, Qi

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we present a general guideline to find a better distance measure for similarity estimation based on statistical analysis of distribution models and distance functions. A new set of distance measures are derived from the harmonic distance, the geometric distance, and their generalized variants according to the Maximum Likelihood theory. These measures can provide a more accurate feature model than the classical Euclidean and Manhattan distances. We also find that the feature elements are often from heterogeneous sources that may have different influence on similarity estimation. Therefore, the assumption of single isotropic distribution model is often inappropriate. To alleviate this problem, we use a boosted distance measure framework that finds multiple distance measures which fit the distribution of selected feature elements best for accurate similarity estimation. The new distance measures for similarity estimation are tested on two applications: stereo matching and motion tracking in video sequences. The performance of boosted distance measure is further evaluated on several benchmark data sets from the UCI repository and two image retrieval applications. In all the experiments, robust results are obtained based on the proposed methods.

  8. Quantification of health by scaling similarity judgments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M M Arons

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A new methodology is introduced to scale health states on an interval scale based on similarity responses. It could be well suited for valuation of health states on specific regions of the health continuum that are problematic when applying conventional valuation techniques. These regions are the top-end, bottom-end, and states around 'dead'. METHODS: Three samples of approximately 500 respondents were recruited via an online survey. Each sample received a different judgmental task in which similarity data were elicited for the top seven health states in the dementia quality of life instrument (DQI. These states were '111111' (no problems on any domain and six others with some problems (level 2 on one domain. The tasks presented two (dyads, three (triads, or four (quads DQI health states. Similarity data were transformed into interval-level scales with metric and non-metric multidimensional scaling algorithms. The three response tasks were assessed for their feasibility and comprehension. RESULTS: In total 532, 469, and 509 respondents participated in the dyads, triads, and quads tasks respectively. After the scaling procedure, in all three response tasks, the best health state '111111' was positioned at one end of the health-state continuum and state '111211' was positioned at the other. The correlation between the metric scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.95, while the non-metric scales ranged from 0.76 to 1.00, indicating strong to near perfect associations. There were no apparent differences in the reported difficulty of the response tasks, but the triads had the highest number of drop-outs. DISCUSSION: Multidimensional scaling proved to be a feasible method to scale health-state similarity data. The dyads and especially the quads response tasks warrant further investigation, as these tasks provided the best indications of respondent comprehension.

  9. A Signal Processing Method to Explore Similarity in Protein Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Vasilache

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms of protein flexibility is of great importance to structural biology. The ability to detect similarities between proteins and their patterns is vital in discovering new information about unknown protein functions. A Distance Constraint Model (DCM provides a means to generate a variety of flexibility measures based on a given protein structure. Although information about mechanical properties of flexibility is critical for understanding protein function for a given protein, the question of whether certain characteristics are shared across homologous proteins is difficult to assess. For a proper assessment, a quantified measure of similarity is necessary. This paper begins to explore image processing techniques to quantify similarities in signals and images that characterize protein flexibility. The dataset considered here consists of three different families of proteins, with three proteins in each family. The similarities and differences found within flexibility measures across homologous proteins do not align with sequence-based evolutionary methods.

  10. Outsourced Similarity Search on Metric Data Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Assent, Ira; Jensen, Christian S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a cloud computing setting in which similarity querying of metric data is outsourced to a service provider. The data is to be revealed only to trusted users, not to the service provider or anyone else. Users query the server for the most similar data objects to a query example...

  11. The effect of providing feedback on inhaler technique and adherence from an electronic audio recording device, INCA®, in a community pharmacy setting: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Susan Mary; MacHale, Elaine; Sulaiman, Imran; Holmes, Martin; Hughes, Cian; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; Taylor, Terence; Boland, Fiona; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Reilly, Richard B; Ryder, Sheila A; Costello, Richard W

    2016-05-04

    Poor adherence to inhaled medication may lead to inadequate symptom control in patients with respiratory disease. In practice it can be difficult to identify poor adherence. We designed an acoustic recording device, the INCA® (INhaler Compliance Assessment) device, which, when attached to an inhaler, identifies and records the time and technique of inhaler use, thereby providing objective longitudinal data on an individual's adherence to inhaled medication. This study will test the hypothesis that providing objective, personalised, visual feedback on adherence to patients in combination with a tailored educational intervention in a community pharmacy setting, improves adherence more effectively than education alone. The study is a prospective, cluster randomised, parallel-group, multi-site study conducted over 6 months. The study is designed to compare current best practice in care (i.e. routine inhaler technique training) with the use of the INCA® device for respiratory patients in a community pharmacy setting. Pharmacies are the unit of randomisation and on enrolment to the study they will be allocated by the lead researcher to one of the three study groups (intervention, comparator or control groups) using a computer-generated list of random numbers. Given the nature of the intervention neither pharmacists nor participants can be blinded. The intervention group will receive feedback from the acoustic recording device on inhaler technique and adherence three times over a 6-month period along with inhaler technique training at each of these times. The comparator group will also receive training in inhaler use three times over the 6-month study period but no feedback on their habitual performance. The control group will receive usual care (i.e. the safe supply of medicines and advice on their use). The primary outcome is the rate of participant adherence to their inhaled medication, defined as the proportion of correctly taken doses of medication at the correct

  12. Estimating similarity of XML Schemas using path similarity measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Trivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop an algorithm which estimates the similarity for XML Schemas using multiple similarity measures. For performing the task, the XML Schema element information has been represented in the form of string and four different similarity measure approaches have been employed. To further improve the similarity measure, an overall similarity measure has also been calculated. The approach used in this paper is a distinguished one, as it calculates the similarity between two XML schemas using four approaches and gives an integrated values for the similarity measure. Keywords-componen

  13. Whole Genome Amplification of Day 3 or Day 5 Human Embryos Biopsies Provides a Suitable DNA Template for PCR-Based Techniques for Genotyping, a Complement of Preimplantation Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schaeffer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine if whole genome amplification (WGA provides suitable DNA for qPCR-based genotyping for human embryos. Single blastomeres (Day 3 or trophoblastic cells (Day 5 were isolated from 342 embryos for WGA. Comparative Genomic Hybridization determined embryo sex as well as Trisomy 18 or Trisomy 21. To determine the embryo’s sex, qPCR melting curve analysis for SRY and DYS14 was used. Logistic regression indicated a 4.4%, 57.1%, or 98.8% probability of a male embryo when neither gene, SRY only, or both genes were detected, respectively (accuracy = 94.1%, kappa = 0.882, and p<0.001. Fluorescent Capillary Electrophoresis for the amelogenin genes (AMEL was also used to determine sex. AMELY peak’s height was higher and this peak’s presence was highly predictive of male embryos (AUC = 0.93, accuracy = 81.7%, kappa = 0.974, and p<0.001. Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 21 were determined using the threshold cycle difference for RPL17 and TTC3, respectively, which were significantly lower in the corresponding embryos. The Ct difference for TTC3 specifically determined Trisomy 21 (AUC = 0.89 and RPL17 for Trisomy 18 (AUC = 0.94. Here, WGA provides adequate DNA for PCR-based techniques for preimplantation genotyping.

  14. Semantically enabled image similarity search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casterline, May V.; Emerick, Timothy; Sadeghi, Kolia; Gosse, C. A.; Bartlett, Brent; Casey, Jason

    2015-05-01

    Georeferenced data of various modalities are increasingly available for intelligence and commercial use, however effectively exploiting these sources demands a unified data space capable of capturing the unique contribution of each input. This work presents a suite of software tools for representing geospatial vector data and overhead imagery in a shared high-dimension vector or embedding" space that supports fused learning and similarity search across dissimilar modalities. While the approach is suitable for fusing arbitrary input types, including free text, the present work exploits the obvious but computationally difficult relationship between GIS and overhead imagery. GIS is comprised of temporally-smoothed but information-limited content of a GIS, while overhead imagery provides an information-rich but temporally-limited perspective. This processing framework includes some important extensions of concepts in literature but, more critically, presents a means to accomplish them as a unified framework at scale on commodity cloud architectures.

  15. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    object is modeled as a time sequence of high-dimensional feature vectors, and dynamic time warping (DTW) is used as the similarity measure. To accomplish this, the paper extends techniques for time-series-length reduction and lower bounding of DTW distance to the multi-dimensional case. Further...

  16. Efficient Similarity Retrieval in Music Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2006-01-01

    Audio music is increasingly becoming available in digital form, and the digital music collections of individuals continue to grow. Addressing the need for effective means of retrieving music from such collections, this paper proposes new techniques for content-based similarity search. Each music ...

  17. Stability of similarity measurements for bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Pan, Xue; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental measure in network analyses and machine learning algorithms, with wide applications ranging from personalized recommendation to socio-economic dynamics. We argue that an effective similarity measurement should guarantee the stability even under some information loss. With six bipartite networks, we investigate the stabilities of fifteen similarity measurements by comparing the similarity matrixes of two data samples which are randomly divided from original data sets. Results show that, the fifteen measurements can be well classified into three clusters according to their stabilities, and measurements in the same cluster have similar mathematical definitions. In addition, we develop a top-$n$-stability method for personalized recommendation, and find that the unstable similarities would recommend false information to users, and the performance of recommendation would be largely improved by using stable similarity measurements. This work provides a novel dimension to analyze and eval...

  18. Appropriate Similarity Measures for Author Cocitation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan); L. Waltman (Ludo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe provide a number of new insights into the methodological discussion about author cocitation analysis. We first argue that the use of the Pearson correlation for measuring the similarity between authors’ cocitation profiles is not very satisfactory. We then discuss what kind of similar

  19. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did…

  20. Functional Similarity and Interpersonal Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    1981-01-01

    Students participated in dyadic disclosure exercises over a five-week period. Results indicated members of high functional similarity dyads evidenced greater attraction to one another than did members of low functional similarity dyads. "Friendship" pairs of male undergraduates displayed greater functional similarity than did "nominal" pairs from…

  1. Testing Self-Similarity Through Lamperti Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Myoungji

    2016-07-14

    Self-similar processes have been widely used in modeling real-world phenomena occurring in environmetrics, network traffic, image processing, and stock pricing, to name but a few. The estimation of the degree of self-similarity has been studied extensively, while statistical tests for self-similarity are scarce and limited to processes indexed in one dimension. This paper proposes a statistical hypothesis test procedure for self-similarity of a stochastic process indexed in one dimension and multi-self-similarity for a random field indexed in higher dimensions. If self-similarity is not rejected, our test provides a set of estimated self-similarity indexes. The key is to test stationarity of the inverse Lamperti transformations of the process. The inverse Lamperti transformation of a self-similar process is a strongly stationary process, revealing a theoretical connection between the two processes. To demonstrate the capability of our test, we test self-similarity of fractional Brownian motions and sheets, their time deformations and mixtures with Gaussian white noise, and the generalized Cauchy family. We also apply the self-similarity test to real data: annual minimum water levels of the Nile River, network traffic records, and surface heights of food wrappings. © 2016, International Biometric Society.

  2. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-12-01

    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots.

  3. A COMPARISON OF SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MODELS IN EVALUATING CONCEPT SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. X. Xu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  4. a Comparison of Semantic Similarity Models in Evaluating Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q. X.; Shi, W. Z.

    2012-08-01

    The semantic similarities are important in concept definition, recognition, categorization, interpretation, and integration. Many semantic similarity models have been established to evaluate semantic similarities of objects or/and concepts. To find out the suitability and performance of different models in evaluating concept similarities, we make a comparison of four main types of models in this paper: the geometric model, the feature model, the network model, and the transformational model. Fundamental principles and main characteristics of these models are introduced and compared firstly. Land use and land cover concepts of NLCD92 are employed as examples in the case study. The results demonstrate that correlations between these models are very high for a possible reason that all these models are designed to simulate the similarity judgement of human mind.

  5. A technical study and analysis on fuzzy similarity based models for text classification

    CERN Document Server

    Puri, Shalini; 10.5121/ijdkp.2012.2201

    2012-01-01

    In this new and current era of technology, advancements and techniques, efficient and effective text document classification is becoming a challenging and highly required area to capably categorize text documents into mutually exclusive categories. Fuzzy similarity provides a way to find the similarity of features among various documents. In this paper, a technical review on various fuzzy similarity based models is given. These models are discussed and compared to frame out their use and necessity. A tour of different methodologies is provided which is based upon fuzzy similarity related concerns. It shows that how text and web documents are categorized efficiently into different categories. Various experimental results of these models are also discussed. The technical comparisons among each model's parameters are shown in the form of a 3-D chart. Such study and technical review provide a strong base of research work done on fuzzy similarity based text document categorization.

  6. Renewing the Respect for Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon eEdelman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In psychology, the concept of similarity has traditionally evoked a mixture of respect, stemmingfrom its ubiquity and intuitive appeal, and concern, due to its dependence on the framing of the problemat hand and on its context. We argue for a renewed focus on similarity as an explanatory concept, bysurveying established results and new developments in the theory and methods of similarity-preservingassociative lookup and dimensionality reduction — critical components of many cognitive functions, aswell as of intelligent data management in computer vision. We focus in particular on the growing familyof algorithms that support associative memory by performing hashing that respects local similarity, andon the uses of similarity in representing structured objects and scenes. Insofar as these similarity-basedideas and methods are useful in cognitive modeling and in AI applications, they should be included inthe core conceptual toolkit of computational neuroscience.

  7. Similarity Learning of Manifold Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si-Bao; Ding, Chris H Q; Luo, Bin

    2015-09-01

    Without constructing adjacency graph for neighborhood, we propose a method to learn similarity among sample points of manifold in Laplacian embedding (LE) based on adding constraints of linear reconstruction and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator type minimization. Two algorithms and corresponding analyses are presented to learn similarity for mix-signed and nonnegative data respectively. The similarity learning method is further extended to kernel spaces. The experiments on both synthetic and real world benchmark data sets demonstrate that the proposed LE with new similarity has better visualization and achieves higher accuracy in classification.

  8. Dynamic similarity in erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, A.E.

    1963-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamic similarity conditions obtaining in a variety of erosional processes. The pertinent equations for each type of process are written in dimensionless form; the similarity conditions can then easily be deduced. The processes treated are: raindrop action, slope evolution and river erosion. ?? 1963 Istituto Geofisico Italiano.

  9. Wavelet transform in similarity paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.R. Struzik; A.P.J.M. Siebes (Arno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstract[INS-R9802] Searching for similarity in time series finds still broader applications in data mining. However, due to the very broad spectrum of data involved, there is no possibility of defining one single notion of similarity suitable to serve all applications. We present a powerful

  10. A Biographic Comparison Tracing the Similarities in the Lives of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Susan

    This paper focuses on similarities in the lives of Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky to enlighten study of their pedagogies and to provide some information for current classroom techniques. Neither man had a great deal to say about his early life, although Piaget published an autobiography. A number of primary sources were used to construct the…

  11. Providing Compassion through Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Meg Kral, MS, OTR/L, CLT, is the cover artist for the Summer 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. Her untitled piece of art is an oil painting and is a re-creation of a photograph taken while on vacation. Meg is currently supervisor of outpatient services at Rush University Medical Center. She is lymphedema certified and has a specific interest in breast cancer lymphedema. Art and occupational therapy serve similar purposes for Meg: both provide a sense of flow. She values the outcomes, whether it is a piece of art or improved functional status

  12. Introduction to perturbation techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2011-01-01

    Similarities, differences, advantages and limitations of perturbation techniques are pointed out concisely. The techniques are described by means of examples that consist mainly of algebraic and ordinary differential equations. Each chapter contains a number of exercises.

  13. Spectral similarity approach for mapping turbidity of an inland waterbody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Vaibhav; Senthil Kumar, A.; Aggarwal, S. P.; Kumar, Vinay; Dhote, Pankaj R.; Thakur, Praveen K.; Nikam, Bhaskar R.; Sambare, Rohit S.; Siddiqui, Asfa; Muduli, Pradipta R.; Rastogi, Gurdeep

    2017-07-01

    Turbidity is an important quality parameter of water from its optical property point of view. It varies spatio-temporally over large waterbodies and its well distributed measurement on field is tedious and time consuming. Generally, normalized difference turbidity index (NDTI), or band ratio, or regression analysis between turbidity concentration and band reflectance, approaches have been adapted to retrieve turbidity using multispectral remote sensing data. These techniques usually provide qualitative rather than quantitative estimates of turbidity. However, in the present study, spectral similarity analysis, between the spectral characteristics of spaceborne hyperspectral remote sensing data and spectral library generated on field, was carried out to quantify turbidity in the part of Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. Spatial spectral contextual image analysis, spectral angle mapper (SAM) technique was evaluated for the same. The SAM spectral matching technique has been widely used in geological application (mineral mapping), however, the application of this kind of techniques is limited in water quality studies due to non-availability of reference spectral libraries. A spectral library was generated on field for the different concentrations of turbidity using well calibrated instruments like field spectro-radiometer, turbidity meter and hand held global positioning system. The field spectra were classified into 7 classes of turbidity concentration as 100 NTU for analysis. Analysis reveal that at each location in the lake under consideration, the field spectra matched with the image spectra with SAM score of 0.8 and more. The observed turbidity at each location was also very much falling in the estimated turbidity class range. It was observed that the spectral similarity approach provides more quantitative estimate of turbidity as compared to NDTI.

  14. Similarity of samples and trimming

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez-Esteban, Pedro C; Cuesta-Albertos, Juan A; Matrán, Carlos; 10.3150/11-BEJ351

    2012-01-01

    We say that two probabilities are similar at level $\\alpha$ if they are contaminated versions (up to an $\\alpha$ fraction) of the same common probability. We show how this model is related to minimal distances between sets of trimmed probabilities. Empirical versions turn out to present an overfitting effect in the sense that trimming beyond the similarity level results in trimmed samples that are closer than expected to each other. We show how this can be combined with a bootstrap approach to assess similarity from two data samples.

  15. A toolbox for representational similarity analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Nili

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal population codes are increasingly being investigated with multivariate pattern-information analyses. A key challenge is to use measured brain-activity patterns to test computational models of brain information processing. One approach to this problem is representational similarity analysis (RSA, which characterizes a representation in a brain or computational model by the distance matrix of the response patterns elicited by a set of stimuli. The representational distance matrix encapsulates what distinctions between stimuli are emphasized and what distinctions are de-emphasized in the representation. A model is tested by comparing the representational distance matrix it predicts to that of a measured brain region. RSA also enables us to compare representations between stages of processing within a given brain or model, between brain and behavioral data, and between individuals and species. Here, we introduce a Matlab toolbox for RSA. The toolbox supports an analysis approach that is simultaneously data- and hypothesis-driven. It is designed to help integrate a wide range of computational models into the analysis of multichannel brain-activity measurements as provided by modern functional imaging and neuronal recording techniques. Tools for visualization and inference enable the user to relate sets of models to sets of brain regions and to statistically test and compare the models using nonparametric inference methods. The toolbox supports searchlight-based RSA, to continuously map a measured brain volume in search of a neuronal population code with a specific geometry. Finally, we introduce the linear-discriminant t value as a measure of representational discriminability that bridges the gap between linear decoding analyses and RSA. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the toolbox, we apply it to both simulated and real fMRI data. The key functions are equally applicable to other modalities of brain-activity measurement. The

  16. Contextual Bandits with Similarity Information

    CERN Document Server

    Slivkins, Aleksandrs

    2009-01-01

    In a multi-armed bandit (MAB) problem, an online algorithm makes a sequence of choices. In each round it chooses from a time-invariant set of alternatives and receives the payoff associated with this alternative. While the case of small strategy sets is by now well-understood, a lot of recent work has focused on MAB problems with exponentially or infinitely large strategy sets, where one needs to assume extra structure in order to make the problem tractable. In particular, recent literature considered information on similarity between arms. We consider similarity information in the setting of "contextual bandits", a natural extension of the basic MAB problem where before each round an algorithm is given the "context" -- a hint about the payoffs in this round. Contextual bandits are directly motivated by placing advertisements on webpages, one of the crucial problems in sponsored search. A particularly simple way to represent similarity information in the contextual bandit setting is via a "similarity distance...

  17. Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available -bearing oxide/hydroxide/sulfate minerals in complex mixtures be obtained using hyperspectral data? Debba (CSIR) Unmixing of spectrally similar minerals MERAKA 2009 3 / 18 Method of spectral unmixing Old method: problem Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA...

  18. Community Detection by Neighborhood Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xu; XIE Zheng; YI Dong-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Detection of the community structure in a network is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of the network.By exploring the neighborhood of vertices,a local similarity metric is proposed,which can be quickly computed.The resulting similarity matrix retains the same support as the adjacency matrix.Based on local similarity,an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed for community detection.The algorithm is implemented by an efficient max-heap data structure and runs in nearly linear time,thus is capable of dealing with large sparse networks with tens of thousands of nodes.Experiments on synthesized and real-world networks demonstrate that our method is efficient to detect community structures,and the proposed metric is the most suitable one among all the tested similarity indices.%Detection of the community structure in a network is important for understanding the structure and dynamics of the network. By exploring the neighborhood of vertices, a local similarity metric is proposed, which can be quickly computed. The resulting similarity matrix retains the same support as the adjacency matrix. Based on local similarity, an agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is proposed for community detection. The algorithm is implemented by an efficient max-heap data structure and runs in nearly linear time, thus is capable of dealing with large sparse networks with tens of thousands of nodes. Experiments on synthesized and real-world networks demonstrate that our method is efficient to detect community structures, and the proposed metric is the most suitable one among all the tested similarity indices.

  19. Chromosomal mapping of repetitive DNAs in the beetle Dichotomius geminatus provides the first evidence for an association of 5S rRNA and histone H3 genes in insects, and repetitive DNA similarity between the B chromosome and A complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-de-Mello, D C; Moura, R C; Martins, C

    2010-04-01

    Chromosomal banding techniques and repetitive DNA mapping are useful tools in comparative analysis and in the elucidation of genome organization of several groups of eukaryotes. In this study, we contributed to the knowledge of Coleoptera genomes by reporting the chromosomal organization of repetitive DNA sequences, as well as the presence and characteristics of a B chromosome in two natural populations of Dichotomius geminatus (Coleoptera; Scarabaeidae) using classical, chromosomal banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques. As in other coleopteran species, the heterochromatin was mainly concentrated in pericentromeric regions and the B chromosome was composed almost entirely of heterochromatin. Physical mapping using double fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed for the first time in Coleoptera; using DNA probes for 5S and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and histone H3 genes, we showed that ribosomal 18S rDNAs are located in chromosomes 3 and 4, whereas 5S rRNA and histone H3 genes are colocalized in chromosomal pair 2 and show an apparently interspersed organization. Moreover, these genes are not present in the B chromosome, suggesting that the B chromosome did not originate from chromosomal pairs 2, 3 or 4. On the other hand, mapping of the C(0)t-1 DNA fraction showed that the B chromosome is enriched in repetitive DNA elements, also present in the standard complement, indicating an intraspecific origin of this element in D. geminatus. These results will contribute to our understanding of genome organization and evolution of repetitive elements in Coleoptera and other insects regarding both A and B chromosomes.

  20. Web Search Results Summarization Using Similarity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawant V.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Now day’s internet has become part of our life, the WWW is most important service of internet because it allows presenting information such as document, imaging etc. The WWW grows rapidly and caters to a diversified levels and categories of users. For user specified results web search results are extracted. Millions of information pouring online, users has no time to surf the contents completely .Moreover the information available is repeated or duplicated in nature. This issue has created the necessity to restructure the search results that could yield results summarized. The proposed approach comprises of different feature extraction of web pages. Web page visual similarity assessment has been employed to address the problems in different fields including phishing, web archiving, web search engine etc. In this approach, initially by enters user query the number of search results get stored. The Earth Mover's Distance is used to assessment of web page visual similarity, in this technique take the web page as a low resolution image, create signature of that web page image with color and co-ordinate features .Calculate the distance between web pages by applying EMD method. Compute the Layout Similarity value by using tag comparison algorithm and template comparison algorithm. Textual similarity is computed by using cosine similarity, and hyperlink analysis is performed to compute outward links. The final similarity value is calculated by fusion of layout, text, hyperlink and EMD value. Once the similarity matrix is found clustering is employed with the help of connected component. Finally group of similar web pages i.e. summarized results get displayed to user. Experiment conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of four methods to generate summarized result on different web pages and user queries also.

  1. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich

    2015-05-13

    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at http://www.bornberglab.org/pages/porthoda .

  2. Similarity of atoms in molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cioslowski, J.; Nanayakkara, A. (Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Similarity of atoms in molecules is quantitatively assessed with a measure that employs electron densities within respective atomic basins. This atomic similarity measure does not rely on arbitrary assumptions concerning basis functions or 'atomic orbitals', is relatively inexpensive to compute, and has straightforward interpretation. Inspection of similarities between pairs of carbon, hydrogen, and fluorine atoms in the CH[sub 4], CH[sub 3]F, CH[sub 2]F[sub 2], CHF[sub 3], CF[sub 4], C[sub 2]H[sub 2], C[sub 2]H[sub 4], and C[sub 2]H[sub 6] molecules, calculated at the MP2/6-311G[sup **] level of theory, reveals that the atomic similarity is greatly reduced by a change in the number or the character of ligands (i.e. the atoms with nuclei linked through bond paths to the nucleus of the atom in question). On the other hand, atoms with formally identical (i.e. having the same nuclei and numbers of ligands) ligands resemble each other to a large degree, with the similarity indices greater than 0.95 for hydrogens and 0.99 for non-hydrogens. 19 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  4. Integrated Semantic Similarity Model Based on Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ya-Jun; ZHAO Yun

    2004-01-01

    To solve the problem of the inadequacy of semantic processing in the intelligent question answering system, an integrated semantic similarity model which calculates the semantic similarity using the geometric distance and information content is presented in this paper.With the help of interrelationship between concepts, the information content of concepts and the strength of the edges in the ontology network, we can calculate the semantic similarity between two concepts and provide information for the further calculation of the semantic similarity between user's question and answers in knowlegdge base.The results of the experiments on the prototype have shown that the semantic problem in natural language processing can also be solved with the help of the knowledge and the abundant semantic information in ontology.More than 90% accuracy with less than 50 ms average searching time in the intelligent question answering prototype system based on ontology has been reached.The result is very satisfied.

  5. Distances and similarities in intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    CERN Document Server

    Szmidt, Eulalia

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in theory and practice regarding similarity and distance measures for intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Quantifying similarity and distances is crucial for many applications, e.g. data mining, machine learning, decision making, and control. The work provides readers with a comprehensive set of theoretical concepts and practical tools for both defining and determining similarity between intuitionistic fuzzy sets. It describes an automatic algorithm for deriving intuitionistic fuzzy sets from data, which can aid in the analysis of information in large databases. The book also discusses other important applications, e.g. the use of similarity measures to evaluate the extent of agreement between experts in the context of decision making.

  6. Correlation between social proximity and mobility similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Chao; Huang, Junming; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviors exhibit ubiquitous correlations in many aspects, such as individual and collective levels, temporal and spatial dimensions, content, social and geographical layers. With rich Internet data of online behaviors becoming available, it attracts academic interests to explore human mobility similarity from the perspective of social network proximity. Existent analysis shows a strong correlation between online social proximity and offline mobility similari- ty, namely, mobile records between friends are significantly more similar than between strangers, and those between friends with common neighbors are even more similar. We argue the importance of the number and diversity of com- mon friends, with a counter intuitive finding that the number of common friends has no positive impact on mobility similarity while the diversity plays a key role, disagreeing with previous studies. Our analysis provides a novel view for better understanding the coupling between human online and offline behaviors, and will...

  7. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Parrado-Hernandez, Emilio; Meng, Anders;

    Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...... for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation....

  8. Discovering Music Structure via Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Parrado-Hernandez, Emilio; Meng, Anders

    Automatic methods for music navigation and music recommendation exploit the structure in the music to carry out a meaningful exploration of the “song space”. To get a satisfactory performance from such systems, one should incorporate as much information about songs similarity as possible; however...... semantics”, in such a way that all observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Therefore, one can think of these semantics as the real structure in music, in the sense that they can explain the observed similarities among songs. The suitability of the PLSA model...... for representing music structure is studied in a simplified scenario consisting of 4412 songs and two similarity measures among them. The results suggest that the PLSA model is a useful framework to combine different sources of information, and provides a reasonable space for song representation....

  9. Efficient Privacy Preserving Protocols for Similarity Join

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hawashin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the similarity join process, one or more sources may not allow sharing its data with other sources. In this case, a privacy preserving similarity join is required. We showed in our previous work [4] that using long attributes, such as paper abstracts, movie summaries, product descriptions, and user feedbacks, could improve the similarity join accuracy using supervised learning. However, the existing secure protocols for similarity join methods can not be used to join sources using these long attributes. Moreover, the majority of the existing privacy‐preserving protocols do not consider the semantic similarities during the similarity join process. In this paper, we introduce a secure efficient protocol to semantically join sources when the join attributes are long attributes. We provide two secure protocols for both scenarios when a training set exists and when there is no available training set. Furthermore, we introduced the multi‐label supervised secure protocol and the expandable supervised secure protocol. Results show that our protocols can efficiently join sources using the long attributes by considering the semantic relationships among the long string values. Therefore, it improves the overall secure similarity join performance.

  10. Electroconvective instability of self-similar equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Demekhin, E; Shtemler, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Stability of electro-hydrodynamic processes between ion-exchange membranes is investigated. Solutions of the equilibrium problem which represents the balance between diffusion and electro-migration are commonly described in an one-dimensional (1D) steady-state approximation. In the present work a novel class of the 1D unsteady self-similar equilibrium solution is developed asymptotically in small Debye length, epsilon, and large distance between membranes (both made dimensionless with the diffusion-layer thickness). First, the 1D unsteady family of self-similar equilibrium solutions is developed. Then, a linear stability of the self-similar solutions slowly varied with time is investigated in the limit of small epsilonand the marginal stability curves are obtained. Method of matched asymptotics is applied provided that only the outer solution is considered, ignoring the inner solutions. The success of the analysis is provided by transforming the equations to the divergent type (nabla G=0) with the patching co...

  11. Similarity, trust in institutions, affect, and populism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Finucane, Melissa L.

    on affect is a quicker, easier, and a more efficient way of navigating in a complex and uncertain world. Hence, many theorists give affect a direct and primary role in motivating behavior. Taken together, the results provide uncannily strong support for the value-similarity hypothesis, strengthening...

  12. Distance learning for similarity estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, J.; Amores, J.; Sebe, N.; Radeva, P.; Tian, Q.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a general guideline to find a better distance measure for similarity estimation based on statistical analysis of distribution models and distance functions. A new set of distance measures are derived from the harmonic distance, the geometric distance, and their generalized

  13. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...

  14. Comparison of hydrological similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Maura; Ridolfi, Elena; Manciola, Piergiorgio; Napolitano, Francesco; Russo, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The use of a traditional at site approach for the statistical characterization and simulation of spatio-temporal precipitation fields has a major recognized drawback. Indeed, the weakness of the methodology is related to the estimation of rare events and it involves the uncertainty of the at-site sample statistical inference, because of the limited length of records. In order to overcome the lack of at-site observations, regional frequency approach uses the idea of substituting space for time to estimate design floods. The conventional regional frequency analysis estimates quantile values at a specific site from multi-site analysis. The main idea is that homogeneous sites, once pooled together, have similar probability distribution curves of extremes, except for a scaling factor. The method for pooling groups of sites can be based on geographical or climatological considerations. In this work the region of influence (ROI) pooling method is compared with an entropy-based one. The ROI is a flexible pooling group approach which defines for each site its own "region" formed by a unique set of similar stations. The similarity is found through the Euclidean distance metric in the attribute space. Here an alternative approach based on entropy is introduced to cluster homogeneous sites. The core idea is that homogeneous sites share a redundant (i.e. similar) amount of information. Homogeneous sites are pooled through a hierarchical selection based on the mutual information index (i.e. a measure of redundancy). The method is tested on precipitation data in Central Italy area.

  15. HOW DISSIMILARLY SIMILAR ARE BIOSIMILARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshankar Vijayalakshmi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently Biopharmaceuticals are the new chemotherapeutical agents that are called as “Biosimilars” or “follow on protein products” by the European Medicines Agency (EMA and the American regulatory agencies (Food and Drug Administration respectively. Biosimilars are extremely similar to the reference molecule but not identical, however close their similarities may be. A regulatory framework is therefore in place to assess the application for marketing authorisation of biosimilars. When a biosimilar is similar to the reference biopharmaceutical in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy, it can be registered. It is important to document data from clinical trials with a view of similar safety and efficacy. If the development time for a generic medicine is around 3 years, a biosimilar takes about 6-9 years. Generic medicines need to demonstrate bioequivalence only unlike biosimilars that need to conduct phase I and Phase III clinical trials. In this review, different biosimilars that are already being used successfully in the field on Oncology is discussed. Their similarity, differences and guidelines to be followed before a clinically informed decision to be taken, is discussed. More importantly the regulatory guidelines that are operational in India with a work flow of making a biosimilar with relevant dos and dont’s are discussed. For a large populous country like India, where with improved treatments in all sectors including oncology, our ageing population is increasing. For the health care of this sector, we need more newer, cheaper and effective biosimilars in the market. It becomes therefore important to understand the regulatory guidelines and steps to come up with more biosimilars for the existing population and also more information is mandatory for the practicing clinicians to translate these effectively into clinical practice.

  16. Acquired Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Halse, Karianne

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Techniques - a Leap into the Archive, at Aarhus School of Architecture. In collaboration with Karianne Halse, James Martin and Mika K. Friis. Following the footsteps of past travelers this is a journey into tools and techniques of the architectural process. The workshop will focus upon...... architectural production as a conglomerate of various analogue and digital methods, and provide the basics, the tips/tricks - and how the tool themselves becomes operational for spatial/thematic investigations. Eventually, this will become a city, exhibition and phamplet inhabited by the (by...

  17. Inferring Trust Based on Similarity with TILLIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolifard, Mozhgan; Herrmann, Peter; Knapskog, Svein J.

    A network of people having established trust relations and a model for propagation of related trust scores are fundamental building blocks in many of today’s most successful e-commerce and recommendation systems. However, the web of trust is often too sparse to predict trust values between non-familiar people with high accuracy. Trust inferences are transitive associations among users in the context of an underlying social network and may provide additional information to alleviate the consequences of the sparsity and possible cold-start problems. Such approaches are helpful, provided that a complete trust path exists between the two users. An alternative approach to the problem is advocated in this paper. Based on collaborative filtering one can exploit the like-mindedness resp. similarity of individuals to infer trust to yet unknown parties which increases the trust relations in the web. For instance, if one knows that with respect to a specific property, two parties are trusted alike by a large number of different trusters, one can assume that they are similar. Thus, if one has a certain degree of trust to the one party, one can safely assume a very similar trustworthiness of the other one. In an attempt to provide high quality recommendations and proper initial trust values even when no complete trust propagation path or user profile exists, we propose TILLIT — a model based on combination of trust inferences and user similarity. The similarity is derived from the structure of the trust graph and users’ trust behavior as opposed to other collaborative-filtering based approaches which use ratings of items or user’s profile. We describe an algorithm realizing the approach based on a combination of trust inferences and user similarity, and validate the algorithm using a real large-scale data-set.

  18. Self-similarity Driven Demosaicking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Buades

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital cameras record only one color component per pixel, red, green or blue. Demosaicking is the process by which one can infer a whole color matrix from such a matrix of values, thus interpolating the two missing color values per pixel. In this article we propose a demosaicking method based on the property of non-local self-similarity of images.

