WorldWideScience

Sample records for technique virtual trip

  1. Virtual Field Geologic Trip System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Wang; Linfu Xue; Xiaojun Zhou

    2003-01-01

    Virtual Field Geologic Trip System (VFGTS) constructed by the technique of visualization can efficiently present geologic field information and widely used in the field of geologic education. This paper introduces the developing thinking of VFGTS and discusses the main implement processes. Building VFGTS mainly includes systemically gathering of field geological data, the building of virtual geological world, and displaying of virtual geologic world and human-computer interaction.

  2. Understanding Social Learning Behaviors via a Virtual Field Trip

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xin Bai; Joanne Lavin

    2014-01-01

    This is a multidisciplinary study investigating how a virtual rather than face-to-face field trip can be conducted in a real-world setting and how students respond to such a social learning opportunity...

  3. Immersive, interactive virtual field trips promote learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Mead, C.; Buxner, S.; Taylor, W.; Semken, S. C.; Anbar, A. D.; Sundstrom, J.

    2016-12-01

    We are assessing the educational effectiveness of a new type of immersive virtual field trip (iVFT) that we are developing, grounded in active, inquiry-based learning, and accessible via web browsers. To this end, we collected data from five high school AP biology classes (n = 153) that were assigned an iVFT lesson focused on life and environment during the Ediacaran time period, 550 million years ago. Students explore a series of fossil beds using high resolution imagery and video acquired during a field expedition to the Nilpena site in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia. They first encounter an immersive spherical image, which orients them to the area. Then, they identify fossils in the iVFT, using a dichotomous key. Finally, they explore an interactive simulation of this ancient ecosystem. The average time spent on the experience was approximately two hours. The learning objective is for students to be able to describe the Ediacaran ecosystem preserved in the rocks at Nilpena. To assess this outcome, we administered identical pre- and post-lesson quizzes to students. Results showed a statistically significant improvement on the six-item quiz with a normalized gain of 0.96 (pre-lesson mean: 2.4, post-lesson mean: 5.9, p students demonstrated an increase in score or maintained a perfect score. The pre-lesson scores are close to what would be expected from guessing, so these results represent a substantial growth in understanding. These findings encourage the use of iVFT-based learning experiences in education (an evolving suite is publicly available at http://vft.asu.edu). In the future, we will explore in more detail which aspects of the experience provide greatest educational benefit, and the effectiveness in teaching scientific reasoning skills in addition to content knowledge. To answer these questions, we will supplement content-based questions with mixed-methods data including interviews.

  4. Can virtual field trips be substituted for real-world field trips in an eighth grade geology curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel B.

    This study compares student learning from a real-world field trip with student learning from a virtual field trip. A field trip was designed to show students the way geologists believe the Grand Coulee in eastern Washington State was created. A real-world version and a virtual version (panoramic photographs) were constructed. Participants in the study were eighth grade Earth Science students. At the end of the study it was found that there was no significant difference on the final assessment between the scores of real-world field trip participants and the scores of virtual field trip participants.

  5. The Effectiveness of a Virtual Field Trip (VFT) Module in Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Norbaizura; Osman, Kamisah

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT) module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This…

  6. Making and Taking Virtual Field Trips in Pre-K and the Primary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchen, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A virtual field trip (VFT) is a technology-based experience that allows children to take an educational journey without leaving the classroom. These multimedia presentations bring the sights, sounds, and descriptions of distant places to learners. Virtual field trips vary in complexity. They can range from a single PowerPoint or video presentation…

  7. Linking Immersive Virtual Field Trips with an Adaptive Learning Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Taylor, W.; Anbar, A. D.; Semken, S. C.; Buxner, S.; Mead, C.; El-Moujaber, E.; Summons, R. E.; Oliver, C.

    2016-12-01

    The use of virtual environments in science education has been constrained by the difficulty of guiding a learner's actions within the those environments. In this work, we demonstrate how advances in education software technology allow educators to create interactive learning experiences that respond and adapt intelligently to learner input within the virtual environment. This innovative technology provides a far greater capacity for delivering authentic inquiry-driven educational experiences in unique settings from around the world. Our immersive virtual field trips (iVFT) bring students virtually to geologically significant but inaccessible environments, where they learn through authentic practices of scientific inquiry. In one recent example, students explore the fossil beds in Nilpena, South Australia to learn about the Ediacaran fauna. Students interactively engage in 360° recreations of the environment, uncover the nature of the historical ecosystem by identifying fossils with a dichotomous key, explore actual fossil beds in high resolution imagery, and reconstruct what an ecosystem might have looked like millions of years ago in an interactive simulation. With the new capacity to connect actions within the iVFT to an intelligent tutoring system, these learning experiences can be tracked, guided, and tailored individually to the immediate actions of the student. This new capacity also has great potential for learning designers to take a data-driven approach to lesson improvement and for education researchers to study learning in virtual environments. Thus, we expect iVFT will be fertile ground for novel research. Such iVFT are currently in use in several introductory classes offered online at Arizona State University in anthropology, introductory biology, and astrobiology, reaching thousands of students to date. Drawing from these experiences, we are designing a curriculum for historical geology that will be built around iVFT-based exploration of Earth

  8. Implementing virtual field trips in the curriculum of geography students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegen, An; Verstraeten, Gert; Martens, Lotte

    2016-04-01

    Current online geospatial databases and tools offer many opportunities in geoscience education. On the one hand a variety of geoscientific topics and regions can be studied without traditional fieldwork, and on the other hand, field-based learning activities can be prepared or post-processed. In this research, the use of Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) in Google EarthTM is studied. In the framework of geomorphology courses, undergraduate geography students were given VFTs as developed by the lecturers or had to develop VFTs themselves, after visiting a study area. Maps, photographs, GPS-tracks, literature and other spatial information were integrated in the VFTs. The effect of VFTs on learning outcomes, on the insight in the horizontal and vertical relationships between the spatially varying topics, and motivation were measured. Results confirm that students are positive about the use of VFTs. They indicate that VFTs significantly improve their mental map of the study area, whereby horizontal relationships were strengthened. Also the additional information in some VFTs proved to have positive effects on studying and structuring the learning content. Students also appreciated to work independently with the VFTs and saw possibilities for integrating various geoscientific topics. However, there are also some constraints in working with VFTs. It was clear from the study that VFTs have to be embedded in the curriculum as students do not use or develop VFTs spontaneously. Indeed, it takes a lot of time to develop a VFT, and students also appreciate a variety in work forms. Also some technical difficulties on sufficient wireless internet access and flexible work spaces have to be encountered. Besides this, curricula developers should be aware that VFTs are an interesting tool additionally to field trips, but that they cannot replace the field trips.

  9. Field Trips and Their Effect on Student Achievement and Attitudes: A Comparison of Physical versus Virtual Field Trips to the Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Lesley C.; Gallo, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of physical and virtual field trips on undergraduate, nonscience majors. No significant differences were seen in achievement, attitudes, learning styles, interactions between field trip and learning styles, or students' ability to answer questions at different levels. Results imply that both field trips promote…

  10. A brave new world: considering the pedagogic potential of Virtual World Field Trips (VWFTs in initial teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzsimons Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000. Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the ‘field trip’, is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the sciences. It involves a physical movement from the school-based location to a place of interest, for example, a geography field trip to an ecological landscape or science visit to a local museum. This paper considers the use of virtual world field trips (VWFTs within the context of a pre-service Teacher Education programme. The paper presents data from one undergraduate module offered on a programme of initial teacher education. The paper identifies three significant elements of virtual world field trips: place, people and content. First, the virtual world can provide access to places not possible in the offline context as a result of geographic, economic or religious factors. Second, exposure to and dialogue with a variety of world views can challenge students’ assumptions, facilitate reflection and provide an opportunity for oneto-one teaching encounters. Third, from a teacher educator perspective, engagement in virtual world field trips can provide a space for teachers to model teaching methodologies and model creative learning techniques, thus providing student teachers with an insight into different approaches to teaching.

  11. Meta-Analytic Evaluation of a Virtual Field Trip to Connect Middle School Students with University Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Liu, Jia; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella

    2015-01-01

    Although virtual field trips are becoming popular, there are few empirical studies of their impacts on student outcomes. This study reports on a meta-analytic evaluation of the impact of a virtual field trip on student perceptions of scientists. Specifically, the study examined the summary effect of zipTrips broadcasts on evaluation…

  12. Meta-Analytic Evaluation of a Virtual Field Trip to Connect Middle School Students with University Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola A.; Liu, Jia; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella

    2015-01-01

    Although virtual field trips are becoming popular, there are few empirical studies of their impacts on student outcomes. This study reports on a meta-analytic evaluation of the impact of a virtual field trip on student perceptions of scientists. Specifically, the study examined the summary effect of zipTrips broadcasts on evaluation…

  13. A summary of virtualization techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Haro, Fernando; Freitag, Fèlix; Navarro Moldes, Leandro; Hernández Sánchez, Efraín; Farías Mendoza, Nicandro; Guerrero Ibáñez, Juan Antonio; González Potes, Apolinar

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, virtualization is a technology that is applied for sharing the capabilities of physical computers by splitting the resources among OSs. The concept of Virtual Machines (VMs) started back in 1964 with a IBM project called CP/CMS system. Currently, there are several virtualization techniques that can be used for supporting the execution of entire operating systems. We classify the virtualization techniques from the OS view. First, we discuss two techniques that executes modified gu...

