WorldWideScience

Sample records for techniques critical analysis

  1. MCNP perturbation technique for criticality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, G.W.; Iverson, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The differential operator perturbation technique has been incorporated into the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code MCNP and will become a standard feature of future releases. This feature includes first and/or second order terms of the Taylor Series expansion for response perturbations related to cross-section data (i.e., density, composition, etc.). Criticality analyses can benefit from this technique in that predicted changes in the track-length tally estimator of K eff may be obtained for multiple perturbations in a single run. A key advantage of this method is that a precise estimate of a small change in response (i.e., < 1%) is easily obtained. This technique can also offer acceptable accuracy, to within a few percent, for up to 20-30% changes in a response

  2. Critical analysis of procurement techniques in construction management sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Suman Tiwari Suresh; Chan, Shiau Wei; Faraz Mubarak, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Over the last three decades, numerous procurement techniques have been one of the highlights of the Construction Management (CM) for ventures, administration contracting, venture management as well as design and construct. Due to the development and utilization of those techniques, various researchers have explored the criteria for their choice and their execution in terms of time, cost and quality. Nevertheless, there is a lack of giving an account on the relationship between the procurement techniques and the progressed related issues, for example, supply chain, sustainability, innovation and technology development, lean construction, constructability, value management, Building Information Modelling (BIM) as well as e-procurement. Through chosen papers from the reputable CM-related academic journals, the specified scopes of these issues are methodically assessed with the objective to explore the status and trend in procurement related research. The result of this paper contributes theoretically as well as practically to the researchers and industrialist in order to be aware and appreciate the development of procurement techniques.

  3. Factors influencing patient compliance with therapeutic regimens in chronic heart failure: A critical incident technique analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömberg, A; Broström, A; Dahlström, U; Fridlund, B

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing compliance with prescribed treatment in patients with chronic heart failure. A qualitative design with a critical incident technique was used. Incidents were collected through interviews with 25 patients with heart failure strategically selected from a primary health care clinic, a medical ward, and a specialist clinic. Two hundred sixty critical incidents were identified in the interviews and 2 main areas emerged in the analysis: inward factors and outward factors. The inward factors described how compliance was influenced by the personality of the patient, the disease, and the treatment. The outward factors described how compliance was influenced by social activities, social relationships, and health care professionals. By identifying the inward and outward factors influencing patients with chronic heart failure, health care professionals can assess whether intervention is needed to increase compliance.

  4. Congestive heart failure, spouses' support and the couple's sleep situation: a critical incident technique analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Strömberg, Anna; Dahlström, Ulf; Fridlund, Bengt

    2003-03-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders are common as well as a poor prognostic sign associated with higher mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). These patients often have a shorter total duration of sleep, disturbed sleep structure and increased daytime sleepiness, which can negatively affect all dimensions of the life situation. The spouse has an important role in supporting the patient in relation to sleep disorders, but this role may be adversely affected by the sleep situation of the couple. The aim of this study was to describe decisive situations that influence spouses' support to patients with CHF in relation to the couple's sleep situation. A qualitative descriptive design using critical incident technique was employed. Incidents were collected by means of interviews with 25 spouses of patients with CHF, strategically selected from two hospital-based specialist clinics in southern Sweden. Two main areas emerged in the analysis: support stimulating situations and support inhibiting situations. Support stimulating situations described how spouses' support was positively affected by their own adaptation in psychosocial or practical situations, and receiving help from others. Support inhibiting situations described how the spouses' support was negatively affected by sleep disturbances as a result of the patient's symptoms, anxiety in relation to the disease, limitations as a result of the sleeping habits, dissatisfaction with care related to the sleep situation, and being left to cope alone with the problems. An increased understanding of the stimulating and inhibiting situations influencing spouses' support for patients with CHF can guide health care personnel in deciding if an intervention is needed to improve the sleep situation for patient and spouse.

  5. Critical analysis of radioiodination techniques for micro and macro organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid Mushtaq; Jongho Jeon; Beom Su Jang; Sang Hyun Park; Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon; Aqeela Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    A variety of radioiodination methods is available in the literature depending upon the nature of organic compound to be labeled, however only few can completely fulfill manufacturing requirements.Ideally a selected method should be one which offers maximum benefits like regioselectivity, minimum reaction steps, minimum reaction time, high radiochemical yield and high specific activity. In this review radioiodination techniques were critically analyzed. Advantages, drawbacks, possible mode of action and special reaction conditions required to get high radiochemical yield were taken into account. The influence of iodine introduction on physicochemical properties, in vivo or in vitro pharmacological properties of pharmaceutical due to increase of lipophilicity were discussed along with examples. (author)

  6. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kathryn; Li, Melissa; Giangregorio, Lora; Burns, Catherine; Grindrod, Kelly

    2016-04-27

    Wearable activity trackers are promising as interventions that offer guidance and support for increasing physical activity and health-focused tracking. Most adults do not meet their recommended daily activity guidelines, and wearable fitness trackers are increasingly cited as having great potential to improve the physical activity levels of adults. The objective of this study was to use the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy to examine if the design of wearable activity trackers incorporates behavior change techniques (BCTs). A secondary objective was to critically analyze whether the BCTs present relate to known drivers of behavior change, such as self-efficacy, with the intention of extending applicability to older adults in addition to the overall population. Wearing each device for a period of 1 week, two independent raters used CALO-RE taxonomy to code the BCTs of the seven wearable activity trackers available in Canada as of March 2014. These included Fitbit Flex, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Jawbone UP24, Spark Activity Tracker by SparkPeople, Nike+ FuelBand SE, and Polar Loop. We calculated interrater reliability using Cohen's kappa. The average number of BCTs identified was 16.3/40. Withings Pulse had the highest number of BCTs and Misfit Shine had the lowest. Most techniques centered around self-monitoring and self-regulation, all of which have been associated with improved physical activity in older adults. Techniques related to planning and providing instructions were scarce. Overall, wearable activity trackers contain several BCTs that have been shown to increase physical activity in older adults. Although more research and development must be done to fully understand the potential of wearables as health interventions, the current wearable trackers offer significant potential with regard to BCTs relevant to uptake by all populations, including older adults.

  7. Software safety analysis techniques for developing safety critical software in the digital protection system of the LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Cheon, Se Woo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Sim, Yun Sub

    2001-02-01

    This report has described the software safety analysis techniques and the engineering guidelines for developing safety critical software to identify the state of the art in this field and to give the software safety engineer a trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer. We have surveyed the management aspects of software safety activities during the software lifecycle in order to improve the safety. After identifying the conventional safety analysis techniques for systems, we have surveyed in details the software safety analysis techniques, software FMEA(Failure Mode and Effects Analysis), software HAZOP(Hazard and Operability Analysis), and software FTA(Fault Tree Analysis). We have also surveyed the state of the art in the software reliability assessment techniques. The most important results from the reliability techniques are not the specific probability numbers generated, but the insights into the risk importance of software features. To defend against potential common-mode failures, high quality, defense-in-depth, and diversity are considered to be key elements in digital I and C system design. To minimize the possibility of CMFs and thus increase the plant reliability, we have provided D-in-D and D analysis guidelines.

  8. Software safety analysis techniques for developing safety critical software in the digital protection system of the LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Cheon, Se Woo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Sim, Yun Sub

    2001-02-01

    This report has described the software safety analysis techniques and the engineering guidelines for developing safety critical software to identify the state of the art in this field and to give the software safety engineer a trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer. We have surveyed the management aspects of software safety activities during the software lifecycle in order to improve the safety. After identifying the conventional safety analysis techniques for systems, we have surveyed in details the software safety analysis techniques, software FMEA(Failure Mode and Effects Analysis), software HAZOP(Hazard and Operability Analysis), and software FTA(Fault Tree Analysis). We have also surveyed the state of the art in the software reliability assessment techniques. The most important results from the reliability techniques are not the specific probability numbers generated, but the insights into the risk importance of software features. To defend against potential common-mode failures, high quality, defense-in-depth, and diversity are considered to be key elements in digital I and C system design. To minimize the possibility of CMFs and thus increase the plant reliability, we have provided D-in-D and D analysis guidelines

  9. Patients' experiences and actions when describing pain after surgery--a critical incident technique analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kerstin; Wikström, Lotta; Fridlund, Bengt; Årestedt, Kristofer; Broström, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative pain assessment remains a significant problem in clinical care despite patients wanting to describe their pain and be treated as unique individuals. Deeper knowledge about variations in patients' experiences and actions could help healthcare professionals to improve pain management and could increase patients' participation in pain assessments. The aim of this study was, through an examination of critical incidents, to describe patients' experiences and actions when needing to describe pain after surgery. An explorative design involving the critical incident technique was used. Patients from one university and three county hospitals in both urban and rural areas were included. To ensure variation of patients a strategic sampling was made according to age, gender, education and surgery. A total of 25 patients who had undergone orthopaedic or general surgery was asked to participate in an interview, of whom three declined. Pain experiences were described according to two main areas: "Patients' resources when in need of pain assessment" and "Ward resources for performing pain assessments". Patients were affected by their expectations and tolerance for pain. Ability to describe pain could be limited by a fear of coming into conflict with healthcare professionals or being perceived as whining. Furthermore, attitudes from healthcare professionals and their lack of adherence to procedures affected patients' ability to describe pain. Two main areas regarding actions emerged: "Patients used active strategies when needing to describe pain" and "Patients used passive strategies when needing to describe pain". Patients informed healthcare professionals about their pain and asked questions in order to make decisions about their pain situation. Selfcare was performed by distraction and avoiding pain or treating pain by themselves, while others were passive and endured pain or refrained from contact with healthcare professionals due to healthcare professionals

  10. Application of nuclear analysis technique to determine radionuclide contents in critical food stuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Sukirno; Agus Taftazani

    2010-01-01

    Rice, cassava, grist, corn and salt are Indonesian critical food stuff. The analysis of nature radionuclide in rice, cassava, grist, corn and salt measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry with Germanium Lithium (GeLi) detector equipped by MESTROTM software and Multi Channel Analyzer (MCA) to analysis radionuclide and gamma gross. Analysis beta gross have been done using Low Background Counter (LBC) with Geiger Muller (GM) detector and Analog Digital Converter (ADC). Activity of K-40 on all samples range from 28.40 ± 2.06 to 4.22 ± 1.67 mBq/g; Th-232 range from 0.92 ± 0.57 to 6.63 ± 0.98 mBq/g; Pb-212 range from 0.38 ± 0.18 to 0.81 ± 0.10 mBq/g; Pb-214 range from 1.92 ± 1.28 - 5.17 ± 0.14 mBq/g. While beta gross and gamma gross activities range from 0.12 ± 0.09 to 0.31 ± 0.13 mBq/g and 101.73 ± 13.35 to 199.81 ± 9.21 mBq/g. Comparing with reference data from various countries, it can be concluded that radionuclide activity content in all of rice, cassava, grist, corn and salt samples doesn't difference significantly so that they are safe to be consumed. Using statistic test of ANOVA (α = 0.05) method, it found that the difference of sample has influence significant on the activity of TI-208, Pb-212, Pb-214 , gross beta and gamma gross radioactivity while on K-40 there is no significant influence on sample difference. (author)

  11. Analysis using formal method and testing technique for the processor module for safety-critical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. Y.; Choi, B. J.; Song, H. J.; Hwang, D. Y.; Song, G. H.; Lee, H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This research is on help develop nuclear power plant control system, through the requirement specification and verification method development. As the result of applying the test method, a test standard was obtain through test documentation writing support and a test document reflecting the standard test activities based on the test standard. The specification and verification of the pCOS system and the unified testing documentation and execution helps the entire project to progress and enable us to achieve necessary documents and technology to develop a safety critical system.

  12. Analysis using formal method and testing technique for the processor module for safety-critical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J. Y.; Choi, B. J.; Song, H. J.; Hwang, D. Y.; Song, G. H.; Lee, H.

    2008-06-01

    This research is on help develop nuclear power plant control system, through the requirement specification and verification method development. As the result of applying the test method, a test standard was obtain through test documentation writing support and a test document reflecting the standard test activities based on the test standard. The specification and verification of the pCOS system and the unified testing documentation and execution helps the entire project to progress and enable us to achieve necessary documents and technology to develop a safety critical system

  13. Analysis of the Techniques for Measuring the Reactivity of Far Sub-Critical Multiplying Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandeplas, P.

    1968-01-01

    The methods of measuring control-rod worth on the basis of reactor response to a periodic excitation source are analysed and it is shown that the ratio of the integrals of the prompt and delayed neutron densities over one period is independent of the shape of the signal used. This ratio will thus be equal to the ratio of the neutron densities in the presence of a time-independent source. The pulsed source, sinusoidal source and source removed methods therefore give identical worth values. Experimentation and numerical analysis show that the ratio of prompt to delayed neutron density, which is a linear combination of successive eigenvalues of the system, is largely dependent on the position of the source. It is demonstrated analytically that with a suitably chosen volume of integration, the contribution of the space harmonics is drastically reduced in the integrals of both the prompt neutron density and the delayed neutron density. Numerical studies show that the ratio of these two integrals is practically equal to the reactivity corresponding to the fundamental static mode and is almost independent of the position of the source. Integration of the neutron densities over a volume can be reduced to an integration along a straight line by a suitable choice of source location. Such an integration can be performed by means of an integral detector, thereby only requiring one measurement. Optimization of the position of the source and of the limits of integration to give the best value for the reactivity can be achieved on the basis of purely experimental criteria. (author) [fr

  14. Critical evaluation of sample pretreatment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia

    2009-06-01

    Sample preparation before chromatographic separation is the most time-consuming and error-prone part of the analytical procedure. Therefore, selecting and optimizing an appropriate sample preparation scheme is a key factor in the final success of the analysis, and the judicious choice of an appropriate procedure greatly influences the reliability and accuracy of a given analysis. The main objective of this review is to critically evaluate the applicability, disadvantages, and advantages of various sample preparation techniques. Particular emphasis is placed on extraction techniques suitable for both liquid and solid samples.

  15. A Technique of Software Safety Analysis in the Design Phase for PLC Based Safety-Critical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Seo-Ryong; Kim, Chang-Hwoi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of safety analysis, which is a method of identifying portions of a system that have the potential for unacceptable hazards, is firstly to encourage design changes that will reduce or eliminate hazards and, secondly, to conduct special analyses and tests that can provide increased confidence in especially vulnerable portions of the system. For the design and implementation phase of the PLC based systems, we proposed a technique for software design specification and analysis, and this technique enables us to generate software design specifications (SDSs) in nuclear fields. For the safety analysis in the design phase, we used architecture design blocks of NuFDS to represent the architecture of the software. On the basis of the architecture design specification, we can directly generate the fault tree and then use the fault tree for qualitative analysis. Therefore, we proposed a technique of fault tree synthesis, along with a universal fault tree template for the architecture modules of nuclear software. Through our proposed fault tree synthesis in this work, users can use the architecture specification of the NuFDS approach to intuitively compose fault trees that help analyze the safety design features of software.

  16. A critical analysis of penile enhancement procedures for patients with normal penile size: surgical techniques, success, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Yoram; Har-Shai, Yaron; Harshai, Yaron; Gil, Tamir; Gruenwald, Ilan

    2008-11-01

    Most men who request surgical penile enhancement have a normal-sized and fully functional penis but visualize their penises as small (psychological dysmorphism). The aim of this review is to describe the various reported techniques and to provide the available scientific data on the success and complication rates of penile enhancement procedures. We performed an extensive systematic review based on a search of the MEDLINE database for articles published between 1965 and 2008. The following key words were used: penis, enhancement, enlargement, phalloplasty, reconstruction, girth, lengthening, and augmentation. Only English-language articles that were related to penile surgery and dysmorphobia were sought. We excluded articles in which fewer than five cases were described and articles in which the type of surgical treatment and the outcome were not clear. Of the 176 papers found, 34 were selected and critically analyzed. We found only a small number of well-designed and comprehensive studies, and most of the published articles reported data that were obtained from small cohorts of patients. The more recently published studies presented better methodologies and descriptions of the surgical techniques than did the older publications. In general, penile enhancement surgery can cause a 1-2-cm increase in penile length and a 2.5-cm augmentation of penile girth. Unwanted outcomes and complications, namely penile deformity, paradoxical penile shortening, disagreeable scarring, granuloma formation, migration of injected material, and sexual dysfunction were reported frequently in these studies. Disappointing short- and long-term patient satisfaction rates following these procedures were also reported in most studies. To date, the use of cosmetic surgery to enlarge the penis remains highly controversial. There is a lack of any standardization of all described procedures. Indications and outcome measures are poorly defined, and the reported complications are unacceptably high

  17. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  18. An effective technique for the software requirements analysis of NPP safety-critical systems, based on software inspection, requirements traceability, and formal specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Seo Ryong; Seong, Poong Hyun; Yoo, Junbeom; Cha, Sung Deok; Yoo, Yeong Jae

    2005-01-01

    A thorough requirements analysis is indispensable for developing and implementing safety-critical software systems such as nuclear power plant (NPP) software systems because a single error in the requirements can generate serious software faults. However, it is very difficult to completely analyze system requirements. In this paper, an effective technique for the software requirements analysis is suggested. For requirements verification and validation (V and V) tasks, our technique uses software inspection, requirement traceability, and formal specification with structural decomposition. Software inspection and requirements traceability analysis are widely considered the most effective software V and V methods. Although formal methods are also considered an effective V and V activity, they are difficult to use properly in the nuclear fields as well as in other fields because of their mathematical nature. In this work, we propose an integrated environment (IE) approach for requirements, which is an integrated approach that enables easy inspection by combining requirement traceability and effective use of a formal method. The paper also introduces computer-aided tools for supporting IE approach for requirements. Called the nuclear software inspection support and requirements traceability (NuSISRT), the tool incorporates software inspection, requirement traceability, and formal specification capabilities. We designed the NuSISRT to partially automate software inspection and analysis of requirement traceability. In addition, for the formal specification and analysis, we used the formal requirements specification and analysis tool for nuclear engineering (NuSRS)

  19. Decision Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Dabo Baba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant step in building structure maintenance decision is the physical inspection of the facility to be maintained. The physical inspection involved cursory assessment of the structure and ratings of the identified defects based on expert evaluation. The objective of this paper is to describe present a novel approach to prioritizing the criticality of physical defects in a residential building system using multi criteria decision analysis approach. A residential building constructed in 1985 was considered in this study. Four criteria which includes; Physical Condition of the building system (PC, Effect on Asset (EA, effect on Occupants (EO and Maintenance Cost (MC are considered in the inspection. The building was divided in to nine systems regarded as alternatives. Expert's choice software was used in comparing the importance of the criteria against the main objective, whereas structured Proforma was used in quantifying the defects observed on all building systems against each criteria. The defects severity score of each building system was identified and later multiplied by the weight of the criteria and final hierarchy was derived. The final ranking indicates that, electrical system was considered the most critical system with a risk value of 0.134 while ceiling system scored the lowest risk value of 0.066. The technique is often used in prioritizing mechanical equipment for maintenance planning. However, result of this study indicates that the technique could be used in prioritizing building systems for maintenance planning

  20. Soil analysis. Modern instrumental technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book covers traditional methods of analysis and specialist monographs on individual instrumental techniques, which are usually not written with soil or plant analysis specifically in mind. The principles of the techniques are combined with discussions of sample preparation and matrix problems, and critical reviews of applications in soil science and related disciplines. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  1. Critical Analysis of Multimodal Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This is an encyclopaedia article which defines the fields of critical discourse analysis and multimodality studies, argues that within critical discourse analysis more attention should be paid to multimodality, and within multimodality to critical analysis, and ends reviewing a few examples of re...

  2. Auditing organizational communication: evaluating the methodological strengths and weaknesses of the critical incident technique, network analysis, and the communication satisfaction questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the methodology of communication audits. In the context of three Dutch high schools, we evaluated several audit instruments. The first study in this dissertation focuses on the question whether the rationale of the critical incident technique (CIT) still applies when it

  3. Applying critical analysis - main methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araujo Alonso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the usefulness of critical appraisal of literature? Critical analysis is a fundamental condition for the correct interpretation of any study that is subject to review. In epidemiology, in order to learn how to read a publication, we must be able to analyze it critically. Critical analysis allows us to check whether a study fulfills certain previously established methodological inclusion and exclusion criteria. This is frequently used in conducting systematic reviews although eligibility criteria are generally limited to the study design. Critical analysis of literature and be done implicitly while reading an article, as in reading for personal interest, or can be conducted in a structured manner, using explicit and previously established criteria. The latter is done when formally reviewing a topic.

  4. Using Combined SFTA and SFMECA Techniques for Space Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemos, F. G.; Lahoz, C. H. N.; Abdala, M. A. D.; Saotome, O.

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the combined Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) and Software Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (SFMECA) techniques applied to space critical software of satellite launch vehicles. The combined approach is under research as part of the Verification and Validation (V&V) efforts to increase software dependability and as future application in other projects under development at Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço (IAE). The applicability of such approach was conducted on system software specification and applied to a case study based on the Brazilian Satellite Launcher (VLS). The main goal is to identify possible failure causes and obtain compensating provisions that lead to inclusion of new functional and non-functional system software requirements.

  5. New Teaching Techniques to Improve Critical Thinking. The Diaprove Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to ascertain whether new instructional techniques can improve critical thinking. To achieve this goal, two different instruction techniques (ARDESOS--group 1--and DIAPROVE--group 2--) were studied and a pre-post assessment of critical thinking in various dimensions such as argumentation, inductive reasoning,…

  6. TECHNIQUES AND FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process. 

  7. Producing children in the 21st century: a critical discourse analysis of the science and techniques of monitoring early child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the implications of commonly held ideologies within theories of child development. Despite critiques to doing so, developmental theory assumes that children's bodies are unitary, natural and material. The recent explosion of neuroscience illustrates the significance of historical, social and cultural contexts to portrayals of brain development, offering the opportunity for a critical departure in thinking. Instead, this neuroscience research has been taken up in ways that align with biomedical traditions and neoliberal values. This article uses a critical discursive approach, supported by Haraway's ideas of technoscience, to analyse a population-based early child development research initiative. This initiative organises a large-scale surveillance of children's development, operating from the premise that risks to development are best captured early to optimise children's potential. The analysis in this article shows an intermingling of health and economic discourses and clarifies how the child is a figure of significant contemporary social and political interests. In a poignant example of technobiopolitics, the collusion between health research, technologies and the state enrols health professionals to participate in the production of children as subjects of social value, figured as human capital, investments in the future, or alternatively, as waste. The analysis shows how practices that participate in what has become a developmental enterprise also participate in the marginalisation of the very children they intend to serve. Hence, there is the need to rethink practices critically and move towards innovative conceptualisations of child development that hold possibilities to resist these figurations.

  8. Treatment of critical lower limb ischemia using a hybrid technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Wagner da Costa Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Critical ischemia of a lower limb is a condition that threatens its viability and must be treated promptly to avoid major amputation. Revascularization is the most effective treatment method and is performed using surgical or endovascular techniques. For patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, combining these two approaches into a "hybrid technique" makes it possible to treat patients who could not be adequately treated by either technique in isolation. We report on a case of lower limb critical ischemia treated using a combination of surgery and endovascular techniques, in an application of the hybrid technique in a different arterial bed.

  9. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  10. Critical Discourse Analysis and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the need of infusing critical discourse analysis into the preparation and support of prospective school leaders. It argues that in the process of school transformation, the school leader must possess the ability to self-reflect on his/her language and understand the potential power of language as a means that may support or…

  11. Teaching for Art Criticism: Incorporating Feldman's Critical Analysis Learning Model in Students' Studio Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Maithreyi; Hanafi, Jaffri; Putih, Abu Talib

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted 30 first year graphic design students' artwork, with critical analysis using Feldman's model of art criticism. Data were analyzed quantitatively; descriptive statistical techniques were employed. The scores were viewed in the form of mean score and frequencies to determine students' performances in their critical ability.…

  12. Plasmapheresis and other extracorporeal filtration techniques in critical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daga Ruiz, D; Fonseca San Miguel, F; González de Molina, F J; Úbeda-Iglesias, A; Navas Pérez, A; Jannone Forés, R

    2017-04-01

    Plasmapheresis is an extracorporeal technique that eliminates macromolecules involved in pathological processes from plasma. A review is made of the technical aspects, main indications in critical care and potential complications of plasmapheresis, as well as of other extracorporeal filtration techniques such as endotoxin-removal columns and other devices designed to eliminate cytokines or modulate the inflammatory immune response in critical patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Entrepreneurial behavior : New perspectives gained through the critical incident technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandram, S.S.; Samsom, K.J.

    2007-01-01

    Responding to criticism of the trait approach in studying entrepreneurship, a process and context oriented methodology was applied using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) in predicting success and failure. The actions of entrepreneurs were subsequently translated into (1) dynamic traits with a

  14. Preclosure Criticality Analysis Process Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The design approach for criticality of the disposal container and waste package will be dictated by existing regulatory requirements. This conclusion is based on the fact that preclosure operations and facilities have significant similarities to existing facilities and operations currently regulated by the NRC. The major difference would be the use of a risk-informed approach with burnup credit. This approach could reduce licensing delays and costs of the repository. The probability of success for this proposed seamless licensing strategy is increased, since there is precedence of regulation (10 CFR Part 63 and NUREG 1520) and commercial precedence for allowing burnup credit at sites similar to Yucca Mountain during preclosure. While NUREG 1520 is not directly applicable to a facility for handling spent nuclear fuel, the risk-informed approach to criticality analysis in NUREG 1520 is considered indicative of how the NRC will approach risk-informed criticality analysis at spent fuel facilities in the future. The types of design basis events which must be considered during the criticality safety analysis portion of the Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) are those events which result in unanticipated moderation, loss of neutron absorber, geometric changes in the critical system, or administrative errors in waste form placement (loading) of the disposal container. The specific events to be considered must be based on the review of the system's design, as discussed in Section 3.2. A transition of licensing approach (e.g., deterministic versus risk-informed, performance-based) is not obvious and will require analysis. For commercial spent nuclear fuel, the probability of interspersed moderation may be low enough to allow nearly the same Critical Limit for both preclosure and postclosure, though an administrative margin will be applied to preclosure and possibly not to postclosure. Similarly the Design Basis Events for the waste package may be incredible and therefore not

  15. Preclosure Criticality Analysis Process Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The design approach for criticality of the disposal container and waste package will be dictated by existing regulatory requirements. This conclusion is based on the fact that preclosure operations and facilities have significant similarities to existing facilities and operations currently regulated by the NRC. The major difference would be the use of a risk-informed approach with burnup credit. This approach could reduce licensing delays and costs of the repository. The probability of success for this proposed seamless licensing strategy is increased, since there is precedence of regulation (10 CFR Part 63 and NUREG 1520) and commercial precedence for allowing burnup credit at sites similar to Yucca Mountain during preclosure. While NUREG 1520 is not directly applicable to a facility for handling spent nuclear fuel, the risk-informed approach to criticality analysis in NUREG 1520 is considered indicative of how the NRC will approach risk-informed criticality analysis at spent fuel facilities in the future. The types of design basis events which must be considered during the criticality safety analysis portion of the Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) are those events which result in unanticipated moderation, loss of neutron absorber, geometric changes in the critical system, or administrative errors in waste form placement (loading) of the disposal container. The specific events to be considered must be based on the review of the system's design, as discussed in Section 3.2. A transition of licensing approach (e.g., deterministic versus risk-informed, performance-based) is not obvious and will require analysis. For commercial spent nuclear fuel, the probability of interspersed moderation may be low enough to allow nearly the same Critical Limit for both preclosure and postclosure, though an administrative margin will be applied to preclosure and possibly not to postclosure. Similarly the Design Basis Events for the waste package may be incredible and therefore not

  16. Computational methods for nuclear criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maragni, M.G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear criticality safety analyses require the utilization of methods which have been tested and verified against benchmarks results. In this work, criticality calculations based on the KENO-IV and MCNP codes are studied aiming the qualification of these methods at the IPEN-CNEN/SP and COPESP. The utilization of variance reduction techniques is important to reduce the computer execution time, and several of them are analysed. As practical example of the above methods, a criticality safety analysis for the storage tubes for irradiated fuel elements from the IEA-R1 research has been carried out. This analysis showed that the MCNP code is more adequate for problems with complex geometries, and the KENO-IV code shows conservative results when it is not used the generalized geometry option. (author)

  17. PRECLOSURE CRITICALITY ANALYSIS PROCESS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danise, A.E.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a process for performing preclosure criticality analyses for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. These analyses will be performed from the time of receipt of fissile material until permanent closure of the repository (preclosure period). The process describes how criticality safety analyses will be performed for various configurations of waste in or out of waste packages that could occur during preclosure as a result of normal operations or event sequences. The criticality safety analysis considers those event sequences resulting in unanticipated moderation, loss of neutron absorber, geometric changes, or administrative errors in waste form placement (loading) of the waste package. The report proposes a criticality analyses process for preclosure to allow a consistent transition from preclosure to postclosure, thereby possibly reducing potential cost increases and delays in licensing of Yucca Mountain. The proposed approach provides the advantage of using a parallel regulatory framework for evaluation of preclosure and postclosure performance and is consistent with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's approach of supporting risk-informed, performance-based regulation for fuel cycle facilities, ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'', and 10 CFR Part 63. The criticality-related criteria for ensuring subcriticality are also described as well as which guidance documents will be utilized. Preclosure operations and facilities have significant similarities to existing facilities and operations currently regulated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; therefore, the design approach for preclosure criticality safety will be dictated by existing regulatory requirements while using a risk-informed approach with burnup credit for in-package operations

  18. Teaching For Art Criticism: Incorporating Feldman’s Critical Analysis Learning Model In Students’ Studio Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Maithreyi Subramaniam; Jaffri Hanafi; Abu Talib Putih

    2016-01-01

    This study adopted 30 first year graphic design students’ artwork, with critical analysis using Feldman’s model of art criticism. Data were analyzed quantitatively; descriptive statistical techniques were employed. The scores were viewed in the form of mean score and frequencies to determine students’ performances in their critical ability. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to find out the correlation between students’ studio practice and art critical ability scores. The...

  19. Uncertainty analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Saltelli, A.; Cadelli, N.

    1987-01-01

    The origin of the uncertainty affecting Performance Assessments, as well as their propagation to dose and risk results is discussed. The analysis is focused essentially on the uncertainties introduced by the input parameters, the values of which may range over some orders of magnitude and may be given as probability distribution function. The paper briefly reviews the existing sampling techniques used for Monte Carlo simulations and the methods for characterizing the output curves, determining their convergence and confidence limits. Annual doses, expectation values of the doses and risks are computed for a particular case of a possible repository in clay, in order to illustrate the significance of such output characteristics as the mean, the logarithmic mean and the median as well as their ratios. The report concludes that provisionally, due to its better robustness, such estimation as the 90th percentile may be substituted to the arithmetic mean for comparison of the estimated doses with acceptance criteria. In any case, the results obtained through Uncertainty Analyses must be interpreted with caution as long as input data distribution functions are not derived from experiments reasonably reproducing the situation in a well characterized repository and site

  20. Radiotelemetry; techniques and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybill K. Amelon; David C. Dalton; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Sandy A. Wolf

    2009-01-01

    Radiotelemetry has become and important tool in studies of animal behavior, ecology, management, and conservation. From the first decades following the introduction of radio transmitters, radiotelemetry emerged as a prominent and critically important tool in wildlife science for the study of physiology, animal movements (migration, dispersal, and home range), survival...

  1. THE USE OF CRITICAL THINKING TECHNIQUE STUDYING A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AT A HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Надія Бреславець

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical analysis of skills formation and to the use of critical thinking technique when studying a foreign language at a higher educational establishment. The essence, stages and phases of critical thinking technique have been highlighted, methods of its usage have been grounded. The process of investigation has revealed that introduction of critical thinking technique skills facilitates the increase of foreign language study effectiveness, livens up the work of the students aimed at achieving their personal goals of studies, calls the teachers to rethink the essence of the updated educational process.

  2. Analysis and analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batuecas Rodriguez, T [Department of Chemistry and Isotopes, Junta de Energia Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    1967-01-01

    The technology associated with the use of organic coolants in nuclear reactors depends to a large extent on the determination and control of their physical and chemical properties, and particularly on the viability, speed, sensitivity, precision and accuracy (depending on the intended usage) of the methods employed in detection and analytical determination. This has led to the study and development of numerous techniques, some specially designed for the extreme conditions involved in working with the types of product in question and others adapted from existing techniques. In the specific case of polyphenyl and hydropolyphenyl mixtures, which have been the principal subjects of study to date and offer greatest promise, the analytical problems are broadly as follows: Composition of initial product or virgin coolant composition of macro components and amounts of organic and inorganic impurities; Coolant during and after operation. Determination of gases and organic compounds produced by pyrolysis and radiolysis (degradation and polymerization products); Control of systems for purifying and regenerating the coolant after use. Dissolved pressurization gases; Detection of intermediate products during decomposition; these are generally very unstable (free radicals); Degree of fouling and film formation. Tests to determine potential formation of films; Corrosion of structural elements and canning materials; Health and safety. Toxicity, inflammability and impurities that can be activated. Although some of the above problems are closely interrelated and entail similar techniques, they vary as to degree of difficulty. Another question is the difficulty of distinguishing clearly between techniques for determining physical and physico-chemical properties, on one hand, and analytical techniques on the other. Any classification is therefore somewhat arbitrary (for example, in the case of dosimetry and techniques for determining mean molecular weights or electrical conductivity

  3. Evaluating internal public relations using the critical incident technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the critical incident technique (CIT) is one of the current methods in communication audits, little is known about the way it works. The validity of the CIT in the context of internal public relations depends on 3 assumptions: that participants can describe discrete communication events,

  4. The Critical Incident Technique in Library and Information Management Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shelagh; Oulton, Tony

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the application of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) in three studies at the Department of Information and Communications, Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom. Examines staff-development needs as a key element in change in higher education; decision-making practices in small- to medium-size libraries; and development…

  5. Critical reflection activation analysis - a new near-surface probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.M.F.; Trohidou, K.N.

    1988-09-01

    We propose a new surface analytic technique, Critical Reflection Activation Analysis (CRAA). This technique allows accurate depth profiling of impurities ≤ 100A beneath a surface. The depth profile of the impurity is simply related to the induced activity as a function of the angle of reflection. We argue that the technique is practical and estimate its accuracy. (author)

  6. The critical incident technique reappraised: using critical incidents to illuminate organizational practices and build theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Gregory; Tourish, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to offer a reconceptualization of the critical incident technique (CIT) and affirm its utility in management and organization studies.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach: Utilizing a case study from a leadership context, the paper applies the CIT to explore various leadership behaviours in the context of nonprofit boards in Canada. Semi-structured critical incident interviews were used to collect behavioural data from 53 participants – board chairs, board...

  7. Multivariate analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendavid, Josh [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Fisher, Wade C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Junk, Thomas R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The end products of experimental data analysis are designed to be simple and easy to understand: hypothesis tests and measurements of parameters. But, the experimental data themselves are voluminous and complex. Furthermore, in modern collider experiments, many petabytes of data must be processed in search of rare new processes which occur together with much more copious background processes that are of less interest to the task at hand. The systematic uncertainties on the background may be larger than the expected signal in many cases. The statistical power of an analysis and its sensitivity to systematic uncertainty can therefore usually both be improved by separating signal events from background events with higher efficiency and purity.

  8. Teaching For Art Criticism: Incorporating Feldman’s Critical Analysis Learning Model In Students’ Studio Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithreyi Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted 30 first year graphic design students’ artwork, with critical analysis using Feldman’s model of art criticism. Data were analyzed quantitatively; descriptive statistical techniques were employed. The scores were viewed in the form of mean score and frequencies to determine students’ performances in their critical ability. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to find out the correlation between students’ studio practice and art critical ability scores. The findings showed most students performed slightly better than average in the critical analyses and performed best in selecting analysis among the four dimensions assessed. In the context of the students’ studio practice and critical ability, findings showed there are some connections between the students’ art critical ability and studio practice.

  9. Consequences attributed to kidney transplantation: critical incident technique

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Bianca Pozza dos; Schwartz,Eda; Beuter,Margrid; Muniz,Rosani Manfrin; Echevarría-Guanilo,Maria Elena; Viegas,Aline da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the consequences experienced in the life of a person with kidney transplantation. This is a descriptive and qualitative approach, using the Critical Incident Technique, in which the interview content was analyzed, in an attempt to isolate the consequences of the kidney transplantation, showing positive and/or negative references. When confronted with what kidney transplantation provided to people's life, the independence from the hemodialysis machine, the existenc...

  10. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  11. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  12. The critical incident technique in dental research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Santha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a scientific quest to find answers to certain questions. It makes us think with curiosity and wonderment about how to make something better. Research contributes in a major way to the development and maintenance of health and health care systems. Qualitative research is concerned with qualitative phenomena and includes subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions, and behavior. It is especially important in the behavioral sciences where the aim is to discover the underlying motives of human behavior. The critical incident technique (CIT is a well-established qualitative research tool used in many areas of health sciences including nursing, medicine, dentistry, and their respective education systems. This technique is described as consisting of “a set of procedures for collecting direct observations of human behavior in such a way as to facilitate their potential usefulness in solving practical problems.” This review gives a gist of CIT and its application in different aspects of dental research.

  13. Sensitivity-Uncertainty Techniques for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis course will introduce students to keff sensitivity data, cross-section uncertainty data, how keff sensitivity data and keff uncertainty data are generated and how they can be used. Discussion will include how sensitivity/uncertainty data can be used to select applicable critical experiments, to quantify a defensible margin to cover validation gaps and weaknesses, and in development of upper subcritical limits.

  14. Techniques for sensitivity analysis of SYVAC results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prust, J.O.

    1985-05-01

    Sensitivity analysis techniques may be required to examine the sensitivity of SYVAC model predictions to the input parameter values, the subjective probability distributions assigned to the input parameters and to the relationship between dose and the probability of fatal cancers plus serious hereditary disease in the first two generations of offspring of a member of the critical group. This report mainly considers techniques for determining the sensitivity of dose and risk to the variable input parameters. The performance of a sensitivity analysis technique may be improved by decomposing the model and data into subsets for analysis, making use of existing information on sensitivity and concentrating sampling in regions the parameter space that generates high doses or risks. A number of sensitivity analysis techniques are reviewed for their application to the SYVAC model including four techniques tested in an earlier study by CAP Scientific for the SYVAC project. This report recommends the development now of a method for evaluating the derivative of dose and parameter value and extending the Kruskal-Wallis technique to test for interactions between parameters. It is also recommended that the sensitivity of the output of each sub-model of SYVAC to input parameter values should be examined. (author)

  15. Critical analysis of the cranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, Ikuko

    1985-01-01

    Problems, success and shortcomings of the cranking model are discussed by choosing the following four critical topics: 1) the interaction between the ground- and the S-band, 2) vanishing M1 transition moments, 3) the relation between the signature-dependence of the ΔI=1 E2 transition rates in odd-A nuclei and the deviation of nuclear shape from axial symmetry, and 4) the quantum effect on rotational motion, especially on moments of inertia for triaxial shape. (orig.)

  16. Criticality calculations for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vellozo, S.O.

    1981-01-01

    Criticality studies in uranium nitrate and plutonium nitrate aqueous solutions were done. For uranium compound three basic computer codes are used: GAMTEC-II, DTF-IV, KENO-IV. Water was used as refletor and the results obtained with the different computer codes were analyzed and compared with the 'Handbuck zur Kriticalitat'. The cross sections and the cylindrical geometry were generated by Gamtec-II computer code. In the second compound the thickness of the recipient with plutonium nitrate are used with rectangular geometry and concret reflector. The effective multiplication constant was calculated with the Gamtec-II and Keno-IV library. The results show many differences. (E.G) [pt

  17. Bulk analysis using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsaru, M.; Holmes, R.J.; Mathew, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Bulk analysis techniques developed for the mining industry are reviewed. Using penetrating neutron and #betta#-radiations, measurements are obtained directly from a large volume of sample (3-30 kg) #betta#-techniques were used to determine the grade of iron ore and to detect shale on conveyor belts. Thermal neutron irradiation was developed for the simultaneous determination of iron and aluminium in iron ore on a conveyor belt. Thermal-neutron activation analysis includes the determination of alumina in bauxite, and manganese and alumina in manganese ore. Fast neutron activation analysis is used to determine silicon in iron ores, and alumina and silica in bauxite. Fast and thermal neutron activation has been used to determine the soil in shredded sugar cane. (U.K.)

  18. Dynamical analysis of critical assembly CC-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman Fernandez, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The computer code CC-1, elaborated for the analysis of transients in Critical Assemblies is described. The results by the program are compared with the ones presented in the Safety Report for the Critical Assembly of ''La Quebrada'' Nuclear Research Centre (CIN). 7 refs

  19. Applications of probabilistic risk analysis in nuclear criticality safety design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    Many documents have been prepared that try to define the scope of the criticality analysis and that suggest adding probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) to the deterministic safety analysis. The report of the US Department of Energy (DOE) AL 5481.1B suggested that an accident is credible if the occurrence probability is >1 x 10 -6 /yr. The draft DOE 5480 safety analysis report suggested that safety analyses should include the application of methods such as deterministic safety analysis, risk assessment, reliability engineering, common-cause failure analysis, human reliability analysis, and human factor safety analysis techniques. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) report NRC SG830.110 suggested that major safety analysis methods should include but not be limited to risk assessment, reliability engineering, and human factor safety analysis. All of these suggestions have recommended including PRA in the traditional criticality analysis

  20. Reliability Analysis Techniques for Communication Networks in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T. J.; Jang, S. C.; Kang, H. G.; Kim, M. C.; Eom, H. S.; Lee, H. J.

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this project is to investigate and study existing reliability analysis techniques for communication networks in order to develop reliability analysis models for nuclear power plant's safety-critical networks. It is necessary to make a comprehensive survey of current methodologies for communication network reliability. Major outputs of this study are design characteristics of safety-critical communication networks, efficient algorithms for quantifying reliability of communication networks, and preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks

  1. Critical Analysis of a Website: A Critique based on Critical Applied Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Agustina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available E-learning was easily found through browsing internet, which was mostly free of charge and provided various learning materials. Spellingcity.com was one of e-learning websites for teaching and learning English to learn spelling, vocabulary and writing, which offered various games and activities for young learners, 6 until 8 year old learners in particular. Having considered those constraints, this paper aimed to analyse the website from two different views: (1 critical applied linguistics  (CAL aspects and (2 critical  discourse analysis (CDA. After analysing the website using CAL and CDA, it was found that the website was adequate for beginner, in which it provided fun learning through games as well as challenged learners’ to test their vocabulary. Despite of these strengths, there were several issues required further thinking in terms of learners’ broad knowledge, such as, some of learning materials focused on states in America. It was quite difficult for EFL learners if they did not have adequate general knowledge. Thus, the findings implied that the website could be used as a supporting learning material, which accompanied textbooks and vocabulary exercise books.

  2. Criticality Analysis of SAMOP Subcritical Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegas-Sutondo; Syarip; Triwulan-Tjiptono

    2005-01-01

    A critically analysis has been performed for homogenous system of uranyl nitrate solution, as part of a preliminary design assessment on neutronic aspect of SAMOP sub-critical assembly. The analysis is intended to determine some critical parameters such as the minimum of critical dimension and critical mass for the desired concentration. As the basis of this analysis, it has been defined a fuel system with an enrichment of 20% for cylindrical geometry of both bare and graphite reflected of 30 cm thickness. The MCNP code has been utilized for this purpose, for variation of concentrations ranging from 150 g/l to 500 g/l. It is found that the best concentration giving the minimum geometrical dimension is around 400 g/l, for both the bare and reflected systems. Whilst the best one, of minimum critical mass is corresponding to the concentration of around 200 g/l with critical mass around 14.1 kg and 4.2 kg for the bare and reflected systems respectively. Based on the result of calculations, it is concluded that by taking into consideration of the critical limit, the SAMOP subcritical assembly is neutronically can be made. (author)

  3. A critical survey of live virtual machine migration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtualization techniques effectively handle the growing demand for computing, storage, and communication resources in large-scale Cloud Data Centers (CDC. It helps to achieve different resource management objectives like load balancing, online system maintenance, proactive fault tolerance, power management, and resource sharing through Virtual Machine (VM migration. VM migration is a resource-intensive procedure as VM’s continuously demand appropriate CPU cycles, cache memory, memory capacity, and communication bandwidth. Therefore, this process degrades the performance of running applications and adversely affects efficiency of the data centers, particularly when Service Level Agreements (SLA and critical business objectives are to be met. Live VM migration is frequently used because it allows the availability of application service, while migration is performed. In this paper, we make an exhaustive survey of the literature on live VM migration and analyze the various proposed mechanisms. We first classify the types of Live VM migration (single, multiple and hybrid. Next, we categorize VM migration techniques based on duplication mechanisms (replication, de-duplication, redundancy, and compression and awareness of context (dependency, soft page, dirty page, and page fault and evaluate the various Live VM migration techniques. We discuss various performance metrics like application service downtime, total migration time and amount of data transferred. CPU, memory and storage data is transferred during the process of VM migration and we identify the category of data that needs to be transferred in each case. We present a brief discussion on security threats in live VM migration and categories them in three different classes (control plane, data plane, and migration module. We also explain the security requirements and existing solutions to mitigate possible attacks. Specific gaps are identified and the research challenges in improving

  4. Uncertainty quantification for criticality problems using non-intrusive and adaptive Polynomial Chaos techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilli, L.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J.L.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Koning, A.J.; Rochman, D.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-intrusive spectral techniques are applied to perform UQ of criticality problems. ► A new adaptive algorithm based on the definition of sparse grid is derived. ► The method is applied to two reference criticality problems. - Abstract: In this paper we present the implementation and the application of non-intrusive spectral techniques for uncertainty analysis of criticality problems. Spectral techniques can be used to reconstruct stochastic quantities of interest by means of a Fourier-like expansion. Their application to uncertainty propagation problems can be performed in a non-intrusive fashion by evaluating a set of projection integrals that are used to reconstruct the spectral expansion. This can be done either by using standard Monte Carlo integration approaches or by adopting numerical quadrature rules. We present the derivation of a new adaptive quadrature algorithm, based on the definition of a sparse grid, which can be used to reduce the computational cost associated with non-intrusive spectral techniques. This new adaptive algorithm and the Monte Carlo integration alternative are then applied to two reference problems. First, a stochastic multigroup diffusion problem is introduced by considering the microscopic cross-sections of the system to be random quantities. Then a criticality benchmark is defined for which a set of resonance parameters in the resolved region are assumed to be stochastic

  5. Advanced Techniques of Stress Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simion TATARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to check the stress analysis technique based on 3D models also making a comparison with the traditional technique which utilizes a model built directly into the stress analysis program. This comparison of the two methods will be made with reference to the rear fuselage of IAR-99 aircraft, structure with a high degree of complexity which allows a meaningful evaluation of both approaches. Three updated databases are envisaged: the database having the idealized model obtained using ANSYS and working directly on documentation, without automatic generation of nodes and elements (with few exceptions, the rear fuselage database (performed at this stage obtained with Pro/ ENGINEER and the one obtained by using ANSYS with the second database. Then, each of the three databases will be used according to arising necessities.The main objective is to develop the parameterized model of the rear fuselage using the computer aided design software Pro/ ENGINEER. A review of research regarding the use of virtual reality with the interactive analysis performed by the finite element method is made to show the state- of- the-art achieved in this field.