  19. Intensity techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  20. Roget's Thesaurus and Semantic Similarity

    CERN Document Server

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    We have implemented a system that measures semantic similarity using a computerized 1987 Roget's Thesaurus, and evaluated it by performing a few typical tests. We compare the results of these tests with those produced by WordNet-based similarity measures. One of the benchmarks is Miller and Charles' list of 30 noun pairs to which human judges had assigned similarity measures. We correlate these measures with those computed by several NLP systems. The 30 pairs can be traced back to Rubenstein and Goodenough's 65 pairs, which we have also studied. Our Roget's-based system gets correlations of .878 for the smaller and .818 for the larger list of noun pairs; this is quite close to the .885 that Resnik obtained when he employed humans to replicate the Miller and Charles experiment. We further evaluate our measure by using Roget's and WordNet to answer 80 TOEFL, 50 ESL and 300 Reader's Digest questions: the correct synonym must be selected amongst a group of four words. Our system gets 78.75%, 82.00% and 74.33% of ...

  1. Active browsing using similarity pyramids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jau-Yuen; Bouman, Charles A.; Dalton, John C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach to managing large image databases, which we call active browsing. Active browsing integrates relevance feedback into the browsing environment, so that users can modify the database's organization to suit the desired task. Our method is based on a similarity pyramid data structure, which hierarchically organizes the database, so that it can be efficiently browsed. At coarse levels, the similarity pyramid allows users to view the database as large clusters of similar images. Alternatively, users can 'zoom into' finer levels to view individual images. We discuss relevance feedback for the browsing process, and argue that it is fundamentally different from relevance feedback for more traditional search-by-query tasks. We propose two fundamental operations for active browsing: pruning and reorganization. Both of these operations depend on a user-defined relevance set, which represents the image or set of images desired by the user. We present statistical methods for accurately pruning the database, and we propose a new 'worm hole' distance metric for reorganizing the database, so that members of the relevance set are grouped together.

  2. Self-Similar Collisionless Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, B; Waxman, E; Katz, Boaz; Keshet, Uri; Waxman, Eli

    2006-01-01

    Observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows suggest that the correlation length of magnetic field fluctuations downstream of relativistic non-magnetized collisionless shocks grows with distance from the shock to scales much larger than the plasma skin depth. We argue that this indicates that the plasma properties are described by a self-similar solution, and derive constraints on the scaling properties of the solution. For example, we find that the scaling of the characteristic magnetic field amplitude with distance from the shock is B \\propto D^{s_B} with -1 \\propto x^{2s_B} (for x>>D). We show that the plasma may be approximated as a combination of two self-similar components: a kinetic component of energetic particles and an MHD-like component representing "thermal" particles. We argue that the latter may be considered as infinitely conducting, in which case s_B=0 and the scalings are completely determined (e.g. dn/dE \\propto E^{-2} and B \\propto D^0). Similar claims apply to non- relativistic shocks such a...

  3. Molecular fingerprint similarity search in virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereto-Massagué, Adrià; Ojeda, María José; Valls, Cristina; Mulero, Miquel; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Molecular fingerprints have been used for a long time now in drug discovery and virtual screening. Their ease of use (requiring little to no configuration) and the speed at which substructure and similarity searches can be performed with them - paired with a virtual screening performance similar to other more complex methods - is the reason for their popularity. However, there are many types of fingerprints, each representing a different aspect of the molecule, which can greatly affect search performance. This review focuses on commonly used fingerprint algorithms, their usage in virtual screening, and the software packages and online tools that provide these algorithms.

  4. Protein structural similarity search by Ramachandran codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chih-Hung

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein structural data has increased exponentially, such that fast and accurate tools are necessary to access structure similarity search. To improve the search speed, several methods have been designed to reduce three-dimensional protein structures to one-dimensional text strings that are then analyzed by traditional sequence alignment methods; however, the accuracy is usually sacrificed and the speed is still unable to match sequence similarity search tools. Here, we aimed to improve the linear encoding methodology and develop efficient search tools that can rapidly retrieve structural homologs from large protein databases. Results We propose a new linear encoding method, SARST (Structural similarity search Aided by Ramachandran Sequential Transformation. SARST transforms protein structures into text strings through a Ramachandran map organized by nearest-neighbor clustering and uses a regenerative approach to produce substitution matrices. Then, classical sequence similarity search methods can be applied to the structural similarity search. Its accuracy is similar to Combinatorial Extension (CE and works over 243,000 times faster, searching 34,000 proteins in 0.34 sec with a 3.2-GHz CPU. SARST provides statistically meaningful expectation values to assess the retrieved information. It has been implemented into a web service and a stand-alone Java program that is able to run on many different platforms. Conclusion As a database search method, SARST can rapidly distinguish high from low similarities and efficiently retrieve homologous structures. It demonstrates that the easily accessible linear encoding methodology has the potential to serve as a foundation for efficient protein structural similarity search tools. These search tools are supposed applicable to automated and high-throughput functional annotations or predictions for the ever increasing number of published protein structures in this post-genomic era.

  5. Assessing protein kinase target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Osman A; Thakkar, Balmukund; Narayanan, Dilip

    2015-01-01

    : focussed chemical libraries, drug repurposing, polypharmacological design, to name a few. Protein kinase target similarity is easily quantified by sequence, and its relevance to ligand design includes broad classification by key binding sites, evaluation of resistance mutations, and the use of surrogate......" of sequence and crystal structure information, with statistical methods able to identify key correlates to activity but also here, "the devil is in the details." Examples from specific repurposing and polypharmacology applications illustrate these points. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled...

  6. Query Language for Complex Similarity Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Budikova, Petra; Zezula, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    For complex data types such as multimedia, traditional data management methods are not suitable. Instead of attribute matching approaches, access methods based on object similarity are becoming popular. Recently, this resulted in an intensive research of indexing and searching methods for the similarity-based retrieval. Nowadays, many efficient methods are already available, but using them to build an actual search system still requires specialists that tune the methods and build the system manually. Several attempts have already been made to provide a more convenient high-level interface in a form of query languages for such systems, but these are limited to support only basic similarity queries. In this paper, we propose a new language that allows to formulate content-based queries in a flexible way, taking into account the functionality offered by a particular search engine in use. To ensure this, the language is based on a general data model with an abstract set of operations. Consequently, the language s...

  7. An integrated multicriteria decision-making approach for evaluating nuclear fuel cycle systems for long-term sustainability on the basis of an equilibrium model: Technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory combined with analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sae Rom [Dept of Quantum Energy Chemical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (KUST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung Yeol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Wonil [Nonproliferation System Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR) once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios.

  8. An Integrated Multicriteria Decision-Making Approach for Evaluating Nuclear Fuel Cycle Systems for Long-term Sustainability on the Basis of an Equilibrium Model: Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation, and Multiattribute Utility Theory Combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saerom Yoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The focus on the issues surrounding spent nuclear fuel and lifetime extension of old nuclear power plants continues to grow nowadays. A transparent decision-making process to identify the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle (NFC is considered to be the key task in the current situation. Through this study, an attempt is made to develop an equilibrium model for the NFC to calculate the material flows based on 1 TWh of electricity production, and to perform integrated multicriteria decision-making method analyses via the analytic hierarchy process technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution, preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation, and multiattribute utility theory methods. This comparative study is aimed at screening and ranking the three selected NFC options against five aspects: sustainability, environmental friendliness, economics, proliferation resistance, and technical feasibility. The selected fuel cycle options include pressurized water reactor (PWR once-through cycle, PWR mixed oxide cycle, or pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle. A sensitivity analysis was performed to prove the robustness of the results and explore the influence of criteria on the obtained ranking. As a result of the comparative analysis, the pyroprocessing sodium-cooled fast reactor cycle is determined to be the most competitive option among the NFC scenarios.

  9. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  10. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  11. Similarity measure application to fault detection of flight system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM J H; LEE S H; WANG Hong-mei

    2009-01-01

    Fault detection technique is introduced with similarity measure. The characteristics of conventional similarity measure based on fuzzy number are discussed. With the help of distance measure, similarity measure is constructed explicitly. The designed distance-based similarity measure is applicable to general fuzzy membership functions including non-convex fuzzy membership function, whereas fuzzy number-based similarity measure has limitation to calculate the similarity of general fuzzy membership functions. The applicability of the proposed similarity measure to general fuzzy membership structures is proven by identifying the definition. To decide fault detection of flight system, the experimental data (pitching moment coefficients and lift coefficients) are transformed into fuzzy membership functions. Distance-based similarity measure is applied to the obtained fuzzy membership functions, and similarity computation and analysis are obtained with the fault and normal operation coefficients.

  12. Semantic similarity between ontologies at different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qingpeng; Haglin, David J.

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, existing and new knowledge and datasets has been encoded in different ontologies for semantic web and biomedical research. The size of ontologies is often very large in terms of number of concepts and relationships, which makes the analysis of ontologies and the represented knowledge graph computational and time consuming. As the ontologies of various semantic web and biomedical applications usually show explicit hierarchical structures, it is interesting to explore the trade-offs between ontological scales and preservation/precision of results when we analyze ontologies. This paper presents the first effort of examining the capability of this idea via studying the relationship between scaling biomedical ontologies at different levels and the semantic similarity values. We evaluate the semantic similarity between three Gene Ontology slims (Plant, Yeast, and Candida, among which the latter two belong to the same kingdom—Fungi) using four popular measures commonly applied to biomedical ontologies (Resnik, Lin, Jiang-Conrath, and SimRel). The results of this study demonstrate that with proper selection of scaling levels and similarity measures, we can significantly reduce the size of ontologies without losing substantial detail. In particular, the performance of Jiang-Conrath and Lin are more reliable and stable than that of the other two in this experiment, as proven by (a) consistently showing that Yeast and Candida are more similar (as compared to Plant) at different scales, and (b) small deviations of the similarity values after excluding a majority of nodes from several lower scales. This study provides a deeper understanding of the application of semantic similarity to biomedical ontologies, and shed light on how to choose appropriate semantic similarity measures for biomedical engineering.

  13. Interneurons targeting similar layers receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossart, Rosa; Petanjek, Zdravko; Dumitriu, Dani; Hirsch, June C; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Esclapez, Monique; Bernard, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    GABAergic interneurons play diverse and important roles in controlling neuronal network dynamics. They are characterized by an extreme heterogeneity morphologically, neurochemically, and physiologically, but a functionally relevant classification is still lacking. Present taxonomy is essentially based on their postsynaptic targets, but a physiological counterpart to this classification has not yet been determined. Using a quantitative analysis based on multidimensional clustering of morphological and physiological variables, we now demonstrate a strong correlation between the kinetics of glutamate and GABA miniature synaptic currents received by CA1 hippocampal interneurons and the laminar distribution of their axons: neurons that project to the same layer(s) receive synaptic inputs with similar kinetics distributions. In contrast, the kinetics distributions of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic events received by a given interneuron do not depend upon its somatic location or dendritic arborization. Although the mechanisms responsible for this unexpected observation are still unclear, our results suggest that interneurons may be programmed to receive synaptic currents with specific temporal dynamics depending on their targets and the local networks in which they operate.

  14. Role-based similarity in directed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The widespread relevance of increasingly complex networks requires methods to extract meaningful coarse-grained representations of such systems. For undirected graphs, standard community detection methods use criteria largely based on density of connections to provide such representations. We propose a method for grouping nodes in directed networks based on the role of the nodes in the network, understood in terms of patterns of incoming and outgoing flows. The role groupings are obtained through the clustering of a similarity matrix, formed by the distances between feature vectors that contain the number of in and out paths of all lengths for each node. Hence nodes operating in a similar flow environment are grouped together although they may not themselves be densely connected. Our method, which includes a scale factor that reveals robust groupings based on increasingly global structure, provides an alternative criterion to uncover structure in networks where there is an implicit flow transfer in the system...

  15. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available act: Similarities between the accounting of companies and territorial administrative units accounting are the following: organizing double entry accounting; accounting method both in terms of fundamental theoretical principles and specific practical tools. The differences between the accounting of companies and of territorial administrative units refer to: the accounting of territorial administrative units includes besides general accounting (financial also budgetary accounting, and the accounts system of the budgetary accounting is completely different from that of companies; financial statements of territorial administrative units to which leaders are not main authorizing officers are submitted to the hierarchically superior body (not at MPF; the accounts of territorial administrative units are opened at treasury and financial institutions, accounts at commercial banks being prohibited; equity accounts in territorial administrative units are structured into groups of funds; long term debts have a specific structure in territorial administrative units (internal local public debt and external local public debt.

  16. Performance Indexes: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Machado Caldeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The investor of today is more rigorous on monitoring a financial assets portfolio. He no longer thinks only in terms of the expected return (one dimension, but in terms of risk-return (two dimensions. Thus new perception is more complex, since the risk measurement can vary according to anyone’s perception; some use the standard deviation for that, others disagree with this measure by proposing others. In addition to this difficulty, there is the problem of how to consider these two dimensions. The objective of this essay is to study the main performance indexes through an empirical study in order to verify the differences and similarities for some of the selected assets. One performance index proposed in Caldeira (2005 shall be included in this analysis.

  17. Performance evaluation of similarity measures for dense multimodal stereovision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Kalkan, Sinan

    2016-05-01

    Multimodal imaging systems have recently been drawing attention in fields such as medical imaging, remote sensing, and video surveillance systems. In such systems, estimating depth has become possible due to the promising progress of multimodal matching techniques. We perform a systematic performance evaluation of similarity measures frequently used in the literature for dense multimodal stereovision. The evaluated measures include mutual information (MI), sum of squared distances, normalized cross-correlation, census transform, local self-similarity (LSS) as well as descriptors adopted to multimodal settings, like scale invariant feature transform (SIFT), speeded-up robust features (SURF), histogram of oriented gradients (HOG), binary robust independent elementary features, and fast retina keypoint (FREAK). We evaluate the measures over datasets we generated, compiled, and provided as a benchmark and compare the performances using the Winner Takes All method. The datasets are (1) synthetically modified four popular pairs from the Middlebury Stereo Dataset (namely, Tsukuba, Venus, Cones, and Teddy) and (2) our own multimodal image pairs acquired using the infrared and the electro-optical cameras of a Kinect device. The results show that MI and HOG provide promising results for multimodal imagery, and FREAK, SURF, SIFT, and LSS can be considered as alternatives depending on the multimodality level and the computational complexity requirements of the intended application.

  18. Compressive Sequential Learning for Action Similarity Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Liu, Li; Zhang, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Yunhong; Shao, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Human action recognition in videos has been extensively studied in recent years due to its wide range of applications. Instead of classifying video sequences into a number of action categories, in this paper, we focus on a particular problem of action similarity labeling (ASLAN), which aims at verifying whether a pair of videos contain the same type of action or not. To address this challenge, a novel approach called compressive sequential learning (CSL) is proposed by leveraging the compressive sensing theory and sequential learning. We first project data points to a low-dimensional space by effectively exploring an important property in compressive sensing: the restricted isometry property. In particular, a very sparse measurement matrix is adopted to reduce the dimensionality efficiently. We then learn an ensemble classifier for measuring similarities between pairwise videos by iteratively minimizing its empirical risk with the AdaBoost strategy on the training set. Unlike conventional AdaBoost, the weak learner for each iteration is not explicitly defined and its parameters are learned through greedy optimization. Furthermore, an alternative of CSL named compressive sequential encoding is developed as an encoding technique and followed by a linear classifier to address the similarity-labeling problem. Our method has been systematically evaluated on four action data sets: ASLAN, KTH, HMDB51, and Hollywood2, and the results show the effectiveness and superiority of our method for ASLAN.

  19. Logistics Service Provider Selection through an Integrated Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Making Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the demand of third-party logistics provider becomes an increasingly important issue for companies to improve their customer service and to decrease logistics costs. This paper presents an integrated fuzzy approach for the evaluation and selection of 3rd party logistics service providers. This method consists of two techniques: (1) use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to identify weights of evaluation criteria; (2) apply fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal so...

  20. The Haar Wavelet Transform in the Time Series Similarity Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z.R. Struzik; A.P.J.M. Siebes (Arno)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSimilarity measures play an important role in many data mining algorithms. To allow the use of such algorithms on non-standard databases, such as databases of financial time series, their similarity measure has to be defined. We present a simple and powerful technique which allows for

  1. Radiologic imaging technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bushong, S.C. (Dept. of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (US)); Eastman, T.R. (Agfagavert Inc., Irving, TX (US))

    1990-01-01

    The authors focus on the subject of clinical radiographic technique. Emphasizing correct radiographic technique, it's heavily illustrated with radiographs that demonstrate proper exposure and show what happens when exposure variables are changed. A key feature is a discussion and evaluation of radiographic technique charts. Basic technique charts are provided for every body part examined.

  2. Large margin classification with indefinite similarities

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2016-01-07

    Classification with indefinite similarities has attracted attention in the machine learning community. This is partly due to the fact that many similarity functions that arise in practice are not symmetric positive semidefinite, i.e. the Mercer condition is not satisfied, or the Mercer condition is difficult to verify. Examples of such indefinite similarities in machine learning applications are ample including, for instance, the BLAST similarity score between protein sequences, human-judged similarities between concepts and words, and the tangent distance or the shape matching distance in computer vision. Nevertheless, previous works on classification with indefinite similarities are not fully satisfactory. They have either introduced sources of inconsistency in handling past and future examples using kernel approximation, settled for local-minimum solutions using non-convex optimization, or produced non-sparse solutions by learning in Krein spaces. Despite the large volume of research devoted to this subject lately, we demonstrate in this paper how an old idea, namely the 1-norm support vector machine (SVM) proposed more than 15 years ago, has several advantages over more recent work. In particular, the 1-norm SVM method is conceptually simpler, which makes it easier to implement and maintain. It is competitive, if not superior to, all other methods in terms of predictive accuracy. Moreover, it produces solutions that are often sparser than more recent methods by several orders of magnitude. In addition, we provide various theoretical justifications by relating 1-norm SVM to well-established learning algorithms such as neural networks, SVM, and nearest neighbor classifiers. Finally, we conduct a thorough experimental evaluation, which reveals that the evidence in favor of 1-norm SVM is statistically significant.

  3. [Application of molecular biological techniques in Taenia identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Liu, Hang; Yang, Yi-Mei

    2011-10-01

    The traditional identification of Taenia spp. based on morphological features of adult and cysticercus has difficulties in identifying the morphologically similar species. The recent development of molecular techniques provides more scientific ways for distinguishing Taenia species. This paper summarizes the application of molecular biological techniques in the identification of Taenia, such as analysis of DNA sequence, PCR-RFLP and LAMP.

  4. Rotational invariant similarity measurement for content-based image indexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Yong M.; Yoo, Kiwon

    2000-04-01

    We propose a similarity matching technique for contents based image retrieval. The proposed technique is invariant from rotated images. Since image contents for image indexing and retrieval would be arbitrarily extracted from still image or key frame of video, the rotation invariant property of feature description of image is important for general application of contents based image indexing and retrieval. In this paper, we propose a rotation invariant similarity measurement in cooperating with texture featuring base on HVS. To simplify computational complexity, we employed hierarchical similarity distance searching. To verify the method, experiments with MPEG-7 data set are performed.

  5. PHOG analysis of self-similarity in aesthetic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirshahi, Seyed Ali; Koch, Michael; Denzler, Joachim; Redies, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, there have been efforts in defining the statistical properties of aesthetic photographs and artworks using computer vision techniques. However, it is still an open question how to distinguish aesthetic from non-aesthetic images with a high recognition rate. This is possibly because aesthetic perception is influenced also by a large number of cultural variables. Nevertheless, the search for statistical properties of aesthetic images has not been futile. For example, we have shown that the radially averaged power spectrum of monochrome artworks of Western and Eastern provenance falls off according to a power law with increasing spatial frequency (1/f2 characteristics). This finding implies that this particular subset of artworks possesses a Fourier power spectrum that is self-similar across different scales of spatial resolution. Other types of aesthetic images, such as cartoons, comics and mangas also display this type of self-similarity, as do photographs of complex natural scenes. Since the human visual system is adapted to encode images of natural scenes in a particular efficient way, we have argued that artists imitate these statistics in their artworks. In support of this notion, we presented results that artists portrait human faces with the self-similar Fourier statistics of complex natural scenes although real-world photographs of faces are not self-similar. In view of these previous findings, we investigated other statistical measures of self-similarity to characterize aesthetic and non-aesthetic images. In the present work, we propose a novel measure of self-similarity that is based on the Pyramid Histogram of Oriented Gradients (PHOG). For every image, we first calculate PHOG up to pyramid level 3. The similarity between the histograms of each section at a particular level is then calculated to the parent section at the previous level (or to the histogram at the ground level). The proposed approach is tested on datasets of aesthetic and

  6. Similarities in Aegyptopithecus and Afropithecus facial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakey, M G; Leakey, R E; Richtsmeier, J T; Simons, E L; Walker, A C

    1991-01-01

    Recently discovered cranial fossils from the Oligocene deposits of the Fayum depression in Egypt provide many details of the facial morphology of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. Similar features are found in the Miocene hominoid Afropithecus turkanensis. Their presence is the first good evidence of a strong phenetic link between the Oligocene and Miocene hominoids of Africa. A comparison of trait lists emphasizes the similarities of the two fossil species, and leads us to conclude that the two fossil genera share many primitive facial features. In addition, we studied facial morphology using finite-element scaling analysis and found that the two genera show similarities in morphological integration, or the way in which biological landmarks relate to one another in three dimensions to define the form of the organism. Size differences between the two genera are much greater than the relatively minor shape differences. Analysis of variability in landmark location among the four Aegyptopithecus specimens indicates that variability within the sample is not different from that found within two samples of modern macaques. We propose that the shape differences found among the four Aegyptopithecus specimens simply reflect individual variation in facial characteristics, and that the similarities in facial morphology between Aegyptopithecus and Afropithecus probably represent a complex of primitive facial features retained over millions of years.

  7. Similarities between static and rotational intensity-modulated plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q Jackie; Yin Fangfang; McMahon, Ryan; Zhu Xiaofeng; Das, Shiva K [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)], E-mail: jackie.wu@duke.edu

    2010-01-07

    The aim of this study was to explore similarities between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) techniques in the context of the number of multi-leaf collimator (MLC) segments required to achieve plan objectives, the major factor influencing plan quality. Three clinical cases with increasing complexity were studied: (a) prostate only, (b) prostate and seminal vesicles and (c) prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Initial 'gold-standard' plans with the maximum possible organ-at-risk sparing were generated for all three cases. For each case, multiple IMRT and IMAT plans were generated with varying intensity levels (IMRT) and arc control points (IMAT), which translate into varying MLC segments in both modalities. The IMAT/IMRT plans were forced to mimic the organ-at-risk sparing and target coverage in the gold-standard plans, thereby only allowing the target dose inhomogeneity to be variable. A higher target dose inhomogeneity (quantified as D5-dose to the highest 5% of target volume) implies that the plan is less capable of modulation. For each case, given a similar number of MLC segments, both IMRT and IMAT plans exhibit similar target dose inhomogeneity, indicating that there is no difference in their ability to provide dose painting. Target dose inhomogeneity remained approximately constant with decreasing segments, but sharply increased below a specific critical number of segments (70, 100, 110 for cases a, b, c, respectively). For the cases studied, IMAT and IMRT plans are similar in their dependence on the number of MLC segments. A minimum critical number of segments are required to ensure adequate plan quality. Future studies are needed to establish the range of minimum critical number of segments for different treatment sites and target-organ geometries.

  8. Similarities between static and rotational intensity-modulated plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q. Jackie; Yin, Fang-Fang; McMahon, Ryan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Das, Shiva K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore similarities between intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) techniques in the context of the number of multi-leaf collimator (MLC) segments required to achieve plan objectives, the major factor influencing plan quality. Three clinical cases with increasing complexity were studied: (a) prostate only, (b) prostate and seminal vesicles and (c) prostate and pelvic lymph nodes. Initial 'gold-standard' plans with the maximum possible organ-at-risk sparing were generated for all three cases. For each case, multiple IMRT and IMAT plans were generated with varying intensity levels (IMRT) and arc control points (IMAT), which translate into varying MLC segments in both modalities. The IMAT/IMRT plans were forced to mimic the organ-at-risk sparing and target coverage in the gold-standard plans, thereby only allowing the target dose inhomogeneity to be variable. A higher target dose inhomogeneity (quantified as D5—dose to the highest 5% of target volume) implies that the plan is less capable of modulation. For each case, given a similar number of MLC segments, both IMRT and IMAT plans exhibit similar target dose inhomogeneity, indicating that there is no difference in their ability to provide dose painting. Target dose inhomogeneity remained approximately constant with decreasing segments, but sharply increased below a specific critical number of segments (70, 100, 110 for cases a, b, c, respectively). For the cases studied, IMAT and IMRT plans are similar in their dependence on the number of MLC segments. A minimum critical number of segments are required to ensure adequate plan quality. Future studies are needed to establish the range of minimum critical number of segments for different treatment sites and target-organ geometries.

  9. Equivalence and Differences between Structural Equation Modeling and State-Space Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Ho, Moon-ho R.; Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.

    2010-01-01

    State-space modeling techniques have been compared to structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in various contexts but their unique strengths have often been overshadowed by their similarities to SEM. In this article, we provide a comprehensive discussion of these 2 approaches' similarities and differences through analytic comparisons and…

  10. Equivalence and differences between structural equation modeling and state-space modeling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Ho, Moon-ho R.; Hamaker, E.L.; Dolan, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    State-space modeling techniques have been compared to structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in various contexts but their unique strengths have often been overshadowed by their similarities to SEM. In this article, we provide a comprehensive discussion of these 2 approaches' similarities and

  11. Equivalence and Differences between Structural Equation Modeling and State-Space Modeling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sy-Miin; Ho, Moon-ho R.; Hamaker, Ellen L.; Dolan, Conor V.

    2010-01-01

    State-space modeling techniques have been compared to structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in various contexts but their unique strengths have often been overshadowed by their similarities to SEM. In this article, we provide a comprehensive discussion of these 2 approaches' similarities and differences through analytic comparisons and…

  12. PubChem3D: Biologically relevant 3-D similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sunghwan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of 3-D similarity techniques in the analysis of biological data and virtual screening is pervasive, but what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity value? Can one find statistically significant separation between "active/active" and "active/inactive" spaces? These questions are explored using 734,486 biologically tested chemical structures, 1,389 biological assay data sets, and six different 3-D similarity types utilized by PubChem analysis tools. Results The similarity value distributions of 269.7 billion unique conformer pairs from 734,486 biologically tested compounds (all-against-all from PubChem were utilized to help work towards an answer to the question: what is a biologically meaningful 3-D similarity score? The average and standard deviation for the six similarity measures STST-opt, CTST-opt, ComboTST-opt, STCT-opt, CTCT-opt, and ComboTCT-opt were 0.54 ± 0.10, 0.07 ± 0.05, 0.62 ± 0.13, 0.41 ± 0.11, 0.18 ± 0.06, and 0.59 ± 0.14, respectively. Considering that this random distribution of biologically tested compounds was constructed using a single theoretical conformer per compound (the "default" conformer provided by PubChem, further study may be necessary using multiple diverse conformers per compound; however, given the breadth of the compound set, the single conformer per compound results may still apply to the case of multi-conformer per compound 3-D similarity value distributions. As such, this work is a critical step, covering a very wide corpus of chemical structures and biological assays, creating a statistical framework to build upon. The second part of this study explored the question of whether it was possible to realize a statistically meaningful 3-D similarity value separation between reputed biological assay "inactives" and "actives". Using the terminology of noninactive-noninactive (NN pairs and the noninactive-inactive (NI pairs to represent comparison of the "active/active" and

  13. Similarity and Modeling in Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kuneš, Josef

    2012-01-01

    The present text sets itself in relief to other titles on the subject in that it addresses the means and methodologies versus a narrow specific-task oriented approach. Concepts and their developments which evolved to meet the changing needs of applications are addressed. This approach provides the reader with a general tool-box to apply to their specific needs. Two important tools are presented: dimensional analysis and the similarity analysis methods. The fundamental point of view, enabling one to sort all models, is that of information flux between a model and an original expressed by the similarity and abstraction. Each chapter includes original examples and ap-plications. In this respect, the models can be divided into several groups. The following models are dealt with separately by chapter; mathematical and physical models, physical analogues, deterministic, stochastic, and cybernetic computer models. The mathematical models are divided into asymptotic and phenomenological models. The phenomenological m...

  14. New similarity search based glioma grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegler, Katrin; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Boehm, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Computer Science, Munich (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone. (orig.)

  15. Gene functional similarity search tool (GFSST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo James J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the genome sequences of human, mouse, and other species and the advent of high throughput functional genomic research technologies such as biomicroarray chips, more and more genes and their products have been discovered and their functions have begun to be understood. Increasing amounts of data about genes, gene products and their functions have been stored in databases. To facilitate selection of candidate genes for gene-disease research, genetic association studies, biomarker and drug target selection, and animal models of human diseases, it is essential to have search engines that can retrieve genes by their functions from proteome databases. In recent years, the development of Gene Ontology (GO has established structured, controlled vocabularies describing gene functions, which makes it possible to develop novel tools to search genes by functional similarity. Results By using a statistical model to measure the functional similarity of genes based on the Gene Ontology directed acyclic graph, we developed a novel Gene Functional Similarity Search Tool (GFSST to identify genes with related functions from annotated proteome databases. This search engine lets users design their search targets by gene functions. Conclusion An implementation of GFSST which works on the UniProt (Universal Protein Resource for the human and mouse proteomes is available at GFSST Web Server. GFSST provides functions not only for similar gene retrieval but also for gene search by one or more GO terms. This represents a powerful new approach for selecting similar genes and gene products from proteome databases according to their functions.

  16. Riccati parameterized self-similar waves in two-dimensional graded-index waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar De, Kanchan; Goyal, Amit; Raju, Thokala Soloman; Kumar, C. N.; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2015-04-01

    An analytical method based on gauge-similarity transformation technique has been employed for mapping a (2+1)- dimensional variable coefficient coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations (vc-CNLSE) with dispersion, nonlinearity and gain to standard NLSE. Under certain functional relations we construct a large family of self-similar waves in the form of bright similaritons, Akhmediev breathers and rogue waves. We report the effect of dispersion on the intensity of the solitary waves. Further, we illustrate the procedure to amplify the intensity of self-similar waves using isospectral Hamiltonian approach. This approach provides an efficient mechanism to generate analytically a wide class of tapering profiles and widths by exploiting the Riccati parameter. Equivalently, it enables one to control efficiently the self-similar wave structures and hence their evolution.

  17. PubChem3D: Similar conformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Evan E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubChem is a free and open public resource for the biological activities of small molecules. With many tens of millions of both chemical structures and biological test results, PubChem is a sizeable system with an uneven degree of available information. Some chemical structures in PubChem include a great deal of biological annotation, while others have little to none. To help users, PubChem pre-computes "neighboring" relationships to relate similar chemical structures, which may have similar biological function. In this work, we introduce a "Similar Conformers" neighboring relationship to identify compounds with similar 3-D shape and similar 3-D orientation of functional groups typically used to define pharmacophore features. Results The first two diverse 3-D conformers of 26.1 million PubChem Compound records were compared to each other, using a shape Tanimoto (ST of 0.8 or greater and a color Tanimoto (CT of 0.5 or greater, yielding 8.16 billion conformer neighbor pairs and 6.62 billion compound neighbor pairs, with an average of 253 "Similar Conformers" compound neighbors per compound. Comparing the 3-D neighboring relationship to the corresponding 2-D neighboring relationship ("Similar Compounds" for molecules such as caffeine, aspirin, and morphine, one finds unique sets of related chemical structures, providing additional significant biological annotation. The PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship is also shown to be able to group a set of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, despite limited PubChem 2-D similarity. In a study of 4,218 chemical structures of biomedical interest, consisting of many known drugs, using more diverse conformers per compound results in more 3-D compound neighbors per compound; however, the overlap of the compound neighbor lists per conformer also increasingly resemble each other, being 38% identical at three conformers and 68% at ten conformers. Perhaps surprising is that the average

  18. Mapping Cigarettes Similarities using Cluster Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Jäntschi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship and/or occurrences in and between chemical composition information (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, market information (brand, manufacturer, price, and public health information (class, health warning as well as clustering of a sample of cigarette data. A number of thirty cigarette brands have been analyzed. Six categorical (cigarette brand, manufacturer, health warnings, class and four continuous (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide concentrations and package price variables were collected for investigation of chemical composition, market information and public health information. Multiple linear regression and two clusterization techniques have been applied. The study revealed interesting remarks. The carbon monoxide concentration proved to be linked with tar and nicotine concentration. The applied clusterization methods identified groups of cigarette brands that shown similar characteristics. The tar and carbon monoxide concentrations were the main criteria used in clusterization. An analysis of a largest sample could reveal more relevant and useful information regarding the similarities between cigarette brands.

  19. A fingerprint identification algorithm by clustering similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Jie; HE Yuliang; CHEN Hong; YANG Xin

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a fingerprint identification algorithm by clustering similarity with the view to overcome the dilemmas encountered in fingerprint identification.To decrease multi-spectrum noises in a fingerprint, we first use a dyadic scale space (DSS) method for image enhancement. The second step describes the relative features among minutiae by building a minutia-simplex which contains a pair of minutiae and their local associated ridge information, with its transformation-variant and invariant relative features applied for comprehensive similarity measurement and for parameter estimation respectively. The clustering method is employed to estimate the transformation space.Finally, multi-resolution technique is used to find an optimal transformation model for getting the maximal mutual information between the input and the template features. The experimental results including the performance evaluation by the 2nd International Verification Competition in 2002 (FVC2002), over the four fingerprint databases of FVC2002 indicate that our method is promising in an automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS).

  20. Gait Recognition Using Image Self-Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutler Ross G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gait is one of the few biometrics that can be measured at a distance, and is hence useful for passive surveillance as well as biometric applications. Gait recognition research is still at its infancy, however, and we have yet to solve the fundamental issue of finding gait features which at once have sufficient discrimination power and can be extracted robustly and accurately from low-resolution video. This paper describes a novel gait recognition technique based on the image self-similarity of a walking person. We contend that the similarity plot encodes a projection of gait dynamics. It is also correspondence-free, robust to segmentation noise, and works well with low-resolution video. The method is tested on multiple data sets of varying sizes and degrees of difficulty. Performance is best for fronto-parallel viewpoints, whereby a recognition rate of 98% is achieved for a data set of 6 people, and 70% for a data set of 54 people.

  1. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  2. The Evolution of Kicking Techniques in Taekwondo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Moenig

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to explain the evolution of kicking techniques of taekwondo and to provide a historical time frame for this process. This study analyzes early karate and taekwondo literature, including diverse and varied Korean sources. In addition, some interviews were conducted with relevant persons of the period researched. Taekwondo and karate training and techniques had been very similar until the 1960s. However, taekwondo diverged from karate techniques with the introduction of full-contact competitions during the 1960s.

  3. A Survey of Binary Similarity and Distance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Seok Choi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The binary feature vector is one of the most common representations of patterns and measuring similarity and distance measures play a critical role in many problems such as clustering, classification, etc. Ever since Jaccard proposed a similarity measure to classify ecological species in 1901, numerous binary similarity and distance measures have been proposed in various fields. Applying appropriate measures results in more accurate data analysis. Notwithstanding, few comprehensive surveys on binary measures have been conducted. Hence we collected 76 binary similarity and distance measures used over the last century and reveal their correlations through the hierarchical clustering technique.