  14. Exploring the use of Virtual Field Trips with elementary school teachers: A collaborative action research approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jeffrey Lance

    This research examines how elementary school teachers, when supported, use Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) to address the curricula in meaningful ways. I conducted a qualitative study with six teachers, in a collaborative action research context over a six month period. The teachers, five males and one female, all taught either grade five or six and utilized Virtual Field Trips within a variety of curricula areas including science, social studies, music and language arts. In addition, the thesis examines resulting integration of technology into the regular classroom program as a product of the utilization of Virtual Field Trips. The process of collaborative action research was applied as a means of personal and professional growth both for the participants and the researcher/facilitator. By the end of the research study, all participants had learned to integrate Virtual Field Trips into their classroom program, albeit with different levels of success and in different curricula areas. The development of attitudes, skills and knowledge for students and teachers alike was fostered through the participation in Virtual Field Trips. A common concern regarding the utilization of Virtual Field Trips was the time spent locating an appropriate site that met curricula expectations. Participation in the collaborative action research process allowed each teacher to grow professionally, personally and socially. Each participant strongly encouraged the utilization of a long term project with a common area of exploration as a means for positive professional development. Implications and recommendations for future research on the utilization of Virtual Field Trips, as well as the viability of collaborative action research to facilitate teacher development are presented.

  15. Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: a pilot study.

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, E.; Shelton, N.; Dunsmuir, S.; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E

    2015-01-01

    The modern classroom is an inherently sedentary environment. Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) using interactive whiteboards to explore virtual scenes are a potential method of converting sedentary class-time into physically active teaching. This pilot aimed to assess the effects of a developed VFT on physical activity and learning in primary-school children.

  16. Field trips and their effect on student achievement in and attitudes toward science: A comparison of a physical versus a virtual field trip to the Indian River Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Lesley Cochran

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical and virtual field trips on students' achievement in estuarine ecology and their attitudes toward science. The study also assessed the effect of students' learning styles, the interaction between group membership and learning styles, and the effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's (1956) taxonomy. Working with a convenient sample of 67 freshmen and sophomore non-science majors, students were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups (physical, n = 32 and virtual, n = 35). Prior to treatment, students' learning styles were determined, students were pre-assessed on the two targeted measures, and all students attended four consecutive, in-class, 75-minute lectures on estuarine ecology and the Indian River Lagoon (IRL). Pre-assessed data indicated no significant differences between the groups on the two dependent measures. On the weekend following the lecture series, the physical field trip group engaged in a set of predetermined activities at the IRL for 2 hours in the morning. Later that afternoon, the virtual field trip group participated in a 2-hour virtual trip to the IRL that exactly matched the physical field trip activities. This virtual trip incorporated the CD-ROM The Living Lagoon: An Electronic Field Trip. Following each trip, students were post-assessed using the same pre-assessment instruments. MANCOVA results indicated no significant differences on all research factors (i.e., group membership, learning style, and group-learning style interaction). Data analysis also revealed that there was no significant effect of group membership on students' ability to answer questions at different levels of Bloom's taxonomy. These findings imply that educators can integrate virtual field trips that are structured in the same manner as their corresponding physical field trips without significantly impacting student achievement or attitudes.

  17. Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Emma; Shelton, Nicola; Dunsmuir, Sandra; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background The modern classroom is an inherently sedentary environment. Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) using interactive whiteboards to explore virtual scenes are a potential method of converting sedentary class-time into physically active teaching. This pilot aimed to assess the effects of a developed VFT on physical activity and learning in primary-school children. Methods Participants (n = 85) were randomly assigned to a) a 30-minute physically active London 2012 Olympics-themed VFT, or b) a 3...

  18. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A VIRTUAL FIELD TRIP (VFT MODULE IN LEARNING BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbaizura HARIS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This study was conducted to 60 students employing a quasi-experimental design involving a treatment group taught using the VFT module and a control group who were taught using conventional methods. Analysis into the effectiveness of the virtual module was done descriptively, followed by inferential analysis involving the two-way ANOVA. The results showed significant differences in the mean scores of pre and post achievement between students taught using VFT and students who were taught using conventional methods for objective, structure and essay type questions. The study concluded that teaching and learning by using the VFT module, integrated with ICT, has a positive impact on student achievement whencompared to conventional methods. This study focuses on the use of the VFT recognizing that teachers are often unable to conduct a real field trip on location.

  19. Innovative application of virtual display technique in virtual museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-09-01

    Virtual museum refers to display and simulate the functions of real museum on the Internet in the form of 3 Dimensions virtual reality by applying interactive programs. Based on Virtual Reality Modeling Language, virtual museum building and its effective interaction with the offline museum lie in making full use of 3 Dimensions panorama technique, virtual reality technique and augmented reality technique, and innovatively taking advantages of dynamic environment modeling technique, real-time 3 Dimensions graphics generating technique, system integration technique and other key virtual reality techniques to make sure the overall design of virtual museum.3 Dimensions panorama technique, also known as panoramic photography or virtual reality, is a technique based on static images of the reality. Virtual reality technique is a kind of computer simulation system which can create and experience the interactive 3 Dimensions dynamic visual world. Augmented reality, also known as mixed reality, is a technique which simulates and mixes the information (visual, sound, taste, touch, etc.) that is difficult for human to experience in reality. These technologies make virtual museum come true. It will not only bring better experience and convenience to the public, but also be conducive to improve the influence and cultural functions of the real museum.

  20. A Field Trip without Buses: Connecting Your Students to Scientists through a Virtual Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Omolola; Parker, Loran Carleton; Loizzo, Jamie; Burgess, Wilella; Robinson, J. Paul

    2011-01-01

    One school offers zipTrips as an alternative to actual field trips taken outside of school. ZipTrips are web- and broadcast-delivered electronic field trips that include online videos, lesson plans, and a live, 45-minute interactive program consisting of four core components: an in-studio audience, live interaction with scientists, prerecorded…

  1. Virtual Field Trips: Using Google Maps to Support Online Learning and Teaching of the History of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluke, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    I report on a pilot study on the use of Google Maps to provide virtual field trips as a component of a wholly online graduate course on the history of astronomy. The Astronomical Tourist Web site (http://astronomy.swin.edu.au/sao/tourist), themed around the role that specific locations on Earth have contributed to the development of astronomical…

  2. iVFTs - immersive virtual field trips for interactive learning about Earth's environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, G.; Anbar, A. D.; Semken, S. C.; Summons, R. E.; Oliver, C.; Buxner, S.

    2014-12-01

    Innovations in immersive interactive technologies are changing the way students explore Earth and its environment. State-of-the-art hardware has given developers the tools needed to capture high-resolution spherical content, 360° panoramic video, giga-pixel imagery, and unique viewpoints via unmanned aerial vehicles as they explore remote and physically challenging regions of our planet. Advanced software enables integration of these data into seamless, dynamic, immersive, interactive, content-rich, and learner-driven virtual field explorations, experienced online via HTML5. These surpass conventional online exercises that use 2-D static imagery and enable the student to engage in these virtual environments that are more like games than like lectures. Grounded in the active learning of exploration, inquiry, and application of knowledge as it is acquired, users interact non-linearly in conjunction with an intelligent tutoring system (ITS). The integration of this system allows the educational experience to be adapted to each individual student as they interact within the program. Such explorations, which we term "immersive virtual field trips" (iVFTs), are being integrated into cyber-learning allowing science teachers to take students to scientifically significant but inaccessible environments. Our team and collaborators are producing a diverse suite of freely accessible, iVFTs to teach key concepts in geology, astrobiology, ecology, and anthropology. Topics include Early Life, Biodiversity, Impact craters, Photosynthesis, Geologic Time, Stratigraphy, Tectonics, Volcanism, Surface Processes, The Rise of Oxygen, Origin of Water, Early Civilizations, Early Multicellular Organisms, and Bioarcheology. These diverse topics allow students to experience field sites all over the world, including, Grand Canyon (USA), Flinders Ranges (Australia), Shark Bay (Australia), Rainforests (Panama), Teotihuacan (Mexico), Upheaval Dome (USA), Pilbara (Australia), Mid-Atlantic Ridge

  3. Incorporating "Virtual" and "Real World" Field Trips into Introductory Geography Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, Daniel A.; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Quak, Michelle S. Y.; Lau, Annie Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    The "field trip" is a key pedagogical tool within geographical education to encourage deep learning, though they are increasingly difficult to implement due to reduced budgets, safety concerns and increasing class sizes. We incorporated three field-learning activities into a large introductory module. A traditional staff-led trip was the…

  4. Virtualization techniques for mobile systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jaramillo, David; Agarwal, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    This book presents effective ways to partition mobile devices such that the enterprise system access and its information are completely separated from the personal information. For those using mobile devices for personal and business purposes, the ability to keep the data secure and separate is critical. The applications for security in smart platforms range from personal email accounts to global enterprise systems.Several approaches for mobile virtualization are described, all creating secure and secluded environments for enterprise information. The authors present a reference architecture th

  5. Phacoemulsification in hard cataracts: the "chop, trip and free" technique

    OpenAIRE

    José Marcos S. Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Very hard cataracts continue to be a challenge to phacoemulsification due to the difficulty in breaking the nucleus and also in separating the broken nucleus from the adjacent epinucleus. The present technique is the presentation of a surgical maneuver which uses the Nagahara chopper and the phaco tip to divide the nucleus (including the epinucleus) as a whole and then emulsify it using little time and not very much phaco power.