  6. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, Ryan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  7. Critical feature analysis of a radiotherapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, Andrew; Jackson, Daniel; Ramanan, Prasad; Flanz, Jay; Leyman, Didier

    2005-01-01

    The software implementation of the emergency shutdown feature in a major radiotherapy system was analyzed, using a directed form of code review based on module dependences. Dependences between modules are labelled by particular assumptions; this allows one to trace through the code, and identify those fragments responsible for critical features. An 'assumption tree' is constructed in parallel, showing the assumptions which each module makes about others. The root of the assumption tree is the critical feature of interest, and its leaves represent assumptions which, if not valid, might cause the critical feature to fail. The analysis revealed some unexpected assumptions that motivated improvements to the code

  8. Analysis of Critical Parts and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    1 1 1% 1% 1% 1% Large Orders Manual Ordering of Some Critical Parts Order Spares with Original Order Incentives Belter Capital Investment...demand 23 Large orders 24 Long lead procurement funding (including raw materials, facility funding) 25 Manpower analysis and training 26 Manual ... ordering of some critical parts 27 More active role in schedule negotiation 28 Multiple source procurements 29 Multi-year program funding 30 Order

  9. ACRR fuel storage racks criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodette, D.E.; Naegeli, R.E.

    1997-10-01

    This document presents the criticality safety analysis for a new fuel storage rack to support modification of the Annular Core Research Reactor for production of molybdenum-99 at Sandia National Laboratories, Technical Area V facilities. Criticality calculations with the MCNP code investigated various contingencies for the criticality control parameters. Important contingencies included mix of fuel element types stored, water density due to air bubbles or water level for the over-moderated racks, interaction with existing fuel storage racks and fuel storage holsters in the fuel storage pool, neutron absorption of planned rack design and materials, and criticality changes due to manufacturing tolerances or damage. Some limitations or restrictions on use of the new fuel storage rack for storage operations were developed through the criticality analysis and are required to meet the double contingency requirements of criticality safety. As shown in the analysis, this system will remain subcritical under all credible upset conditions. Administrative controls are necessary for loading, moving, and handling the storage rack as well as for control of operations around it. 21 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  10. [Patient satisfaction in hospital: critical incident technique or standardised questionnaire?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt-Abdulla, R; Bock, M; Bauer, M

    2008-03-01

    Questionnaires are usually used for the measurement of patient satisfaction, however, it is increasingly being recognized that the critical incident technique (CIT) also provides valuable insight. Questionnaires of the "Hamburger questionnaire on hospital stay" were distributed to 650 consecutive patients before discharge. Additionally 103 interviews were conducted in which the patients were asked to describe positive and negative incidents during their hospital stay. The results of both methods were then compared. A total of 369 patients returned the questionnaire and 103 patients participated in the interviews. The duration of a single interview was between 5 and 45 min with a mean of 12.7 min+/-10.1 min standard deviation (SD). Cronbach's alpha of the questionnaire was 0.9. A total of 424 incidents were reported, 301 of them were negative compared to 123 positive events. The questionnaires and interviews yielded partly similar and partly different results at category and subcategory levels concerning the areas of weaknesses and strengths in quality performance. The CIT was more concrete but did not give results for all aspects of quality. The CIT, but not the questionnaire, was able to detect 40/56 (71%) of the positive and 33/75 (44%) of the negative reports regarding medical performance and 25/42 (60%) of the positive and 15/51 (29.4%) of the negative reports of the performance of the nurses were revealed by the CIT and not by the questionnaires. The CIT gives valuable insights into the patient's perspective of strengths and weaknesses in hospital care, which might be overlooked by the questionnaire alone. However, the CIT is probably not suited for routine use because it is very time-consuming.

  11. Empowerment in critical care - a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin, Ingrid

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to analyse how the concept of empowerment is defined in the scientific literature in relation to critical care. As empowerment is a mutual process affecting all individuals involved, the perspectives of not only patients and next of kin but also staff were sought. A literature review and a concept analysis based on Walker and Avant's analysis procedure were used to identify the basic elements of empowerment in critical care. Twenty-two articles with a focus on critical care were discovered and included in the investigation. A mutual and supportive relationship, knowledge, skills, power within oneself and self-determination were found to be the common attributes of empowerment in critical care. The results could be adapted and used for all parties involved in critical care - whether patients, next of kin or staff - as these defining attributes are assumed to be universal to all three groups, even if the more specific content of each attribute varies between groups and individuals. Even if empowerment is only sparsely used in relation to critical care, it appears to be a very useful concept in this context. The benefits of improving empowerment are extensive: decreased levels of distress and strain, increased sense of coherence and control over situation, and personal and/or professional development and growth, together with increased comfort and inner satisfaction. © 2016 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College.

  12. Novel Hybrid Scheduling Technique for Sensor Nodes with Mixed Criticality Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micea, Mihai-Victor; Stangaciu, Cristina-Sorina; Stangaciu, Valentin; Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2017-06-26

    Sensor networks become increasingly a key technology for complex control applications. Their potential use in safety- and time-critical domains has raised the need for task scheduling mechanisms specially adapted to sensor node specific requirements, often materialized in predictable jitter-less execution of tasks characterized by different criticality levels. This paper offers an efficient scheduling solution, named Hybrid Hard Real-Time Scheduling (H²RTS), which combines a static, clock driven method with a dynamic, event driven scheduling technique, in order to provide high execution predictability, while keeping a high node Central Processing Unit (CPU) utilization factor. From the detailed, integrated schedulability analysis of the H²RTS, a set of sufficiency tests are introduced and demonstrated based on the processor demand and linear upper bound metrics. The performance and correct behavior of the proposed hybrid scheduling technique have been extensively evaluated and validated both on a simulator and on a sensor mote equipped with ARM7 microcontroller.

  13. Analysis Techniques for Information Security

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Anupam; Li, Ninghui

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly our critical infrastructures are reliant on computers. We see examples of such infrastructures in several domains, including medical, power, telecommunications, and finance. Although automation has advantages, increased reliance on computers exposes our critical infrastructures to a wider variety and higher likelihood of accidental failures and malicious attacks. Disruption of services caused by such undesired events can have catastrophic effects, such as disruption of essential services and huge financial losses. The increased reliance of critical services on our cyberinfrastruct

  14. Population estimation techniques for routing analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathisan, S.K.; Chagari, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    A number of on-site and off-site factors affect the potential siting of a radioactive materials repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Transportation related issues such route selection and design are among them. These involve evaluation of potential risks and impacts, including those related to population. Population characteristics (total population and density) are critical factors in the risk assessment, emergency preparedness and response planning, and ultimately in route designation. This paper presents an application of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to facilitate such analyses. Specifically, techniques to estimate critical population information are presented. A case study using the highway network in Nevada is used to illustrate the analyses. TIGER coverages are used as the basis for population information at a block level. The data are then synthesized at tract, county and state levels of aggregation. Of particular interest are population estimates for various corridor widths along transport corridors -- ranging from 0.5 miles to 20 miles in this paper. A sensitivity analysis based on the level of data aggregation is also presented. The results of these analysis indicate that specific characteristics of the area and its population could be used as indicators to aggregate data appropriately for the analysis

  15. Partnering for Research: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Catherine J.; English, Leona M.

    2008-01-01

    Using a critical discourse analysis, informed by poststructuralist theory, we explore the research phenomenon of coerced partnership. This lens allows us to pay attention to the social relations of power operating in knowledge generation processes, especially as they affect feminist researchers in adult education. We propose an alternative vision…

  16. Uncertainty analysis in Monte Carlo criticality computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Ao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two types of uncertainty methods for k eff Monte Carlo computations are examined. ► Sampling method has the least restrictions on perturbation but computing resources. ► Analytical method is limited to small perturbation on material properties. ► Practicality relies on efficiency, multiparameter applicability and data availability. - Abstract: Uncertainty analysis is imperative for nuclear criticality risk assessments when using Monte Carlo neutron transport methods to predict the effective neutron multiplication factor (k eff ) for fissionable material systems. For the validation of Monte Carlo codes for criticality computations against benchmark experiments, code accuracy and precision are measured by both the computational bias and uncertainty in the bias. The uncertainty in the bias accounts for known or quantified experimental, computational and model uncertainties. For the application of Monte Carlo codes for criticality analysis of fissionable material systems, an administrative margin of subcriticality must be imposed to provide additional assurance of subcriticality for any unknown or unquantified uncertainties. Because of a substantial impact of the administrative margin of subcriticality on economics and safety of nuclear fuel cycle operations, recently increasing interests in reducing the administrative margin of subcriticality make the uncertainty analysis in criticality safety computations more risk-significant. This paper provides an overview of two most popular k eff uncertainty analysis methods for Monte Carlo criticality computations: (1) sampling-based methods, and (2) analytical methods. Examples are given to demonstrate their usage in the k eff uncertainty analysis due to uncertainties in both neutronic and non-neutronic parameters of fissionable material systems.

  17. Multi-intelligence critical rating assessment of fusion techniques (MiCRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Assessment of multi-intelligence fusion techniques includes credibility of algorithm performance, quality of results against mission needs, and usability in a work-domain context. Situation awareness (SAW) brings together low-level information fusion (tracking and identification), high-level information fusion (threat and scenario-based assessment), and information fusion level 5 user refinement (physical, cognitive, and information tasks). To measure SAW, we discuss the SAGAT (Situational Awareness Global Assessment Technique) technique for a multi-intelligence fusion (MIF) system assessment that focuses on the advantages of MIF against single intelligence sources. Building on the NASA TLX (Task Load Index), SAGAT probes, SART (Situational Awareness Rating Technique) questionnaires, and CDM (Critical Decision Method) decision points; we highlight these tools for use in a Multi-Intelligence Critical Rating Assessment of Fusion Techniques (MiCRAFT). The focus is to measure user refinement of a situation over the information fusion quality of service (QoS) metrics: timeliness, accuracy, confidence, workload (cost), and attention (throughput). A key component of any user analysis includes correlation, association, and summarization of data; so we also seek measures of product quality and QuEST of information. Building a notion of product quality from multi-intelligence tools is typically subjective which needs to be aligned with objective machine metrics.

  18. Reliability analysis techniques for the design engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Witt, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a fault tree analysis package that eliminates most of the housekeeping tasks involved in proceeding from the initial construction of a fault tree to the final stage of presenting a reliability analysis in a safety report. It is suitable for designers with relatively little training in reliability analysis and computer operation. Users can rapidly investigate the reliability implications of various options at the design stage and evolve a system which meets specified reliability objectives. Later independent review is thus unlikely to reveal major shortcomings necessitating modification and project delays. The package operates interactively, allowing the user to concentrate on the creative task of developing the system fault tree, which may be modified and displayed graphically. For preliminary analysis, system data can be derived automatically from a generic data bank. As the analysis proceeds, improved estimates of critical failure rates and test and maintenance schedules can be inserted. The technique is applied to the reliability analysis of the recently upgraded HIFAR Containment Isolation System. (author)

  19. Techniques and Technology to Revise Content Delivery and Model Critical Thinking in the Neuroscience Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illig, Kurt R

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate neuroscience courses typically involve highly interdisciplinary material, and it is often necessary to use class time to review how principles of chemistry, math and biology apply to neuroscience. Lecturing and Socratic discussion can work well to deliver information to students, but these techniques can lead students to feel more like spectators than participants in a class, and do not actively engage students in the critical analysis and application of experimental evidence. If one goal of undergraduate neuroscience education is to foster critical thinking skills, then the classroom should be a place where students and instructors can work together to develop them. Students learn how to think critically by directly engaging with course material, and by discussing evidence with their peers, but taking classroom time for these activities requires that an instructor find a way to provide course materials outside of class. Using technology as an on-demand provider of course materials can give instructors the freedom to restructure classroom time, allowing students to work together in small groups and to have discussions that foster critical thinking, and allowing the instructor to model these skills. In this paper, I provide a rationale for reducing the use of traditional lectures in favor of more student-centered activities, I present several methods that can be used to deliver course materials outside of class and discuss their use, and I provide a few examples of how these techniques and technologies can help improve learning outcomes.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of critical experiments with evaluated nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, D.; Kosaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    Criticality benchmark testing was performed with evaluated nuclear data libraries for thermal, low-enriched uranium fuel rod applications. C/E values for k eff were calculated with the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP2 and its libraries generated from Endf/B-VI.8, Endf/B-VII.0, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1. Subsequently, the observed k eff discrepancies between libraries were decomposed to specify the source of difference in the nuclear data libraries using sensitivity analysis technique. The obtained sensitivity profiles are also utilized to estimate the adequacy of cold critical experiments to the boiling water reactor under hot operating condition. (authors)

  1. Criticality analysis in uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Kiyose, Ryohei

    1977-01-01

    In a large scale uranium enrichment plant, uranium inventory in cascade rooms is not very large in quantity, but the facilities dealing with the largest quantity of uranium in that process are the UF 6 gas supply system and the blending system for controlling the product concentration. When UF 6 spills out of these systems, the enriched uranium is accumulated, and the danger of criticality accident is feared. If a NaF trap is placed at the forestage of waste gas treatment system, plenty of UF 6 and HF are adsorbed together in the NaF trap. Thus, here is the necessity of checking the safety against criticality. Various assumptions were made to perform the computation surveying the criticality of the system composed of UF 6 and HF adsorbed on NaF traps with WIMS code (transport analysis). The minimum critical radius resulted in about 53 cm in case of 3.5% enriched fuel for light water reactors. The optimum volume ratio of fissile material in the double salt UF 6 .2NaF and NaF.HF is about 40 vol. %. While, criticality survey computation was also made for the annular NaF trap having the central cooling tube, and it was found that the effect of cooling tube radius did not decrease the multiplication factor up to the cooling tube radius of about 5 cm. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Critical analysis of science textbooks evaluating instructional effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The critical analysis of science textbooks is vital in improving teaching and learning at all levels in the subject, and this volume sets out a range of academic perspectives on how that analysis should be done. Each chapter focuses on an aspect of science textbook appraisal, with coverage of everything from theoretical and philosophical underpinnings, methodological issues, and conceptual frameworks for critical analysis, to practical techniques for evaluation. Contributions from many of the most distinguished scholars in the field give this collection its sure-footed contemporary relevance, reflecting the international standards of UNESCO as well as leading research organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science (whose Project 2061 is an influential waypoint in developing protocols for textbook analysis). Thus the book shows how to gauge aspects of textbooks such as their treatment of controversial issues, graphical depictions, scientific historiography, vocabulary usage, acc...

  3. Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Raquel; Todolí, José Luis; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    The fundamentals, applications and latter developments of petroleum products analysis through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are revisited in the present bibliographic survey. Sample preparation procedures for the direct analysis of fuels by using liquid sample introduction systems are critically reviewed and compared. The most employed methods are sample dilution, emulsion or micro-emulsion preparation and sample decomposition. The first one is the most widely employed due to its simplicity. Once the sample has been prepared, an organic matrix is usually present. The performance of the sample introduction system (i.e., nebulizer and spray chamber) depends strongly upon the nature and properties of the solution finally obtained. Many different devices have been assayed and the obtained results are shown. Additionally, samples can be introduced into the plasma by using an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) device or a laser ablation system (LA). The recent results published in the literature showing the feasibility, advantages and drawbacks of latter alternatives are also described. Therefore, the main goal of the review is the discussion of the different approaches developed for the analysis of crude oil and its derivates by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques. - Highlights: • Analysis of petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques is revisited. • Fundamental studies are included together with reports dealing with applications. • Conventional and non-conventional sample introduction methods are considered. • Sample preparation methods are critically compared and described

  4. Critical Analysis of Boko Haram Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    insurgency, which poses a threat and problem to the Nigerian government. This research will consult and refer to materials, books , internet, articles, and...this paper recommends the government of Nigeria use efforts to defeat the group focused on; socio economic development, improved intelligence network...College or any other governmental agency. ( References to this study should include the foregoing statement.) iv ABSTRACT A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF

  5. An efficient search method for finding the critical slip surface using the compositional Monte Carlo technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goshtasbi, K.; Ahmadi, M; Naeimi, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Locating the critical slip surface and the associated minimum factor of safety are two complementary parts in a slope stability analysis. A large number of computer programs exist to solve slope stability problems. Most of these programs, however, have used inefficient and unreliable search procedures to locate the global minimum factor of safety. This paper presents an efficient and reliable method to determine the global minimum factor of safety coupled with a modified version of the Monte Carlo technique. Examples arc presented to illustrate the reliability of the proposed method

  6. Computational Methods for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis in Criticality Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.; Childs, R.L.; Rearden, B.T.

    1999-01-01

    Interest in the sensitivity methods that were developed and widely used in the 1970s (the FORSS methodology at ORNL among others) has increased recently as a result of potential use in the area of criticality safety data validation procedures to define computational bias, uncertainties and area(s) of applicability. Functional forms of the resulting sensitivity coefficients can be used as formal parameters in the determination of applicability of benchmark experiments to their corresponding industrial application areas. In order for these techniques to be generally useful to the criticality safety practitioner, the procedures governing their use had to be updated and simplified. This paper will describe the resulting sensitivity analysis tools that have been generated for potential use by the criticality safety community

  7. Reliability analysis techniques in power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of reliability analysis techniques is presented as applied to power plant design. The key terms, power plant performance, reliability, availability and maintainability are defined. Reliability modeling, methods of analysis and component reliability data are briefly reviewed. Application of reliability analysis techniques from a design engineering approach to improving power plant productivity is discussed. (author)

  8. Critical analysis of radiologist-patient interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K J; Tarico, V S; Smith, W L; Altmaier, E M; Franken, E A

    1987-05-01

    A critical incident interview technique was used to identify features of radiologist-patient interactions considered effective and ineffective by patients. During structured interviews with 35 radiology patients and five patients' parents, three general categories of physician behavior were described: attention to patient comfort, explanation of procedure and results, and interpersonal sensitivity. The findings indicated that patients are sensitive to physicians' interpersonal styles and that they want physicians to explain procedures and results in an understandable manner and to monitor their well-being during procedures. The sample size of the study is small; thus further confirmation is needed. However, the implications for training residents and practicing radiologists in these behaviors are important in the current competitive medical milieu.

  9. Critical analysis of industrial electron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S. E-mail: sergey_korenev@steris.com

    2004-10-01

    The critical analysis of electron linacs for industrial applications (degradation of PTFE, curing of composites, modification of materials, sterilization and others) is considered in this report. Main physical requirements for industrial electron accelerators consist in the variations of beam parameters, such as kinetic energy and beam power. Questions for regulation of these beam parameters are considered. The level of absorbed dose in the irradiated product and throughput determines the main parameters of electron accelerator. The type of ideal electron linac for industrial applications is discussed.

  10. Critical analysis of industrial electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, S.

    2004-09-01

    The critical analysis of electron linacs for industrial applications (degradation of PTFE, curing of composites, modification of materials, sterlization and others) is considered in this report. Main physical requirements for industrial electron accelerators consist in the variations of beam parameters, such as kinetic energy and beam power. Questions for regulation of these beam parameters are considered. The level of absorbed dose in the irradiated product and throughput determines the main parameters of electron accelerator. The type of ideal electron linac for industrial applications is discussed.

  11. Critical analysis of industrial electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.

    2004-01-01

    The critical analysis of electron linacs for industrial applications (degradation of PTFE, curing of composites, modification of materials, sterilization and others) is considered in this report. Main physical requirements for industrial electron accelerators consist in the variations of beam parameters, such as kinetic energy and beam power. Questions for regulation of these beam parameters are considered. The level of absorbed dose in the irradiated product and throughput determines the main parameters of electron accelerator. The type of ideal electron linac for industrial applications is discussed

  12. Fission reactor critical experiments and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Work accomplished in support of nonweapons programs by LASL Group Q-14 is described. Included are efforts in basic critical measurements, nuclear criticality safety, a plasma core critical assembly, and reactivity coefficient measurements

  13. Criticality safety analysis for mockup facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Shin, Hee Sung; Kim, Ik Soo; Oh, Seung Chul; Ro, Seung Gy; Bae, Kang Mok

    2000-03-01

    Benchmark calculations for SCALE4.4 CSAS6 module have been performed for 31 UO 2 fuel, 15MOX fuel and 10 metal material criticality experiments and then calculation biases of the SCALE 4.4 CSAS6 module have been revealed to be 0.00982, 0.00579 and 0.02347, respectively. When CSAS6 is applied to the criticality safety analysis for the mockup facility in which several kinds of nuclear material components are included, the calculation bias of CSAS6 is conservatively taken to be 0.02347. With the aid of this benchmarked code system, criticality safety analyses for the mockup facility at normal and hypothetical accidental conditions have been carried out. It appears that the maximum K eff is 0.28356 well below than the critical limit, K eff =0.95 at normal condition. In a hypothetical accidental condition, the maximum K eff is found to be 0.73527 much lower than the subcritical limit. For another hypothetical accidental condition the nuclear material leaks out of container and spread or lump in the floor, it was assumed that the nuclear material is shaped into a slab and water exists in the empty space of the nuclear material. K eff has been calculated as function of slab thickness and the volume ratio of water to nuclear material. The result shows that the K eff increases as the water volume ratio increases. It is also revealed that the K eff reaches to the maximum value when water if filled in the empty space of nuclear material. The maximum K eff value is 0.93960 lower than the subcritical limit

  14. Supplement to the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The methodology for evaluating criticality potential for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel after the repository is sealed and permanently closed is described in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report (DOE 1998b). The topical report provides a process for validating various models that are contained in the methodology and states that validation will be performed to support License Application. The Supplement to the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology provides a summary of data and analyses that will be used for validating these models and will be included in the model validation reports. The supplement also summarizes the process that will be followed in developing the model validation reports. These reports will satisfy commitments made in the topical report, and thus support the use of the methodology for Site Recommendation and License Application. It is concluded that this report meets the objective of presenting additional information along with references that support the methodology presented in the topical report and can be used both in validation reports and in answering request for additional information received from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning the topical report. The data and analyses summarized in this report and presented in the references are not sufficient to complete a validation report. However, this information will provide a basis for several of the validation reports. Data from several references in this report have been identified with TBV-1349. Release of the TBV governing this data is required prior to its use in quality affecting activities and for use in analyses affecting procurement, construction, or fabrication. Subsequent to the initiation of TBV-1349, DOE issued a concurrence letter (Mellington 1999) approving the request to identify information taken from the references specified in Section 1.4 as accepted data

  15. Software criticality analysis of COTS/SOUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, Peter; Bloomfield, Robin; Clement, Tim; Guerra, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the Software Criticality Analysis (SCA) approach that was developed to support the justification of using commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS) in a safety-related system. The primary objective of SCA is to assess the importance to safety of the software components within the COTS and to show there is segregation between software components with different safety importance. The approach taken was a combination of Hazops based on design documents and on a detailed analysis of the actual code (100 kloc). Considerable effort was spent on validation and ensuring the conservative nature of the results. The results from reverse engineering from the code showed that results based only on architecture and design documents would have been misleading

  16. Analysis of criticality experiments at SHE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Makoto; Doi, Takeshi; Hirano, Mitsumasa; Shindo, Ryuichi; Oomura, Hiroshi

    1982-03-01

    In the report, the criticality experiments, which were conducted for the core configurations of Semi-Homogeneous Experimental Assembly (SHE)-8,12,13,14, are analyzed for the purpose of verifying the computer codes and calculational methods employed in the nuclear design of VHTR. The codes, DELIGHT-5 and CITATION calculate the neutron spectrum and the effective multiplication factor respectively. Each system of SHE is modeled by twodimensional R-Z, Triangular and threedimensional Triangular-Z geometries. Various effects such as axial buckling, modeling and the difference between diffusion and transport are also taken into account. Calculated values of effective multiplication factor show the disagreement of 1 - 3% from the values of experiments approximately. Therefore the analysis is considered to be inadequate to the verification and more precise analysis is required with the emphasis on how to model the system, condense the group constants and guess the buckling value for spectrum calculation. (author)

  17. Software criticality analysis of COTS/SOUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Peter; Bloomfield, Robin; Clement, Tim; Guerra, Sofia

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the Software Criticality Analysis (SCA) approach that was developed to support the justification of using commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS) in a safety-related system. The primary objective of SCA is to assess the importance to safety of the software components within the COTS and to show there is segregation between software components with different safety importance. The approach taken was a combination of Hazops based on design documents and on a detailed analysis of the actual code (100 kloc). Considerable effort was spent on validation and ensuring the conservative nature of the results. The results from reverse engineering from the code showed that results based only on architecture and design documents would have been misleading.

  18. Benchmarking criticality analysis of TRIGA fuel storage racks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew Loren; DeBey, Timothy M; Higginbotham, Jack F

    2017-01-01

    A criticality analysis was benchmarked to sub-criticality measurements of the hexagonal fuel storage racks at the United States Geological Survey TRIGA MARK I reactor in Denver. These racks, which hold up to 19 fuel elements each, are arranged at 0.61m (2 feet) spacings around the outer edge of the reactor. A 3-dimensional model was created of the racks using MCNP5, and the model was verified experimentally by comparison to measured subcritical multiplication data collected in an approach to critical loading of two of the racks. The validated model was then used to show that in the extreme condition where the entire circumference of the pool was lined with racks loaded with used fuel the storage array is subcritical with a k value of about 0.71; well below the regulatory limit of 0.8. A model was also constructed of the rectangular 2×10 fuel storage array used in many other TRIGA reactors to validate the technique against the original TRIGA licensing sub-critical analysis performed in 1966. The fuel used in this study was standard 20% enriched (LEU) aluminum or stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Novel Hybrid Scheduling Technique for Sensor Nodes with Mixed Criticality Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Victor Micea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks become increasingly a key technology for complex control applications. Their potential use in safety- and time-critical domains has raised the need for task scheduling mechanisms specially adapted to sensor node specific requirements, often materialized in predictable jitter-less execution of tasks characterized by different criticality levels. This paper offers an efficient scheduling solution, named Hybrid Hard Real-Time Scheduling (H2RTS, which combines a static, clock driven method with a dynamic, event driven scheduling technique, in order to provide high execution predictability, while keeping a high node Central Processing Unit (CPU utilization factor. From the detailed, integrated schedulability analysis of the H2RTS, a set of sufficiency tests are introduced and demonstrated based on the processor demand and linear upper bound metrics. The performance and correct behavior of the proposed hybrid scheduling technique have been extensively evaluated and validated both on a simulator and on a sensor mote equipped with ARM7 microcontroller.

  20. Nuclear analysis techniques and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    31 theses are collected in this book. It introduced molecular activation analysis micro-PIXE and micro-probe analysis, x-ray fluorescence analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry. The applications about these nuclear analysis techniques are presented and reviewed for environmental sciences

  1. Analysis of archaeological pieces with nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenorio, D.

    2002-01-01

    In this work nuclear techniques such as Neutron Activation Analysis, PIXE, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Metallography, Uranium series, Rutherford Backscattering for using in analysis of archaeological specimens and materials are described. Also some published works and thesis about analysis of different Mexican and Meso american archaeological sites are referred. (Author)

  2. Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S. C.; Kim, W. H.; Park, Y. J.; Park, Y. J.; Song, B. C.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Pyo, H. Y.

    2002-01-01

    This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system

  3. Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S. C.; Kim, W. H.; Park, Y. J.; Song, B. C.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Pyo, H. Y

    2002-01-01

    This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system.

  4. Critical analysis of the Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas P, Elkin; Gonzalez S, Carmen Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The document analyses the Colombian mining legislation, Act 685 of 2001, based on the reasons expressed by the government and the miners for its conceit and approval. The document tries to determine the developments achieved by this new Mining Code considering international mining competitiveness and its adaptation to the constitutional rules about environment, indigenous communities, decentralization and sustainable development. The analysis formulates general and specific hypothesis about the proposed objectives of the reform, which are confronted with the arguments and critical evaluations of the results. Most hypothesis are not verified, thus demonstrating that the Colombian mining legislation is far from being the necessary instrument to promote mining activities, making it competitive according to international standards and adapted to the principles of sustainable development, healthy environment, community participation, ethnic minorities and regional autonomy

  5. Critical analysis of algebraic collective models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshinsky, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author shall understand by algebraic collective models all those based on specific Lie algebras, whether the latter are suggested through simple shell model considerations like in the case of the Interacting Boson Approximation (IBA), or have a detailed microscopic foundation like the symplectic model. To analyze these models critically, it is convenient to take a simple conceptual example of them in which all steps can be implemented analytically or through elementary numerical analysis. In this note he takes as an example the symplectic model in a two dimensional space i.e. based on a sp(4,R) Lie algebra, and show how through its complete discussion we can get a clearer understanding of the structure of algebraic collective models of nuclei. In particular he discusses the association of Hamiltonians, related to maximal subalgebras of our basic Lie algebra, with specific types of spectra, and the connections between spectra and shapes

  6. Performance management in healthcare: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewko, Sarah J; Cummings, Greta G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the underlying theoretical assumptions and implications of current micro-level performance management and evaluation (PME) practices, specifically within health-care organizations. PME encompasses all activities that are designed and conducted to align employee outputs with organizational goals. Design/methodology/approach - PME, in the context of healthcare, is analyzed through the lens of critical theory. Specifically, Habermas' theory of communicative action is used to highlight some of the questions that arise in looking critically at PME. To provide a richer definition of key theoretical concepts, the authors conducted a preliminary, exploratory hermeneutic semantic analysis of the key words "performance" and "management" and of the term "performance management". Findings - Analysis reveals that existing micro-level PME systems in health-care organizations have the potential to create a workforce that is compliant, dependent, technically oriented and passive, and to support health-care systems in which inequalities and power imbalances are perpetually reinforced. Practical implications - At a time when the health-care system is under increasing pressure to provide high-quality, affordable services with fewer resources, it may be wise to investigate new sector-specific ways of evaluating and managing performance. Originality/value - In this paper, written for health-care leaders and health human resource specialists, the theoretical assumptions and implications of current PME practices within health-care organizations are explored. It is hoped that readers will be inspired to support innovative PME practices within their organizations that encourage peak performance among health-care professionals.

  7. Using the Critical Incident Technique for Triangulation and Elaboration of Communication Management Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Margaret Ann; Jeffrey, Lynn Maud

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research using the critical incident technique to identify the use of key competencies for communication management practitioners. Qualitative data was generated from 202 critical incidents reported by 710 respondents. We also present a brief summary of the quantitative data, which identified two superordinate…

  8. Rethinking Critical Mathematics: A Comparative Analysis of Critical, Reform, and Traditional Geometry Instructional Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantlinger, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a comparative analysis of three similar secondary geometry texts, one critical unit, one standards-based reform unit, and one specialist chapter. I developed the critical unit as I took the tenets of critical mathematics (CM) and substantiated them in printed curricular materials in which to teach as part of a…

  9. Event tree analysis using artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.; Hinton, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques used in Expert Systems and Object Oriented Programming are discussed as they apply to Event Tree Analysis. A SeQUence IMPortance calculator, SQUIMP, is presented to demonstrate the implementation of these techniques. Benefits of using AI methods include ease of programming, efficiency of execution, and flexibility of application. The importance of an appropriate user interface is stressed. 5 figs

  10. Technique of Critical Current Density Measurement of Bulk Superconductor with Linear Extrapolation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adi, Wisnu Ari; Sukirman, Engkir; Winatapura, Didin S.

    2000-01-01

    Technique of critical current density measurement (Jc) of HTc bulk ceramic superconductor has been performed by using linear extrapolation with four-point probes method. The measurement of critical current density HTc bulk ceramic superconductor usually causes damage in contact resistance. In order to decrease this damage factor, we introduce extrapolation method. The extrapolating data show that the critical current density Jc for YBCO (123) and BSCCO (2212) at 77 K are 10,85(6) Amp.cm - 2 and 14,46(6) Amp.cm - 2, respectively. This technique is easier, simpler, and the use of the current flow is low, so it will not damage the contact resistance of the sample. We expect that the method can give a better solution for bulk superconductor application. Key words. : superconductor, critical temperature, and critical current density

  11. Analysis of construction dynamic plan using fuzzy critical path method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurij Kazimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical Path Method (CPM technique has become widely recognized as valuable tool for the planning and scheduling large construction projects. The aim of this paper is to present an analytical method for finding the Critical Path in the precedence network diagram where the duration of each activity is represented by a trapezoidal fuzzy number. This Fuzzy Critical Path Method (FCPM uses a defuzzification formula for trapezoidal fuzzy number and applies it on the total float (slack time for each activity in the fuzzy precedence network to find the critical path. The method presented in this paper is very effective in determining the critical activities and finding the critical paths.

  12. Evaluation of undergraduate clinical learning experiences in the subject of pediatric dentistry using critical incident technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vyawahare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student′s perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India′s undergraduate dental students learning experiences. Aim: This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students′ viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT. Study Design: The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3 rd and 4 th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. Results: They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1 The instructor; 2 the patient; 3 the learning process; and 4 the learning environment. Conclusion: The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.

  13. Evaluation of undergraduate clinical learning experiences in the subject of pediatric dentistry using critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyawahare, S; Banda, N R; Choubey, S; Parvekar, P; Barodiya, A; Dutta, S

    2013-01-01

    In pediatric dentistry, the experiences of dental students may help dental educators better prepare graduates to treat the children. Research suggests that student's perceptions should be considered in any discussion of their education, but there has been no systematic examination of India's undergraduate dental students learning experiences. This qualitative investigation aimed to gather and analyze information about experiences in pediatric dentistry from the students' viewpoint using critical incident technique (CIT). The sample group for this investigation came from all 240 3rd and 4th year dental students from all the four dental colleges in Indore. Using CIT, participants were asked to describe at least one positive and one negative experience in detail. They described 308 positive and 359 negative experiences related to the pediatric dentistry clinic. Analysis of the data resulted in the identification of four key factors related to their experiences: 1) The instructor; 2) the patient; 3) the learning process; and 4) the learning environment. The CIT is a useful data collection and analysis technique that provides rich, useful data and has many potential uses in dental education.

  14. TV content analysis techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kompatsiaris, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of digital multimedia technologies has not only revolutionized the production and distribution of audiovisual content, but also created the need to efficiently analyze TV programs to enable applications for content managers and consumers. Leaving no stone unturned, TV Content Analysis: Techniques and Applications provides a detailed exploration of TV program analysis techniques. Leading researchers and academics from around the world supply scientifically sound treatment of recent developments across the related subject areas--including systems, architectures, algorithms,

  15. Statistical evaluation of vibration analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, G. Martin; Miller, Patrice S.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation methodology is presented for a selection of candidate vibration analysis techniques applicable to machinery representative of the environmental control and life support system of advanced spacecraft; illustrative results are given. Attention is given to the statistical analysis of small sample experiments, the quantification of detection performance for diverse techniques through the computation of probability of detection versus probability of false alarm, and the quantification of diagnostic performance.

  16. Optical characterization of bubbly flows with a near-critical-angle scattering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofri, Fabrice R.A.; Krzysiek, Mariusz [IUSTI, UMR, CNRS, University of Provence, Polytech' DME, Technopole Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France); Mroczka, Janusz [CEPM, Technical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Ren, Kuan-Fang [CORIA, UMR, CNRS, University of Rouen, Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray (France); Radev, Stefan [IMECH, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bonnet, Jean-Philippe [M2P2, UMR, CNRS, University Paul Cezanne, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2009-10-15

    The newly developed critical angle refractometry and sizing technique (CARS) allows simultaneous and instantaneous characterization of the local size distribution and the relative refractive index (i.e. composition) of a cloud of bubbles. The paper presents the recent improvement of this technique by comparison of different light scattering models and inversion procedures. Experimental results carried in various air/water and air/water-ethanol bubbly flows clearly demonstrate the efficiency and the potential of this technique. (orig.)

  17. On the theories, techniques, and computer codes used in numerical reactor criticality and burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Osery, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the theories, techniques and computer codes that are frequently used in numerical reactor criticality and burnup calculations. It is a part of an integrated nuclear reactor calculation scheme conducted by the Reactors Department, Inshas Nuclear Research Centre. The crude part in numerical reactor criticality and burnup calculations includes the determination of neutron flux distribution which can be obtained in principle as a solution of Boltzmann transport equation. Numerical methods used for solving transport equations are discussed. Emphasis are made on numerical techniques based on multigroup diffusion theory. These numerical techniques include nodal, modal, and finite difference ones. The most commonly known computer codes utilizing these techniques are reviewed. Some of the main computer codes that have been already developed at the Reactors Department and related to numerical reactor criticality and burnup calculations have been presented

  18. Constrained principal component analysis and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Takane, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    In multivariate data analysis, regression techniques predict one set of variables from another while principal component analysis (PCA) finds a subspace of minimal dimensionality that captures the largest variability in the data. How can regression analysis and PCA be combined in a beneficial way? Why and when is it a good idea to combine them? What kind of benefits are we getting from them? Addressing these questions, Constrained Principal Component Analysis and Related Techniques shows how constrained PCA (CPCA) offers a unified framework for these approaches.The book begins with four concre

  19. Quality of the Critical Incident Technique in practice: Interrater reliability and users' acceptance under real conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA KOCH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Critical Incident Technique (CIT is a widely used task analysis method in personnel psychology. While studies on psychometric properties of the CIT so far primarily took into account relevance ratings of task-lists or attributes, and hence, only a smaller or adapted part of the CIT, little is known about the psychometric properties of the complete CIT in its most meaningful and fruitful way. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess interrater reliability and the participants’ view of the CIT under real conditions and especially to provide data for the key step of the CIT: the classification of behavior descriptions into requirements. Additionally, the cost-benefit-ratio and practicability were rated from the participants’ views as an important indicator for the acceptance of the task analysis approach in practice. Instructors of German Institutions for Statutory Accidents Insurance and Prevention as well as their supervisors took part in a job analysis with the CIT. Moderate interrater reliability for the relevance rating was found while the classification step yielded unexpectedly low coefficients for interrater reliability. The cost-benefit-ratio and practicability of the complete CIT were rated very positive. The results are discussed in relation to determinants that facilitate or impede the application of task analysis procedures.

  20. Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The fundamental objective of this topical report is to present the planned risk-informed disposal criticality analysis methodology to the NRC to seek acceptance that the principles of the methodology and the planned approach to validating the methodology are sound. The design parameters and environmental assumptions within which the waste forms will reside are currently not fully established and will vary with the detailed waste package design, engineered barrier design, repository design, and repository layout. Therefore, it is not practical to present the full validation of the methodology in this report, though a limited validation over a parameter range potentially applicable to the repository is presented for approval. If the NRC accepts the methodology as described in this section, the methodology will be fully validated for repository design applications to which it will be applied in the License Application and its references. For certain fuel types (e.g., intact naval fuel), a ny processes, criteria, codes or methods different from the ones presented in this report will be described in separate addenda. These addenda will employ the principles of the methodology described in this report as a foundation. Departures from the specifics of the methodology presented in this report will be described in the addenda

  1. Analysis of critically refracted longitudinal waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Ning, E-mail: npei@iastate.edu; Bond, Leonard J., E-mail: npei@iastate.edu [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Fabrication processes, such as, welding, forging, and rolling can induce residual stresses in metals that will impact product performance and phenomena such as cracking and corrosion. To better manage residual stress tools are needed to map their distribution. The critically refracted ultrasonic longitudinal (LCR) wave is one such approach that has been used for residual stress characterization. It has been shown to be sensitive to stress and less sensitive to the effects of the texture of the material. Although the LCR wave is increasingly widely applied, the factors that influence the formation of the LCR beam are seldom discussed. This paper reports a numerical model used to investigate the transducers' parameters that can contribute to the directionality of the LCR wave and hence enable performance optimization when used for industrial applications. An orthogonal test method is used to study the transducer parameters which influence the LCR wave beams. This method provides a design tool that can be used to study and optimize multiple parameter experiments and it can identify which parameter or parameters are of most significance. The simulation of the sound field in a 2-D 'water-steel' model is obtained using a Spatial Fourier Analysis method. The effects of incident angle, standoff, the aperture and the center frequency of the transducer were studied. Results show that the aperture of the transducer, the center frequency and the incident angle are the most important factors in controlling the directivity of the resulting LCR wave fields.

  2. Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.G. Horton

    1998-01-01

    The fundamental objective of this topical report is to present the planned risk-informed disposal criticality analysis methodology to the NRC to seek acceptance that the principles of the methodology and the planned approach to validating the methodology are sound. The design parameters and environmental assumptions within which the waste forms will reside are currently not fully established and will vary with the detailed waste package design, engineered barrier design, repository design, and repository layout. Therefore, it is not practical to present the full validation of the methodology in this report, though a limited validation over a parameter range potentially applicable to the repository is presented for approval. If the NRC accepts the methodology as described in this section, the methodology will be fully validated for repository design applications to which it will be applied in the License Application and its references. For certain fuel types (e.g., intact naval fuel), any processes, criteria, codes or methods different from the ones presented in this report will be described in separate addenda. These addenda will employ the principles of the methodology described in this report as a foundation. Departures from the specifics of the methodology presented in this report will be described in the addenda

  3. Workplace bullying prevention: a critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behaviour may be more effective than efforts to stop ongoing bullying. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. This was a qualitative study. Critical discourse analysis and Foucault's writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyse data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n = 15) and organizational documents (n = 22). Data were collected in 2012. The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centred around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviours and controlling behaviours. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviours of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations' discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Integration technique of digital I and C replacement and its Critical Digital Review procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Yang, Wen-Long

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A digital I and C replacement integration technique have been developed. ► Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline. ► Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization. ► Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization. ► Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. -- Abstract: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) developed a digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) replacement integration technique on the basis of requirement of the three existing nuclear power plants (NPPs), which are Chin–Shan (CS) NPP, Kuo–Sheng (KS) NPP, and Maanshan (MS) NPP, in Taiwan, and also developed the related Critical Digital Review (CDR) procedure. The digital I and C replacement integration technique includes: (1) Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline, (2) Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization, (3) Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization, and (4) Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. These works can be a reference for performing I and C system digital replacement integration of the three existing NPPs of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A CDR is the review for a critical system digital I and C replacement. The major reference of this procedure is EPRI TR-1011710 (2005) “Handbook for Evaluating Critical Digital Equipment and Systems” which was published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). With this document, INER developed a TPC-specific CDR procedure. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital I and C replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The CDR review items include the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SV and V), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Diversity and Defense-in-depth (D3), Evaluation of

  5. Elemental analysis techniques using proton microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuro; Oikawa, Masakazu; Sato, Takahiro

    2005-01-01

    Proton microbeam is a powerful tool for two-dimensional elemental analysis. The analysis is based on Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) techniques. The paper outlines the principles and instruments, and describes the dental application has been done in JAERI Takasaki. (author)

  6. Using the 5E Learning Cycle with Metacognitive Technique to Enhance Students’ Mathematical Critical Thinking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runisah Runisah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe enhancement and achievement of mathematical critical thinking skills of students who received the 5E Learning Cycle with Metacognitive technique, the 5E Learning Cycle, and conventional learning. This study use experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. Population are junior high school students in Indramayu city, Indonesia. Sample are three classes of eighth grade students from high level school and three classes from medium level school. The study reveal that in terms of overall, mathematical critical thinking skills enhancement and achievement of students who received the 5E Learning Cycle with Metacognitive technique is better than students who received the 5E Learning Cycle and conventional learning. Mathematical critical thinking skills of students who received the 5E Learning Cycle is better than students who received conventional learning. There is no interaction effect between learning model and school level toward enhancement and achievement of students’ mathematical critical thinking skills.

  7. A simple technique for measuring the superconducting critical temperature of small (>= 10 μg) samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.F.R.; Meyer, E.; Silveira, M.F. da.

    1983-01-01

    A simple technique for measuring the superconducting critical temperature of small (>=10μg) samples is described. The apparatus is built in the form of a probe, which can be introduced directly into a liquid He storage dewar and permits the determination of the critical temperature, with an imprecision of +- 0.05 K above 4.2 K, in about 10 minutes. (Author) [pt

  8. Criticality calculations by source-collision iteration technique for cylindrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, V.K.; Gopinath, D.V.

    1977-01-01

    A fast-converging iterative technique is presented which uses first collision probabilities developed for obtaining criticality parameters in two-region cylindrical systems with multigroup structure in energy of the neutrons. The space transmission matrix is obtained part analytically and part numerically through evaluation of a single-fold integral. Critical dimensions for condensed systems of uranium and plutonium computed using this method are presented and compared with published values

  9. Flow analysis techniques for phosphorus: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2005-04-15

    A bibliographical review on the implementation and the results obtained in the use of different flow analytical techniques for the determination of phosphorus is carried out. The sources, occurrence and importance of phosphorus together with several aspects regarding the analysis and terminology used in the determination of this element are briefly described. A classification as well as a brief description of the basis, advantages and disadvantages of the different existing flow techniques, namely; segmented flow analysis (SFA), flow injection analysis (FIA), sequential injection analysis (SIA), all injection analysis (AIA), batch injection analysis (BIA), multicommutated FIA (MCFIA), multisyringe FIA (MSFIA) and multipumped FIA (MPFIA) is also carried out. The most relevant manuscripts regarding the analysis of phosphorus by means of flow techniques are herein classified according to the detection instrumental technique used with the aim to facilitate their study and obtain an overall scope. Finally, the analytical characteristics of numerous flow-methods reported in the literature are provided in the form of a table and their applicability to samples with different matrixes, namely water samples (marine, river, estuarine, waste, industrial, drinking, etc.), soils leachates, plant leaves, toothpaste, detergents, foodstuffs (wine, orange juice, milk), biological samples, sugars, fertilizer, hydroponic solutions, soils extracts and cyanobacterial biofilms are tabulated.