  4. Similarity and singularity in adhesive elastohydrodynamic touchdown

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We consider the touchdown of an elastic sheet as it adheres to a wall, which has a dynamics that is limited by the viscous resistance provided by the squeeze flow of the intervening liquid trapped between the two solid surfaces. The dynamics of the sheet is described mathematically by elastohydrodynamic lubrication theory, coupling the elastic deformation of the sheet, the microscopic van der Waals adhesion and the viscous thin film flow. We use a combination of numerical simulations of the governing partial differential equation and a scaling analysis to describe the self-similar solution of the touchdown of the sheet as it approaches the wall. An analysis of the equation satisfied by the similarity variables in the vicinity of the touchdown event shows that an entire sequence of solutions are allowed. However, a comparison of these shows that only the fundamental similarity solution is observed in the time-dependent numerical simulations, consistent with the fact that it alone is stable. Our analysis genera...

  5. Horton Law in Self-Similar Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy; Zaliapin, Ilya

    2016-04-01

    Self-similarity of random trees is related to the operation of pruning. Pruning ℛ cuts the leaves and their parental edges and removes the resulting chains of degree-two nodes from a finite tree. A Horton-Strahler order of a vertex v and its parental edge is defined as the minimal number of prunings necessary to eliminate the subtree rooted at v. A branch is a group of neighboring vertices and edges of the same order. The Horton numbers 𝒩k[K] and 𝒩ij[K] are defined as the expected number of branches of order k, and the expected number of order-i branches that merged order-j branches, j > i, respectively, in a finite tree of order K. The Tokunaga coefficients are defined as Tij[K] = 𝒩ij[K]/𝒩j[K]. The pruning decreases the orders of tree vertices by unity. A rooted full binary tree is said to be mean-self-similar if its Tokunaga coefficients are invariant with respect to pruning: Tk := Ti,i+k[K]. We show that for self-similar trees, the condition limsupk→∞Tk1/k 0 and every k ≥ 1. This work is a step toward providing rigorous foundations for the Horton law that, being omnipresent in natural branching systems, has escaped so far a formal explanation.

  6. Wind Turbine Experiments at Full Dynamic Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark; Kiefer, Janik; Westergaard, Carsten; Hultmark, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    Performing experiments with scaled-down wind turbines has traditionally been difficult due to the matching requirements of the two driving non-dimensional parameters, the Tip Speed Ratio (TSR) and the Reynolds number. Typically, full-size turbines must be used to provide the baseline cases for engineering models and computer simulations where flow similarity is required. We present a new approach to investigating wind turbine aerodynamics at full dynamic similarity by employing a high-pressure wind tunnel at Princeton University known as the High Reynolds number Test Facility (or HRTF). This facility allows for Reynolds numbers of up to 3 million (based on chord and velocity at the tip) while still matching the TSR, on a geometrically similar, small-scale model. The background development of this project is briefly presented including the design and manufacture of a model turbine. Following this the power, thrust and wake data are discussed, in particular the scaling dependence on the Reynolds number. Supported under NSF grant CBET-1435254 (program manager Gregory Rorrer).

  7. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  8. Developing networks play a similar melody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Y

    2001-06-01

    During development, when synapses start to be established, a primitive form of network-driven activity provides most of the synaptic activity. This pattern enables a high degree of synchrony in immature neurons in spite of the small number of functional synapses and could participate in activity-dependent growth and synapse formation. Relying on the giant depolarizing potentials that provide most of the synaptic activity in the developing hippocampus, this article reviews the common properties and generating mechanisms of these patterns, and particularly the role of the early depolarizing action of GABA(A) and glycine receptors and the sequential expression of GABA and glutamate synapses. Patterns similar to giant depolarizing potentials have been observed in a wide range of structures and species suggesting that there is a temporal template throughout evolution that constitutes an essential step in the formation of functional networks.

  9. Inequalities between similarities for numerical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2016-01-01

    Similarity measures are entities that can be used to quantify the similarity between two vectors with real numbers. We present inequalities between seven well known similarities. The inequalities are valid if the vectors contain non-negative real numbers.

  10. Privacy Preserving Similarity Based Text Retrieval through Blind Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is improving rapidly due to their more advantage and more data owners give interest to outsource their data into cloud storage for centralize their data. As huge files stored in the cloud storage, there is need to implement the keyword based search process to data user. At the same time to protect the privacy of data, encryption techniques are used for sensitive data, that encryption is done before outsourcing data to cloud server. But it is critical to search results in encryption data. In this system we propose similarity text retrieval from the blind storage blocks with encryption format. This system provides more security because of blind storage system. In blind storage system data is stored randomly on cloud storage.  In Existing Data Owner cannot encrypt the document data as it was done only at server end. Everyone can access the data as there was no private key concept applied to maintained privacy of the data. But In our proposed system, Data Owner can encrypt the data himself using RSA algorithm.  RSA is a public key-cryptosystem and it is widely used for sensitive data storage over Internet. In our system we use Text mining process for identifying the index files of user documents. Before encryption we also use NLP (Nature Language Processing technique to identify the keyword synonyms of data owner document. Here text mining process examines text word by word and collect literal meaning beyond the words group that composes the sentence. Those words are examined in API of word net so that only equivalent words can be identified for index file use. Our proposed system provides more secure and authorized way of recover the text in cloud storage with access control. Finally, our experimental result shows that our system is better than existing.

  11. Constructing word similarities in Meroitic as an aid to decipherment

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Reginald D

    2008-01-01

    Meroitic is the still undeciphered language of the ancient civilization of Kush. Over the years, various techniques for decipherment such as finding a bilingual text or cognates from modern or other ancient languages in the Sudan and surrounding areas has not been successful. Using techniques borrowed from information theory and natural language statistics, similar words are paired and attempts are made to use currently defined words to extract at least partial meaning from unknown words.

  12. Dependent rational providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Kyle B

    2011-04-01

    Provider claims to conscientious objection have generated a great deal of heated debate in recent years. However, the conflicts that arise when providers make claims to the "conscience" are only a subset of the more fundamental challenges that arise in health care practice when patients and providers come into conflict. In this piece, the author provides an account of patient-provider conflict from within the moral tradition of St. Thomas Aquinas. He argues that the practice of health care providers should be understood as a form of practical reasoning and that this practical reasoning must necessarily incorporate both "moral" and "professional" commitments. In order to understand how the practical reasoning of provider should account for the needs and commitments of the patient and vice versa, he explores the account of dependence provided by Alasdair MacIntyre in his book Dependent Rational Animals. MacIntyre argues that St. Thomas' account of practical reasoning should be extended and adapted to account for the embodied vulnerability of all humans. In light of this insight, providers must view patients not only as the subjects of their moral reflection but also as fellow humans upon whom the provider depends for feedback on the effectiveness and relevance of her practical reasoning. The author argues that this account precludes responsive providers from adopting either moral or professional conclusions on the appropriateness of interventions outside the individual circumstances that arise in particular situations. The adoption of this orientation toward patients will neither eradicate provider-patient conflict nor compel providers to perform interventions to which they object. But this account does require that providers attend meaningfully to the suffering of patients and seek feedback on whether their intervention has effectively addressed that suffering.

  13. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, Gianangelo

    2013-01-01

    The book describes the experimental techniques employed to study surfaces and interfaces. The emphasis is on the experimental method. Therefore all chapters start with an introduction of the scientific problem, the theory necessary to understand how the technique works and how to understand the results. Descriptions of real experimental setups, experimental results at different systems are given to show both the strength and the limits of the technique. In a final part the new developments and possible extensions of the techniques are presented. The included techniques provide microscopic as well as macroscopic information. They cover most of the techniques used in surface science.

  14. The effect of similarity on evaluative priming: Higher similarity predicts stronger congruency effects

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Juliane

    2014-01-01

    The evaluative priming paradigm aims to uncover the processes underlying evaluations. For this purpose, this paradigm presents a sequence of two or more stimuli varying on the valence dimension to which participants must provide a response. The “standard” evaluative priming effect is a relative facilitation of the required responses in congruent trials compared to incongruent trials. The following thesis argues that this evaluative priming effect depends on prime-target similarity, with highe...

  15. Generalized Similarity for Accretion/Decretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Rafikov, Roman R

    2016-01-01

    Decretion (or external) disks are gas disks freely expanding to large radii due to their internal stresses. They are expected to naturally arise in tidal disruption events, around Be stars, in mass-losing post main sequence binaries, as a result of supernova fallback, etc. Their evolution is theoretically understood in two regimes: when the central object does not exert torque on the disk (a standard assumption for conventional accretion disks) or when no mass inflow (or outflow) occurs at the disk center. However, many astrophysical objects - circumbinary disks, Be stars, neutron stars accreting in a propeller regime, etc. - feature non-zero torque simultaneously with the non-zero accretion (or ejection of mass) at the disk center. We provide a general description for the evolution of such disks (both linear and non-linear) in the self-similar regime, to which the disk should asymptotically converge with time. We identify a similarity parameter $\\lambda$, which is uniquely related to the degree, to which the...

  16. Pharmacophore-based similarity scoring for DOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingling; Rizzo, Robert C

    2015-01-22

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein-ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK.

  17. Recognition of Similar Shaped Handwritten Marathi Characters Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Archana P.; Pund, Mukesh A.

    2012-03-01

    The growing need have handwritten Marathi character recognition in Indian offices such as passport, railways etc has made it vital area of a research. Similar shape characters are more prone to misclassification. In this paper a novel method is provided to recognize handwritten Marathi characters based on their features extraction and adaptive smoothing technique. Feature selections methods avoid unnecessary patterns in an image whereas adaptive smoothing technique form smooth shape of charecters.Combination of both these approaches leads to the better results. Previous study shows that, no one technique achieves 100% accuracy in handwritten character recognition area. This approach of combining both adaptive smoothing & feature extraction gives better results (approximately 75-100) and expected outcomes.

  18. Generalized entropies and the similarity of texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Eduardo G.; Dias, Laércio; Gerlach, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We show how generalized Gibbs–Shannon entropies can provide new insights on the statistical properties of texts. The universal distribution of word frequencies (Zipf’s law) implies that the generalized entropies, computed at the word level, are dominated by words in a specific range of frequencies. Here we show that this is the case not only for the generalized entropies but also for the generalized (Jensen–Shannon) divergences, used to compute the similarity between different texts. This finding allows us to identify the contribution of specific words (and word frequencies) for the different generalized entropies and also to estimate the size of the databases needed to obtain a reliable estimation of the divergences. We test our results in large databases of books (from the google n-gram database) and scientific papers (indexed by Web of Science).

  19. Generalized Entropies and the Similarity of Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Gerlach, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We show how generalized Gibbs-Shannon entropies can provide new insights on the statistical properties of texts. The universal distribution of word frequencies (Zipf's law) implies that the generalized entropies, computed at the word level, are dominated by words in a specific range of frequencies. Here we show that this is the case not only for the generalized entropies but also for the generalized (Jensen-Shannon) divergences, used to compute the similarity between different texts. This finding allows us to identify the contribution of specific words (and word frequencies) for the different generalized entropies and also to estimate the size of the databases needed to obtain a reliable estimation of the divergences. We test our results in large databases of books (from the Google n-gram database) and scientific papers (indexed by Web of Science).

  20. Similarity of vegetation dynamics during interglacial periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheddadi, Rachid; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Jouzel, Jean; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Laurent, Jeanne-Marine; Reille, Maurice; Raynaud, Dominique; Bar-Hen, Avner

    2005-01-01

    The Velay sequence (France) provides a unique, continuous, palynological record spanning the last four climatic cycles. A pollen-based reconstruction of temperature and precipitation displays marked climatic cycles. An analysis of the climate and vegetation changes during the interglacial periods reveals comparable features and identical major vegetation successions. Although Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11.3 and the Holocene had similar earth precessional variations, their correspondence in terms of vegetation dynamics is low. MIS 9.5, 7.5, and especially 5.5 display closer correlation to the Holocene than MIS 11.3. Ecological factors, such as the distribution and composition of glacial refugia or postglacial migration patterns, may explain these discrepancies. Comparison of ecosystem dynamics during the past five interglacials suggests that vegetation development in the current interglacial has no analogue from the past 500,000 years. PMID:16162676

  1. Hepatic venous outflow obstruction: Three similar syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulas Darda Bayraktar; Soley Seren; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Our goal is to provide a detailed review of venoocclusive disease (VOD), Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS),and congestive hepatopathy (CH), all of which results in hepatic venous outflow obstruction. This is the first article in which all three syndromes have been reviewed,enabling the reader to compare the characteristics of these disorders. The histological findings in VOD, BCS,and CH are almost identical: sinusoidal congestion and cell necrosis mostly in perivenular areas of hepatic acini which eventually leads to bridging fibrosis between adjacent central veins. Tender hepatomegaly with jaundice and ascites is common to all three conditions.However, the clinical presentation depends mostly on the extent and rapidity of the outflow obstruction.Although the etiology and treatment are completely different in VOD, BCS, and CH; the similarities in clinical manifestations and liver histology may suggest a common mechanism of hepatic injury and adaptation in response to increased sinusoidal pressure.

  2. Provider Health and Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Wasan, Anita; Sussman, James

    2017-07-19

    Provider health and wellness is a significant issue and can impact patient care, including patient satisfaction, quality of care, medical errors, malpractice risk, as well as provider and office staff turnover and early retirement. Health and wellness encompasses various areas including burnout, depression, divorce, and suicide and affects providers of all specialties and at all levels of training. Providers deal with many everyday stresses, including electronic health records, office politics, insurance and billing issues, dissatisfied patients, and their own personal and family issues. Approximately half of all physicians suffer from burnout, and the rate of burnout among physicians of all specialties is increasing. An important first step in dealing with burnout is recognition and then seeking assistance. Strategies to prevent and treat burnout include increasing provider resiliency as well as implementing practical changes in the everyday practice of medicine. There is currently very little data regarding health and wellness specifically in the field of allergy and immunology, and studies are necessary to determine the prevalence of burnout and related issues in this field. Many medical specialties as well as state and national medical associations have health and wellness committees and other resources, which are essential for providers. Health and wellness programs should be introduced early in a provider's training and continued throughout a provider's career. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cultural similarity, cultural competence, and nurse workforce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Sandra L; Brush, Barbara L; Moore, Jean

    2010-11-01

    Proponents of health workforce diversity argue that increasing the number of minority health care providers will enhance cultural similarity between patients and providers as well as the health system's capacity to provide culturally competent care. Measuring cultural similarity has been difficult, however, given that current benchmarks of workforce diversity categorize health workers by major racial/ethnic classifications rather than by cultural measures. This study examined the use of national racial/ethnic categories in both patient and registered nurse (RN) populations and found them to be a poor indicator of cultural similarity. Rather, we found that cultural similarity between RN and patient populations needs to be established at the level of local labor markets and broadened to include other cultural parameters such as country of origin, primary language, and self-identified ancestry. Only then can the relationship between cultural similarity and cultural competence be accurately determined and its outcomes measured.

  4. Local field enhancement: comparing self-similar and dimer nanoantennas

    CERN Document Server

    Pellegrini, Giovanni; Finazzi, Marco; Biagioni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We study the local field enhancement properties of self-similar nanolenses and compare the obtained results with the performance of standard dimer nanoantennas. We report that, despite the additional structural complexity, self-similar nanolenses are unable to provide significant improvements over the field enhancement performance of standard plasmonic dimers.

  5. Efficient estimation for high similarities using odd sketches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus; Pham, Ninh Dang

    2014-01-01

    . This means that Odd Sketches provide a highly space-efficient estimator for sets of high similarity, which is relevant in applications such as web duplicate detection, collaborative filtering, and association rule learning. The method extends to weighted Jaccard similarity, relevant e.g. for TF-IDF vector...

  6. Reconstructing propagation networks with temporal similarity metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Node similarity is a significant property driving the growth of real networks. In this paper, based on the observed spreading results we apply the node similarity metrics to reconstruct propagation networks. We find that the reconstruction accuracy of the similarity metrics is strongly influenced by the infection rate of the spreading process. Moreover, there is a range of infection rate in which the reconstruction accuracy of some similarity metrics drops to nearly zero. In order to improve the similarity-based reconstruction method, we finally propose a temporal similarity metric to take into account the time information of the spreading. The reconstruction results are remarkably improved with the new method.

  7. A quantitative comparison of the similarity between genes and geography in worldwide human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaolong; Zöllner, Sebastian; Rosenberg, Noah A

    2012-08-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily in a qualitative sense; and, because different multivariate techniques and marker sets have been used in different studies, it has not been possible to formally compare genetic variation datasets in terms of their levels of similarity with geography. In this study, using genome-wide SNP data from 128 populations worldwide, we perform a systematic analysis to quantitatively evaluate the similarity of genes and geography in different geographic regions. For each of a series of regions, we apply a Procrustes analysis approach to find an optimal transformation that maximizes the similarity between PCA maps of genetic variation and geographic maps of population locations. We consider examples in Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, East Asia, and Central/South Asia, as well as in a worldwide sample, finding that significant similarity between genes and geography exists in general at different geographic levels. The similarity is highest in our examples for Asia and, once highly distinctive populations have been removed, Sub-Saharan Africa. Our results provide a quantitative assessment of the geographic structure of human genetic variation worldwide, supporting the view that geography plays a strong role in giving rise to human population structure.

  8. Convergence to Self-Similar Regimes in Thin Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaquen, Michael; Salez, Thomas; Raphaël, Elie; Elie Raphaël Team; Kari Dalnoki-Veress Team

    2013-03-01

    The surface of a thin liquid film with nonconstant curvature is unstable, as the Laplace pressure drives a flow mediated by viscosity. Recent experiments and theory applied to stepped polymer films have shown excellent agreement and provide a technique for the study of polymer confinement, the glass transition, and slip at the fluid substrate interface to name a few. The thin film equation governs the evolution of the free surface profile in the lubrication approximation. Despite many efforts, this equation remains only partially solved. We present an analytical and numerical study of the thin film equation. Linearising this equation enables us to derive the Green's function of the problem and therefore obtain a complete set of solutions. We show that the solutions of the problem with equilibrium boundary conditions uniformly converge in time towards a first kind self-similar universal attractor. A numerical study enables us to extend our results to the nonlinear thin film equation. Laboratoire Physico-Chimie Théorique, UMR CNRS 7083 Gulliver. ESPCI, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005, Paris, France.

  9. Conditional Similarity Solutions of the Boussinesq Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao-Yan; LIN Ji; LOU Sen-Yue

    2001-01-01

    The direct method proposed by Clarkson and Kruskal is modified to obtain some conditional similarity solutions of a nonlinear physics model. Taking the (1+ 1 )-dimensional Boussinesq equation as a simple example, six types of conditional similarity reductions are obtained.

  10. Generalized Similarity for Accretion/Decretion Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-10-01

    Decretion (or external) disks are gas disks freely expanding to large radii due to their internal stresses. They are expected to naturally arise in tidal disruption events, around Be stars, in mass-losing post-main-sequence binaries, as a result of supernova fallback, etc. Their evolution is theoretically understood in two regimes: when the central object does not exert torque on the disk (a standard assumption for conventional accretion disks) or when no mass inflow (or outflow) occurs at the disk center. However, many astrophysical objects—circumbinary disks, Be stars, neutron stars accreting in a propeller regime, etc.—feature non-zero torque simultaneously with the non-zero accretion (or ejection of mass) at the disk center. We provide a general description for the evolution of such disks (both linear and nonlinear) in the self-similar regime, to which the disk should asymptotically converge with time. We identify a similarity parameter λ, which is uniquely related to the degree, to which the central mass accretion is suppressed by the non-zero central torque. The known decretion disk solutions correspond to the two discrete values of λ, while our new solutions cover a continuum of its physically allowed values, corresponding to either accretion or mass ejection by the central object. A direct relationship between λ and central \\dot{M} and torque is also established. We describe the time evolution of the various disk characteristics for different λ, and show that the observable properties (spectrum and luminosity evolution) of the decretion disks, in general, are different from the standard accretion disks with no central torque.

  11. Shape Similarity Measures of Linear Entities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The essential of feature matching technology lies in how to measure the similarity of spatial entities.Among all the possible similarity measures,the shape similarity measure is one of the most important measures because it is easy to collect the necessary parameters and it is also well matched with the human intuition.In this paper a new shape similarity measure of linear entities based on the differences of direction change along each line is presented and its effectiveness is illustrated.

  12. Detailed protein sequence alignment based on Spectral Similarity Score (SSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Dina

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chemical property and biological function of a protein is a direct consequence of its primary structure. Several algorithms have been developed which determine alignment and similarity of primary protein sequences. However, character based similarity cannot provide insight into the structural aspects of a protein. We present a method based on spectral similarity to compare subsequences of amino acids that behave similarly but are not aligned well by considering amino acids as mere characters. This approach finds a similarity score between sequences based on any given attribute, like hydrophobicity of amino acids, on the basis of spectral information after partial conversion to the frequency domain. Results Distance matrices of various branches of the human kinome, that is the full complement of human kinases, were developed that matched the phylogenetic tree of the human kinome establishing the efficacy of the global alignment of the algorithm. PKCd and PKCe kinases share close biological properties and structural similarities but do not give high scores with character based alignments. Detailed comparison established close similarities between subsequences that do not have any significant character identity. We compared their known 3D structures to establish that the algorithm is able to pick subsequences that are not considered similar by character based matching algorithms but share structural similarities. Similarly many subsequences with low character identity were picked between xyna-theau and xyna-clotm F/10 xylanases. Comparison of 3D structures of the subsequences confirmed the claim of similarity in structure. Conclusion An algorithm is developed which is inspired by successful application of spectral similarity applied to music sequences. The method captures subsequences that do not align by traditional character based alignment tools but give rise to similar secondary and tertiary structures. The Spectral

  13. Provider of Services File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The POS file consists of two data files, one for CLIA labs and one for 18 other provider types. The file names are CLIA and OTHER. If downloading the file, note it...

  14. What HERA may provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); De Roeck, Albert [CERN, Genf (Switzerland); Bartles, Jochen [Univ. Hamburg (DE). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. (orig.)

  15. Online multiple kernel similarity learning for visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hao; Hoi, Steven C H; Jin, Rong; Zhao, Peilin

    2014-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed a number of studies on distance metric learning to improve visual similarity search in content-based image retrieval (CBIR). Despite their successes, most existing methods on distance metric learning are limited in two aspects. First, they usually assume the target proximity function follows the family of Mahalanobis distances, which limits their capacity of measuring similarity of complex patterns in real applications. Second, they often cannot effectively handle the similarity measure of multimodal data that may originate from multiple resources. To overcome these limitations, this paper investigates an online kernel similarity learning framework for learning kernel-based proximity functions which goes beyond the conventional linear distance metric learning approaches. Based on the framework, we propose a novel online multiple kernel similarity (OMKS) learning method which learns a flexible nonlinear proximity function with multiple kernels to improve visual similarity search in CBIR. We evaluate the proposed technique for CBIR on a variety of image data sets in which encouraging results show that OMKS outperforms the state-of-the-art techniques significantly.

  16. A similarity-based data warehousing environment for medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jefferson William; Annibal, Luana Peixoto; Felipe, Joaquim Cezar; Ciferri, Ricardo Rodrigues; Ciferri, Cristina Dutra de Aguiar

    2015-11-01

    A core issue of the decision-making process in the medical field is to support the execution of analytical (OLAP) similarity queries over images in data warehousing environments. In this paper, we focus on this issue. We propose imageDWE, a non-conventional data warehousing environment that enables the storage of intrinsic features taken from medical images in a data warehouse and supports OLAP similarity queries over them. To comply with this goal, we introduce the concept of perceptual layer, which is an abstraction used to represent an image dataset according to a given feature descriptor in order to enable similarity search. Based on this concept, we propose the imageDW, an extended data warehouse with dimension tables specifically designed to support one or more perceptual layers. We also detail how to build an imageDW and how to load image data into it. Furthermore, we show how to process OLAP similarity queries composed of a conventional predicate and a similarity search predicate that encompasses the specification of one or more perceptual layers. Moreover, we introduce an index technique to improve the OLAP query processing over images. We carried out performance tests over a data warehouse environment that consolidated medical images from exams of several modalities. The results demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of our proposed imageDWE to manage images and to process OLAP similarity queries. The results also demonstrated that the use of the proposed index technique guaranteed a great improvement in query processing.

  17. Study of Similarity Law for Bird Impact on Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yulong; Zhang Yongkang; Xue Pu

    2008-01-01

    With dimensional analysis and similarity theory, the model similarity law of aircraft structures under bird impact load is investi-gated. Numerical calculations by means of nonlinear dynamic software ANSYS/LS-DYNA are conducted on the finite element models constructed with different scaling factors. The influence of strain rate on the model similarity law is found to be dependent on the swain rate sensitivity of materials and scale factors. Specifically, materials that are not sensitive to strain rate obey the model similarity law in the bird impact process. The conclusions obtained are supposed to provide a theoretical basis for the experimental work of bird impact on aircraft structure.

  18. Semantic similarity measure in biomedical domain leverage web search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Huang; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Weng, Yung-Ching; Chang, Wen-Yung; Lai, Feipei

    2010-01-01

    Semantic similarity measure plays an essential role in Information Retrieval and Natural Language Processing. In this paper we propose a page-count-based semantic similarity measure and apply it in biomedical domains. Previous researches in semantic web related applications have deployed various semantic similarity measures. Despite the usefulness of the measurements in those applications, measuring semantic similarity between two terms remains a challenge task. The proposed method exploits page counts returned by the Web Search Engine. We define various similarity scores for two given terms P and Q, using the page counts for querying P, Q and P AND Q. Moreover, we propose a novel approach to compute semantic similarity using lexico-syntactic patterns with page counts. These different similarity scores are integrated adapting support vector machines, to leverage the robustness of semantic similarity measures. Experimental results on two datasets achieve correlation coefficients of 0.798 on the dataset provided by A. Hliaoutakis, 0.705 on the dataset provide by T. Pedersen with physician scores and 0.496 on the dataset provided by T. Pedersen et al. with expert scores.

  19. Internet Medline providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, D L; Coady, T R

    1998-01-01

    Each database in this review has features that will appeal to some users. Each provides a credible interface to information available within the Medline database. The major differences are pricing and interface design. In this context, features that cost more and might seem trivial to the occasional searcher may actually save time and money when used by the professional. Internet Grateful Med is free, but Ms. Coady and I agree the availability of only three ANDable search fields is a major functional limitation. PubMed is also free but much more powerful. The command line interface that permits very sophisticated searches requires a commitment that casual users will find intimidating. Ms. Coady did not believe the feedback currently provided during a search was sufficient for sustained professional use. Paper Chase and Knowledge Finder are mature, modestly priced Medline search services. Paper Chase provides a menu-driven interface that is very easy to use, yet permits the user to search virtually all of Medline's data fields. Knowledge Finder emphasizes the use of natural language queries but fully supports more traditional search strategies. The impact of the tradeoff between fuzzy and Boolean strategies offered by Knowledge Finder is unclear and beyond the scope of this review. Additional software must be downloaded to use all of Knowledge Finders' features. Other providers required no software beyond the basic Internet browser, and this requirement prevented Ms. Coady from evaluating Knowledge Finder. Ovid and Silver Platter offer well-designed interfaces that simplify the construction of complex queries. These are clearly services designed for professional users. While pricing eliminates these for casual use, it should be emphasized that Medline citation access is only a portion of the service provided by these high-end vendors. Finally, we should comment that each of the vendors and government-sponsored services provided prompt and useful feedback to e

  20. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...... of the services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....

  1. Achieving Provider Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about provider engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of provider engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855

  2. Botnet Detection by Monitoring Similar Communication Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Zeidanloo, Hossein Rouhani

    2010-01-01

    Botnet is most widespread and occurs commonly in today's cyber attacks, resulting in serious threats to our network assets and organization's properties. Botnets are collections of compromised computers (Bots) which are remotely controlled by its originator (BotMaster) under a common Command-and-Control (C&C) infrastructure. They are used to distribute commands to the Bots for malicious activities such as distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, spam and phishing. Most of the existing Botnet detection approaches concentrate only on particular Botnet command and control (C&C) protocols (e.g., IRC,HTTP) and structures (e.g., centralized), and can become ineffective as Botnets change their structure and C&C techniques. In this paper at first we provide taxonomy of Botnets C&C channels and evaluate well-known protocols which are being used in each of them. Then we proposed a new general detection framework which currently focuses on P2P based and IRC based Botnets. This proposed framework is ...

  3. Improved similarity trees and their application to visual data classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Jose Gustavo S; Florian-Cruz, Laura; Pedrini, Helio; Telles, Guilherme P; Minghim, Rosane

    2011-12-01

    An alternative form to multidimensional projections for the visual analysis of data represented in multidimensional spaces is the deployment of similarity trees, such as Neighbor Joining trees. They organize data objects on the visual plane emphasizing their levels of similarity with high capability of detecting and separating groups and subgroups of objects. Besides this similarity-based hierarchical data organization, some of their advantages include the ability to decrease point clutter; high precision; and a consistent view of the data set during focusing, offering a very intuitive way to view the general structure of the data set as well as to drill down to groups and subgroups of interest. Disadvantages of similarity trees based on neighbor joining strategies include their computational cost and the presence of virtual nodes that utilize too much of the visual space. This paper presents a highly improved version of the similarity tree technique. The improvements in the technique are given by two procedures. The first is a strategy that replaces virtual nodes by promoting real leaf nodes to their place, saving large portions of space in the display and maintaining the expressiveness and precision of the technique. The second improvement is an implementation that significantly accelerates the algorithm, impacting its use for larger data sets. We also illustrate the applicability of the technique in visual data mining, showing its advantages to support visual classification of data sets, with special attention to the case of image classification. We demonstrate the capabilities of the tree for analysis and iterative manipulation and employ those capabilities to support evolving to a satisfactory data organization and classification.

  4. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  5. A measurement technique for hydroxyacetone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotz, P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C{double{underscore}bond}CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NOx. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water, the authors developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one they reported earlier, namely, derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, they adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island, New York. The authors report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  6. A Quantum-Based Similarity Method in Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Himmat, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ali; Saeed, Faisal

    2015-10-02

    One of the most widely-used techniques for ligand-based virtual screening is similarity searching. This study adopted the concepts of quantum mechanics to present as state-of-the-art similarity method of molecules inspired from quantum theory. The representation of molecular compounds in mathematical quantum space plays a vital role in the development of quantum-based similarity approach. One of the key concepts of quantum theory is the use of complex numbers. Hence, this study proposed three various techniques to embed and to re-represent the molecular compounds to correspond with complex numbers format. The quantum-based similarity method that developed in this study depending on complex pure Hilbert space of molecules called Standard Quantum-Based (SQB). The recall of retrieved active molecules were at top 1% and top 5%, and significant test is used to evaluate our proposed methods. The MDL drug data report (MDDR), maximum unbiased validation (MUV) and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD) data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints. Simulated virtual screening experiment show that the effectiveness of SQB method was significantly increased due to the role of representational power of molecular compounds in complex numbers forms compared to Tanimoto benchmark similarity measure.

  7. A Quantum-Based Similarity Method in Virtual Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most widely-used techniques for ligand-based virtual screening is similarity searching. This study adopted the concepts of quantum mechanics to present as state-of-the-art similarity method of molecules inspired from quantum theory. The representation of molecular compounds in mathematical quantum space plays a vital role in the development of quantum-based similarity approach. One of the key concepts of quantum theory is the use of complex numbers. Hence, this study proposed three various techniques to embed and to re-represent the molecular compounds to correspond with complex numbers format. The quantum-based similarity method that developed in this study depending on complex pure Hilbert space of molecules called Standard Quantum-Based (SQB. The recall of retrieved active molecules were at top 1% and top 5%, and significant test is used to evaluate our proposed methods. The MDL drug data report (MDDR, maximum unbiased validation (MUV and Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD data sets were used for experiments and were represented by 2D fingerprints. Simulated virtual screening experiment show that the effectiveness of SQB method was significantly increased due to the role of representational power of molecular compounds in complex numbers forms compared to Tanimoto benchmark similarity measure.

  8. Molecular quantum similarity using conceptual DFT descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bultinck; Ramon carbó-dorca

    2005-09-01

    This paper reports a Molecular Quantum Similarity study for a set of congeneric steroid molecules, using as basic similarity descriptors electron density ρ (r), shape function (r), the Fukui functions +(r) and -(r) and local softness +(r) and -(r). Correlations are investigated between similarity indices for each couple of descriptors used and compared to assess whether these different descriptors sample different information and to investigate what information is revealed by each descriptor.

  9. Protontherapy versus carbon ion therapy advantages, disadvantages and similarities

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.

  10. Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS): A Method for Semantic Analysis of Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Matt; Lu, Xiaoming; Matloff, Norman S.; Wu, S. Felix

    Online Social Networks (OSN)[OSN] are experiencing an explosive growth rate and are becoming an increasingly important part of people’s lives. There is an increasing desire to aid online users in identifying potential friends, interesting groups, and compelling products to users. These networks have offered researchers almost total access to large corpora of data. An interesting goal in utilizing this data is to analyze user profiles and identify how similar subsets of users are. The current techniques for comparing users are limited as they require common terms to be shared by users. We present a simple and novel extension to a word-comparison algorithm [6], entitled Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS), which allows comparison of short text phrases even if they share no common terms. The output of Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) is simply a scalar value in [0,1], with 1 denoting complete similarity and 0 the opposite. Therefore it is easy to understand and can provide a total ordering of users. We, first, evaluated the effectiveness of Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) with a user-study, and then applied it to datasets from Facebook and Orkut verifying and extending earlier results. We show that Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) yields both a larger range for the similarity value and obtains a higher value than intersection-based mechanisms. Both Inter-Profile Similarity (IPS) and the output from the analysis of the two Online Social Networks (OSN)[OSN] should help to predict and classify social links, make recommendations, and annotate friends relations for social network analysis.

  11. Cluster Tree Based Hybrid Document Similarity Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varshana Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available similarity measure is established to measure the hybrid similarity. In cluster tree, the hybrid similarity measure can be calculated for the random data even it may not be the co-occurred and generate different views. Different views of tree can be combined and choose the one which is significant in cost. A method is proposed to combine the multiple views. Multiple views are represented by different distance measures into a single cluster. Comparing the cluster tree based hybrid similarity with the traditional statistical methods it gives the better feasibility for intelligent based search. It helps in improving the dimensionality reduction and semantic analysis.

  12. Similarity effects in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Lee, Hyejin J; Asaad, Anthony; Remington, Roger

    2016-04-01

    Perceptual similarity is an important property of multiple stimuli. Its computation supports a wide range of cognitive functions, including reasoning, categorization, and memory recognition. It is important, therefore, to determine why previous research has found conflicting effects of inter-item similarity on visual working memory. Studies reporting a similarity advantage have used simple stimuli whose similarity varied along a featural continuum. Studies reporting a similarity disadvantage have used complex stimuli from either a single or multiple categories. To elucidate stimulus conditions for similarity effects in visual working memory, we tested memory for complex stimuli (faces) whose similarity varied along a morph continuum. Participants encoded 3 morphs generated from a single face identity in the similar condition, or 3 morphs generated from different face identities in the dissimilar condition. After a brief delay, a test face appeared at one of the encoding locations for participants to make a same/different judgment. Two experiments showed that similarity enhanced memory accuracy without changing the response criterion. These findings support previous computational models that incorporate featural variance as a component of working memory load. They delineate limitations of models that emphasize cortical resources or response decisions.