  6. Enhancing Geologic Education in Grades 5-12: Creating Virtual Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, J. D.; Gamache, K. R.; Giardino, J. R.; Schroeder, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    New tools of technology enhance and facilitate the ability to bring the "field experience" into the classroom as part of the effort necessary to turn students onto the geosciences. The real key is high-speed computers and high-definition cameras with which to capture visual images. Still and movie data are easily obtained as are large and small-scale images from space, available through "Google Earth°". GPS information provides accurate location data to enhance mapping efforts. One no longer needs to rely on commercial ventures to show students any aspect of the "real" world. The virtual world is a viable replacement. The new cost-effective tools mean everyone can be a producer of information critical to understanding Earth. During the last four summers (2008-2011), Texas teachers have participated in G-Camp, an effort to instill geologic and geomorphic knowledge such that the information will make its way into classrooms. Teachers have acquired thousands of images and developed concepts that are being used to enhance their ability to promote geology in their classrooms. Texas will soon require four years of science at the high-school level, and we believe that geology or Earth science needs to be elevated to the required level of biology, chemistry and physics. Teachers need to be trained and methodology developed that is exciting to students. After all, everyone on Earth needs to be aware of the hazardous nature of geologic events not just to pass an exam, but for a lifetime. We use a video, which is a composite of our ventures, to show how data collected during these trips can be used in the classroom. . Social media, Facebook°, blogs, and email facilitate sharing information such that everyone can learn from each other about the best way to do things. New tools of technology are taking their place in every classroom to take advantage of the skills students bring to the learning environment. Besides many of these approaches are common to video gaming, and

  7. Educating the Public about Meteorites and Impacts through Virtual Field Trips and Classroom Experience Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Hines, R.; Minitti, M.; Taylor, W.; Morris, M. A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2014-01-01

    With specimens representing over 2,000 individual meteorites, the Center for Meteorite Studies (CMS) at Arizona State University (ASU) is home to the world's largest university-based meteorite collection. As part of our mission to provide educational opportunities that expand awareness and understanding of the science of meteoritics, CMS continues to develop new ways to engage the public in meteorite and space science, including the opening of a new Meteorite Gallery, and expansion of online resources through upgrades to the CMS website, meteorites.asu.edu. In 2008, CMS was the recipient of a philanthropic grant to improve online education tools and develop loanable modules for educators. These modules focus on the origin of meteorites, and contain actual meteorite specimens, media resources, a user guide, and lesson plans, as well as a series of engaging activities that utilize hands-on materials geared to help students develop logical thinking, analytical skills, and proficiency in STEM disciplines. In 2010, in partnership with the ASU NASA Astrobiology Institute team, CMS obtained a NASA EPOESS grant to develop Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) complemented by loanable “Experience Boxes” containing lesson plans, media, and hands-on objects related to the VFT sites. One VFT-Box pair focuses on the record of the oldest multicellular organisms on Earth. The second VFT-Box pair focuses on the Upheaval Dome (UD) structure, a meteorite impact crater in Utah’s Canyonlands National Park. UD is widely accepted as the deeply eroded remnant of a ~5 kilometer impact crater (e.g. Kriens et al., 1999). The alternate hypothesis that the Dome was formed by the upwelling of salt from a deposit underlying the region (e.g. Jackson et al., 1998) makes UD an ideal site to learn not only about specific scientific principles present in the Next Generation Science Standards, but also the process of scientific inquiry. The VFTs are located on an interactive website dedicated to VFTs, vft

  8. Developing a Second Life Virtual Field Trip for University Students: An Action Research Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Shane; Andrews, Lynda; Luck, Edwina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Integrating 3D virtual world technologies into educational subjects continues to draw the attention of educators and researchers alike. The focus of this study is the use of a virtual world, Second Life, in higher education teaching. In particular, it explores the potential of using a virtual world experience as a learning component…

  9. Virtual Machine Monitor Indigenous Memory Reclamation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shams Ul Haq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandboxing is a mechanism to monitor and control the execution of malicious or untrusted program. Memory overhead incurred by sandbox solutions is one of bottleneck for sandboxing most of applications in a system. Memory reclamation techniques proposed for traditional full virtualization do not suit sandbox environment due to lack of full scale guest operating system in sandbox. In this paper, we propose memory reclamation technique for sandboxed applications. The proposed technique indigenously works in virtual machine monitor layer without installing any driver in VMX non root mode and without new communication channel with host kernel. Proposed Page reclamation algorithm is a simple modified form of Least recently used page reclamation and Working set page reclamation algorithms. For efficiently collecting working set of application, we use a hardware virtualization extension, page Modification logging introduced by Intel. We implemented proposed technique with one of open source sandboxes to show effectiveness of proposed memory reclamation method. Experimental results show that proposed technique successfully reclaim up to 11% memory from sandboxed applications with negligible CPU overheads

  10. Utilizing Geo-Referenced Mobile Game Technology for Universally Accessible Virtual Geology Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, Natalie; Pederson, Joel; Shelton, Brett; Walker, Andrew; Campbell, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Declining interest and low persistence is well documented among undergraduate students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math in the United States. For geoscience, field trips are important attractors to students, however with high enrollment courses and increasing costs they are becoming rare. We propose in this concept paper that the…

  11. Grand Canyon as a universally accessible virtual field trip for intro Geoscience classes using geo-referenced mobile game technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, N.; Pederson, J. L.; Shelton, B.

    2012-12-01

    There is a well-documented and nationally reported trend of declining interest, poor preparedness, and lack of diversity within U.S. students pursuing geoscience and other STEM disciplines. We suggest that a primary contributing factor to this problem is that introductory geoscience courses simply fail to inspire (i.e. they are boring). Our experience leads us to believe that the hands-on, contextualized learning of field excursions are often the most impactful component of lower division geoscience classes. However, field trips are becoming increasingly more difficult to run due to logistics and liability, high-enrollments, decreasing financial and administrative support, and exclusivity of the physically disabled. Recent research suggests that virtual field trips can be used to simulate this contextualized physical learning through the use of mobile devices - technology that exists in most students' hands already. Our overarching goal is to enhance interest in introductory geoscience courses by providing the kinetic and physical learning experience of field trips through geo-referenced educational mobile games and test the hypothesis that these experiences can be effectively simulated through virtual field trips. We are doing this by developing "serious" games for mobile devices that deliver introductory geology material in a fun and interactive manner. Our new teaching strategy will enhance undergraduate student learning in the geosciences, be accessible to students of diverse backgrounds and physical abilities, and be easily incorporated into higher education programs and curricula at institutions globally. Our prototype involves students virtually navigating downstream along a scaled down Colorado River through Grand Canyon - physically moving around their campus quad, football field or other real location, using their smart phone or a tablet. As students reach the next designated location, a photo or video in Grand Canyon appears along with a geological

  12. Bringing Grand Canyon to the College Campus: Assessment of Student Learning in the Geosciences Through Virtual Field Trip Games for Mobile Smart-Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursztyn, N.; Walker, A.; Shelton, B.; Pederson, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscience educators have long considered field trips to be the most effective way of attracting students into the discipline. A solution for bringing student-driven, engaging, kinesthetic field experiences to a broader audience lies in ongoing advances in mobile-communication technology. This NSF-TUES funded project developed three virtual field trip experiences for smartphones and tablets (on geologic time, geologic structures, and hydrologic processes), and then tested their performance in terms of student interest in geoscience as well as gains in learning. The virtual field trips utilize the GPS capabilities of smartphones and tablets, requiring the students to navigate outdoors in the real world while following a map on their smart device. This research, involving 873 students at five different college campuses, used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and multiple regression for statistical methods. Gains in learning across all participants are minor, and not statistically different between intervention and control groups. Predictors of gains in content comprehension for all three modules are the students' initial interest in the subject and their base level knowledge. For the Geologic Time and Structures modules, being a STEM major is an important predictor of student success. Most pertinent for this research, for Geologic Time and Hydrologic Processes, gains in student learning can be predicted by having completed those particular virtual field trips. Gender and race had no statistical impact, indicating that the virtual field trip modules have broad reach across student demographics. In related research, these modules have been shown to increase student interest in the geosciences more definitively than the learning gains here. Thus, future work should focus on improving the educational impact of mobile-device field trips, as their eventual incorporation into curricula is inevitable.

  13. The Effects of In-Nature and Virtual-Nature Field Trip Experiences On Proenvironmental Attitudes and Behaviors, And Environmental Knowledge Of Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferderbar, Catherine A.