  10. Quality assurance techniques for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and techniques of quality assurance are applied to the measurement method of activation analysis. Quality assurance is defined to include quality control and quality assessment. Plans for quality assurance include consideration of: personnel; facilities; analytical design; sampling and sample preparation; the measurement process; standards; and documentation. Activation analysis concerns include: irradiation; chemical separation; counting/detection; data collection, and analysis; and calibration. Types of standards discussed include calibration materials and quality assessment materials

  11. A numerical technique for reactor subchannel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, Hassan E.S.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical technique is developed for the solution of the transient boundary layer equations with a moving liquid-vapour interface boundary. The technique uses the finite difference method with the velocity components defined over an Eulerian mesh. A system of interface massless markers is defined where the markers move with the flow field according to a simple kinematic relation between the interface geometry and the fluid velocity. Different applications of nuclear engineering interest are reported with some available results. The present technique is capable of predicting the interface profile near the wall which is important in the reactor subchannel analysis

  12. Determining the Number of Factors in P-Technique Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lawrence L.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Rovine, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Determining the number of factors is a critical first step in exploratory factor analysis. Although various criteria and methods for determining the number of factors have been evaluated in the usual between-subjects R-technique factor analysis, there is still question of how these methods perform in within-subjects P-technique factor analysis. A…

  13. Does College Teach Critical Thinking? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christopher R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Educators view critical thinking as an essential skill, yet it remains unclear how effectively it is being taught in college. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on gains in critical thinking skills and attitudinal dispositions over various time frames in college. The results suggest that both critical thinking skills and dispositions improve…

  14. Social Network Analysis and Critical Realism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    in relation to established philosophies of science. This article argues that there is a tension between applied and methods-oriented SNA studies, on the one hand, and those addressing the social-theoretical nature and implications of networks, on the other. The former, in many cases, exhibits positivist...... tendencies, whereas the latter incorporate a number of assumptions that are directly compatible with core critical realist views on the nature of social reality and knowledge. This article suggests that SNA may be detached from positivist social science and come to constitute a valuable instrument...... in the critical realist toolbox....

  15. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.

  16. Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab

  17. Gold analysis by the gamma absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtoglu, Arzu; Tugrul, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Gold (Au) analyses are generally performed using destructive techniques. In this study, the Gamma Absorption Technique has been employed for gold analysis. A series of different gold alloys of known gold content were analysed and a calibration curve was obtained. This curve was then used for the analysis of unknown samples. Gold analyses can be made non-destructively, easily and quickly by the gamma absorption technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of the alloys were measured around the K-shell absorption edge of Au. Theoretical mass attenuation coefficient values were obtained using the WinXCom program and comparison of the experimental results with the theoretical values showed generally good and acceptable agreement

  18. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Andrea; Longtin, André; Seely, Andrew J E

    2011-10-10

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis.

  19. Review and classification of variability analysis techniques with clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of patterns of variation of time-series, termed variability analysis, represents a rapidly evolving discipline with increasing applications in different fields of science. In medicine and in particular critical care, efforts have focussed on evaluating the clinical utility of variability. However, the growth and complexity of techniques applicable to this field have made interpretation and understanding of variability more challenging. Our objective is to provide an updated review of variability analysis techniques suitable for clinical applications. We review more than 70 variability techniques, providing for each technique a brief description of the underlying theory and assumptions, together with a summary of clinical applications. We propose a revised classification for the domains of variability techniques, which include statistical, geometric, energetic, informational, and invariant. We discuss the process of calculation, often necessitating a mathematical transform of the time-series. Our aims are to summarize a broad literature, promote a shared vocabulary that would improve the exchange of ideas, and the analyses of the results between different studies. We conclude with challenges for the evolving science of variability analysis. PMID:21985357

  20. Sensitivity analysis of hybrid thermoelastic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.A. Samad; J.M. Considine

    2017-01-01

    Stress functions have been used as a complementary tool to support experimental techniques, such as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and digital image correlation (DIC), in an effort to evaluate the complete and separate full-field stresses of loaded structures. The need for such coupling between experimental data and stress functions is due to the fact that...

  1. Ethical human resource management: a critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    In modern day, Human Resource Management (HRM) is seen as a mere variant of management control aiming intentionally to ‘colonize’ the identity of the individual employee which points to the contradictions between the idealised HRM theories and its practice commonly referred to as the difference between rhetoric and reality. These critical analyses suggest that HRM reflects a historical shift in the way work is defined and managed and research has to be undertaken on how morality and ethics ma...

  2. The liquidity preference theory: a critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Bertocco; Andrea Kalajzic

    2014-01-01

    Keynes in the General Theory, explains the monetary nature of the interest rate by means of the liquidity preference theory. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, to point out the limits of the liquidity preference theory. Second, to present an explanation of the monetary nature of the interest rate based on the arguments with which Keynes responded to the criticism levelled at the liquidity preference theory by supporters of the loanable funds theory such as Ohlin and Robertson. It ...

  3. Criticality analysis of a spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, J.

    1984-01-01

    Criticality analysis for a system yields to the determination of the multiplication factor. Should such analysis be performed for a spent fuel shipping cask some standards must be accomplished. In this study a sample design is analyzed and criticality results are presented. (author)

  4. The scratch test - Different critical load determination techniques. [adhesive strength of thin hard coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekler, J.; Hintermann, H. E.; Steinmann, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Different critical load determination techniques such as microscopy, acoustic emission, normal, tangential, and lateral forces used for scratch test evaluation of complex or multilayer coatings are investigated. The applicability of the scratch test to newly developed coating techniques, systems, and applications is discussed. Among the methods based on the use of a physical measurement, acoustic emission detection is the most effective. The dynamics ratio between the signals below and above the critical load for the acoustic emission (much greater than 100) is well above that obtained with the normal, tangential, and lateral forces. The present commercial instruments are limited in load application performance. A scratch tester able to apply accurate loads as low as 0.01 N would probably overcome most of the actual limitations and would be expected to extend the scratch testing technique to different application fields such as optics and microelectronics.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Criticality for Different Nuclear Fuel Shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyun Sik; Jang, Misuk; Kim, Seoung Rae

    2016-01-01

    Rod-type nuclear fuel was mainly developed in the past, but recent study has been extended to plate-type nuclear fuel. Therefore, this paper reviews the sensitivity of criticality according to different shapes of nuclear fuel types. Criticality analysis was performed using MCNP5. MCNP5 is well-known Monte Carlo codes for criticality analysis and a general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code that can be used for neutron, photon, electron or coupled neutron / photon / electron transport, including the capability to calculate eigenvalues for critical systems. We performed the sensitivity analysis of criticality for different fuel shapes. In sensitivity analysis for simple fuel shapes, the criticality is proportional to the surface area. But for fuel Assembly types, it is not proportional to the surface area. In sensitivity analysis for intervals between plates, the criticality is greater as the interval increases, but if the interval is greater than 8mm, it showed an opposite trend that the criticality decrease by a larger interval. As a result, it has failed to obtain the logical content to be described in common for all cases. The sensitivity analysis of Criticality would be always required whenever subject to be analyzed is changed

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of Criticality for Different Nuclear Fuel Shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Sik; Jang, Misuk; Kim, Seoung Rae [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Rod-type nuclear fuel was mainly developed in the past, but recent study has been extended to plate-type nuclear fuel. Therefore, this paper reviews the sensitivity of criticality according to different shapes of nuclear fuel types. Criticality analysis was performed using MCNP5. MCNP5 is well-known Monte Carlo codes for criticality analysis and a general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code that can be used for neutron, photon, electron or coupled neutron / photon / electron transport, including the capability to calculate eigenvalues for critical systems. We performed the sensitivity analysis of criticality for different fuel shapes. In sensitivity analysis for simple fuel shapes, the criticality is proportional to the surface area. But for fuel Assembly types, it is not proportional to the surface area. In sensitivity analysis for intervals between plates, the criticality is greater as the interval increases, but if the interval is greater than 8mm, it showed an opposite trend that the criticality decrease by a larger interval. As a result, it has failed to obtain the logical content to be described in common for all cases. The sensitivity analysis of Criticality would be always required whenever subject to be analyzed is changed.

  7. Microextraction sample preparation techniques in biomedical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szultka, Malgorzata; Pomastowski, Pawel; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2014-11-01

    Biologically active compounds are found in biological samples at relatively low concentration levels. The sample preparation of target compounds from biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food matrices is one of the most time-consuming steps in the analytical procedure. The microextraction techniques are dominant. Metabolomic studies also require application of proper analytical technique for the determination of endogenic metabolites present in biological matrix on trace concentration levels. Due to the reproducibility of data, precision, relatively low cost of the appropriate analysis, simplicity of the determination, and the possibility of direct combination of those techniques with other methods (combination types on-line and off-line), they have become the most widespread in routine determinations. Additionally, sample pretreatment procedures have to be more selective, cheap, quick, and environmentally friendly. This review summarizes the current achievements and applications of microextraction techniques. The main aim is to deal with the utilization of different types of sorbents for microextraction and emphasize the use of new synthesized sorbents as well as to bring together studies concerning the systematic approach to method development. This review is dedicated to the description of microextraction techniques and their application in biomedical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. CRDM motion analysis using machine learning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takuya; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Mayumi; Yaguchi, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic jack type Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM) for pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant operates control rods in response to electrical signals from a reactor control system. CRDM operability is evaluated by quantifying armature's response of closed/opened time which means interval time between coil energizing/de-energizing points and armature closed/opened points. MHI has already developed an automatic CRDM motion analysis and applied it to actual plants so far. However, CRDM operational data has wide variation depending on their characteristics such as plant condition, plant, etc. In the existing motion analysis, there is an issue of analysis accuracy for applying a single analysis technique to all plant conditions, plants, etc. In this study, MHI investigated motion analysis using machine learning (Random Forests) which is flexibly accommodated to CRDM operational data with wide variation, and is improved analysis accuracy. (author)

  9. The electron-impact ionization of Ar and Kr revisited: A critical analysis of double-to-single ionization cross section ratio measurements using the fast-atom-beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnovsky, V.; Becker, K.

    1992-01-01

    We report new measurements of the absolute electron-impact double ionization cross sections for Ar and Kr and of the ratios of double-to-single ionization for impact energies from threshold to 200 eV using the crossed electron-beam - fast-atom-beam technique. The work was motivated by the recently highlighted spread of about 30% in the Ar 2+ /Ar + ionization cross section ratios obtained by several groups using different experimental techniques. Such a spread is inconsistent with statistical uncertainties of typically 3% or less that were quoted for the various reported ratios. A similar situation exists for Kr where the spread among the recently published Kr 2+ /Kr + ionization cross section ratios is about 15%. We made an attempt to identify all potential systematic errors inherent to the fast-beam technique that could affect the measurement of cross section ratios with special emphasis on those systematic errors that could influence the detection of singly and doubly charged product ions differently. We found Ar 2+ /Ar + and Kr 2+ /Kr + cross section ratios of, respectively 0.066±0.007 and 0.087±0.008 at 100 eV which confirm earlier measurements using the same experimental technique. The error limits on cross sections ratios of multiple-to-single ionization for the same target atom and at least ±10% for ratios of single ionization cross sections for different target species. Our error limits are dominated by systematic uncertainties of the apparatus which do not cancel when cross section ratios are measured, since the ratios are obtained under similar, but not identical experimental conditions. (orig.)

  10. Direct stent puncture technique for intraluminal stent recanalization in the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries in-stent occlusion: Outcomes from a prospective clinical analysis of diabetics with critical limb ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palena, Luis Mariano, E-mail: marianopalena@hotmail.com; Manzi, Marco

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of “Direct Stent Puncture” technique for intraluminal stent recanalization in the femoro-popliteal segments. Methods and Materials: A cohort of diabetics who had symptomatic in-stent occlusion of the superficial femoral or popliteal arteries underwent endovascular recanalization. After antegrade failure, direct stent puncture technique was performed. The primary end-point was to efficacy assessment, intended as technical success and clinical improvement. The secondary end-point was safety assessment, intended as free of complication rate. Results: Fifty-four patients (37 men; 73.6 ± 8.5 years) underwent direct stent puncture technique, after several unsuccessful antegrade attempts to cross the occluded stent. Technical success for intraluminal stent recanalization was achieved in 53/54 (98.2%) of cases and failed in 1/54 (1.8%). Clinical improvement was obtained in 51/54 (94.4%) of cases, with regression of the clinical symptoms and improvement of the TcPO{sub 2}, from 3 ± 18 mmHg to 43 ± 11 mmHg after 15 days (p < 0.001). Free of complications rate was 92.5%. In 2/54 (3.7%) of cases distal embolization occurred, in 1/54 (1.9%) case a sudden vessel thrombosis was diagnosed after 12 hours and in 1/54 (1.9%) case hematoma at the stent puncture site was observed. Conclusions: Direct Stent Puncture technique is an efficacy and safety option for intraluminal stent recanalization in the femoro-popliteal segment in-stent occlusion.

  11. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR ROAD SURFACE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality and condition of a road surface is of great importance for convenience and safety of driving. So the investigations of the behaviour of road materials in laboratory conditions and monitoring of existing roads are widely fulfilled for controlling a geometric parameters and detecting defects in the road surface. Photogrammetry as accurate non-contact measuring method provides powerful means for solving different tasks in road surface reconstruction and analysis. The range of dimensions concerned in road surface analysis can have great variation from tenths of millimetre to hundreds meters and more. So a set of techniques is needed to meet all requirements of road parameters estimation. Two photogrammetric techniques for road surface analysis are presented: for accurate measuring of road pavement and for road surface reconstruction based on imagery obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle. The first technique uses photogrammetric system based on structured light for fast and accurate surface 3D reconstruction and it allows analysing the characteristics of road texture and monitoring the pavement behaviour. The second technique provides dense 3D model road suitable for road macro parameters estimation.

  12. Critical analysis of world uranium resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Susan; Coleman, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    U. Although unconventional resources are currently subeconomic, the improvement of extraction techniques or the production of coproducts may make extraction of uranium from these types of deposits profitable. A large undiscovered resource base is reported by these agencies, however this class of resource should be considered speculative and will require intensive exploration programs to adequately define them as mineable. These resources may all contribute to uranium supply that would fuel the world nuclear fleet well beyond that calculated in this report. Production of resources in both operating and developing uranium mines is subject to uncertainties caused by technical, legal, regulatory, and financial challenges that combined to create long timelines between deposit discovery and mine production. This analysis indicates that mine development is proceeding too slowly to fully meet requirements for an expanded nuclear power reactor fleet in the near future (to 2035), and unless adequate secondary or unconventional resources can be identified, imbalances in supply and demand may occur.

  13. A prospective study to select and evaluate anesthesiology residents: phase I, the critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmaier, E M; From, R P; Pearson, K S; Gorbatenko-Roth, K G; Ugolini, K A

    1997-12-01

    To develop categories of behavior that define an applicant's aptitude for anesthesia, and to attempt to determine the relative importance of these behaviors to successful residency performance. Prospective open study. Anesthesia residencies at three midwest university teaching hospitals. Using a structured interview format known as the critical incident technique, faculty anesthesiologists were asked to describe examples of effective and ineffective behaviors observed among anesthesia residents during the twelve months prior to the interview. Interviews initially held with 34 anesthesiologists generated 172 incidents. These incidents formed the basis for a categorization analysis performed by two anesthesiologists. Six categories were developed: preparedness, interpersonal skills, response to teaching, data monitoring, technical skills, and emergency situations. Validation of these categories was confirmed with three subsequent interviews, in which 92 anesthesiologists generated 475 incidents. Most incidents were found to conform to the previously defined categories using a reallocation index with a range of 0.70 to 0.80. The category "technical skills" fell below the defined range. Over 60 percent of the incidents involved noncognitive personal attributes: preparedness, interpersonal skills, and response to teaching. Effective behavior in six categories identifies an applicant's aptitude for anesthesia. Selection of residents may be enhanced by routinely assessing noncognitive characteristics.

  14. Diffraction analysis of customized illumination technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chang-Moon; Kim, Seo-Min; Eom, Tae-Seung; Moon, Seung Chan; Shin, Ki S.

    2004-05-01

    Various enhancement techniques such as alternating PSM, chrome-less phase lithography, double exposure, etc. have been considered as driving forces to lead the production k1 factor towards below 0.35. Among them, a layer specific optimization of illumination mode, so-called customized illumination technique receives deep attentions from lithographers recently. A new approach for illumination customization based on diffraction spectrum analysis is suggested in this paper. Illumination pupil is divided into various diffraction domains by comparing the similarity of the confined diffraction spectrum. Singular imaging property of individual diffraction domain makes it easier to build and understand the customized illumination shape. By comparing the goodness of image in each domain, it was possible to achieve the customized shape of illumination. With the help from this technique, it was found that the layout change would not gives the change in the shape of customized illumination mode.

  15. New trends in sample preparation techniques for environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cláudia; Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Maia, Alexandra S; Gonçalves, Virgínia M F; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Environmental samples include a wide variety of complex matrices, with low concentrations of analytes and presence of several interferences. Sample preparation is a critical step and the main source of uncertainties in the analysis of environmental samples, and it is usually laborious, high cost, time consuming, and polluting. In this context, there is increasing interest in developing faster, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly sample preparation techniques. Recently, new methods have been developed and optimized in order to miniaturize extraction steps, to reduce solvent consumption or become solventless, and to automate systems. This review attempts to present an overview of the fundamentals, procedure, and application of the most recently developed sample preparation techniques for the extraction, cleanup, and concentration of organic pollutants from environmental samples. These techniques include: solid phase microextraction, on-line solid phase extraction, microextraction by packed sorbent, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, and QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe).

  16. Fault tree analysis: concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fussell, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of fault tree analysis have been developed over the past decade and now predictions from this type analysis are important considerations in the design of many systems such as aircraft, ships and their electronic systems, missiles, and nuclear reactor systems. Routine, hardware-oriented fault tree construction can be automated; however, considerable effort is needed in this area to get the methodology into production status. When this status is achieved, the entire analysis of hardware systems will be automated except for the system definition step. Automated analysis is not undesirable; to the contrary, when verified on adequately complex systems, automated analysis could well become a routine analysis. It could also provide an excellent start for a more in-depth fault tree analysis that includes environmental effects, common mode failure, and human errors. The automated analysis is extremely fast and frees the analyst from the routine hardware-oriented fault tree construction, as well as eliminates logic errors and errors of oversight in this part of the analysis. Automated analysis then affords the analyst a powerful tool to allow his prime efforts to be devoted to unearthing more subtle aspects of the modes of failure of the system

  17. Applications of neutron activation analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonah, S. A.

    2000-07-01

    The technique was developed as far back as 1936 by G. Hevesy and H. Levy for the analysis of Dy using an isotopic source. Approximately 40 elements can be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) technique with neutrons from a nuclear reactor. By applying radiochemical separation, the number of elements that can be analysed may be increased to almost 70. Compared with other analytical methods used in environmental and industrial research, NAA has some unique features. These are multi-element capability, rapidity, reproducibility of results, complementarity to other methods, freedom from analytical blank and independency of chemical state of elements. There are several types of neutron sources namely: nuclear reactors, accelerator-based and radioisotope-based sources, but nuclear reactors with high fluxes of neutrons from the fission of 235 U give the most intense irradiation, and hence the highest available sensitivities for NAA. In this paper, the applications of NAA of socio-economic importance are discussed. The benefits of using NAA and related nuclear techniques for on-line applications in industrial process control are highlighted. A brief description of the NAA set-ups at CERT is enumerated. Finally, NAA is compared with other leading analytical techniques

  18. Chromatographic Techniques for Rare Earth Elements Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Huashan; Jiang, Zucheng; Hu, Bin

    2017-04-01

    The present capability of rare earth element (REE) analysis has been achieved by the development of two instrumental techniques. The efficiency of spectroscopic methods was extraordinarily improved for the detection and determination of REE traces in various materials. On the other hand, the determination of REEs very often depends on the preconcentration and separation of REEs, and chromatographic techniques are very powerful tools for the separation of REEs. By coupling with sensitive detectors, many ambitious analytical tasks can be fulfilled. Liquid chromatography is the most widely used technique. Different combinations of stationary phases and mobile phases could be used in ion exchange chromatography, ion chromatography, ion-pair reverse-phase chromatography and some other techniques. The application of gas chromatography is limited because only volatile compounds of REEs can be separated. Thin-layer and paper chromatography are techniques that cannot be directly coupled with suitable detectors, which limit their applications. For special demands, separations can be performed by capillary electrophoresis, which has very high separation efficiency.

  19. Artificial Intelligence techniques for big data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Khatri

    2017-01-01

    During my stay in Salamanca (Spain), I was fortunate enough to participate in the BISITE Research Group of the University of Salamanca. The University of Salamanca is the oldest university in Spain and in 2018 it celebrates its 8th centenary. As a computer science researcher, I participated in one of the many international projects that the research group has active, especially in big data analysis using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques. AI is one of BISITE's main lines of rese...

  20. Applications Of Binary Image Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropf, H.; Enderle, E.; Kammerer, H. P.

    1983-10-01

    After discussing the conditions where binary image analysis techniques can be used, three new applications of the fast binary image analysis system S.A.M. (Sensorsystem for Automation and Measurement) are reported: (1) The human view direction is measured at TV frame rate while the subject's head is free movable. (2) Industrial parts hanging on a moving conveyor are classified prior to spray painting by robot. (3) In automotive wheel assembly, the eccentricity of the wheel is minimized by turning the tyre relative to the rim in order to balance the eccentricity of the components.

  1. Infusing Reliability Techniques into Software Safety Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Software safety analysis for a large software intensive system is always a challenge. Software safety practitioners need to ensure that software related hazards are completely identified, controlled, and tracked. This paper discusses in detail how to incorporate the traditional reliability techniques into the entire software safety analysis process. In addition, this paper addresses how information can be effectively shared between the various practitioners involved in the software safety analyses. The author has successfully applied the approach to several aerospace applications. Examples are provided to illustrate the key steps of the proposed approach.

  2. Nontraditional teaching techniques and critical thinking in an introductory postsecondary environmental science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerdsell, Sherri Lynn

    2009-12-01

    As an institution of higher education and as a Hispanic-serving institution, New Mexico State University has a responsibility to its students to provide the skills and experiences necessary for each and every student to become a responsible, reflective citizen, capable of making informed decisions. Postsecondary science has traditionally been taught through lectures. Traditional lecture classes simply do not meet the needs of diverse groups of students in the modern multicultural student body like New Mexico State University's. However, the implementation of nontraditional pedagogy without evaluation of the results is useless as a step to reform; it is necessary to evaluate the results of in situ nontraditional pedagogy to determine its worth. The purpose of this research is to analyze the development and change in students' critical thinking skills, and critical thinking dispositions in single semester in an introductory Environmental Science course. This study utilized a mixed methods approach. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory were administered in the beginning and at the end of the semester. The pretest was used to provide a baseline for each participant against which the posttest score was compared. In addition, student interviews, field notes, and a survey provided qualitative data, which generated themes regarding the development of student critical thinking in this course. The results indicated there were no significant differences in the critical thinking test scores. However, qualitative analysis indicated that students experienced significant changes in critical thinking. Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis pertaining to the amount of influence on student learning. These themes are active thinking and learning, dialogue, and professor's influence. Due to the conflict between the quantitative and the qualitative results, it is suggested that the critical thinking tests

  3. Selected critical examples of scientometric publication analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This paper selects and outlines factors of central importance in the calculation, presentation and interpretation of publication analysis results from a scientometric perspective. The paper focuses on growth, world share analyses and the logic behind the computation of average numbers...... of authors, institutions or countries per publication indexed by Web of Science. Methodology: The paper uses examples from earlier research evaluation studies and cases based on online data to describe issues, problematic details, pitfalls and how to overcome them in publication analysis with respect...... to analytic tool application, calculation, presentation and interpretation. Results: By means of different kinds of analysis and presentation, the paper provides insight into scientometrics in the context of informetric analysis, selected cases of research productivity, publication patterns and research...

  4. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang.

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator's physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs

  5. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  6. Knowledge based systems: A critical survey of major concepts, issues and techniques. Visuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu

    1984-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, Knowledge Based Systems: A Critical Survey of Major Concepts, Issues, and Techniques, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-9. The objectives of the report are to: examine various techniques used to build the KBS; to examine at least one KBS in detail, i.e., a case study; to list and identify limitations and problems with the KBS; to suggest future areas of research; and to provide extensive reference materials.

  7. Autoradiographic technique for rapid inventory of plutonium-containing fast critical assembly fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumbach, S.B.; Perry, R.B.

    1977-10-01

    A nondestructive autoradiographic technique is described which can provide a verification of the piece count and the plutonium content of plutonium-containing fuel elements. This technique uses the spontaneously emitted gamma rays from plutonium to form images of fuel elements on photographic film. Autoradiography has the advantage of providing an inventory verification without the opening of containers or the handling of fuel elements. Missing fuel elements, substitution of nonradioactive material, and substitution of elements of different size are detectable. Results are presented for fuel elements in various storage configurations and for fuel elements contained in a fast critical assembly

  8. Critical current measurement in superconducting rings using an automatic inductive technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Jorge, H.; Linares, B.; Quelle, I.; Carballo, E.; Romani, L.; Domarco, G.

    2007-01-01

    A measurement technique was developed to identify the critical current of superconducting rings. It is based on the detection of the voltage on a secondary coil when the current induced in the superconductor by a primary one go beyond to the critical value. The technique uses a DC power supply to control the AC current circulating by the primary circuit. Such circuit mainly consists on an AC power supply which gives a constant AC voltage, a primary inducting coil and a control coil with iron core. The AC current circulating by this circuit is modified with the change in the impedance of the control coil due to the fact of the DC current supplied by the power supply in parallel with it

  9. Uncertainty analysis technique for OMEGA Dante measurementsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.-S.; Schneider, M.

    2010-10-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel x-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g., hohlraums, etc.) at x-ray energies between 50 eV and 10 keV. It is a main diagnostic installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters and mirrors, and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  10. Uncertainty analysis technique for OMEGA Dante measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, M. J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.-S.; Schneider, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel x-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g., hohlraums, etc.) at x-ray energies between 50 eV and 10 keV. It is a main diagnostic installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters and mirrors, and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  11. Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, M.J.; Widmann, K.; Sorce, C.; Park, H.; Schneider, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Dante is an 18 channel X-ray filtered diode array which records the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux from various targets (e.g. hohlraums, etc.) at X-ray energies between 50 eV to 10 keV. It is a main diagnostics installed on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester. The absolute flux is determined from the photometric calibration of the X-ray diodes, filters and mirrors and an unfold algorithm. Understanding the errors on this absolute measurement is critical for understanding hohlraum energetic physics. We present a new method for quantifying the uncertainties on the determined flux using a Monte-Carlo parameter variation technique. This technique combines the uncertainties in both the unfold algorithm and the error from the absolute calibration of each channel into a one sigma Gaussian error function. One thousand test voltage sets are created using these error functions and processed by the unfold algorithm to produce individual spectra and fluxes. Statistical methods are applied to the resultant set of fluxes to estimate error bars on the measurements.

  12. Critical analysis of adsorption data statistically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Achla; Singh, S. K.

    2017-10-01

    Experimental data can be presented, computed, and critically analysed in a different way using statistics. A variety of statistical tests are used to make decisions about the significance and validity of the experimental data. In the present study, adsorption was carried out to remove zinc ions from contaminated aqueous solution using mango leaf powder. The experimental data was analysed statistically by hypothesis testing applying t test, paired t test and Chi-square test to (a) test the optimum value of the process pH, (b) verify the success of experiment and (c) study the effect of adsorbent dose in zinc ion removal from aqueous solutions. Comparison of calculated and tabulated values of t and χ 2 showed the results in favour of the data collected from the experiment and this has been shown on probability charts. K value for Langmuir isotherm was 0.8582 and m value for Freundlich adsorption isotherm obtained was 0.725, both are mango leaf powder.

  13. A new analysis technique for microsamples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, R.; Journoux, J.P.; Duval, C.

    1989-01-01

    For many decades, isotopic analysis of Uranium or Plutonium has been performed by mass spectrometry. The most recent analytical techniques, using the counting method or a plasma torch combined with a mass spectrometer (ICP.MS) have not yet to reach a greater degree of precision than the older methods in this field. The two means of ionization for isotopic analysis - by electronic bombardment of atoms or molecules (source of gas ions) and - by thermal effect (thermoionic source) are compared revealing some inconsistency between the quantity of sample necessary for analysis and the luminosity. In fact, the quantity of sample necessary for the gas source mass spectrometer is 10 to 20 times greater than that for the thermoionization spectrometer, while the sample consumption is between 10 5 to 10 6 times greater. This proves that almost the entire sample is not necessary for the measurement; it is only required because of the system of introduction for the gas spectrometer. The new analysis technique referred to as ''Microfluorination'' corrects this anomaly and exploits the advantages of the electron bombardment method of ionization

  14. Reliability analysis techniques for the design engineer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corran, E.R.; Witt, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A fault tree analysis package is described that eliminates most of the housekeeping tasks involved in proceeding from the initial construction of a fault tree to the final stage of presenting a reliability analysis in a safety report. It is suitable for designers with relatively little training in reliability analysis and computer operation. Users can rapidly investigate the reliability implications of various options at the design stage, and evolve a system which meets specified reliability objectives. Later independent review is thus unlikely to reveal major shortcomings necessitating modification and projects delays. The package operates interactively allowing the user to concentrate on the creative task of developing the system fault tree, which may be modified and displayed graphically. For preliminary analysis system data can be derived automatically from a generic data bank. As the analysis procedes improved estimates of critical failure rates and test and maintenance schedules can be inserted. The computations are standard, - identification of minimal cut-sets, estimation of reliability parameters, and ranking of the effect of the individual component failure modes and system failure modes on these parameters. The user can vary the fault trees and data on-line, and print selected data for preferred systems in a form suitable for inclusion in safety reports. A case history is given - that of HIFAR containment isolation system. (author)

  15. MARKETING MIX: AN ATTEMPT AT CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Kotliarov I.D.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper contains an analysis of main directions of evolution of marketing mix concept. Typical problems of each approach are demonstrated. Classical form of marketing mix (4Ps) is recommended as the basic form of marketing mix, which, however, may be adapted to specific characteristics of the firm and its industry

  16. Trends in analytical techniques applied to particulate matter characterization: A critical review of fundaments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Elson Silva; Santos, Jane Meri; Lima, Ana Teresa; Reis, Neyval Costa; Orlando, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo; Stuetz, Richard Michael

    2018-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown the association of airborne particulate matter (PM) size and chemical composition with health problems affecting the cardiorespiratory and central nervous systems. PM also act as cloud condensation nuclei (CNN) or ice nuclei (IN), taking part in the clouds formation process, and therefore can impact the climate. There are several works using different analytical techniques in PM chemical and physical characterization to supply information to source apportionment models that help environmental agencies to assess damages accountability. Despite the numerous analytical techniques described in the literature available for PM characterization, laboratories are normally limited to the in-house available techniques, which raises the question if a given technique is suitable for the purpose of a specific experimental work. The aim of this work consists of summarizing the main available technologies for PM characterization, serving as a guide for readers to find the most appropriate technique(s) for their investigation. Elemental analysis techniques like atomic spectrometry based and X-ray based techniques, organic and carbonaceous techniques and surface analysis techniques are discussed, illustrating their main features as well as their advantages and drawbacks. We also discuss the trends in analytical techniques used over the last two decades. The choice among all techniques is a function of a number of parameters such as: the relevant particles physical properties, sampling and measuring time, access to available facilities and the costs associated to equipment acquisition, among other considerations. An analytical guide map is presented as a guideline for choosing the most appropriated technique for a given analytical information required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  18. Developing Flanagan's critical incident technique to elicit indicators of high and low quality nursing care from patients and their nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, I J; Redfern, S J; Tomalin, D A; Oliver, S

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses a development of Flanagan's critical incident technique (CIT) to elicit indicators of high and low quality nursing from patients and their nurses on medical, surgical and elderly care wards. Stages in undertaking the CIT are identified and presuppositions held by most researchers about the nature of the technique are identified. The paper describes how the authors moved to a different set of presuppositions during the course of the study. Preliminary analysis of interview transcripts revealed that critical incidents need not always be demarcated scenes with a clear beginning and end, but may arise from respondents summarizing their overall experience within their description of one incident. Characteristically respondents were unable to give a detailed account of such incidents but validity may be established by the fact that respondents appear to recount what actually happened as they saw it, and what they said was clearly important to them. The researchers found that the most appropriate basic unit of analysis was not the incident itself but 'happenings' revealed by incidents that are 'critical' by virtue of being important to respondents with respect to the quality of nursing care. The importance of CIT researchers achieving an understanding of the 'meaning' of critical happenings to respondents is emphasized. Analysis of the interview transcripts is facilitated by the use of INGRES, a relational database computer program which should enable a 'personal theory' of quality nursing for each respondent, both patients and nurses, to be described. The study suggests that the CIT is a flexible technique which may be adapted to meet the demands of nursing research. If carefully applied, the CIT seems capable of capitalizing on respondents' own stories and avoids the loss of information which occurs when complex narratives are reduced to simple descriptive categories. Patients and nurses have unique perspectives on nursing and their views are of

  19. Stress Concentration and Its Mitigation Techniques in Flat Plate with Singularities - A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhashish Sanyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of analytical, numerical & experimental techniques are available for the reduction of stress concentration factor around discontinuities. Using various techniques the SCF around different discontinuities in a rectangular plate made up of different materials under different loading conditions have been reported in literature. Mitigation of stress concentration around different types of discontinuity is also reported in literature. This paper is to present an analysis and overview of emerging techniques developed for analysis as well as mitigation of stress concentration. The proposed methods in literature are compared.

  20. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathout, A.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO 2 fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments

  1. Spectroscopic analysis technique for arc-welding process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirapeix, Jesús; Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga; Quintela, María Ángeles; López-Higuera, José-Miguel

    2005-09-01

    The spectroscopic analysis of the light emitted by thermal plasmas has found many applications, from chemical analysis to monitoring and control of industrial processes. Particularly, it has been demonstrated that the analysis of the thermal plasma generated during arc or laser welding can supply information about the process and, thus, about the quality of the weld. In some critical applications (e.g. the aerospace sector), an early, real-time detection of defects in the weld seam (oxidation, porosity, lack of penetration, ...) is highly desirable as it can reduce expensive non-destructive testing (NDT). Among others techniques, full spectroscopic analysis of the plasma emission is known to offer rich information about the process itself, but it is also very demanding in terms of real-time implementations. In this paper, we proposed a technique for the analysis of the plasma emission spectrum that is able to detect, in real-time, changes in the process parameters that could lead to the formation of defects in the weld seam. It is based on the estimation of the electronic temperature of the plasma through the analysis of the emission peaks from multiple atomic species. Unlike traditional techniques, which usually involve peak fitting to Voigt functions using the Levenberg-Marquardt recursive method, we employ the LPO (Linear Phase Operator) sub-pixel algorithm to accurately estimate the central wavelength of the peaks (allowing an automatic identification of each atomic species) and cubic-spline interpolation of the noisy data to obtain the intensity and width of the peaks. Experimental tests on TIG-welding using fiber-optic capture of light and a low-cost CCD-based spectrometer, show that some typical defects can be easily detected and identified with this technique, whose typical processing time for multiple peak analysis is less than 20msec. running in a conventional PC.

  2. Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures A Guideline for Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Utne, Ingrid; Vatn, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Today’s society is completely dependent on critical networks such as  water supply, sewage, electricity, ICT and transportation. Risk and vulnerability analyses are needed to grasp the impact of threats and hazards. However, these become quite complex as there are strong interdependencies both within and between infrastructure systems. Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures: A  guideline for analysis provides methods for analyzing risks and interdependencies of critical infrastructures.  A number of analysis approaches are described and are adapted to each of these infrastructures. Various approaches are also revised, and all are supported by several examples and illustrations. Particular emphasis is given to the analysis of various interdependencies that often exist between the infrastructures.  Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures: A  guideline for analysis provides a good tool to identify the hazards that are threatening your infrastructures, and will enhance the un...

  3. Critical parameters for isobutane determined by the image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masui, G. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Honda, Y. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Uematsu, M. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)]. E-mail: uematsu@mech.keio.ac.jp

    2006-12-15

    (p, {rho}, T) Measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for isobutane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -15 mK {<=} (T - T {sub c}) {<=} 35 mK, and of densities: -7.5 kg . m{sup -3} {<=} ({rho} - {rho} {sub c}) {<=} 7.5 kg . m{sup -3} by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapor pressures were also measured at T = (310, 405, 406, 407, and 407.5) K. The critical point of T {sub c} and {rho} {sub c} was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence which is proposed in this study. The critical pressure p {sub c} was determined to be the pressure measurement at the critical point. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented.

  4. Critical parameters for isobutane determined by the image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, G.; Honda, Y.; Uematsu, M.

    2006-01-01

    (p, ρ, T) Measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for isobutane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -15 mK ≤ (T - T c ) ≤ 35 mK, and of densities: -7.5 kg . m -3 ≤ (ρ - ρ c ) ≤ 7.5 kg . m -3 by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapor pressures were also measured at T = (310, 405, 406, 407, and 407.5) K. The critical point of T c and ρ c was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence which is proposed in this study. The critical pressure p c was determined to be the pressure measurement at the critical point. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented

  5. A critical analysis of the quark status

    CERN Document Server

    Basile, M; Giusti, P; Massam, Thomas; Palmonari, F; Romeo, G C; Valenti, G; Zichichi, A

    1977-01-01

    A world analysis of the experiments to search for quarks shows that the general belief that quarks do not exist is not based on such good experimental grounds. For example, the extensive searches so far performed in strong interactions are limited to small p/sub T/ values; the electromagnetic case is even worse, while quark production in weak interactions is at present an unexplored field. Intuitive arguments on a plausible proton-breaking mechanism are presented in order to emphasize the serious limitations of the experiments performed so far, and to stimulate further searches in the right direction. (15 refs).

  6. Health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure: a critical incident technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Kroll, Thilo; Duncan, Fiona

    2013-09-01

    Domestic abuse is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public health concern. There is a significant body of literature regarding domestic abuse, but little is known about health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse disclosure. In addition, the intersection between health professionals' beliefs and abused women's views remains uninvestigated. We report on a two-phase, qualitative study using Critical Incident Technique (CIT) that aimed to explore community health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and the issue of disclosure. We investigated this from the perspectives of both health professionals and abused women. The study took place in Scotland during 2011. The study was informed theoretically by the Common Sense Model of Self-Regulation of Health and Illness (CSM). This model is typically used in disease-orientated research. In our innovative use, however, CSM was used to study the social phenomenon, domestic abuse. The study involved semi-structured, individual CIT interviews with health professionals and focus groups with women who had experienced domestic abuse. Twenty-nine health professionals (Midwives, Health Visitors and General Practitioners) participated in the first phase of the study. In the second phase, three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 women. Data were analysed using a combination of an inductive classification and framework analysis. Findings highlight the points of convergence and divergence between abused women's and health professionals' beliefs about abuse. Although there was some agreement, they do not always share the same views. For example, women want to be asked about abuse, but many health professionals do not feel confident or comfortable discussing the issue. Overall, the study shows the dynamic interaction between women's and health professionals' beliefs about domestic abuse and readiness to discuss and respond to it. Understanding these complex dynamics assists in the employment of

  7. Monte Carlo criticality analysis for dissolvers with neutron poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Deshun; Dong, Xiufang; Pu, Fuxiang.

    1987-01-01

    Criticality analysis for dissolvers with neutron poison is given on the basis of Monte Carlo method. In Monte Carlo calculations of thermal neutron group parameters for fuel pieces, neutron transport length is determined in terms of maximum cross section approach. A set of related effective multiplication factors (K eff ) are calculated by Monte Carlo method for the three cases. Related numerical results are quite useful for the design and operation of this kind of dissolver in the criticality safety analysis. (author)

  8. Critical analysis of marketing in Croatian publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Gašparić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing is an inevitable part of today's modern lifestyle. The role that marketing plays is so big that it has become the most important part of business. Due to crisis that is still affecting publishers in Croatia, this paper emphasizes the power of advertising as a key ingredient in how to overcome this situation and upgrade the system of publishing in Croatia. The framework of the paper is based on marketing as a tool that leads to popularization of books and sales increase. Beside the experimental part which gives an insight into public's opinion about books, publishing and marketing, the first chapter gives the literature review and analysis conducted on the whole process of book publishing in Croatia with pointing out mistakes that Croatian publishers make. Also, benefits of foreign publishing will be mentioned and used for comparison and projection on to the problems of the native market. The aim of this analysis and this viewpoint paper is to contribute the comprehension of marketing strategies and activities and its use and gains in Croatian publishing.

  9. Interferogram analysis using the Abel inversion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Munajat; Mohamad Kadim Suaidi

    2000-01-01

    High speed and high resolution optical detection system were used to capture the image of acoustic waves propagation. The freeze image in the form of interferogram was analysed to calculate the transient pressure profile of the acoustic waves. The interferogram analysis was based on the fringe shift and the application of the Abel inversion technique. An easier approach was made by mean of using MathCAD program as a tool in the programming; yet powerful enough to make such calculation, plotting and transfer of file. (Author)

  10. SCALE 5: Powerful new criticality safety analysis tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, Stephen M.; Hollenbach, Daniel F.; Dehart, Mark D.; Rearden, Bradley T.; Gauld, Ian C.; Goluoglu, Sedat

    2003-01-01

    Version 5 of the SCALE computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, scheduled for release in December 2003, contains several significant new modules and sequences for criticality safety analysis and marks the most important update to SCALE in more than a decade. This paper highlights the capabilities of these new modules and sequences, including continuous energy flux spectra for processing multigroup problem-dependent cross sections; one- and three-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for criticality safety evaluations; two-dimensional flexible mesh discrete ordinates code; automated burnup-credit analysis sequence; and one-dimensional material distribution optimization for criticality safety. (author)

  11. Computational methods for criticality safety analysis within the scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Landers, N.F.; Bucholz, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The criticality safety analysis capabilities within the SCALE system are centered around the Monte Carlo codes KENO IV and KENO V.a, which are both included in SCALE as functional modules. The XSDRNPM-S module is also an important tool within SCALE for obtaining multiplication factors for one-dimensional system models. This paper reviews the features and modeling capabilities of these codes along with their implementation within the Criticality Safety Analysis Sequences (CSAS) of SCALE. The CSAS modules provide automated cross-section processing and user-friendly input that allow criticality safety analyses to be done in an efficient and accurate manner. 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Investigation of Critical Heat Flux in Reduced Gravity Using Photomicrographic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Zhang, Hui

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the effects of body force on flow boiling critical heat flux (CHF). FC-72 was boiled along one wall of a transparent rectangular flow channel that permitted photographic study of the vapor-liquid interface just prior to CHF. High-speed video imaging techniques were used to identify dominant CHF mechanisms corresponding to different flow orientations and liquid velocities. Six different CHF regimes were identified: Wavy Vapor Layer, Pool Boiling, Stratification, Vapor Counterflow, Vapor Stagnation, and Separated Concurrent Vapor Flow. CHF showed significant sensitivity to orientation for flow velocities below 0.2 m/s, where extremely low CHF values where measured, especially with downward-facing heated wall and downflow orientations. High flow velocities dampened the effects of orientation considerably. The CHF data were used to assess the suitability of previous CHF models and correlations. It is shown the Interfacial Lift-off Model is very effective at predicting CHF for high velocities at all orientations. The flooding limit, on the other hand, is useful at estimating CHF at low velocities and for downflow orientations. A new method consisting of three dimensionless criteria is developed for determining the minimum flow velocity required to overcome body force effects on near-saturated flow boiling CHF. Vertical upflow boiling experiments were performed in pursuit of identifying the trigger mechanism for subcooled flow boiling CHF. While virtually all prior studies on flow boiling CHF concern the prediction or measurement of conditions that lead to CHF, this study was focused on events that take place during the CHF transient. High-speed video imaging and photomicrographic techniques were used to record the transient behavior of interfacial features from the last steady-state power level before CHF until the moment of power cut-off following CHF. The video records show the development of a wavy vapor layer which propagates

  13. Analysis of Critical Infrastructure Dependencies and Interdependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, Frederic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Verner, Duane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buehring, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dickinson, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guziel, Karen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Haffenden, Rebecca [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peerenboom, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The report begins by defining dependencies and interdependencies and exploring basic concepts of dependencies in order to facilitate a common understanding and consistent analytical approaches. Key concepts covered include; Characteristics of dependencies: upstream dependencies, internal dependencies, and downstream dependencies; Classes of dependencies: physical, cyber, geographic, and logical; and Dimensions of dependencies: operating environment, coupling and response behavior, type of failure, infrastructure characteristics, and state of operations From there, the report proposes a multi-phase roadmap to support dependency and interdependency assessment activities nationwide, identifying a range of data inputs, analysis activities, and potential products for each phase, as well as key steps needed to progress from one phase to the next. The report concludes by outlining a comprehensive, iterative, and scalable framework for analyzing dependencies and interdependencies that stakeholders can integrate into existing risk and resilience assessment efforts.

  14. Challenges in the vulnerability and risk analysis of critical infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic view on the problem of vulnerability and risk analysis of critical infrastructures. Reflections are made on the inherent complexities of these systems, related challenges are identified and possible ways forward for their analysis and management are indicated. Specifically: the framework of vulnerability and risk analysis is examined in relation to its application for the protection and resilience of critical infrastructures; it is argued that the complexity of these systems is a challenging characteristic, which calls for the integration of different modeling perspectives and new approaches of analysis; examples of are given in relation to the Internet and, particularly, the electric power grid, as representative of critical infrastructures and the associated complexity; the integration of different types of analyses and methods of system modeling is put forward for capturing the inherent structural and dynamic complexities of critical infrastructures and eventually evaluating their vulnerability and risk characteristics, so that decisions on protections and resilience actions can be taken with the required confidence. - Highlights: • The problem of the protection and resilience of CIs is the focus of the work. • The vulnerability and risk analysis framework for this is critically examined. • The complexity of CIs is presented as a challenge for system modeling and analysis. • The integration of different modeling perspectives of analysis is put forward as a solution. • The extension of the analysis framework to new methods for dealing with surprises and black swans is advocated.

  15. Fault tree technique: advances in probabilistic and logical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarotti, C.A.; Amendola, A.; Contini, S.; Squellati, G.