  13. A Novel Approach For Syntactic Similarity Between Two Short Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anterpreet Kaur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Syntactic similarity is an important activity in the area of high field of text documents data mining natural language processing information retrieval. Natural language processing NLP is the intelligent machine where its ability is to translate the text into natural language such as English and other computer language such as c. Web mining used for task such as document clustering community mining etc to performed on web. However to find the similarity between the two documents is the difficult task. So with increasing scope in NLP require technique for dealing with many aspects of language in particular syntax semantics and paradigms.

  14. Advancing health-related cluster analysis methodology: quantification of pairwise activity cluster similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, Katia; Maher, Carol; Petkov, John; Olds, Tim

    2015-03-01

    To date, most health-related time-use research has investigated behaviors in isolation; more recently, however, researchers have begun to conceptualize behaviors in the form of multidimensional patterns or clusters. The study employed 2 techniques: radar graphs and centroid vector length, angles and distance to quantify pairwise time-use cluster similarities among adolescents living in Australia (N = 1853) and in New Zealand (N = 679). Based on radar graph shape, 2 pairs of clusters were similar for both boys and girls. Using vector angles (VA), vector length (VL) and centroid distances (CD), 1 pair for each sex was considered most similar (boys: VA = 63°, VL = 44 and 50 units, and CD = 48 units; girls: VA = 23°, VL = 65 and 85 units, and CD = 36 units). Both methods employed to determine similarity had strengths and weaknesses. The description and quantification of cluster similarity is an important step in the research process. An ability to track and compare clusters may provide greater understanding of complex multidimensional relationships, and in relation to health behavior clusters, present opportunities to monitor and to intervene.

  15. RFCM Techniques Chamber Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to develop radio-frequency countermeasure (RFCM) techniques in a controlled environment from 2.0 to 40.0 GHz. The configuration of...

  16. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu; Popescu Andrei; Ploesteanu Mara Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    .... Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization...

  17. What HERA May Provide?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hannes; /DESY; De Roeck, Albert; /CERN; Bartels, Jochen; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; /DESY; Brodsky, Stanley; /SLAC /Durham U., IPPP; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; /Oxford U.; Deak, Michal; /DESY; Devenish, Robin; /Oxford U.; Diehl, Markus; /DESY; Gehrmann, Thomas; /Zurich U.; Grindhammer, Guenter; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Gustafson, Gosta; /CERN /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Khoze, Valery; /Durham U., IPPP; Knutsson, Albert; /DESY; Klein, Max; /Liverpool U.; Krauss, Frank; /Durham U., IPPP; Kutak, Krzysztof; /DESY; Laenen, Eric; /NIKHEF, Amsterdam; Lonnblad, Leif; /Lund U., Dept. Theor. Phys.; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.

    2011-11-10

    More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may provide. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.

  18. The role of active assortment in spousal similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Beer, Andrew; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Previous research has established the existence of active assortment, that is, a preference for similarity in a potential mate. Few studies, however, have directly related mate preferences to dyadic similarity by examining them in the same participants. We collected both similarity and mate preference data in two studies: undergraduate students (N = 519) and newlyweds (N = 335). In both studies, women placed a higher value on desirable personality characteristics (e.g., higher Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, lower Neuroticism) than did men. Nevertheless, our data also provided strong evidence of consensual mate preferences: Men and women both desired partners who were agreeable, conscientious, emotionally stable, intelligent, and physically attractive; furthermore, participants desired partners who were better (e.g., more agreeable and attractive) than they were. In contrast, attitudinal variables such as religiousness and political orientation displayed much weaker consensus but showed significant dyadic similarity in both samples; similarity coefficients for personality tended to be positive, but lower. Finally, analyses revealed a direct link between actual and desired similarity: Couples displayed the strongest similarity on those variables for which participants expressed the strongest preference for similarity. Our findings strongly suggest that active assortment is partly responsible for dyadic similarity.

  19. Mining Diagnostic Assessment Data for Concept Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara; Hunt, Earl

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for mining multiple-choice assessment data for similarity of the concepts represented by the multiple choice responses. The resulting similarity matrix can be used to visualize the distance between concepts in a lower-dimensional space. This gives an instructor a visualization of the relative difficulty of concepts…

  20. Similar methodological analysis involving the user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida e Silva, Caio Márcio; Okimoto, Maria Lúcia R L; Tanure, Raffaela Leane Zenni

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the use of a protocol for analysis of similar methodological analysis related to user experience. For both, were selected articles recounting experiments in the area. They were analyze based on the similar analysis protocol and finally, synthesized and associated.

  1. Interleaving Helps Students Distinguish among Similar Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Doug

    2012-01-01

    When students encounter a set of concepts (or terms or principles) that are similar in some way, they often confuse one with another. For instance, they might mistake one word for another word with a similar spelling (e.g., allusion instead of illusion) or choose the wrong strategy for a mathematics problem because it resembles a different kind of…

  2. Perceived Similarity, Proactive Adjustment, and Organizational Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.; Livingston, Beth A.; Liao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores how perceived demographic and attitudinal similarity can influence proactive behavior among organizational newcomers. We propose that newcomers who perceive themselves as similar to their co-workers will be more willing to seek new information or build relationships, which in turn will lead to better long-term…

  3. Self-Similar Traffic In Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jerjomins, R.; Petersons, E.

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have shown that traffic in Ethernet and other wired networks is self-similar. This paper reveals that wireless network traffic is also self-similar and long-range dependant by analyzing big amount of data captured from the wireless router.

  4. and Models: A Self-Similar Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Belinchón

    2013-01-01

    equations (FEs admit self-similar solutions. The methods employed allow us to obtain general results that are valid not only for the FRW metric, but also for all the Bianchi types as well as for the Kantowski-Sachs model (under the self-similarity hypothesis and the power-law hypothesis for the scale factors.

  5. Similarity Structure of Wave-Collapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, Kristoffer; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Thomsen, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Similarity transformations of the cubic Schrödinger equation (CSE) are investigated. The transformations are used to remove the explicit time variation in the CSE and reduce it to differential equations in the spatial variables only. Two different methods for similarity reduction are employed and...

  6. Some Effects of Similarity Self-Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin C.; Strong, Stanley R.

    1972-01-01

    College males were interviewed about how college had altered their friendships, values, and plans. The interviewers diclosed experiences and feelings similar to those revealed by the students. Results support Byrne's Law of Similarity in generating interpersonal attraction in the interview and suggest that the timing of self-disclosures is…

  7. Similarity indices I: what do they measure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.

    1976-11-01

    A method for estimating the effects of environmental effusions on ecosystems is described. The characteristics of 25 similarity indices used in studies of ecological communities were investigated. The type of data structure, to which these indices are frequently applied, was described as consisting of vectors of measurements on attributes (species) observed in a set of samples. A general similarity index was characterized as the result of a two-step process defined on a pair of vectors. In the first step an attribute similarity score is obtained for each attribute by comparing the attribute values observed in the pair of vectors. The result is a vector of attribute similarity scores. These are combined in the second step to arrive at the similarity index. The operation in the first step was characterized as a function, g, defined on pairs of attribute values. The second operation was characterized as a function, F, defined on the vector of attribute similarity scores from the first step. Usually, F was a simple sum or weighted sum of the attribute similarity scores. It is concluded that similarity indices should not be used as the test statistic to discriminate between two ecological communities.

  8. Learning deep similarity in fundus photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzik, Piotr; Al-Diri, Bashir; Caliva, Francesco; Ometto, Giovanni; Hunter, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Similarity learning is one of the most fundamental tasks in image analysis. The ability to extract similar images in the medical domain as part of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems has been researched for many years. The vast majority of methods used in CBIR systems are based on hand-crafted feature descriptors. The approximation of a similarity mapping for medical images is difficult due to the big variety of pixel-level structures of interest. In fundus photography (FP) analysis, a subtle difference in e.g. lesions and vessels shape and size can result in a different diagnosis. In this work, we demonstrated how to learn a similarity function for image patches derived directly from FP image data without the need of manually designed feature descriptors. We used a convolutional neural network (CNN) with a novel architecture adapted for similarity learning to accomplish this task. Furthermore, we explored and studied multiple CNN architectures. We show that our method can approximate the similarity between FP patches more efficiently and accurately than the state-of- the-art feature descriptors, including SIFT and SURF using a publicly available dataset. Finally, we observe that our approach, which is purely data-driven, learns that features such as vessels calibre and orientation are important discriminative factors, which resembles the way how humans reason about similarity. To the best of authors knowledge, this is the first attempt to approximate a visual similarity mapping in FP.

  9. Synthetic and Biopolymer Gels - Similarities and Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkay, Ferenc

    2006-03-01

    Ion exchange plays a central role in a variety of physiological processes, such as nerve excitation, muscle contraction and cell locomotion. Hydrogels can be used as model systems for identifying fundamental chemical and physical interactions that govern structure formation, phase transition, etc. in biopolymer systems. Polyelectrolyte gels are particularly well-suited to study ion-polymer interactions because their structure and physical-chemical properties (charge density, crosslink density, etc) can be carefully controlled. They are sensitive to different external stimuli such as temperature, ionic composition and pH. Surprisingly few investigations have been made on polyelectrolyte gels in salt solutions containing both monovalent and multivalent cations. We have developed an experimental approach that combines small angle neutron scattering and osmotic swelling pressure measurements. The osmotic pressure exerted on a macroscopic scale is a consequence of changes occurring at a molecular level. The intensity of the neutron scattering signal, which provides structural information as a function of spatial resolution, is directly related to the osmotic pressure. We have found a striking similarity in the scattering and osmotic behavior of polyacrylic acid gels and DNA gels swollen in nearly physiological salt solutions. Addition of calcium ions to both systems causes a sudden volume change. This volume transition, which occurs when the majority of the sodium counterions are replaced by calcium ions, is reversible. Such reversibility implies that the calcium ions are not strongly bound by the polyanion, but are free to move along the polymer chain, which allows these ions to form temporary bridges between negative charges on adjacent chains. Mechanical measurements reveal that the elastic modulus is practically unchanged in the calcium-containing gels, i.e., ion bridging is qualitatively different from covalent crosslinks.

  10. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mollgaard, Anders; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a...

  11. IntelliGO: a new vector-based semantic similarity measure including annotation origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devignes Marie-Dominique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology (GO is a well known controlled vocabulary describing the biological process, molecular function and cellular component aspects of gene annotation. It has become a widely used knowledge source in bioinformatics for annotating genes and measuring their semantic similarity. These measures generally involve the GO graph structure, the information content of GO aspects, or a combination of both. However, only a few of the semantic similarity measures described so far can handle GO annotations differently according to their origin (i.e. their evidence codes. Results We present here a new semantic similarity measure called IntelliGO which integrates several complementary properties in a novel vector space model. The coefficients associated with each GO term that annotates a given gene or protein include its information content as well as a customized value for each type of GO evidence code. The generalized cosine similarity measure, used for calculating the dot product between two vectors, has been rigorously adapted to the context of the GO graph. The IntelliGO similarity measure is tested on two benchmark datasets consisting of KEGG pathways and Pfam domains grouped as clans, considering the GO biological process and molecular function terms, respectively, for a total of 683 yeast and human genes and involving more than 67,900 pair-wise comparisons. The ability of the IntelliGO similarity measure to express the biological cohesion of sets of genes compares favourably to four existing similarity measures. For inter-set comparison, it consistently discriminates between distinct sets of genes. Furthermore, the IntelliGO similarity measure allows the influence of weights assigned to evidence codes to be checked. Finally, the results obtained with a complementary reference technique give intermediate but correct correlation values with the sequence similarity, Pfam, and Enzyme classifications when compared to

  12. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  13. Similarity Search and Locality Sensitive Hashing using TCAMs

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Rajendra; Gupta, Pankaj; Dutta, Debojyoti

    2010-01-01

    Similarity search methods are widely used as kernels in various machine learning applications. Nearest neighbor search (NNS) algorithms are often used to retrieve similar entries, given a query. While there exist efficient techniques for exact query lookup using hashing, similarity search using exact nearest neighbors is known to be a hard problem and in high dimensions, best known solutions offer little improvement over a linear scan. Fast solutions to the approximate NNS problem include Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) based techniques, which need storage polynomial in $n$ with exponent greater than $1$, and query time sublinear, but still polynomial in $n$, where $n$ is the size of the database. In this work we present a new technique of solving the approximate NNS problem in Euclidean space using a Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM), which needs near linear space and has O(1) query time. In fact, this method also works around the best known lower bounds in the cell probe model for the query time us...

  14. Tools & techniques--statistics: propensity score techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno R; Gahl, Brigitta; Jüni, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Propensity score (PS) techniques are useful if the number of potential confounding pretreatment variables is large and the number of analysed outcome events is rather small so that conventional multivariable adjustment is hardly feasible. Only pretreatment characteristics should be chosen to derive PS, and only when they are probably associated with outcome. A careful visual inspection of PS will help to identify areas of no or minimal overlap, which suggests residual confounding, and trimming of the data according to the distribution of PS will help to minimise residual confounding. Standardised differences in pretreatment characteristics provide a useful check of the success of the PS technique employed. As with conventional multivariable adjustment, PS techniques cannot account for confounding variables that are not or are only imperfectly measured, and no PS technique is a substitute for an adequately designed randomised trial.

  15. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery PC

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Montgomery, Audrey Leong-Hoi Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Ingénieur, de l'Informatique et de l'Imagerie (ICube, Unistra-CNRS, Strasbourg, France Abstract: To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. Keywords: microscopy, imaging, superresolution, nanodetection, biophysics, medical imaging

  16. Emerging optical nanoscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Paul C; Leong-Hoi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    To face the challenges of modern health care, new imaging techniques with subcellular resolution or detection over wide fields are required. Far field optical nanoscopy presents many new solutions, providing high resolution or detection at high speed. We present a new classification scheme to help appreciate the growing number of optical nanoscopy techniques. We underline an important distinction between superresolution techniques that provide improved resolving power and nanodetection techniques for characterizing unresolved nanostructures. Some of the emerging techniques within these two categories are highlighted with applications in biophysics and medicine. Recent techniques employing wider angle imaging by digital holography and scattering lens microscopy allow superresolution to be achieved for subcellular and even in vivo, imaging without labeling. Nanodetection techniques are divided into four subcategories using contrast, phase, deconvolution, and nanomarkers. Contrast enhancement is illustrated by means of a polarized light-based technique and with strobed phase-contrast microscopy to reveal nanostructures. Very high sensitivity phase measurement using interference microscopy is shown to provide nanometric surface roughness measurement or to reveal internal nanometric structures. Finally, the use of nanomarkers is illustrated with stochastic fluorescence microscopy for mapping intracellular structures. We also present some of the future perspectives of optical nanoscopy. PMID:26491270

  17. GEOMETRY AND DIMENSION OF SELF-SIMILAR SET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹永成; 姜海益; 孙业顺

    2003-01-01

    The authors show that the self-similar set for a finite family of contractive similitudes (sim-ilarities, i.e., |fi(x) - fi(y)| = ai|x - y|, x,y ∈ RN, where 0 < ai < 1) is uniformly perfectexcept the case that it is a singleton. As a corollary, it is proved that this self-similar set haspositive Hausdorff dimension provided that it is not a singleton. And a lower bound of theupper box dimension of the uniformly perfect sets is given. Meanwhile the uniformly perfectset with Hausdorff measure zero in its Hausdorff dimension is given.

  18. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Mollgaard

    Full Text Available The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships.

  19. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  20. Mining Object Similarity for Predicting Next Locations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Chen; Xiaohui Yu; Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Next location prediction is of great importance for many location-based applications. With the virtue of solid theoretical foundations, Markov-based approaches have gained success along this direction. In this paper, we seek to enhance the prediction performance by understanding the similarity between objects. In particular, we propose a novel method, called weighted Markov model (weighted-MM), which exploits both the sequence of just-passed locations and the object similarity in mining the mobility patterns. To this end, we first train a Markov model for each object with its own trajectory records, and then quantify the similarities between different objects from two aspects: spatial locality similarity and trajectory similarity. Finally, we incorporate the object similarity into the Markov model by considering the similarity as the weight of the probability of reaching each possible next location, and return the top-rankings as results. We have conducted extensive experiments on a real dataset, and the results demonstrate significant improvements in prediction accuracy over existing solutions.

  1. Notions of similarity for computational biology models

    KAUST Repository

    Waltemath, Dagmar

    2016-03-21

    Computational models used in biology are rapidly increasing in complexity, size, and numbers. To build such large models, researchers need to rely on software tools for model retrieval, model combination, and version control. These tools need to be able to quantify the differences and similarities between computational models. However, depending on the specific application, the notion of similarity may greatly vary. A general notion of model similarity, applicable to various types of models, is still missing. Here, we introduce a general notion of quantitative model similarities, survey the use of existing model comparison methods in model building and management, and discuss potential applications of model comparison. To frame model comparison as a general problem, we describe a theoretical approach to defining and computing similarities based on different model aspects. Potentially relevant aspects of a model comprise its references to biological entities, network structure, mathematical equations and parameters, and dynamic behaviour. Future similarity measures could combine these model aspects in flexible, problem-specific ways in order to mimic users\\' intuition about model similarity, and to support complex model searches in databases.

  2. Determination of subjective and objective similarity for pairs of masses on mammograms for selection of similar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Chisako; Li, Qiang; Schmidt, Robert A.; Shiraishi, Junji; Suzuki, Kenji; Newstead, Gillian M.; Doi, Kunio

    2007-03-01

    Presentation of images with known pathology similar to that of a new unknown lesion would be helpful for radiologists in their diagnosis of breast cancer. In order to find images that are really similar and useful to radiologists, we determined the radiologists' subjective similarity ratings for pairs of masses, and investigated objective similarity measures that would agree well with the subjective ratings. Fifty sets of images, each of which included one image in the center and six other images to be compared with the center image, were selected; thus, 300 pairs of images were prepared. Ten breast radiologists provided the subjective similarity ratings for each image pair in terms of the overall impression for diagnosis. The objective similarity measures based on cross-correlation of the images, differences in feature values, and psychophysical measures by use of an artificial neural network were determined. The objective measures based on the cross-correlation were found to be not correlated with the subjective similarity ratings (r 0.40). When several image features were used, the differences-based objective measure was moderately correlated (r = 0.59) with the subjective ratings. The relatively high correlation coefficient (r = 0.74) was obtained for the psychophysical similarity measure. The similar images selected by use of the psychophysical measure can be useful to radiologists in the diagnosis of breast cancer.

  3. A Similarity Search Using Molecular Topological Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Fukunishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular similarity measure has been developed using molecular topological graphs and atomic partial charges. Two kinds of topological graphs were used. One is the ordinary adjacency matrix and the other is a matrix which represents the minimum path length between two atoms of the molecule. The ordinary adjacency matrix is suitable to compare the local structures of molecules such as functional groups, and the other matrix is suitable to compare the global structures of molecules. The combination of these two matrices gave a similarity measure. This method was applied to in silico drug screening, and the results showed that it was effective as a similarity measure.

  4. Similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Pelillo, Marcello

    2013-01-01

    This accessible text/reference presents a coherent overview of the emerging field of non-Euclidean similarity learning. The book presents a broad range of perspectives on similarity-based pattern analysis and recognition methods, from purely theoretical challenges to practical, real-world applications. The coverage includes both supervised and unsupervised learning paradigms, as well as generative and discriminative models. Topics and features: explores the origination and causes of non-Euclidean (dis)similarity measures, and how they influence the performance of traditional classification alg

  5. Anesthetizing animals: Similar to humans yet, peculiar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdi, Madhuri S; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H

    2015-01-01

    From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit different species and breeds. Nevertheless, there are several drugs and many peculiar anesthetic techniques used in animals but not in human beings. Keeping this in mind, literature was hand searched and electronically searched using the words "veterinary anesthesia," "anesthetic drugs and techniques in animals" using Google search engine. The interesting information so collected is presented in this article which highlights some challenging and amazing aspects of anesthetizing animals including the preanesthetic assessment, preparation, premedication, monitoring, induction of general anesthesia, intubation, equipment, regional blocks, neuraxial block, and perioperative complications.

  6. Asymmetric similarity-weighted ensembles for image segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheplygina, V.; Van Opbroek, A.; Ikram, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    the images, thus representative data might not be available. Transfer learning techniques can be used to account for these differences, thus taking advantage of all the available data acquired with different protocols. We investigate the use of classifier ensembles, where each classifier is weighted...... according to the similarity between the data it is trained on, and the data it needs to segment. We examine 3 asymmetric similarity measures that can be used in scenarios where no labeled data from a newly introduced scanner or scanning protocol is available. We show that the asymmetry is informative...... and the direction of measurement needs to be chosen carefully. We also show that a point set similarity measure is robust across different studies, and outperforms state-of-the-art results on a multi-center brain tissue segmentation task....

  7. Anesthetizing animals: Similar to humans yet, peculiar?

    OpenAIRE

    Madhuri S Kurdi; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H

    2015-01-01

    From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit differ...

  8. The Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Berryhill, Marian E

    2013-12-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) is essential for many cognitive processes, yet it is notably limited in capacity. Visual perception processing is facilitated by Gestalt principles of grouping, such as connectedness, similarity, and proximity. This introduces the question, do these perceptual benefits extend to VWM? If so, can this be an approach to enhance VWM function by optimizing the processing of information? Previous findings have demonstrated that several Gestalt principles (connectedness, common region, and spatial proximity) do facilitate VWM performance in change detection tasks (Jiang, Olson, & Chun, 2000; Woodman, Vecera, & Luck, 2003; Xu, 2002, 2006; Xu & Chun, 2007). However, one prevalent Gestalt principle, similarity, has not been examined with regard to facilitating VWM. Here, we investigated whether grouping by similarity benefits VWM. Experiment 1 established the basic finding that VWM performance could benefit from grouping. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding by showing that similarity was only effective when the similar stimuli were proximal. In short, the VWM performance benefit derived from similarity was constrained by spatial proximity, such that similar items need to be near each other. Thus, the Gestalt principle of similarity benefits visual perception, but it can provide benefits to VWM as well.

  9. Bilateral Trade Flows and Income Distribution Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current models of bilateral trade neglect the effects of income distribution. This paper addresses the issue by accounting for non-homothetic consumer preferences and hence investigating the role of income distribution in the context of the gravity model of trade. A theoretically justified gravity model is estimated for disaggregated trade data (Dollar volume is used as dependent variable) using a sample of 104 exporters and 108 importers for 1980-2003 to achieve two main goals. We define and calculate new measures of income distribution similarity and empirically confirm that greater similarity of income distribution between countries implies more trade. Using distribution-based measures as a proxy for demand similarities in gravity models, we find consistent and robust support for the hypothesis that countries with more similar income-distributions trade more with each other. The hypothesis is also confirmed at disaggregated level for differentiated product categories.

  10. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  11. Interpersonal Congruency, Attitude Similarity, and Interpersonal Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhey, John C.

    1975-01-01

    As no experimental study has examined the effects of congruency on attraction, the present investigation orthogonally varied attitude similarity and interpersonal congruency in order to compare the two independent variables as determinants of interpersonal attraction. (Author/RK)

  12. Distance and Similarity Measures for Soft Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Kharal, Athar

    2010-01-01

    In [P. Majumdar, S. K. Samanta, Similarity measure of soft sets, New Mathematics and Natural Computation 4(1)(2008) 1-12], the authors use matrix representation based distances of soft sets to introduce matching function and distance based similarity measures. We first give counterexamples to show that their Definition 2.7 and Lemma 3.5(3) contain errors, then improve their Lemma 4.4 making it a corllary of our result. The fundamental assumption of Majumdar et al has been shown to be flawed. This motivates us to introduce set operations based measures. We present a case (Example 28) where Majumdar-Samanta similarity measure produces an erroneous result but the measure proposed herein decides correctly. Several properties of the new measures have been presented and finally the new similarity measures have been applied to the problem of financial diagnosis of firms.

  13. Similarity Theory of Withdrawn Water Temperature Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective withdrawal from a thermal stratified reservoir has been widely utilized in managing reservoir water withdrawal. Besides theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, model test was also necessary in studying the temperature of withdrawn water. However, information on the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model remains lacking. Considering flow features of selective withdrawal, the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model was analyzed theoretically based on the modification of governing equations, the Boussinesq approximation, and some simplifications. The similarity conditions between the model and the prototype were suggested. The conversion of withdrawn water temperature between the model and the prototype was proposed. Meanwhile, the fundamental theory of temperature distribution conversion was firstly proposed, which could significantly improve the experiment efficiency when the basic temperature of the model was different from the prototype. Based on the similarity theory, an experiment was performed on the withdrawn water temperature which was verified by numerical method.

  14. Evaluating interaction techniques for stack mode viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, M Stella; Fernquist, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Arthur E; Forster, Bruce B

    2009-08-01

    Three interaction techniques were evaluated for scrolling stack mode displays of volumetric data. Two used a scroll-wheel mouse: one used only the wheel, while another used a "click and drag" technique for fast scrolling, leaving the wheel for fine adjustments. The third technique used a Shuttle Xpress jog wheel. In a within-subjects design, nine radiologists searched stacked images for simulated hyper-intense regions on brain, knee, and thigh MR studies. Dependent measures were speed, accuracy, navigation path, and user preference. The radiologists considered the task realistic. They had high inter-subject variability in completion times, far larger than the differences between techniques. Most radiologists (eight out of nine) preferred familiar mouse-based techniques. Most participants scanned the data in two passes, first locating anomalies, then scanning for omissions. Participants spent a mean 10.4 s/trial exploring anomalies, with only mild variation between participants. Their rates of forward navigation searching for anomalies varied much more. Interaction technique significantly affected forward navigation rate (scroll wheel 5.4 slices/s, click and drag 9.4, and jog wheel 6.9). It is not clear what constrained the slowest navigators. The fastest navigator used a unique strategy of moving quickly just beyond an anomaly, then backing up. Eight naïve students performed a similar protocol. Their times and variability were similar to the radiologists, but more (three out of eight) students preferred the jog wheel. It may be worthwhile to introduce techniques such as the jog wheel to radiologists during training, and several techniques might be provided on workstations, allowing individuals to choose their preferred method.

  15. Spherically Symmetric, Self-Similar Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Wagh, S M; Wagh, Sanjay M.; Govinder, Keshlan S.

    2001-01-01

    Self-similar spacetimes are of importance to cosmology and to gravitational collapse problems. We show that self-similarity or the existence of a homothetic Killing vector field for spherically symmetric spacetimes implies the separability of the spacetime metric in terms of the co-moving coordinates and that the metric is, uniquely, the one recently reported in [cqg1]. The spacetime, in general, has non-vanishing energy-flux and shear. The spacetime admits matter with any equation of state.

  16. Some more similarities between Peirce and Skinner

    OpenAIRE

    Moxley, Roy A.

    2002-01-01

    C. S. Peirce is noted for pioneering a variety of views, and the case is made here for the similarities and parallels between his views and B. F. Skinner's radical behaviorism. In addition to parallels previously noted, these similarities include an advancement of experimental science, a behavioral psychology, a shift from nominalism to realism, an opposition to positivism, a selectionist account for strengthening behavior, the importance of a community of selves, a recursive approach to meth...

  17. On distributional assumptions and whitened cosine similarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Recently, an interpretation of the whitened cosine similarity measure as a Bayes decision rule was proposed (C. Liu, "The Bayes Decision Rule Induced Similarity Measures,'' IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1086-1090, June 2007. This communication makes th...... the observation that some of the distributional assumptions made to derive this measure are very restrictive and, considered simultaneously, even inconsistent....

  18. Interlinguistic similarity and language death dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mira, J

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the time evolution of a system of two coexisting languages (Castillian Spanish and Galician, both spoken in northwest Spain) in the framework of a model given by Abrams and Strogatz [Nature 424, 900 (2003)]. It is shown that, contrary to the model's initial prediction, a stable bilingual situation is possible if the languages in competition are similar enough. Similarity is described with a simple parameter, whose value can be estimated from fits of the data.

  19. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    leslie3d Fortran Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) application 122. tachyon C Parallel Ray Tracing application 128.GAPgeofem C and Fortran Simulates...benefits most from SBLLmalloc; LAMMPS, which shows moderate similarity from primarily zero pages; and 122. tachyon , a parallel ray- tracing application...similarity across MPI tasks. They primarily are zero- pages although a small fraction (≈10%) are non-zero pages. 122. tachyon is an image rendering

  20. Similarity search processing. Paralelization and indexing technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder Dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    The next Scientific-Technical Report addresses the similarity search and the implementation of metric structures on parallel environments. It also presents the state of the art related to similarity search on metric structures and parallelism technologies. Comparative analysis are also proposed, seeking to identify the behavior of a set of metric spaces and metric structures over processing platforms multicore-based and GPU-based.

  1. Interpersonal attraction and personality: what is attractive--self similarity, ideal similarity, complementarity or attachment security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klohnen, Eva C; Luo, Shanhong

    2003-10-01

    Little is known about whether personality characteristics influence initial attraction. Because adult attachment differences influence a broad range of relationship processes, the authors examined their role in 3 experimental attraction studies. The authors tested four major attraction hypotheses--self similarity, ideal-self similarity, complementarity, and attachment security--and examined both actual and perceptual factors. Replicated analyses across samples, designs, and manipulations showed that actual security and self similarity predicted attraction. With regard to perceptual factors, ideal similarity, self similarity, and security all were significant predictors. Whereas perceptual ideal and self similarity had incremental predictive power, perceptual security's effects were subsumed by perceptual ideal similarity. Perceptual self similarity fully mediated actual attachment similarity effects, whereas ideal similarity was only a partial mediator.

  2. Mechanisms for similarity matching in disparity measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross eGoutcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early neural mechanisms for the measurement of binocular disparity appear to operate in a manner consistent with cross-correlation-like processes. Consequently, cross-correlation, or cross-correlation-like procedures have been used in a range of models of disparity measurement. Using such procedures as the basis for disparity measurement creates a preference for correspondence solutions that maximise the similarity between local left and right eye image regions. Here, we examine how observers’ perception of depth in an ambiguous stereogram is affected by manipulations of luminance and orientation-based image similarity. Results show a strong effect of coarse-scale luminance similarity manipulations, but a relatively weak effect of finer-scale manipulations of orientation similarity. This is in contrast to the measurements of depth obtained from a standard cross-correlation model. This model shows strong effects of orientation similarity manipulations and weaker effects of luminance similarity. In order to account for these discrepancies, the standard cross-correlation approach may be modified to include an initial spatial frequency filtering stage. The performance of this adjusted model most closely matches human psychophysical data when spatial frequency filtering favours coarser scales. This is consistent with the operation of disparity measurement processes where spatial frequency and disparity tuning are correlated, or where disparity measurement operates in a coarse-to-fine manner.

  3. Similarity searching in large combinatorial chemistry spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarey, Matthias; Stahl, Martin

    2001-06-01

    We present a novel algorithm, called Ftrees-FS, for similarity searching in large chemistry spaces based on dynamic programming. Given a query compound, the algorithm generates sets of compounds from a given chemistry space that are similar to the query. The similarity search is based on the feature tree similarity measure representing molecules by tree structures. This descriptor allows handling combinatorial chemistry spaces as a whole instead of looking at subsets of enumerated compounds. Within few minutes of computing time, the algorithm is able to find the most similar compound in very large spaces as well as sets of compounds at an arbitrary similarity level. In addition, the diversity among the generated compounds can be controlled. A set of 17 000 fragments of known drugs, generated by the RECAP procedure from the World Drug Index, was used as the search chemistry space. These fragments can be combined to more than 1018 compounds of reasonable size. For validation, known antagonists/inhibitors of several targets including dopamine D4, histamine H1, and COX2 are used as queries. Comparison of the compounds created by Ftrees-FS to other known actives demonstrates the ability of the method to jump between structurally unrelated molecule classes.

  4. Identifying mechanistic similarities in drug responses

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, C.

    2012-05-15

    Motivation: In early drug development, it would be beneficial to be able to identify those dynamic patterns of gene response that indicate that drugs targeting a particular gene will be likely or not to elicit the desired response. One approach would be to quantitate the degree of similarity between the responses that cells show when exposed to drugs, so that consistencies in the regulation of cellular response processes that produce success or failure can be more readily identified.Results: We track drug response using fluorescent proteins as transcription activity reporters. Our basic assumption is that drugs inducing very similar alteration in transcriptional regulation will produce similar temporal trajectories on many of the reporter proteins and hence be identified as having similarities in their mechanisms of action (MOA). The main body of this work is devoted to characterizing similarity in temporal trajectories/signals. To do so, we must first identify the key points that determine mechanistic similarity between two drug responses. Directly comparing points on the two signals is unrealistic, as it cannot handle delays and speed variations on the time axis. Hence, to capture the similarities between reporter responses, we develop an alignment algorithm that is robust to noise, time delays and is able to find all the contiguous parts of signals centered about a core alignment (reflecting a core mechanism in drug response). Applying the proposed algorithm to a range of real drug experiments shows that the result agrees well with the prior drug MOA knowledge. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficient Video Similarity Measurement and Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, S-C S

    2002-12-19

    The amount of information on the world wide web has grown enormously since its creation in 1990. Duplication of content is inevitable because there is no central management on the web. Studies have shown that many similar versions of the same text documents can be found throughout the web. This redundancy problem is more severe for multimedia content such as web video sequences, as they are often stored in multiple locations and different formats to facilitate downloading and streaming. Similar versions of the same video can also be found, unknown to content creators, when web users modify and republish original content using video editing tools. Identifying similar content can benefit many web applications and content owners. For example, it will reduce the number of similar answers to a web search and identify inappropriate use of copyright content. In this dissertation, they present a system architecture and corresponding algorithms to efficiently measure, search, and organize similar video sequences found on any large database such as the web.

  6. Earthquake detection through computationally efficient similarity search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Clara E.; O’Reilly, Ossian; Bergen, Karianne J.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Seismology is experiencing rapid growth in the quantity of data, which has outpaced the development of processing algorithms. Earthquake detection—identification of seismic events in continuous data—is a fundamental operation for observational seismology. We developed an efficient method to detect earthquakes using waveform similarity that overcomes the disadvantages of existing detection methods. Our method, called Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST), can analyze a week of continuous seismic waveform data in less than 2 hours, or 140 times faster than autocorrelation. FAST adapts a data mining algorithm, originally designed to identify similar audio clips within large databases; it first creates compact “fingerprints” of waveforms by extracting key discriminative features, then groups similar fingerprints together within a database to facilitate fast, scalable search for similar fingerprint pairs, and finally generates a list of earthquake detections. FAST detected most (21 of 24) cataloged earthquakes and 68 uncataloged earthquakes in 1 week of continuous data from a station located near the Calaveras Fault in central California, achieving detection performance comparable to that of autocorrelation, with some additional false detections. FAST is expected to realize its full potential when applied to extremely long duration data sets over a distributed network of seismic stations. The widespread application of FAST has the potential to aid in the discovery of unexpected seismic signals, improve seismic monitoring, and promote a greater understanding of a variety of earthquake processes. PMID:26665176

  7. Encoding techniques for complex information structures in connectionist systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnden, John; Srinivas, Kankanahalli

    1990-01-01

    Two general information encoding techniques called relative position encoding and pattern similarity association are presented. They are claimed to be a convenient basis for the connectionist implementation of complex, short term information processing of the sort needed in common sense reasoning, semantic/pragmatic interpretation of natural language utterances, and other types of high level cognitive processing. The relationships of the techniques to other connectionist information-structuring methods, and also to methods used in computers, are discussed in detail. The rich inter-relationships of these other connectionist and computer methods are also clarified. The particular, simple forms are discussed that the relative position encoding and pattern similarity association techniques take in the author's own connectionist system, called Conposit, in order to clarify some issues and to provide evidence that the techniques are indeed useful in practice.