    To develop sustainable solutions to remediate the complex ecological problems of earth's soil, water, and air degradation requires the talents and skills of knowledgeable, motivated people (UNESCO, 1977; UNESCO, 2010). Researchers historically emphasized that time spent in outdoor, nature activities (Wells & Lekies, 2006), particularly with an adult mentor (Chawla & Cushing, 2007), promotes environmental knowledge and nature-relatedness, precursors to environmental literacy. Research has also demonstrated that technology is integral to the lives of youth, who spend 7:38 hours daily (Rideout, et al., 2010), engaged in electronics. Educators would benefit from knowing if in-nature and virtual-nature field trip experiences provide comparable levels of knowledge and connectedness, to nurture student proenvironmentalism. To investigate field trip phenomena, the researcher studied the impact of virtual-nature and in-nature experiences during which students analyzed water quality along Midwestern rivers. The quasi-experimental, mixed method convergent parallel design with a purposeful sample (n=131) of middle school students from two Midwestern K-8 schools, utilized scientist participant observer field records and narrative response, written assessment aligned to field trip content to evaluate knowledge acquisition. To gain insight into student environmental dispositions, participant observers recorded student comments and behaviors throughout field trips. A survey, administered Pre-Treatment, Post-Treatment 1 and Post-Treatment 2, focused on family water-related behaviors and student perceptions of the need for local government water protection. The findings demonstrated both field trips increased content knowledge significantly, with large effect size. Content knowledge gain from one experience transferred to and was augmented by the second experience. Skill gain (technical and observational) varied by type of field trip and did not transfer. Technical skill was often

  14. Personalised product design using virtual interactive techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharia, Kurien; Varghese, Surekha Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Use of Virtual Interactive Techniques for personalized product design is described in this paper. Usually products are designed and built by considering general usage patterns and Prototyping is used to mimic the static or working behaviour of an actual product before manufacturing the product. The user does not have any control on the design of the product. Personalized design postpones design to a later stage. It allows for personalized selection of individual components by the user. This is implemented by displaying the individual components over a physical model constructed using Cardboard or Thermocol in the actual size and shape of the original product. The components of the equipment or product such as screen, buttons etc. are then projected using a projector connected to the computer into the physical model. Users can interact with the prototype like the original working equipment and they can select, shape, position the individual components displayed on the interaction panel using simple hand gestur...

  15. Virtual Facility Layout Design Using Virtual Reality Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhi-hua; Zhong Yi-fang

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing facility layout design has long been recognized as one of the most critical and difficult design tasks in manufacturing industries. Traditional layout methods can not fully solve this complex spatial layout problem. Virtual reality (VR) is a new form of human-computer interaction, which has the potential to support a range of engineering applications. This paper discusses the reasons why manufacturing facility layout design is considered to be an appropriate new area of VR utilization. A VR-based layout design framework is proposed. The virtual environment construction issues are discussed. An example of the immersive VR application of facility layout is examined.

  16. Virtual Facility Layout Design Using Virtual Reality Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; Zhi-Hua; Zhong; Yi-fang

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing facility layout design has long been recognized as one of the most critical and difficult design tasks in manufacturing industries. Traditional layout methods can not fully solve this complex spatial layout problem. Virtual reality (VR) is a new form of human-computer interaction,which has the potential to support a range of engineering applications. This paper discusses the reasons why manufacturing facility layout design is considered to be an appropriate new area of VR utilization. A VR-based layout design framework is proposed. Th virtual environment construction issues are discussed. An example of the immersive VR application of facility layout is examined.

  17. Wallace Creek Virtual Field Trip: Teaching Geoscience Concepts with LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, S. E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Crosby, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    Recently available data such as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) high-resolution topography can assist students to better visualize and understand geosciences concepts. It is important to bring these data into geosciences curricula as teaching aids while ensuring that the visualization tools, virtual environments, etc. do not serve as barriers to student learning. As a Southern California Earthquake Center ACCESS-G intern, I am creating a “virtual field trip” to Wallace Creek along the San Andreas Fault (SAF) using Google Earth as a platform and the B4 project LiDAR data. Wallace Creek is an excellent site for understanding the centennial-to-millennial record of SAF slip because of its dramatic stream offsets. Using the LiDAR data instead of, or alongside, traditional visualizations and teaching methods enhances a student’s ability to understand plate tectonics, the earthquake cycle, strike-slip faults, and geomorphology. Viewing a high-resolution representation of the topography in Google Earth allows students to analyze the landscape and answer questions about the behavior of the San Andreas Fault. The activity guides students along the fault allowing them to measure channel offsets using the Google Earth measuring tool. Knowing the ages of channels, they calculate slip rate. They look for the smallest channel offsets around Wallace Creek in order to determine the slip per event. At both a “LiDAR and Education” workshop and the Cyberinfrastructure Summer Institute for Geoscientists (CSIG), I presented the Wallace Creek activity to high school and college earth science teachers. The teachers were positive in their responses and had numerous important suggestions including the need for a teacher’s manual for instruction and scientific background, and that the student goals and science topics should be specific and well-articulated for the sake of both the teacher and the student. The teachers also noted that the technology in classrooms varies

  18. A virtual trip to the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Bakala, P; Hledik, S; Stuchlik, Z; Truparova, K

    2008-01-01

    We developed realistic fully general relativistic computer code for simulation of optical projection in a strong, spherically symmetric gravitational field. Standard theoretical analysis of optical projection for an observer in the vicinity of a Schwarzschild black hole is extended to black hole spacetimes with a repulsive cosmological constant, i.e, Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetimes. Influence of the cosmological constant is investigated for static observers and observers radially free-falling from static radius. Simulation includes effects of gravitational lensing, multiple images, Doppler and gravitational frequency shift, as well as the amplification of intensity. The code generates images of static observers sky and a movie simulations for radially free-falling observers. Techniques of parallel programming are applied to get high performance and fast run of the simulation code.

  19. A Proposed Virtualization Technique to Enhance IT Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Abdel Rahman Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available System virtualization is an antique art that will continue as long as applications need isolation and performance independence. Virtualization provides many benefits and greater efficiency in CPU utilization, greener IT with less power consumption, better management through central environmental control, more availability, reduced project timelines by eliminating hardware procurement, improved disaster recovery capability, more central control of the desktop, and improved outsourcing services. In this paper we will deliver new and enhanced IT services in less time and with greater agility. The goal of providing rapid near real-time response to customer requirements is in part being achieved by taking advantage of virtualization. Virtualization provides many benefits, including improved physical resource utilization, improved hardware efficiency, and reduced power and cooling expenses. However, it introduces another set of systems (virtual machines that have to be controlled, provisioned, managed, updated, patched, and retired. This paper is organized into the following areas- An introduction to virtualization and its benefits, the Challenges of Virtualization techniques, an overview of the hardware virtualization technique, an overview of the software virtualization technique. The paper also proposes an effective and flexible distributed scheme with three phases, opposing to its predecessors. Our scheme achieves reducing the workload of a data center and continual service improvement.

  20. Comparison of the effectiveness of real and virtual field trips in biology and ecology classes in lower secondary school based on the example of the Maribor island natural educational trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhek, Miro

    The present doctoral thesis presents a case study within the scope of which real and virtual field trips have been compared. The emphasis of the study was on determining the levels of knowledge gain effectiveness in the fields of biology and ecology in the final triad (third) of lower secondary school education. The analysis included students completing various tasks along the Maribor Island natural education trail, which had been digitized and inserted into Geopedia. The study was conducted in autumn of 2011 and included 464 students (enrolled in grades from 6 to 9) from 11 lower secondary schools located in the Maribor area. The results have generally shown minute differences between the levels of knowledge acquisition effectiveness between both field trips. During the real field trip, the majority of the students included in the study achieved better results particularly at tasks where they were able to benefit from first-hand experience. During the virtual field trip, individual students were more successful at tasks where they were allowed to access a computer in order to obtain additional information. Within the scope of the study, we had also surveyed lower secondary and secondary school teachers on the frequency of including field trips in the curriculum, on the obstacles that the teachers faced with regard to including field work in it, and on their views on real and virtual field trips. The survey included a total of 386 teachers, the majority whom were teaching the subjects of biology, geography, and natural science. The results have shown that the surveyed teachers regard field trips as a very important educational method that particularly encourages experience-based learning in nature. The views of the teachers on virtual field trips were generally positive, but only when regarded and applied as a supplemental teaching tool and not as a substitute for real field trips.

  1. Forecasting display technique of human in network virtual environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The simulation of human in the distributed virtual environment is different from the simulation of ve hicle. Due to the human's many joints, to implement the real-time performance of the interaction between the virtual human and the environment, the quantity of information broadcasted in the network will be increased. So with the growing of the quantity of virtual human added to the network, the network burthen would augment rap idly. Therefore, for the simulation of virtual human this paper divides organically the motion parts of the body, which makes those body parts that often interact with the environment are described according to the joints while other parts are described according to the action information. Simultaneity, this paper adopts Dead Reckoning to reduce the quantity of information needed by maintaining the reality motion of virtual human. The experiment indicates that the forecasting display technique can efficiently reduce the network burthen and enhance the inter action of virtual human.