    1982-01-01

    Fault tree reliability analysis is used for assessing the risk associated to systems of increasing complexity (phased mission systems, systems with multistate components, systems with non-monotonic structure functions). Much care must be taken to make sure that fault tree technique is not used beyond its correct validity range. To this end a critical review of mathematical foundations of reliability fault tree analysis is carried out. Limitations are enlightened and potential solutions to open problems are suggested. Moreover an overview is given on the most recent developments in the implementation of an integrated software (SALP-MP, SALP-NOT, SALP-CAFT Codes) for the analysis of a wide class of systems

  16. Sustainability from the Occurrence of Critical Dynamic Power System Blackout Determined by Using the Stochastic Event Tree Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Murtadha Othman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of advanced technology in smart grid, the implementation of renewable energy in a stressed and complicated power system operation, aggravated by a competitive electricity market and critical system contingencies, this will inflict higher probabilities of the occurrence of a severe dynamic power system blackout. This paper presents the proposed stochastic event tree technique used to assess the sustainability against the occurrence of dynamic power system blackout emanating from implication of critical system contingencies such as the rapid increase in total loading condition and sensitive initial transmission line tripping. An extensive analysis of dynamic power system blackout has been carried out in a case study of the following power systems: IEEE RTS-79 and IEEE RTS-96. The findings have shown that the total loading conditions and sensitive transmission lines need to be given full attention by the utility to prevent the occurrence of dynamic power system blackout.

  17. A Survey on Formal Verification Techniques for Safety-Critical Systems-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Grimm

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The high degree of miniaturization in the electronics industry has been, for several years, a driver to push embedded systems to different fields and applications. One example is safety-critical systems, where the compactness in the form factor helps to reduce the costs and allows for the implementation of new techniques. The automotive industry is a great example of a safety-critical area with a great rise in the adoption of microelectronics. With it came the creation of the ISO 26262 standard with the goal of guaranteeing a high level of dependability in the designs. Other areas in the safety-critical applications domain have similar standards. However, these standards are mostly guidelines to make sure that designs reach the desired dependability level without explicit instructions. In the end, the success of the design to fulfill the standard is the result of a thorough verification process. Naturally, the goal of any verification team dealing with such important designs is complete coverage as well as standards conformity, but as these are complex hardware, complete functional verification is a difficult task. From the several techniques that exist to verify hardware, where each has its pros and cons, we studied six well-established in academia and in industry. We can divide them into two categories: simulation, which needs extremely large amounts of time, and formal verification, which needs unrealistic amounts of resources. Therefore, we conclude that a hybrid approach offers the best balance between simulation (time and formal verification (resources.

  18. Low energy analysis techniques for CUORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Avignone, F.T.; Chott, N.; Creswick, R.J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Alfonso, K.; Huang, H.Z.; Sakai, M.; Schmidt, J. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Artusa, D.R.; Rusconi, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Azzolini, O.; Camacho, A.; Keppel, G.; Palmieri, V.; Pira, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Bari, G.; Deninno, M.M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Cosmelli, C.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benato, G.; Singh, V. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bersani, A.; Caminata, A. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Faverzani, M.; Fiorini, E.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Nastasi, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pozzi, S.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.; Zanotti, L. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Branca, A.; Taffarello, L. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bucci, C.; Cappelli, L.; D' Addabbo, A.; Gorla, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cao, X.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Ma, Y.G.; Wang, H.W.; Zhang, G.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P.J.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Copello, S.; Di Domizio, S.; Marini, L.; Pallavicini, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Cremonesi, O.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cushman, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lim, K.E.; Maruyama, R.H. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); D' Aguanno, D.; Pagliarone, C.E. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Cassino (Italy); Dell' Oro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Di Vacri, M.L.; Santone, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, L' Aquila (Italy); Drobizhev, A.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Wagaarachchi, S.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Franceschi, M.A.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Freedman, S.J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujikawa, B.K.; Mei, Y.; Schmidt, B.; Smith, A.R.; Welliver, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Giuliani, A.; Novati, V. [Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gladstone, L.; Leder, A.; Ouellet, J.L.; Winslow, L.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gutierrez, T.D. [California Polytechnic State University, Physics Department, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Han, K. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Hansen, E. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadel, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Martinez, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Saragossa (Spain); Moggi, N.; Zucchelli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna - Alma Mater Studiorum, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (IT); Nones, C. [CEA/Saclay, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Norman, E.B.; Wang, B.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (US); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (US); O' Donnell, T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Center for Neutrino Physics, Blacksburg, VA (US); Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (US); Wise, T. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (US); University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (US); Woodcraft, A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh (GB); Zimmermann, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, CA (US)

    2017-12-15

    CUORE is a tonne-scale cryogenic detector operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) that uses tellurium dioxide bolometers to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te. CUORE is also suitable to search for low energy rare events such as solar axions or WIMP scattering, thanks to its ultra-low background and large target mass. However, to conduct such sensitive searches requires improving the energy threshold to 10 keV. In this paper, we describe the analysis techniques developed for the low energy analysis of CUORE-like detectors, using the data acquired from November 2013 to March 2015 by CUORE-0, a single-tower prototype designed to validate the assembly procedure and new cleaning techniques of CUORE. We explain the energy threshold optimization, continuous monitoring of the trigger efficiency, data and event selection, and energy calibration at low energies in detail. We also present the low energy background spectrum of CUORE-0 below 60 keV. Finally, we report the sensitivity of CUORE to WIMP annual modulation using the CUORE-0 energy threshold and background, as well as an estimate of the uncertainty on the nuclear quenching factor from nuclear recoils in CUORE-0. (orig.)

  19. Machine monitoring via current signature analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.; Nowlin, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    A significant need in the effort to provide increased production quality is to provide improved plant equipment monitoring capabilities. Unfortunately, in today's tight economy, even such monitoring instrumentation must be implemented in a recognizably cost effective manner. By analyzing the electric current drawn by motors, actuator, and other line-powered industrial equipment, significant insights into the operations of the movers, driven equipment, and even the power source can be obtained. The generic term 'current signature analysis' (CSA) has been coined to describe several techniques for extracting useful equipment or process monitoring information from the electrical power feed system. A patented method developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described which recognizes the presence of line-current modulation produced by motors and actuators driving varying loads. The in-situ application of applicable linear demodulation techniques to the analysis of numerous motor-driven systems is also discussed. The use of high-quality amplitude and angle-demodulation circuitry has permitted remote status monitoring of several types of medium and high-power gas compressors in (US DOE facilities) driven by 3-phase induction motors rated from 100 to 3,500 hp, both with and without intervening speed increasers. Flow characteristics of the compressors, including various forms of abnormal behavior such as surging and rotating stall, produce at the output of the specialized detectors specific time and frequency signatures which can be easily identified for monitoring, control, and fault-prevention purposes. The resultant data are similar in form to information obtained via standard vibration-sensing techniques and can be analyzed using essentially identical methods. In addition, other machinery such as refrigeration compressors, brine pumps, vacuum pumps, fans, and electric motors have been characterized

  20. Expressing best practices in (risk) analysis and testing of safety-critical systems using patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzner, Wolfgang; Sieverding, Sven; Kacimi, Omar

    2014-01-01

    The continuing pervasion of our society with safety-critical cyber-physical systems not only demands for adequate (risk) analysis, testing and verification techniques, it also generates growing experience on their use, which can be considered as important as the tools themselves for their efficient...

  1. Critical and subcritical damage monitoring of bonded composite repairs using innovative non-destructive techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikos, S. A.; Kordatos, E. Z.; Aggelis, D. G.; Matikas, T. E.; Paipetis, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Infrared Thermography (IrT) has been shown to be capable of detecting and monitoring service induced damage of repair composite structures. Full-field imaging, along with portability are the primary benefits of the thermographic technique. On-line lock-in thermography has been reported to successfully monitor damage propagation or/and stress concentration in composite coupons, as mechanical stresses in structures induce heat concentration phenomena around flaws. During mechanical fatigue, cyclic loading plays the role of the heating source and this allows for critical and subcritical damage identification and monitoring using thermography. The Electrical Potential Change Technique (EPCT) is a new method for damage identification and monitoring during loading. The measurement of electrical potential changes at specific points of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs) under load are reported to enable the monitoring of strain or/and damage accumulation. Along with the aforementioned techniques Finally, Acoustic Emission (AE) method is well known to provide information about the location and type of damage. Damage accumulation due to cyclic loading imposes differentiation of certain parameters of AE like duration and energy. Within the scope of this study, infrared thermography is employed along with AE and EPCT methods in order to assess the integrity of bonded repair patches on composite substrates and to monitor critical and subcritical damage induced by the mechanical loading. The combined methodologies were effective in identifying damage initiation and propagation of bonded composite repairs.

  2. α-Cut method based importance measure for criticality analysis in fuzzy probability – Based fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purba, Julwan Hendry; Sony Tjahyani, D.T.; Widodo, Surip; Tjahjono, Hendro

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •FPFTA deals with epistemic uncertainty using fuzzy probability. •Criticality analysis is important for reliability improvement. •An α-cut method based importance measure is proposed for criticality analysis in FPFTA. •The α-cut method based importance measure utilises α-cut multiplication, α-cut subtraction, and area defuzzification technique. •Benchmarking confirm that the proposed method is feasible for criticality analysis in FPFTA. -- Abstract: Fuzzy probability – based fault tree analysis (FPFTA) has been recently developed and proposed to deal with the limitations of conventional fault tree analysis. In FPFTA, reliabilities of basic events, intermediate events and top event are characterized by fuzzy probabilities. Furthermore, the quantification of the FPFTA is based on fuzzy multiplication rule and fuzzy complementation rule to propagate uncertainties from basic event to the top event. Since the objective of the fault tree analysis is to improve the reliability of the system being evaluated, it is necessary to find the weakest path in the system. For this purpose, criticality analysis can be implemented. Various importance measures, which are based on conventional probabilities, have been developed and proposed for criticality analysis in fault tree analysis. However, not one of those importance measures can be applied for criticality analysis in FPFTA, which is based on fuzzy probability. To be fully applied in nuclear power plant probabilistic safety assessment, FPFTA needs to have its corresponding importance measure. The objective of this study is to develop an α-cut method based importance measure to evaluate and rank the importance of basic events for criticality analysis in FPFTA. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed measure, a case study is performed and its results are then benchmarked to the results generated by the four well known importance measures in conventional fault tree analysis. The results

  3. Potential impacts of ENDF/B-V on critical experiment analysis based on ZEBRA-8 criticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choong, T S

    1982-06-01

    The ZEBRA-8 series of null-zone measurements featured a different neutron spectrum for each assembly. The experiments were designed for the purpose of basic data testing. The series cover a range of spectra both harder and softer than that for the LMFBR. The potential impacts of the newly released ENDF/BV cross section library on LMFBR critical exeriment analysis are discussed based on analysis of ZEBRA-8 series.

  4. Automatic telangiectasia analysis in dermoscopy images using adaptive critic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, B; Stanley, R J; Stoecker, W V; Hinton, K

    2012-11-01

    Telangiectasia, tiny skin vessels, are important dermoscopy structures used to discriminate basal cell carcinoma (BCC) from benign skin lesions. This research builds off of previously developed image analysis techniques to identify vessels automatically to discriminate benign lesions from BCCs. A biologically inspired reinforcement learning approach is investigated in an adaptive critic design framework to apply action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming (ADHDP) for discrimination based on computed features using different skin lesion contrast variations to promote the discrimination process. Lesion discrimination results for ADHDP are compared with multilayer perception backpropagation artificial neural networks. This study uses a data set of 498 dermoscopy skin lesion images of 263 BCCs and 226 competitive benign images as the input sets. This data set is extended from previous research [Cheng et al., Skin Research and Technology, 2011, 17: 278]. Experimental results yielded a diagnostic accuracy as high as 84.6% using the ADHDP approach, providing an 8.03% improvement over a standard multilayer perception method. We have chosen BCC detection rather than vessel detection as the endpoint. Although vessel detection is inherently easier, BCC detection has potential direct clinical applications. Small BCCs are detectable early by dermoscopy and potentially detectable by the automated methods described in this research. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Module Testing Techniques for Nuclear Safety Critical Software Using LDRA Testing Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kwon-Ki; Kim, Do-Yeon; Chang, Hoon-Seon; Chang, Young-Woo; Yun, Jae-Hee; Park, Jee-Duck; Kim, Jae-Hack

    2006-01-01

    The safety critical software in the I and C systems of nuclear power plants requires high functional integrity and reliability. To achieve those requirement goals, the safety critical software should be verified and tested according to related codes and standards through verification and validation (V and V) activities. The safety critical software testing is performed at various stages during the development of the software, and is generally classified as three major activities: module testing, system integration testing, and system validation testing. Module testing involves the evaluation of module level functions of hardware and software. System integration testing investigates the characteristics of a collection of modules and aims at establishing their correct interactions. System validation testing demonstrates that the complete system satisfies its functional requirements. In order to generate reliable software and reduce high maintenance cost, it is important that software testing is carried out at module level. Module testing for the nuclear safety critical software has rarely been performed by formal and proven testing tools because of its various constraints. LDRA testing tool is a widely used and proven tool set that provides powerful source code testing and analysis facilities for the V and V of general purpose software and safety critical software. Use of the tool set is indispensable where software is required to be reliable and as error-free as possible, and its use brings in substantial time and cost savings, and efficiency

  6. Critical incident analysis through narrative reflective practice: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge, expertise and experience that is based on their accumulated years as language educators teaching in schools and classrooms. This paper is about one such critical incident analysis that an ESL teacher in Canada revealed to her critical friend and how both used McCabe’s (2002 narrative framework for analyzing an important critical incident that occurred in the teacher’s class.

  7. A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W. [and others

    1996-05-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions.

  8. A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W.

    1996-05-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions

  9. Effective classroom teaching methods: a critical incident technique from millennial nursing students' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Meigan

    2014-01-11

    Engaging nursing students in the classroom environment positively influences their ability to learn and apply course content to clinical practice. Students are motivated to engage in learning if their learning preferences are being met. The methods nurse educators have used with previous students in the classroom may not address the educational needs of Millennials. This manuscript presents the findings of a pilot study that used the Critical Incident Technique. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the teaching methods that help the Millennial generation of nursing students feel engaged in the learning process. Students' perceptions of effective instructional approaches are presented in three themes. Implications for nurse educators are discussed.

  10. Development of reactivity feedback effect measurement techniques under sub-critical condition in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, A.; Nishi, H.; Suzuki, T.; Okajima, S.; Kanemoto, S.

    2012-01-01

    The first-of-a-kind reactor has been licensed by a safety examination of the plant design based on the measured data in precedent mock-up experiments. The validity of the safety design can be confirmed without a mock-up experiment, if the reactor feed-back characteristics can be measured before operation, with the constructed reactor itself. The 'Synthesis Method', a systematic and sophisticated method of sub-criticality measurement, is proposed in this work to ensure the safety margin before operation. The 'Synthesis Method' is based on the modified source multiplication method (MSM) combined with the noise analysis method to measure the reference sub-criticality level for MSM. A numerical simulation for the control-rod reactivity worth and the isothermal feed-back reactivity was conducted for typical fast reactors of 100 MWe-size, 300 MWe-size, 750 MWe-size, and 1500 MWe-size to investigate the applicability of Synthesis Method. The number of neutron detectors and their positions necessary for the measurement were investigated for both methods of MSM and the noise analysis by a series of parametric survey calculations. As a result, it was suggested that a neutron detector located above the core center and three or more neutron detectors located above the radial blanket region enable the measurement of sub-criticality within 10% uncertainty from -$0.5 to -$2 and within 15% uncertainty for the deeper sub-criticality. (authors)

  11. Validating analysis methodologies used in burnup credit criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.C.; Napolitano, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of allowing reactivity credit for the depleted (or burned) state of pressurized water reactor fuel in the licensing of spent fuel facilities introduces a new challenge to members of the nuclear criticality community. The primary difference in this analysis approach is the technical ability to calculate spent fuel compositions (or inventories) and to predict their effect on the system multiplication factor. Isotopic prediction codes are used routinely for in-core physics calculations and the prediction of radiation source terms for both thermal and shielding analyses, but represent an innovation for criticality specialists. This paper discusses two methodologies currently being developed to specifically evaluate isotopic composition and reactivity for the burnup credit concept. A comprehensive approach to benchmarking and validating the methods is also presented. This approach involves the analysis of commercial reactor critical data, fuel storage critical experiments, chemical assay isotopic data, and numerical benchmark calculations

  12. Cognitive systems engineering analysis of the JCO criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Fumiya; Yamaguchi, Yukichi

    2000-01-01

    The JCO Criticality Accident is analyzed with a framework based on cognitive systems engineering. With the framework, analysis is conducted integrally both from the system viewpoint and actors viewpoint. The occupational chemical risk was important as safety constraint for the actors as well as the nuclear risk, which is due to criticality accident, to the public and to actors. The inappropriate actor's mental model of the work system played a critical role and several factors (e.g. poor training and education, lack of information on criticality safety control in the procedures and instructions, and lack of warning signs at workplace) contributed to form and shape the mental model. Based on the analysis, several countermeasures, such as warning signs, information system for supporting actors and improved training and education, are derived to prevent such an accident. (author)

  13. Analysis of the criticality safety of a nuclear fuel deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.; Mincarini, M.

    1987-01-01

    In the present work a safety analysis from criticality accidents of nuclear fuel deposits is performed. The analysis is performed utilizing two methods derived from different physical principes: 1) superficial density method, obtained from experimental research; 2) solid angle method, derived from transport theory

  14. Religious Education in Russia: A Comparative and Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinkova, Alexandra; Vermeer, Paul

    2018-01-01

    RE in Russia has been recently introduced as a compulsory regular school subject during the last year of elementary school. The present study offers a critical analysis of the current practice of Russian RE by comparing it with RE in Sweden, Denmark and Britain. This analysis shows that Russian RE is ambivalent. Although it is based on a…

  15. Cost analysis and estimating tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Changes in production processes reflect the technological advances permeat­ ing our products and services. U. S. industry is modernizing and automating. In parallel, direct labor is fading as the primary cost driver while engineering and technology related cost elements loom ever larger. Traditional, labor-based ap­ proaches to estimating costs are losing their relevance. Old methods require aug­ mentation with new estimating tools and techniques that capture the emerging environment. This volume represents one of many responses to this challenge by the cost analysis profession. The Institute of Cost Analysis (lCA) is dedicated to improving the effective­ ness of cost and price analysis and enhancing the professional competence of its members. We encourage and promote exchange of research findings and appli­ cations between the academic community and cost professionals in industry and government. The 1990 National Meeting in Los Angeles, jointly spo~sored by ICA and the National Estimating Society (NES),...

  16. Fault tree synthesis for software design analysis of PLC based safety-critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, S. R.; Cho, C. H.; Seong, P. H.

    2006-01-01

    As a software verification and validation should be performed for the development of PLC based safety-critical systems, a software safety analysis is also considered in line with entire software life cycle. In this paper, we propose a technique of software safety analysis in the design phase. Among various software hazard analysis techniques, fault tree analysis is most widely used for the safety analysis of nuclear power plant systems. Fault tree analysis also has the most intuitive notation and makes both qualitative and quantitative analyses possible. To analyze the design phase more effectively, we propose a technique of fault tree synthesis, along with a universal fault tree template for the architecture modules of nuclear software. Consequently, we can analyze the safety of software on the basis of fault tree synthesis. (authors)

  17. Conceptual and critical analysis of the Implicit Leadership Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Avilés, Omar David; García Ramos, Tania

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to present a conceptual and critical analysis of the Implicit Leadership Theory (ILT). The objectives are: 1) explaining the main concepts of the ILT; 2) explaining the main processes of the ILT; 3) identifying constructivist assumptions in the ILT; 4) identifying constructionist assumptions in the ILT, and 5) analyzing critically theoretical assumptions of the ILT. At analyzing constructivism and constructionism assumptions in the ILP, the constructivist leadersh...

  18. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  19. Radio-analysis. Definitions and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrel, F.; Courriere, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the different steps of the radio-labelling of a molecule for two purposes: the radio-immuno-analysis and the auto-radiography: 1 - definitions, radiations and radioprotection: activity of a radioactive source; half-life; radioactivity (alpha-, beta- and gamma radioactivity, internal conversion); radioprotection (irradiation, contamination); 2 - radionuclides used in medical biology and obtention of labelled molecules: gamma emitters ( 125 I, 57 Co); beta emitters; obtention of labelled molecules (general principles, high specific activity and choice of the tracer, molecule to be labelled); main labelling techniques (iodation, tritium); purification of the labelled compound (dialysis, gel-filtering or molecular exclusion chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography); quality estimation of the labelled compound (labelling efficiency calculation, immuno-reactivity conservation, stability and preservation). (J.S.)

  20. Disposal criticality analysis methodology for fissile waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Gottlieb, P.

    1998-03-01

    A general methodology has been developed to evaluate the criticality potential of the wide range of waste forms planned for geologic disposal. The range of waste forms include commercial spent fuel, high level waste, DOE spent fuel (including highly enriched), MOX using weapons grade plutonium, and immobilized plutonium. The disposal of these waste forms will be in a container with sufficiently thick corrosion resistant barriers to prevent water penetration for up to 10,000 years. The criticality control for DOE spent fuel is primarily provided by neutron absorber material incorporated into the basket holding the individual assemblies. For the immobilized plutonium, the neutron absorber material is incorporated into the waste form itself. The disposal criticality analysis methodology includes the analysis of geochemical and physical processes that can breach the waste package and affect the waste forms within. The basic purpose of the methodology is to guide the criticality control features of the waste package design, and to demonstrate that the final design meets the criticality control licensing requirements. The methodology can also be extended to the analysis of criticality consequences (primarily increased radionuclide inventory), which will support the total performance assessment for the respository

  1. Analysis of Critical Thinking Skills on The Topic of Static Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspita, I.; Kaniawati, I.; Suwarma, I. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to know the critical thinking skills profil of senior high school students. This research using a descriptive study to analysis student test results of critical thinking skill of 40 students XI grade in one of the senior high school in Bogor District. The method used is survey research with sample determined by purposive sampling technique. The instrument used is test of critical thinking skill by 5 indicators on static fluid topics. Questions consist of 11 set. It is has been developed by researcher and validated by experts. The results showed students critical thinking skills are still low. Is almost every indicator of critical thinking skills only reaches less than 30%. 28% for elementary clarification, 10% for the basic for decisions/basic support, 6% for inference, 6% for advanced clarification, 4% for strategies and tactics.

  2. Emerging surface characterization techniques for carbon steel corrosion: a critical brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, D.; Lepkova, K.; Becker, T.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon steel is a preferred construction material in many industrial and domestic applications, including oil and gas pipelines, where corrosion mitigation using film-forming corrosion inhibitor formulations is a widely accepted method. This review identifies surface analytical techniques that are considered suitable for analysis of thin films at metallic substrates, but are yet to be applied to analysis of carbon steel surfaces in corrosive media or treated with corrosion inhibitors. The rev...

  3. Using the critical incident technique in community-based participatory research: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkora, Jeffrey; Stupar, Lauren; O'Donnell, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Successful community-based participatory research involves the community partner in every step of the research process. The primary study for this paper took place in rural, Northern California. Collaborative partners included an academic researcher and two community based resource centers that provide supportive services to people diagnosed with cancer. This paper describes our use of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT) to conduct Community-based Participatory Research. We ask: Did the CIT facilitate or impede the active engagement of the community in all steps of the study process? We identified factors about the Critical Incident Technique that were either barriers or facilitators to involving the community partner in every step of the research process. Facilitators included the CIT's ability to accommodate involvement from a large spectrum of the community, its flexible design, and its personal approach. Barriers to community engagement included training required to conduct interviews, depth of interview probes, and time required. Overall, our academic-community partners felt that our use of the CIT facilitated community involvement in our Community-Based Participatory Research Project, where we used it to formally document the forces promoting and inhibiting successful achievement of community aims.

  4. Small area analysis using micro-diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goehner, Raymond P.; Tissot, Ralph G. Jr.; Michael, Joseph R.

    2000-01-01

    An overall trend toward smaller electronic packages and devices makes it increasingly important and difficult to obtain meaningful diffraction information from small areas. X-ray micro-diffraction, electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and Kossel are micro-diffraction techniques used for crystallographic analysis including texture, phase identification and strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements. X-ray micro-diffraction primarily is used for phase analysis and residual strain measurements of areas between 10 microm to 100 microm. For areas this small glass capillary optics are used for producing a usable collimated x-ray beam. These optics are designed to reflect x-rays below the critical angle therefore allowing for larger solid acceptance angle at the x-ray source resulting in brighter smaller x-ray beams. The determination of residual strain using micro-diffraction techniques is very important to the semiconductor industry. Residual stresses have caused voiding of the interconnect metal which then destroys electrical continuity. Being able to determine the residual stress helps industry to predict failures from the aging effects of interconnects due to this stress voiding. Stress measurements would be impossible using a conventional x-ray diffractometer; however, utilizing a 30 microm glass capillary these small areas are readily assessable for analysis. Kossel produces a wide angle diffraction pattern from fluorescent x-rays generated in the sample by an e-beam in a SEM. This technique can yield very precise lattice parameters for determining strain. Fig. 2 shows a Kossel pattern from a Ni specimen. Phase analysis on small areas is also possible using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EBSD) and x-ray micro-diffraction techniques. EBSD has the advantage of allowing the user to observe the area of interest using the excellent imaging capabilities of the SEM. An EDS detector has been

  5. Flame analysis using image processing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Jie, Albert Chang; Zamli, Ahmad Faizal Ahmad; Zulazlan Shah Zulkifli, Ahmad; Yee, Joanne Lim Mun; Lim, Mooktzeng

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents image processing techniques with the use of fuzzy logic and neural network approach to perform flame analysis. Flame diagnostic is important in the industry to extract relevant information from flame images. Experiment test is carried out in a model industrial burner with different flow rates. Flame features such as luminous and spectral parameters are extracted using image processing and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Flame images are acquired using FLIR infrared camera. Non-linearities such as thermal acoustic oscillations and background noise affect the stability of flame. Flame velocity is one of the important characteristics that determines stability of flame. In this paper, an image processing method is proposed to determine flame velocity. Power spectral density (PSD) graph is a good tool for vibration analysis where flame stability can be approximated. However, a more intelligent diagnostic system is needed to automatically determine flame stability. In this paper, flame features of different flow rates are compared and analyzed. The selected flame features are used as inputs to the proposed fuzzy inference system to determine flame stability. Neural network is used to test the performance of the fuzzy inference system.

  6. Analysis of obsidians by PIXE technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuncio Q, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    This work presents the characterization of obsydian samples from different mineral sites in Mexico, undertaken by an Ion Beam Analysis: PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission). As part of an intensive investigation of obsidian in Mesoamerica by anthropologists from Mexico National Institute of Anthropology and History, 818 samples were collected from different volcanic sources in central Mexico for the purpose of establishing a data bank of element concentrations of each source. Part of this collection was analyzed by Neutron activation analysis and most of the important elements concentrations reported. In this work, a non-destructive IBA technique (PIXE) are used to analyze obsydian samples. The application of this technique were carried out at laboratories of the ININ Nuclear Center facilities. The samples consisted of of obsydians from ten different volcanic sources. This pieces were mounted on a sample holder designed for the purpose of exposing each sample to the proton beam. This PIXE analysis was carried out with an ET Tandem Accelerator at the ININ. X-ray spectrometry was carried out with an external beam facility employing a Si(Li) detector set at 52.5 degrees in relation to the target normal (parallel to the beam direction) and 4.2 cm away from the target center. A filter was set in front of the detector, to determine the best attenuation conditions to obtain most of the elements, taking into account that X-ray spectra from obsydians are dominated by intense major elements lines. Thus, a 28 μ m- thick aluminium foil absorber was selected and used to reduce the intensity of the major lines as well as pile-up effects. The mean proton energy was 2.62 MeV, and the beam profile was about 4 mm in diameter. As results were founded elemental concentrations of a set of samples from ten different sources: Altotonga (Veracruz), Penjamo (Guanajuato), Otumba (Mexico), Zinapecuaro (Michoacan), Ucareo (Michoacan), Tres Cabezas (Puebla), Sierra Navajas (Hidalgo), Zaragoza

  7. Nonlinear analysis techniques of block masonry walls in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.A.; Harris, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Concrete masonry walls have been used extensively in nuclear power plants as non-load bearing partitions serving as pipe supports, fire walls, radiation shielding barriers, and similar heavy construction separations. When subjected to earthquake loads, these walls should maintain their structural integrity. However, some of the walls do not meet design requirements based on working stress allowables. Consequently, utilities have used non-linear analysis techniques, such as the arching theory and the energy balance technique, to qualify such walls. This paper presents a critical review of the applicability of non-linear analysis techniques for both unreinforced and reinforced block masonry walls under seismic loading. These techniques are critically assessed in light of the performance of walls from limited available test data. It is concluded that additional test data are needed to justify the use of nonlinear analysis techniques to qualify block walls in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  8. Handbook of Qualitative Research Techniques and Analysis in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    One of the most challenging tasks in the research design process is choosing the most appropriate data collection and analysis techniques. This Handbook provides a detailed introduction to five qualitative data collection and analysis techniques pertinent to exploring entreprneurial phenomena....

  9. Critical parameters for propane determined by the image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Y.; Sato, T. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Uematsu, M. [Center for Multiscale Mechanics and Mechanical Systems, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)], E-mail: uematsu@mech.keio.ac.jp

    2008-02-15

    The (p, {rho}, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for propane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -60 mK {<=} (T - T{sub c}) {<=} 40 mK and of densities: -4 kg . m{sup -3} {<=} ({rho} - {rho}{sub c}) {<=} 6 kg . m{sup -3} by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapour pressures were also measured at T = (320.000, 343.132, 369.000, and 369.625) K. The critical point of T{sub c}, {rho}{sub c}, and p{sub c} was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented.

  10. Critical parameters for propane determined by the image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Y.; Sato, T.; Uematsu, M.

    2008-01-01

    The (p, ρ, T) measurements and visual observations of the meniscus for propane were carried out carefully in the critical region over the range of temperatures: -60 mK ≤ (T - T c ) ≤ 40 mK and of densities: -4 kg . m -3 ≤ (ρ - ρ c ) ≤ 6 kg . m -3 by a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. Vapour pressures were also measured at T = (320.000, 343.132, 369.000, and 369.625) K. The critical point of T c , ρ c , and p c was determined by the image analysis of the critical opalescence. Comparisons of the critical parameters with values given in the literature are presented

  11. Towards Understanding Soil Forming in Santa Clotilde Critical Zone Observatory: Modelling Soil Mixing Processes in a Hillslope using Luminescence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A. R.; Laguna, A.; Reimann, T.; Giráldez, J. V.; Peña, A.; Wallinga, J.; Vanwalleghem, T.

    2017-12-01

    Different geomorphological processes such as bioturbation and erosion-deposition intervene in soil formation and landscape evolution. The latter processes produce the alteration and degradation of the materials that compose the rocks. The degree to which the bedrock is weathered is estimated through the fraction of the bedrock which is mixing in the soil either vertically or laterally. This study presents an analytical solution for the diffusion-advection equation to quantify bioturbation and erosion-depositions rates in profiles along a catena. The model is calibrated with age-depth data obtained from profiles using the luminescence dating based on single grain Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL). Luminescence techniques contribute to a direct measurement of the bioturbation and erosion-deposition processes. Single-grain IRSL techniques is applied to feldspar minerals of fifteen samples which were collected from four soil profiles at different depths along a catena in Santa Clotilde Critical Zone Observatory, Cordoba province, SE Spain. A sensitivity analysis is studied to know the importance of the parameters in the analytical model. An uncertainty analysis is carried out to stablish the better fit of the parameters to the measured age-depth data. The results indicate a diffusion constant at 20 cm in depth of 47 (mm2/year) in the hill-base profile and 4.8 (mm2/year) in the hilltop profile. The model has high uncertainty in the estimation of erosion and deposition rates. This study reveals the potential of luminescence single-grain techniques to quantify pedoturbation processes.

  12. Searching for scientific literacy and critical pedagogy in socioscientific curricula: A critical discourse analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kristina M.

    The omnipresence of science and technology in our society require the development of a critical and scientifically literate citizenry. However, the inclusion of socioscientific issues, which are open-ended controversial issues informed by both science and societal factors such as politics, economics, and ethics, do not guarantee the development of these skills. The purpose of this critical discourse analysis is to identify and analyze the discursive strategies used in intermediate science texts and curricula that address socioscientific topics and the extent to which the discourses are designed to promote or suppress the development of scientific literacy and a critical pedagogy. Three curricula that address the issue of energy and climate change were analyzed using Gee's (2011) building tasks and inquiry tools. The curricula were written by an education organization entitled PreSEES, a corporate-sponsored group called NEED, and a non-profit organization named Oxfam. The analysis found that the PreSEES and Oxfam curricula elevated the significance of climate change and the NEED curriculum deemphasized the issue. The PreSEES and Oxfam curricula promoted the development of scientific literacy while the NEED curricula suppressed its development. The PreSEES and Oxfam curricula both promoted the development of the critical pedagogy; however, only the Oxfam curricula provided authentic opportunities to enact sociopolitical change. The NEED curricula suppressed the development of critical pedagogy. From these findings, the following conclusions were drawn. When socioscientific issues are presented with the development of scientific literacy and critical pedagogy, the curricula allow students to develop fact-based opinions about the issue. However, curricula that address socioscientific issues without the inclusion of these skills minimize the significance of the issue and normalize the hegemonic worldview promoted by the curricula's authors. Based on these findings

  13. Laser Scanning Systems and Techniques in Rockfall Source Identification and Risk Assessment: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanos, Ali Mutar; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2018-04-01

    Rockfall poses risk to people, their properties and to transportation ways in mountainous and hilly regions. This catastrophe shows various characteristics such as vast distribution, sudden occurrence, variable magnitude, strong fatalness and randomicity. Therefore, prediction of rockfall phenomenon both spatially and temporally is a challenging task. Digital Terrain model (DTM) is one of the most significant elements in rockfall source identification and risk assessment. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is the most advanced effective technique to derive high-resolution and accurate DTM. This paper presents a critical overview of rockfall phenomenon (definition, triggering factors, motion modes and modeling) and LiDAR technique in terms of data pre-processing, DTM generation and the factors that can be obtained from this technique for rockfall source identification and risk assessment. It also reviews the existing methods that are utilized for the evaluation of the rockfall trajectories and their characteristics (frequency, velocity, bouncing height and kinetic energy), probability, susceptibility, hazard and risk. Detail consideration is given on quantitative methodologies in addition to the qualitative ones. Various methods are demonstrated with respect to their application scales (local and regional). Additionally, attention is given to the latest improvement, particularly including the consideration of the intensity of the phenomena and the magnitude of the events at chosen sites.

  14. Critically appraising qualitative research: a guide for clinicians more familiar with quantitative techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisely, Stephen; Kendall, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Papers using qualitative methods are increasingly common in psychiatric journals. This overview is an introduction to critically appraising a qualitative paper for clinicians who are more familiar with quantitative methods. Qualitative research uses data from interviews (semi-structured or unstructured), focus groups, observations or written materials. Data analysis is inductive, allowing meaning to emerge from the data, rather than the more deductive, hypothesis centred approach of quantitative research. This overview compares and contrasts quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative concepts such as reliability, validity, statistical power, bias and generalisability have qualitative equivalents. These include triangulation, trustworthiness, saturation, reflexivity and applicability. Reflexivity also shares features of transference. Qualitative approaches include: ethnography, action-assessment, grounded theory, case studies and mixed methods. Qualitative research can complement quantitative approaches. An understanding of both is useful in critically appraising the psychiatric literature.

  15. Techniques and Applications of Urban Data Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan N.

    2016-05-26

    Digitization and characterization of urban spaces are essential components as we move to an ever-growing ’always connected’ world. Accurate analysis of such digital urban spaces has become more important as we continue to get spatial and social context-aware feedback and recommendations in our daily activities. Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments have thus gained unprecedented importance in the last few years. Such analysis typically spans multiple disciplines, such as computer graphics, and computer vision as well as architecture, geoscience, and remote sensing. Reconstructing an urban environment usually requires an entire pipeline consisting of different tasks. In such a pipeline, data analysis plays a strong role in acquiring meaningful insights from the raw data. This dissertation primarily focuses on the analysis of various forms of urban data and proposes a set of techniques to extract useful information, which is then used for different applications. The first part of this dissertation presents a semi-automatic framework to analyze facade images to recover individual windows along with their functional configurations such as open or (partially) closed states. The main advantage of recovering both the repetition patterns of windows and their individual deformation parameters is to produce a factored facade representation. Such a factored representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. The second part of this dissertation demonstrates the importance of a layout configuration on its performance. As a specific application scenario, I investigate the interior layout of warehouses wherein the goal is to assign items to their storage locations while reducing flow congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The third part of the dissertation proposes a method to classify cities

  16. Technique for sparing previously irradiated critical normal structures in salvage proton craniospinal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Mark W; Wolanski, Mark R; Simmons, Joseph W; Buchsbaum, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Cranial reirradiation is clinically appropriate in some cases but cumulative radiation dose to critical normal structures remains a practical concern. The authors developed a simple technique in 3D conformal proton craniospinal irradiation (CSI) to block organs at risk (OAR) while minimizing underdosing of adjacent target brain tissue. Two clinical cases illustrate the use of proton therapy to provide salvage CSI when a previously irradiated OAR required sparing from additional radiation dose. The prior radiation plan was coregistered to the treatment planning CT to create a planning organ at risk volume (PRV) around the OAR. Right and left lateral cranial whole brain proton apertures were created with a small block over the PRV. Then right and left lateral “inverse apertures” were generated, creating an aperture opening in the shape of the area previously blocked and blocking the area previously open. The inverse aperture opening was made one millimeter smaller than the original block to minimize the risk of dose overlap. The inverse apertures were used to irradiate the target volume lateral to the PRV, selecting a proton beam range to abut the 50% isodose line against either lateral edge of the PRV. Together, the 4 cranial proton fields created a region of complete dose avoidance around the OAR. Comparative photon treatment plans were generated with opposed lateral X-ray fields with custom blocks and coplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy optimized to avoid the PRV. Cumulative dose volume histograms were evaluated. Treatment plans were developed and successfully implemented to provide sparing of previously irradiated critical normal structures while treating target brain lateral to these structures. The absence of dose overlapping during irradiation through the inverse apertures was confirmed by film. Compared to the lateral X-ray and IMRT treatment plans, the proton CSI technique improved coverage of target brain tissue while providing the least

  17. Numerical modeling techniques for flood analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anees, Mohd Talha; Abdullah, K.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Piah, Abd. Rahni Mt.; Zakaria, Nor Azazi; Syakir, M. I.; Mohd. Omar, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Topographic and climatic changes are the main causes of abrupt flooding in tropical areas. It is the need to find out exact causes and effects of these changes. Numerical modeling techniques plays a vital role for such studies due to their use of hydrological parameters which are strongly linked with topographic changes. In this review, some of the widely used models utilizing hydrological and river modeling parameters and their estimation in data sparse region are discussed. Shortcomings of 1D and 2D numerical models and the possible improvements over these models through 3D modeling are also discussed. It is found that the HEC-RAS and FLO 2D model are best in terms of economical and accurate flood analysis for river and floodplain modeling respectively. Limitations of FLO 2D in floodplain modeling mainly such as floodplain elevation differences and its vertical roughness in grids were found which can be improve through 3D model. Therefore, 3D model was found to be more suitable than 1D and 2D models in terms of vertical accuracy in grid cells. It was also found that 3D models for open channel flows already developed recently but not for floodplain. Hence, it was suggested that a 3D model for floodplain should be developed by considering all hydrological and high resolution topographic parameter's models, discussed in this review, to enhance the findings of causes and effects of flooding.

  18. The Potential Unity of Critical Thinking and Values Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, M. Neil

    Metaphorically, the head and the heart represent different decision-making strategies. The disjunction between these two cultures is both sharp and unnecessary. The conflict between rationality and emotion is much broader than the tension between critical thinking and values analysis, but the assumptions responsible for the mutual awkwardness of…

  19. Quantifying tight-gas sandstone permeability via critical path analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock permeability has been actively investigated over the past several decades by the geosciences community. However, its accurate estimation still presents significant technical challenges, especially in spatially complex rocks. In this letter, we apply critical path analysis (CPA) to estimate perm...

  20. Examining Bilingual Children's Gender Ideologies through Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Roldan, Carmen M.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a case study of young bilingual students' discussions of literature in a second-grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom in the US. Sociocultural, critical, and Chicana feminist perspectives informed an analysis of the ways the children worked at understanding, marking, and resisting gender boundaries. This critical…

  1. Acknowledging the Infrasystem: A Critical Feminist Analysis of Systems Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creedon, Pamela J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the absence of a critical feminist perspective in the application of systems theory as a unifying model for public relations. Describes an unacknowledged third system, the infrasystem, that constructs both suprasystem and subsystem interactions. Concludes with a case analysis of sport as illustration. (HB)

  2. Teaching Blended Content Analysis and Critically Vigilant Media Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The semester-long activity described herein uses an integrated instructional approach to media studies to introduce students to the research method of qualitative content analysis and help them become more critically vigilant media consumers. The goal is to increase students' media literacy by guiding them in the design of an exploratory…

  3. The Digital Single Market and Legal Certainty : A Critical Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, A.G.; Graaff, de R.; Haentjens, M.; Colombi, Ciacchi A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter critically examines the CESL from the viewpoint of its capability to provide legal certainty for commercial actors. This chapter’s analysis focuses on three important stages in the life cycle of a contract, seen from a business perspective: the scope rules that determine whether the

  4. Ideology, Rationality and Reproduction in Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…

  5. Critical Discourse Analysis of Advertising: Implications for Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Burcu; Okan, Zuhal

    2017-01-01

    Advertising is a prominent discourse type which is inevitably linked to a range of disciplines. This study examines the language of a non-product advertisement, not isolating it from its interaction with other texts that surrounds it. It is based on Norman Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) framework in which there are three levels of…

  6. Vibro-acoustic condition monitoring of Internal Combustion Engines: A critical review of existing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvecchio, S.; Bonfiglio, P.; Pompoli, F.

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the state-of-the-art strategies and techniques based on vibro-acoustic signals that can monitor and diagnose malfunctions in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) under both test bench and vehicle operating conditions. Over recent years, several authors have summarized what is known in critical reviews mainly focused on reciprocating machines in general or on specific signal processing techniques: no attempts to deal with IC engine condition monitoring have been made. This paper first gives a brief summary of the generation of sound and vibration in ICEs in order to place further discussion on fault vibro-acoustic diagnosis in context. An overview of the monitoring and diagnostic techniques described in literature using both vibration and acoustic signals is also provided. Different faulty conditions are described which affect combustion, mechanics and the aerodynamics of ICEs. The importance of measuring acoustic signals, as opposed to vibration signals, is due since the former seem to be more suitable for implementation on on-board monitoring systems in view of their non-intrusive behaviour, capability in simultaneously capturing signatures from several mechanical components and because of the possibility of detecting faults affecting airborne transmission paths. In view of the recent needs of the industry to (-) optimize component structural durability adopting long-life cycles, (-) verify the engine final status at the end of the assembly line and (-) reduce the maintenance costs monitoring the ICE life during vehicle operations, monitoring and diagnosing system requests are continuously growing up. The present review can be considered a useful guideline for test engineers in understanding which types of fault can be diagnosed by using vibro-acoustic signals in sufficient time in both test bench and operating conditions and which transducer and signal processing technique (of which the essential background theory is here reported) could be

  7. Development of the criticality accident analysis code, AGNES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ken

    1989-01-01

    In the design works for the facilities which handle nuclear fuel, the evaluation of criticality accidents cannot be avoided even if their possibility is as small as negligible. In particular in the system using solution fuel like uranyl nitrate, solution has the property easily becoming dangerous form, and all the past criticality accidents occurred in the case of solution, therefore, the evaluation of criticality accidents becomes the most important item of safety analysis. When a criticality accident occurred in a solution fuel system, due to the generation and movement of radiolysis gas voids, the oscillation of power output and pressure pulses are observed. In order to evaluate the effect of criticality accidents, these output oscillation and pressure pulses must be calculated accurately. For this purpose, the development of the dynamic characteristic code AGNES (Accidentally Generated Nuclear Excursion Simulation code) was carried out. The AGNES is the reactor dynamic characteristic code having two independent void models. Modified energy model and pressure model, and as the benchmark calculation of the AGNES code, the results of the experimental analysis on the CRAC experiment are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Innovations in the Endovascular Management of Critical Limb Ischemia: Retrograde Tibiopedal Access and Advanced Percutaneous Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry J; Saab, Fadi

    2017-08-01

    Retrograde tibiopedal access and interventions have contributed to advance of endovascular techniques to treat critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. This review encompasses the spectrum from advanced diagnostic imaging and technical therapeutic approaches for infrapopliteal occlusions, to a discussion of current standards and future directions. Contemporary studies of infrapopliteal angioplasty show suboptimal short-term and 1-year clinical outcomes. Comparative data is needed to shift the focus from PTA to disruptive treatment modalities that can further improve outcomes. Retrograde pedal access has emerged as an important tool to facilitate successfully percutaneous revascularization and limb salvage in patients with CLI. To efficiently approach the complexity of CLI, new thought processes are needed to change the reigning paradigms. Retrograde tibial-pedal access has shown improvement in the rate of successful revascularizations and is an important tool in the amputation-prevention armamentarium. Additional technologies may further improve success rates. Drug-eluting stents have shown better outcomes than PTA in patients with focal infrapopliteal lesions. Registry data have demonstrated the advantage of several atherectomy devices in the tibial arteries. More recently, bioresorbable vascular scaffolds have been used successfully, and further studies with drug-coated balloons are underway. Interventional operators are now even working in the inframalleolar space to reconstitute the plantar arch. Well-conducted studies are needed to generate high-quality evidence in the field of critical limb ischemia management.

  9. Quantitative blood flow analysis with digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, G.

    1984-01-01

    The general principles of digital techniques in quantitating absolute blood flow during arteriography are described. Results are presented for a phantom constructed to correlate digitally calculated absolute flow with direct flow measurements. The clinical use of digital techniques in cerebrovascular angiography is briefly described. (U.K.)

  10. Multidisciplinary critical discourse analysis: a plea for diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teun A. van Dijk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This text is a Brazilian Portuguese version of the chapter from the book “Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis”. The author outlines a Critical Discourse Analysis framework while presents a synthesis of its thinking about the some possible relations between Discourse and Society. The author’s theorical horizon embraces features since the structuralist paradigm to the socio-cognitivo one. At last, the reader can realize an early presentation of the author’s Theory of Context (2001 categories of a theory of context which was published seven years later.