  8. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of thenodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarityof nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure toanalyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large...... university.Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with customdata collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The networkof social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructedfrom different channels of telecommunication as well as data...... might bepresent in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent inthe other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals atransition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively lowweight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest...

  9. Visual Similarity Based Document Layout Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Wen; Xiao-Qing Ding

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a visual similarity based document layout analysis (DLA) scheme is proposed, which by using clustering strategy can adaptively deal with documents in different languages, with different layout structures and skew angles. Aiming at a robust and adaptive DLA approach, the authors first manage to find a set of representative filters and statistics to characterize typical texture patterns in document images, which is through a visual similarity testing process.Texture features are then extracted from these filters and passed into a dynamic clustering procedure, which is called visual similarity clustering. Finally, text contents are located from the clustered results. Benefit from this scheme, the algorithm demonstrates strong robustness and adaptability in a wide variety of documents, which previous traditional DLA approaches do not possess.

  10. RECOGNITION OF STRUCTURE SIMILARITIES IN PROTEINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Protein fold structure is more conserved than its amino acid sequence and closely associated with biological function,so calculating the similarity of protein structures is a fundamental problem in structural biology and plays a key role in protein fold classification,fold function inference,and protein structure prediction.Large progress has been made in recent years in this field and many methods for considering structural similarity have been proposed,including methods for protein structure compar-ison,retrieval of protein structures from databases,and ligand binding site comparison.Most of those methods can be available on the World Wide Web,but evaluation of all the methods is still a hard problem.This paper summarizes some popular methods and latest methods for structure similarities,including structure alignment,protein structure retrieval,and ligand binding site alignment.

  11. Universal self-similarity of propagating populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    This paper explores the universal self-similarity of propagating populations. The following general propagation model is considered: particles are randomly emitted from the origin of a d -dimensional Euclidean space and propagate randomly and independently of each other in space; all particles share a statistically common—yet arbitrary—motion pattern; each particle has its own random propagation parameters—emission epoch, motion frequency, and motion amplitude. The universally self-similar statistics of the particles’ displacements and first passage times (FPTs) are analyzed: statistics which are invariant with respect to the details of the displacement and FPT measurements and with respect to the particles’ underlying motion pattern. Analysis concludes that the universally self-similar statistics are governed by Poisson processes with power-law intensities and by the Fréchet and Weibull extreme-value laws.

  12. Statistical energy analysis of similarly coupled systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian

    2002-01-01

    Based on the principle of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) for non-conservatively coupled dynamical systems under non-correlative or correlative excitations, energy relationship between two similar SEA systems is established in the paper. The energy relationship is verified theoretically and experimentally from two similar SEA systems i.e., the structure of a coupled panel-beam and that of a coupled panel-sideframe, in the cases of conservative coupling and non-conservative coupling respectively. As an application of the method, relationship between noise power radiated from two similar cutting systems is studied. Results show that there are good agreements between the theory and the experiments, and the method is valuable to analysis of dynamical problems associated with a complicated system from that with a simple one.

  13. Structural similarity and category-specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that category-specific recognition disorders for natural objects may reflect that natural objects are more structurally (visually) similar than artefacts and therefore more difficult to recognize following brain damage. On this account one might expect a positive relationship...... between blood flow and structural similarity in areas involved in visual object recognition. Contrary to this expectation we report a negative relationship in that identification of articles of clothing cause more extensive activation than identification of vegetables/fruit and animals even though items...... from the categories of animals and vegetables/fruit are rated as more structurally similar than items from the category of articles of clothing. Given that this pattern cannot be explained in terms of a tradeoff between activation and accuracy, we interpret these findings within a model where...

  14. Classification of similar medical images in the lifting domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Chad W.; Tashakkori, Rahman

    2002-03-01

    In this paper lifting is used for similarity analysis and classification of sets of similar medical images. The lifting scheme is an invertible wavelet transform that maps integers to integers. Lifting provides efficient in-place calculation of transfer coefficients and is widely used for analysis of similar image sets. Images of a similar set show high degrees of correlation with one another. The inter-set redundancy can be exploited for the purposes of prediction, compression, feature extraction, and classification. This research intends to show that there is a higher degree of correlation between images of a similar set in the lifting domain than in the pixel domain. Such a high correlation will result in more accurate classification and prediction of images in a similar set. Several lifting schemes from Calderbank-Daubechies-Fauveue's family were used in this research. The research shows that some of these lifting schemes decorrelates the images of similar sets more effectively than others. The research presents the statistical analysis of the data in scatter plots and regression models.

  15. Similarity Based Semantic Web Service Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hui; Niu, Wenjia; Huang, Ronghuai

    Semantic web service discovery aims at returning the most matching advertised services to the service requester by comparing the semantic of the request service with an advertised service. The semantic of a web service are described in terms of inputs, outputs, preconditions and results in Ontology Web Language for Service (OWL-S) which formalized by W3C. In this paper we proposed an algorithm to calculate the semantic similarity of two services by weighted averaging their inputs and outputs similarities. Case study and applications show the effectiveness of our algorithm in service match.

  16. 76 FR 66132 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Travel Service Provider and Carrier Service Provider...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... persons traveling on direct flights to Cuba and forward that information to carrier service providers, for... collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (e) estimates of capital or start-up...

  17. A New Similarity Measure between Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Its Application to Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a generation of ordinary fuzzy set, the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS, characterized both by a membership degree and by a nonmembership degree, is a more flexible way to cope with the uncertainty. Similarity measures of intuitionistic fuzzy sets are used to indicate the similarity degree between intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Although many similarity measures for intuitionistic fuzzy sets have been proposed in previous studies, some of those cannot satisfy the axioms of similarity or provide counterintuitive cases. In this paper, a new similarity measure and weighted similarity measure between IFSs are proposed. It proves that the proposed similarity measures satisfy the properties of the axiomatic definition for similarity measures. Comparison between the previous similarity measures and the proposed similarity measure indicates that the proposed similarity measure does not provide any counterintuitive cases. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the proposed similarity measure is capable of discriminating difference between patterns.

  18. Visualizing multidimensional data similarities : Improvements and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues Oliveira da Silva, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Multidimensional data is increasingly more prominent and important in many application domains. Such data typically consist of a large set of elements, each of which described by several measurements (dimensions). During the design of techniques and tools to process this data, a key component is to

  19. A ligand's view of target similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, Stephen L; Gloriam, David E

    2011-01-01

    GPCR binding site-directed techniques are rapidly evolving into powerful tools for modern drug discovery. Many of these approaches bridge chemistry and biology, which are inseparable concepts in nature but are often treated as separate worlds in drug discovery and science in general. This review ...

  20. Assimilation as Attraction: Computing Distance, Similarity, and Locality in Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Adam

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores similarity effects in assimilation, proposing an Attraction Framework to analyze cases of parasitic harmony where a trigger-target pair only results in harmony if the trigger and target agree on other features. Attraction provides a natural model of these effects by relating the pressure for assimilation to the…

  1. Nuclear markers reveal that inter-lake cichlids' similar morphologies do not reflect similar genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Daud; Seki, Shingo; Horic, Michio; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2006-08-01

    The apparent inter-lake morphological similarity among East African Great Lakes' cichlid species/genera has left evolutionary biologists asking whether such similarity is due to sharing of common ancestor or mere convergent evolution. In order to answer such question, we first used Geometric Morphometrics, GM, to quantify morphological similarity and then subsequently used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP, to determine if similar morphologies imply shared ancestry or convergent evolution. GM revealed that not all presumed morphological similar pairs were indeed similar, and the dendrogram generated from AFLP data indicated distinct clusters corresponding to each lake and not inter-lake morphological similar pairs. Such results imply that the morphological similarity is due to convergent evolution and not shared ancestry. The congruency of GM and AFLP generated dendrograms imply that GM is capable of picking up phylogenetic signal, and thus GM can be potential tool in phylogenetic systematics.

  2. A new similarity computing method based on concept similarity in Chinese text processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Jing; YANG DongQing; TANG ShiWei; WANG TengJiao; GAO Jun

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a new text similarity computing method based on concept similarity in Chinese text processing. The new method converts text to words vec-tor space modet al first, and then splits words into a set of concepts. Through computing the inner products between concepts, it obtains the similarity between words. The new method computes the similarity of text based on the similarity of words at last. The contributions of the paper include: 1) propose a new computing formula between words; 2) propose a new text similarity computing method based on words similarity; 3) successfully use the method in the application of similarity computing of WEB news; and 4) prove the validity of the method through extensive experiments.

  3. Translation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Pinheiro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss three translation techniques: literal, cultural, and artistic. Literal translation is a well-known technique, which means that it is quite easy to find sources on the topic. Cultural and artistic translation may be new terms. Whilst cultural translation focuses on matching contexts, artistic translation focuses on matching reactions. Because literal translation matches only words, it is not hard to find situations in which we should not use this technique.  Because artistic translation focuses on reactions, judging the quality of an artistic translation work is one of the most difficult things one can do. We end up having a score of complexity and humanity for each one of the mentioned techniques: Literal translation would be the closest thing we have to the machines world and artistic translation would be the closest thing we have to the purely human world. By creating these classifications and studying the subtleties of each one of them, we are adding degrees of quality to our courses and to translation as a professional field. The main contribution of this paper is then the formalization of such a piece of knowledge. We, however, also lay the foundations for studies of this type.

  4. Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Engelfried, J

    1999-01-01

    In this course we will give examples for experimental techniques used in particle physics experiments. After a short introduction, we will discuss applications in silicon microstrip detectors, wire chambers, and single photon detection in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters. A short discussion of the relevant physics processes, mainly different forms of energy loss in matter, is enclosed.

  5. Unveiling Music Structure Via PLSA Similarity Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenas-García, Jerónimo; Meng, Anders; Petersen, Kaare Brandt

    2007-01-01

    observed similarities can be satisfactorily explained using the latent semantics. Additionally, this approach significantly simplifies the song retrieval phase, leading to a more practical system implementation. The suitability of the PLSA model for representing music structure is studied in a simplified...

  6. Structural similarity of genetically interacting proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nussinov Ruth

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of gene mutants and their interactions is fundamental to understanding gene function and backup mechanisms within the cell. The recent availability of large scale genetic interaction networks in yeast and worm allows the investigation of the biological mechanisms underlying these interactions at a global scale. To date, less than 2% of the known genetic interactions in yeast or worm can be accounted for by sequence similarity. Results Here, we perform a genome-scale structural comparison among protein pairs in the two species. We show that significant fractions of genetic interactions involve structurally similar proteins, spanning 7–10% and 14% of all known interactions in yeast and worm, respectively. We identify several structural features that are predictive of genetic interactions and show their superiority over sequence-based features. Conclusion Structural similarity is an important property that can explain and predict genetic interactions. According to the available data, the most abundant mechanism for genetic interactions among structurally similar proteins is a common interacting partner shared by two genetically interacting proteins.

  7. The Case of the Similar Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rochelle Wilson

    1982-01-01

    A possible logical flaw based on similar triangles is discussed with the Sherlock Holmes mystery, "The Muskgrave Ritual." The possible flaw has to do with the need for two trees to have equal growth rates over a 250-year period in order for the solution presented to work. (MP)

  8. Cultural Similarities and Differences on Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄频频; 陈于全

    2010-01-01

    Both English and Chinese are abound with idioms. Idioms are an important part of the hnguage and culture of a society. English and Chinese idioms carved with cultural characteristics account for a great part in the tramlation. This paper studies the translation of idioms concerning their cultural similarities, cultural differences and transhtion principles.

  9. Recognizing Similarities between Fraction Word Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, Pamela Thibodeau

    Deciding how to approach a word problem for solution is a critical stage of problem solving, and is the stage which frequently presents considerable difficulty for novices. Do novices use the same information that experts do in deciding that two problems would be solved similarly? This set of four studies indicates that novices rely more on…

  10. Cultural similarity and adjustment of expatriate academics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Lauring, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    The findings of a number of recent empirical studies of business expatriates, using different samples and methodologies, seem to support the counter-intuitive proposition that cultural similarity may be as difficult to adjust to as cultural dissimilarity. However, it is not obvious that these res...

  11. Cross-kingdom similarities in microbiome functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in medical research have revealed how humans rely on their microbiome for diverse traits and functions. Similarly, microbiomes of other higher organisms play key roles in disease, health, growth and development of their host. Exploring microbiome functions across kingdoms holds enorm

  12. Some Similarity between Contractions and Kannan Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonari Suzuki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Contractions are always continuous and Kannan mappings are not necessarily continuous. This is a very big difference between both mappings. However, we know that relaxed both mappings are quite similar. In this paper, we discuss both mappings from a new point of view.

  13. Measurement of Similarity in Academic Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose some reflections, comments and suggestions about the measurement of similar and matched content in scientific papers and documents, and the need to develop appropriate tools and standards for an ethically fair and equitable treatment of authors.

  14. Partial order similarity based on mutual information

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Palla, Gergely

    2016-01-01

    Comparing the ranking of candidates by different voters is an important topic in social and information science with a high relevance from the point of view of practical applications. In general, ties and pairs of incomparable candidates may occur, thus, the alternative rankings are described by partial orders. Various distance measures between partial orders have already been introduced, where zero distance is corresponding to a perfect match between a pair of partial orders, and larger values signal greater differences. Here we take a different approach and propose a similarity measure based on adjusted mutual information. In general, the similarity value of unity is corresponding to exactly matching partial orders, while a low similarity is associated to a pair of independent partial orders. The time complexity of the computation of this similarity measure is $\\mathcal{O}(\\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|^3)$ in the worst case, and $\\mathcal{O}(\\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|^2\\ln \\left|{\\mathcal C}\\right|)$ in the typi...

  15. Music Retrieval based on Melodic Similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Typke, R.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis introduces a method for measuring melodic similarity for notated music such as MIDI files. This music search algorithm views music as sets of notes that are represented as weighted points in the two-dimensional space of time and pitch. Two point sets can be compared by calculating how mu

  16. Cross-kingdom similarities in microbiome functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in medical research have revealed how humans rely on their microbiome for diverse traits and functions. Similarly, microbiomes of other higher organisms play key roles in disease, health, growth and development of their host. Exploring microbiome functions across kingdoms holds enorm

  17. SEAL: Spatio-Textual Similarity Search

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Ju; Zhou, Lizhu; Chen, Shanshan; Hu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Location-based services (LBS) have become more and more ubiquitous recently. Existing methods focus on finding relevant points-of-interest (POIs) based on users' locations and query keywords. Nowadays, modern LBS applications generate a new kind of spatio-textual data, regions-of-interest (ROIs), containing region-based spatial information and textual description, e.g., mobile user profiles with active regions and interest tags. To satisfy search requirements on ROIs, we study a new research problem, called spatio-textual similarity search: Given a set of ROIs and a query ROI, we find the similar ROIs by considering spatial overlap and textual similarity. Spatio-textual similarity search has many important applications, e.g., social marketing in location-aware social networks. It calls for an efficient search method to support large scales of spatio-textual data in LBS systems. To this end, we introduce a filter-and-verification framework to compute the answers. In the filter step, we generate signatures for ...

  18. Cross-kingdom similarities in microbiome functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in medical research have revealed how humans rely on their microbiome for diverse traits and functions. Similarly, microbiomes of other higher organisms play key roles in disease, health, growth and development of their host. Exploring microbiome functions across kingdoms holds

  19. Large-Scale Similarity Joins With Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The ability to handle noisy or imprecise data is becoming increasingly important in computing. In the database community the notion of similarity join has been studied extensively, yet existing solutions have offered weak performance guarantees. Either they are based on deterministic filtering te...

  20. Mental Institutions and Similar Phenomena Called Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Ronald W.

    1971-01-01

    Mental institutions and public schools appear to have many similarities, and they often operate in ways that would seem contradictory to their philosophy. This article explores certain atrocities to the self" that result from programs that are intended to be beneficial but, in reality, often result in dehumanization. (Author)

  1. Self-similar parabolic plasmonic beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Turitsyn, Sergei K; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-02-15

    We demonstrate that an interplay between diffraction and defocusing nonlinearity can support stable self-similar plasmonic waves with a parabolic profile. Simplicity of a parabolic shape combined with the corresponding parabolic spatial phase distribution creates opportunities for controllable manipulation of plasmons through a combined action of diffraction and nonlinearity.

  2. Large-Scale Similarity Joins With Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The ability to handle noisy or imprecise data is becoming increasingly important in computing. In the database community the notion of similarity join has been studied extensively, yet existing solutions have offered weak performance guarantees. Either they are based on deterministic filtering te...

  3. Extending the Similarity-Attraction Effect : The effects of When-Similarity in mediated communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, M.C.; Castaneda, D.; Fernandez, N.; Nass, C.

    2014-01-01

    The feeling of connectedness experienced in computer-mediated relationships can be explained by the similarity-attraction effect (SAE). Though SAE is well established in psychology, the effects of some types of similarity have not yet been explored. In 2 studies, we demonstrate similarity-attraction

  4. Optimization techniques in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Rustagi, Jagdish S

    1994-01-01

    Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza

  5. [Evaluation and improvement of a measure of drug name similarity, vwhtfrag, in relation to subjective similarities and experimental error rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Hirofumi; Satoh, Hiroki; Hori, Satoko; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2012-01-01

    Confusion of drug names is one of the most common causes of drug-related medical errors. A similarity measure of drug names, "vwhtfrag", was developed to discriminate whether drug name pairs are likely to cause confusion errors, and to provide information that would be helpful to avoid errors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and improve vwhtfrag. Firstly, we evaluated the correlation of vwhtfrag with subjective similarity or error rate of drug name pairs in psychological experiments. Vwhtfrag showed a higher correlation to subjective similarity (college students: r=0.84) or error rate than did other conventional similarity measures (htco, cos1, edit). Moreover, name pairs that showed coincidences of the initial character strings had a higher subjective similarity than those which had coincidences of the end character strings and had the same vwhtfrag. Therefore, we developed a new similarity measure (vwhtfrag+), in which coincidence of initial character strings in name pairs is weighted by 1.53 times over coincidence of end character strings. Vwhtfrag+ showed a higher correlation to subjective similarity than did unmodified vwhtfrag. Further studies appear warranted to examine in detail whether vwhtfrag+ has superior ability to discriminate drug name pairs likely to cause confusion errors.

  6. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  7. Computer techniques for electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mittra, R

    1973-01-01

    Computer Techniques for Electromagnetics discusses the ways in which computer techniques solve practical problems in electromagnetics. It discusses the impact of the emergence of high-speed computers in the study of electromagnetics. This text provides a brief background on the approaches used by mathematical analysts in solving integral equations. It also demonstrates how to use computer techniques in computing current distribution, radar scattering, and waveguide discontinuities, and inverse scattering. This book will be useful for students looking for a comprehensive text on computer techni

  8. Visual similarity is stronger than semantic similarity in guiding visual search for numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Hayward J; Hout, Michael C; Menneer, Tamaryn

    2014-06-01

    Using a visual search task, we explored how behavior is influenced by both visual and semantic information. We recorded participants' eye movements as they searched for a single target number in a search array of single-digit numbers (0-9). We examined the probability of fixating the various distractors as a function of two key dimensions: the visual similarity between the target and each distractor, and the semantic similarity (i.e., the numerical distance) between the target and each distractor. Visual similarity estimates were obtained using multidimensional scaling based on the independent observer similarity ratings. A linear mixed-effects model demonstrated that both visual and semantic similarity influenced the probability that distractors would be fixated. However, the visual similarity effect was substantially larger than the semantic similarity effect. We close by discussing the potential value of using this novel methodological approach and the implications for both simple and complex visual search displays.

  9. Similarity-Based Approaches to Natural Language Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, L

    1997-01-01

    This thesis presents two similarity-based approaches to sparse data problems. The first approach is to build soft, hierarchical clusters: soft, because each event belongs to each cluster with some probability; hierarchical, because cluster centroids are iteratively split to model finer distinctions. Our second approach is a nearest-neighbor approach: instead of calculating a centroid for each class, as in the hierarchical clustering approach, we in essence build a cluster around each word. We compare several such nearest-neighbor approaches on a word sense disambiguation task and find that as a whole, their performance is far superior to that of standard methods. In another set of experiments, we show that using estimation techniques based on the nearest-neighbor model enables us to achieve perplexity reductions of more than 20 percent over standard techniques in the prediction of low-frequency events, and statistically significant speech recognition error-rate reduction.

  10. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  11. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system. PMID:24883411

  12. The Application of Similar Image Retrieval in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YuPing Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional online shopping platform (OSP, which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers’ experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  13. The application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, YuPing; Yin, Hua; Han, Dezhi; Yu, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Traditional online shopping platform (OSP), which searches product information by keywords, faces three problems: indirect search mode, large search space, and inaccuracy in search results. For solving these problems, we discuss and research the application of similar image retrieval in electronic commerce. Aiming at improving the network customers' experience and providing merchants with the accuracy of advertising, we design a reasonable and extensive electronic commerce application system, which includes three subsystems: image search display subsystem, image search subsystem, and product information collecting subsystem. This system can provide seamless connection between information platform and OSP, on which consumers can automatically and directly search similar images according to the pictures from information platform. At the same time, it can be used to provide accuracy of internet marketing for enterprises. The experiment shows the efficiency of constructing the system.

  14. Map similarity measurement and its application to the Sado estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Caeiro

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past thirty years GIS technology has progressed from computer mapping to spatial database management, and more recently, to quantitative map analysis and modeling. However, most applications still rely on visual analysis for determining similarity within and among maps. The aim of this study is to compare maps of homogenous areas computed from estuarine sediment characterization indicators, using different approaches. These maps were defined using three different interpolation methods. Different Kappa statistics, visual map overlays or components of agreement and disagreement due to chance, quantity and location were used for single cell and/or neighborhood (hard and soft map comparison. Although the three methods were computed with different statistical techniques, their results are similar, supporting the choice of any of the methods as equivalent and thus of equal value to be used as management units of the estuary. Hence the significance of choosing one of the methods is reduced.

  15. Earth Similarity Index with two free parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Suresh; Sharma, Mohit K

    2015-01-01

    We have derived Earth Similarity Index (ESI) with two free parameters m and T. These free parameters are optimized with the consideration that the planet Mars is almost similar to the Earth. For the optimized values of free parameters, the interior-ESI, surface-ESI and ESI for some planets are calculated. The results for m = 0.8 and T = 0.8 are compared with the values obtained by Schulze-Makuch {\\it et al.} (2011). We have found that the exoplanet 55 Cnc f is within 10% away from the threshold value T. The exoplanets HD 69830 c, 55 Cnc c, 55 Cnc f, 61 Vir d and HIP 57050 b are found to have ESI within 10% from the threshold value.

  16. Self-similar behavior for multicomponent coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨曼丽; 卢志明; 刘宇陆

    2014-01-01

    Self-similar behavior for the multicomponent coagulation system is investi-gated analytically in this paper. Asymptotic self-similar solutions for the constant ker-nel, sum kernel, and product kernel are achieved by introduction of different generating functions. In these solutions, two size-scale variables are introduced to characterize the asymptotic distribution of total mass and individual masses. The result of product kernel (gelling kernel) is consistent with the Vigli-Ziff conjecture to some extent. Furthermore, the steady-state solution with injection for the constant kernel is obtained, which is again the product of a normal distribution and the scaling solution for the single variable coag-ulation.

  17. Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah M.; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

  18. Wave system and its approximate similarity solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ping; Fu Pei-Kai

    2011-01-01

    Recently,a new (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave system,the (2+1)-dimensional displacement shallow water wave system (2DDSWWS),was constructed by applying the variational principle of the analytic mechanics in the Lagrange coordinates. The disadvantage is that fluid viscidity is not considered in the 2DDSWWS,which is the same as the famous Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation and Korteweg-de Vries equation. Applying dimensional analysis,we modify the 2DDSWWS and add the term related to the fluid viscidity to the 2DDSWWS. The approximate similarity solutions of the modified 2DDSWWS (M2DDSWWS) is studied and four similarity solutions are obtained. For the perfect fluids,the coefficient of kinematic viscosity is zero,then the M2DDSWWS will degenerate to the 2DDSWWS.

  19. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy...... transferability of reasons from one case to another; and (iii) it runs the risk of equivocations, especially in cases where the anti-genetic-modification argument relies on gradable features. The paper then shows how these issues play out in three specific Similarity Arguments that can be found in the literature....... Finally, the paper discusses what conclusions we can draw from the fact that genetic modification and established technologies are similar for the ethical status of genetic modification....

  20. Tunguska similar impacts and origin of life

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, Andrei E

    2014-01-01

    The author suggests new vision of mechanism of initiation of life on the planets after Tunguska similar impacts. This mechanism takes into consideration not only incoming cosmic organic substance but also information, which is connected to this substance. Mathematical metrics of atom of hydrogen is deduced which may be used for pattern recognition algorithm. In accordance to author's opinion, similar algorithm can promote evolution (transformation) of inert organic substance into living substance. The fact of a survival of vegetation after the Tunguska event is analyzed especially. Also the author checked up his probably Tunguska meteorites by strong magnet. The presence of magnetic substance was detected with concentration of 10-2 % during this test.

  1. Electrochemical Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  2. A MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE FOR HYDROXYACETONE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KLOTZ,P.J.

    1999-10-04

    Hydroxyacetone (HA) is mainly produced in the atmosphere from oxidation of hydrocarbons of the type, CH{sub 3}(R)C=CH{sub 2}. Tuazon and Atkinson (1990) reported HA yield of 41% from the OH-initiated oxidation of methacrolein in the presence of NO{sub x}. Since methacrolein is a major product of isoprene oxidation (Carter and Atkinson, 1996), isoprene, a key biogenic hydrocarbon, is therefore expected to be an important source for HA. Consequently, knowledge of ambient concentration of HA would provide information needed to examine the applicability of isoprene reaction mechanisms developed in laboratory and to assess the contribution of isoprene to photooxidant production. The commonly used GC-FID technique involving cryo-focusing is unsuitable for HA owing to HA's thermal instability. When subjected to a temperature of 100 C for only a few seconds, HA was found to disappear completely. Since HA is highly soluble in water (it's Henry's law constant being {approx}2 x 10{sup 4} M atm{sup -1} at 20 C, Zhou and Lee, unpublished data), we developed a wet chemical technique similar in principle to the one we reported earlier (Lee and Zhou, 1993), namely, based on derivatization following liquid scrubbing. To increase the sensitivity, we adopted a fluorescence detection scheme based on o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) chemistry. The technique was deployed in the field during two measurement periods at a NARSTO site located on Long Island (LI), New York. We report the principle and the operation of this technique and the results obtained from these field studies.

  3. Alternative techniques to study characters of the genitalia in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    2010-01-01

    The present note aims to describe two alternative methods for observing genitalia in Lepidoptera. The first one provides means to examine both male and female genitalia without spoiling the scales of the abdomen, preserving it attached to the thorax and aesthetically similar to an unexamined specimen. The second one provides ways of observing certain characters on the male genitalia in a non-destructive way, and does not depend on time-consuming removing and dissection of the abdomen. It is expected that the presented techniques will help on morphological studies and on identifying similar species which consistently differ in genitalic armatures.

  4. Protein-protein interaction based on pairwise similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaki Nazar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI is essential to most biological processes. Abnormal interactions may have implications in a number of neurological syndromes. Given that the association and dissociation of protein molecules is crucial, computational tools capable of effectively identifying PPI are desirable. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to detect PPI based on pairwise similarity and using only the primary structure of the protein. The PPI based on Pairwise Similarity (PPI-PS method consists of a representation of each protein sequence by a vector of pairwise similarities against large subsequences of amino acids created by a shifting window which passes over concatenated protein training sequences. Each coordinate of this vector is typically the E-value of the Smith-Waterman score. These vectors are then used to compute the kernel matrix which will be exploited in conjunction with support vector machines. Results To assess the ability of the proposed method to recognize the difference between "interacted" and "non-interacted" proteins pairs, we applied it on different datasets from the available yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae protein interaction. The proposed method achieved reasonable improvement over the existing state-of-the-art methods for PPI prediction. Conclusion Pairwise similarity score provides a relevant measure of similarity between protein sequences. This similarity incorporates biological knowledge about proteins and it is extremely powerful when combined with support vector machine to predict PPI.

  5. Similarity spectra analysis of high-performance jet aircraft noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Tracianne B; Gee, Kent L; Wall, Alan T; James, Michael M

    2013-04-01

    Noise measured in the vicinity of an F-22A Raptor has been compared to similarity spectra found previously to represent mixing noise from large-scale and fine-scale turbulent structures in laboratory-scale jet plumes. Comparisons have been made for three engine conditions using ground-based sideline microphones, which covered a large angular aperture. Even though the nozzle geometry is complex and the jet is nonideally expanded, the similarity spectra do agree with large portions of the measured spectra. Toward the sideline, the fine-scale similarity spectrum is used, while the large-scale similarity spectrum provides a good fit to the area of maximum radiation. Combinations of the two similarity spectra are shown to match the data in between those regions. Surprisingly, a combination of the two is also shown to match the data at the farthest aft angle. However, at high frequencies the degree of congruity between the similarity and the measured spectra changes with engine condition and angle. At the higher engine conditions, there is a systematically shallower measured high-frequency slope, with the largest discrepancy occurring in the regions of maximum radiation.

  6. Similarities and differences in conceptualizing critical thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Pešić, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the core similarities and differences in conceptualizing critical thinking. The framework of analysis refers to conceptions of leading critical thinking theorists: Ennis, Siegel, Paul, McPeck and Lipman. Two key questions are in the focus of consideration: which are the defining characteristics of critical thinking, distinguishing it from other types of thinking, and what are its constituents. The nature of identified differences has lead to a dilemma whether critical...

  7. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization using Parametric Similarity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; António M. Lopes; Alexandra M. Galhano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...

  8. Learning Style Similarity for Searching Infographics

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Babak; Dontcheva, Mira; Hertzmann, Aaron; Liu, Zhicheng

    2015-01-01

    Infographics are complex graphic designs integrating text, images, charts and sketches. Despite the increasing popularity of infographics and the rapid growth of online design portfolios, little research investigates how we can take advantage of these design resources. In this paper we present a method for measuring the style similarity between infographics. Based on human perception data collected from crowdsourced experiments, we use computer vision and machine learning algorithms to learn ...

  9. Recovery geospatial objects using semantic similarity measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neili Machado-García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology based on the semantic processing of geographic objects for the classification of soils according to the New Version of Genetic Classification of soils of Cuba. The method consists of five stages: conceptualization, synthesis, queries processing, retrieval and management. The result is a system of geospatial information management applying semantic similarity measure of Resnik. As a case study considering the region of San Jose de las Lajas located in the province of Mayabeque.

  10. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization using Parametric Similarity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Tenreiro Machado, J. A.; Lopes, António M.; Alexandra M. Galhano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS) and parametric similarity indices (PSI) in the analysis of complex systems (CS). Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, an...

  11. Explosion Source Similarity Analysis via SVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedlin, Matthew; Ben Horin, Yochai; Margrave, Gary

    2016-04-01

    An important seismological ingredient for establishing a regional seismic nuclear discriminant is the similarity analysis of a sequence of explosion sources. To investigate source similarity, we are fortunate to have access to a sequence of 1805 three-component recordings of quarry blasts, shot from March 2002 to January 2015. The centroid of these blasts has an estimated location 36.3E and 29.9N. All blasts were detonated by JPMC (Jordan Phosphate Mines Co.) All data were recorded at the Israeli NDC, HFRI, located at 30.03N and 35.03E. Data were first winnowed based on the distribution of maximum amplitudes in the neighborhood of the P-wave arrival. The winnowed data were then detrended using the algorithm of Cleveland et al (1990). The detrended data were bandpass filtered between .1 to 12 Hz using an eighth order Butterworth filter. Finally, data were sorted based on maximum trace amplitude. Two similarity analysis approaches were used. First, for each component, the entire suite of traces was decomposed into its eigenvector representation, by employing singular-valued decomposition (SVD). The data were then reconstructed using 10 percent of the singular values, with the resulting enhancement of the S-wave and surface wave arrivals. The results of this first method are then compared to the second analysis method based on the eigenface decomposition analysis of Turk and Pentland (1991). While both methods yield similar results in enhancement of data arrivals and reduction of data redundancy, more analysis is required to calibrate the recorded data to charge size, a quantity that was not available for the current study. References Cleveland, R. B., Cleveland, W. S., McRae, J. E., and Terpenning, I., Stl: A seasonal-trend decomposition procedure based on loess, Journal of Official Statistics, 6, No. 1, 3-73, 1990. Turk, M. and Pentland, A., Eigenfaces for recognition. Journal of cognitive neuroscience, 3(1), 71-86, 1991.

  12. [Biostatistics with Excel software or similar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couraud, S

    2009-12-01

    Many practitioners, especially young ones, find biostatistical analysis fastidious. However, there is a very usual tool for most basic calculations: Excel((c)) and similar software. This article proposes to help the reader, step by step, carry out many statistical functions. Although this paper does not avoid the advice of a specialist, it lets the reader become familiar with the rules of basic statistics and calculus.

  13. Self-similar scalar field collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Narayan; Chakrabarti, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    A spherically symmetric collapsing scalar field model is discussed with a dissipative fluid which includes a heat flux. This vastly general matter distribution is analyzed at the expense of a high degree of symmetry in the space-time, that of conformal flatness and self-similarity. Indeed collapsing models terminating into a curvature singularity can be obtained. The formation of black holes or the occurrence of naked singularities depends on the initial collapsing profiles.

  14. Self-Similar One-Dimensional Quasilattices

    CERN Document Server

    Boyle, Latham

    2016-01-01

    We study 1D quasilattices, especially self-similar ones that can be used to generate two-, three- and higher-dimensional quasicrystalline tesselations that have matching rules and invertible self-similar substitution rules (also known as inflation rules) analogous to the rules for generating Penrose tilings. The lattice positions can be expressed in a closed-form expression we call \\emph{floor form}: $x_{n} = S (n-\\alpha) + (L-S) \\lfloor \\kappa (n-\\beta) \\rfloor$, where $L > S > 0$ and $0 < \\kappa < 1$ is an irrational number. We describe three equivalent geometric constructions of these quasilattices and show how they can be subdivided into various types of equivalence classes: (i) \\emph{lattice equivalent}, where any two quasilattices in the same lattice equivalence class may be derived from one another by a local decoration/gluing rule; (ii) \\emph{self-similar}, a proper subset of lattice equivalent where, in addition, the two quasilattices are locally isomorphic; and (iii) \\emph{self-same}, a proper...