  2. A Brave New World: Considering the Pedagogic Potential of Virtual World Field Trips (VWFTs) in Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Sabrina; Farren, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    In its broadest and historical sense, place-based education refers to education that occurs outside of the physical boundaries of a school building (Dewey 1910; Sobel 1996; Theobald 1997; Woodhouse and Knapp 2000). Place-based education, colloquially referred to as the "field trip", is predominantly considered a pedagogic tool of the…

  3. Virtual 3d City Modeling: Techniques and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2013-08-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as Building, Tree, Vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. There are various terms used for 3D city models such as "Cybertown", "Cybercity", "Virtual City", or "Digital City". 3D city models are basically a computerized or digital model of a city contains the graphic representation of buildings and other objects in 2.5 or 3D. Generally three main Geomatics approach are using for Virtual 3-D City models generation, in first approach, researcher are using Conventional techniques such as Vector Map data, DEM, Aerial images, second approach are based on High resolution satellite images with LASER scanning, In third method, many researcher are using Terrestrial images by using Close Range Photogrammetry with DSM & Texture mapping. We start this paper from the introduction of various Geomatics techniques for 3D City modeling. These techniques divided in to two main categories: one is based on Automation (Automatic, Semi-automatic and Manual methods), and another is Based on Data input techniques (one is Photogrammetry, another is Laser Techniques). After details study of this, finally in short, we are trying to give the conclusions of this study. In the last, we are trying to give the conclusions of this research paper and also giving a short view for justification and analysis, and present trend for 3D City modeling. This paper gives an overview about the Techniques related with "Generation of Virtual 3-D City models using Geomatics Techniques" and the Applications of Virtual 3D City models. Photogrammetry, (Close range, Aerial, Satellite), Lasergrammetry, GPS, or combination of these modern Geomatics techniques play a major role to create a virtual 3-D City model. Each and every techniques and method has some advantages and some drawbacks. Point cloud model is a modern trend for virtual 3-D city model. Photo-realistic, Scalable, Geo-referenced virtual 3

  4. Realization Techniques of Virtual Assembly Process Planning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-hua; NING Ru-xin; TANG Cheng-tong

    2005-01-01

    The key realization techniques of virtual assembly process planning (VAPP) system are analyzed,including virtual assembly model, real-time collision detection, automatic constraint recognition algorithm, cable harness assembly process planning and visual assembly process plan at the workshop. A virtual assembly model based on hierarchical assembly task list (HATL) is put forward, in which assembly tasks are defined to express component assembling operations and are sequentially and hierarchically organized according to different subassemblies, which can perfectly model the construction process of product. And a multi-layer automatic geometry constraint recognition algorithm of how to identify assembly constraint relations in the virtual environment is proposed, then a four-layer collision detection algorithm is discussed. A VAPP system is built and some simple mechanical assemblies are used to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method and algorithms.

  5. Real Walking through Virtual Environments by Redirection Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present redirection techniques that support exploration of large-scale virtual environments (VEs by means of real walking. We quantify to what degree users can unknowingly be redirected in order to guide them through VEs in which virtual paths differ from the physical paths. We further introduce the concept of dynamic passive haptics by which any number of virtual objects can be mapped to real physical proxy props having similar haptic properties (i. e., size, shape, and surface structure, such that the user can sense these virtual objects by touching their real world counterparts. Dynamic passive haptics provides the user with the illusion of interacting with a desired virtual object by redirecting her to the corresponding proxy prop. We describe the concepts of generic redirected walking and dynamic passive haptics and present experiments in which we have evaluated these concepts. Furthermore, we discuss implications that have been derived from a user study, and we present approaches that derive physical paths which may vary from the virtual counterparts.

  6. Virtual Mold Technique in Thermal Stress Analysis during Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Young Kwak; Jae-Wook Baek; Jeong-Ho Nam; Jeong-Kil Choi

    2008-01-01

    It is important to analyse the casting product and the mold at the same time considering thermal contraction of the casting and thermal expansion of the mold. The analysis considering contact of the casting and the mold induces the precise prediction of stress distribution and the defect such as hot tearing. But it is difficult to generate FEM mesh for the interface of the casting and the mold. Moreover the mesh for the mold domain spends lots of computational time and memory for the analysis due to a number of meshes. Consequently we proposed the virtual mold technique which only uses mesh of the casting part for thermal stress analysis in casting process. The spring bar element in virtual mold technique is used to consider the contact of the casting and the mold. In general, a volume of the mold is much bigger than that of casting part, so the proposed technique decreases the number of mesh and saves the computational memory and time greatly. In this study, the proposed technique was verified by the comparison with the traditional contact technique on a specimen. And the proposed technique gave satisfactory results.

  7. Techniques for Generating KML for Data Visualization in Virtual Globes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askay, S.; Adams, C.

    2008-12-01

    Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is a standard data format for visualizing geospatial information. It is supported by many geo-visualization packages including popular online mapping tools, professional GIS packages, and "Virtual Globes" such as NASA World Wind, Google Earth, and Microsoft Virtual Earth. KML includes methods for visualizing data in 2, 3 and 4-dimensions, using core elements such as: point, line and polygon features; textured 3D models; and aerial/satellite imagery and photograph overlays. KML has been used by a wide variety of researchers, organizations and businesses to visualize and share their data. We will present an assortment of cutting-edge data visualizations which use KML's core features in creative and performance-conscience ways to display a variety of scientific/geospatial datasets. We will discuss a range of tools and techniques for creating and serving KML, including online applications, spreadsheets, databases, scripting options and GIS servers.

  8. Homeward Trip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白清

    1996-01-01

    I am a Beijing girl studying at a university in Shanghai. At the end of every semester, scarcely have I felt relaxed after examinations when I begin to worry over another long and tedious homeward trip I have to take.

  9. Research on key techniques of virtual reality applied in mining industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Jun; LU Guo-bin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the applications of virtual reality technology in many fields, introduced the virtual reality technical basic concept, structure type, related technique development, etc., tallied up applications of virtual reality technique in the present mining industry, inquired into core techniques related software and hardware, especially the optimization in the setup of various 3D models technique, and carried out a virtual scene to travel extensively in real-time by stereoscopic manifestation technique and so on. Then it brought forward the solution of virtual reality technique with software and hardware to the mining industry that can satisfy the demand of different aspects and levers. Finally, it show a fine prospect of virtual reality technique applied in the mining industry.

  10. Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Reports the results of a field trip to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields generated by electronic devices in the home, in cars, at work, outside, and in places people visit during the day. Found that a person gets more intense exposure while working at a computer than by living next to an electrical substation. (MDH)

  11. Techniques for active embodiment of participants in virtual environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, R.; Stansfield, S.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary work in the development of an avatar driver. An avatar is the graphical embodiment of a user in a virtual world. In applications such as small team, close quarters training and mission planning and rehearsal, it is important that the user`s avatar reproduce his or her motions naturally and with high fidelity. This paper presents a set of special purpose algorithms for driving the motion of the avatar with minimal information about the posture and position of the user. These algorithms utilize information about natural human motion and posture to produce solutions quickly and accurately without the need for complex general-purpose kinematics algorithms. Several examples illustrating the successful applications of these techniques are included.

  12. A Virtual Reality Technique for Multi-phase Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Eric; Sherman, William; Auman, Aric; Navarro, Christopher

    2004-04-01

    A virtual reality (VR) technique has been developed to allow user immersion (stereo-graphic rendering, user tracking and object interactivity) in generic unsteady three-dimensional multi-phase flow data sets. This article describes the structure and logic used to design and construct a VR technique that employs a multi-phase flow-field computed a priori as an input (i.e. simulations are conducted beforehand with a researcher's multi-phase CFD code). The input field for this flow visualization is divided into two parts: the Eulerian three-dimensional grid nodes and velocities for the continuous fluid properties (specified using conventional TECLOT data format) and the Lagrangian time-history trajectory files for the dispersed fluid. While tracking the dispersed phase trajectories as animated spheres of adjustable size and number, the continuous-phase flow can be simultaneously rendered with velocity vectors, iso-contour surfaces and planar flood-contour maps of different variables. The geometric and notional view of the combined visualization of both phases is interactively controlled throughout a user session. The resulting technique is demonstrated with a 3-D unsteady data set of Lagrangian particles dispersing in a Eulerian description of a turbulent boundary layer, stemming from a direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equations.

  13. ICARUS trip

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2017-01-01

    It’s lived in two different countries and is about to make its way to a third. It’s the largest machine of its kind, designed to find extremely elusive particles and tell us more about them. Its pioneering technology is the blueprint for some of the most advanced science experiments in the world. And this summer, it will travel across the Atlantic Ocean to its new home (and its new mission) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. It’s called ICARUS, and you can follow its journey over land and sea with the help of an interactive map at IcarusTrip.fnal.gov (link is external), or on Facebook (link is external), Twitter (link is external) and Instagram (link is external) using the hashtag #IcarusTrip.