  11. Kinetic analysis of sub-prompt-critical reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.

    1992-01-01

    Neutronic analysis of safety-related kinetics problems in experimental neutron multiplying assemblies has been carried out using a sub-prompt-critical reactor model. The model is based on the concept of a sub-prompt-critical nuclear reactor and the concept of instantaneous neutron multiplication in a reactor system. Computations of reactor power, period and reactivity using the model show excellent agreement with results obtained from exact kinetics method. Analytic expressions for the energy released in a controlled nuclear power excursion are derived. Application of the model to a Pulsed Fast Reactor gives its sensitivity between 4 and 5. (author). 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Disposal criticality analysis for immobilized plutonium: Internal configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, P.; Massari, J.R.; Cloke, P.L.

    1998-03-01

    The analysis for immobilized Pu follows the disposal criticality analysis methodology. In this study the focus is on determining the range of chemical compositions of the configurations which can occur following the aqueous degradation processes, particularly with respect to the concentrations of uranium, plutonium, and the principal neutron absorber, gadolinium. The principal analysis tool is a mass balance program that computes the amounts of plutonium, uranium, gadolinium, and chromium in solution as a function of time with inputs from a range of possible waste form dissolution rates, stainless steel corrosion rates, and compound solubilities for the neutronically significant elements. For the waste forms and degradation modes considered here, it is possible to preclude the possibility of criticality by maintaining a plutonium loading limit. Since the presence of hafnium is shown to increase this loading limit, the defense-in-depth policy would suggest the maximization of the amount of Hf as a backup criticality control material. At the end of 1997, after this study was completed, the ceramic waste form was downselected and a new formulation was developed, with the amount of Hf increased to the point where internal criticality may no longer be possible. In addition, recent calculations indicate that GdPO 4 is insoluble over a much broader range of pH than is Gd 2 O 3 , so that its use as the Gd carrier in the waste form would provide an extra margin of defense-in-depth

  13. An investigation of texturing by magnetic and mechanical techniques in high critical temperature superconducting ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschanels, X.

    1992-11-01

    The principal goal of this work is to quantify the influence of texture of ceramic superconductors ReBaCuO (Re=Dy, Y) on their critical current density (Jc). The magnetic alignment of particles at ambient temperature is the first technique who has allowed us to produce superconducting (Meissner effect) and textured ceramics. However, these materials are very brittle because of their porosity and this makes it impossible to measure their Jc. Press-forging (or creep sintering) is the second technique who has allowed us to prepare highly textured ceramics materials which are also dense. We have studied the influence of various conditions of thermomechanical treatment (sintering time and temperature, applied load, rate of deformation, density of the material at the beginning) on the texture quality. We have shown that at 900 deg, the eutectic liquid formed by BaCuO 2 , CuO and YBa 2 Cu 3 0 7-Y various mechanisms that help explain the formation of observed texture. After the oxidation stage which requires heat treatment under controlled atmospheres, we obtain superconducting ceramics (Tc=85 K). Moreover, this study also shows that the texture can improve the Jc by 400%, to 750 A/cm 2 at 77 K in the best specimens. This low value is explained by the presence of non-superconducting secondary phases and amorphous phases at the grain boundaries. (Author). 120 refs., figs., tabs

  14. Additive Manufacturing Techniques in Prosthodontics: Where Do We Currently Stand? A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Nawal; Wismeijer, Daniel; Osman, Reham B

    The aim of this article was to critically review the current application of additive manufacturing (AM)/3D-printing techniques in prosthodontics and to highlight the influence of various technical factors involved in different AM technologies. A standard approach of searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases was followed. The following search terms were used: (Prosth* OR Restoration) AND (Prototype OR Additive Manufacture* OR Compute* OR 3D-print* OR CAD/CAM) AND (Dentistry OR Dental). Hand searching the reference lists of the included articles and personal connections revealed additional relevant articles. Selection criteria were any article written in English and reporting on the application of AM in prosthodontics from 1990 to February 2016. From a total of 4,290 articles identified, 33 were seen as relevant. Of these, 3 were narrative reviews, 18 were in vitro studies, and 12 were clinical in vivo studies. Different AM technologies are applied in prosthodontics, directly and indirectly for the fabrication of fixed metal copings, metal frameworks for removable partial dentures, and plastic mock-ups and resin patterns for further conventional metal castings. Technical factors involved in different AM techniques influence the overall quality, the mechanical properties of the printed parts, and the total cost and manufacturing time. AM is promising and offers new possibilities in the field of prosthodontics, though its application is still limited. An understanding of these limitations and of developments in material science is crucial prior to considering AM as an acceptable method for the fabrication of dental prostheses.

  15. Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gambhir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

  16. Critical experiments analysis by ABBN-90 constant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiboulia, A.; Nikolaev, M.N.; Golubev, V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    The ABBN-90 is a new version of the well-known Russian group-constant system ABBN. Included constants were calculated based on files of evaluated nuclear data from the BROND-2, ENDF/B-VI, and JENDL-3 libraries. The ABBN-90 is intended for the calculation of different types of nuclear reactors and radiation shielding. Calculations of criticality safety and reactivity accidents are also provided by using this constant set. Validation of the ABBN-90 set was made by using a computerized bank of evaluated critical experiments. This bank includes the results of experiments conducted in Russia and abroad of compact spherical assemblies with different reflectors, fast critical assemblies, and fuel/water-solution criticalities. This report presents the results of the calculational analysis of the whole collection of critical experiments. All calculations were produced with the ABBN-90 group-constant system. Revealed discrepancies between experimental and calculational results and their possible reasons are discussed. The codes and archives INDECS system is also described. This system includes three computerized banks: LEMEX, which consists of evaluated experiments and their calculational results; LSENS, which consists of sensitivity coefficients; and LUND, which consists of group-constant covariance matrices. The INDECS system permits us to estimate the accuracy of neutronics calculations. A discussion of the reliability of such estimations is finally presented. 16 figs.

  17. Analysis of the IPEN/MB-01 critical unit based on criticality experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Adimir dos; Yamaguchi, Mitsuo; Ferreira, Carlos Roberto; Yoriyaz, Helio

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the critical loading of the IPEN/MB-01 was performed by using several reactor cell methodologies. The results obtained by using the coupled NJOY/AMPX-II/HAMMER-TECHNION shows the good quality of the available nuclear data files as well as the methodologies in the Reactor Physics area. The original HAMMER system shows results that are well as the methodologies in the Reactor Physics area. The original HAMMER system shows results that are well outside of the desired quality for a cell code. (author), 15 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Risk analysis of critical infrastructures emphasizing electricity supply and interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjølle, G.H.; Utne, I.B.; Gjerde, O.

    2012-01-01

    Failures in critical infrastructures can cause major damage to society. Wide-area interruptions (blackouts) in the electricity supply system have severe impacts on societal critical functions and other critical infrastructures, but there is no agreed-upon framework on how to analyze and predict the reliability of electricity supply. Thus, there is a need for an approach to cross-sector risk analyses, which facilitates risk analysis of outages in the electricity supply system and enables investigation of cascading failures and consequences in other infrastructures. This paper presents such an approach, which includes contingency analysis (power flow) and reliability analysis of power systems, as well as use of a cascade diagram for investigating interdependencies. A case study was carried out together with the Emergency Preparedness Group in the city of Oslo, Norway and the network company Hafslund Nett. The case study results highlight the need for cross-sector analyses by showing that the total estimated societal costs are substantially higher when cascading effects and consequences to other infrastructures are taken into account compared to only considering the costs of electricity interruptions as seen by the network company. The approach is a promising starting point for cross-sector risk analysis of electricity supply interruptions and consequences for dependent infrastructures.

  19. Real analysis modern techniques and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Folland, Gerald B

    1999-01-01

    An in-depth look at real analysis and its applications-now expanded and revised.This new edition of the widely used analysis book continues to cover real analysis in greater detail and at a more advanced level than most books on the subject. Encompassing several subjects that underlie much of modern analysis, the book focuses on measure and integration theory, point set topology, and the basics of functional analysis. It illustrates the use of the general theories and introduces readers to other branches of analysis such as Fourier analysis, distribution theory, and probability theory.This edi

  20. Techniques involving extreme environment, nondestructive techniques, computer methods in metals research, and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunshah, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    A number of different techniques which range over several different aspects of materials research are covered in this volume. They are concerned with property evaluation of 4 0 K and below, surface characterization, coating techniques, techniques for the fabrication of composite materials, computer methods, data evaluation and analysis, statistical design of experiments and non-destructive test techniques. Topics covered in this part include internal friction measurements; nondestructive testing techniques; statistical design of experiments and regression analysis in metallurgical research; and measurement of surfaces of engineering materials

  1. Unplanned extubations in an intensive care unit: Findings from a critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielis, Matteo; Chiaruttini, Simona; Palese, Alvisa

    2018-05-15

    Patients on mechanical ventilation are at risk of experiencing a potentially life-threatening unplanned extubation in the intensive care unit, which can lead to arrhythmias, bronchial aspiration, difficulty in reintubation or even sudden cardiac arrest. Although incidence and outcomes of the phenomenon have been documented in several quantitative studies, no studies have investigated the antecedents as experienced by critical care nurses. To gain a greater understanding of the antecedents of unplanned extubations. A qualitative study design involving the critical-incident technique. A total of 10 registered nurses who reported one or more episodes of unplanned extubations were involved in an in-depth interview. According to the nurses' experience, episodes of unplanned extubations are determined by predisposing, precipitating and mediating factors. The predisposing factors have been recognised in the (a) weaning programme (expected/unexpected decreased sedation) and in the (b) patient factors (increased needs due to discomfort, restlessness and desire to communicate). The precipitating factors have been divided into (a) organisational (failures in multi-professional communication), (b) environmental (excessive environmental chaos and barriers preventing direct surveillance) and (c) nursing care factors (ensuring privacy by creating barriers, avoiding disturbing other patients and poor nurse-to-patient ratio). Among the mediating factors, which are affected by the precipitating factors, decreased surveillance and mechanical restraints' use have been identified. Identifying risk factors of unplanned extubation, specifically those that are modifiable, such as increasing interprofessional communication, reducing excessive environment chaos, implementing strategies aimed at overcoming barriers threatening direct surveillance and ensuring appropriate nurse-to-patient ratio, can prevent the occurrence of these events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of functional analysis techniques to supervisory systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Manuel; Riera, Bernard; Martel, Gregory

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply firstly two interesting functional analysis techniques for the design of supervisory systems for complex processes, and secondly to discuss the strength and the weaknesses of each of them. Two functional analysis techniques have been applied, SADT (Structured Analysis and Design Technique) and FAST (Functional Analysis System Technique) on a process, an example of a Water Supply Process Control (WSPC) system. These techniques allow a functional description of industrial processes. The paper briefly discusses the functions of a supervisory system and some advantages of the application of functional analysis for the design of a 'human' centered supervisory system. Then the basic principles of the two techniques applied on the WSPC system are presented. Finally, the different results obtained from the two techniques are discussed

  3. I Frankenstein: from media critical reception to the semiological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Mateus Kogawa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, the movie I, Frankenstein was released. This movie has raised some comments from the media criticism, among which we list some to be object of our analysis. The analysis of critical statements reveals a discourse based on the axes of morality, profitability, traditionalism and temporality that produces a disqualification sense, which means that the movie is something that ‘hurts’ the notion of ‘classic’. From this demonstration, this paper questions the claims that the new Frankenstein should respond to a tradition opened by Mary Shelley to point some senses that re-construct the contemporary myth. Therefore, the new Frankenstein requires an interrelationship between technical apparatus - 3D technology - and a contemporary myth - an ideal of consumption facing interactivity.

  4. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  5. Critical analysis of the pedagogical practice of the teachers trainnees

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Ruiz Quiroga; Cristian Camilo Ortiz Castiblanco; Jhider Soler Mejía

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of a research project supported by the Research Center of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, whose purpose was the redefinition of the training process of the students, in the frame of the pedagogical practice, in one of the research lines for the Degree in Elementary Education with emphasis on Social Sciences. On a theoretical level, analysis and discussion were developed from critical pedagogy, particularly the concepts of pedagogical practice, training an...

  6. Criticality safety and shielding analysis of WWER-440 fuel configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christoskov, I.

    2008-01-01

    An overview is made of some studies performed on the criticality safety and radiation shielding analysis of irradiated WWER-440 fuel storage and handling configurations. The analytical tools are based on the SCALE 4.4a code system, in combination with the TORT discrete ordinates transport code and the BUGLE-96 cross-sections library. The accuracy of some important results is assessed through comparison with independent evaluations and with measurement data. (author)

  7. A Critical Analysis of Attribute Development Programs for Army Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    implement a holistic approach to developing attributes within its members. These domains are human performance, psychological performance, spiritual ...A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ATTRIBUTE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS FOR ARMY LEADERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 10-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015

  8. Criticality Analysis Of TCA Critical Lattices With MNCP-4C Monte Carlo Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhair

    2002-01-01

    The use of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in electric generation light water reactor (PWR, BWR) is being planned in Japan. Therefore, the accuracy evaluations of neutronic analysis code for MOX cores have been employed by many scientists and reactor physicists. Benchmark evaluations for TCA was done using various calculation methods. The Monte Carlo become the most reliable method to predict criticality of various reactor types. In this analysis, the MCNP-4C code was chosen because various superiorities the code has. All in all, the MCNP-4C calculation for TCA core with 38 MOX critical lattice configurations gave the results with high accuracy. The JENDL-3.2 library showed significantly closer results to the ENDF/B-V. The k eff values calculated with the ENDF/B-VI library gave underestimated results. The ENDF/B-V library gave the best estimation. It can be concluded that MCNP-4C calculation, especially with ENDF/B-V and JENDL-3.2 libraries, for MOX fuel utilized NPP design in reactor core is the best choice

  9. Data Analysis Techniques for Physical Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneau, Claude A.

    2017-10-01

    Preface; How to read this book; 1. The scientific method; Part I. Foundation in Probability and Statistics: 2. Probability; 3. Probability models; 4. Classical inference I: estimators; 5. Classical inference II: optimization; 6. Classical inference III: confidence intervals and statistical tests; 7. Bayesian inference; Part II. Measurement Techniques: 8. Basic measurements; 9. Event reconstruction; 10. Correlation functions; 11. The multiple facets of correlation functions; 12. Data correction methods; Part III. Simulation Techniques: 13. Monte Carlo methods; 14. Collision and detector modeling; List of references; Index.

  10. American Offensive Funny Riddles: A Critical Metaphor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sahib Jabir Mubarak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradox in the offensive humor lies in the assumption that what evokes laughter can be harmful for someone. Linguistically, the offense can be expressed directly and indirectly, additionally, humor, including riddles is one of the most effective ways to show offense or aggression toward someone. Humor, on the other hand, is mostly expressed indirectly. Metaphoric forms are said to be one of the most appealing strategies of humor language. The present study aims at applying a critical metaphor analysis of some randomly selected American offensive humorous riddles related to various aspects of offense like race and nation. In this approach to critical discourse analysis, the cognitive aspect is added for the sake of analyzing figurative forms like metaphor which is considered as an important part of ideology. Thus, critical metaphor analysis covers both social and cognitive aspects. It is concluded that offensive jokes (namely funny riddles can be used as a tool to measure the aggressiveness towards certain social aspects like race; on the other hand, metaphors afford indications of facets of power, inequality and people ideologies in American society.

  11. Surface analysis and techniques in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Smentkowski, Vincent S

    2014-01-01

    This book highlights state-of-the-art surface analytical instrumentation, advanced data analysis tools, and the use of complimentary surface analytical instrumentation to perform a complete analysis of biological systems.

  12. Transesophageal NOTES--a critical analysis of relevant problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, Karl E; Lehmann, Thorsten G

    2010-10-01

    The transesophageal access route has not become a principal topic in the discussion about NOTES up to now. Analyzing the problems in this new field of surgery, however, the transesophageal route shows high relevance. Here, all possibilities, limitations, and problems of NOTES become obvious. This paper contains a critical analysis of the literature published to date (nine full papers, five abstracts). Nearly all publications represent experimental studies in living pigs. In most cases a submucosal tunnel technique is performed as access route to mediastinum, pleural cavity, and heart. Interventions and operations include simple mediastinoscopies as well as epicardial operations after exposition of the heart. For access and manipulation, conventional flexible endoscopes and instruments are used. Clips, T-bars, or a combination of both achieve the closure. Some studies rely on spontaneous closure of the incision without any suturing or approximation. In such experimental settings, the following results are presented: Access is achieved in 90% of cases, the aim of the operation is met in 92%, technical success in closure is achieved in 90%, healing of incision assessed as good in two of five studies, satisfactory in three of five studies. Mortality, ranging from 6 to 25%, and complication rates were (surprisingly) high. It has to be stressed that analyzing these papers published to date, no adequate attention is paid to basic facts and problems of general and thoracic surgery (e.g. different forms, prevention, diagnosis and therapy of pneumothorax or differentiated forms of ventilation). Relevant differences in the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus and mediastinum between humans and pigs should additionally be taken into account to choose optimal experimental parameters when transferring results to human settings. Moreover, requirements regarding sterility and hygiene in a structure like the mediastinum, which is at high risk from the point of view of infection

  13. Disposal criticality analysis for aluminum-based DOE fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.; Gottlieb, P.

    1997-11-01

    This paper describes the disposal criticality analysis for canisters containing aluminum-based Department of Energy fuels from research reactors. Different canisters were designed for disposal of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and medium enriched uranium (MEU) fuel. In addition to the standard criticality concerns in storage and transportation, such as flooding, the disposal criticality analysis must consider the degradation of the fuel and components within the waste package. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) U-Al fuel with 93.5% enriched uranium and Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) U-Si-Al fuel with 21% enriched uranium are representative of the HEU and MEU fuel inventories, respectively. Conceptual canister designs with 64 MIT assemblies (16/layer, 4 layers) or 40 ORR assemblies (10/layer, 4 layers) were developed for these fuel types. Borated stainless steel plates were incorporated into a stainless steel internal basket structure within a 439 mm OD, 15 mm thick XM-19 canister shell. The Codisposal waste package contains 5 HLW canisters (represented by 5 Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters from the Savannah River Site) with the fuel canister placed in the center. It is concluded that without the presence of a fairly insoluble neutron absorber, the long-term action of infiltrating water can lead to a small, but significant, probability of criticality for both the HEU and MEU fuels. The use of 1.5kg of Gd distributed throughout the MIT fuel and the use of carbon steels for the structural basket or 1.1 kg of Gd distributed in the ORR fuel will reduce the probability of criticality to virtually zero for both fuels

  14. Simultaneous bilateral robotic partial nephrectomy: Case report and critical evaluation of the technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, Claudio; Gallo, Fabrizio; Schenone, Maurizio; Cortese, Pierluigi

    2014-06-16

    We report our first simultaneous bilateral robot assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) in order to show and critically discuss the feasibility of this procedure. Materials and methods A 69-year-old male patient visited our department due to incidental finding of bilateral mesorenal small masses (2.5 cm on the right and 3.5 cm on the left) suspicious for malignancy. We started from the right side with patient in flank position. Port placement: 12-mm periumbilical camera port, two 8-mm robotic ports in wide ''V''configuration, additional 12 mm assistant port on the midline between the umbilicus and symphysis pubis. A right unclamping RAPN with sliding clip renorrhaphy was performed. The trocars were removed and the robot undocked. Without interrupting the anesthesiological procedures, the patient was reported in supine position and, after 180 degrees rotation of the surgical bed, was newly placed in contralateral flank position. Using both the previous periumbilical and midline ports, two other 8-mm robotic trocars were placed. The robot was then redocked and RAPN was also performed on the left side using the same previously reported technique. Results Total time: 285 min. Estimated blood losses: 150 cc. Postoperative period: uneventful. Pathological examination: bilateral renal cell carcinoma, negative surgical margins. Conclusions Our experience was encouraging and confirmed the feasibility and safety of this procedure. The planning of our technique was time and cost effective with cosmetic benefit for the patient. However, we think that an appropriate selection of the patients and a skill in robotic renal surgery are advisable before approaching this type of surgery.

  15. Improving skill development: an exploratory study comparing a philosophical and an applied ethical analysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saggaf, Yeslam; Burmeister, Oliver K.

    2012-09-01

    This exploratory study compares and contrasts two types of critical thinking techniques; one is a philosophical and the other an applied ethical analysis technique. The two techniques analyse an ethically challenging situation involving ICT that a recent media article raised to demonstrate their ability to develop the ethical analysis skills of ICT students and professionals. In particular the skill development focused on includes: being able to recognise ethical challenges and formulate coherent responses; distancing oneself from subjective judgements; developing ethical literacy; identifying stakeholders; and communicating ethical decisions made, to name a few.

  16. Critical aspects of nano-indentation technique in application to hardened cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, D.; Jirasek, M.; Kopecky, L.

    2011-01-01

    Several open questions related to the experimental protocol and processing of data acquired by the nano-indentation (NI) technique are investigated. The volume fractions of mechanically different phases obtained from statistical NI (SNI) analysis are shown to be different from those obtained by back-scattered electron (BSE) image analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD) method on the same paste. Judging from transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, the representative volume element of low-density calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H) can be considered to be around 500 nm, whereas for high-density C-S-H it is about 100 nm. This raises the question how the appropriate penetration depth for NI experiments should be selected. Changing the maximum load from 1 mN to 5 mN, the effect of penetration depth on the experimental results is studied. As an alternative to the SNI method, a 'manual' indentation method is proposed, which combines information from BSE and atomic-force microscopy (AFM), coupled to the NI machine. The AFM allows to precisely indent a high-density C-S-H rim around unhydrated clinkers in cement paste. Yet the results from that technique still show a big scatter.

  17. Metabolomic analysis using porcine skin: a pilot study of analytical techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Julie; Fiehn, Oliver; Armstrong, April W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic byproducts serve as indicators of the chemical processes and can provide valuable information on pathogenesis by measuring the amplified output. Standardized techniques for metabolome extraction of skin samples serve as a critical foundation to this field but have not been developed. Objectives: We sought to determine the optimal cell lysage techniques for skin sample preparation and to compare GC-TOF-MS and UHPLC-QTOF-MS for metabolomic analysis. ...

  18. CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2011-08-30

    This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

  19. Survey of immunoassay techniques for biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtis, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    Immunoassay is a very specific, sensitive, and widely applicable analytical technique. Recent advances in genetic engineering have led to the development of monoclonal antibodies which further improves the specificity of immunoassays. Originally, radioisotopes were used to label the antigens and antibodies used in immunoassays. However, in the last decade, numerous types of immunoassays have been developed which utilize enzymes and fluorescent dyes as labels. Given the technical, safety, health, and disposal problems associated with using radioisotopes, immunoassays that utilize the enzyme and fluorescent labels are rapidly replacing those using radioisotope labels. These newer techniques are as sensitive, are easily automated, have stable reagents, and do not have a disposal problem. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Hybrid chemical and nondestructive-analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsue, S.T.; Marsh, S.F.; Marks, T.

    1982-01-01

    A hybrid chemical/NDA technique has been applied at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to the assay of plutonium in ion-exchange effluents. Typical effluent solutions contain low concentrations of plutonium and high concentrations of americium. A simple trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) separation can remove 99.9% of the americium. The organic phase that contains the separated plutonium can be accurately assayed by monitoring the uranium L x-ray intensities

  1. New enhancements to SCALE for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenbach, D.F.; Bowman, S.M.; Petrie, L.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    As the speed, available memory, and reliability of computer hardware increases and the cost decreases, the complexity and usability of computer software will increase, taking advantage of the new hardware capabilities. Computer programs today must be more flexible and user friendly than those of the past. Within available resources, the SCALE staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is committed to upgrading its computer codes to keep pace with the current level of technology. This paper examines recent additions and enhancements to the criticality safety analysis sections of the SCALE code package. These recent additions and enhancements made to SCALE can be divided into nine categories: (1) new analytical computer codes, (2) new cross-section libraries, (3) new criticality search sequences, (4) enhanced graphical capabilities, (5) additional KENO enhancements, (6) enhanced resonance processing capabilities, (7) enhanced material information processing capabilities, (8) portability of the SCALE code package, and (9) other minor enhancements, modifications, and corrections to SCALE. Each of these additions and enhancements to the criticality safety analysis capabilities of the SCALE code system are discussed below

  2. Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves fall broadly into three categories: (i) transient and bursts, (ii) periodic or continuous wave and (iii) stochastic. Each type of source requires a different type of data analysis strategy. In this talk various data analysis strategies will be reviewed. Optimal filtering is used for extracting ...

  3. Critical analysis and systematization of rat pancreatectomy terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulálio, José Marcus Raso; Bon-Habib, Assad Charbel Chequer; Soares, Daiane de Oliveira; Corrêa, Paulo Guilherme Antunes; Pineschi, Giovana Penna Firme; Diniz, Victor Senna; Manso, José Eduardo Ferreira; Schanaider, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    To critically analyze and standardize the rat pancreatectomy nomenclature variants. It was performed a review of indexed manuscripts in PUBMED from 01/01/1945 to 31/12/2015 with the combined keywords "rat pancreatectomy" and "rat pancreas resection". The following parameters was considered: A. Frequency of publications; B. Purpose of the pancreatectomy in each article; C. Bibliographic references; D. Nomenclature of techniques according to the pancreatic parenchyma resection percentage. Among the 468, the main objectives were to surgically induce diabetes and to study the genes regulations and expressions. Five rat pancreatectomy technique references received 15 or more citations. Twenty different terminologies were identified for the pancreas resection: according to the resected parenchyma percentage (30 to 95%); to the procedure type (total, subtotal and partial); or based on the selected anatomical region (distal, longitudinal and segmental). A nomenclature systematization was gathered by cross-checking information between the main surgical techniques, the anatomic parameters descriptions and the resected parenchyma percentages. The subtotal pancreatectomy nomenclature for parenchymal resection between 80 and 95% establishes a surgical parameter that also defines the total and partial pancreatectomy limits and standardizes these surgical procedures in rats.

  4. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Stefan [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2010-09-15

    We study the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit of lattice QCD simulations with Hybrid Monte Carlo type algorithms. In particular for the squared topological charge we find it to be very severe with an effective dynamical critical exponent of about 5 in pure gauge theory. We also consider Wilson loops which we can demonstrate to decouple from the modes which slow down the topological charge. Quenched observables are studied and a comparison to simulations of full QCD is made. In order to deal with the slow modes in the simulation, we propose a method to incorporate the information from slow observables into the error analysis of physical observables and arrive at safer error estimates. (orig.)

  5. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer; Virotta, Francesco

    2010-09-01

    We study the critical slowing down towards the continuum limit of lattice QCD simulations with Hybrid Monte Carlo type algorithms. In particular for the squared topological charge we find it to be very severe with an effective dynamical critical exponent of about 5 in pure gauge theory. We also consider Wilson loops which we can demonstrate to decouple from the modes which slow down the topological charge. Quenched observables are studied and a comparison to simulations of full QCD is made. In order to deal with the slow modes in the simulation, we propose a method to incorporate the information from slow observables into the error analysis of physical observables and arrive at safer error estimates. (orig.)

  6. The Analysis of SBWR Critical Power Bundle Using Cobrag Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes Sardjono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The coolant mechanism of SBWR is similar with the Dodewaard Nuclear Power Plant (NPP in the Netherlands that first went critical in 1968. The similarity of both NPP is cooled by natural convection system. These coolant concept is very related with same parameters on fuel bundle design especially fuel bundle length, core pressure drop and core flow rate as well as critical power bundle. The analysis was carried out by using COBRAG computer code. COBRAG computer code is GE Company proprietary. Basically COBRAG computer code is a tool to solve compressible three-dimensional, two fluid, three field equations for two phase flow. The three fields are the vapor field, the continuous liquid field, and the liquid drop field. This code has been applied to analyses model flow and heat transfer within the reactor core. This volume describes the finitevolume equations and the numerical solution methods used to solve these equations. This analysis of same parameters has been done i.e.; inlet sub cooling 20 BTU/lbm and 40 BTU/lbm, 1000 psi pressure and R-factor is 1.038, mass flux are 0.5 Mlb/hr.ft2, 0.75 Mlb/hr.ft2, 1.00 Mlb/hr.ft2 and 1.25 Mlb/hr.ft2. Those conditions based on history operation of some type of the cell fuel bundle line at GE Nuclear Energy. According to the results, it can be concluded that SBWR critical power bundle is 10.5 % less than current BWR critical power bundle with length reduction of 12 ft to 9 ft.

  7. Visualization techniques for malware behavior analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégio, André R. A.; Santos, Rafael D. C.

    2011-06-01

    Malware spread via Internet is a great security threat, so studying their behavior is important to identify and classify them. Using SSDT hooking we can obtain malware behavior by running it in a controlled environment and capturing interactions with the target operating system regarding file, process, registry, network and mutex activities. This generates a chain of events that can be used to compare them with other known malware. In this paper we present a simple approach to convert malware behavior into activity graphs and show some visualization techniques that can be used to analyze malware behavior, individually or grouped.

  8. INVERSE FILTERING TECHNIQUES IN SPEECH ANALYSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    domain or in the frequency domain. However their .... computer to speech analysis led to important elaborations ... tool for the estimation of formant trajectory (10), ... prediction Linear prediction In effect determines the filter .... Radio Res. Lab.

  9. Techniques for Intelligence Analysis of Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cares, Jeffrey R

    2005-01-01

    ...) there are significant intelligence analysis manifestations of these properties; and (4) a more satisfying theory of Networked Competition than currently exists for NCW/NCO is emerging from this research...

  10. The Network Protocol Analysis Technique in Snort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Xiu

    Network protocol analysis is a network sniffer to capture data for further analysis and understanding of the technical means necessary packets. Network sniffing is intercepted by packet assembly binary format of the original message content. In order to obtain the information contained. Required based on TCP / IP protocol stack protocol specification. Again to restore the data packets at protocol format and content in each protocol layer. Actual data transferred, as well as the application tier.

  11. Critical Thinking Development in Pharmacy Education: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Peeters

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The investigators aimed to summarize prior studies of critical thinking development among pharmacy students, using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST, Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT, and Defining Issues Test (DIT. Methods: Independently, two investigators (KLZ, MJP systematically searched available literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsychInfo, as well as pharmacy education conference abstracts in American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Their search terms were ‘pharmacy’, and [‘critical thinking’, ‘HSRT’, ‘CCTST’, and ‘DIT’]. Studies included were those that investigated pharmacy students, used one of the tests (CCTST, HSRT, DIT, and used a longitudinal design with test administration at two or more time-points for the same subjects (i.e., development. On review, the CCTST and HSRT seem more foundational to analytical/critical thinking, while the DIT appears to measure moral/complex thinking. Summarizing used meta-analysis with Cohen’s d and random-effects modelling. Results: Five studies involved thinking development with 10 separate cohorts for meta-analysis (8 cohorts for CCTST, 2 for DIT, and 0 for HSRT. At 5 institutions, 407 and 1148 students were included (CCTST and DIT, respectively. For the CCTST, the overall effect was 0.33 (0.19-0.47 95%CI with some heterogeneity among study cohorts (I2=52%. For the DIT, the overall effect was -0.23 (-0.83-0.37 95%CI with considerable heterogeneity between study cohorts (I2=95%. For the CCTST and DIT, some studies showed effect-sizes greater than 0.5. Meta-analysis of the HSRT could not be conducted (i.e., 0 studies found. Implications: While measuring different aspects of “critical thinking”, the CCTST and DIT showed responsiveness to change and appear to be promising measures of cognitive development. These tests should be used in further well-designed research studies that explore strategies for improving cognitive

  12. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Emerging surface characterization techniques for carbon steel corrosion: a critical brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, D.; Lepkova, K.; Becker, T.

    2017-03-01

    Carbon steel is a preferred construction material in many industrial and domestic applications, including oil and gas pipelines, where corrosion mitigation using film-forming corrosion inhibitor formulations is a widely accepted method. This review identifies surface analytical techniques that are considered suitable for analysis of thin films at metallic substrates, but are yet to be applied to analysis of carbon steel surfaces in corrosive media or treated with corrosion inhibitors. The reviewed methods include time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy methods, particle-induced X-ray emission, Rutherford backscatter spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission electron microscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering and neutron reflectometry, and conversion electron Moessbauer spectrometry. Advantages and limitations of the analytical methods in thin-film surface investigations are discussed. Technical parameters of nominated analytical methods are provided to assist in the selection of suitable methods for analysis of metallic substrates deposited with surface films. The challenges associated with the applications of the emerging analytical methods in corrosion science are also addressed.

  14. TU-EF-BRD-02: Indicators and Technique Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlone, M. [Princess Margaret Hospital (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Research related to quality and safety has been a staple of medical physics academic activities for a long time. From very early on, medical physicists have developed new radiation measurement equipment and analysis techniques, created ever increasingly accurate dose calculation models, and have vastly improved imaging, planning, and delivery techniques. These and other areas of interest have improved the quality and safety of radiotherapy for our patients. With the advent of TG-100, quality and safety is an area that will garner even more research interest in the future. As medical physicists pursue quality and safety research in greater numbers, it is worthwhile to consider what actually constitutes research on quality and safety. For example, should the development of algorithms for real-time EPID-based in-vivo dosimetry be defined as “quality and safety” research? How about the clinical implementation of such as system? Surely the application of failure modes and effects analysis to a clinical process would be considered quality and safety research, but is this type of research that should be included in the medical physics peer-reviewed literature? The answers to such questions are of critical importance to set researchers in a direction that will provide the greatest benefit to our field and the patients we serve. The purpose of this symposium is to consider what constitutes research in the arena of quality and safety and differentiate it from other research directions. The key distinction here is developing the tool itself (e.g. algorithms for EPID dosimetry) vs. studying the impact of the tool with some quantitative metric. Only the latter would I call quality and safety research. Issues of ‘basic’ versus ‘applied’ quality and safety research will be covered as well as how the research results should be structured to provide increasing levels of support that a quality and safety intervention is effective and sustainable. Examples from existing

  15. TU-EF-BRD-02: Indicators and Technique Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlone, M.

    2015-01-01

    Research related to quality and safety has been a staple of medical physics academic activities for a long time. From very early on, medical physicists have developed new radiation measurement equipment and analysis techniques, created ever increasingly accurate dose calculation models, and have vastly improved imaging, planning, and delivery techniques. These and other areas of interest have improved the quality and safety of radiotherapy for our patients. With the advent of TG-100, quality and safety is an area that will garner even more research interest in the future. As medical physicists pursue quality and safety research in greater numbers, it is worthwhile to consider what actually constitutes research on quality and safety. For example, should the development of algorithms for real-time EPID-based in-vivo dosimetry be defined as “quality and safety” research? How about the clinical implementation of such as system? Surely the application of failure modes and effects analysis to a clinical process would be considered quality and safety research, but is this type of research that should be included in the medical physics peer-reviewed literature? The answers to such questions are of critical importance to set researchers in a direction that will provide the greatest benefit to our field and the patients we serve. The purpose of this symposium is to consider what constitutes research in the arena of quality and safety and differentiate it from other research directions. The key distinction here is developing the tool itself (e.g. algorithms for EPID dosimetry) vs. studying the impact of the tool with some quantitative metric. Only the latter would I call quality and safety research. Issues of ‘basic’ versus ‘applied’ quality and safety research will be covered as well as how the research results should be structured to provide increasing levels of support that a quality and safety intervention is effective and sustainable. Examples from existing

  16. Sustainable development goals for health promotion: a critical frame analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Grace; Corbin, J Hope; Miedema, Esther

    2018-05-25

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) lay the foundations for supporting global health and international development work for the next 15 years. Thirty years ago, the Ottawa Charter defined health promotion and outlined key principles for global action on health, including the importance of advocating, enabling and mediating for health equity. Advocacy underscores a human right to health and suggests political action to support its attainment. Enabling speaks to health promotion's focus on the empowerment of people and communities to take control over their health and aspirations. Mediation draws attention to the critical intersectoral partnerships required to address health and social inequities. Underpinned by this approach, the aim of this paper is to consider how key health promotion principles, namely, rights, empowerment and partnership feature (and are framed) within the SDGs and to consider how these framings may shape future directions for health promotion. To that end, a critical frame analysis of the Transforming Our World document was conducted. The analysis interrogated varying uses and meanings of partnerships, empowerment and rights (and their connections) within the SDGs. The analysis here presents three framings from the SDGs: (1) a moral code for global action on (in)equity; (2) a future orientation to address global issues yet devoid of history; and (3) a reductionist framing of health as the absence of disease. These framings raise important questions about the underpinning values of the SDGs and pathways to health equity - offering both challenges and opportunities for defining the nature and scope of health promotion.

  17. A comparative critical study between FMEA and FTA risk analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, G.; Constantinescu, DM

    2017-10-01

    Today there is used an overwhelming number of different risk analyses techniques with acronyms such as: FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) and its extension FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis), DRBFM (Design Review by Failure Mode), FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) and and its extension ETA (Event Tree Analysis), HAZOP (Hazard & Operability Studies), HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) and What-if/Checklist. However, the most used analysis techniques in the mechanical and electrical industry are FMEA and FTA. In FMEA, which is an inductive method, information about the consequences and effects of the failures is usually collected through interviews with experienced people, and with different knowledge i.e., cross-functional groups. The FMEA is used to capture potential failures/risks & impacts and prioritize them on a numeric scale called Risk Priority Number (RPN) which ranges from 1 to 1000. FTA is a deductive method i.e., a general system state is decomposed into chains of more basic events of components. The logical interrelationship of how such basic events depend on and affect each other is often described analytically in a reliability structure which can be visualized as a tree. Both methods are very time-consuming to be applied thoroughly, and this is why it is oftenly not done so. As a consequence possible failure modes may not be identified. To address these shortcomings, it is proposed to use a combination of FTA and FMEA.

  18. Nucelar reactor seismic safety analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, G.E.; Wells, J.E.; Lewis, L.C.

    1979-04-01

    In order to provide insights into the seismic safety requirements for nuclear power plants, a probabilistic based systems model and computational procedure have been developed. This model and computational procedure will be used to identify where data and modeling uncertainties need to be decreased by studying the effect of these uncertainties on the probability of radioactive release and the probability of failure of various structures, systems, and components. From the estimates of failure and release probabilities and their uncertainties the most sensitive steps in the seismic methodologies can be identified. In addition, the procedure will measure the uncertainty due to random occurrences, e.g. seismic event probabilities, material property variability, etc. The paper discusses the elements of this systems model and computational procedure, the event-tree/fault-tree development, and the statistical techniques to be employed

  19. Analysis of Jordanian Cigarettes Using XRF Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullab, M.; Ismail, A.; AL-kofahi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen brands of Jordanian cigarettes were analyzed using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques. These cigarettes were found to contain the elements: Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, P, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br.Rb and Sr. The major elements with concentrations of more than 1% by weight were Cl,K and Ca. The elements with minor concentrations, Between 0.1 and 1% by weight, were Si, S and P. The trace elements with concentrations below 0.1% by weight were Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr. The toxicity of some trace elements, like Br, Rb, and Sr, which are present in some brands of Jordanian cigarettes, is discussed. (Author's) 24 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  20. Overdiagnosis of Bipolar Disorder: A Critical Analysis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna A. Ghouse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is considered one of the most disabling mental conditions, with high rates of morbidity, disability, and premature death from suicide. Although BD is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder, some attention has recently been drawn to the possibility that BD could be overdiagnosed in some settings. The present paper focuses on a critical analysis of the overdiagnosis issue among bipolar patients. It includes a review of the available literature findings, followed by some recommendations aiming at optimizing the diagnosis of BD and increasing its reliability.

  1. Vaccines for human papillomavirus infection: A critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Amiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article takes a critical look at the pros and cons of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines. There is enough evidence to suggest that the prophylactic vaccines are efficacious in preventing various benign and malignant conditions (including cervical cancers caused by HPV. Even though the vaccine is costly, hypothetical analysis has shown that HPV vaccination will be cost effective in the long run. Therapeutic HPV vaccines used to treat established disease are still undergoing evaluation in clinical studies, and results seem to be encouraging. Although several countries have started mandatory vaccination programs with the prophylactic HPV vaccines, conservatives have voiced concerns regarding the moral impact of such vaccination programs.

  2. DHLW Glass Waste Package Criticality Analysis (SCPB:N/A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to determine the viability of the Defense High-Level Waste (DHLW) Glass waste package concept with respect to criticality regulatory requirements in compliance with the goals of the Waste Package Implementation Plan (Ref. 5.1) for conceptual design. These design calculations are performed in sufficient detail to provide a comprehensive comparison base with other design alternatives. The objective of this evaluation is to show to what extent the concept meets the regulatory requirements or indicate additional measures that are required for the intact waste package

  3. A critical analysis of the NegaWatt scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The author proposes a rather radical critical analysis of the NegaWatt scenario which is mainly based on the development of the use of solid and liquid biomass produced by forests and farms, and of some marginal resources like wood and urban wastes. He shows that wood resources in France are not sufficient as part of the wood is used for construction. A further exploitation of wood would lead to a dramatic increase of costs. He shows that the scenario overestimates the available wood in France, and moreover, that the promoters of the scenario overstep the physical, biological, social and economic limits of the real world of agriculture

  4. Counterbalancing in smoking cue research: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayette, Michael A; Griffin, Kasey M; Sayers, W Michael

    2010-11-01

    Cue exposure research has been used to examine key issues in smoking research, such as predicting relapse, testing new medications, investigating the neurobiology of nicotine dependence, and examining reactivity among smokers with comorbid psychopathologies. Determining the order that cues are presented is one of the most critical steps in the design of these investigations. It is widely assumed that cue exposure studies should counterbalance the order in which smoking and control (neutral) cues are presented. This article examines the premises underlying the use of counterbalancing in experimental research, and it evaluates the degree to which counterbalancing is appropriate in smoking cue exposure studies. We reviewed the available literature on the use of counterbalancing techniques in human smoking cue exposure research. Many studies counterbalancing order of cues have not provided critical analyses to determine whether this approach was appropriate. Studies that have reported relevant data, however, suggest that order of cue presentation interacts with type of cue (smoking vs. control), which raises concerns about the utility of counterbalancing. Primarily, this concern arises from potential carryover effects, in which exposure to smoking cues affects subsequent responding to neutral cues. Cue type by order of cue interactions may compromise the utility of counterbalancing. Unfortunately, there is no obvious alternative that is optimal across studies. Strengths and limitations of several alternative designs are considered, and key questions are identified to advance understanding of the optimal conditions for conducting smoking cue exposure studies.

  5. Counterbalancing in Smoking Cue Research: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Kasey M.; Sayers, W. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Cue exposure research has been used to examine key issues in smoking research, such as predicting relapse, testing new medications, investigating the neurobiology of nicotine dependence, and examining reactivity among smokers with comorbid psychopathologies. Determining the order that cues are presented is one of the most critical steps in the design of these investigations. It is widely assumed that cue exposure studies should counterbalance the order in which smoking and control (neutral) cues are presented. This article examines the premises underlying the use of counterbalancing in experimental research, and it evaluates the degree to which counterbalancing is appropriate in smoking cue exposure studies. Methods: We reviewed the available literature on the use of counterbalancing techniques in human smoking cue exposure research. Results: Many studies counterbalancing order of cues have not provided critical analyses to determine whether this approach was appropriate. Studies that have reported relevant data, however, suggest that order of cue presentation interacts with type of cue (smoking vs. control), which raises concerns about the utility of counterbalancing. Primarily, this concern arises from potential carryover effects, in which exposure to smoking cues affects subsequent responding to neutral cues. Conclusions: Cue type by order of cue interactions may compromise the utility of counterbalancing. Unfortunately, there is no obvious alternative that is optimal across studies. Strengths and limitations of several alternative designs are considered, and key questions are identified to advance understanding of the optimal conditions for conducting smoking cue exposure studies. PMID:20884695

  6. A formal safety analysis for PLC software-based safety critical system using Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Jung Soo; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a formal safety analysis technique which is demonstrated by performing empirical formal safety analysis with the case study of beamline hutch door Interlock system that is developed by using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) systems at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. In order to perform formed safety analysis, we have built the Z formal specifications representation from user requirement written in ambiguous natural language and target PLC ladder logic, respectively. We have also studied the effective method to express typical PLC timer component by using specific Z formal notation which is supported by temporal history. We present a formal proof technique specifying and verifying that the hazardous states are not introduced into ladder logic in the PLC-based safety critical system

  7. Decentralized control using compositional analysis techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, F.; van der Schaft, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized control strategies aim at achieving a global control target by means of distributed local controllers acting on individual subsystems of the overall plant. In this sense, decentralized control is a dual problem to compositional analysis where a global verification task is decomposed

  8. Techniques and Applications of Urban Data Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2016-01-01

    Digitization and characterization of urban spaces are essential components as we move to an ever-growing ’always connected’ world. Accurate analysis of such digital urban spaces has become more important as we continue to get spatial and social

  9. Evaluating Dynamic Analysis Techniques for Program Comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, S.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Program comprehension is an essential part of software development and software maintenance, as software must be sufficiently understood before it can be properly modified. One of the common approaches in getting to understand a program is the study of its execution, also known as dynamic analysis.