  15. Self-similar plates: Casimir energies

    CERN Document Server

    Shajesh, K V; Cavero-Peláez, Inés; Parashar, Prachi

    2016-01-01

    We construct various self-similar configurations using parallel $\\delta$-function plates and show that it is possible to evaluate the Casimir interaction energy of these configurations using the idea of self-similarity alone. We restrict our analysis to interactions mediated by a scalar field, but the extension to electromagnetic field is immediate. Our work unveils an easy and powerful method that can be easily employed to calculate the Casimir energies of a class of self-similar configurations. As a highlight, in an example, we determine the Casimir interaction energy of a stack of parallel plates constructed by positioning $\\delta$-function plates at the points constituting the Cantor set, a prototype of a fractal. This, to our knowledge, is the first time that the Casimir energy of a fractal configuration has been reported. Remarkably, the Casimir energy of some of the configurations we consider turn out to be positive, and a few even have zero Casimir energy. For the case of positive Casimir energy that ...

  16. Terrestrial plants require nutrients in similar proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Magnus F; Göransson, Anders

    2004-04-01

    Theoretical considerations based on nutrition experiments suggest that nutrient ratios of terrestrial plants are similar to the Redfield ratio found in marine phytoplankton. Laboratory experiments have shown that seedlings of many different plant species have similar nutrient concentration ratios when supplied with nutrients at free access. However, at free access, nutrients are likely to be taken up in amounts in excess of a plant's requirements for growth. In further experiments, therefore, the supply rate of each nutrient was reduced so that excessive uptake did not occur. Again, similar nutrient ratios were found among the plant species tested, although the ratios differed from those found in plants given free access to nutrients. Based on the law of the minimum, we suggest that optimum nutrient ratios be defined as the ratios found in plants when all nutrients are limiting growth simultaneously. The literature on nutrient concentrations was surveyed to investigate nutrient ratios in terrestrial ecosystems. Nutrients taken into consideration were nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Based on the assumption that nitrogen is either the limiting nutrient or, when not limiting, is taken up only in small excess amounts, we calculated nutrient ratios from published data. The calculated ratios corresponded closely to the ratios determined in laboratory and field experiments.

  17. Similarity Data Item Set Approach: An Encoded Temporal Data Base Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Danessh, M S; Duraiswamy, K

    2010-01-01

    Data mining has been widely recognized as a powerful tool to explore added value from large-scale databases. Finding frequent item sets in databases is a crucial in data mining process of extracting association rules. Many algorithms were developed to find the frequent item sets. This paper presents a summary and a comparative study of the available FP-growth algorithm variations produced for mining frequent item sets showing their capabilities and efficiency in terms of time and memory consumption on association rule mining by taking application of specific information into account. It proposes pattern growth mining paradigm based FP-tree growth algorithm, which employs a tree structure to compress the database. The performance study shows that the anti- FP-growth method is efficient and scalable for mining both long and short frequent patterns and is about an order of magnitude faster than the Apriority algorithm and also faster than some recently reported new frequent-pattern mining.

  18. An overview of the essential differences and similarities of system identification techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Raman K.

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in the form of outlines, graphs, tables and charts. Topics include system identification, Bayesian statistical decision theory, Maximum Likelihood Estimation, identification methods, structural mode identification using a stochastic realization algorithm, and identification results regarding membrane simulations and X-29 flutter flight test data.

  19. Clustering the Results of Brainstorm Sessions: Applying Word Similarity Techniques to Cluster Dutch Nouns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan Amrit; Hek, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This research addresses the problem of clustering the results of brainstorm sessions. Going through all ideas and clustering them can be a time consuming task. In this research we design a computer-aided approach that can help with clustering of these results. We have limited ourselves to looking at

  20. Clustering the Results of Brainstorm Sessions: Applying Word Similarity Techniques to Cluster Dutch Nouns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan; Hek, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This research addresses the problem of clustering the results of brainstorm sessions. Going through all ideas and clustering them can be a time consuming task. In this research we design a computer-aided approach that can help with clustering of these results. We have limited ourselves to looking at

  1. Scattering from Rough Surfaces with Extended Self-Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张延冬; 吴振森

    2002-01-01

    An extended self-similarity (ESS) model is developed by extending the self-similarity condition in fractional Brownian motion (FBM), then the incremental Fourier synthesis algorithm is introduced to generate ESS rough surfaces, and an estimation algorithm is presented to extract the generalized multiscale Hurst parameter, which can also be modified to estimate the Hurst parameter for FBM more accurately. Finally, the scattering coefficient from ESS rough surfaces is calculated with the scalar Kirchhoff approximation, and its variation with the parameters in the ESS model is obtained. Compared with experimental measurements, it can be concluded that the ESS model provides a good tool to model natural rough surfaces.

  2. Clustering Techniques in Bioinformatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Masood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data means to group information into a set of categories either in order to learn new artifacts or understand new domains. For this purpose researchers have always looked for the hidden patterns in data that can be defined and compared with other known notions based on the similarity or dissimilarity of their attributes according to well-defined rules. Data mining, having the tools of data classification and data clustering, is one of the most powerful techniques to deal with data in such a manner that it can help researchers identify the required information. As a step forward to address this challenge, experts have utilized clustering techniques as a mean of exploring hidden structure and patterns in underlying data. Improved stability, robustness and accuracy of unsupervised data classification in many fields including pattern recognition, machine learning, information retrieval, image analysis and bioinformatics, clustering has proven itself as a reliable tool. To identify the clusters in datasets algorithm are utilized to partition data set into several groups based on the similarity within a group. There is no specific clustering algorithm, but various algorithms are utilized based on domain of data that constitutes a cluster and the level of efficiency required. Clustering techniques are categorized based upon different approaches. This paper is a survey of few clustering techniques out of many in data mining. For the purpose five of the most common clustering techniques out of many have been discussed. The clustering techniques which have been surveyed are: K-medoids, K-means, Fuzzy C-means, Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN and Self-Organizing Map (SOM clustering.

  3. EDITORIAL: Imaging Systems and Techniques Imaging Systems and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, George; Yang, Wuqiang; Petrou, M.; Nikita, K. S.; Pastorino, M.; Amanatiadis, A.; Zentai, G.

    2011-10-01

    This special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques comprises 27 technical papers, covering essential facets in imaging systems and techniques both in theory and applications, from research groups spanning three different continents. It mainly contains peer-reviewed articles from the IEEE International Conference on Imaging Systems and Techniques (IST 2011), held in Thessaloniki, Greece, as well a number of articles relevant to the scope of this issue. The multifaceted field of imaging requires drastic adaptation to the rapid changes in our society, economy, environment, and the technological revolution; there is an urgent need to address and propose dynamic and innovative solutions to problems that tend to be either complex and static or rapidly evolving with a lot of unknowns. For instance, exploration of the engineering and physical principles of new imaging systems and techniques for medical applications, remote sensing, monitoring of space resources and enhanced awareness, exploration and management of natural resources, and environmental monitoring, are some of the areas that need to be addressed with urgency. Similarly, the development of efficient medical imaging techniques capable of providing physiological information at the molecular level is another important area of research. Advanced metabolic and functional imaging techniques, operating on multiple physical principles, using high resolution and high selectivity nanoimaging techniques, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as provide efficient drug-delivery imaging solutions for disease treatment with increased sensitivity and specificity. On the other hand, technical advances in the development of efficient digital imaging systems and techniques and tomographic devices operating on electric impedance tomography, computed tomography, single-photon emission and positron emission tomography detection principles are anticipated to have a significant impact on a

  4. Survey on Chatbot Design Techniques in Speech Conversation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera A. Abdul-Kader

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human-Computer Speech is gaining momentum as a technique of computer interaction. There has been a recent upsurge in speech based search engines and assistants such as Siri, Google Chrome and Cortana. Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques such as NLTK for Python can be applied to analyse speech, and intelligent responses can be found by designing an engine to provide appropriate human like responses. This type of programme is called a Chatbot, which is the focus of this study. This paper presents a survey on the techniques used to design Chatbots and a comparison is made between different design techniques from nine carefully selected papers according to the main methods adopted. These papers are representative of the significant improvements in Chatbots in the last decade. The paper discusses the similarities and differences in the techniques and examines in particular the Loebner prize-winning Chatbots.

  5. Internet Provider Facilities, Published in Not Provided, US Army.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Internet Provider Facilities dataset as of Not Provided. Data by this publisher are often provided in Not Applicable coordinate system; in a Not Applicable...

  6. Efficient Video Similarity Measurement and Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    sequence matching techniques for video copy detection,” in Proceedings of SPIE – Storage and Retrieval for Media Databases 2002, San Jose , CA, January 2002...Proceedings of the Storage and Retrieval for Media Datbases 2001, San Jose , USA, jan 2001, vol. 4315, pp. 188–195. [19] D. Adjeroh, I. King, and M.C. Lee, “A... Vasconcelos , “On the complexity of probabilistic image retrieval,” in Pro- ceedings Eighth IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, Vancou- ver, B.C

  7. Helical tomotherapy provides efficacy similar to that of intensity-modulated radiation therapy with dosimetric benefits for endometrial carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh CH

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Hsi Hsieh,1,4–6 Pei-Wei Shueng,1,3 Sheng-Mou Hsiao,2 Ming-Chow Wei,2 Wen-Yih Wu,2 Hsu-Dong Sun,2 Hui-Ju Tien,1 Li-Ying Wang,7 Yen-Ping Hsieh81Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiology, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, National Defense Medical Center, 4Department of Medicine, 5Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 6Oriental Institute of Technology, New Taipei City, 7School and Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 8Department of Senior Citizen Service Management, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan, ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and helical tomotherapy for endometrial cancer.Methods: Between November 1, 2006 and November 31, 2010, 31 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer were enrolled. All enrolled patients received total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant whole pelvic IMRT or helical tomotherapy.Results: The actuarial 3-year overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional control, and distant metastasis-free rates for the IMRT and helical tomotherapy groups were 87.5% versus 100%, 91.7% versus 51.7%, 91.7% versus 83.3%, and 91.7% versus 51.7%, respectively. The conformal index and uniformity index for IMRT versus helical tomotherapy was 1.25 versus 1.17 (P = 0.04 and 1.08 versus 1.05 (P < 0.01, respectively. Two of 31 patients with cervical stump failure were noted, one in the IMRT group and the other in the helical tomotherapy group. No acute or late grade 3 or 4 toxicities were noted, including proctitis, or genitourinary or gastrointestinal disturbances.Conclusion: Helical tomotherapy is as effective as IMRT and has better uniformity and conformal indices, and critical organ-sparing properties. Prospective clinical trials are needed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of IMRT versus helical tomotherapy.Keywords: endometrial cancer, helical tomotherapy, intensity-modulated radiotherapy

  8. Helical tomotherapy provides efficacy similar to that of intensity-modulated radiation therapy with dosimetric benefits for endometrial carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chen-Hsi; Shueng, Pei-Wei; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Wei, Ming-Chow; Wu, Wen-Yih; Sun, Hsu-Dong; Tien, Hui-Ju; Wang, Li-Ying; Hsieh, Yen-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy for endometrial cancer. Methods Between November 1, 2006 and November 31, 2010, 31 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer were enrolled. All enrolled patients received total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with adjuvant whole pelvic IMRT or helical tomotherapy. Results The actuarial 3-year overall survival, disease-free survival, locoregional control, and distant metastasis-free rates for the IMRT and helical tomotherapy groups were 87.5% versus 100%, 91.7% versus 51.7%, 91.7% versus 83.3%, and 91.7% versus 51.7%, respectively. The conformal index and uniformity index for IMRT versus helical tomotherapy was 1.25 versus 1.17 (P = 0.04) and 1.08 versus 1.05 (P < 0.01), respectively. Two of 31 patients with cervical stump failure were noted, one in the IMRT group and the other in the helical tomotherapy group. No acute or late grade 3 or 4 toxicities were noted, including proctitis, or genitourinary or gastrointestinal disturbances. Conclusion Helical tomotherapy is as effective as IMRT and has better uniformity and conformal indices, and critical organ-sparing properties. Prospective clinical trials are needed to evaluate the comparative efficacy of IMRT versus helical tomotherapy. PMID:23055750

  9. Native and Non-Native Plants Provide Similar Refuge to Invertebrate Prey, but Less than Artificial Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Pollux, B.J.A.; Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Bakker, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Prey survival data was collected in a series of three aquarium experiments. The file is split into two tabs: realplant-survival used for Figure 1 and artificialplant-survival used for Figure 2. The first tab contains data about prey survival under mirror carp or dragonfly larvae predation in

  10. Just-About-Right and ideal scaling provide similar insights into the influence of sensory attributes on liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bangde; Hayes, John E; Ziegler, Gregory R

    2014-10-01

    Just-about-right (JAR) scaling is criticized for measuring attribute intensity and acceptability simultaneously. Using JAR scaling, an attribute is evaluated for its appropriateness relative to one's hypothetical ideal level that is pre-defined at the middle of a continuum. Alternatively, ideal scaling measures these two constructs separately. Ideal scaling allows participants to rate their ideal freely on the scale (i.e., without assuming the "Too Little" and "Too Much" regions are equal in size). We hypothesized that constraining participants' ideal to the center point, as is done in the JAR scale, may cause a scaling bias and, thereby, influence the magnitude of "Too Little" and "Too Much". Furthermore, we hypothesized that the magnitude of "Too Little" and "Too Much" would influence liking to different extents. Coffee-flavored dairy beverages (n=20) were formulated using a fractional, constrained-mixture design that varied the ratio of water, milk, coffee extract, and sucrose. Participants tasted 4 of 20 prototypes that were served in a monadic sequential order using a balanced incomplete block design. Data reported here are for participants randomly assigned to one of two research conditions: ideal scaling (n=129) or JAR scaling (n=132). For both conditions, participants rated overall liking using a 9-point hedonic scale. Four attributes (sweetness, milk flavor, coffee flavor and thickness) were evaluated. The reliability of an individual participant's ideal rating for an attribute was evaluated using the standard deviation of their ideal ratings (n=4). All data from a participant were eliminated from further analyses when his/her standard deviation of the ideal ratings for any of the four rated attributes was identified as a statistical outlier. This resulted in the elimination of 15 of 129 (12 %) of participants in the ideal scaling group. Multiple linear regression was employed to model liking as a function of "Too Little" or "Too Much" attribute intensities. Mean ideal ratings (averaged across participants) for all four attributes were significantly different from the central point of the scale (i.e., 50). However, Coffee flavor was the only attribute for which the mean ideal rating (57.2) fell outside the central 10% (45.0-55.0). Even so, the magnitude of "Too Little" and "Too Much" was not affected by the scaling method. The influence of the magnitude of "Too Little" and "Too Much" on liking was asymmetrical. Both scaling methods agreed that sweetness and coffee flavor were the main sensory attributes affecting liking. Overall, JAR scaling and ideal scaling were comparable for measuring "Too Little" and "Too Much", and identifying the main factors affecting liking.

  11. Native and Non-Native Plants Provide Similar Refuge to Invertebrate Prey, but Less than Artificial Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grutters, B.M.C.; Pollux, B.J.A.; Verberk, W.C.E.P.; Bakker, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Prey survival data was collected in a series of three aquarium experiments. The file is split into two tabs: realplant-survival used for Figure 1 and artificialplant-survival used for Figure 2. The first tab contains data about prey survival under mirror carp or dragonfly larvae predation in monocul

  12. MetMaxStruct: a Tversky-similarity-based strategy for analysing the (substructural similarities of drugs and endogenous metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve O'Hagan

    2016-08-01

    a numerical similarity much closer to drugs than do even endogenites. Conclusions. Overall, the Tversky similarity metrics provide a more useful range of examples of molecular similarity than does the simpler Tanimoto similarity, and help to draw attention

  13. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Jan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  14. On the similarity of variable viscosity flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voivenel, L.; Danaila, L.; Varea, E.; Renou, B.; Cazalens, M.

    2016-08-01

    Turbulent mixing is ubiquitous in both nature and industrial applications. Most of them concern different fluids, therefore with variable physical properties (density and/or viscosity). The focus here is on variable viscosity flows and mixing, involving density-matched fluids. The issue is whether or not these flows may be self-similar, or self-preserving. The importance of this question stands on the predictability of these flows; self-similar dynamical systems are easier tractable from an analytical viewpoint. More specifically, self-similar analysis is applied to the scale-by-scale energy transport equations, which represent the transport of energy at each scale and each point of the flow. Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are developed for inhomogeneous and anisotropic flows, in which the viscosity varies as a result of heterogeneous mixture or temperature variations. Additional terms are highlighted, accounting for the viscosity gradients, or fluctuations. These terms are present at both small and large scales, thus rectifying the common belief that viscosity is a small-scale quantity. Scale-by-scale energy budget equations are then adapted for the particular case of a round jet evolving in a more viscous host fluid. It is further shown that the condition of self-preservation is not necessarily satisfied in variable-viscosity jets. Indeed, the jet momentum conservation, as well as the constancy of the Reynolds number in the central region of the jet, cannot be satisfied simultaneously. This points to the necessity of considering less stringent conditions (with respect to classical, single-fluid jets) when analytically tackling these flows and reinforces the idea that viscosity variations must be accounted for when modelling these flows.

  15. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Veenstra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone, a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for

  16. Similarities between decapod and insect neuropeptidomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background. Neuropeptides are important regulators of physiological processes and behavior. Although they tend to be generally well conserved, recent results using trancriptome sequencing on decapod crustaceans give the impression of significant differences between species, raising the question whether such differences are real or artefacts. Methods. The BLAST+ program was used to find short reads coding neuropeptides and neurohormons in publicly available short read archives. Such reads were then used to find similar reads in the same archives, and the DNA assembly program Trinity was employed to construct contigs encoding the neuropeptide precursors as completely as possible. Results. The seven decapod species analyzed in this fashion, the crabs Eriocheir sinensis, Carcinus maenas and Scylla paramamosain, the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, the lobster Homarus americanus, the fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii had remarkably similar neuropeptidomes. Although some neuropeptide precursors could not be assembled, in many cases individual reads pertaining to the missing precursors show unambiguously that these neuropeptides are present in these species. In other cases, the tissues that express those neuropeptides were not used in the construction of the cDNA libraries. One novel neuropeptide was identified: elongated PDH (pigment dispersing hormone), a variation on PDH that has a two-amino-acid insertion in its core sequence. Hyrg is another peptide that is ubiquitously present in decapods and is likely a novel neuropeptide precursor. Discussion. Many insect species have lost one or more neuropeptide genes, but apart from elongated PDH and hyrg all other decapod neuropeptides are present in at least some insect species, and allatotropin is the only insect neuropeptide missing from decapods. This strong similarity between insect and decapod neuropeptidomes makes it possible to predict the receptors for decapod neuropeptides

  17. Perceived and actual similarities in biological and adoptive families: does perceived similarity bias genetic inferences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, S; Scarf, E; Weinberg, R A

    1980-09-01

    Critics of the adoption method to estimate the relative effects of genetic and environmental differences on behavioral development claim that important biases are created by the knowledge of biological relatedness or adoptive status. Since the 1950s, agency policy has led to nearly all adopted children knowing that they are adopted. To test the hypothesis that knowledge of biological or adoptive status influences actual similarity, we correlated absolute differences in objective test scores with ratings of similarity by adolescents and their parents in adoptive and biological families. Although biological family members see themselves as more similar than adoptive family members, there are also important generational and gender differences in perceived similarity that cut across family type. There is moderate agreement among family members on the degree of perceived similarity, but there is no correlation between perceived and actual similarity in intelligence or temperament. However, family members are more accurate about shared social attitudes. Knowledge of adoptive or biological relatedness is related to the degree of perceived similarity, but perceptions of similarity are not related to objective similarities and thus do not constitute a bias in comparisons of measured differences in intelligence or temperament in adoptive and biological families.

  18. Exploiting Same Scale Similarity in Fisher's Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yao

    2001-01-01

    The method proposed by Y. Fisher is the most popular fractal image coding scheme. In his scheme, domain blocks are constrained to be twice as large as range blocks in order to ensure the convergence of the iterative decoding stage. However,this constraint has limited the fractal encoder to exploit the self-similarity of the original image. In order to overcome the shortcoming, a novel scheme using same-sized range and domain blocks is proposed in the paper. Experimental results show the improvements in compression performance.

  19. Nuclear multifragmentation and fission: similarity and differences

    CERN Document Server

    Karnaukhov, V; Avdeyev, S; Rodionov, V; Kirakosyan, V; Simonenko, A; Rukoyatkin, P; Budzanowski, A; Karcz, W; Skwirczynska, I; Czech, B; Chulkov, L; Kuzmin, E; Norbeck, E; Botvina, A

    2006-01-01

    Thermal multifragmentation of hot nuclei is interpreted as the nuclear liquid--fog phase transition deep inside the spinodal region. The experimental data for p(8.1GeV) + Au collisions are analyzed. It is concluded that the decay process of hot nuclei is characterized by two size parameters: transition state and freeze-out volumes. The similarity between dynamics of fragmentation and ordinary fission is discussed. The IMF emission time is related to the mean rupture time at the multi-scission point, which corresponds to the kinetic freeze-out configuration.

  20. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed.

  1. Statistical considerations for confirmatory clinical trials for similar biotherapeutic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njue, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    For the purpose of comparing the efficacy and safety of a Similar Biotherapeutic Product (SBP) to a Reference Biotherapeutic Product (RBP), the "Guidelines on Evaluation of Similar Biotherapeutic Products (SBPs)" issued by the World Health Organisation (WHO), states that equivalence or non-inferiority studies may be acceptable. While in principle, equivalence trials are preferred, non-inferiority trials may be considered if appropriately justified, such as for a medicinal product with a wide safety margin. However, the statistical issues involved in the design, conduct, analysis and interpretation of equivalence and non-inferiority trials are complex and subtle, and require that all aspects of these trials be given careful consideration. These issues are important in order to ensure that equivalence and non-inferiority trials provide valid data that are necessary to draw reliable conclusions regarding the clinical similarity of an SBP to an RBP. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing networks play a similar melody.

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2001-01-01

    International audience; During development, when synapses start to be established, a primitive form of network-driven activity provides most of the synaptic activity. This pattern enables a high degree of synchrony in immature neurons in spite of the small number of functional synapses and could participate in activity-dependent growth and synapse formation. Relying on the giant depolarizing potentials that provide most of the synaptic activity in the developing hippocampus, this article revi...

  3. Similarities betweenSense and Sensibility andPride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Nan

    2012-01-01

    Both as the noted British novelist Jane Austen' s most famous works, Sense and Sensibility and Pride and Prejudice share great similarities in character building, recurrences, one technique -irony andthe theme.

  4. An Information-Theoretic Measure for Face Recognition: Comparison with Structural Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmhan Flieh Hassan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of people faces is a challenging problem that has received significant attention from signal processing researchers in recent years. This is due to its several applications in different fields, including security and forensic analysis. Despite this attention, face recognition is still one among the most challenging problems. Up to this moment, there is no technique that provides a reliable solution to all situations. In this paper a novel technique for face recognition is presented. This technique, which is called ISSIM, is derived from our recently published information - theoretic similarity measure HSSIM, which was based on joint histogram. Face recognition with ISSIM is still based on joint histogram of a test image and a database images. Performance evaluation was performed on MATLAB using part of the well-known AT&T image database that consists of 49 face images, from which seven subjects are chosen, and for each subject seven views (poses are chosen with different facial expressions. The goal of this paper is to present a simplified approach for face recognition that may work in real-time environments. Performance of our information - theoretic face recognition method (ISSIM has been demonstrated experimentally and is shown to outperform the well-known, statistical-based method (SSIM.

  5. Cooling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Todd R; Vyas, Brijesh; Kota, Krishna; Simon, Elina

    2017-01-31

    An apparatus and a method are provided. Use is made of a wick structure configured to receive a liquid and generate vapor in when such wick structure is heated by heat transferred from heat sources to be cooled off. A vapor channel is provided configured to receive the vapor generated and direct said vapor away from the wick structure. In some embodiments, heat conductors are used to transfer the heat from the heat sources to the liquid in the wick structure.

  6. Similarity and scale in catchment storm response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Beven, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, very little progress had been made in understanding the relationship between small-scale variability of topography, soil, and rainfalls and the storm response seen at the catchment scale. The work reviewed here represents the first attempt at a systematic theoretical framework for such understanding in the context of surface runoff generation by different processes. The parameterization of hydrological processes over a range of scales is examined, and the concept of the 'representative elementary area' (REA) is introduced. The REA is a fundamental scale for catchment modeling at which continuum assumptions can be applied for the spatially variable controls and parameters, and spatial patterns no longer have to be considered explicitly. The investigation of scale leads into the concept of hydrologic similarity in which the effects of the environmental controls on runoff generation and flood frequency response be investigated independently of catchment scale. The paper reviews the authors' initial results and hopefully will motivate others to also investigate the issues of hydrologic scale and similarity.

  7. On quasi-similarity of subnormal operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For a compact subset K in the complex plane, let Rat(K) denote the set of the rational functions with poles off K. Given a finite positive measure with support contained in K, let R2(K,v) denote the closure of Rat(K) in L2(v) and let Sv denote the operator of multiplication by the independent variable z on R2(K, v), that is, Svf = zf for every f∈R2(K, v). SupposeΩis a bounded open subset in the complex plane whose complement has finitely many components and suppose Rat(Ω) is dense in the Hardy space H2(Ω). Letσdenote a harmonic measure forΩ. In this work, we characterize all subnormal operators quasi-similar to Sσ, the operators of the multiplication by z on R2(Ω,σ). We show that for a given v supported onΩ, Sv is quasi-similar to Sσif and only if v/■Ω■σ and log(dv/dσ)∈L1(σ). Our result extends a well-known result of Clary on the unit disk.

  8. On quasi-similarity of subnormal operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-jian QIU

    2007-01-01

    For a compact subset K in the complex plane, let Rat(K) denote the set of the rational functions with poles off K. Given a finite positive measure with support contained in K, let R2(K, ν)denote the closure of Rat(K) in L2(ν) and let Sν denote the operator of multiplication by the independent variable z on R2(K,ν), that is, Sνf = zf for every f ∈ R2(K,ν).Suppose Ω is a bounded open subset in the complex plane whose complement has finitely many components and suppose Rat(Ω) is dense in the Hardy space H2(Ω). Let σ denote a harmonic measure for Ω. In this work, we characterize all subnormal operators quasi-similar to Sσ, the operators of the multiplication by z on R2 (-Ω, σ). We show that for a given ν supported on -Ω, Sν is quasi-similar to Sσ if and only if ν|(a)Ω<σ and log (dν/dσ)∈ L1 (σ). Our result extends a well-known result of Clary on the unit disk.

  9. Review Authorship Attribution in a Similarity Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱铁云; 刘兵; 李青; 司建锋

    2015-01-01

    Authorship attribution, also known as authorship classification, is the problem of identifying the authors (reviewers) of a set of documents (reviews). The common approach is to build a classifier using supervised learning. This approach has several issues which hurts its applicability. First, supervised learning needs a large set of documents from each author to serve as the training data. This can be difficult in practice. For example, in the online review domain, most reviewers (authors) only write a few reviews, which are not enough to serve as the training data. Second, the learned classifier cannot be applied to authors whose documents have not been used in training. In this article, we propose a novel solution to deal with the two problems. The core idea is that instead of learning in the original document space, we transform it to a similarity space. In the similarity space, the learning is able to naturally tackle the issues. Our experiment results based on online reviews and reviewers show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art supervised and unsupervised baseline methods significantly.

  10. Predicting the performance of fingerprint similarity searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Fingerprints are bit string representations of molecular structure that typically encode structural fragments, topological features, or pharmacophore patterns. Various fingerprint designs are utilized in virtual screening and their search performance essentially depends on three parameters: the nature of the fingerprint, the active compounds serving as reference molecules, and the composition of the screening database. It is of considerable interest and practical relevance to predict the performance of fingerprint similarity searching. A quantitative assessment of the potential that a fingerprint search might successfully retrieve active compounds, if available in the screening database, would substantially help to select the type of fingerprint most suitable for a given search problem. The method presented herein utilizes concepts from information theory to relate the fingerprint feature distributions of reference compounds to screening libraries. If these feature distributions do not sufficiently differ, active database compounds that are similar to reference molecules cannot be retrieved because they disappear in the "background." By quantifying the difference in feature distribution using the Kullback-Leibler divergence and relating the divergence to compound recovery rates obtained for different benchmark classes, fingerprint search performance can be quantitatively predicted.

  11. Local Community Detection Using Link Similarity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Jun Wu; Han Huang; Zhi-Feng Hao; Feng Chen

    2012-01-01

    Exploring local community structure is an appealing problem that has drawn much recent attention in the area of social network analysis.As the complete information of network is often difficult to obtain,such as networks of web pages,research papers and Facebook users,people can only detect community structure from a certain source vertex with limited knowledge of the entire graph.The existing approaches do well in measuring the community quality,but they are largely dependent on source vertex and putting too strict policy in agglomerating new vertices.Moreover,they have predefined parameters which are difficult to obtain.This paper proposes a method to find local community structure by analyzing link similarity between the community and the vertex.Inspired by the fact that elements in the same community are more likely to share common links,we explore community structure heuristically by giving priority to vertices which have a high link similarity with the community.A three-phase process is also used for the sake of improving quality of community structure.Experimental results prove that our method performs effectively not only in computer-generated graphs but also in real-world graphs.

  12. [New microbiological techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, S; Wieser, A; Bonkat, G

    2017-06-01

    Microbiological diagnostic procedures have changed rapidly in recent years. This is especially true in the field of molecular diagnostics. Classical culture-based techniques are still the gold standard in many areas; however, they are already complemented by automated and also molecular techniques to guarantee faster and better quality results. The most commonly used techniques include real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based systems and nucleic acid hybridization. These procedures are used most powerfully from direct patient samples or in assays to detect the presence of nonculturable or fastidious organisms. Further techniques such as DNA sequencing are not yet used routinely for urological samples and can be considered experimental. However, in conjunction with dropping prices and further technical developments, these techniques promise to be used much more in the near future. Regarding bacterial identification from culture, mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has become the technique of choice in recent years especially in Europe. It has tremendously shortened the time to result. This is now going to be extended to antibiotic susceptibility testing. This is of paramount importance in view of ever rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Techniques described in this review offer a faster and better microbiological diagnosis. Such continuous improvements are critical especially in times of cost pressure and rising antimicrobial resistance rates. It is in our interest to provide the best possible care for patients and in this regard a good and effective communication between the laboratory and the clinician is of vital importance.

  13. A MODIFIED ANT-BASED TEXT CLUSTERING ALGORITHM WITH SEMANTIC SIMILARITY MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haoxiang XIA; Shuguang WANG; Taketoshi YOSHIDA

    2006-01-01

    Ant-based text clustering is a promising technique that has attracted great research attention. This paper attempts to improve the standard ant-based text-clustering algorithm in two dimensions. On one hand, the ontology-based semantic similarity measure is used in conjunction with the traditional vector-space-model-based measure to provide more accurate assessment of the similarity between documents. On the other, the ant behavior model is modified to pursue better algorithmic performance.Especially, the ant movement rule is adjusted so as to direct a laden ant toward a dense area of the same type of items as the ant's carrying item, and to direct an unladen ant toward an area that contains an item dissimilar with the surrounding items within its Moore neighborhood. Using WordNet as the base ontology for assessing the semantic similarity between documents, the proposed algorithm is tested with a sample set of documents excerpted from the Reuters-21578 corpus and the experiment results partly indicate that the proposed algorithm perform better than the standard ant-based text-clustering algorithm and the k-means algorithm.

  14. Geolocation Techniques Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, Camillo; Raulefs, Ronald; Teolis, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Geolocation Techniques: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive overview of geolocation technologies and techniques, from radio-frequency based to inertial based. The focus of this book is to provide an overview on the different types of infra-structure supported by most commercial localization systems as well as on the most popular computational techniques which these systems employ. This book can serve as a reference for scholarly activities such as teaching, self-learning, or research.

  15. Chemical structure of odorants and perceptual similarity in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Nick; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Guerrieri, Fernando J

    2013-09-01

    Animals are often immersed in a chemical world consisting of mixtures of many compounds rather than of single substances, and they constantly face the challenge of extracting relevant information out of the chemical landscape. To this purpose, the ability to discriminate among different stimuli with different valence is essential, but it is also important to be able to generalise, i.e. to treat different but similar stimuli as equivalent, as natural variation does not necessarily affect stimulus valence. Animals can thus extract regularities in their environment and make predictions, for instance about distribution of food resources. We studied perceptual similarity of different plant odours by conditioning individual carpenter ants to one odour, and subsequently testing their response to another, structurally different odour. We found that asymmetry in generalisation, where ants generalise from odour A to B, but not from B to A, is dependent on both chain length and functional group. By conditioning ants to a binary mixture, and testing their reaction to the individual components of the mixture, we show that overshadowing, where parts of a mixture are learned better than others, is rare. Additionally, generalisation is dependent not only on the structural similarity of odorants, but also on their functional value, which might play a crucial role. Our results provide insight into how ants make sense of the complex chemical world around them, for example in a foraging context, and provide a basis with which to investigate the neural mechanisms behind perceptual similarity.

  16. Three journal similarity metrics and their application to biomedical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Jennifer L; Smalheiser, Neil R

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we have created several novel journal similarity metrics. The MeSH odds ratio measures the topical similarity of any pair of journals, based on the major MeSH headings assigned to articles in MEDLINE. The second metric employed the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard for estimating the author odds ratio. This gives a straightforward, intuitive answer to the question: Given two articles in PubMed that share the same author name (lastname, first initial), how does knowing only the identity of the journals (in which the articles were published) predict the relative likelihood that they are written by the same person vs. different persons? The article pair odds ratio detects the tendency of authors to publish repeatedly in the same journal, as well as in specific pairs of journals. The metrics can be applied not only to estimate the similarity of a pair of journals, but to provide novel profiles of individual journals as well. For example, for each journal, one can define the MeSH cloud as the number of other journals that are topically more similar to it than expected by chance, and the author cloud as the number of other journals that share more authors than expected by chance. These metrics for journal pairs and individual journals have been provided in the form of public datasets that can be readily studied and utilized by others.

  17. [Comparison between the qualitative similarity and the quantitative similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guo-Xiang; Hou, Zhi-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Ling; Bi, Kai-Shun; Sun, Yu-Qing

    2007-01-01

    To explore the differences between the qualitative similarity and the quantitative similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines, the quantitative similarity calculated by vector shadow C%, apparent quantitative similarity R%, quantitative similarity P%, etc. were firstly proposed to disclose the quantitative information characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines fingerprints. The HPLC fingerprints of both the standard Fructus gardeniae and the ten batches of Fructus gardeniae produced in different places were evaluated by the new parameters to obtain good results. The contrasted fingerprint contained 35 peaks while geniposide was selected as the reference peak. The HPLC fingerprint had good precision and reproducibility with the RSD of the relative retention time less than 1.5% and the RSD of the relative peak area within 5%. The qualitative similarity and quantitative similarity between each crude drug and the contrasted fingerprint were quantitatively calculated, the values of C%, P%, etc., were applied in the quality control practice, which had less errors. What is more, this method could be used for the overall quality control of Fructus gardeniae and especially suits for qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the chromatographic fingerprints both in chemical constituent distribution and in contents. The quantitative parameters such as C% and P% can be used to objectively, authentically and thoroughly display the content information characteristics. When they combined with the qualitative similarity, it will be the good method to evaluate the chromatographic fingerprints of traditional Chinese medicines.