  14. Designing Modulators of Monoamine Transporters using Virtual Screening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Valente Mortensen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The plasma-membrane monoamine transporters (MATs, including the serotonin (SERT, norepinephrine (NET and dopamine (DAT transporters, serve a pivotal role in limiting monoamine-mediated neurotransmission through the reuptake of their respective monoamine neurotransmitters. The transporters are the main target of clinically used psychostimulants and antidepressants. Despite the availability of several potent and selective MAT substrates and inhibitors the continuing need for therapeutic drugs to treat brain disorders involving aberrant monoamine signaling provides a compelling reason to identify novel ways of targeting and modulating the MATs. Designing novel modulators of MAT function have been limited by the lack of three dimensional structure information of the individual MATs. However, crystal structures of LeuT, a bacterial homologue of MATs, in a substrate-bound occluded, substrate-free outward-open, and an apo inward-open state and also with competitive and noncompetitive inhibitors have been determined. In addition, several structures of the drosophila DAT have also been resolved. Together with computational modeling and experimental data gathered over the past decade, these structures have dramatically advanced our understanding of several aspects of SERT, NET, and DAT transporter function, including some of the molecular determinants of ligand interaction at orthosteric substrate and inhibitor binding pockets. In addition progress has been made in the understanding of how allosteric modulation of MAT function can be achieved. Here we will review all the efforts up to date that has been made through computational approaches employing structural models of MATs to design small molecule modulators to the orthosteric and allosteric sites using virtual screening techniques.

  15. Designing modulators of monoamine transporters using virtual screening techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Ole V.; Kortagere, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    The plasma-membrane monoamine transporters (MATs), including the serotonin (SERT), norepinephrine (NET) and dopamine (DAT) transporters, serve a pivotal role in limiting monoamine-mediated neurotransmission through the reuptake of their respective monoamine neurotransmitters. The transporters are the main target of clinically used psychostimulants and antidepressants. Despite the availability of several potent and selective MAT substrates and inhibitors the continuing need for therapeutic drugs to treat brain disorders involving aberrant monoamine signaling provides a compelling reason to identify novel ways of targeting and modulating the MATs. Designing novel modulators of MAT function have been limited by the lack of three dimensional structure information of the individual MATs. However, crystal structures of LeuT, a bacterial homolog of MATs, in a substrate-bound occluded, substrate-free outward-open, and an apo inward-open state and also with competitive and non-competitive inhibitors have been determined. In addition, several structures of the Drosophila DAT have also been resolved. Together with computational modeling and experimental data gathered over the past decade, these structures have dramatically advanced our understanding of several aspects of SERT, NET, and DAT transporter function, including some of the molecular determinants of ligand interaction at orthosteric substrate and inhibitor binding pockets. In addition progress has been made in the understanding of how allosteric modulation of MAT function can be achieved. Here we will review all the efforts up to date that has been made through computational approaches employing structural models of MATs to design small molecule modulators to the orthosteric and allosteric sites using virtual screening techniques. PMID:26483692

  16. Virtual reality techniques in older adults: exposure therapy, memory training, and training of motor balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Pachana, N.A.; Laidlaw, K.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on virtual reality techniques in older adults. Although treatment of specific phobias in older adults by virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is feasible and might be effective, this has yet not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. The few controlled studies

  17. Virtual reality techniques in older adults: exposure therapy, memory training, and training of motor balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyerbröker, K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Pachana, N.A.; Laidlaw, K.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on virtual reality techniques in older adults. Although treatment of specific phobias in older adults by virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is feasible and might be effective, this has yet not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. The few controlled studies

  18. Evaluation of the cognitive effects of travel technique in complex real and virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suma, Evan A; Finkelstein, Samantha L; Reid, Myra; V Babu, Sabarish; Ulinski, Amy C; Hodges, Larry F

    2010-01-01

    We report a series of experiments conducted to investigate the effects of travel technique on information gathering and cognition in complex virtual environments. In the first experiment, participants completed a non-branching multilevel 3D maze at their own pace using either real walking or one of two virtual travel techniques. In the second experiment, we constructed a real-world maze with branching pathways and modeled an identical virtual environment. Participants explored either the real or virtual maze for a predetermined amount of time using real walking or a virtual travel technique. Our results across experiments suggest that for complex environments requiring a large number of turns, virtual travel is an acceptable substitute for real walking if the goal of the application involves learning or reasoning based on information presented in the virtual world. However, for applications that require fast, efficient navigation or travel that closely resembles real-world behavior, real walking has advantages over common joystick-based virtual travel techniques.

  19. Performance Comparison for Virtual Impedance Techniques Used in Droop Controlled Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Alexander; Apap, Maurice; Spiteri-Staines, Cyril;

    2016-01-01

    of the current harmonics which can add to the voltage distortion at the PCC. This paper compares the performance of resistive, inductive, inductiveresistive and resistive-capacitive virtual impedance loops with respect to current sharing and voltage harmonic distortion at the PCC. Simulation results are given......). Virtual impedance loops were proposed in literature to improve the current sharing between the inverters by normalizing the output impedance of the inverters. However, virtual impedance loops have constraints in this respect since the improvement in the current sharing occurs through redistribution...... for a single phase microgrid setup to achieve a fair performance comparison of the different virtual impedance techniques....

  20. Design optimum frac jobs using virtual intelligence techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab; Popa, Andrei; Ameri, Sam

    2000-10-01

    Designing optimal frac jobs is a complex and time-consuming process. It usually involves the use of a two- or three-dimensional computer model. For the computer models to perform as intended, a wealth of input data is required. The input data includes wellbore configuration and reservoir characteristics such as porosity, permeability, stress and thickness profiles of the pay layers as well as the overburden layers. Among other essential information required for the design process is fracturing fluid type and volume, proppant type and volume, injection rate, proppant concentration and frac job schedule. Some of the parameters such as fluid and proppant types have discrete possible choices. Other parameters such as fluid and proppant volume, on the other hand, assume values from within a range of minimum and maximum values. A potential frac design for a particular pay zone is a combination of all of these parameters. Finding the optimum combination is not a trivial process. It usually requires an experienced engineer and a considerable amount of time to tune the parameters in order to achieve desirable outcome. This paper introduces a new methodology that integrates two virtual intelligence techniques, namely, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms to automate and simplify the optimum frac job design process. This methodology requires little input from the engineer beyond the reservoir characterizations and wellbore configuration. The software tool that has been developed based on this methodology uses the reservoir characteristics and an optimization criteria indicated by the engineer, for example a certain propped frac length, and provides the detail of the optimum frac design that will result in the specified criteria. An ensemble of neural networks is trained to mimic the two- or three-dimensional frac simulator. Once successfully trained, these networks are capable of providing instantaneous results in response to any set of input parameters. These

  1. Scientific visualization in virtual reality: interaction techniques and application development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutek, M.

    2003-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was carried out in the Computer Graphics & CAD/CAM group at Delft University of Technology. The project was directly supervised by Frits Post. It is the sixth project in a series of PhD projects on data visualization, but the first project concerned with Virtual

  2. From Actual Reality to Virtual Reality-AVR Theory, Techniques and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Weibin; ZHANG Chao; YUAN Baozong

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the basic theory and core techniques of AVR (from Actual Reality to Virtual Reality) have been expounded. AVR is a development of VR technique. In AVR, the virtual objects in virtual environment are modeled directly from the shape information of their counterparts in real world based on computer graphics and computer vision techniques, which provides the virtual environment with a higher level realism and preciseness. In order to achieve the integration of computer vision and computer graphics, superquadric based (SQ-based) model as the universal description of virtual objects is chosen and PAMVISION (Part-based Multiple-layer Visual Information Organization Model) model providing a general framework for vision recognition and reconstruction in AVR modeling is developed. As the core techniques of AVR, two approaches for virtualizing the real objects from either 2D images or 3D data are im plemented. As an application of AVR, an interactive 3D superquadric based modeling software package is developed for creating virtual environment.

  3. Virtual endoscopy in odontogenic sinus disease. Study technique and main pathological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanucci, Ezio; Leporace, Mario; Di Costanzo, Giuseppe; Mannino, Michela; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2004-09-01

    The use of CT scans in dental pathology is an established technique. The potential applications of Dentascan are further enhanced by the use of virtual navigation software, resulting in endoscopy-like imaging of the maxillary sinus, thus optimising both the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to sinus pathology of dental origin. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the technical-methodological aspects of maxillary sinus virtual endoscopy with Dentascan software and to document the most important and frequent diseases.

  4. Reflections on a Trip: Two Decades Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Berman, Jennifer; Berman, Dene

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal qualitative study that involves the interviews of four adults who participated in one of two 10-day wilderness therapy trips 25 years ago. Using qualitative data collection techniques, we conducted in-depth interviews. Respondents were asked to reflect on their lives, the wilderness therapy trip, and the…

  5. Reflections on a Trip: Two Decades Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Berman, Jennifer; Berman, Dene

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal qualitative study that involves the interviews of four adults who participated in one of two 10-day wilderness therapy trips 25 years ago. Using qualitative data collection techniques, we conducted in-depth interviews. Respondents were asked to reflect on their lives, the wilderness therapy trip, and the…

  6. Healthy Ride Trip Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...

  7. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PLANNING TECHNIQUES FOR ADAPTIVE VIRTUAL COURSE CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉSTOR DARÍO DUQUE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo proponer un modelo de planificación para la adaptación de cursos virtuales, basado en técnicas de inteligencia artificial, en particular usando el enfoque de sistema multi-agente (SMA y métodos de planificación en inteligencia artificial. El diseño y la implementación por medio de un SMA pedagógico y la definición de un framework para especificar la estrategia de adaptación permiten incorporar diversos enfoques pedagógicos y tecnológicos, de acuerdo a los puntos de vista del equipo de trabajo, lo cual resulta en una implementación e instalación concreta. Se incorpora un novedoso pre-planificador que permite la transparencia y la neutralidad en el modelo propuesto y también ofrece soporte para traducir los elementos del curso a las especificaciones de un problema de planificación. La última sección muestra la plataforma experimental SICAD + (Sistema Inteligente de Cursos ADaptativos, a través de un enfoque multiagente, que valida el modelo propuesto.