  10. Fast critical experiments in FCA and their analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Jitsuya

    1984-02-01

    JAERI Fast Critical Facility FCA went critical for the first time in April, 1967. Since then, critical experiments and their analysis were carried out on thirty-five assemblies until march, 1982. This report summarizes many achievements obtained in these fifteen years and points out disagreements observed between the calculation and experiment for further studies. A series of mock-up experiments for Experimental Fast Reactor JOYO, a theoretical and numerical study of adjustment of group constants by using integral data and a development of proton-recoil counter system for fast neutron spectrum measurement won high praise. Studies of Doppler effect of structural materials, effect of fission product accumulation on sodium-void worth, axially heterogeneous core and actinide cross sections attracted world-side attention. Significant contributions were also made to Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor MONJU through the partial mock-up experiments. Disagreements between the calculation and experiment were observed in the following items; reaction rate distribution and reactivity worth of B 4 C absorber in radial blanket, central reactivity worth in core with reflector, plate/pin fuel heterogeneity effect on criticality, sodium-void effect in central core region, Doppler effect of structural materials, core neutron spectrum near large resonances of iron and oxygen, effect of fission product accumulation on sodium-void worth, physics property of heterogeneous core, reactivity change resulted from fuel slumping and so on. Further efforts should be made to solve these disagreements through recalculating the experimental results with newly developed data and methods and carrying out the experiments intended to identify the cause of disagreement. (author)

  11. Criticality safety analysis of a calciner exit chute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haught, C.F.; Basoglu, B.; Brewer, R.W.; Hollenback, D.F.; Wilkinson, A.D.; Dodds, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Calcination of uranyl nitrate into uranium oxide is part of normal operations of some enrichment plants. Typically, a calciner discharges uranium oxide powder (U 3 O 8 ) into an exit chute that directs the powder into a receiving can located in a glove box. One possible scenario for a criticality accident is the exit chute becoming blocked with powder near its discharge. The blockage restricts the flow of powder causing the exit chute to become filled with the powder. If blockage does occur, the height of the powder could reach a level that would not be safe from a criticality point of view. In this analysis, the subcritical height limit is examined for 98% enriched U 3 O 8 in the exit chute with full water reflection and optimal water moderation. The height limit for ensuring criticality safety during such an accumulation is 28.2 cm above the top of the discharge pipe at the bottom of the chute. Chute design variations are also evaluated with full water reflection and optimal water moderation. Subcritical configurations for the exit chute variation are developed, but the configurations are not safe when combined with the calciner. To ensure criticality safety, modifications must be made to the calciner tube or safety measures must be implemented if these designs are to be utilized with 98% enriched material. A geometrically safe configuration for the exit chute is developed for a blockage of 20% enriched powder with full water reflection and optimal water moderation, and this configuration is safe when combined with the existing calciner

  12. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume

  13. 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    These proceedings contains abstracts and extended abstracts of 80 lectures and posters presented at the 10th Australian conference on nuclear techniques of analysis hosted by the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia from 24-26 of November 1997. The conference was divided into sessions on the following topics : ion beam analysis and its applications; surface science; novel nuclear techniques of analysis, characterization of thin films, electronic and optoelectronic material formed by ion implantation, nanometre science and technology, plasma science and technology. A special session was dedicated to new nuclear techniques of analysis, future trends and developments. Separate abstracts were prepared for the individual presentation included in this volume.

  14. A methodological comparison of customer service analysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Absher; Alan Graefe; Robert Burns

    2003-01-01

    Techniques used to analyze customer service data need to be studied. Two primary analysis protocols, importance-performance analysis (IP) and gap score analysis (GA), are compared in a side-by-side comparison using data from two major customer service research projects. A central concern is what, if any, conclusion might be different due solely to the analysis...

  15. Nuclear techniques for analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The main purposes of this meeting were to establish the state-of-the-art in the field, to identify new research and development that is required to provide an adequate framework for analysis of environmental samples and to assess needs and possibilities for international cooperation in problem areas. This technical report was prepared on the subject based on the contributions made by the participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 9 papers

  16. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves

    2009-01-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  17. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  18. Application of activation techniques to biological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of activation analysis in the biological sciences are reviewed for the period of 1970 to 1979. The stages and characteristics of activation analysis are described, and its advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Most applications involve activation by thermal neutrons followed by either radiochemical or instrumental determination. Relatively little use has been made of activation by fast neutrons, photons, or charged particles. In vivo analyses are included, but those based on prompt gamma or x-ray emission are not. Major applications include studies of reference materials, and the elemental analysis of plants, marine biota, animal and human tissues, diets, and excreta. Relatively little use of it has been made in biochemistry, microbiology, and entomology, but it has become important in toxicology and environmental science. The elements most often determined are Ag, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, and Zn, while few or no determinations of B, Be, Bi, Ga, Gd, Ge, H, In, Ir, Li, Nd, Os, Pd, Pr, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Te, Tl, or Y have been made in biological materials

  19. Liquid-liquid extraction in flow analysis: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, Cristina I.C.; Santos, Joao L.M. [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Lima, Jose L.F.C., E-mail: limajlfc@ff.up.pt [REQUIMTE, Servico de Quimica-Fisica, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade do Porto, R. Anibal Cunha, 164, 4099-030 Porto (Portugal); Zagatto, Elias A.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, P.O. Box 96, Piracicaba 13400-970 (Brazil)

    2009-10-12

    Liquid-liquid extractions (LLE) are a common sample pre-treatment in many analytical applications. This review aims at providing a critical overview of the distinct automated continuous flow-based approaches that were developed for liquid-liquid extraction with the purpose of pre-concentration and/or separation of multiple analytes, such as ultra-trace metal and metalloid species, phenolic compounds, surfactants, pharmaceuticals, etc., hyphenated with many detection technique such as UV/vis spectrophotometry, atomic spectrometric detection systems and luminescent detectors, including distinct extraction strategies and applications like single and multiple extraction schemes, wetting film extraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, back extraction, closed-loop systems and the utilisation of zone sampling, chromatomembranes and iterative reversal techniques. The analytical performance of the developed flow-based LLE methods and the influence of flow manifold components such as the segmenter, extraction coil and phase separator, is emphasised and object of discussion. An overall presentation of each system components, selectivity, advantages and shortcomings is carried out and exemplified with selected applications.

  20. What Helps and Hinders Indigenous Student Success in Higher Education Health Programmes: A Qualitative Study Using the Critical Incident Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Elana; Wikaire, Erena; Kool, Bridget; Honey, Michelle; Kelly, Fiona; Poole, Phillippa; Barrow, Mark; Airini; Ewen, Shaun; Reid, Papaarangi

    2015-01-01

    Tertiary institutions aim to provide high quality teaching and learning that meet the academic needs for an increasingly diverse student body including indigenous students. "Tatou Tatou" is a qualitative research project utilising Kaupapa "Maori" research methodology and the Critical Incident Technique interview method to…

  1. Fuzzy logic prioritization of failures in a system failure mode, effects and criticality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, John B.; Pelaez, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique, based on fuzzy logic, for prioritizing failures for corrective actions in a Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA). As in a traditional criticality analysis, the assessment is based on the severity, frequency of occurrence, and detectability of an item failure. However, these parameters are here represented as members of a fuzzy set, combined by matching them against rules in a rule base, evaluated with min-max inferencing, and then defuzzified to assess the riskiness of the failure. This approach resolves some of the problems in traditional methods of evaluation and it has several advantages compared to strictly numerical methods: 1) it allows the analyst to evaluate the risk associated with item failure modes directly using the linguistic terms that are employed in making the criticality assessment; 2) ambiguous, qualitative, or imprecise information, as well as quantitative data, can be used in the assessment and they are handled in a consistent manner; and 3) it gives a more flexible structure for combining the severity, occurrence, and detectability parameters. Two fuzzy logic based approaches for assessing criticality are presented. The first is based on the numerical rankings used in a conventional Risk Priority Number (RPN) calculation and uses crisp inputs gathered from the user or extracted from a reliability analysis. The second, which can be used early in the design process when less detailed information is available, allows fuzzy inputs and also illustrates the direct use of the linguistic rankings defined for the RPN calculations

  2. Reuse-centric Requirements Analysis with Task Models, Scenarios, and Critical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Montabert

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a requirements-analysis process that unites task models, scenarios, and critical parameters to exploit and generate reusable knowledge at the requirements phase. Through the deployment of a critical-parameter-based approach to task modeling, the process yields the establishment of an integrative and formalized model issued from scenarios that can be used for requirements characterization. Furthermore, not only can this entity serve as interface to a knowledge repository relying on a critical-parameter-based taxonomy to support reuse but its characterization in terms of critical parameters also allows the model to constitute a broader reuse solution. We discuss our vision for a user-centric and reuse-centric approach to requirements analysis, present previous efforts implicated with this line of work, and state the revisions brought to extend the reuse potential and effectiveness of a previous iteration of a requirements tool implementing such process. Finally, the paper describes the sequence and nature of the activities involved with the conduct of our proposed requirements-analysis technique, concluding by previewing ongoing work in the field that will explore the feasibility for designers to use our approach.

  3. Multi-criterion analysis technique in a process of quality management

    OpenAIRE

    A. Gwiazda

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the critical analysis of some multi-criteria techniques applied in the area of quality management. It is strongly stated that some solutions in this scientific area characterizes the non-methodological approaches.Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology, in presented work, has been based on the theoretical analysis of the quality tools management and on the empirical researches.Findings: The proposals of improvement the main quality to...

  4. Percorsi linguistici e semiotici: Critical Multimodal Analysis of Digital Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    edited by Ilaria Moschini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The language section of LEA - edited by Ilaria Moschini - is dedicated to the Critical Multimodal Analysis of Digital Discourse, an approach that encompasses the linguistic and semiotic detailed investigation of texts within a socio-cultural perspective. It features an interview with Professor Theo van Leeuwen by Ilaria Moschini and four essays: “Retwitting, reposting, repinning; reshaping identities online: Towards a social semiotic multimodal analysis of digital remediation” by Elisabetta Adami; “Multimodal aspects of corporate social responsibility communication” by Carmen Daniela Maier; “Pervasive Technologies and the Paradoxes of Multimodal Digital Communication” by Sandra Petroni and “Can the powerless speak? Linguistic and multimodal corporate media manipulation in digital environments: the case of Malala Yousafzai” by Maria Grazia Sindoni. 

  5. Criticality Analysis of SFP Region I under Dry Air Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yong; Kim, Min Chul

    2016-01-01

    This paper is to provide a result of the criticality evaluation under the condition that new fuel assemblies for initial fuel loading are storing in Region 1 of SFP in the dry air. The objective of this analysis is to ensure the effective neutron multiplication factor(k_e_f_f) of SFP is less than 0.95 under that condition. This analysis ensured the effective neutron multiplication factor(k_e_f_f) of Region 1 of SFP is less than 0.95 under the condition in the air. The keff in Region I of SFP under the condition of the dry air is 0.5865. The increased k_c_a_l_c of the Region 1 after the mislocated fuel assembly accident is 0.0444 at the pool flooded with un-borated water

  6. Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy: A Critical Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Sarah; Gorlick, Carolyne; Forchuk, Cheryl; Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Berman, Helene

    2016-01-01

    This article overviews the second phase of a two-phase study which examined experiences of health and social exclusion among mothers experiencing homelessness in Ontario, Canada. A critical discourse analysis was employed to analyze the policy document, Realizing Our Potential: Ontario's Poverty Reduction Strategy, 2014-2019. In nursing, analysis of policy is an emerging form of scholarship, one that draws attention to the macro levels influencing health and health promotion, such as the social determinants of health, and the policies that impact them. The clear neo-liberal underpinnings, within the strategy, with a focus on productivity and labor market participation leave little room for an understanding of poverty reduction from a human rights perspective. Further, gender-neutrality rendered the poverty experienced by women, and mothers, invisible. Notably, there were a lack of deadlines, target dates, and thorough action and evaluation plans. Such absence troubles whether poverty reduction is truly a priority for the government, and society as a whole.

  7. A study of software safety analysis system for safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H. S.; Shin, H. K.; Chang, Y. W.; Jung, J. C.; Kim, J. H.; Han, H. H.; Son, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The core factors and requirements for the safety-critical software traced and the methodology adopted in each stage of software life cycle are presented. In concept phase, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for the system has been performed. The feasibility evaluation of selected safety parameter was performed and Preliminary Hazards Analysis list was prepared using HAZOP(Hazard and Operability) technique. And the check list for management control has been produced via walk-through technique. Based on the evaluation of the check list, activities to be performed in requirement phase have been determined. In the design phase, hazard analysis has been performed to check the safety capability of the system with regard to safety software algorithm using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). In the test phase, the test items based on FMEA have been checked for fitness guided by an accident scenario. The pressurizer low pressure trip algorithm has been selected to apply FTA method to software safety analysis as a sample. By applying CASE tool, the requirements traceability of safety critical system has been enhanced during all of software life cycle phases

  8. Stratified source-sampling techniques for Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995, at a conference on criticality safety, a special session was devoted to the Monte Carlo ''Eigenvalue of the World'' problem. Argonne presented a paper, at that session, in which the anomalies originally observed in that problem were reproduced in a much simplified model-problem configuration, and removed by a version of stratified source-sampling. In this paper, stratified source-sampling techniques are generalized and applied to three different Eigenvalue of the World configurations which take into account real-world statistical noise sources not included in the model problem, but which differ in the amount of neutronic coupling among the constituents of each configuration. It is concluded that, in Monte Carlo eigenvalue analysis of loosely-coupled arrays, the use of stratified source-sampling reduces the probability of encountering an anomalous result over that if conventional source-sampling methods are used. However, this gain in reliability is substantially less than that observed in the model-problem results

  9. X-ray Constrained Extremely Localized Molecular Orbitals: Theory and Critical Assessment of the New Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Alessandro

    2013-07-09

    Following the X-ray constrained wave function approach proposed by Jayatilaka, we have devised a new technique that allows to extract molecular orbitals strictly localized on small molecular fragments from sets of experimental X-ray structure factors amplitudes. Since the novel strategy enables to obtain electron distributions that have quantum mechanical features and that can be easily interpreted in terms of traditional chemical concepts, the method can be also considered as a new useful tool for the determination and the analysis of charge densities from high-resolution X-ray experiments. In this paper, we describe in detail the theory of the new technique, which, in comparison to our preliminary work, has been improved both treating the effects of isotropic secondary extinctions and introducing a new protocol to halt the fitting procedure against the experimental X-ray scattering data. The performances of the novel strategy have been studied both in function of the basis-sets flexibility and in function of the quality of the considered crystallographic data. The tests performed on four different systems (α-glycine, l-cysteine, (aminomethyl)phosphonic acid and N-(trifluoromethyl)formamide) have shown that the achievement of good statistical agreements with the experimental measures mainly depends on the quality of the crystal structures (i.e., geometry positions and thermal parameters) used in the X-ray constrained calculations. Finally, given the reliable transferability of the obtained Extremely Localized Molecular Orbitals (ELMOs), we envisage to exploit the novel approach to construct new ELMOs databases suited to the development of linear-scaling methods for the refinement of macromolecular crystal structures.

  10. New analytical techniques for cuticle chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    1) The analytical methodology of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) and direct pyrolysis-mass spectrometry (Py-MS) using soft ionization techniques by high electric fields (FL) are briefly described. Recent advances of Py-GC/MS and Py-FIMS for the analyses of complex organic matter such as plant materials, humic substances, dissolved organic matter in water (DOM) and soil organic matter (SOM) in agricultural and forest soils are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of the applied methods. 2) Novel applications of Py-GC/MS and Py-MS in combination with conventional analytical data in an integrated, chemometric approach to investigate the dynamics of plant lipids are reported. This includes multivariate statistical investigations on maturation, senescence, humus genesis, and environmental damages in spruce ecosystems. 3) The focal point is the author's integrated investigations on emission-induced changes of selected conifer plant constituents. Pattern recognition of Py-MS data of desiccated spruce needles provides a method for distinguishing needles damaged in different ways and determining the cause. Spruce needles were collected from both controls and trees treated with sulphur dioxide (acid rain), nitrogen dioxide, and ozone under controlled conditions. Py-MS and chemometric data evaluation are employed to characterize and classify leaves and their epicuticular waxes. Preliminary mass spectrometric evaluations of isolated cuticles of different plants such as spruce, ivy, holly, and philodendron, as well as ivy cuticles treated in vivo with air pollutants such as surfactants and pesticides are given. (orig.)

  11. New Flutter Analysis Technique for Time-Domain Computational Aeroelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi; Lung, Shun-Fat

    2017-01-01

    A new time-domain approach for computing flutter speed is presented. Based on the time-history result of aeroelastic simulation, the unknown unsteady aerodynamics model is estimated using a system identification technique. The full aeroelastic model is generated via coupling the estimated unsteady aerodynamic model with the known linear structure model. The critical dynamic pressure is computed and used in the subsequent simulation until the convergence of the critical dynamic pressure is achieved. The proposed method is applied to a benchmark cantilevered rectangular wing.

  12. Analysis of strain distribution and critical current of superconductors based on a strain-critical current measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fang; Wu Yu; Long Feng

    2010-01-01

    Based on Pacman device which is widely used to investigate the axial strain dependence of the critical current in superconductors, the finite element analysis method is employed to carry out the force analysis of the spring and the superconducting strand, thereby the axial and lateral strain distributions of the superconducting strand are obtained. According to the two extreme assumptions(low inter-filament resistance and high inter-filament resistance), the effects of the strain homogeneity at the cross section of the superconductor on the critical current is analyzed combined with the Nb 3 Sn deviatoric strain-critical current scaling law. (authors)

  13. Development of chemical analysis techniques: pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Chi, K.Y.; Choi, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    For the purpose of determining trace rare earths a spectrofluorimetric method has been studied. Except Ce and Tb, the fluorescence intensities are not enough to allow satisfactory analysis. Complexing agents such as tungstate and hexafluoroacetylacetone should be employed to increase fluorescence intensities. As a preliminary experiment for the separation of individual rare earth element and uranium, the distribution coefficient, % S here, are obtained on the Dowex 50 W against HCl concentration by a batch method. These % S data are utilized to obtain elution curves. The % S data showed a minimum at around 4 M HCl. To understand this previously known phenomenon the adsorption of Cl - on Dowex 50 W is examined as a function of HCl concentration and found to be decreasing while % S of rare earths increasing. It is interpreted that Cl - and rare earth ions are moved into the resin phase separately and that the charge and the charge densities of these ions are responsible for the different % S curves. Dehydration appears to play an important role in the upturn of the % S curves at higher HCl concentrations

  14. Risk analysis of hematopoietic stem cell transplant process: failure mode, effect, and criticality analysis and hazard analysis critical control point methods integration based on guidelines to good manufacturing practice for medicinal product ANNEX 20 (February 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianassi, S; Bisin, S; Bindi, B; Spitaleri, I; Bambi, F

    2010-01-01

    The collection and handling of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must meet high quality requirements. An integrated Quality Risk Management can help to identify and contain potential risks related to HSC production. Risk analysis techniques allow one to "weigh" identified hazards, considering the seriousness of their effects, frequency, and detectability, seeking to prevent the most harmful hazards. The Hazard Analysis Critical Point, recognized as the most appropriate technique to identify risks associated with physical, chemical, and biological hazards for cellular products, consists of classifying finished product specifications and limits of acceptability, identifying all off-specifications, defining activities that can cause them, and finally establishing both a monitoring system for each Critical Control Point and corrective actions for deviations. The severity of possible effects on patients, as well as the occurrence and detectability of critical parameters, are measured on quantitative scales (Risk Priority Number [RPN]). Risk analysis was performed with this technique on manipulation process of HPC performed at our blood center. The data analysis showed that hazards with higher values of RPN with greater impact on the process are loss of dose and tracking; technical skills of operators and manual transcription of data were the most critical parameters. Problems related to operator skills are handled by defining targeted training programs, while other critical parameters can be mitigated with the use of continuous control systems. The blood center management software was completed by a labeling system with forms designed to be in compliance with standards in force and by starting implementation of a cryopreservation management module. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The value of non-invasive techniques for the assessment of critical limb ischaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubbink, D. T.; Tulevski, I. I.; den Hartog, D.; Koelemay, M. J.; Legemate, D. A.; Jacobs, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The European Consensus Document (ECD) defines critical ischaemia (CI) according to clinical (Fontaine) and blood pressure parameters. However, clinical symptoms may be non-specific and CI may exist without severely reduced blood pressures. This study prospectively investigated the

  16. Experimental study and technique for calculation of critical heat fluxes in helium boiling in tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, V.V.; Kvasnyuk, S.V.; Deev, V.I.; Andreev, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    Studied is the effect of regime parameters on critical heat loads in helium boiling in a vertical tube in the range of mass rates of 80 2 xc) and pressures of 100<=p<=200 kPa for the vapor content range corresponding to the heat exchange crisis of the first kind. The method for calculating critical heat fluxes describing experimental data with the error less than +-15% is proposed. The critical heat loads in helium boiling in tubes reduce with the growth of pressure and vapor content in the regime parameter ranges under investigation. Both positive and negative effects of the mass rate on the critical heat flux are observed. The calculation method proposed satisfactorily describes the experimental data

  17. Complications in Endovascular Neurosurgery: Critical Analysis and Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Vijay M; Mazur, Marcus D; Park, Min S; Kilburg, Craig; Moran, Christopher J; Hardman, Rulon L; Couldwell, William T; Taussky, Philipp

    2016-11-01

    Precisely defining complications, which are used to measure overall quality, is necessary for critical review of delivery of care and quality improvement in endovascular neurosurgery, which lacks common definitions for complications. Furthermore, in endovascular interventions, events that may be labeled complications may not always negatively affect outcome. Our objective is to provide precise definitions for quality evaluation within endovascular neurosurgery. Thus, we propose an endovascular-specific classification system of complications based on our own patient series. This single-center review included all patients who had endovascular interventions from September 2013 to August 2015. Complication types were analyzed, and a descriptive analysis was undertaken to calculate the incidence of complications overall and in each category. Two hundred and seventy-five endovascular interventions were performed in 245 patients (65% female; mean age, 55 years). Forty complications occurred in 39 patients (15%), most commonly during treatment of intracranial aneurysms (24/40). Mechanical complications (eg, device deployment, catheter, or closure device failure) occurred in 8/40, technical complications (eg, failure to deploy flow diverter, unintended embolization, air emboli, retroperitoneal hemorrhage, dissection) in 11/40, judgment errors (eg, patient or equipment selection) in 9/40, and critical events (eg, groin hematoma, hemorrhagic or thromboembolic complications) in 12/40 patients. Only 12/40 complications (30%) resulted in new neurologic deficits, vessel injury requiring surgery, or blood transfusion. We propose an endovascular-specific classification system of complications with 4 categories: mechanical, technical, judgment errors, and critical events. This system provides a framework for future studies and quality control in endovascular neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Systematic approaches to data analysis from the Critical Decision Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to introduce how to analyse the qualitative data from the Critical Decision Method. At first, characterizing the method provides the meaningful introduction into the issue. This method used in naturalistic decision making research is one of the cognitive task analysis methods, it is based on the retrospective semistructured interview about critical incident from the work and it may be applied in various domains such as emergency services, military, transport, sport or industry. Researchers can make two types of methodological adaptation. Within-method adaptations modify the way of conducting the interviews and cross-method adaptations combine this method with other related methods. There are many decsriptions of conducting the interview, but the descriptions how the data should be analysed are rare. Some researchers use conventional approaches like content analysis, grounded theory or individual procedures with reference to the objectives of research project. Wong (2004 describes two approaches to data analysis proposed for this method of data collection, which are described and reviewed in the details. They enable systematic work with a large amount of data. The structured approach organizes the data according to an a priori analysis framework and it is suitable for clearly defined object of research. Each incident is studied separately. At first, the decision chart showing the main decision points and then the incident summary are made. These decision points are used to identify the relevant statements from the transcript, which are analysed in terms of the Recognition-Primed Decision Model. Finally, the results from all the analysed incidents are integrated. The limitation of the structured approach is it may not reveal some interesting concepts. The emergent themes approach helps to identify these concepts while maintaining a systematic framework for analysis and it is used for exploratory research design. It

  19. ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY: DEVELOPING CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS THROUGH EXPRESSIVE DRAWING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Marfu’i, Lucky Nindi Riandika

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent is a formal operational stage of cognitivedevelopment. The development of an educational program prioritizes four skillsto support success in meeting the challenges of the 21st century. One of thepriority skills of the four skills is critical thinking skill. Criticalthinking skill is a skill which shows the performance of individual cognitionin interpreting, analyzing, and doing self-regulation regarding problems andinformation received. Critical thinking skill is closely related t...

  20. A formal safety analysis for PLC software-based safety critical system using Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Jung Soo

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a formal safety analysis technique which is demonstrated by performing empirical formal safety analysis with the case study of beamline hutch door Interlock system that is developed by using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) systems at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. In order to perform formal safety analysis, we have built the Z formal specifications representation from user requirement written in ambiguous natural language and target PLC ladder logic, respectively. We have also studied the effective method to express typical PLC timer component by using specific Z formal notation which is supported by temporal history. We present a formal proof technique specifying and verifying that the hazardous states are not introduced into ladder logic in the PLC-based safety critical system. And also, we have found that some errors or mismatches in user requirement and final implemented PLC ladder logic while analyzing the process of the consistency and completeness of Z translated formal specifications. In the case of relatively small systems like Beamline hutch door interlock system, a formal safety analysis including explicit proof is highly recommended so that the safety of PLC-based critical system may be enhanced and guaranteed. It also provides a helpful benefits enough to comprehend user requirement expressed by ambiguous natural language

  1. SACS2: Dynamic and Formal Safety Analysis Method for Complex Safety Critical System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Kwang Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) is one of the most widely used safety analysis technique in the development of safety critical systems. However, over the years, several drawbacks of the conventional FTA have become apparent. One major drawback is that conventional FTA uses only static gates and hence can not capture dynamic behaviors of the complex system precisely. Although several attempts such as dynamic fault tree (DFT), PANDORA, formal fault tree (FFT) and so on, have been made to overcome this problem, they can not still do absolute or actual time modeling because they adapt relative time concept and can capture only sequential behaviors of the system. Second drawback of conventional FTA is its lack of rigorous semantics. Because it is informal in nature, safety analysis results heavily depend on an analyst's ability and are error-prone. Finally reasoning process which is to check whether basic events really cause top events is done manually and hence very labor-intensive and timeconsuming for the complex systems. In this paper, we propose a new safety analysis method for complex safety critical system in qualitative manner. We introduce several temporal gates based on timed computational tree logic (TCTL) which can represent quantitative notion of time. Then, we translate the information of the fault trees into UPPAAL query language and the reasoning process is automatically done by UPPAAL which is the model checker for time critical system

  2. Contributions to fuzzy polynomial techniques for stability analysis and control

    OpenAIRE

    Pitarch Pérez, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis employs fuzzy-polynomial control techniques in order to improve the stability analysis and control of nonlinear systems. Initially, it reviews the more extended techniques in the field of Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy systems, such as the more relevant results about polynomial and fuzzy polynomial systems. The basic framework uses fuzzy polynomial models by Taylor series and sum-of-squares techniques (semidefinite programming) in order to obtain stability guarantees...

  3. Researching Critical Literacy: A Critical Study of Analysis of Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sluys, Katie; Lewison, Mitzi; Flint, Amy Seely

    2006-01-01

    Studying critical literacies includes examining how research practices influence what is learned about classroom activity and the world. This article highlights the processes and practices used in studying 1 classroom conversation. The data, drawn from an elementary school classroom of a Critical Literacy in Action teacher-researcher group member,…

  4. A Critical Analysis of Criticisms of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L., Jr.; Wineberg, Howard

    2005-01-01

    This article critically examines the validity of common criticisms of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act, primarily through reviewing published research and analyses. After summarizing the law and recent developments, 11 areas of concerns are examined: (a) the amount of data collected, (b) the availability of the data, (c) the reporting process,…

  5. Critical analysis of the pedagogical practice of the teachers trainnees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Ruiz Quiroga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of a research project supported by the Research Center of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional, whose purpose was the redefinition of the training process of the students, in the frame of the pedagogical practice, in one of the research lines for the Degree in Elementary Education with emphasis on Social Sciences. On a theoretical level, analysis and discussion were developed from critical pedagogy, particularly the concepts of pedagogical practice, training and systematization of experiences. Methodologically the project was developed from the Educational Action Research. It was found that students and teachers conceive pedagogical practice in a critical way, related to their reflective and transformative personalities, something that breaks, in some way, with the traditional outlook that defines it as the confirmation of the theory in the field. This way of conceiving is the result of both the training process and the life history of each other, as well as the staging and the discussion of the significance of the practice within the social sciences framework.

  6. Disposal criticality analysis methodology's principal isotope burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doering, T.W.; Thomas, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the burnup credit aspects of the United States Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project's methodology for performing criticality analyses for commercial light-water-reactor fuel. The disposal burnup credit methodology uses a 'principal isotope' model, which takes credit for the reduced reactivity associated with the build-up of the primary principal actinides and fission products in irradiated fuel. Burnup credit is important to the disposal criticality analysis methodology and to the design of commercial fuel waste packages. The burnup credit methodology developed for disposal of irradiated commercial nuclear fuel can also be applied to storage and transportation of irradiated commercial nuclear fuel. For all applications a series of loading curves are developed using a best estimate methodology and depending on the application, an additional administrative safety margin may be applied. The burnup credit methodology better represents the 'true' reactivity of the irradiated fuel configuration, and hence the real safety margin, than do evaluations using the 'fresh fuel' assumption. (author)

  7. Stress Analysis for the Critical Metal Structure of Bridge Crane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhangwei; Wang, Min; Xia, Junfang; Wang, Songhua; Guo, Xiaolian

    2018-01-01

    Based on the type of connection between the main girder and end beam of electrical single beam crane, the finite element analysis model of a full portal crane was established. The stress distribution of the critical structure under different loading conditions was analyzed. The results shown that the maximum Mises stress and deflection of the main girder were within the allowable range. And the connecting location between end beam web and main girder had higher stress than other region, especially at the lower edge and upper edge of the end beam web and the area near the bolt hole of upper wing panel. Therefore it is important to inspect the connection status, the stress condition and the crack situation nearing connection location during the regular inspection process to ensure the safety of the connection between the main girder and end beam.

  8. Economic analysis of electric heating based on critical electricity price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng; Sun, Zhijie; Zhou, Xinnan; Fu, Chengran; Yang, Jie

    2018-06-01

    The State Grid Corporation of China proposes an alternative energy strategy, which will make electric heating an important task in the field of residential electricity consumption. This article takes this as the background, has made the detailed introduction to the inhabitant electric heating technology, and take the Zhangjiakou electric panels heating technology as an example, from the expense angle, has carried on the analysis to the electric panels heating economy. In the field of residential heating, electric panels operating costs less than gas boilers. After customers implying energy-saving behavior, electric panels operating cost is even lower than coal-fired boilers. The critical price is higher than the execution price, which indicates that the economic performance of the electric panels is significantly higher than that of the coal boiler.

  9. Theory of sampling: four critical success factors before analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Claas; Esbensen, Kim H

    2015-01-01

    Food and feed materials characterization, risk assessment, and safety evaluations can only be ensured if QC measures are based on valid analytical data, stemming from representative samples. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) is the only comprehensive theoretical framework that fully defines all requirements to ensure sampling correctness and representativity, and to provide the guiding principles for sampling in practice. TOS also defines the concept of material heterogeneity and its impact on the sampling process, including the effects from all potential sampling errors. TOS's primary task is to eliminate bias-generating errors and to minimize sampling variability. Quantitative measures are provided to characterize material heterogeneity, on which an optimal sampling strategy should be based. Four critical success factors preceding analysis to ensure a representative sampling process are presented here.

  10. Stable isotope analysis in primatology: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Paul A; Loudon, James E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Stable isotope analysis has become an important tool in ecology over the last 25 years. A wealth of ecological information is stored in animal tissues in the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of several elements, particularly carbon and nitrogen, because these isotopes navigate through ecological processes in predictable ways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes have been measured in most primate taxonomic groups and have yielded information about dietary content, dietary variability, and habitat use. Stable isotopes have recently proven useful for addressing more fine-grained questions about niche dynamics and anthropogenic effects on feeding ecology. Here, we discuss stable carbon and nitrogen isotope systematics and critically review the published stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data for modern primates with a focus on the problems and prospects for future stable isotope applications in primatology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Criticality safety analysis of the NPP Krsko storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kromar, M.; Kurincic, B.

    2002-01-01

    NPP Krsko is going to increase the capacity of the spent fuel storage pool by replacement of the existing racks with high-density racks. This will be the second reracking campaign since 1983 when storage was increased from 180 to 828 storage locations. The pool capacity will increase from 828 to 1694 with partial reracking by the spring 2003. The installed capacity will be sufficient for the current design plant lifetime. Complete reracking of the spent fuel pool will additionally increase capacity to 2321 storage locations. The design, rack manufacturing and installation has been awarded to the Framatome ANP GmbH. Burnup credit methodology, which was approved by the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration in previous licensing of existing racks, will be again implemented in the licensing process with the recent methodology improvements. Specific steps of the criticality safety analysis and representative results are presented in the paper.(author)

  12. A protocol for the development of a critical thinking assessment tool for nurses using a Delphi technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Elisabeth; Duffield, Christine; Jacob, Darren

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an assessment tool to measure the critical thinking ability of nurses. As an increasing number of complex patients are admitted to hospitals, the importance of nurses recognizing changes in health status and picking up on deterioration is more important. To detect early signs of complication requires critical thinking skills. Registered Nurses are expected to commence their clinical careers with the necessary critical thinking skills to ensure safe nursing practice. Currently, there is no published tool to assess critical thinking skills which is context specific to Australian nurses. A modified Delphi study will be used for the project. This study will develop a series of unfolding case scenarios using national health data with multiple-choice questions to assess critical thinking. Face validity of the scenarios will be determined by an expert reference group of clinical and academic nurses. A Delphi study will determine the answers to scenario questions. Panel members will be expert clinicians and educators from two states in Australia. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire will assess validity and reliability of the tool. Funding for the study and Research Ethics Committee approval were obtained in March and November 2016, respectively. Patient outcomes and safety are directly linked to nurses' critical thinking skills. This study will develop an assessment tool to provide a standardized method of measuring nurses' critical thinking skills across Australia. This will provide healthcare providers with greater confidence in the critical thinking level of graduate Registered Nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. External rhinoplasty: a critical analysis of 500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-06-01

    The study presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a series of 500 consecutive rhinoplasties of which 380 (76 per cent) were primary and 120 (24 per cent) were secondary cases. All cases were operated upon using the external rhinoplasty technique; simultaneous septal surgery was performed in 350 (70 per cent) of the cases. Deformities of the upper two-thirds of the nose that occurred significantly more in the secondary cases included; dorsal saddling, dorsal irregularities, valve collapse, open roof and pollybeak deformities. In the lower third of the nose; secondary cases showed significantly higher incidences of depressed tip, tip over-rotation, tip asymmetry, retracted columella, and alar notching. Suturing techniques were used significantly more in primary cases, while in secondary cases grafting techniques were used significantly more. The complications encountered intra-operatively included; septal flap tears (2.8 per cent) and alar cartilage injury (1.8 per cent), while post-operative complications included; nasal trauma (one per cent), epistaxis (two per cent), infection (2.4 per cent), prolonged oedema (17 per cent), and nasal obstruction (0.8 per cent). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 95.6 per cent and the transcolumellar scar was found to be unacceptable in only 0.8 per cent of the patients.

  14. An operator expansion technique for path integral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetkov, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    A new method of path integral analysis in the framework of a power series technique is presented. The method is based on the operator expansion of an exponential. A regular procedure to calculate the correction terms is found. (orig.)

  15. Search for the top quark using multivariate analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, P.C.

    1994-08-01

    The D0 collaboration is developing top search strategies using multivariate analysis techniques. We report here on applications of the H-matrix method to the eμ channel and neural networks to the e+jets channel

  16. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can (open-quotes F-canclose quotes); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can (open-quotes Z-canclose quotes); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle (open-quotes CO-4close quotes). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO 2 F 2 +H 2 O and UF 4 +oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U 3 O 8 , and H 2 O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k eff + 2σ < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant

  17. Elemental analysis by IBA and NAA — A critical comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, J. I. W.

    1988-12-01

    In this review neutron activation analysis (NAA) and ion beam analysis (IBA) have been compared in the context of the entire field of analytical science using the discipline of scientometrics, as developed by Braun and Lyon. This perspective on the relative achievements of the two methods is modified by considering and comparing their particular attributes and characteristics, particularly in relation to their differing degree of maturity. This assessment shows that NAA, as the more mature method, is the most widely applied nuclear technique, but the special capabilities of IBA give it the ability to provide information about surface composition and elemental distribution that is unique, while it is still relatively immature and it is not yet possible to define its ultimate role with any confidence.

  18. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virotta, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    In this work we investigate the critical slowing down of lattice QCD simulations. We perform a preliminary study in the quenched approximation where we find that our estimate of the exponential auto-correlation time scales as τ exp (a)∝a -5 , where a is the lattice spacing. In unquenched simulations with O(a) improved Wilson fermions we do not obtain a scaling law but find results compatible with the behavior that we find in the pure gauge theory. The discussion is supported by a large set of ensembles both in pure gauge and in the theory with two degenerate sea quarks. We have moreover investigated the effect of slow algorithmic modes in the error analysis of the expectation value of typical lattice QCD observables (hadronic matrix elements and masses). In the context of simulations affected by slow modes we propose and test a method to obtain reliable estimates of statistical errors. The method is supposed to help in the typical algorithmic setup of lattice QCD, namely when the total statistics collected is of O(10)τ exp . This is the typical case when simulating close to the continuum limit where the computational costs for producing two independent data points can be extremely large. We finally discuss the scale setting in N f =2 simulations using the Kaon decay constant f K as physical input. The method is explained together with a thorough discussion of the error analysis employed. A description of the publicly available code used for the error analysis is included.

  19. Automatic Satellite Telemetry Analysis for SSA using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottler, R.; Mao, J.

    In April 2016, General Hyten, commander of Air Force Space Command, announced the Space Enterprise Vision (SEV) (http://www.af.mil/News/Article-Display/Article/719941/hyten-announces-space-enterprise-vision/). The SEV addresses increasing threats to space-related systems. The vision includes an integrated approach across all mission areas (communications, positioning, navigation and timing, missile warning, and weather data) and emphasizes improved access to data across the entire enterprise and the ability to protect space-related assets and capabilities. "The future space enterprise will maintain our nation's ability to deliver critical space effects throughout all phases of conflict," Hyten said. Satellite telemetry is going to become available to a new audience. While that telemetry information should be valuable for achieving Space Situational Awareness (SSA), these new satellite telemetry data consumers will not know how to utilize it. We were tasked with applying AI techniques to build an infrastructure to process satellite telemetry into higher abstraction level symbolic space situational awareness and to initially populate that infrastructure with useful data analysis methods. We are working with two organizations, Montana State University (MSU) and the Air Force Academy, both of whom control satellites and therefore currently analyze satellite telemetry to assess the health and circumstances of their satellites. The design which has resulted from our knowledge elicitation and cognitive task analysis is a hybrid approach which combines symbolic processing techniques of Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) and Behavior Transition Networks (BTNs) with current Machine Learning approaches. BTNs are used to represent the process and associated formulas to check telemetry values against anticipated problems and issues. CBR is used to represent and retrieve BTNs that represent an investigative process that should be applied to the telemetry in certain circumstances

  20. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.8 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) HACCP plan. Each...

  1. Neutron activation analysis: an emerging technique for conservation/preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayre, E.V.

    1976-01-01

    The diverse applications of neutron activation in analysis, preservation, and documentation of art works and artifacts are described with illustrations for each application. The uses of this technique to solve problems of attribution and authentication, to reveal the inner structure and composition of art objects, and, in some instances to recreate details of the objects are described. A brief discussion of the theory and techniques of neutron activation analysis is also included

  2. Development of evaluation method for software safety analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tu, W.; Shih, C.; Chen, C.; Yang, W.; Yih, S.; Kuo, C.; Chen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Following the massive adoption of digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system for nuclear power plant (NPP), various Software Safety Analysis (SSA) techniques are used to evaluate the NPP safety for adopting appropriate digital I and C system, and then to reduce risk to acceptable level. However, each technique has its specific advantage and disadvantage. If the two or more techniques can be complementarily incorporated, the SSA combination would be more acceptable. As a result, if proper evaluation criteria are available, the analyst can then choose appropriate technique combination to perform analysis on the basis of resources. This research evaluated the applicable software safety analysis techniques nowadays, such as, Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), Markov chain modeling, Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM), and simulation-based model analysis; and then determined indexes in view of their characteristics, which include dynamic capability, completeness, achievability, detail, signal/ noise ratio, complexity, and implementation cost. These indexes may help the decision makers and the software safety analysts to choose the best SSA combination arrange their own software safety plan. By this proposed method, the analysts can evaluate various SSA combinations for specific purpose. According to the case study results, the traditional PHA + FMEA + FTA (with failure rate) + Markov chain modeling (without transfer rate) combination is not competitive due to the dilemma for obtaining acceptable software failure rates. However, the systematic architecture of FTA and Markov chain modeling is still valuable for realizing the software fault structure. The system centric techniques, such as DFM and Simulation-based model analysis, show the advantage on dynamic capability, achievability, detail, signal/noise ratio. However, their disadvantage are the completeness complexity

  3. Research on digital multi-channel pulse height analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wuyun; Wei Yixiang; Ai Xianyun; Ao Qi

    2005-01-01

    Multi-channel pulse height analysis techniques are developing in the direction of digitalization. Based on digital signal processing techniques, digital multi-channel analyzers are characterized by powerful pulse processing ability, high throughput, improved stability and flexibility. This paper analyzes key techniques of digital nuclear pulse processing. With MATLAB software, main algorithms are simulated, such as trapezoidal shaping, digital baseline estimation, digital pole-zero/zero-pole compensation, poles and zeros identification. The preliminary general scheme of digital MCA is discussed, as well as some other important techniques about its engineering design. All these lay the foundation of developing homemade digital nuclear spectrometers. (authors)

  4. Analysis of the impact of correlated benchmark experiments on the validation of codes for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, M.; Stuke, M.; Behler, M.

    2013-01-01

    The validation of a code for criticality safety analysis requires the recalculation of benchmark experiments. The selected benchmark experiments are chosen such that they have properties similar to the application case that has to be assessed. A common source of benchmark experiments is the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments' (ICSBEP Handbook) compiled by the 'International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project' (ICSBEP). In order to take full advantage of the information provided by the individual benchmark descriptions for the application case, the recommended procedure is to perform an uncertainty analysis. The latter is based on the uncertainties of experimental results included in most of the benchmark descriptions. They can be performed by means of the Monte Carlo sampling technique. The consideration of uncertainties is also being introduced in the supplementary sheet of DIN 25478 'Application of computer codes in the assessment of criticality safety'. However, for a correct treatment of uncertainties taking into account the individual uncertainties of the benchmark experiments is insufficient. In addition, correlations between benchmark experiments have to be handled correctly. For example, these correlations can arise due to different cases of a benchmark experiment sharing the same components like fuel pins or fissile solutions. Thus, manufacturing tolerances of these components (e.g. diameter of the fuel pellets) have to be considered in a consistent manner in all cases of the benchmark experiment. At the 2012 meeting of the Expert Group on 'Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment' (UACSA) of the OECD/NEA a benchmark proposal was outlined that aimed for the determination of the impact on benchmark correlations on the estimation of the computational bias of the neutron multiplication factor (k eff ). The analysis presented here is based on this proposal. (orig.)

  5. Frontiers and critical expoents in percolation and Ising and Potts ferromagnets: renormalization group and others techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, A.C.N. de.

    1982-01-01

    By using real space renormalization group methods, bond percolation on d-dimensional hypercubic (d = 2, 3, 4), first - and second - neighbour isotropic square, anisotropic square and 'inhomogeneous' 4-8 lattices is studied. Through some extrapolation methods, critical points and/or frontiers are obtained (as well as the critical exponent ν sub(p) in the isotropic cases) for these lattices that, or agree well with other available results, or are new as far as it is know (first - and second - neighbour isotropic square and 'inhomogeneous' 4-8 lattices). A conjecture concerning approximate (eventually exact) critical points and, in certain situations, critical frontiers of q-state Potts ferromagnets on d-dimensional lattices (d > 1) is formulated. This conjecture is verified within good accuracy for all the lattices whose critical points are known, and it allows the prediction of a great number of new results, some of them it is believed to be exact. Within a real space renomalization group framework, accurate approximations for the critical frontiers associated with the quenched bond-diluted first-neighbour spin-1/2 Ising ferromagnet on triangular and honeycomb lattices are calculated. The best numerical proposals lead, in both pure bond percolation (p = p sub(c)) and pure Ising (p = 1) limits, to the exact critical points and (dt 0 /dp) sub(p = p sub(c)) (where t 0 identical to tanh J/K sub(B) T), and to a 0.15% (0.96%) error in (dt 0 /dp) sub(p = 1) for the triangular (honeycomb) lattice; for p sub(c) 0 (for fixed p) of 0.27% (0.14%) is estimated for the triangular (honeycomb) lattice. It is exhibited, for many star-triangle graph pairs with any number of terminals and different sizes, that the exact q = 1, 2, 3, 4 critical points of Potts ferromagnets can aZZ of them, be obtained from any one of such graph pairs. (Author) [pt

  6. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical

  7. Development of environmental sample analysis techniques for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magara, Masaaki; Hanzawa, Yukiko; Esaka, Fumitaka

    1999-01-01

    JAERI has been developing environmental sample analysis techniques for safeguards and preparing a clean chemistry laboratory with clean rooms. Methods to be developed are a bulk analysis and a particle analysis. In the bulk analysis, Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer or Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer are used to measure nuclear materials after chemical treatment of sample. In the particle analysis, Electron Probe Micro Analyzer and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer are used for elemental analysis and isotopic analysis, respectively. The design of the clean chemistry laboratory has been carried out and construction will be completed by the end of March, 2001. (author)

  8. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 123.6 Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) Hazard... fish or fishery product being processed in the absence of those controls. (b) The HACCP plan. Every...

  9. Key-space analysis of double random phase encryption technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, David S.; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Naughton, Thomas J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2007-09-01

    We perform a numerical analysis on the double random phase encryption/decryption technique. The key-space of an encryption technique is the set of possible keys that can be used to encode data using that technique. In the case of a strong encryption scheme, many keys must be tried in any brute-force attack on that technique. Traditionally, designers of optical image encryption systems demonstrate only how a small number of arbitrary keys cannot decrypt a chosen encrypted image in their system. However, this type of demonstration does not discuss the properties of the key-space nor refute the feasibility of an efficient brute-force attack. To clarify these issues we present a key-space analysis of the technique. For a range of problem instances we plot the distribution of decryption errors in the key-space indicating the lack of feasibility of a simple brute-force attack.

  10. Nuclear techniques for bulk and surface analysis of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Agostino, M.D.; Kamykowski, E.A.; Kuehne, F.J.; Padawer, G.M.; Schneid, E.J.; Schulte, R.L.; Stauber, M.C.; Swanson, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented summarizing several nondestructive bulk and surface analysis nuclear techniques developed in the Grumman Research Laboratories. Bulk analysis techniques include 14-MeV-neutron activation analysis and accelerator-based neutron radiography. The surface analysis techniques include resonant and non-resonant nuclear microprobes for the depth profile analysis of light elements (H, He, Li, Be, C, N, O and F) in the surface of materials. Emphasis is placed on the description and discussion of the unique nuclear microprobe analytical capacibilities of immediate importance to a number of current problems facing materials specialists. The resolution and contrast of neutron radiography was illustrated with an operating heat pipe system. The figure shows that the neutron radiograph has a resolution of better than 0.04 cm with sufficient contrast to indicate Freon 21 on the inner capillaries of the heat pipe and pooling of the liquid at the bottom. (T.G.)

  11. Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.