  18. Creating Birds of Similar Feathers: Leveraging Similarity to Improve Teacher-Student Relationships and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Hunter; Brinkworth, Maureen E.; King, Aaron M.; Hsu, Laura M.; McIntyre, Joseph; Rogers, Todd

    2016-01-01

    When people perceive themselves as similar to others, greater liking and closer relationships typically result. In the first randomized field experiment that leverages actual similarities to improve real-world relationships, we examined the affiliations between 315 9th grade students and their 25 teachers. Students in the treatment condition…

  19. Similar or Different? The Importance of Similarities and Differences for Support Between Siblings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorpostel, Marieke; Lippe, Tanja van der; Dykstra, Pearl A.; Flap, Henk

    2007-01-01

    Using a large-scale Dutch national sample (N = 7,126), the authors examine the importance of similarities and differences in the sibling dyad for the provision of support. Similarities are assumed to enhance attraction and empathy; differences are assumed to be related to different possibilities for

  20. Common Tuina Techniques in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tuina techniques in children are similar to those in adults. Some are same in name, but different in methods,such as pushing technique. Some techniques are just applied to children rather than to adults, such as pushing method. In clinical practice, such intense Tuina techniques as nailing, grasping, and pinching are practiced as the ending manipulations, so as not to hurt children and affect treatment. Such media as ginger juice,Talcum powder and egg white are commonly used to prevent from skin abrasion and improve therapeutic effects.

  1. Geography and Similarity of Regional Cuisines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Huang, Junming; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Food occupies a central position in every culture and it is therefore of great interest to understand the evolution of food culture. The advent of the World Wide Web and online recipe repositories have begun to provide unprecedented opportunities for data-driven, quantitative study of food culture. Here we harness an online database documenting recipes from various Chinese regional cuisines and investigate the similarity of regional cuisines in terms of geography and climate. We find that geographical proximity, rather than climate proximity, is a crucial factor that determines the similarity of regional cuisines. We develop a model of regional cuisine evolution that provides helpful clues for understanding the evolution of cuisines and cultures. PMID:24260166

  2. Geography and similarity of regional cuisines in China

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Food occupies a central position in every culture and it is therefore of great interest to understand the evolution of food culture. The advent of the World Wide Web and online recipe repositories has begun to provide unprecedented opportunities for data-driven, quantitative study of food culture. Here we harness an online database documenting recipes from various Chinese regional cuisines and investigate the similarity of regional cuisines in terms of geography and climate. We found that the geographical proximity, rather than climate proximity is a crucial factor that determines the similarity of regional cuisines. We develop a model of regional cuisine evolution that provides helpful clues to understand the evolution of cuisines and cultures.

  3. Geography and similarity of regional cuisines in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Huang, Junming; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhou, Tao; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2013-01-01

    Food occupies a central position in every culture and it is therefore of great interest to understand the evolution of food culture. The advent of the World Wide Web and online recipe repositories have begun to provide unprecedented opportunities for data-driven, quantitative study of food culture. Here we harness an online database documenting recipes from various Chinese regional cuisines and investigate the similarity of regional cuisines in terms of geography and climate. We find that geographical proximity, rather than climate proximity, is a crucial factor that determines the similarity of regional cuisines. We develop a model of regional cuisine evolution that provides helpful clues for understanding the evolution of cuisines and cultures.

  4. Proposing Cluster_Similarity Method in Order to Find as Much Better Similarities in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Feizi-Derakhshi, Mohammad-Reza

    2011-01-01

    Different ways of entering data into databases result in duplicate records that cause increasing of databases' size. This is a fact that we cannot ignore it easily. There are several methods that are used for this purpose. In this paper, we have tried to increase the accuracy of operations by using cluster similarity instead of direct similarity of fields. So that clustering is done on fields of database and according to accomplished clustering on fields, similarity degree of records is obtained. In this method by using present information in database, more logical similarity is obtained for deficient information that in general, the method of cluster similarity could improve operations 24% compared with previous methods.

  5. Assessing Classroom Assessment Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson-Beck, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Classroom assessment techniques (CATs) are teaching strategies that provide formative assessments of student learning. It has been argued that the use of CATs enhances and improves student learning. Although the various types of CATs have been extensively documented and qualitatively studied, there appears to be little quantitative research…

  6. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  7. Merchandising Techniques and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sylvie A.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that libraries employ modern booksellers' merchandising techniques to improve circulation of library materials. Using displays in various ways, the methods and reasons for weeding out books, replacing worn book jackets, and selecting new books are discussed. Suggestions for learning how to market and 11 references are provided. (RBF)

  8. Popularity, similarity, and the network extraversion bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiler, Daniel C; Kleinbaum, Adam M

    2015-05-01

    Using the emergent friendship network of an incoming cohort of students in an M.B.A. program, we examined the role of extraversion in shaping social networks. Extraversion has two important implications for the emergence of network ties: a popularity effect, in which extraverts accumulate more friends than introverts do, and a homophily effect, in which the more similar are two people's levels of extraversion, the more likely they are to become friends. These effects result in a systematic network extraversion bias, in which people's social networks will tend to be overpopulated with extraverts and underpopulated with introverts. Moreover, the most extraverted people have the greatest network extraversion bias, and the most introverted people have the least network extraversion bias. Our finding that social networks were systematically misrepresentative of the broader social environment raises questions about whether there is a societal bias toward believing other people are more extraverted than they actually are and whether introverts are better socially calibrated than extraverts.

  9. Stabilization of nonlinear systems by similarity transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina E. Zuber

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system x˙=A(x+b(xu, u(x=s∗(xx, x∈ℝn, where the pair (A(x,b(x is given, we obtain the feedback vector s(x to stabilize the corresponding closed loop system. For an arbitrarily chosen constant vector g, a sufficient condition of the existence and an explicit form of a similarity transformation T(A(x,b(x,g is established. The latter transforms matrix A(x into the Frobenius matrix, vector b(x into g, and an unknown feedback vector s(x into the first unit vector. The boundaries of A˜(y,g are determined by the boundaries of {∂kA(x∂xk,∂kb(x∂xk}, k=0,n−1¯. The stabilization of the transformed system is subject to the choice of the constant vector g.

  10. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine;

    2010-01-01

    Expertise-seeking research studies how people search for expertise and choose whom to contact in the context of a specific task. An important outcome are models that identify factors that influence expert finding. Expertise retrieval addresses the same problem, expert finding, but from a system......-seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts......, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content...

  11. Social Values as Arguments: Similar is Convincing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory R Maio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., equality leads to freedom. Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness.

  12. Similarity based mixed transaction concurrency control protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Yi; LU Yan-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Due to the various performance requirements and data access restrictions of different types of real-time transactions, concurrency control protocols which had been designed for the systems with single type of transactions are not sufficient for mixed real-time database systems (MRTDBS), where different types of real-time transactions coexist in the systems concurrently. In this paper, a new concurrency control protocol MRTT_CC for mixed real-time transactions is proposed. The new strategy integrates with different concurrency control protocols to meet the deadline requirements of different types of real-time transactions. The data similarity concept is also explored in the new protocol to reduce the blocking time of soft real-time transactions, which increases their chances to meet the deadlines. Simulation experiments show that the new protocol has gained good performance.

  13. I/O-Efficient Similarity Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Pham, Ninh Dang; Silvestri, Francesco;

    2015-01-01

    We present an I/O-efficient algorithm for computing similarity joins based on locality-sensitive hashing (LSH). In contrast to the filtering methods commonly suggested our method has provable sub-quadratic dependency on the data size. Further, in contrast to straightforward implementations of known...... LSH-based algorithms on external memory, our approach is able to take significant advantage of the available internal memory: Whereas the time complexity of classical algorithms includes a factor of N ρ, where ρ is a parameter of the LSH used, the I/O complexity of our algorithm merely includes...... a factor (N/M)ρ, where N is the data size and M is the size of internal memory. Our algorithm is randomized and outputs the correct result with high probability. It is a simple, recursive, cache-oblivious procedure, and we believe that it will be useful also in other computational settings such as parallel...

  14. Similarity criterion of flood discharge atomization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hui; Wu Shiqiang; Chen Huiling; Zhou Jie; Wu Xiufeng

    2008-01-01

    By combining the results of prototype observation of flood discharge atomization at the Wujiangdu Hydropower Station, and by adopting the serial model test method, the model scale effect was examined, the influences of the Reynolds and Weber numbers of water flow on the rain intensity of flood discharge atomization were analyzed and a rain intensity conversion relation was established. It is demonstrated that the level of atomization follows the geometric similarity relations and it is possible to ignore the influence of the surface tension of the flow when the Weber number is greater than 500. Despite limitations such as incomplete data sets, it is undoubtedly helpful to study the scale effect of atomization flow, and it is beneficial to identify the rules of the model test results in order to extrapolate to prototype prediction.

  15. Similarity problems and completely bounded maps

    CERN Document Server

    Pisier, Gilles

    2001-01-01

    These notes revolve around three similarity problems, appearing in three different contexts, but all dealing with the space B(H) of all bounded operators on a complex Hilbert space H. The first one deals with group representations, the second one with C* -algebras and the third one with the disc algebra. We describe them in detail in the introduction which follows. This volume is devoted to the background necessary to understand these three problems, to the solutions that are known in some special cases and to numerous related concepts, results, counterexamples or extensions which their investigation has generated. While the three problems seem different, it is possible to place them in a common framework using the key concept of "complete boundedness", which we present in detail. Using this notion, the three problems can all be formulated as asking whether "boundedness" implies "complete boundedness" for linear maps satisfying certain additional algebraic identities. Two chapters have been added on the HALMO...

  16. [Generics: similarities, bioequivalence but no conformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Adin, D; De Muylder, J A; Sternon, J

    2002-01-01

    The using of generic forms (GF) is presented as a potential source of budgetary "saving of money" in the field of pharmaceutical expenses. Not frequently prescribed in Belgium, they win a new interest thanks to the recent making use of the "reference repayment". Sale's authorization of GF is controlled by european rules, but some questions about their identity to original medications remain. Do similarities based only upon qualitative and quantitative composition in active molecules, pharmaceutical forms and biodisponibility give us all requested guaranties? Several cases of discordances can appear; the major elements of non conformity are the nature of excipients, notice's contents and the value of biodisponibility studies. However, in term of economy, in the drug market, development of GF appears to constitute an unavoidable phenomenon.

  17. Effective semantic search using thematic similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifullah Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Most existing semantic search systems expand search keywords using domain ontology to deal with semantic heterogeneity. They focus on matching the semantic similarity of individual keywords in a multiple-keywords query; however, they ignore the semantic relationships that exist among the keywords of the query themselves. The systems return less relevant answers for these types of queries. More relevant documents for a multiple-keywords query can be retrieved if the systems know the relationships that exist among multiple keywords in the query. The proposed search methodology matches patterns of keywords for capturing the context of keywords, and then the relevant documents are ranked according to their pattern relevance score. A prototype system has been implemented to validate the proposed search methodology. The system has been compared with existing systems for evaluation. The results demonstrate improvement in precision and recall of search.

  18. Contextual Factors for Finding Similar Experts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Katja; Balog, Krisztian; Bogers, Toine

    2010-01-01

    -seeking models, are rarely taken into account. In this article, we extend content-based expert-finding approaches with contextual factors that have been found to influence human expert finding. We focus on a task of science communicators in a knowledge-intensive environment, the task of finding similar experts......, given an example expert. Our approach combines expertise-seeking and retrieval research. First, we conduct a user study to identify contextual factors that may play a role in the studied task and environment. Then, we design expert retrieval models to capture these factors. We combine these with content......-based retrieval models and evaluate them in a retrieval experiment. Our main finding is that while content-based features are the most important, human participants also take contextual factors into account, such as media experience and organizational structure. We develop two principled ways of modeling...

  19. Soldier motivation – different or similar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    , by means of public service motivation, a concept developed within the public administration literature, we compare soldier and civilian motivation. The contribution of this paper is an analysis of whether and how Danish combat soldiers differs from other Danes in regard to public service motivation? Using...... surveys with similar questions, we find that soldiers are more normatively motivated to contribute to society than other citizens (higher commitment to the public interest), while their affectively based motivation is lower (lower compassion). This points towards a potential problem in regard......Recent research in military sociology has shown that in addition to their strong peer motivation modern soldiers are oriented toward contributing to society. It has not, however, been tested how soldier motivation differs from the motivation of other citizens in this respect. In this paper...

  20. Stability of Self-Similar Spherical Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Gaite, J

    2006-01-01

    Spherical accretion flows are simple enough for analytical study, by solution of the corresponding fluid dynamic equations. The solutions of stationary spherical flow are due to Bondi. The questions of the choice of a physical solution and of stability have been widely discussed. The answer to these questions is very dependent on the problem of boundary conditions, which vary according to whether the accretor is a compact object or a black hole. We introduce a particular, simple form of stationary spherical flow, namely, self-similar Bondi flow, as a case with physical interest in which analytic solutions for perturbations can be found. With suitable no matter-flux-perturbation boundary conditions, we will show that acoustic modes are stable in time and have no spatial instability at r=0. Furthermore, their evolution eventually becomes ergodic-like and shows no trace of instability or of acquiring any remarkable pattern.

  1. Combinatorial techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sane, Sharad S

    2013-01-01

    This is a basic text on combinatorics that deals with all the three aspects of the discipline: tricks, techniques and theory, and attempts to blend them. The book has several distinctive features. Probability and random variables with their interconnections to permutations are discussed. The theme of parity has been specially included and it covers applications ranging from solving the Nim game to the quadratic reciprocity law. Chapters related to geometry include triangulations and Sperner's theorem, classification of regular polytopes, tilings and an introduction to the Eulcidean Ramsey theory. Material on group actions covers Sylow theory, automorphism groups and a classification of finite subgroups of orthogonal groups. All chapters have a large number of exercises with varying degrees of difficulty, ranging from material suitable for Mathematical Olympiads to research.

  2. New hyperspectral discrimination measure for spectral similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingzi; Chang, Chein-I.; Ren, Hsuan; D'Amico, Francis M.; Jensen, James O.

    2003-09-01

    Spectral angle mapper (SAM) has been widely used as a spectral similarity measure for multispectral and hyperspectral image analysis. It has been shown to be equivalent to Euclidean distance when the spectral angle is relatively small. Most recently, a stochastic measure, called spectral information divergence (SID) has been introduced to model the spectrum of a hyperspectral image pixel as a probability distribution so that spectral variations can be captured more effectively in a stochastic manner. This paper develops a new hyperspectral spectral discriminant measure, which is a mixture of SID and SAM. More specifically, let xi and xj denote two hyperspectral image pixel vectors with their corresponding spectra specified by si and sj. SAM is the spectral angle of xi and xj and is defined by [SAM(si,sj)]. Similarly, SID measures the information divergence between xi and xj and is defined by [SID(si,sj)]. The new measure, referred to as (SID,SAM)-mixed measure has two variations defined by SID(si,sj)xtan(SAM(si,sj)] and SID(si,sj)xsin[SAM(si,sj)] where tan [SAM(si,sj)] and sin[SAM(si,sj)] are the tangent and the sine of the angle between vectors x and y. The advantage of the developed (SID,SAM)-mixed measure combines both strengths of SID and SAM in spectral discriminability. In order to demonstrate its utility, a comparative study is conducted among the new measure, SID and SAM where the discriminatory power of the (SID,SAM)-mixed measure is significantly improved over SID and SAM.

  3. Logistics Service Provider Selection through an Integrated Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Making Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen Akman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the demand of third-party logistics provider becomes an increasingly important issue for companies to improve their customer service and to decrease logistics costs. This paper presents an integrated fuzzy approach for the evaluation and selection of 3rd party logistics service providers. This method consists of two techniques: (1 use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to identify weights of evaluation criteria; (2 apply fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS method to evaluate and sequence alternatives and to make the final selection. Finally, an actual industrial application is performed in logistics department of a tire manufacturing company. For this, first, eight logistics supplier selection criteria were determined, and then the best alternative among seven logistics service provider companies was selected by the proposed method.

  4. Generalized similarity in finite range solar wind magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S C; Nicol, R M

    2009-12-11

    Extended or generalized similarity is a ubiquitous but not well understood feature of turbulence that is realized over a finite range of scales. The ULYSSES spacecraft solar polar passes at solar minimum provide in situ observations of evolving anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the solar wind under ideal conditions of fast quiet flow. We find a single generalized scaling function characterizes this finite range turbulence and is insensitive to plasma conditions. The recent unusually inactive solar minimum--with turbulent fluctuations down by a factor of approximately 2 in power--provides a test of this invariance.

  5. EDITORIAL: Imaging systems and techniques Imaging systems and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuqiang; Giakos, George; Nikita, Konstantina; Pastorino, Matteo; Karras, Dimitrios

    2009-10-01

    and nano-clinics for optical diagnostics and targeted therapy, can play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. These techniques can also be used to provide efficient drug delivery for treatment of other diseases, with increased sensitivity and specificity. Similarly, enhanced stand-off detection, classification, identification and surveillance techniques, for comprehensive civilian and military target protection and enhanced space situational awareness can open new frontiers of research and applications in the defence arena and homeland security. For instance, the development of potential imaging sensor architectures, enhanced remote sensing systems, ladars, lidars and radars can provide data capable of ensuring continuous monitoring of various imaging/physical/chemical parameters under different operating conditions, using both active and passive detection principles, reconfigurable and scalable focal plane array architectures, reliable systems for stand-off detection of explosives, and enhanced airport security. The above areas pose challenging problems to the technical community and indicate an ever-growing need for innovative and auspicious solutions. We would like to thank all authors for their valuable contributions, without which this special issue would not have become reality.

  6. Similarity-Based Prediction of Travel Times for Vehicles Traveling on Known Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiesyte, Dalia; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    , historical data in combination with real-time data may be used to predict the future travel times of vehicles more accurately, thus improving the experience of the users who rely on such information. We propose a Nearest-Neighbor Trajectory (NNT) technique that identifies the historical trajectory......The use of centralized, real-time position tracking is proliferating in the areas of logistics and public transportation. Real-time positions can be used to provide up-to-date information to a variety of users, and they can also be accumulated for uses in subsequent data analyses. In particular...... of vehicles that travel along known routes. In empirical studies with real data from buses, we evaluate how well the proposed distance functions are capable of predicting future vehicle movements. Second, we propose a main-memory index structure that enables incremental similarity search and that is capable...

  7. Similarity and symmetry methods applications in elasticity and mechanics of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mladenov, Ivaïlo

    2014-01-01

    The principle aim of the book is to present a self-contained, modern account of similarity and symmetry methods, which are important mathematical tools for both physicists, engineers and applied mathematicians. The idea is to provide a balanced presentation of the mathematical techniques and applications of symmetry methods in mathematics, physics and engineering. That is why it includes recent developments and many examples in finding systematically conservation laws, local and nonlocal symmetries for ordinary and partial differential equations. The role of continuous symmetries in classical and quantum field theories is exposed at a technical level accessible even for non specialists. The importance of symmetries in continuum mechanics and mechanics of materials is highlighted through recent developments, such as the construction of constitutive models for various materials combining Lie symmetries with experimental data. As a whole this book is a unique collection of contributions from experts in the field...

  8. Comparison of Various Similarity Measures for Average Image Hash in Mobile Phone Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisa Chaerul Haviana, Sam; Taufik, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issue in Content Based Image Retrieval (CIBR) is similarity measures for resulting image hashes. The main key challenge is to find the most benefits distance or similarity measures for calculating the similarity in term of speed and computing costs, specially under limited computing capabilities device like mobile phone. This study we utilize twelve most common and popular distance or similarity measures technique implemented in mobile phone application, to be compared and studied. The results show that all similarity measures implemented in this study was perform equally under mobile phone application. This gives more possibilities for method combinations to be implemented for image retrieval.

  9. Reexamining the phonological similarity effect in immediate serial recall: the roles of type of similarity, category cuing, and item recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prahlad; Lipinski, John; Aktunc, Emrah

    2005-09-01

    Study of the phonological similarity effect (PSE) in immediate serial recall (ISR) has produced a conflicting body of results. Five experiments tested various theoretical ideas that together may help integrate these results. Experiments 1 and 2 tested alternative accounts that explain the effect of phonological similarity on item recall in terms of feature overlap, linguistic structure, or serial order. In each experiment, the participants' ISR was assessed for rhyming, alliterative, and similar nonrhyming/nonalliterative lists. The results were consistent with the predictions of the serial order account, with item recall being higher for rhyming than for alliterative lists and higher for alliterative than for similar nonrhyming/nonalliterative lists. Experiments 3 and 4 showed that these item recall differences are reduced when list items repeat across lists. Experiment 5 employed rhyming and dissimilar one-syllable and two-syllable lists to demonstrate that recall for similar (rhyming) lists can be better than that for dissimilar lists even in a typical ISR task in which words are used, providing a direct reversal of the classic PSE. These and other previously published results are interpreted and integrated within a proposed theoretical framework that offers an account of the PSE.

  10. Similarity and rules United: similarity- and rule-based processing in a single neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguts, Tom; Fias, Wim

    2009-03-01

    A central controversy in cognitive science concerns the roles of rules versus similarity. To gain some leverage on this problem, we propose that rule- versus similarity-based processes can be characterized as extremes in a multidimensional space that is composed of at least two dimensions: the number of features (Pothos, 2005) and the physical presence of features. The transition of similarity- to rule-based processing is conceptualized as a transition in this space. To illustrate this, we show how a neural network model uses input features (and in this sense produces similarity-based responses) when it has a low learning rate or in the early phases of training, but it switches to using self-generated, more abstract features (and in this sense produces rule-based responses) when it has a higher learning rate or is in the later phases of training. Relations with categorization and the psychology of learning are pointed out.

  11. Multidimensional Scaling Visualization Using Parametric Similarity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply multidimensional scaling (MDS and parametric similarity indices (PSI in the analysis of complex systems (CS. Each CS is viewed as a dynamical system, exhibiting an output time-series to be interpreted as a manifestation of its behavior. We start by adopting a sliding window to sample the original data into several consecutive time periods. Second, we define a given PSI for tracking pieces of data. We then compare the windows for different values of the parameter, and we generate the corresponding MDS maps of ‘points’. Third, we use Procrustes analysis to linearly transform the MDS charts for maximum superposition and to build a globalMDS map of “shapes”. This final plot captures the time evolution of the phenomena and is sensitive to the PSI adopted. The generalized correlation, theMinkowski distance and four entropy-based indices are tested. The proposed approach is applied to the Dow Jones Industrial Average stock market index and the Europe Brent Spot Price FOB time-series.

  12. Similarities in Populations of Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Fall, S Michael

    2012-01-01

    We compare the observed mass functions and age distributions of star clusters in six well-studied galaxies: the Milky Way, Magellanic Clouds, M83, M51, and Antennae. In combination, these distributions span wide ranges of mass and age: $10^2\\lea M/M_{\\odot}\\lea10^6$ and $10^6\\lea\\tau/yr \\lea10^9$. We confirm that the distributions are well represented by power laws: $dN/dM\\propto M^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta \\approx-1.9$ and $dN/d\\tau\\propto\\tau^{\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma\\approx -0.8$. The mass and age distributions are approximately independent of each other, ruling out simple models of mass-dependent disruption. As expected, there are minor differences among the exponents, at a level close to the true uncertainties, $\\epsilon_{\\beta}\\sim\\epsilon_{\\gamma}\\sim$~0.1--0.2. However, the overwhelming impression is the similarity of the mass functions and age distributions of clusters in these different galaxies, including giant and dwarf, quiescent and interacting galaxies. This is an important empirical result, justifying...

  13. Hot self-similar relativistic MHD flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zakamska, Nadia L; Blandford, Roger D

    2008-01-01

    We consider axisymmetric relativistic jets with a toroidal magnetic field and an ultrarelativistic equation of state, with the goal of studying the lateral structure of jets whose pressure is matched to the pressure of the medium through which they propagate. We find all self-similar steady-state solutions of the relativistic MHD equations for this setup. One of the solutions is the case of a parabolic jet being accelerated by the pressure gradient as it propagates through a medium with pressure declining as p(z)\\propto z^{-2}. As the jet material expands due to internal pressure gradients, it runs into the ambient medium resulting in a pile-up of material along the jet boundary, while the magnetic field acts to produce a magnetic pinch along the axis of the jet. Such jets can be in a lateral pressure equilibrium only if their opening angle \\theta_j at distance z is smaller than about 1/\\gamma, where \\gamma is the characteristic bulk Lorentz-factor at this distance; otherwise, different parts of the jet canno...

  14. Understanding similarity of groundwater systems with empirical copulas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaf, Ezra; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Within the classification framework for groundwater systems that aims for identifying similarity of hydrogeological systems and transferring information from a well-observed to an ungauged system (Haaf and Barthel, 2015; Haaf and Barthel, 2016), we propose a copula-based method for describing groundwater-systems similarity. Copulas are an emerging method in hydrological sciences that make it possible to model the dependence structure of two groundwater level time series, independently of the effects of their marginal distributions. This study is based on Samaniego et al. (2010), which described an approach calculating dissimilarity measures from bivariate empirical copula densities of streamflow time series. Subsequently, streamflow is predicted in ungauged basins by transferring properties from similar catchments. The proposed approach is innovative because copula-based similarity has not yet been applied to groundwater systems. Here we estimate the pairwise dependence structure of 600 wells in Southern Germany using 10 years of weekly groundwater level observations. Based on these empirical copulas, dissimilarity measures are estimated, such as the copula's lower- and upper corner cumulated probability, copula-based Spearman's rank correlation - as proposed by Samaniego et al. (2010). For the characterization of groundwater systems, copula-based metrics are compared with dissimilarities obtained from precipitation signals corresponding to the presumed area of influence of each groundwater well. This promising approach provides a new tool for advancing similarity-based classification of groundwater system dynamics. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2015. Methods for assessing hydrogeological similarity and for classification of groundwater systems on the regional scale, EGU General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria. Haaf, E., Barthel, R., 2016. An approach for classification of hydrogeological systems at the regional scale based on groundwater hydrographs EGU General Assembly

  15. Experimental Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyer, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass spectro...... in data interpretation, and the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are clarified. New instrumental developments involving cryo-cooled storage rings, which show great promise for the future, are briefly touched upon.......Gas-phase ion spectroscopy requires specialised apparatus, both when it comes to measuring photon absorption and light emission (fluorescence). The reason is much lower ion densities compared to solution-phase spectroscopy. In this chapter different setups are described, all based on mass...... to circumvent this is discussed based on a chemical approach, namely tagging of ammonium groups by crown ether. Prompt dissociation can sometimes be identified from the total beam depletion differing from that due to statistical dissociation. Special emphasis in this chapter is on the limitations and pitfalls...

  16. Similarly shaped letters evoke similar colors in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Rouw, Romke; Ramachandran, V S; Coulson, Seana

    2011-04-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological condition in which viewing numbers or letters (graphemes) results in the concurrent sensation of color. While the anatomical substrates underlying this experience are well understood, little research to date has investigated factors influencing the particular colors associated with particular graphemes or how synesthesia occurs developmentally. A recent suggestion of such an interaction has been proposed in the cascaded cross-tuning (CCT) model of synesthesia, which posits that in synesthetes connections between grapheme regions and color area V4 participate in a competitive activation process, with synesthetic colors arising during the component-stage of grapheme processing. This model more directly suggests that graphemes sharing similar component features (lines, curves, etc.) should accordingly activate more similar synesthetic colors. To test this proposal, we created and regressed synesthetic color-similarity matrices for each of 52 synesthetes against a letter-confusability matrix, an unbiased measure of visual similarity among graphemes. Results of synesthetes' grapheme-color correspondences indeed revealed that more similarly shaped graphemes corresponded with more similar synesthetic colors, with stronger effects observed in individuals with more intense synesthetic experiences (projector synesthetes). These results support the CCT model of synesthesia, implicate early perceptual mechanisms as driving factors in the elicitation of synesthetic hues, and further highlight the relationship between conceptual and perceptual factors in this phenomenon. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Erosive Burning Study Utilizing Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfaro, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A 6-segment subscale motor was developed to generate a range of internal environments from which multiple propellants could be characterized for erosive burning. The motor test bed was designed to provide a high Mach number, high mass flux environment. Propellant regression rates were monitored for each segment utilizing ultrasonic measurement techniques. These data were obtained for three propellants RSRM, ETM- 03, and Castor@ IVA, which span two propellant types, PBAN (polybutadiene acrylonitrile) and HTPB (hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene). The characterization of these propellants indicates a remarkably similar erosive burning response to the induced flow environment. Propellant burnrates for each type had a conventional response with respect to pressure up to a bulk flow velocity threshold. Each propellant, however, had a unique threshold at which it would experience an increase in observed propellant burn rate. Above the observed threshold each propellant again demonstrated a similar enhanced burn rate response corresponding to the local flow environment.

  18. Long-term oil contamination causes similar changes in microbial communities of two distinct soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jingqiu; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Dalin; Wang, Michael Cai; Huang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Since total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) are toxic and persistent in environments, studying the impact of oil contamination on microbial communities in different soils is vital to oil production engineering, effective soil management and pollution control. This study analyzed the impact of oil contamination on the structure, activity and function in carbon metabolism of microbial communities of Chernozem soil from Daqing oil field and Cinnamon soil from Huabei oil field through both culture-dependent techniques and a culture-independent technique-pyrosequencing. Results revealed that pristine microbial communities in these two soils presented disparate patterns, where Cinnamon soil showed higher abundance of alkane, (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) PAHs and TPH degraders, number of cultivable microbes, bacterial richness, bacterial biodiversity, and stronger microbial activity and function in carbon metabolism than Chernozem soil. It suggested that complicated properties of microbes and soils resulted in the difference in soil microbial patterns. However, the changes of microbial communities caused by oil contamination were similar in respect of two dominant phenomena. Firstly, the microbial community structures were greatly changed, with higher abundance, higher bacterial biodiversity, occurrence of Candidate_division_BRC1 and TAO6, disappearance of BD1-5 and Candidate_division_OD1, dominance of Streptomyces, higher percentage of hydrocarbon-degrading groups, and lower percentage of nitrogen-transforming groups. Secondly, microbial activity and function in carbon metabolism were significantly enhanced. Based on the characteristics of microbial communities in the two soils, appropriate strategy for in situ bioremediation was provided for each oil field. This research underscored the usefulness of combination of culture-dependent techniques and next-generation sequencing techniques both to unravel the microbial patterns and understand the ecological impact of

  19. Surface science techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Walls, JM

    2013-01-01

    This volume provides a comprehensive and up to the minute review of the techniques used to determine the nature and composition of surfaces. Originally published as a special issue of the Pergamon journal Vacuum, it comprises a carefully edited collection of chapters written by specialists in each of the techniques and includes coverage of the electron and ion spectroscopies, as well as the atom-imaging methods such as the atom probe field ion microscope and the scanning tunnelling microscope. Surface science is an important area of study since the outermost surface layers play a crucial role

  20. Brachytherapy applications and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Devlin, Phillip M

    2015-01-01

    Written by the foremost experts in the field, this volume is a comprehensive text and practical reference on contemporary brachytherapy. The book provides detailed, site-specific information on applications and techniques of brachytherapy in the head and neck, central nervous system, breast, thorax, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract, as well as on gynecologic brachytherapy, low dose rate and high dose rate sarcoma brachytherapy, vascular brachytherapy, and pediatric applications. The book thoroughly describes and compares the four major techniques used in brachytherapy-intraca

  1. Modern recording techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, David Miles

    2013-01-01

    As the most popular and authoritative guide to recording Modern Recording Techniques provides everything you need to master the tools and day to day practice of music recording and production. From room acoustics and running a session to mic placement and designing a studio Modern Recording Techniques will give you a really good grounding in the theory and industry practice. Expanded to include the latest digital audio technology the 7th edition now includes sections on podcasting, new surround sound formats and HD and audio.If you are just starting out or looking for a step up

  2. Wireless communications algorithmic techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vitetta, Giorgio; Colavolpe, Giulio; Pancaldi, Fabrizio; Martin, Philippa A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces the theoretical elements at the basis of various classes of algorithms commonly employed in the physical layer (and, in part, in MAC layer) of wireless communications systems. It focuses on single user systems, so ignoring multiple access techniques. Moreover, emphasis is put on single-input single-output (SISO) systems, although some relevant topics about multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are also illustrated.Comprehensive wireless specific guide to algorithmic techniquesProvides a detailed analysis of channel equalization and channel coding for wi

  3. Hydrological Catchment Similarity Assessment in Geum River Catchments, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ara; Park, Kisoon; Lee, Hyosang

    2013-04-01

    Similarity measure of catchments is essential for regionalization studies, which provide in depth analysis in hydrological response and flood estimations at ungauged catchments. However, this similarity measure is often biased to the selected catchments and is notclearly explained in hydrological sense. This study applied a type of hydrological similarity distance measure-Flood Estimation Handbook to 25 Geum river catchments, Korea. Three Catchment Characteristics, Area (A)-Annual precipitation (SAAR)-SCS Curve Number (CN), are used in Euclidian distance measures. Furthermore, six index of Flow Duration Curve (ILow:Q275/Q185, IDrought:Q355/Q185, IFlood:Qmax/Q185, IAbundant:Q95/Q185, IFloodDuration:Q10/Q355 and IRiverRegime:Qmax/Qmin) are applied to clustering analysis of SPSS. The catchments' grouping of hydrological similarity measures suggests three groups: H1 (Cheongseong, Gidae, Bukil, Oksan, Seockhwa, Habgang and Sangyeogyo), H2 (Cheongju, Guryong, Ugon, Boksu, Useong and Seokdong) and H3 (Muju, Yangganggyo and YongdamDam). The four catchments (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, DaecheongDam and Indong) are not grouped in this study. The clustering analysis of FDC provides four Groups; CFDC1 (Muju, YongdamDam, Yangganggyo, DaecheongDam, Cheongseong, Gidae, Seokhwa, Bukil, Habgang, Cheongju, Oksan, Yuseong and Guryong), CFDC2 (Cheoncheon, Donghyang, Boksu, Indong, Nonsan, Seokdong, Ugon, Simcheon, Useong and Sangyeogyo), CFDC3 (Songcheon) and CFDC4 (Tanbu). The six catchments (out of seven) of H1 are grouped in CFDC1, while Sangyeogyo is grouped in CFDC2. The four catchments (out of six) of H2 are also grouped in CFDC2, while Cheongju and Guryong are grouped in CFDC1. The catchments of H3 are categorized in CFDC1. The authors examine the results (H1, H2 and H3) of similarity measure based on catchment physical descriptors with results (CFDC1 and CFDC2) of clustering based on catchment hydrological response. The results of hydrological similarity measures are supported by

  4. Nilpotent operators similar to irreducible operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; Chunlan

    2001-01-01

    [1]Halmos, P. R., A Hilbert Space Problem Book, Princeton, New Jersey: D Van Nostrand, 1967.[2]Halmos, P. R., Irreducible operators, Mich. Math. J., 1968, 15: 215—223.[3]Voiculescu, D., A non-commutative Weyl-Von Neuwann theorem, Rev. Roum. Math. Pures et, 1976, Appl. 21: 97—113.[4]Gilfeather, F., Strong reducibility of operators., Indiana Univ. Math. J., 1972, 22: 393—397.[5]Jiang, Z. J., Sun, S. L., On completely irreducible operators, Acta Sci. Natur. Univ. Jilin (in Chinese), 1992, 4: 20—29.[6]Fong, C. K., Jiang, C. L., Normal operators similar to irreducible operators, Acta Math. Sinica, New series, 1994, 10: 192—205.[7]Jiang, C. L., Li, X., The irreducible decomposition of Cowen-Douglas operators and operator weighted shifts, Acta Sci. Math. (Szeged), 2000, 48: 1—18.[8]Jiang, C. L., Wu, P. Y., Sums of strongly irreducible operator, Houston. J. Math., 1998, 24: 467—481.[9]Davidson, K. R., Herrero, D. A., The Jordan form of a bitriangular operator., J. Funct. Anal., 1990, 94: 27—73.[10]Herrero, D. A., Approximation of Hilbert Space Operators Research Notes in Math 224, Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1990.[11]Jiang Chunlan, Wang Zongyao, Strongly irreducible operators on Hilbert space, Research Notes in Math 389, Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1998.[12]Tosio Kato, Perturbation Theory for Linear Operators, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo: Springer-Verlag, 1984.