  8. From reality to virtual reality: 3D object imaging techniques and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnik, Robert; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    2003-10-01

    General concept of 3D data processing path, which enables to introduce information about shape and texture of real 3D objects into complex virtual worlds, is presented. Minimal requirements for input data, in the most common case coming in the form of cloud of (x,y,z) co-ordinate points from 3D shape measurement systems, are specified with special emphasis on implementation of multidirectional data and texture information. The algorithms for data pre-processing like filtering, smoothing and simplification are introduced. The techniques for merging of directional data into single virtual object are also employed. The algorithm for triangulation of merged cloud of points to form virtual object accepted by multimedia environments is presented. The various techniques of texture creation and mapping are introduced. All steps are illustrated by measurement and processing of a representative 3D object for art applications.

  9. Phacoemulsification in hard cataracts: the "chop, trip and free" technique Facoemulsificação em cataratas duras: "Faco rasteira"

    OpenAIRE

    José Marcos S. Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Very hard cataracts continue to be a challenge to phacoemulsification due to the difficulty in breaking the nucleus and also in separating the broken nucleus from the adjacent epinucleus. The present technique is the presentation of a surgical maneuver which uses the Nagahara chopper and the phaco tip to divide the nucleus (including the epinucleus) as a whole and then emulsify it using little time and not very much phaco power.Cataratas muito duras continuam sendo um desafio para a facoemuls...

  10. Accelerating all-atom MD simulations of lipids using a modified virtual-sites technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loubet, Bastien; Kopec, Wojciech; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2014-01-01

    We present two new implementations of the virtual sites technique which completely suppresses the degrees of freedom of the hydrogen atoms in a lipid bilayer allowing for an increased time step of 5 fs in all-atom simulations of the CHARMM36 force field. One of our approaches uses the derivation ...

  11. Reconstruction of the maxilla using a fibula graft and virtual planning techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rude, Kristian; Thygesen, Torben H; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Summary Use of a vascularised free fibula flap has been a popular method of osseous reconstruction because of its adequate length and acceptance of dental implants. In this article we describe a case of maxillary reconstruction in which virtual planning techniques and rapid prototyping were used...... to insert a microvascular osteomyocutaneous fibula graft, Medpor implant, and immediate dental implants....

  12. Recursive Model System for Trip Generation and Trip Chaining

    OpenAIRE

    Goulias, Konstadinos G.; KITAMURA, Ryuichi

    1991-01-01

    A model system is developed to describe both trip generation and trip chaining in a coherent manner. A recursive structure is adopted to represent the generation of trips for different purposes, and the number of trip chains is expressed as a function of the numbers of trips by purpose. The model system offers theoretically consistent coefficient values and quantifies the relationship between the number of trips and the number of trip chains, and can be used in the conventional forecasting pr...

  13. Applying machine learning techniques for forecasting flexibility of virtual power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacDougall, Pamela; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    hidden layer artificial neural network (ANN). Both techniques are used to model a relationship between the aggregator portfolio state and requested ramp power to the longevity of the delivered flexibility. Using validated individual household models, a smart controlled aggregated virtual power plant...... is simulated. A hierarchical market-based supply-demand matching control mechanism is used to steer the heating devices in the virtual power plant. For both the training and validation set of clusters, a random number of households, between 200 and 2000, is generated with day ahead profile scaled accordingly...

  14. Phacoemulsification in hard cataracts: the "chop, trip and free" technique Facoemulsificação em cataratas duras: "Faco rasteira"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos S. Gonçalves

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Very hard cataracts continue to be a challenge to phacoemulsification due to the difficulty in breaking the nucleus and also in separating the broken nucleus from the adjacent epinucleus. The present technique is the presentation of a surgical maneuver which uses the Nagahara chopper and the phaco tip to divide the nucleus (including the epinucleus as a whole and then emulsify it using little time and not very much phaco power.Cataratas muito duras continuam sendo um desafio para a facoemulsificação devido à dificuldade em quebrar o núcleo e também em separar este pedaço quebrado do epinúcleo adjacente. Esta técnica é a apresentação de uma manobra cirúrgica ("Faco rasteira", em que se utiliza o Nagahara "chopper" e a caneta de faco para dividir o núcleo (incluindo o epinúcleo em sua totalidade e assim emulsificá-lo, utilizando tempo e poder de ultra-som baixo.

  15. Ein virtueller Besuch der Mahn-und Gedenkstätte Ravensbrück A Virtual Trip to the memorial of Ravensbrueck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Muschelknautz

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Seit März 2000 ist die Mahn- und Gedenkstätte Ravensbrück im Internet präsent. Unter www.ravensbrueck.de finden sich mehrsprachige Informationen zum Frauenkonzentrationslager Ravensbrück, zur Geschichte der Gedenkstätte von 1945 bis heute sowie zu den aktuellen Aktivitäten in Museumsarbeit, Forschung und Pädagogik. Besonders empfehlenswert ist ein virtueller Rundgang über das Gelände.Since march 2000 the Ravensbrück Memorial Museum can be visited on the Internet. In various languages, www.ravensbrueck.de provides information on the former women’s concentration camp, the history of the memorial since 1945 and current activities concerning the museum itself, education and research. A virtual tour around the Memorial’s area is particularly recommendable.

  16. Trade, TRIPS, and pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard D; Correa, Carlos; Oh, Cecilia

    2009-02-21

    The World Trade Organization's Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) set global minimum standards for the protection of intellectual property, substantially increasing and expanding intellectual-property rights, and generated clear gains for the pharmaceutical industry and the developed world. The question of whether TRIPS generates gains for developing countries, in the form of increased exports, is addressed in this paper through consideration of the importance of pharmaceuticals in health-care trade, outlining the essential requirements, implications, and issues related to TRIPS, and TRIPS-plus, in which increased restrictions are imposed as part of bilateral free-trade agreements. TRIPS has not generated substantial gains for developing countries, but has further increased pharmaceutical trade in developed countries. The unequal trade between developed and developing countries (ie, exporting and importing high-value patented drugs, respectively) raises the issue of access to medicines, which is exacerbated by TRIPS-plus provisions, although many countries have not even enacted provision for TRIPS flexibilities. Therefore this paper focuses on options that are available to the health community for negotiation to their advantage under TRIPS, and within the presence of TRIPS-plus.

  17. Comparison of path visualizations and cognitive measures relative to travel technique in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanbaka, Catherine A; Lok, Benjamin C; Babu, Sabarish V; Ulinski, Amy C; Hodges, Larry F

    2005-01-01

    We describe a between-subjects experiment that compared four different methods of travel and their effect on cognition and paths taken in an immersive virtual environment (IVE). Participants answered a set of questions based on Crook's condensation of Bloom's taxonomy that assessed their cognition of the IVE with respect to knowledge, understanding and application, and higher mental processes. Participants also drew a sketch map of the IVE and the objects within it. The users' sense of presence was measured using the Steed-Usoh-Slater Presence Questionnaire. The participants' position and head orientation were automatically logged during their exposure to the virtual environment. These logs were later used to create visualizations of the paths taken. Path analysis, such as exploring the overlaid path visualizations and dwell data information, revealed further differences among the travel techniques. Our results suggest that, for applications where problem solving and evaluation of information is important or where opportunity to train is minimal, then having a large tracked space so that the participant can walk around the virtual environment provides benefits over common virtual travel techniques.

  18. Combination of Different In Situ Characterization Techniques and Scanning Electron Microscopy Investigations for a Comprehensive Description of the Tensile Deformation Behavior of a CrMnNi TRIP/TWIP Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Anja; Biermann, Horst

    2015-08-01

    The class of low-carbon, high-alloy CrMnNi steels exhibits outstanding mechanical properties with respect to high strength and ductility due to either transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) or twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) effect depending on chemical composition and deformation temperature. However, the ongoing deformation mechanisms like the formation of stacking faults, martensitic phase transformation or deformation-induced twinning are overlapping and the kinetics of the microstructure evolution are quite complex. Therefore, in addition to macroscopic deformation tests and microstructural investigations by scanning electron microscopy, a combination of several in situ characterization techniques with either high lateral and/or temporal resolution as well as providing integral volume information were chosen in order to give a thoroughly and comprehensive description of the deformation behavior of CrMnNi TRIP/TWIP steels. In addition, the complementary in situ techniques like in situ nanoindentation, micro-digital image correlation, and acoustic emission measurements provide excellent possibility for description of materials behavior on a multiscale level from the submicrometer scale up to the macroscopic range. The results obtained by the complementary techniques can support the future modeling of the deformation behavior of TRIP/TWIP steels dependent on chemical composition, temperature, grain size and grain orientation.