    2011-12-01

    To ensure that appropriate near real-time (NRT) and historical Earth observation data are available to benefit society and meet end-user needs, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) sponsored a multi-disciplinary study to identify a set of critical and common Earth observations associated with 9 Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate, Disasters, Ecosystems, Energy, Health, Water, and Weather. GEO is an intergovernmental organization working to improve the availability, access, and use of Earth observations to benefit society through a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The study, overseen by the GEO User Interface Committee, focused on the "demand" side of Earth observation needs: which users need what types of data, and when? The methodology for the study was a meta-analysis of over 1,700 publicly available documents addressing Earth observation user priorities, under the guidance of expert advisors from around the world. The result was a ranking of 146 Earth observation parameters that are critical and common to multiple SBAs, based on an ensemble of 4 statistically robust methods. Within the results, key details emerged on NRT observations needed to serve a broad community of users. The NRT observation priorities include meteorological parameters, vegetation indices, land cover and soil property observations, water body and snow cover properties, and atmospheric composition. The results of the study and examples of NRT applications will be presented. The applications are as diverse as the list of priority parameters. For example, NRT meteorological and soil moisture information can support monitoring and forecasting for more than 25 infectious diseases, including epidemic diseases, such as malaria, and diseases of major concern in the U.S., such as Lyme disease. Quickly evolving events that impact forests, such as fires and insect outbreaks, can be monitored and forecasted with a combination of vegetation indices, fuel

  12. Critical discourse analysis of social justice in nursing's foundational documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderama-Wallace, Claire P

    2017-07-01

    Social inequities threaten the health of the global population. A superficial acknowledgement of social justice by nursing's foundational documents may limit the degree to which nurses view injustice as relevant to nursing practice and education. The purpose was to examine conceptualizations of social justice and connections to broader contexts in the most recent editions. Critical discourse analysis examines and uncovers dynamics related to power, language, and inequality within the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics, Scope and Standards of Practice, and Social Policy Statement. This analysis found ongoing inconsistencies in conceptualizations of social justice. Although the Code of Ethics integrates concepts related to social justice far more than the other two, tension between professionalism and social change emerges. The discourse of professionalism renders interrelated cultural, social, economic, historical, and political contexts nearly invisible. Greater consistency would provide a clearer path for nurses to mobilize and engage in the courageous work necessary to address social injustice. These findings also call for an examination of how nurses can critique and use the power and privilege of professionalism to amplify the connection between social institutions and health equity in nursing education, practice, and policy development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Complexity and Vulnerability Analysis of Critical Infrastructures: A Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability analysis of network models has been widely adopted to explore the potential impacts of random disturbances, deliberate attacks, and natural disasters. However, almost all these models are based on a fixed topological structure, in which the physical properties of infrastructure components and their interrelationships are not well captured. In this paper, a new research framework is put forward to quantitatively explore and assess the complexity and vulnerability of critical infrastructure systems. Then, a case study is presented to prove the feasibility and validity of the proposed framework. After constructing metro physical network (MPN, Pajek is employed to analyze its corresponding topological properties, including degree, betweenness, average path length, network diameter, and clustering coefficient. With a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of MPN, it would be beneficial for metro system to restrain original near-miss or accidents and support decision-making in emergency situations. Moreover, through the analysis of two simulation protocols for system component failure, it is found that the MPN turned to be vulnerable under the condition that the high-degree nodes or high-betweenness edges are attacked. These findings will be conductive to offer recommendations and proposals for robust design, risk-based decision-making, and prioritization of risk reduction investment.

  14. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  15. Meta-analysis in a nutshell: Techniques and general findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the technique and main findings of meta-analysis to the reader, who is unfamiliar with the field and has the usual objections. A meta-analysis is a quantitative survey of a literature reporting estimates of the same parameter. The funnel showing...

  16. 48 CFR 15.404-1 - Proposal analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposal analysis techniques. 15.404-1 Section 15.404-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... assistance of other experts to ensure that an appropriate analysis is performed. (6) Recommendations or...

  17. NMR and modelling techniques in structural and conformation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, R J [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The use of Lanthanide Induced Shifts (L.I.S.) and modelling techniques in conformational analysis is presented. The use of Co{sup III} porphyrins as shift reagents is discussed, with examples of their use in the conformational analysis of some heterocyclic amines. (author) 13 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Application of nuclear analysis techniques in ancient chinese porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Xu Qing; Feng Xiangqian; Lei Yong; Cheng Lin; Wang Yanqing

    2005-01-01

    Ancient ceramic was fired with porcelain clay. It contains various provenance information and age characteristic. It is the scientific foundation of studying Chinese porcelain to analyze and research the ancient ceramic with modern analysis methods. According to the property of nuclear analysis technique, its function and application are discussed. (authors)

  19. SWOT ANALYSIS-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO STREAMLINE PUBLIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica IVORSCHI

    2012-01-01

    SWOT analysis is the most important management techniques for understanding the strategic position of an organization. Objective SWOT analysis is to recommend strategies to ensure the best alignment between internal and external environment, and choosing the right strategy can be benefi cial organization in order to adapt their strengths to opportunities, minimize risks and eliminate weaknesses.

  20. SWOT ANALYSIS-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO STREAMLINE PUBLIC BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica IVORSCHI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SWOT analysis is the most important management techniques for understanding the strategic position of an organization.Objective SWOT analysis is to recommend strategies to ensure the best alignment between internal and external environment, and choosing the right strategy can be beneficial organization in order to adapt their strengths to opportunities, minimize risks and eliminate weaknesses.

  1. Critical slowing down and error analysis in lattice QCD simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virotta, Francesco

    2012-02-21

    In this work we investigate the critical slowing down of lattice QCD simulations. We perform a preliminary study in the quenched approximation where we find that our estimate of the exponential auto-correlation time scales as {tau}{sub exp}(a){proportional_to}a{sup -5}, where a is the lattice spacing. In unquenched simulations with O(a) improved Wilson fermions we do not obtain a scaling law but find results compatible with the behavior that we find in the pure gauge theory. The discussion is supported by a large set of ensembles both in pure gauge and in the theory with two degenerate sea quarks. We have moreover investigated the effect of slow algorithmic modes in the error analysis of the expectation value of typical lattice QCD observables (hadronic matrix elements and masses). In the context of simulations affected by slow modes we propose and test a method to obtain reliable estimates of statistical errors. The method is supposed to help in the typical algorithmic setup of lattice QCD, namely when the total statistics collected is of O(10){tau}{sub exp}. This is the typical case when simulating close to the continuum limit where the computational costs for producing two independent data points can be extremely large. We finally discuss the scale setting in N{sub f}=2 simulations using the Kaon decay constant f{sub K} as physical input. The method is explained together with a thorough discussion of the error analysis employed. A description of the publicly available code used for the error analysis is included.

  2. Examining Cybersecurity of Cyberphysical Systems for Critical Infrastructures Through Work Domain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lau, Nathan; Gerdes, Ryan M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply work domain analysis for cybersecurity assessment and design of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Adoption of information and communication technology in cyberphysical systems (CPSs) for critical infrastructures enables automated and distributed control but introduces cybersecurity risk. Many CPSs employ SCADA industrial control systems that have become the target of cyberattacks, which inflict physical damage without use of force. Given that absolute security is not feasible for complex systems, cyberintrusions that introduce unanticipated events will occur; a proper response will in turn require human adaptive ability. Therefore, analysis techniques that can support security assessment and human factors engineering are invaluable for defending CPSs. We conducted work domain analysis using the abstraction hierarchy (AH) to model a generic SCADA implementation to identify the functional structures and means-ends relations. We then adopted a case study approach examining the Stuxnet cyberattack by developing and integrating AHs for the uranium enrichment process, SCADA implementation, and malware to investigate the interactions between the three aspects of cybersecurity in CPSs. The AHs for modeling a generic SCADA implementation and studying the Stuxnet cyberattack are useful for mapping attack vectors, identifying deficiencies in security processes and features, and evaluating proposed security solutions with respect to system objectives. Work domain analysis is an effective analytical method for studying cybersecurity of CPSs for critical infrastructures in a psychologically relevant manner. Work domain analysis should be applied to assess cybersecurity risk and inform engineering and user interface design.

  3. Sensitivity analysis of critical experiment with direct perturbation compared to TSUNAMI-3D sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, A. D.; Busch, R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain sensitivities from direct uncertainty analysis calculation and correlate those calculated values with the sensitivities produced from TSUNAMI-3D (Tools for Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Methodology Implementation in Three Dimensions). A full sensitivity analysis is performed on a critical experiment to determine the overall uncertainty of the experiment. Small perturbation calculations are performed for all known uncertainties to obtain the total uncertainty of the experiment. The results from a critical experiment are only known as well as the geometric and material properties. The goal of this relationship is to simplify the uncertainty quantification process in assessing a critical experiment, while still considering all of the important parameters. (authors)

  4. Kinematics analysis technique fouettes 720° classic ballet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Athletics practice proved that the more complex the item, the more difficult technique of the exercises. Fouettes at 720° one of the most difficult types of the fouettes. Its implementation is based on high technology during rotation of the performer. To perform this element not only requires good physical condition of the dancer, but also requires possession correct technique dancer. On the basis corresponding kinematic theory in this study, qualitative analysis and quantitative assessment of fouettes at 720 by the best Chinese dancers. For analysis, was taken the method of stereoscopic images and the theoretical analysis.

  5. Current Status of Mycotoxin Analysis: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Gordon S

    2016-07-01

    It is over 50 years since the discovery of aflatoxins focused the attention of food safety specialists on fungal toxins in the feed and food supply. Since then, analysis of this important group of natural contaminants has advanced in parallel with general developments in analytical science, and current MS methods are capable of simultaneously analyzing hundreds of compounds, including mycotoxins, pesticides, and drugs. This profusion of data may advance our understanding of human exposure, yet constitutes an interpretive challenge to toxicologists and food safety regulators. Despite these advances in analytical science, the basic problem of the extreme heterogeneity of mycotoxin contamination, although now well understood, cannot be circumvented. The real health challenges posed by mycotoxin exposure occur in the developing world, especially among small-scale and subsistence farmers. Addressing these problems requires innovative approaches in which analytical science must also play a role in providing suitable out-of-laboratory analytical techniques.

  6. An investigation of emotion experiences at work : a critical incident technique approach / Natalie Booth

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Emotions at work have been considered as an important facet of employees’ work life. However, research regarding the investigation of the emotion experiences at work per se has been lacking. Research Purpose: The general objective of this study is to critically investigate what emotion events are experienced and how these events are appraised for them to result in specific emotions. Motivation for the study: Currently a lack of research regarding emotion experiences as a pr...

  7. Simulation of reactor noise analysis measurement for light-water critical assembly TCA using MCNP-DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2001-01-01

    Reactor noise analysis methods using Monte Carlo technique have been proposed and developed in the field of nuclear criticality safety. The Monte Carlo simulation for noise analysis can be made by simulating physical phenomena in the course of neutron transport in a nuclear fuel as practically as possible. MCNP-DSP was developed by T. Valentine of ORNL for this purpose and it is a modified version of MCNP-4A. The authors applied this code to frequency analysis measurements performed in light-water critical assembly TCA. Prompt neutron generation times for critical and subcritical cores were measured by doing the frequency analysis of detector signals. The Monte Carlo simulations for these experiments were carried out using MCNP-DSP, and prompt neutron generation times were calculated. (author)

  8. The comparison of MCNP perturbation technique with MCNP difference method in critical calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Lv Xuefeng; Zhao Wei; Wang Kai; Tu Jing; Ouyang Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    For a nuclear fission system, we calculated Δk eff , which arise from system material composition changes, by two different approaches, the MCNP perturbation technique and the MCNP difference method. For every material composition change, we made four different runs, each run with different cycles or each cycle generating different neutrons, then we compared the two Δk eff that are obtained by two different approaches. As a material composition change in any particular cell of the nuclear fission system is small compared to the material compositions in the whole nuclear fission system, in other words, this composition change can be treated as a small perturbation, the Δk eff results obtained from the MCNP perturbation technique are much quicker, much more efficient and reliable than the results from the MCNP difference method. When a material composition change in any particular cell of the nuclear fission system is significant compared to the material compositions in the whole nuclear fission system, both the MCNP perturbation technique and the MCNP difference method can give satisfactory results. But for the run with the same cycles and each cycle generating the same neutrons, the results obtained from the MCNP perturbation technique are systemically less than the results obtained from the MCNP difference method. To further confirm our calculation results from the MCNP4C, we run the exact same MCNP4C input file in MCNP5, the calculation results from MCNP5 are the same as the calculation results from MCNP4C. We need caution when using the MCNP perturbation technique to calculate the Δk eff as the material composition change is large compared to the material compositions in the whole nuclear fission system, even though the material composition changes of any particular cell of the fission system still meet the criteria of MCNP perturbation technique.

  9. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.; Briggs, J. Blair; Nigg, David W.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  10. Students' perceptions of effective learning experiences in dental school: a qualitative study using a critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoroff, Kristin Zakariasen; Hogan, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    Students' views of their educational experience can be an important source of information for curriculum assessment. Although quantitative methods, particularly surveys, are frequently used to gather such data, fewer studies have employed qualitative methods to examine students' dental education experiences. The purpose of this study is to explore characteristics of effective learning experiences in dental school using a qualitative method. All third-year (seventy) and fourth-year (seventy) dental students enrolled in one midwestern dental school were invited to participate. Fifty-three dental students (thirty-five male and eighteen female; thirty-two third-year and twenty-one fourth-year) were interviewed using a critical incident interview technique. Each student was asked to describe a specific, particularly effective learning incident that he or she had experienced in dental school and a specific, particularly ineffective learning incident, for comparison. Each interview was audiotaped. Students were assured that only the interviewer and one additional researcher would have access to the tapes. Data analysis resulted in identification of key themes in the data describing characteristics of effective learning experiences. The following characteristics of effective learning experiences were identified: 1) instructor characteristics (personal qualities, "checking-in" with students, and an interactive style); 2) characteristics of the learning process (focus on the "big picture," modeling and demonstrations, opportunities to apply new knowledge, high-quality feedback, focus, specificity and relevance, and peer interactions); and 3) learning environment (culture of the learning environment, technology). Common themes emerged across a wide variety of learning incidents. Although additional research is needed, the characteristics of effective learning experiences identified in this study may have implications for individual course design and for the dental school

  11. Palliative care nurses' recognition and assessment of patients with delirium symptoms: a qualitative study using critical incident technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Annmarie; Agar, Meera; Lobb, Elizabeth; Davidson, Patricia M; Phillips, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Delirium is prevalent in palliative care inpatient settings and management is often challenging. Despite nurses' integral patient care role, little is known about palliative care nurses' capacity to recognise, assess and respond to patients' delirium symptoms. To explore the experiences, views and practices of inpatient palliative care nurses in delirium recognition and assessment. 30 nurses from nine Australian specialist palliative care inpatient services. Critical incident technique (CIT) guided a series of semi-structured interviews. Prior to interviews participants were given a vignette of a palliative care inpatient with an unrecognised hypoactive delirium, to prompt their recollection and recounting of a similar clinical incident. Clearly recalled and described incidents were analysed using thematic content analysis. 20 of 30 participants recalled and described 28 relevant delirium incidents. Two themes and six sub-themes provide a general description of participants' experiences, views and practice in delirium recognition and assessment. Participants experience distress related to caring for patients with delirium and express compassion and empathy for delirious patients. Enhancing their delirium knowledge, strengthening collaborative multidisciplinary team relationships and better communication are important supports. Some participants, usually those in advance practice roles, describe more comprehensive assessment capabilities that incorporate clinical expertise with whole person awareness, yet systematic and structured delirium screening and assessment processes and application of the delirium diagnosis criteria are largely missing. Use of ambiguous terminology to describe delirium symptoms contributes to ineffective practice. The findings of this study expands our understanding of how palliative care nurses' capacity to recognise and assess patients' delirium symptoms in the inpatient setting could be strengthened. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Detailed Structural Analysis of Critical Wendelstein 7-X Magnet System Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, K.

    2006-01-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator experiment is presently under construction and assembly in Greifswald, Germany. The goal of the experiment is to verify that the stellarator magnetic confinement concept is a viable option for a fusion reactor. The complex W7-X magnet system requires a multi-level approach to structural analysis for which two types of finite element models are used: Firstly, global models having reasonably coarse meshes with a number of simplifications and assumptions, and secondly, local models with detailed meshes of critical regions and elements. Widely known sub-modelling technique with boundary conditions extracted from the global models is one of the approaches for local analysis with high assessment efficiency. In particular, the winding pack (WP) of the magnet coils is simulated in the global model as a homogeneous orthotropic material with effective mechanical characteristic representing its real composite structure. This assumption allows assessing the whole magnet system in terms of general structural factors like forces and moments on the support elements, displacements of the main components, deformation and stress in the coil casings, etc. In a second step local models with a detailed description of more critical WP zones are considered in order to analyze their internal components like conductor jackets, turn insulation, etc. This paper provides an overview of local analyses of several critical W7-X magnet system components with particular attention on the coil winding packs. (author)

  13. Searching for Scientific Literacy and Critical Pedagogy in Socioscientific Curricula: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kristina M.

    2017-01-01

    The omnipresence of science and technology in our society require the development of a critical and scientifically literate citizenry. However, the inclusion of socioscientific issues, which are open-ended controversial issues informed by both science and societal factors such as politics, economics, and ethics, do not guarantee the development of…

  14. Critical Analysis: A Comparison of Critical Thinking Changes in Psychology and Philosophy Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Brian L.; Sears, Sharon R.; Kraus, Sue; Roberts-Cady, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study compared changes in psychology and philosophy classes in two distinct components of critical thinking (CT): general skills and personal beliefs. Participants were 128 undergraduates enrolled in CT in psychology, other psychology courses, or philosophy courses. CT and philosophy students significantly reduced beliefs in paranormal…

  15. Do consumer critics write differently from professional critics? A genre analysis of online film reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, I.K.E.; Burgers, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Consumers often base their choices to purchase experience goods like movies on online reviews. These reviews can be written by professional critics or by other consumers. However, little is known on the issue how the texts written by these two groups of reviewers differ. To answer this question, we

  16. Venous thromboembolism and coffee: critical review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Among the various risk factors of venous thromboembolism (VTE), nutrients seem to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of this condition. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between coffee intake and venous thrombosis, and we performed a critical review of clinical studies that have been published so far. An electronic search was carried out in Medline, Scopus and ISI Web of Science with the keywords "coffee" AND "venous thromboembolism" OR "deep vein thrombosis" OR "pulmonary embolism" in "Title/Abstract/Keywords", with no language and date restriction. According to our criteria, three studies (two prospective and one case-control) were finally selected (inter-study heterogeneity: 78%; P<0.001). Cumulative data suggests that a modest intake of coffee (i.e., 1-4 cups/day) may be associated with an 11% increased risk of VTE compared to abstainers, whereas a larger intake (i.e., ≥5 coffee/day) may be associated with a 25% decreased risk. Our analysis of published data seemingly confirm the existence of a U-shape relationship between coffee intake and VTE, thus exhibiting a trend that overlaps with that previously reported for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

  17. Critical Analysis of Strategies for Determining Rigor in Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M

    2015-09-01

    Criteria for determining the trustworthiness of qualitative research were introduced by Guba and Lincoln in the 1980s when they replaced terminology for achieving rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability with dependability, credibility, and transferability. Strategies for achieving trustworthiness were also introduced. This landmark contribution to qualitative research remains in use today, with only minor modifications in format. Despite the significance of this contribution over the past four decades, the strategies recommended to achieve trustworthiness have not been critically examined. Recommendations for where, why, and how to use these strategies have not been developed, and how well they achieve their intended goal has not been examined. We do not know, for example, what impact these strategies have on the completed research. In this article, I critique these strategies. I recommend that qualitative researchers return to the terminology of social sciences, using rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability. I then make recommendations for the appropriate use of the strategies recommended to achieve rigor: prolonged engagement, persistent observation, and thick, rich description; inter-rater reliability, negative case analysis; peer review or debriefing; clarifying researcher bias; member checking; external audits; and triangulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELIABILITY OF INTUITIVE MORAL DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Nadurak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is a critical analysis of the reliability of intuitive moral decisions. Methodology. The work is based on the methodological attitude of empirical ethics, involving the use of findings from empirical research in ethical reflection and decision making. Originality. The main kinds of intuitive moral decisions are identified: 1 intuitively emotional decisions (i.e. decisions made under the influence of emotions that accompanies the process of moral decision making; 2 decisions made under the influence of moral risky psychological aptitudes (unconscious human tendencies that makes us think in a certain way and make decisions, unacceptable from the logical and ethical point of view; 3 intuitively normative decisions (decisions made under the influence of socially learned norms, that cause evaluative feeling «good-bad», without conscious reasoning. It was found that all of these kinds of intuitive moral decisions can lead to mistakes in the moral life. Conclusions. Considering the fact that intuition systematically leads to erroneous moral decisions, intuitive reaction cannot be the only source for making such decisions. The conscious rational reasoning can compensate for weaknesses of intuition. In this case, there is a necessity in theoretical model that would structure the knowledge about the interactions between intuitive and rational factors in moral decisions making and became the basis for making suggestions that would help us to make the right moral decision.

  19. Critical review of analytical techniques for safeguarding the thorium-uranium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.

    1978-10-01

    Conventional analytical methods applicable to the determination of thorium, uranium, and plutonium in feed, product, and waste streams from reprocessing thorium-based nuclear reactor fuels are reviewed. Separations methods of interest for these analyses are discussed. Recommendations concerning the applicability of various techniques to reprocessing samples are included. 15 tables, 218 references

  20. A survival analysis on critical components of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbec, V.; Pitner, P.; Riffard, T.

    1995-06-01

    Some tubes of heat exchangers of nuclear power plants may be affected by Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) in highly stressed areas. These defects can shorten the lifetime of the component and lead to its replacement. In order to reduce the risk of cracking, a preventive remedial operation called shot peening was applied on the French reactors between 1985 and 1988. To assess and investigate the effects of shot peening, a statistical analysis was carried on the tube degradation results obtained from in service inspection that are regularly conducted using non destructive tests. The statistical method used is based on the Cox proportional hazards model, a powerful tool in the analysis of survival data, implemented in PROC PHRED recently available in SAS/STAT. This technique has a number of major advantages including the ability to deal with censored failure times data and with the complication of time-dependant co-variables. The paper focus on the modelling and a presentation of the results given by SAS. They provide estimate of how the relative risk of degradation changes after peening and indicate for which values of the prognostic factors analyzed the treatment is likely to be most beneficial. (authors). 2 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Development of a systematic methodology to select hazard analysis techniques for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: vasconv@cdtn.br; reissc@cdtn.br; aclc@cdtn.br; Jordao, Elizabete [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: bete@feq.unicamp.br

    2008-07-01

    In order to comply with licensing requirements of regulatory bodies risk assessments of nuclear facilities should be carried out. In Brazil, such assessments are part of the Safety Analysis Reports, required by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), and of the Risk Analysis Studies, required by the competent environmental bodies. A risk assessment generally includes the identification of the hazards and accident sequences that can occur, as well as the estimation of the frequencies and effects of these unwanted events on the plant, people, and environment. The hazard identification and analysis are also particularly important when implementing an Integrated Safety, Health, and Environment Management System following ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 standards. Among the myriad of tools that help the process of hazard analysis can be highlighted: CCA (Cause- Consequence Analysis); CL (Checklist Analysis); ETA (Event Tree Analysis); FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis); FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis); FTA (Fault Tree Analysis); HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study); HRA (Human Reliability Analysis); Pareto Analysis; PHA (Preliminary Hazard Analysis); RR (Relative Ranking); SR (Safety Review); WI (What-If); and WI/CL (What-If/Checklist Analysis). The choice of a particular technique or a combination of techniques depends on many factors like motivation of the analysis, available data, complexity of the process being analyzed, expertise available on hazard analysis, and initial perception of the involved risks. This paper presents a systematic methodology to select the most suitable set of tools to conduct the hazard analysis, taking into account the mentioned involved factors. Considering that non-reactor nuclear facilities are, to a large extent, chemical processing plants, the developed approach can also be applied to analysis of chemical and petrochemical plants. The selected hazard analysis techniques can support cost

  2. Development of a systematic methodology to select hazard analysis techniques for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Costa, Antonio Carlos Lopes da; Jordao, Elizabete

    2008-01-01

    In order to comply with licensing requirements of regulatory bodies risk assessments of nuclear facilities should be carried out. In Brazil, such assessments are part of the Safety Analysis Reports, required by CNEN (Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission), and of the Risk Analysis Studies, required by the competent environmental bodies. A risk assessment generally includes the identification of the hazards and accident sequences that can occur, as well as the estimation of the frequencies and effects of these unwanted events on the plant, people, and environment. The hazard identification and analysis are also particularly important when implementing an Integrated Safety, Health, and Environment Management System following ISO 14001, BS 8800 and OHSAS 18001 standards. Among the myriad of tools that help the process of hazard analysis can be highlighted: CCA (Cause- Consequence Analysis); CL (Checklist Analysis); ETA (Event Tree Analysis); FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis); FMECA (Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis); FTA (Fault Tree Analysis); HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study); HRA (Human Reliability Analysis); Pareto Analysis; PHA (Preliminary Hazard Analysis); RR (Relative Ranking); SR (Safety Review); WI (What-If); and WI/CL (What-If/Checklist Analysis). The choice of a particular technique or a combination of techniques depends on many factors like motivation of the analysis, available data, complexity of the process being analyzed, expertise available on hazard analysis, and initial perception of the involved risks. This paper presents a systematic methodology to select the most suitable set of tools to conduct the hazard analysis, taking into account the mentioned involved factors. Considering that non-reactor nuclear facilities are, to a large extent, chemical processing plants, the developed approach can also be applied to analysis of chemical and petrochemical plants. The selected hazard analysis techniques can support cost

  3. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J.R.; Hutton, J.T.; Habermehl, M.A. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Nuclear analysis techniques as a component of thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, J R; Hutton, J T; Habermehl, M A [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia); Van Moort, J [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    In luminescence dating, an age is found by first measuring dose accumulated since the event being dated, then dividing by the annual dose rate. Analyses of minor and trace elements performed by nuclear techniques have long formed an essential component of dating. Results from some Australian sites are reported to illustrate the application of nuclear techniques of analysis in this context. In particular, a variety of methods for finding dose rates are compared, an example of a site where radioactive disequilibrium is significant and a brief summary is given of a problem which was not resolved by nuclear techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Application of pattern recognition techniques to crime analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.F.; Cox, L.A. Jr.; Chappell, G.A.

    1976-08-15

    The initial goal was to evaluate the capabilities of current pattern recognition techniques when applied to existing computerized crime data. Performance was to be evaluated both in terms of the system's capability to predict crimes and to optimize police manpower allocation. A relation was sought to predict the crime's susceptibility to solution, based on knowledge of the crime type, location, time, etc. The preliminary results of this work are discussed. They indicate that automatic crime analysis involving pattern recognition techniques is feasible, and that efforts to determine optimum variables and techniques are warranted. 47 figures (RWR)

  6. Image, measure, figure: a critical discourse analysis of nursing practices that develop children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by discourses that link early child development and health, nurses engage in seemingly benign surveillance of children. These practices are based on knowledge claims and technologies of developmental science, which remain anchored in assumptions of the child body as an incomplete form with a universal developmental trajectory and inherent potentiality. This paper engages in a critical discursive analysis, drawing on Donna Haraway's conceptualizations of technoscience and figuration. Using a contemporary developmental screening tool from nursing practice, this analysis traces the effects of this tool through production, transformation, distribution, and consumption. It reveals how the techniques of imaging, abstraction, and measurement collide to fix the open, transformative child body in a figuration of the developing child. This analysis also demonstrates how technobiopower infuses nurses' understandings of children and structures developmentally appropriate expectations for children, parents, and nurses. Furthermore, it describes how practices that claim to facilitate healthy child development may inversely deprive children of agency and foster the production of normal or ideal children. An alternative ontological perspective is offered as a challenge to the individualism of developmental models and other dominant ideologies of development, as well as practices associated with these ideologies. In summary, this analysis argues that nurses must pay closer attention to how technobiopower infuses practices that monitor and promote child development. Fostering a critical understanding of the harmful implications of these practices is warranted and offers the space to conceive of human development in alternate and exciting ways. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Critical Analysis of the Conceptualisation of "Coaching Philosophy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher; Partington, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to critically review existing literature relating to, and critically analyse current conceptualisations of, "coaching philosophy." The review reveals a bewildering approach to definitions, terms and frameworks that have limited explanation and reveal a lack of conceptual clarity. It is argued that rather than…

  8. A Critical Analysis of IQ Studies of Adopted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ken; Norgate, Sarah H.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of parent-child correlations in adoption studies has long been interpreted to suggest substantial additive genetic variance underlying variance in IQ. The studies have frequently been criticized on methodological grounds, but those criticisms have not reflected recent perspectives in genetics and developmental theory. Here we apply…

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of the Critical Speed in Railway Vehicle Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; True, Hans; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2013-01-01

    -axle Cooperrider bogie, in order to study the sensitivity of the critical speed with respect to suspension parameters. The importance of a certain suspension component is expressed by the variance in critical speed that is ascribable to it. This proves to be useful in the identification of parameters for which...

  10. Applications of Electromigration Techniques: Applications of Electromigration Techniques in Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Piotr; Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    Electromigration techniques, including capillary electrophoresis (CE), are widely used for separation and identification of compounds present in food products. These techniques may also be considered as alternate and complementary with respect to commonly used analytical techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), or gas chromatography (GC). Applications of CE concern the determination of high-molecular compounds, like polyphenols, including flavonoids, pigments, vitamins, food additives (preservatives, antioxidants, sweeteners, artificial pigments) are presented. Also, the method developed for the determination of proteins and peptides composed of amino acids, which are basic components of food products, are studied. Other substances such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, biogenic amines, natural toxins, and other contaminations including pesticides and antibiotics are discussed. The possibility of CE application in food control laboratories, where analysis of the composition of food and food products are conducted, is of great importance. CE technique may be used during the control of technological processes in the food industry and for the identification of numerous compounds present in food. Due to the numerous advantages of the CE technique it is successfully used in routine food analysis.

  11. Adaptive critic learning techniques for engine torque and air-fuel ratio control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Javaherian, Hossein; Kovalenko, Olesia; Huang, Ting

    2008-08-01

    A new approach for engine calibration and control is proposed. In this paper, we present our research results on the implementation of adaptive critic designs for self-learning control of automotive engines. A class of adaptive critic designs that can be classified as (model-free) action-dependent heuristic dynamic programming is used in this research project. The goals of the present learning control design for automotive engines include improved performance, reduced emissions, and maintained optimum performance under various operating conditions. Using the data from a test vehicle with a V8 engine, we developed a neural network model of the engine and neural network controllers based on the idea of approximate dynamic programming to achieve optimal control. We have developed and simulated self-learning neural network controllers for both engine torque (TRQ) and exhaust air-fuel ratio (AFR) control. The goal of TRQ control and AFR control is to track the commanded values. For both control problems, excellent neural network controller transient performance has been achieved.

  12. Techniques to measure sorption and migration between small molecules and packaging. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Ashish A; Karbowiak, Thomas; Voilley, Andrée; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2015-05-01

    The mass transfer parameters diffusion and sorption in food and packaging or between them are the key parameters for assessing a food product's shelf-life in reference to consumer safety. This has become of paramount importance owing to the legislations set by the regulated markets. The technical capabilities that can be exploited for analyzing product-package interactions have been growing rapidly. Different techniques categorized according to the state of the diffusant (gas or liquid) in contact with the packaging material are emphasized in this review. Depending on the diffusant and on the analytical question under review, the different ways to study sorption and/or migration are presented and compared. Some examples have been suggested to reach the best possible choice, consisting of a single technique or a combination of different approaches. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. A critical comparison of electron scattering cross sections measured by single collision and swarm techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.J.; Brunger, M.J.

    1996-07-01

    Electron scattering cross sections (elastic, rotational and vibrational excitation) for a number of atomic and (relatively) single molecular systems are examined. Particular reference is made to the level of agreement which is obtained from the application of the completely different measurement philosophies embodied in 'beam' and 'swarm' techniques. The range of energies considered is generally restricted to the region below 5 eV. 142 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs

  14. An Evaluation of the Critical Factors Affecting the Efficiency of Some Sorting Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Olabiyisi S.O.; Adetunji A.B.; Oyeyinka F.I.

    2013-01-01

    Sorting allows information or data to be put into a meaningful order. As efficiency is a major concern of computing, data are sorted in order to gain the efficiency in retrieving or searching tasks. The factors affecting the efficiency of shell, Heap, Bubble, Quick and Merge sorting techniques in terms of running time, memory usage and the number of exchanges were investigated. Experiment was conducted for the decision variables generated from algorithms implemented in Java programming and fa...

  15. The evaluation of the irradiation of medical team in critical X-ray diagnostic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, S; Pavlovic, R [Inst. of Nuclear Science Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Radiation and Environmental Protection Lab.; Boreli, F [Fac. of Electrical Engineering, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    A good realized assessment of the irradiation for any exposed group of population serves as the base for the radiation protection measures (emergency radiation preparedness, radiation protection optimization etc.). This is especially important, by the radiation protection point of view, in contrast X-ray diagnostic techniques - angiographies. This paper presents the way for the realization of the medical team irradiation assessment, based on originally derived simple equations for the scattered radiation field around patient. (author) 1 fig., 3 figs.

  16. Automated thermal mapping techniques using chromatic image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal imaging techniques are introduced using a chromatic image analysis system and temperature sensitive coatings. These techniques are used for thermal mapping and surface heat transfer measurements on aerothermodynamic test models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Measurements are made on complex vehicle configurations in a timely manner and at minimal expense. The image analysis system uses separate wavelength filtered images to analyze surface spectral intensity data. The system was initially developed for quantitative surface temperature mapping using two-color thermographic phosphors but was found useful in interpreting phase change paint and liquid crystal data as well.

  17. Using Machine Learning Techniques in the Analysis of Oceanographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcinelli, K. E.; Abuomar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) are oceanographic tools capable of collecting large amounts of current profile data. Using unsupervised machine learning techniques such as principal component analysis, fuzzy c-means clustering, and self-organizing maps, patterns and trends in an ADCP dataset are found. Cluster validity algorithms such as visual assessment of cluster tendency and clustering index are used to determine the optimal number of clusters in the ADCP dataset. These techniques prove to be useful in analysis of ADCP data and demonstrate potential for future use in other oceanographic applications.

  18. Transient Analysis and Dosimetry of the Tokaimura Criticality Incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Christopher C.; Oliveira, Cassiano R.E. de; Goddard, Antony J. H.; Eaton, Matthew D.; Gundry, Sarah; Umpleby, Adrian P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes research on the application of the finite element transient criticality (FETCH) code to modeling and neutron dosimetry of the Tokaimura criticality incident. FETCH has been developed to model criticality transients in single and multiphase media and is applied here to fissile solution transient criticality. Since the initial transient behavior has different time scales and physics to the longer transient behavior, the transient modeling is divided into two parts: modeling the initial transient over a time scale of seconds in which radiolytic gases and free-surface sloshing play an important role in the transient - this provides information about the dose to workers; and modeling the long-term transient behavior following the initial transient that has a time scale over hours.The neutron dosimetry of worker A who received the largest dose during the Tokaimura criticality incident is also investigated here. This dose was received mainly in the first few seconds of the ensuing nuclear criticality transient. In addition to the multiorgan dosimetry of worker A, this work provides a method of helping to evaluate the yield in the initial phase of the criticality incident; it also shows how kinetic simulations can be calibrated so that they can be applied to investigate the physics behind the incident

  19. A Critical Discourse Analysis Study of Cyberbullying in LGBTQ’s Instagram Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Sukma Ari Ragil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the advancing of technology, bullying became online, it moved to social media, which was then called cyberbullying. Instagram is one of social media that contain a lot of cyberbullying, it usually happened to public figure. It became interesting when the public figure in the bully is LGBTQ, namely Dena Rachman (transgender. This study explored how discourse formed the logic of truth which naturalize the perpetrators to commit cyberbullying act without hesitation. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA method and Teun A. van Dijk’s analysis technique and data interpretation. This study found that the logic of truth that became the basis of cyberbullying is already a natural logic and became the perpetrator’s mindset because it has been institutionalized in everyday life through education, religion, social life, and state regulations.

  20. Concepts and techniques: Active electronics and computers in safety-critical accelerator operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires an extensive Access Control System to protect personnel from Radiation, Oxygen Deficiency and Electrical hazards. In addition, the complicated nature of operation of the Collider as part of a complex of other Accelerators necessitates the use of active electronic measurement circuitry to ensure compliance with established Operational Safety Limits. Solutions were devised which permit the use of modern computer and interconnections technology for Safety-Critical applications, while preserving and enhancing, tried and proven protection methods. In addition a set of Guidelines, regarding required performance for Accelerator Safety Systems and a Handbook of design criteria and rules were developed to assist future system designers and to provide a framework for internal review and regulation

  1. Concepts and techniques: Active electronics and computers in safety-critical accelerator operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires an extensive Access Control System to protect personnel from Radiation, Oxygen Deficiency and Electrical hazards. In addition, the complicated nature of operation of the Collider as part of a complex of other Accelerators necessitates the use of active electronic measurement circuitry to ensure compliance with established Operational Safety Limits. Solutions were devised which permit the use of modern computer and interconnections technology for Safety-Critical applications, while preserving and enhancing, tried and proven protection methods. In addition a set of Guidelines, regarding required performance for Accelerator Safety Systems and a Handbook of design criteria and rules were developed to assist future system designers and to provide a framework for internal review and regulation.

  2. Windows forensic analysis toolkit advanced analysis techniques for Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    Carvey, Harlan

    2012-01-01

    Now in its third edition, Harlan Carvey has updated "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit" to cover Windows 7 systems. The primary focus of this edition is on analyzing Windows 7 systems and on processes using free and open-source tools. The book covers live response, file analysis, malware detection, timeline, and much more. The author presents real-life experiences from the trenches, making the material realistic and showing the why behind the how. New to this edition, the companion and toolkit materials are now hosted online. This material consists of electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, and walk-through demos. This edition complements "Windows Forensic Analysis Toolkit, 2nd Edition", (ISBN: 9781597494229), which focuses primarily on XP. It includes complete coverage and examples on Windows 7 systems. It contains Lessons from the Field, Case Studies, and War Stories. It features companion online material, including electronic printable checklists, cheat sheets, free custom tools, ...

  3. Assessing the scholar CanMEDS role in residents using critical appraisal techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya Kassam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this brief report, we describe two ways in which we assessed the Scholar CanMEDS role using a method to measure residents’ ability to complete a critical appraisal.  These were incorporated into a modified OSCE format where two stations consisted of 1 critically appraising an article and 2 critiquing an abstract. Method: Residents were invited to participate in the CanMEDS In-Training Exam (CITE through the Office of Postgraduate Medical Education. Mean scores for the two Scholar stations were calculated using the number of correct responses out of 10. The global score represented the examiner’s overall impression of the resident’s knowledge and effort.  Correlations between scores are also presented between the two Scholar stations and a paired sample t-test comparing the global mean scores of the two stations was also performed. Results: Sixty-three of the 64 residents registered to complete the CanMEDS In-Training Exam including the two Scholar stations.  There were no significant differences between the global scores of the Scholar stations showing that the overall knowledge and effort of the residents was similar across both stations (3.8 vs. 3.5, p = 0.13.  The correlation between the total mean scores of both stations (inter-station reliability was also non-significant (r = 0.05, p = 0.67.  No significant differences between senior residents and junior residents were detected or between internal medicine residents and non-internal medicine residents. Conclusion: Further testing of these stations is needed and other novel ways of assessing the Scholar role competencies should also be investigated.

  4. Conference on Techniques of Nuclear and Conventional Analysis and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text : With their wide scope, particularly in the areas of environment, geology, mining, industry and life sciences; analysis techniques are of great importance in research as fundamental and applied. The Conference on Techniques for Nuclear and Conventional Analysis and Applications (TANCA) are Registered in the national strategy of opening of the University and national research centers on their local, national and international levels. This conference aims to: Promoting nuclear and conventional analytical techniques; Contribute to the creation of synergy between the different players involved in these techniques include, Universities, Research Organizations, Regulatory Authorities, Economic Operators, NGOs and others; Inform and educate potential users of the performance of these techniques; Strengthen exchanges and links between researchers, industry and policy makers; Implement a program of inter-laboratory comparison between Moroccan one hand, and their foreign counterparts on the other; Contribute to the research training of doctoral students and postdoctoral scholars. Given the relevance and importance of the issues related to environment and impact on cultural heritage, this fourth edition of TANCA is devoted to the application of analytical techniques for conventional and nuclear Questions ied to environment and its impact on cultural heritage.

  5. [Professional divers: analysis of critical issues and proposal of a health protocol for work fitness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedata, Paola; Corvino, Anna Rita; Napolitano, Raffaele Carmine; Garzillo, Elpidio Maria; Furfaro, Ciro; Lamberti, Monica

    2016-01-20

    From many years now, thanks to the development of modern diving techniques, there has been a rapid spread of diving activities everywhere. In fact, divers are ever more numerous both among the Armed Forces and civilians who dive for work, like fishing, biological research and archeology. The aim of the study was to propose a health protocol for work fitness of professional divers keeping in mind the peculiar work activity, existing Italian legislation that is almost out of date and the technical and scientific evolution in this occupational field. We performed an analysis of the most frequently occurring diseases among professional divers and of the clinical investigation and imaging techniques used for work fitness assessment of professional divers. From analysis of the health protocol recommended by D.M. 13 January 1979 (Ministerial Decree), that is most used by occupational health physician, several critical issues emerged. Very often the clinical investigation and imaging techniques still used are almost obsolete, ignoring the execution of simple and inexpensive investigations that are more useful for work fitness assessment. Considering the out-dated legislation concerning diving disciplines, it is necessary to draw up a common health protocol that takes into account clinical and scientific knowledge and skills acquired in this area. This protocol's aim is to propose a useful tool for occupational health physicians who work in this sector.

  6. The application of value analysis techniques for complex problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiquelin, W.R.; Cossel, S.C.; De Jong, V.J.; Halverson, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the Value Analysis technique to the transuranic package transporter (TRUPACT). A team representing five different companies or organizations with diverse technical backgrounds was formed to analyze and recommend improvements. The results were a 38% systems-wide savings, if incorporated, and a shipping container which is volumetrically and payload efficient as well as user friendly. The Value Analysis technique is a proven tool widely used in many diverse areas both in the government and the private sector. Value Analysis uses functional diagramming of a piece of equipment or process to discretely identify every facet of the item being analyzed. A standard set of questions is then asked: What is it?, What does it do?, What does it cost?, What else will do the task?, and What would that cost? Using logic and a disciplined approach, the result of the Value Analysis performs the necessary functions at a high quality and the lowest overall cost

  7. A comparative analysis of soft computing techniques for gene prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Neelam; Singh, Shailendra; Aseri, Trilok Chand

    2013-07-01

    The rapid growth of genomic sequence data for both human and nonhuman species has made analyzing these sequences, especially predicting genes in them, very important and is currently the focus of many research efforts. Beside its scientific interest in the molecular biology and genomics community, gene prediction is of considerable importance in human health and medicine. A variety of gene prediction techniques have been developed for eukaryotes over the past few years. This article reviews and analyzes the application of certain soft computing techniques in gene prediction. First, the problem of gene prediction and its challenges are described. These are followed by different soft computing techniques along with their application to gene prediction. In addition, a comparative analysis of different soft computing techniques for gene prediction is given. Finally some limitations of the current research activities and future research directions are provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The constructivist view of entrepreneurial opportunities: a critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramoglou, Stratos; Zyglidopoulos, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    The notion that opportunities exist objectively “out there” has been repeatedly assaulted by scholars who counter that opportunities are subjectively constructed or created. This paper intends to restore the balance by bringing the critical strands of inquiry themselves under critical scrutiny. Beyond the formulation of some original lines of critique and the drawing of attention to some foundational yet insufficiently studied issues, this article further contributes the following: (1) it jux...

  9. Safety analysis of the Los Alamos critical experiments facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, H.C.

    1975-10-01

    The safety of Pajarito Site critical assembly operations depends upon protection built into the facility, upon knowledgeable personnel, and upon good practice as defined by operating procedures and experimental plans. Distance, supplemented by shielding in some cases, would protect personnel against an extreme accident generating 10 19 fissions. During the facility's 28-year history, the direct cost of criticality accidents has translated to a risk of less than $200 per year

  10. The Histological Analysis of the Glenohumeral "Critical Zone"

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, N; Lazarus, L; Satyapal, K. S

    2016-01-01

    The arterial integrity of the "critical zone" of the rotator cuff has led to much uncertainty regarding rotator cuff tendinopathy. As the region of the supraspinatus tendon is the most common area affected by impingement, its central aspect is situated approximately 10 mm from the insertion at the greater humeral tubercle. Although many studies have investigated the vascularity of the "critical zone", there still appears to be lack of consensus regarding its extent. Through the employment of ...

  11. Critical test of isotropic periodic sum techniques with group-based cut-off schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takuma; Yasuoka, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuaki Z

    2018-03-08

    Truncation is still chosen for many long-range intermolecular interaction calculations to efficiently compute free-boundary systems, macromolecular systems and net-charge molecular systems, for example. Advanced truncation methods have been developed for long-range intermolecular interactions. Every truncation method can be implemented as one of two basic cut-off schemes, namely either an atom-based or a group-based cut-off scheme. The former computes interactions of "atoms" inside the cut-off radius, whereas the latter computes interactions of "molecules" inside the cut-off radius. In this work, the effect of group-based cut-off is investigated for isotropic periodic sum (IPS) techniques, which are promising cut-off treatments to attain advanced accuracy for many types of molecular system. The effect of group-based cut-off is clearly different from that of atom-based cut-off, and severe artefacts are observed in some cases. However, no severe discrepancy from the Ewald sum is observed with the extended IPS techniques.

  12. A critical evaluation of multistage equilibration technique for preconcentration by ion-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    Capabilities of the method of preconcentration of heavy metal ions from aqueous samples by Chelex 100 using a successive equilibration technique has been evaluated. The process of successive equilibrations may be looked upon in one of the two ways: one of equilibrating a given amount of resin with n successive aliquots so that sample size increases n-fold. Alternatively one may consider this as dividing a large-sized sample into n equal aliquots and carrying out the equilibrations with a smaller amount of resin maintaining the v/m ratio. Expressions have been derived for overall recovery, percentage recovery and decontamination factor for the successive equilibration technique. The validity of the expressions has been checked with experimental data. The values for recovery and decontamination factor have been compared with those for a single equilibration using the whole sample. Finally the factors which affect the value of recovery have been examined and their effect on the recovery has been evaluated. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs., 1 appendix

  13. Critical assessment of the deposition based dosimetric technique for radon/thoron decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayya, Y.S.