  5. UNSOLVED AND LATENT CRIME: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Kleymenov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343Purpose of the article is to study the specific legal and informational nature of the unsolved crime in comparison with the phenomenon of delinquency, special study and analysis to improve the efficiency of law enforcement.Methods of research are abstract-logical, systematic, statistical, study of documents. The main results of research. Unsolved crime has specific legal, statistical and informational na-ture as the crime phenomenon, which is expressed in cumulative statistical population of unsolved crimes. An array of unsolved crimes is the sum of the number of acts, things of which is suspended and not terminated. The fault of the perpetrator in these cases is not proven, they are not considered by the court, it is not a conviction. Unsolved crime must be registered. Latent crime has a different informational nature. The main symptom of latent crimes is the uncertainty for the subjects of law enforcement, which delegated functions of identification, registration and accounting. Latent crime is not recorded. At the same time, there is a "border" area between the latent and unsolved crimes, which includes covered from the account of the crime. In modern Russia the majority of crimes covered from accounting by passing the decision about refusal in excitation of criminal case. Unsolved crime on their criminogenic consequences represents a significant danger to the public is higher compared to latent crime.It is conducted in the article a special analysis of the differences and similarities in the unsolved latent crime for the first time in criminological literature.The analysis proves the need for radical changes in the current Russian assessment of the state of crime and law enforcement to solve crimes. The article argues that an unsolved crime is a separate and, in contrast to latent crime, poorly understood phenomenon. However unsolved latent crime and have common features and areas of interaction.

  6. Generalized similarity, renormalization groups, and nonlinear clocks for multiscaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M; O'Malley, D; Cushman, J H

    2014-04-01

    Fixed points of the renormalization group operator Rp,rX(t)≡X(rt)/rp are said to be p-self-similar. Here X(t) is an arbitrary stochastic process. The concept of a p-self-similar process is generalized via the renormalization group operator RF,GX(t)=F[X(G(t))], where F and G are bijections on (-∞,∞) and [0,∞), respectively. If X(t) is a fixed point of RF,G, then X(t) is said to be (F,G)-self-similar. We say Y(t) is (F,G)-X(t)-similar if RF,GX(t)=Y(t) in distribution. Exit time distributions and finite-size Lyapunov exponents were obtained for these latter processes. A power law multiscaling process is defined with a multipower-law clock. This process is employed to statistically represent diffusion in a nanopore, a monolayer fluid confined between atomically structured surfaces. The tools presented provide a straightforward method to statistically represent any multiscaling process in time.

  7. Bilateral Waveform Similarity Overlap-and-Add Based Packet Loss Concealment for Voice over IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Yeh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper invested a bilateral waveform similarity overlap-and-add algorithm for voice packet lost. Since Packet lost will cause the semantic misunderstanding, it has become one of the most essential problems in speech communication. This investment is based on waveform similarity measure using overlap-and-Add algorithm and provides the bilateral information to enhance the speech signal reconstruction. Traditionally, it has been improved that waveform similarity overlap-and-add (WSOLA technique is an effective algorithm to deal with packet loss concealment (PLC for real-time time communication. WSOLA algorithm is widely applied to deal with the length adaptation and packet loss concealment of speech signal. Time scale modification of audio signal is one of the most essential research topics in data communication, especially in voice of IP (VoIP. Herein, the proposed the bilateral WSOLA (BWSOLA that is derived from WSOLA. Instead of only exploitation one direction speech data, the proposed method will reconstruct the lost voice data according to the preceding and cascading data. The related algorithms have been developed to achieve the optimal reconstructing estimation. The experimental results show that the quality of the reconstructed speech signal of the bilateral WSOLA is much better compared to the standard WSOLA and GWSOLA on different packet loss rate and length using the metrics PESQ and MOS. The significant improvement is obtained by bilateral information and proposed method. The proposed bilateral waveform similarity overlap-and-add (BWSOLA outperforms the traditional approaches especially in the long duration data loss.

  8. ClusTrack: feature extraction and similarity measures for clustering of genome-wide data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halfdan Rydbeck

    Full Text Available Clustering is a popular technique for explorative analysis of data, as it can reveal subgroupings and similarities between data in an unsupervised manner. While clustering is routinely applied to gene expression data, there is a lack of appropriate general methodology for clustering of sequence-level genomic and epigenomic data, e.g. ChIP-based data. We here introduce a general methodology for clustering data sets of coordinates relative to a genome assembly, i.e. genomic tracks. By defining appropriate feature extraction approaches and similarity measures, we allow biologically meaningful clustering to be performed for genomic tracks using standard clustering algorithms. An implementation of the methodology is provided through a tool, ClusTrack, which allows fine-tuned clustering analyses to be specified through a web-based interface. We apply our methods to the clustering of occupancy of the H3K4me1 histone modification in samples from a range of different cell types. The majority of samples form meaningful subclusters, confirming that the definitions of features and similarity capture biological, rather than technical, variation between the genomic tracks. Input data and results are available, and can be reproduced, through a Galaxy Pages document at http://hyperbrowser.uio.no/hb/u/hb-superuser/p/clustrack. The clustering functionality is available as a Galaxy tool, under the menu option "Specialized analyzis of tracks", and the submenu option "Cluster tracks based on genome level similarity", at the Genomic HyperBrowser server: http://hyperbrowser.uio.no/hb/.

  9. A hierarchical knowledge-based approach for retrieving similar medical images described with semantic annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Camille; Beaulieu, Christopher F; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Daniel L

    2014-06-01

    Computer-assisted image retrieval applications could assist radiologist interpretations by identifying similar images in large archives as a means to providing decision support. However, the semantic gap between low-level image features and their high level semantics may impair the system performances. Indeed, it can be challenging to comprehensively characterize the images using low-level imaging features to fully capture the visual appearance of diseases on images, and recently the use of semantic terms has been advocated to provide semantic descriptions of the visual contents of images. However, most of the existing image retrieval strategies do not consider the intrinsic properties of these terms during the comparison of the images beyond treating them as simple binary (presence/absence) features. We propose a new framework that includes semantic features in images and that enables retrieval of similar images in large databases based on their semantic relations. It is based on two main steps: (1) annotation of the images with semantic terms extracted from an ontology, and (2) evaluation of the similarity of image pairs by computing the similarity between the terms using the Hierarchical Semantic-Based Distance (HSBD) coupled to an ontological measure. The combination of these two steps provides a means of capturing the semantic correlations among the terms used to characterize the images that can be considered as a potential solution to deal with the semantic gap problem. We validate this approach in the context of the retrieval and the classification of 2D regions of interest (ROIs) extracted from computed tomographic (CT) images of the liver. Under this framework, retrieval accuracy of more than 0.96 was obtained on a 30-images dataset using the Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain (NDCG) index that is a standard technique used to measure the effectiveness of information retrieval algorithms when a separate reference standard is available. Classification

  10. FACT: functional annotation transfer between proteins with similar feature architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestler, Tina; von Haeseler, Arndt; Ebersberger, Ingo

    2010-08-09

    The increasing number of sequenced genomes provides the basis for exploring the genetic and functional diversity within the tree of life. Only a tiny fraction of the encoded proteins undergoes a thorough experimental characterization. For the remainder, bioinformatics annotation tools are the only means to infer their function. Exploiting significant sequence similarities to already characterized proteins, commonly taken as evidence for homology, is the prevalent method to deduce functional equivalence. Such methods fail when homologs are too diverged, or when they have assumed a different function. Finally, due to convergent evolution, functional equivalence is not necessarily linked to common ancestry. Therefore complementary approaches are required to identify functional equivalents. We present the Feature Architecture Comparison Tool http://www.cibiv.at/FACT to search for functionally equivalent proteins. FACT uses the similarity between feature architectures of two proteins, i.e., the arrangements of functional domains, secondary structure elements and compositional properties, as a proxy for their functional equivalence. A scoring function measures feature architecture similarities, which enables searching for functional equivalents in entire proteomes. Our evaluation of 9,570 EC classified enzymes revealed that FACT, using the full feature, set outperformed the existing architecture-based approaches by identifying significantly more functional equivalents as highest scoring proteins. We show that FACT can identify functional equivalents that share no significant sequence similarity. However, when the highest scoring protein of FACT is also the protein with the highest local sequence similarity, it is in 99% of the cases functionally equivalent to the query. We demonstrate the versatility of FACT by identifying a missing link in the yeast glutathione metabolism and also by searching for the human GolgA5 equivalent in Trypanosoma brucei. FACT facilitates a

  11. Looking for Similarities Between Lowland (Flash) Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, C.; Teuling, R.; Torfs, P.; Hobbelt, L.; Jansen, F.; Melsen, L.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2012-12-01

    similar manner. Brauer, C. C., Teuling, A.J., Overeem, A., van der Velde, Y., Hazenberg, P., Warmerdam, P. M. M. and Uijlenhoet, R.: Anatomy of extraordinary rainfall and flash flood in a Dutch lowland catchment, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 15, 1991-2005, 2011.

  12. Search Profiles Based on User to Cluster Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Bošnjak

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Privacy of web users' query search logs has, since the AOL dataset release few years ago, been treated as one of the central issues concerning privacy on the Internet. Therefore, the question of privacy preservation has also raised a lot of attention in different communities surrounding the search engines. Usage of clustering methods for providing low level contextual search while retaining high privacy-utility tradeoff, is examined in this paper. By using only the user`s cluster membership the search query terms could be no longer retained thus providing less privacy concerns both for the users and companies. The paper brings lightweight framework for combining query words, user similarities and clustering in order to provide a meaningful way of mining user searches while protecting their privacy. This differs from previous attempts for privacy preserving in the attempt to anonymize the queries instead of the users.

  13. SEARCH PROFILES BASED ON USER TO CLUSTER SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Subasic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy of web users' query search logs has, since last year's AOL dataset release, been treated as one of the central issues concerning privacy on the Internet, Therefore, the question of privacy preservation has also raised a lot of attention in different communities surrounding the search engines. Usage of clustering methods for providing low level contextual search, wriile retaining high privacy/utility is examined in this paper. By using only the user's cluster membership the search query terms could be no longer retained thus providing less privacy concerns both for the users and companies. The paper brings lightweight framework for combining query words, user similarities and clustering in order to provide a meaningful way of mining user searches while protecting their privacy. This differs from previous attempts for privacy preserving in the attempt to anonymize the queries instead of the users.

  14. CELL FORMATION IN GROUP TECHNOLOGY: A SIMILARITY ORDER CLUSTERING APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey C. Onwubolu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping parts into families which can be produced by a cluster of machine cells is the cornerstone of cellular manufacturing, which in turn is the building block for flexible manufacturing systems. Cellular manufacturing is a group technology (GT concept that has recently attracted the attention of manufacturing firms operating under jobshop environment to consider redesigning their manufacturing systems so as to take advantage of increased throughput, reduction in work-in-progress, set-up time, and lead times; leading to product quality and customer satisfaction. The paper presents a generalised approach for machine cell formation from a jobshop using similarity order clustering technique for preliminary cell grouping and considering machine utilisation for the design of nonintergrouping material handling using the single-pass heuristic. The work addresses the shortcomings of cellular manufacturing systems design and implementations which ignore machine utilisations, group sizes and intergroup moves.

  15. COLOR PERCEPTION HISTOGRAM FOR IMAGE RETRIEVAL USING MULTIPLE SIMILARITY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Malini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to increase the retrieval efficiency of proposed image retrieval system on the basis of color content. A new idea of feature extraction based on color perception histogram is proposed. First, the color histogram is constructed for HSV image. Secondly, the true color and grey color components are identified based on hue and intensity. The weight for true and grey color components is calculated using NBS distance. An updated histogram is constructed using weighted true and grey color values. The color features extracted from the updated histogram of query image and for all the images in image database are compared with existing color histogram based technique by using multiple similarity measures. Experimental results show that proposed image retrieval based on the color perception histogram gives higher retrieval performance in terms of high average precision and average recall with less computational complexity.

  16. Novel Foraminal Expansion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senturk, Salim; Ciplak, Mert; Oktenoglu, Tunc; Sasani, Mehdi; Egemen, Emrah; Yaman, Onur; Suzer, Tuncer

    2016-01-01

    The technique we describe was developed for cervical foraminal stenosis for cases in which a keyhole foraminotomy would not be effective. Many cervical stenosis cases are so severe that keyhole foraminotomy is not successful. However, the technique outlined in this study provides adequate enlargement of an entire cervical foraminal diameter. This study reports on a novel foraminal expansion technique. Linear drilling was performed in the middle of the facet joint. A small bone graft was placed between the divided lateral masses after distraction. A lateral mass stabilization was performed with screws and rods following the expansion procedure. A cervical foramen was linearly drilled medially to laterally, then expanded with small bone grafts, and a lateral mass instrumentation was added with surgery. The patient was well after the surgery. The novel foraminal expansion is an effective surgical method for severe foraminal stenosis. PMID:27559460

  17. Benford's Law: Detection of Quantum Phase Transitions similarly as Earthquakes

    CERN Document Server

    De, Aditi Sen

    2011-01-01

    More than a century earlier, it was predicted that the first significant digit appearing in a data, be it from natural sciences or from some mathematical series, will be nonuniformly distributed, with the number one appearing with the highest frequency. This law goes by the name of Benford's law. It has been observed to hold for data from a huge variety of sources, ranging from earthquakes to infectious disease cases. Quantum phase transitions are cooperative phenomena where qualitative changes occur in physical quantities of a many-body system at zero temperature. We find that Benford's law can be applied to detect quantum phase transitions in a way that is very similar to how it can distinguish earthquakes from background noise. Being certainly of very different physical origins, seismic activity and quantum cooperative phenomena may therefore be detected by similar methods. The result may provide methods to overcome the limitations associated with precise measurements in experiments.

  18. Simulation and similarity using models to understand the world

    CERN Document Server

    Weisberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In the 1950s, John Reber convinced many Californians that the best way to solve the state's water shortage problem was to dam up the San Francisco Bay. Against massive political pressure, Reber's opponents persuaded lawmakers that doing so would lead to disaster. They did this not by empirical measurement alone, but also through the construction of a model. Simulation and Similarity explains why this was a good strategy while simultaneously providing an account of modeling and idealization in modern scientific practice. Michael Weisberg focuses on concrete, mathematical, and computational models in his consideration of the nature of models, the practice of modeling, and nature of the relationship between models and real-world phenomena. In addition to a careful analysis of physical, computational, and mathematical models, Simulation and Similarity offers a novel account of the model/world relationship. Breaking with the dominant tradition, which favors the analysis of this relation through logical notions suc...

  19. Mining Biclusters of Similar Values with Triadic Concept Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kaytoue, Mehdi; Macko, Juraj; Meira, Wagner; Napoli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    Biclustering numerical data became a popular data-mining task in the beginning of 2000's, especially for analysing gene expression data. A bicluster reflects a strong association between a subset of objects and a subset of attributes in a numerical object/attribute data-table. So called biclusters of similar values can be thought as maximal sub-tables with close values. Only few methods address a complete, correct and non redundant enumeration of such patterns, which is a well-known intractable problem, while no formal framework exists. In this paper, we introduce important links between biclustering and formal concept analysis. More specifically, we originally show that Triadic Concept Analysis (TCA), provides a nice mathematical framework for biclustering. Interestingly, existing algorithms of TCA, that usually apply on binary data, can be used (directly or with slight modifications) after a preprocessing step for extracting maximal biclusters of similar values.

  20. A Fuzzy Similarity Based Concept Mining Model for Text Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Puri, Shalini

    2012-01-01

    Text Classification is a challenging and a red hot field in the current scenario and has great importance in text categorization applications. A lot of research work has been done in this field but there is a need to categorize a collection of text documents into mutually exclusive categories by extracting the concepts or features using supervised learning paradigm and different classification algorithms. In this paper, a new Fuzzy Similarity Based Concept Mining Model (FSCMM) is proposed to classify a set of text documents into pre - defined Category Groups (CG) by providing them training and preparing on the sentence, document and integrated corpora levels along with feature reduction, ambiguity removal on each level to achieve high system performance. Fuzzy Feature Category Similarity Analyzer (FFCSA) is used to analyze each extracted feature of Integrated Corpora Feature Vector (ICFV) with the corresponding categories or classes. This model uses Support Vector Machine Classifier (SVMC) to classify correct...

  1. AMPAkines and morphine provide complementary analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjun; Liu, Kevin; Martinez, Erik; Dale, Jahrane; Huang, Dong; Wang, Jing

    2017-09-15

    Glutamate signaling in the central nervous system is known to play a key role in pain regulation. AMPAkines can enhance glutamate signaling through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. previous studies have shown that AMPAkines are effective analgesic agents, and their site of action is likely in the brain. It is not known, however, if AMPAkines can provide complementary analgesia in combination with opioids, the most commonly used analgesics. Here, we show that the co-administration of an AMPAkine with morphine can provide additional analgesia, both in naïve rats and in rats that experience postoperative pain. Furthermore, we show that this AMPAkine can be administered directly into the prefrontal cortex to provide analgesia, and that prefrontal AMPAkine infusion, similar to systemic administration, can provide added pain relief to complement morphine analgesia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Similar Symmetries: The Role of Wallpaper Groups in Perceptual Texture Similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Halley

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Periodic patterns and symmetries are striking visual properties that have been used decoratively around the world throughout human history. Periodic patterns can be mathematically classified into one of 17 different Wallpaper groups, and while computational models have been developed which can extract an image's symmetry group, very little work has been done on how humans perceive these patterns. This study presents the results from a grouping experiment using stimuli from the different wallpaper groups. We find that while different images from the same wallpaper group are perceived as similar to one another, not all groups have the same degree of self-similarity. The similarity relationships between wallpaper groups appear to be dominated by rotations.

  3. On similarity and pseudo-similarity solutions of Falkner-Skan boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Guedda, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The present work deals with the two-dimensional incompressible,laminar, steady-state boundary layer equations. First, we determinea family of velocity distributions outside the boundary layer suchthat these problems may have similarity solutions. Then, we examenin detail new exact solutions, called Pseudo--similarity, where the external velocity varies inversely-linear with the distance along the surface $ (U_e(x) = U_\\infty x^{-1}). The present work deals with the two-dimensional incompressible, laminar, steady-state boundary layer equations. First, we determine a family of velocity distributions outside the boundary layer such that these problems may have similarity solutions. Then, we examenin detail new exact solutions. The analysis shows that solutions exist only for a lateral suction. For specified conditions, we establish the existence of an infinite number of solutions, including monotonic solutions and solutions which oscillate an infinite number of times and tend to a certain limit. The properties o...

  4. Evaluating venous pool technique for blood sampling in neonatal ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatler, Carol; Dalton, Beverly; Day, Susan; Sharfner, Andrea; Hauffe, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate venous pool technique (VPT) for obtaining neonatal blood samples as compared with the needlestick technique. An experimental design was used with subjects enrolled in two phases: an equivalence phase (N = 10) and a comparison phase (N = 64). In the equivalence phase, subjects weighing 1,500 g or more had two needlesticks. In the comparison phase, subjects weighing 800 g or more were randomized to receive blood drawn by either needlestick method or VPT. Comparative results suggest that infant and maternal demographic factors, sampling attempts, and sampling failures were similar. However, for the outcome of hematoma development, the standard technique was significantly worse (t = 2.25 ; p = .029). Results suggest that the VPT method is safe and accurate for use in critically ill neonates. This study demonstrated that the VPT process is easily learned and may provide advantages over standard blood sampling methods. Nurses can use this information to evaluate this VPT technique in their institutions.

  5. Computational technique for stepwise quantitative assessment of equation correctness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nuru'l Izzah; Bakar, Zainab Abu

    2017-04-01

    Many of the computer-aided mathematics assessment systems that are available today possess the capability to implement stepwise correctness checking of a working scheme for solving equations. The computational technique for assessing the correctness of each response in the scheme mainly involves checking the mathematical equivalence and providing qualitative feedback. This paper presents a technique, known as the Stepwise Correctness Checking and Scoring (SCCS) technique that checks the correctness of each equation in terms of structural equivalence and provides quantitative feedback. The technique, which is based on the Multiset framework, adapts certain techniques from textual information retrieval involving tokenization, document modelling and similarity evaluation. The performance of the SCCS technique was tested using worked solutions on solving linear algebraic equations in one variable. 350 working schemes comprising of 1385 responses were collected using a marking engine prototype, which has been developed based on the technique. The results show that both the automated analytical scores and the automated overall scores generated by the marking engine exhibit high percent agreement, high correlation and high degree of agreement with manual scores with small average absolute and mixed errors.

  6. Determining similarity of scientific entities in annotation datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Guillermo; Vidal, Maria-Esther; Haag, Eric; Raschid, Louiqa; Thor, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Linked Open Data initiatives have made available a diversity of scientific collections where scientists have annotated entities in the datasets with controlled vocabulary terms from ontologies. Annotations encode scientific knowledge, which is captured in annotation datasets. Determining relatedness between annotated entities becomes a building block for pattern mining, e.g. identifying drug-drug relationships may depend on the similarity of the targets that interact with each drug. A diversity of similarity measures has been proposed in the literature to compute relatedness between a pair of entities. Each measure exploits some knowledge including the name, function, relationships with other entities, taxonomic neighborhood and semantic knowledge. We propose a novel general-purpose annotation similarity measure called 'AnnSim' that measures the relatedness between two entities based on the similarity of their annotations. We model AnnSim as a 1-1 maximum weight bipartite match and exploit properties of existing solvers to provide an efficient solution. We empirically study the performance of AnnSim on real-world datasets of drugs and disease associations from clinical trials and relationships between drugs and (genomic) targets. Using baselines that include a variety of measures, we identify where AnnSim can provide a deeper understanding of the semantics underlying the relatedness of a pair of entities or where it could lead to predicting new links or identifying potential novel patterns. Although AnnSim does not exploit knowledge or properties of a particular domain, its performance compares well with a variety of state-of-the-art domain-specific measures. Database URL: http://www.yeastgenome.org/

  7. DATA EXTRACTION AND ALIGNMENT USING TAGS AND VALUE SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrs. S. Padmavathi ( M.Sc., M.Phil, B.Ed.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Web databases generate query result pages based on a user’s query. Automatically extracting these data from query result pages is very important for many applications, such as data integrations, which needs to cooperate with multiple web databases. This system presents a novel data extraction and alignment method called DATVS that combines both tag and value similarity. DATVS automatically extracts data from query result pages by first identifying and segmenting the query result records (QRRs in the query result pages and then aligning the data segmentation QRRs into a table, in which the data values from the same each attributes the put into the same column. Specifically, This propose new techniques to handle the case when the QRRs is not contiguous, which may be due to presence of an auxiliary information, such a comment, recommendation or advertisement and for handling they any nested structure that may exist in the QRRs. The new system is a design and the new record alignment algorithm that aligns the attributes in a record and first pair wise and they holistically, by combines the tag and data value similar information. Experimental results show that DATVS achieves high precision and outperforms existing state-of-the-art data extraction methods.

  8. DATA EXTRACTION AND ALIGNMENT USING TAGS AND VALUE SIMILARITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Padmavathi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Web databases generate query result pages based on a user’s query. Automatically extracting these data from query result pages is very important for many applications, such as data integrations, which needs to cooperate with multiple web databases. This system presents a novel data extraction and alignment method called DATVS that combines both tag and value similarity. DATVS automatically extracts data from query result pages by first identifying and segmenting the query result records (QRRs in the query result pages and then aligning the data segmentation QRRs into a table, in which the data values from the same each attributes the put into the same column. Specifically, This propose new techniques to handle the case when the QRRs is not contiguous, which may be due to presence of an auxiliary information, such a comment, recommendation or advertisement and for handling they any nested structure that may exist in the QRRs. The new system is a design and the new record alignment algorithm that aligns the attributes in a record and first pair wise and they holistically, by combines the tag and data value similar information. Experimental results show that DATVS achieves high precision and outperforms existing state-of-the-art data extraction methods.

  9. Multiple-instance learning with pairwise instance similarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liming

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL has attracted much attention of the machine learning community in recent years and many real-world applications have been successfully formulated as MIL problems. Over the past few years, several Instance Selection-based MIL (ISMIL algorithms have been presented by using the concept of the embedding space. Although they delivered very promising performance, they often require long computation times for instance selection, leading to a low efficiency of the whole learning process. In this paper, we propose a simple and efficient ISMIL algorithm based on the similarity of pairwise instances within a bag. The basic idea is selecting from every training bag a pair of the most similar instances as instance prototypes and then mapping training bags into the embedding space that is constructed from all the instance prototypes. Thus, the MIL problem can be solved with the standard supervised learning techniques, such as support vector machines. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than its competitors and highly comparable with them in terms of classification accuracy. Moreover, the testing of noise sensitivity demonstrates that our MIL algorithm is very robust to labeling noise

  10. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL POPOVICI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Management is the process of setting and achieving organizational goals through its functions: forecasting, organization, coordination, training and monitoring-evaluation.Leadership is: the ability to influence, to make others follow you, the ability to guide, the human side of business for "teacher". Interest in leadership increased during the early part of the twentieth century. Early leadership theories focused on what qualities distinguished between leaders and followers, while subsequent theories looked at other variables such as situational factors and skill levels.Other considerations emphasize aspects that separate management of leadership, calling them twocompletely different processes.The words manager and lider are very often used to designate the same person who leads, however, they represent different realities and the main difference arises form the way in which people around are motivated.The difference between being a manager and being a leader is simple. Management is a career. Leadership is a calling. A leader is someone who people naturally follow through their own choice, whereas a manager must be obeyed. A manager may only have obtained his position of authority through time and loyalty given to the company, not as a result of his leadership qualities. A leader may have no organisational skills, but his vision unites people behind him.Leadership and management are two notions that are often used interchangeably. However, these words actually describe two different concepts.Leadership is the main component of change, providing vision, and dedication necessary for its realization. Leadership is a skill that is formed by education, experiences, interaction with people and inspiring, of course, practice. Effective leadership depends largely on how their leaders define, follow and share the vision to followers.Leadership is just one important component of the directing function. A manager cannot just be a leader, he also needs

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Biomarker Selection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Dessì

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection has become the essential step in biomarker discovery from high-dimensional genomics data. It is recognized that different feature selection techniques may result in different set of biomarkers, that is, different groups of genes highly correlated to a given pathological condition, but few direct comparisons exist which quantify these differences in a systematic way. In this paper, we propose a general methodology for comparing the outcomes of different selection techniques in the context of biomarker discovery. The comparison is carried out along two dimensions: (i measuring the similarity/dissimilarity of selected gene sets; (ii evaluating the implications of these differences in terms of both predictive performance and stability of selected gene sets. As a case study, we considered three benchmarks deriving from DNA microarray experiments and conducted a comparative analysis among eight selection methods, representatives of different classes of feature selection techniques. Our results show that the proposed approach can provide useful insight about the pattern of agreement of biomarker discovery techniques.

  12. MOST: most-similar ligand based approach to target prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Mi, Hong; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Zhao, Ling; Zhong, Linda L D; Liu, Feng-Bin; Zhang, Ge; Lu, Ai-Ping; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2017-03-11

    Many computational approaches have been used for target prediction, including machine learning, reverse docking, bioactivity spectra analysis, and chemical similarity searching. Recent studies have suggested that chemical similarity searching may be driven by the most-similar ligand. However, the extent of bioactivity of most-similar ligands has been oversimplified or even neglected in these studies, and this has impaired the prediction power. Here we propose the MOst-Similar ligand-based Target inference approach, namely MOST, which uses fingerprint similarity and explicit bioactivity of the most-similar ligands to predict targets of the query compound. Performance of MOST was evaluated by using combinations of different fingerprint schemes, machine learning methods, and bioactivity representations. In sevenfold cross-validation with a benchmark Ki dataset from CHEMBL release 19 containing 61,937 bioactivity data of 173 human targets, MOST achieved high average prediction accuracy (0.95 for pKi ≥ 5, and 0.87 for pKi ≥ 6). Morgan fingerprint was shown to be slightly better than FP2. Logistic Regression and Random Forest methods performed better than Naïve Bayes. In a temporal validation, the Ki dataset from CHEMBL19 were used to train models and predict the bioactivity of newly deposited ligands in CHEMBL20. MOST also performed well with high accuracy (0.90 for pKi ≥ 5, and 0.76 for pKi ≥ 6), when Logistic Regression and Morgan fingerprint were employed. Furthermore, the p values associated with explicit bioactivity were found be a robust index for removing false positive predictions. Implicit bioactivity did not offer this capability. Finally, p values generated with Logistic Regression, Morgan fingerprint and explicit activity were integrated with a false discovery rate (FDR) control procedure to reduce false positives in multiple-target prediction scenario, and the success of this strategy it was demonstrated with a case of fluanisone

  13. Exoplanet Detection Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Debra A; Laughlin, Greg P; Macintosh, Bruce; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Sahlmann, Johannes; Yee, Jennifer C

    2015-01-01

    We are still in the early days of exoplanet discovery. Astronomers are beginning to model the atmospheres and interiors of exoplanets and have developed a deeper understanding of processes of planet formation and evolution. However, we have yet to map out the full complexity of multi-planet architectures or to detect Earth analogues around nearby stars. Reaching these ambitious goals will require further improvements in instrumentation and new analysis tools. In this chapter, we provide an overview of five observational techniques that are currently employed in the detection of exoplanets: optical and IR Doppler measurements, transit photometry, direct imaging, microlensing, and astrometry. We provide a basic description of how each of these techniques works and discuss forefront developments that will result in new discoveries. We also highlight the observational limitations and synergies of each method and their connections to future space missions.

  14. MDP challenges from a software provider's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Shuichiro

    2014-10-01

    This industry faces new challenges every day. It gets tougher as process nodes shrink and the data complexity and volume increase. We are a mask data preparation (MDP) software provider, and have been providing MDP systems to mask shops since 1990. As the industry has, MDP software providers also have been facing new challenges over time, and the challenges get tougher as process nodes shrink and the data complexity and volume increase. We discuss such MDP challenges and solutions in this paper from a MDP software provider's perspective. The data volume continuously increases, and it is caused by shrinking the process node. In addition, resolution enhancement techniques (RET) such as optical proximity correction (OPC) and inverse lithography technique (ILT) induce data complexity, and it contributes considerably to the increase in data volume. The growth of data volume and complexity brings challenges to MDP system, such as the computing speed, shot count, and mask process correction (MPC). New tools (especially mask writers) also bring new challenges. Variable-shaped E-beam (VSB) mask writers demand fracturing less slivers and lower figure counts for CD accuracy and write time requirements respectively. Now multibeam mask writers are under development and will definitely bring new challenges.

  15. Providing Services to Survivors of Domestic Violence: A Comparison of Rural and Urban Service Provider Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Brenda J.; Bunch, Shelia Grant

    2007-01-01

    Although there is a considerable body of knowledge about domestic violence, a limited proportion focuses on domestic violence in rural settings. Using a nonprobability purposive sampling technique, 93 providers of domestic violence services from rural and urban localities in North Carolina and Virginia were located and asked to complete a…

  16. Similarity-Based Clustering Strategy for Mobile Ad Hoc Multimedia Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia data are becoming popular in wireless ad hoc environments. However, the traditional content-based retrieval techniques are inefficient in ad hoc networks due to the multiple limitations such as node mobility, computation capability, memory space, network bandwidth, and data heterogeneity. To provide an efficient platform for multimedia retrieval, we propose to cluster ad hoc multimedia databases based on their semantic contents, and construct a virtual hierarchical indexing infrastructure overlaid on the mobile databases. This content-aware clustering scheme uses a semantic-aware framework as the theoretical foundation for data organization. Several novel techniques are presented to facilitate the representation and manipulation of multimedia data in ad hoc networks: 1 using concise distribution expressions to represent the semantic similarity of multimedia data, 2 constructing clusters based on the semantic relationships between multimedia entities, 3 reducing the cost of content-based multimedia retrieval through the restriction of semantic distances, and 4 employing a self-adaptive mechanism that dynamically adjusts to the content and topology changes of the ad hoc networks. The proposed scheme is scalable, fault-tolerant, and efficient in performing content-based multimedia retrieval as demonstrated in our combination of theoretical analysis and extensive experimental studies.

  17. A Stabilized Scale-Similarity Model for Explicitly-Filtered LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edoh, Ayaboe; Karagozian, Ann; Sankaran, Venkateswaran

    2016-11-01

    Accurate simulation of the filtered-scales in LES is affected by the competing presence of modeling and discretization errors. In order to properly assess modeling techniques, it is imperative to minimize the influence of the numerical scheme. The current investigation considers the inclusion of resolved and un-resolved sub-filter stress ([U]RSFS) components in the governing equations, which is suggestive of a mixed-model approach. Taylor-series expansions of discrete filter stencils are used to inform proper scaling of a Scale-Similarity model representation of the RSFS term, and accompanying stabilization is provided by tunable and scale-discriminant filter-based artificial dissipation techniques that represent the URSFS term implicitly. Effective removal of numerical error from the LES solution is studied with respect to the 1D Burgers equation with synthetic turbulence, and extension to 3D Navier-Stokes system computations is motivated. Distribution A: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited. Supported by AFOSR (PMs: Drs. Chiping Li and Michael Kendra).

  18. ELEMENTARY DENSITY BOUNDS FOR SELF-SIMILAR SETS AND APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Falconer[1] used the relationship between upper convex density and upper spherical density to obtain elementary density bounds for s-sets at HS-almost all points of the sets. In this paper, following Falconer[1], we first provide a basic method to estimate the lower bounds of these two classes of set densities for the self-similar s-sets satisfying the open set condition (OSC), and then obtain elementary density bounds for such fractals at all of their points. In addition, we apply the main results to the famous classical fractals and get some new density bounds.

  19. COUNTRY IMAGE VS. COUNTRY BRAND: DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Adriana COTÎRLEA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in order to provide an overview regarding the differences and similarities regarding two congruent, yet different concepts: country brand and country image. The geopolitical context and, implicitly, the current global context require a redefinition – or a more complex circumscription – of the “country image” and “country branding” concepts. In this paper, the author aimed to highlight the characteristics and particularities of the approached concepts in order to shape a framework of the context within these two operate; a brief analysis of the literature is presented, trying to emphasize the slight difference between the approached concepts

  20. Stochastic similarities between hydroclimatic processes for variability characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Markonis, Yannis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Gournari, Naya; Deligiannis, Ilias; Kastis, Paris; Nasika, Xristina; Lerias, Eleutherios; Moustakis, Yannis; Petsiou, Amalia; Sotiriadou, Alexia; Stefanidis, Eleutherios; Tyrogiannis, Vassilis; Feloni, Elisavet; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The most important hydroclimatic processes such as temperature, dew point, wind, precipitation and river discharges are investigated for their stochastic behaviour on annual scale through several historical records. We investigate the stochastic similarities between them in terms of long-term persistence and we comment on their statistical variability giving emphasis on the last period. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.