    2010-01-01

    Inhalation doses due to radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) are predominantly contributed by their decay products and not due to the gases themselves. Decay product measurements are being carried out essentially by either short-term active measurement like by air-sampling on a substrate followed by alpha or beta counting or by continuous active monitoring techniques based on silicon barrier detector. However, due to non-availability of satisfactory passive measurement techniques for the progeny species, it has been a usual practice to estimate the long time averaged progeny concentration from measured gas concentration using an assumed equilibrium factor. To be accurate, one is required to measure the equilibrium factor in situ along with the gas concentration. This being not practical, the assigned equilibrium factor (0.4 for indoor and 0.8 for outdoor for 222 Rn) approach has been an inevitable, though uncertain, part of the dosimetric strategies in both occupational and public domains. Further, in the case of thoron decay products however, equilibrium factor is of far more questionable validity. Thus, there is a need to shift from gas based dosimetric paradigm to that based on direct detection of progeny species

  14. Comparing dynamical systems concepts and techniques for biomechanical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van Emmerik, Richard E.A.; Ducharme, Scott W.; Amado, Avelino C.; Hamill, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses of human movement are generally derived from linear mathematics. While these methods can be useful in many situations, they do not describe behaviors in human systems that are predominately nonlinear. For this reason, nonlinear analysis methods based on a dynamical systems approach have become more prevalent in recent literature. These analysis techniques have provided new insights into how systems (1) maintain pattern stability, (2) transition into new stat...

  15. Compositional analysis of YBaCuO superconducting films with ion beam analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.; Timmers, H.; Ophel, T.R.; Elliman, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    High-T c YBa x Cu y O 7-δ superconducting films are being developed for applications such as superconducting quantum interference devices. The carrier concentration, critical current density J c and critical temperature T c of these films depend sensitively on the oxygen content . Stoichiometry, uniformity with depth, homogeneity across the sample and film thickness are also important quantities for their characterisation. It has been shown, for example, that the stoichiometry of the metallic elements affects the growth characteristics and surface morphology of the films. With the deposit ion techniques used, reproducibility of film properties is difficult. The characterisation of YBa x Cu y O 7-δ films with ion beam analysis techniques is complex. Whereas the three metallic elements can be detected with helium beams and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), the oxygen signal is generally obscured by that from substrate elements. It can be better detected using resonant backscattering with 3.04MeV 4 He ions or nuclear reaction analysis. Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) with high-energetic (1MeV/amu), heavy beams (Z > 120), enables all elements to be detected and separated in a single experiment. It is well established that ion bombardment induces vacancies in the oxygen sub-lattice, driving the material to change from crystalline to amorphous, the latter phase having a reduced oxygen content. In previous heavy ion ERD measurements of YBa x Cu yO z films with 200MeV 127 I beams, the opaque films became transparent in the beam spot area, indicative of the amorphous phase. The accuracy of the oxygen measurement is therefore questionable. Indeed, using Raman spectroscopy, distortions of the crystalline structure above a fluence of 5 x 10 11 ion/cm 2 and for higher doses some signatures of a reduction in oxygen content have been observed for such beams. It appears therefore that a correct determination of the oxygen content requires either a drastic reduction in fluence or a

  16. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villiers, André de; Alberts, Phillipus; Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. ► The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. ► An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. ► Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. ► Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  17. Analytical techniques for wine analysis: An African perspective; a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villiers, Andre de, E-mail: ajdevill@sun.ac.za [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Alberts, Phillipus [Department of Chemistry and Polymer Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tredoux, Andreas G.J.; Nieuwoudt, Helene H. [Institute for Wine Biotechnology, Department of Viticulture and Oenology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7602, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical techniques developed for grape and wine analysis in Africa are reviewed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The utility of infrared spectroscopic methods is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An overview of separation of wine constituents by GC, HPLC, CE is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel LC and GC sample preparation methods for LC and GC are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emerging methods for grape and wine analysis in Africa are discussed. - Abstract: Analytical chemistry is playing an ever-increasingly important role in the global wine industry. Chemical analysis of wine is essential in ensuring product safety and conformity to regulatory laws governing the international market, as well as understanding the fundamental aspects of grape and wine production to improve manufacturing processes. Within this field, advanced instrumental analysis methods have been exploited more extensively in recent years. Important advances in instrumental analytical techniques have also found application in the wine industry. This review aims to highlight the most important developments in the field of instrumental wine and grape analysis in the African context. The focus of this overview is specifically on the application of advanced instrumental techniques, including spectroscopic and chromatographic methods. Recent developments in wine and grape analysis and their application in the African context are highlighted, and future trends are discussed in terms of their potential contribution to the industry.

  18. Evolution of the sedimentation technique for particle size distribution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maley, R.

    1998-01-01

    After an introduction on the significance of particle size measurements, sedimentation methods are described, with emphasis on the evolution of the gravitational approach. The gravitational technique based on mass determination by X-ray adsorption allows fast analysis by automation and easy data handling, in addition to providing the accuracy required by quality control and research applications [it

  19. Comparative Analysis of Some Techniques in the Biological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiments involved the simulation of conditions of a major spill by pouring crude oil on the cells from perforated cans and the in-situ bioremediation of the polluted soils using the techniques that consisted in the manipulation of different variables within the soil environment. The analysis of soil characteristics after a ...

  20. Tailored Cloze: Improved with Classical Item Analysis Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1988-01-01

    The reliability and validity of a cloze procedure used as an English-as-a-second-language (ESL) test in China were improved by applying traditional item analysis and selection techniques. The 'best' test items were chosen on the basis of item facility and discrimination indices, and were administered as a 'tailored cloze.' 29 references listed.…

  1. The Recoverability of P-Technique Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Nesselroade, John R.

    2009-01-01

    It seems that just when we are about to lay P-technique factor analysis finally to rest as obsolete because of newer, more sophisticated multivariate time-series models using latent variables--dynamic factor models--it rears its head to inform us that an obituary may be premature. We present the results of some simulations demonstrating that even…

  2. Washing and chilling as critical control points in pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; Pearce, R A; Sheridan, J J; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A; Harrington, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the effects of preslaughter washing, pre-evisceration washing, final carcass washing and chilling on final carcass quality and to evaluate these operations as possible critical control points (CCPs) within a pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. This study estimated bacterial numbers (total viable counts) and the incidence of Salmonella at three surface locations (ham, belly and neck) on 60 animals/carcasses processed through a small commercial pork abattoir (80 pigs d(-1)). Significant reductions (P HACCP in pork slaughter plants. This research will provide a sound scientific basis on which to develop and implement effective HACCP in pork abattoirs.

  3. [Fish oil containing lipid emulsions in critically ill patients: Critical analysis and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, W; Langlois, P L

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation lipid emulsions (LE) are soybean oil sparing strategies with immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory effects. Current evidence supporting the use of intravenous (i.v) fish oil (FO) LE in critically ill patients requiring parenteral nutrition or receiving enteral nutrition (pharmaconutrient strategy) mainly derives from small phase ii clinical trials in heterogenous intensive care unit patient's population. Over the last three years, there have been published different systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating the effects of FO containing LE in the critically ill. Recently, it has been demonstrated that i.v FO based LE may be able to significantly reduce the incidence of infections as well as mechanical ventilation days and hospital length of stay. Nonetheless, more robust evidence is required before giving a definitive recommendation. Finally, we strongly believe that a dosing study is required before new phase iii clinical trials comparing i.v FO containing emulsions versus other soybean oil strategies can be conducted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. A review of critical heat flux prediction technique and its application in CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jee Won; Roh, Gyu Hong

    1997-09-01

    The CHF prediction method being used for CANDU reactor have been critically reviewed. The AECL's CHF prediction totally depends on the look-up table which has been developed from many CHF databank. These databanks include not only the water-cooled bundle-CHF data but also the freon-cooled bundle-CHF data. The CHF look-up tables have been developed by smoothing and interpolating (with some extrapolations) the experimental data to construct a practically useful CHF table. Therefore, the table look-up method has advantages of accuracy, consistency in a wide range of thermal-hydraulic parameters. It seems, however, that since the existing look-up table is constructed by many steps of modification of the original experimental data (e.g., the look-up table is constructed not only using the horizontal flow data but also the vertical flow data), one should be very careful when one try to generate a look-up table for other fuel geometries. In other words, a reliable look-up table can be constructed by performing experiments for new fuel geometry. Finally, it should be noted that the modifications to the original experimental data has simple form with many modification parameters for taking into account of different geometrical effects. This report presents the backbone and the validity of AECL CHF look-up table. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

  6. Theoretical Models of Deliberative Democracy: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutui Viorel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: My paper focuses on presenting and analyzing some of the most important theoretical models of deliberative democracy and to emphasize their limits. Firstly, I will mention James Fishkin‟s account of deliberative democracy and its relations with other democratic models. He differentiates between four democratic theories: competitive democracy, elite deliberation, participatory democracy and deliberative democracy. Each of these theories makes an explicit commitment to two of the following four “principles”: political equality, participation, deliberation, nontyranny. Deliberative democracy is committed to political equality and deliberation. Secondly, I will present Philip Pettit‟s view concerning the main constraints of deliberative democracy: the inclusion constraint, the judgmental constraint and the dialogical constraint. Thirdly, I will refer to Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson‟s conception regarding the “requirements” or characteristics of deliberative democracy: the reason-giving requirement, the accessibility of reasons, the binding character of the decisions and the dynamic nature of the deliberative process. Finally, I will discuss Joshua Cohen‟s “ideal deliberative procedure” which has the following features: it is free, reasoned, the parties are substantively equal and the procedure aims to arrive at rationally motivated consensus. After presenting these models I will provide a critical analysis of each one of them with the purpose of revealing their virtues and limits. I will make some suggestions in order to combine the virtues of these models, to transcend their limitations and to offer a more systematical account of deliberative democracy. In the next four sections I will take into consideration four main strategies for combining political and epistemic values (“optimistic”, “deliberative”, “democratic” and “pragmatic” and the main objections they have to face. In the concluding section

  7. Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M

    2015-02-01

    The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen

  8. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH - , CO -- 3 ) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states

  9. Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1980-12-01

    The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH/sup -/, CO/sup - -//sub 3/) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states.

  10. Study of analysis techniques of thermoluminescent dosimeters response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Walber Amorim

    2002-01-01

    The Personal Monitoring Service of the Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares uses in its dosemeter the TLD 700 material . The TLD's analysis is carried out using a Harshaw-Bicron model 6600 automatic reading system. This system uses dry air instead of the traditional gaseous nitrogen. This innovation brought advantages to the service but introduced uncertainties in the reference of the detectors; one of these was observed for doses below 0,5 mSv. In this work different techniques of analysis of the TLD response were investigated and compared, involving dose values in this interval. These techniques include thermal pre-treatment, and different kinds of the glow curves analysis methods were investigated. Obtained results showed the necessity of developing a specific software that permits the automatic background subtraction for the glow curves for each dosemeter . This software was developed and it bean tested. Preliminary results showed the software increase the response reproducibility. (author)

  11. Sensitivity analysis technique for application to deterministic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigami, T.; Cazzoli, E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Unwin, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of sever accident source terms for light water reactors should include consideration of uncertainties. An important element of any uncertainty analysis is an evaluation of the sensitivity of the output probability distributions reflecting source term uncertainties to assumptions regarding the input probability distributions. Historically, response surface methods (RSMs) were developed to replace physical models using, for example, regression techniques, with simplified models for example, regression techniques, with simplified models for extensive calculations. The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for sensitivity analysis that does not utilize RSM, but instead relies directly on the results obtained from the original computer code calculations. The merits of this approach are demonstrated by application of the proposed method to the suppression pool aerosol removal code (SPARC), and the results are compared with those obtained by sensitivity analysis with (a) the code itself, (b) a regression model, and (c) Iman's method

  12. Multivariate Analysis Techniques for Optimal Vision System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifzadeh, Sara

    The present thesis considers optimization of the spectral vision systems used for quality inspection of food items. The relationship between food quality, vision based techniques and spectral signature are described. The vision instruments for food analysis as well as datasets of the food items...... used in this thesis are described. The methodological strategies are outlined including sparse regression and pre-processing based on feature selection and extraction methods, supervised versus unsupervised analysis and linear versus non-linear approaches. One supervised feature selection algorithm...... (SSPCA) and DCT based characterization of the spectral diffused reflectance images for wavelength selection and discrimination. These methods together with some other state-of-the-art statistical and mathematical analysis techniques are applied on datasets of different food items; meat, diaries, fruits...

  13. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis: Description of techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storlie, Curtis B.; Helton, Jon C.

    2008-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models, (iii) projection pursuit regression, and (iv) recursive partitioning regression. Then, in the second and concluding part of this presentation, the indicated procedures are illustrated with both simple test problems and results from a performance assessment for a radioactive waste disposal facility (i.e., the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant). As shown by the example illustrations, the use of smoothing procedures based on nonparametric regression techniques can yield more informative sensitivity analysis results than can be obtained with more traditional sensitivity analysis procedures based on linear regression, rank regression or quadratic regression when nonlinear relationships between model inputs and model predictions are present

  14. Analysis of RA-8 critical facility core in some configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Maximo J.; Sbaffoni, Maria M.

    2000-01-01

    The RA-8 critical facility was designated and built to be used in the experimental plan of the 'CAREM' Project but is, in itself, very versatile and adequate to perform many types of other experiments. The present paper includes calculated estimates of some critical configurations and comparisons with experimental results obtained during its start up. Results for Core 1 with homogeneous arrangement of rods containing 1.8 % enriched uranium, showed very good agreement. In fact, an experimentally critical configuration was reached with 1.300 rods and calculated values were: 1.310 using the WIMS code and 1.148 from the CONDOR code. Moreover, it was verified that the estimated number of 3.4% enriched uranium rods to be fabricated is enough to build a heterogeneous core or even a homogeneous core with this enrichment. The replacement of 3.4 % enriched uranium by 3.6 % will not present problems related with the original plan. (author)

  15. Analysis of Content of Selected Critical Elements in Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makowska Dorota

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to the new mineral policy of the European Union, searching for new sources of raw materials is required. Coal fly ash has long been considered as a potential source of a number of critical elements. Therefore, it is important to monitor the contents of the critical elements in fly ash from coal combustion. The paper presents the results of examinations of the contents of selected elements, i.e. beryllium, cobalt, chromium and germanium in fly ash from Polish power plants. The results of the conducted investigations indicate that the examined ash samples from bituminous coal combustion cannot be treated as a potential source of the analysed critical elements. The content of these elements in ash, though slightly higher than their average content in the sedimentary rocks, is, however, not high enough to make their recovery technologically and economically justified at this moment.

  16. Lean techniques to improve the flow of critically ill patients in a health region with its epicenter in the intensive care unit of a reference hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvent, J M; Gil, M; Alvarez, T; Martin, S; Vila, N; Colomer, M; March, E; Loma-Osorio, P; Metje, T

    2016-01-01

    To analyze whether the application of Lean techniques to improve the flow of critically ill patients in a health region with its epicenter in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a reference hospital. Observational study with pre and post intervention analysis. ICU of a reference hospital. We design projects and a value stream map of flow and compared pre and post intervention. We recorded demographic data, patient transfers by EMS for lack of beds and delay times in the discharge from ICU to ward. Multidisciplinary meetings and perform daily visual panel, with high priority ICU discharge. We promote temporary relocation of critically ill patients in other special areas of the hospital. We performed a professional satisfaction questionnaire with pre and post implementation of process. We make a statistical analysis of pre and post-intervention comparisons. We planned for 2013 and progressively implemented in 2014. Analysis of patients entering the critical process flow 1) evaluate patients who must transfer for lack of beds, focusing on a diagnosis: pre 10/22 vs. 3/21 post (P=.045); 2) analysis of time delay in the discharge from the ICU to ward: 360.8±163.9minutes in the first period vs. 276.7±149.5 in the second (P=.036); and 3) personal professional satisfaction questionnaire, with 6.6±1.5 points pre vs. 7.5±1.1 in post (P=.001). Analysis of indicators such as the ICU acquired infections, length of ICU stay, the rate of re-admissions and mortality, with no significant differences between the two periods. The application of Lean techniques in the critically ill process had a positive impact on improving patient flow within the health region, noting a decrease of transfers outside the region due to lack of beds, reduced delayed discharge from ICU to conventional ward and increased satisfaction of ICU professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES IN SERVICE QUALITY LITERATURE: ESSENTIALS AND ADVANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed naved Khan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Academic and business researchers have for long debated on the most appropriate data analysis techniques that can be employed in conducting empirical researches in the domain of services marketing. On the basis of an exhaustive review of literature, the present paper attempts to provide a concise and schematic portrayal of generally followed data analysis techniques in the field of services quality literature. Collectively, the extant literature suggests that there is a growing trend among researchers to rely on higher order multivariate techniques viz. confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling etc. to generate and analyze complex models, while at times ignoring very basic and yet powerful procedures such as mean, t-Test, ANOVA and correlation. The marked shift in orientation of researchers towards using sophisticated analytical techniques can largely beattributed to the competition within the community of researchers in social sciences in general and those working in the area of service quality in particular as also growing demands of reviewers ofjournals. From a pragmatic viewpoint, it is expected that the paper will serve as a useful source of information and provide deeper insights to academic researchers, consultants, and practitionersinterested in modelling patterns of service quality and arriving at optimal solutions to increasingly complex management problems.

  18. Advanced examination techniques applied to the qualification of critical welds for the ITER correction coils

    CERN Document Server

    Sgobba, Stefano; Libeyre, Paul; Marcinek, Dawid Jaroslaw; Piguiet, Aline; Cécillon, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The ITER correction coils (CCs) consist of three sets of six coils located in between the toroidal (TF) and poloidal field (PF) magnets. The CCs rely on a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC), whose supercritical cooling at 4.5 K is provided by helium inlets and outlets. The assembly of the nozzles to the stainless steel conductor conduit includes fillet welds requiring full penetration through the thickness of the nozzle. Static and cyclic stresses have to be sustained by the inlet welds during operation. The entire volume of helium inlet and outlet welds, that are submitted to the most stringent quality levels of imperfections according to standards in force, is virtually uninspectable with sufficient resolution by conventional or computed radiography or by Ultrasonic Testing. On the other hand, X-ray computed tomography (CT) was successfully applied to inspect the full weld volume of several dozens of helium inlet qualification samples. The extensive use of CT techniques allowed a significant progress in the ...

  19. Practical applications of activation analysis and other nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Neeutron activation analysis (NAA) is a versatile, sensitive multielement, usually nondestructive analytical technique used to determine elemental concentrations in a variety of materials. Samples are irradiated with neutrons in a nuclear reactor, removed, and for the nondestructive technique, the induced radioactivity measured. This measurement of γ rays emitted from specific radionuclides makes possible the quantitative determination of elements present. The method is described, advantages and disadvantages listed and a number of examples of its use given. Two other nuclear methods, particle induced x-ray emission and synchrotron produced x-ray fluorescence are also briefly discussed

  20. Maximum entropy technique in the doublet structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belashev, B.Z.; Panebrattsev, Yu.A.; Shakhaliev, Eh.I.; Soroko, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Technique (MENT) for solution of the inverse problems is explained. The effective computer program for resolution of the nonlinear equations system encountered in the MENT has been developed and tested. The possibilities of the MENT have been demonstrated on the example of the MENT in the doublet structure analysis of noisy experimental data. The comparison of the MENT results with results of the Fourier algorithm technique without regularization is presented. The tolerant noise level is equal to 30% for MENT and only 0.1% for the Fourier algorithm

  1. The forgotten effect of the finite measurement time on various noise analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallerbos, E.J.M.; Hoogenboom, J.E

    1998-06-01

    The conventional noise analysis expressions for functions like the auto- and cross-correlation function, the variance to mean ratio, and the Rossi-{alpha} formula, diverge when the reactor is critical. This problem arises because one pole of the zero-power reactor transfer function is zero. However, in a finite measurement time, a zero frequency cannot be measured and the divergence will not be found experimentally. New expressions for the expectation values of the experimental quantities of various pulse counting techniques are derived which also take into account the dead time of the detector. These expressions do not suffer from divergence at critical. A Feynman-{alpha} experiment is simulated in two, neutronically different systems. The use of the conventional equations for the analysis of the experiments is seen to lead to a bias in the inferred reactivity value.

  2. Quality-assurance techniques used with automated analysis of gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killian, E.W.; Koeppen, L.D.; Femec, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    In the course of developing gamma-ray spectrum analysis algorithms for use by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several techniques have been developed that enhance and verify the quality of the analytical results. The use of these quality-assurance techniques is critical when gamma-ray analysis results from low-level environmental samples are used in risk assessment or site restoration and cleanup decisions. This paper describes four of the quality-assurance techniques that are in routine use at the laboratory. They are used for all types of samples, from reactor effluents to environmental samples. The techniques include: (1) the use of precision pulsers (with subsequent removal) to validate the correct operation of the spectrometer electronics for each and every spectrum acquired, (2) the use of naturally occurring and cosmically induced radionuclides in samples to help verify that the data acquisition and analysis were performed properly, (3) the use of an ambient background correction technique that involves superimposing (open-quotes mappingclose quotes) sample photopeak fitting parameters onto multiple background spectra for accurate and more consistent quantification of the background activities, (4) the use of interactive, computer-driven graphics to review the automated locating and fitting of photopeaks and to allow for manual fitting of photopeaks

  3. Private Memory Allocation Analysis for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Andreas E.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Safety-critical Java (SCJ) avoids garbage collection and uses a scope based memory model. This memory model is based on a restricted version of RTSJ [2] style scopes. The scopes form a clear hierarchy with different lifetimes. Therefore, references between objects in different scopes are only...

  4. Transgenic Crops to Address Third World Hunger? A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosset, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    Industry and mainstream research and policy institutions often suggest that transgenic crop varieties can raise the productivity of poor third world farmers, feed the hungry, and reduce poverty. These claims are critically evaluated by examining global-hunger data, the constraints that affect the productivity of small farmers in the third world,…

  5. Criticality Risk Management: Why Analysis of Operating Practices Matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menuet, L.; Tasset, D.; Hebraud, C.

    2016-01-01

    The criticality risk is an unwanted neutron chain reaction that could lead, if not under control, to a criticality accident resulting in a high release of energy accompanied by an intense emission of neutron and gamma radiation. Thus, the management of criticality risk in Fuel Cycle Facilities relies mainly on a set of prescriptions and requirements established by the licencees for achieving safety objectives. This paper intends to show that, beyond prescriptions and requirements, a socio-technical approach is essential to define a relevant set of criticality safety rules favouring efficient and safe human activities. Indeed, a thorough knowledge of staff operating practices, beyond contributing significantly to the definition of appropriate technical and organizational provisions, enhances safety management combining “rule-based safety” and “managed safety”. Rule-based safety (top down definition of the rules) can be achieved by anticipating undesirable situations and defining provisions to avoid and manage them in daily practices. On the other hand, managed safety (integration of local characteristics) develops the sociotechnical system capacity to anticipate, recognise and formulate appropriate responses to unexpected scenarios that were not foreseen by the organization, or to rules that are not applicable to the operational realities. Thus, an effective safety management relies on human expertise, on the skills of individuals, on the quality of initiatives, and on the way teams and organizations perform the operations on a daily basis, interact and coordinate to integrate and regulate both ruled-based safety and managed safety.

  6. Honesty in Critically Reflective Essays: An Analysis of Student Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Stephen; Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Lo, Kristin; Molloy, Elizabeth; Ilic, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    In health professional education, reflective practice is seen as a potential means for self-improvement from everyday clinical encounters. This study aims to examine the level of student honesty in critical reflection, and barriers and facilitators for students engaging in honest reflection. Third year physiotherapy students, completing summative…

  7. 198 A Critical Analysis of Dramaturgy and Theatricality in Okwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESOURCE CENTRE

    having the stage and theatre audience in mind. Consequently .... observed that some scholars use formalism and new criticism ..... could be seen in the work under review, he or she can conclude that ... A character may be a person or an animal in a book, play, or film .... Literature, New York: Norton & Company. Dobie, A. B. ...

  8. Nuclear right and South Market Common : health citizen protection and environment: comparative study Mercosur situation:critical analysis Uruguay situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D

    1998-01-01

    The present work presents to general study on: the applications of nuclear techniques, technical fundamental for stablishment of to program of radiation protection, to comparative study legislation in radiation protection in the South Market Common (MERCOSUR)Argentina,Brazil,Paraguay,Uruguay as well as Treaties and Agreements. The author carries out a critical analysis from the situation to Institutional level in the Uruguay and it outlines some alternatives to improve the situation [es

  9. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Reliability analysis of large scaled structures by optimization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Mihara, T.; Iizuka, M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability analysis based on the optimization technique using PNET (Probabilistic Network Evaluation Technique) method for the highly redundant structures having a large number of collapse modes. This approach makes the best use of the merit of the optimization technique in which the idea of PNET method is used. The analytical process involves the minimization of safety index of the representative mode, subjected to satisfaction of the mechanism condition and of the positive external work. The procedure entails the sequential performance of a series of the NLP (Nonlinear Programming) problems, where the correlation condition as the idea of PNET method pertaining to the representative mode is taken as an additional constraint to the next analysis. Upon succeeding iterations, the final analysis is achieved when a collapse probability at the subsequent mode is extremely less than the value at the 1st mode. The approximate collapse probability of the structure is defined as the sum of the collapse probabilities of the representative modes classified by the extent of correlation. Then, in order to confirm the validity of the proposed method, the conventional Monte Carlo simulation is also revised by using the collapse load analysis. Finally, two fairly large structures were analyzed to illustrate the scope and application of the approach. (orig./HP)

  11. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D N; Prawer, S; Gonon, P; Walker, R; Dooley, S; Bettiol, A; Pearce, J [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B.

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  13. Noble Gas Measurement and Analysis Technique for Monitoring Reprocessing Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William S. Charlton

    1999-01-01

    An environmental monitoring technique using analysis of stable noble gas isotopic ratios on-stack at a reprocessing facility was developed. This technique integrates existing technologies to strengthen safeguards at reprocessing facilities. The isotopic ratios are measured using a mass spectrometry system and are compared to a database of calculated isotopic ratios using a Bayesian data analysis method to determine specific fuel parameters (e.g., burnup, fuel type, fuel age, etc.). These inferred parameters can be used by investigators to verify operator declarations. A user-friendly software application (named NOVA) was developed for the application of this technique. NOVA included a Visual Basic user interface coupling a Bayesian data analysis procedure to a reactor physics database (calculated using the Monteburns 3.01 code system). The integrated system (mass spectrometry, reactor modeling, and data analysis) was validated using on-stack measurements during the reprocessing of target fuel from a U.S. production reactor and gas samples from the processing of EBR-II fast breeder reactor driver fuel. These measurements led to an inferred burnup that matched the declared burnup with sufficient accuracy and consistency for most safeguards applications. The NOVA code was also tested using numerous light water reactor measurements from the literature. NOVA was capable of accurately determining spent fuel type, burnup, and fuel age for these experimental results. Work should continue to demonstrate the robustness of this system for production, power, and research reactor fuels

  14. Nuclear techniques of analysis in diamond synthesis and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Prawer, S.; Gonon, P.; Walker, R.; Dooley, S.; Bettiol, A.; Pearce, J.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear techniques of analysis have played an important role in the study of synthetic and laser annealed diamond. These measurements have mainly used ion beam analysis with a focused MeV ion beam in a nuclear microprobe system. A variety of techniques have been employed. One of the most important is nuclear elastic scattering, sometimes called non-Rutherford scattering, which has been used to accurately characterise diamond films for thickness and composition. This is possible by the use of a database of measured scattering cross sections. Recently, this work has been extended and nuclear elastic scattering cross sections for both natural boron isotopes have been measured. For radiation damaged diamond, a focused laser annealing scheme has been developed which produces near complete regrowth of MeV phosphorus implanted diamonds. In the laser annealed regions, proton induced x-ray emission has been used to show that 50 % of the P atoms occupy lattice sites. This opens the way to produce n-type diamond for microelectronic device applications. All these analytical applications utilize a focused MeV microbeam which is ideally suited for diamond analysis. This presentation reviews these applications, as well as the technology of nuclear techniques of analysis for diamond with a focused beam. 9 refs., 6 figs

  15. Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B

    1999-04-01

    The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)

  16. Critical Analysis of Methods for Integrating Economic and Environmental Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguet Ferran, Pau; Heijungs, Reinout; Vogtländer, Joost G.

    2018-01-01

    The application of environmental strategies requires scoring and evaluation methods that provide an integrated vision of the economic and environmental performance of systems. The vector optimisation, ratio and weighted addition of indicators are the three most prevalent techniques for addressing

  17. Model order reduction techniques with applications in finite element analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Qu, Zu-Qing

    2004-01-01

    Despite the continued rapid advance in computing speed and memory the increase in the complexity of models used by engineers persists in outpacing them. Even where there is access to the latest hardware, simulations are often extremely computationally intensive and time-consuming when full-blown models are under consideration. The need to reduce the computational cost involved when dealing with high-order/many-degree-of-freedom models can be offset by adroit computation. In this light, model-reduction methods have become a major goal of simulation and modeling research. Model reduction can also ameliorate problems in the correlation of widely used finite-element analyses and test analysis models produced by excessive system complexity. Model Order Reduction Techniques explains and compares such methods focusing mainly on recent work in dynamic condensation techniques: - Compares the effectiveness of static, exact, dynamic, SEREP and iterative-dynamic condensation techniques in producing valid reduced-order mo...

  18. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation production analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.

    1990-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to establish vacuum ultraviolet photoionization-MS and VUV pulsed EI-MS as useful tools for a simpler and more accurate direct mass spectrometric measurement of a broad range of hydrocarbon compounds in complex mixtures for ultimate application to the study of the kinetics of coal hydrogenation and pyrolysis processes. The VUV-MS technique allows ionization of a broad range of species with minimal fragmentation. Many compounds of interest can be detected with the 118 nm wavelength, but additional compound selectivity is achievable by tuning the wavelength of the photo-ionization source in the VUV. Resonant four wave mixing techniques in Hg vapor will allow near continuous tuning from about 126 to 106 nm. This technique would facilitate the scientific investigation of coal upgrading processes such as pyrolysis and hydrogenation by allowing accurate direct analysis of both stable and intermediate reaction products.

  19. Critical thickness for Nb nanofilm on sapphire substrate: a critical analysis using finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arun; Subramaniam, Anandh

    2009-01-01

    Full text: On growth beyond critical thickness, interfacial misfit dislocations partially relax the misfit strains, in epitaxially grown nanofilms. In this study the stress state and growth of nanofilms is simulated using Finite Element Method (FEM); by imposing stress-free strains, corresponding to the lattice mismatch between Nb nanofilm and Sapphire substrate. On growth of the Nb nanofilm, a triangular network of edge misfit dislocations nucleates at the (0001) Al2ο3 || (111) Nb , interface. Using a combined simulation of a coherently strained nanofilm and an edge dislocation, the equilibrium criterion for the nucleation of an edge dislocation is determined. Theoretical analyses in literature use only the component of the Burger's vector parallel to the interface, which is an erroneous description of the stress state and energetics of the system. In this investigation the full interfacial edge dislocation is simulated using standard commercially available software and comparisons are made with results available in literature to bring out the utility of the methodology

  20. Performance Analysis of Modified Drain Gating Techniques for Low Power and High Speed Arithmetic Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Panwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several high performance and low power techniques for CMOS circuits. In these design methodologies, drain gating technique and its variations are modified by adding an additional NMOS sleep transistor at the output node which helps in faster discharge and thereby providing higher speed. In order to achieve high performance, the proposed design techniques trade power for performance in the delay critical sections of the circuit. Intensive simulations are performed using Cadence Virtuoso in a 45 nm standard CMOS technology at room temperature with supply voltage of 1.2 V. Comparative analysis of the present circuits with standard CMOS circuits shows smaller propagation delay and lesser power consumption.

  1. 3D DIGITIZATION OF AN HERITAGE MASTERPIECE - A CRITICAL ANALYSIS ON QUALITY ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Menna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite being perceived as interchangeable when properly applied, close-range photogrammetry and range imaging have both their pros and limitations that can be overcome using suitable procedures. Even if the two techniques have been frequently cross-compared, critical analysis discussing all sub-phases of a complex digitization project are quite rare. Comparisons taking into account the digitization of a cultural masterpiece, such as the Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses (Figure 1 discussed in this paper, are even less common. The final 3D model of the Sarcophagus shows impressive spatial and texture resolution, in the order of tenths of millimetre for both digitization techniques, making it a large 3D digital model even though the physical size of the artwork is quite limited. The paper presents the survey of the Sarcophagus, a late 6th century BC Etruscan anthropoid Sarcophagus. Photogrammetry and laser scanning were used for its 3D digitization in two different times only few days apart from each other. The very short time available for the digitization was a crucial constraint for the surveying operations (due to constraints imposed us by the museum curators. Despite very high-resolution and detailed 3D models have been produced, a metric comparison between the two models shows intrinsic limitations of each technique that should be overcome through suitable onsite metric verification procedures as well as a proper processing workflow.

  2. Analysis and evaluation of ZPPR critical experiments for a 100 kilowatt-electric space reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, H.F.; Collins, P.J.; Carpenter, S.G.; Olsen, D.N.; Smith, D.M.; Schaefer, R.W.; Doncals, R.A.; Andre, S.V.; Porter, C.A.; Cowan, C.L.; Stewart, S.L.; Protsik, R.

    1990-01-01

    ZPPR critical experiments were used for physics testing the reactor design of the SP-100, a 100-kW thermoelectric LMR that is being developed to provide electrical power for space applications. These tests validated all key physics characteristics of the design, including the ultimate safety in the event of a launch or re-entry accident. Both the experiments and the analysis required the use of techniques not previously needed for fast reactor designs. A few significant discrepancies between the experimental and calculated results leave opportunities for further reductions in the mass of the SP-100. An initial investigation has been made into application of the ZPPR-20 results, along with those of other relevant integral data, to the SP-100 design

  3. Fundamentals of critical analysis: the concept of validity and analysis essentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araujo Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical analysis of literature is an assessment process that allows the reader to get an idea of potential error in the results of a study, errors arising either from bias or confusion. Critical analysis attempts to establish whether the study meets expected criteria or methodological conditions. There are many checklists available that are commonly used to guide this analysis, but filling out a checklist is not tantamount to critical appraisal. Internal validity is defined as the extent to which a research finding actually represents the true relationship between exposure and outcome, considering the unique conditions in which the study was carried out. Attention must be given to the inclusion and exclusion criteria that were used, on the sampling methods, on the baseline characteristics of the patients that were enrolled in the study. External validity refers to the possibility of generalizing conclusions beyond the study sample or the study population. External validity includes population validity and ecological validity. Lastly, the article covers potential threats to external validity that must be considered when analyzing a study.

  4. Modular techniques for dynamic fault-tree analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Dugan, Joanne B.

    1992-01-01

    It is noted that current approaches used to assess the dependability of complex systems such as Space Station Freedom and the Air Traffic Control System are incapable of handling the size and complexity of these highly integrated designs. A novel technique for modeling such systems which is built upon current techniques in Markov theory and combinatorial analysis is described. It enables the development of a hierarchical representation of system behavior which is more flexible than either technique alone. A solution strategy which is based on an object-oriented approach to model representation and evaluation is discussed. The technique is virtually transparent to the user since the fault tree models can be built graphically and the objects defined automatically. The tree modularization procedure allows the two model types, Markov and combinatoric, to coexist and does not require that the entire fault tree be translated to a Markov chain for evaluation. This effectively reduces the size of the Markov chain required and enables solutions with less truncation, making analysis of longer mission times possible. Using the fault-tolerant parallel processor as an example, a model is built and solved for a specific mission scenario and the solution approach is illustrated in detail.

  5. A review of residual stress analysis using thermoelastic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, A F; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Quinn, S [University of Southampton, School of Engineering Sciences, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Burguete, R L [Airbus UK Ltd., New Filton House, Filton, Bristol, BS99 7AR (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-01

    Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) is a full-field technique for experimental stress analysis that is based on infra-red thermography. The technique has proved to be extremely effective for studying elastic stress fields and is now well established. It is based on the measurement of the temperature change that occurs as a result of a stress change. As residual stress is essentially a mean stress it is accepted that the linear form of the TSA relationship cannot be used to evaluate residual stresses. However, there are situations where this linear relationship is not valid or departures in material properties due to manufacturing procedures have enabled evaluations of residual stresses. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of using a TSA based approach for the evaluation of residual stresses and to provide some examples of where promising results have been obtained.

  6. A review of residual stress analysis using thermoelastic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A F; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Quinn, S; Burguete, R L

    2009-01-01

    Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) is a full-field technique for experimental stress analysis that is based on infra-red thermography. The technique has proved to be extremely effective for studying elastic stress fields and is now well established. It is based on the measurement of the temperature change that occurs as a result of a stress change. As residual stress is essentially a mean stress it is accepted that the linear form of the TSA relationship cannot be used to evaluate residual stresses. However, there are situations where this linear relationship is not valid or departures in material properties due to manufacturing procedures have enabled evaluations of residual stresses. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of using a TSA based approach for the evaluation of residual stresses and to provide some examples of where promising results have been obtained.

  7. Technique Triangulation for Validation in Directed Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áine M. Humble PhD

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Division of labor in wedding planning varies for first-time marriages, with three types of couples—traditional, transitional, and egalitarian—identified, but nothing is known about wedding planning for remarrying individuals. Using semistructured interviews, the author interviewed 14 couples in which at least one person had remarried and used directed content analysis to investigate the extent to which the aforementioned typology could be transferred to this different context. In this paper she describes how a triangulation of analytic techniques provided validation for couple classifications and also helped with moving beyond “blind spots” in data analysis. Analytic approaches were the constant comparative technique, rank order comparison, and visual representation of coding, using MAXQDA 2007's tool called TextPortraits.

  8. A BWR 24-month cycle analysis using multicycle techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel cycle design analyses have become increasingly challenging in the past several years. As utilities continue to seek improved capacity factors, reduced power generation costs, and reduced outage costs, longer cycle lengths and fuel design optimization become important considerations. Accurate multicycle analysis techniques are necessary to determine the viability of fuel designs and cycle operating strategies to meet reactor operating requirements, e.g., meet thermal and reactivity margin constraints, while minimizing overall fuel cycle costs. Siemens Power Corporation (SPC), Nuclear Division, has successfully employed multi-cycle analysis techniques with realistic rodded cycle depletions to demonstrate equilibrium fuel cycle performance in 24-month cycles. Analyses have been performed by a BWR/5 reactor, at both rated and uprated power conditions

  9. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D D; Bailey, G; Martin, J; Garton, D; Noorman, H; Stelcer, E; Johnson, P [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  10. Ion beam analysis techniques applied to large scale pollution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Bailey, G.; Martin, J.; Garton, D.; Noorman, H.; Stelcer, E.; Johnson, P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques are ideally suited to analyse the thousands of filter papers a year that may originate from a large scale aerosol sampling network. They are fast multi-elemental and, for the most part, non-destructive so other analytical methods such as neutron activation and ion chromatography can be performed afterwards. ANSTO in collaboration with the NSW EPA, Pacific Power and the Universities of NSW and Macquarie has established a large area fine aerosol sampling network covering nearly 80,000 square kilometres of NSW with 25 fine particle samplers. This network known as ASP was funded by the Energy Research and Development Corporation (ERDC) and commenced sampling on 1 July 1991. The cyclone sampler at each site has a 2.5 {mu}m particle diameter cut off and runs for 24 hours every Sunday and Wednesday using one Gillman 25mm diameter stretched Teflon filter for each day. These filters are ideal targets for ion beam analysis work. Currently ANSTO receives 300 filters per month from this network for analysis using its accelerator based ion beam techniques on the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. One week a month of accelerator time is dedicated to this analysis. Four simultaneous accelerator based IBA techniques are used at ANSTO, to analyse for the following 24 elements: H, C, N, O, F, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Br and Pb. The IBA techniques were proved invaluable in identifying sources of fine particles and their spatial and seasonal variations accross the large area sampled by the ASP network. 3 figs.

  11. Analysis of Cell Phone Usage Using Correlation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    T S R MURTHY; D. SIVA RAMA KRISHNA

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is a sample survey analysis, examined based on correlation techniques. The usage ofmobile phones is clearly almost un-avoidable these days and as such the authors have made a systematicsurvey through a well prepared questionnaire on making use of mobile phones to the maximum extent.These samples are various economical groups across a population of over one-lakh people. The resultsare scientifically categorized and interpreted to match the ground reality.

  12. Communication: Thermodynamic analysis of critical conditions of polymer adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimino, R.; Neimark, A. V.; Rasmussen, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Polymer adsorption to solid surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which has attracted long-lasting attention. Dependent on the competition between the polymer-solid adsorption and polymer-solvent solvation interactions, a chain may assume either 3d solvated conformation when adsorption is weak or 2d adsorbed conformation when adsorption is strong. The transition between these conformations occurring upon variation of adsorption strength is quite sharp, and in the limit of “infinite” chain length, can be treated as a critical phenomenon. We suggest a novel thermodynamic definition of the critical conditions of polymer adsorption from the equality of incremental chemical potentials of adsorbed and free chains. We show with the example of freely jointed Lennard-Jones chains tethered to an adsorbing surface that this new definition provides a link between thermodynamic and geometrical features of adsorbed chains and is in line with classical scaling relationships for the fraction of adsorbed monomers, chain radii of gyration, and free energy

  13. Communication: Thermodynamic analysis of critical conditions of polymer adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimino, R.; Neimark, A. V., E-mail: aneimark@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Rasmussen, C. J. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Corporate Center for Analytical Sciences, Macromolecular Characterization, Route 141 and Henry Clay, Wilmington, Delaware 19803 (United States)

    2013-11-28

    Polymer adsorption to solid surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which has attracted long-lasting attention. Dependent on the competition between the polymer-solid adsorption and polymer-solvent solvation interactions, a chain may assume either 3d solvated conformation when adsorption is weak or 2d adsorbed conformation when adsorption is strong. The transition between these conformations occurring upon variation of adsorption strength is quite sharp, and in the limit of “infinite” chain length, can be treated as a critical phenomenon. We suggest a novel thermodynamic definition of the critical conditions of polymer adsorption from the equality of incremental chemical potentials of adsorbed and free chains. We show with the example of freely jointed Lennard-Jones chains tethered to an adsorbing surface that this new definition provides a link between thermodynamic and geometrical features of adsorbed chains and is in line with classical scaling relationships for the fraction of adsorbed monomers, chain radii of gyration, and free energy.

  14. Critical Analysis on Construction Workforce Sustainability in Developed Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sing, Michael; Tam, Vivian; Fung, Ivan; Liu, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The construction industry in the developed economy has suffered a shortage of workforce which triggers project cost escalation and project delay and suppresses the whole economy. This paper aims to explore the perceptions of the general public and construction workers towards workforce shortage in the Hong Kong construction industry and identifies the critical factors affecting their intention to join the industry. Triangulation approach was adopted in this study and a street survey was condu...

  15. Motivation Measures in Sport: A Critical Review and Bibliometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsi...

  16. The Maternity Benefit (Amendment Bill, 2016: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On 11 August 2016, amending the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, the new bill, The Maternity Benefit (Amendment Bill, 2016 was introduced and passed in the Rajya Sabha (or Council of States, the upper house of the Parliament of India. Central aim of this article is to critically review the amendments to the bill regarding geographies of maternity leave and its associated facilities.

  17. Criticality Benchmark Analysis of Water-Reflected Uranium Oxyfluoride Slabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Margaret A.; Bess, John D.

    2009-01-01

    A series of twelve experiments were conducted in the mid 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine the critical conditions of a semi-infinite water-reflected slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). A different slab thickness was used for each experiment. Results from the twelve experiment recorded in the laboratory notebook were published in Reference 1. Seven of the twelve experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments for the inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This evaluation will not only be available to handbook users for the validation of computer codes and integral cross-section data, but also for the reevaluation of experimental data used in the ANSI/ANS-8.1 standard. This evaluation is important as part of the technical basis of the subcritical slab limits in ANSI/ANS-8.1. The original publication of the experimental results was used for the determination of bias and bias uncertainties for subcritical slab limits, as documented by Hugh Clark's paper 'Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems'.

  18. Analysis on First Criticality Benchmark Calculation of HTR-10 Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhair; Ferhat-Aziz; As-Natio-Lasman

    2000-01-01

    HTR-10 is a graphite-moderated and helium-gas cooled pebble bed reactor with an average helium outlet temperature of 700 o C and thermal power of 10 MW. The first criticality benchmark problem of HTR-10 in this paper includes the loading number calculation of nuclear fuel in the form of UO 2 ball with U-235 enrichment of 17% for the first criticality under the helium atmosphere and core temperature of 20 o C, and the effective multiplication factor (k eff ) calculation of full core (5 m 3 ) under the helium atmosphere and various core temperatures. The group constants of fuel mixture, moderator and reflector materials were generated with WlMS/D4 using spherical model and 4 neutron energy group. The critical core height of 150.1 cm obtained from CITATION in 2-D R-Z reactor geometry exists in the calculation range of INET China, JAERI Japan and BATAN Indonesia, and OKBM Russia. The k eff calculation result of full core at various temperatures shows that the HTR-10 has negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. (author)

  19. The Construction of Cultural Values and Beliefs in Chinese Language Textbooks: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongbing

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the discourses of cultural values and beliefs constructed in Chinese language textbooks currently used for primary school students nationwide in China. By applying story grammar analysis in the framework of critical discourse analysis, the article critically investigates how the discourses are constructed and what ideological…

  20. Analysis of diagnostic calorimeter data by the transfer function technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delogu, R. S., E-mail: rita.delogu@igi.cnr.it; Pimazzoni, A.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 35127 Padova (Italy); Poggi, C.; Rossi, G. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via 8 Febbraio 1848, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the analysis procedure applied to the thermal measurements on the rear side of a carbon fibre composite calorimeter with the purpose of reconstructing the energy flux due to an ion beam colliding on the front side. The method is based on the transfer function technique and allows a fast analysis by means of the fast Fourier transform algorithm. Its efficacy has been tested both on simulated and measured temperature profiles: in all cases, the energy flux features are well reproduced and beamlets are well resolved. Limits and restrictions of the method are also discussed, providing strategies to handle issues related to signal noise and digital processing.