  19. An element search ant colony technique for solving virtual machine placement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srija, J.; Rani John, Rose; Kanaga, Grace Mary, Dr.

    2017-09-01

    The data centres in the cloud environment play a key role in providing infrastructure for ubiquitous computing, pervasive computing, mobile computing etc. This computing technique tries to utilize the available resources in order to provide services. Hence maintaining the resource utilization without wastage of power consumption has become a challenging task for the researchers. In this paper we propose the direct guidance ant colony system for effective mapping of virtual machines to the physical machine with maximal resource utilization and minimal power consumption. The proposed algorithm has been compared with the existing ant colony approach which is involved in solving virtual machine placement problem and thus the proposed algorithm proves to provide better result than the existing technique.

  20. Cotton Trip in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ During their trip in Beijing,the leadership delegation members,Charles Parker,Harrison Ashley(Vice President of NCC Ginner Services),along with Karin Malmstrom(China Director of CCI)shared a time to accept the interview,giving a general introduction about their China trip and the cotton industry in USA.

  1. A Biomes Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  2. A Biomes Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a field trip designed to give students opportunities to experience relevant data leading to concepts in biogeography. Suggests that teachers (including college instructors) adapt the areas studied and procedures used to their own locations. Includes a suggested field trip handout. (JN)

  3. Field Trip Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to prepare for and conduct a safe and worry-free educational experience. She shares a few tips that will ensure field trips will be fun, safe, engaging, and productive. She stresses that with proper planning, field trips can be unique ways to explore the world with students.

  4. Application of virtual reality techniques in preoperative surgical planning for intracranial anterior circulation aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-sen WANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the value of virtual reality (VR technique in the surgical planning for anterior circulation aneurysms of Willis circle. Methods  A total of 50 patients with 57 aneurysms confirmed by CT angiography in the anterior circle of Willis were enrolled in this study. In preoperative Hunt-Hess scale, grade Ⅰ was designated in 7 patients, grade Ⅱ in 22, grade Ⅲ in 17, grade Ⅳ in 3, grade Ⅴ in 1 patient. Among the aneurysms, 16 were small (≤5mm in diameter, 28 medium (5-15mm, 10 large (15-25mm and 3 giant (≥25mm in size. The thin-slice head scanning data were achieved by 64-slice spiral CT machine. These data was then transferred into Dextroscope image workstation. The virtual imaging system generated clear and vivid virtual images. We compared the findings between simulation surgical operation and actual operation. Results  VR system make the operator felt "personally on the scene" and was able to communicate with the imaging. It could not only visually display the anatomical structures in three dimensions, but also could simulate some surgical procedures, which basically simulated the same outcome of actual operation. All the 50 patients were successfully treated by microsurgical clipping of main aneurysmal or contributory aneurysmal necks. Conclusions  The surgeons is able to be more confident, and the identification for the complex vascular abnormality is improved by planning operative procedure in virtual-reality environment. The virtual-reality system makes the actual operative procedure more concise, thus it is of positive value in surgery for intracranial aneurysm.

  5. Brain-computer interface: changes in performance using virtual reality techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron-Angevin, Ricardo; Díaz-Estrella, Antonio

    2009-01-09

    The ability to control electroencephalographic (EEG) signals when different mental tasks are carried out would provide a method of communication for people with serious motor function problems. This system is known as a brain-computer interface (BCI). Due to the difficulty of controlling one's own EEG signals, a suitable training protocol is required to motivate subjects, as it is necessary to provide some type of visual feedback allowing subjects to see their progress. Conventional systems of feedback are based on simple visual presentations, such as a horizontal bar extension. However, virtual reality is a powerful tool with graphical possibilities to improve BCI-feedback presentation. The objective of the study is to explore the advantages of the use of feedback based on virtual reality techniques compared to conventional systems of feedback. Sixteen untrained subjects, divided into two groups, participated in the experiment. A group of subjects was trained using a BCI system, which uses conventional feedback (bar extension), and another group was trained using a BCI system, which submits subjects to a more familiar environment, such as controlling a car to avoid obstacles. The obtained results suggest that EEG behaviour can be modified via feedback presentation. Significant differences in classification error rates between both interfaces were obtained during the feedback period, confirming that an interface based on virtual reality techniques can improve the feedback control, specifically for untrained subjects.

  6. Techniques of stapler-based navigational thoracoscopic segmentectomy using virtual assisted lung mapping (VAL-MAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaaki; Murayama, Tomonori; Nakajima, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Anatomical segmentectomies play an important role in oncological lung resection, particularly for ground-glass types of primary lung cancers. This operation can also be applied to metastatic lung tumors deep in the lung. Virtual assisted lung mapping (VAL-MAP) is a novel technique that allows for bronchoscopic multi-spot dye markings to provide "geometric information" to the lung surface, using three-dimensional virtual images. In addition to wedge resections, VAL-MAP has been found to be useful in thoracoscopic segmentectomies, particularly complex segmentectomies, such as combined subsegmentectomies or extended segmentectomies. There are five steps in VAL-MAP-assisted segmentectomies: (I) "standing" stitches along the resection lines; (II) cleaning hilar anatomy; (III) confirming hilar anatomy; (IV) going 1 cm deeper; (V) step-by-step stapling technique. Depending on the anatomy, segmentectomies can be classified into linear (lingular, S6, S2), V- or U-shaped (right S1, left S3, S2b + S3a), and three dimensional (S7, S8, S9, S10) segmentectomies. Particularly three dimensional segmentectomies are challenging in the complexity of stapling techniques. This review focuses on how VAL-MAP can be utilized in segmentectomy, and how this technique can assist the stapling process in even the most challenging ones.

  7. Virtual Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    Virtual Field Trips have been around almost as long as the Worldwide Web itself yet virtual explorers do not generally return to their desktops with folders full of virtual hand specimens. Collection of real specimens on fields trips for later analysis in the lab (or at least in the pub) has been an important part of classical field geoscience education and research for generations but concern for the landscape and for preservation of key outcrops from wanton destruction has lead to many restrictions. One of the author’s favorite outcrops was recently vandalized presumably by a geologist who felt the need to bash some of the world’s most spectacular buckle folds with a rock sledge. It is not surprising, therefore, that geologists sometimes leave fragile localities out of field trip itineraries. Once analyzed, most specimens repose in drawers or bins, never to be seen again. Some end up in teaching collections but recent pedagogical research shows that undergraduate students have difficulty relating specimens both to their collection location and ultimate provenance in the lithosphere. Virtual specimens can be created using 3D modeling software and imported into virtual globes such as Google Earth (GE) where, they may be linked to virtual field trip stops or restored to their source localities on the paleo-globe. Sensitive localities may be protected by placemark approximation. The GE application program interface (API) has a distinct advantage over the stand-alone GE application when it comes to viewing and manipulating virtual specimens. When instances of the virtual globe are embedded in web pages using the GE plug-in, Collada models of specimens can be manipulated with javascript controls residing in the enclosing HTML, permitting specimens to be magnified, rotated in 3D, and sliced. Associated analytical data may be linked into javascript and localities for comparison at various points on the globe referenced by ‘fetching’ KML. Virtual specimens open up

  8. Visualizing Mars Using Virtual Reality: A State of the Art Mapping Technique Used on Mars Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C.; Zbinden, E.; Blackmon, T.; Nguyen, L.

    1999-01-01

    We describe an interactive terrain visualization system which rapidly generates and interactively displays photorealistic three-dimensional (3-D) models produced from stereo images. This product, first demonstrated in Mars Pathfinder, is interactive, 3-D, and can be viewed in an immersive display which qualifies it for the name Virtual Reality (VR). The use of this technology on Mars Pathfinder was the first use of VR for geologic analysis. A primary benefit of using VR to display geologic information is that it provides an improved perception of depth and spatial layout of the remote site. The VR aspect of the display allows an operator to move freely in the environment, unconstrained by the physical limitations of the perspective from which the data were acquired. Virtual Reality offers a way to archive and retrieve information in a way that is intuitively obvious. Combining VR models with stereo display systems can give the user a sense of presence at the remote location. The capability, to interactively perform measurements from within the VR model offers unprecedented ease in performing operations that are normally time consuming and difficult using other techniques. Thus, Virtual Reality can be a powerful a cartographic tool. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Reservation Resource Technique for Virtual Machine Placement in Cloud Data Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Singh. N

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Migrations of Virtual Machine directly influence on energy consumption and QoS, to avoid migration of virtual machine when a host is overloaded a good placement technique need to be applied. Virtual Machine Placement is vital in cloud computing to utilize the resources in an efficient manner. Migration of a VM instance when a host is overloaded is familiar in cloud computing. VM selection policy finds a suitable VM to migrate from overloaded host and place to an under loaded host or turn on a new host. While migration there is small downtime of the service, even thou down time is small there is a huge change in energy consumption. Energy consumption in data centre has lead to emission of carbon dioxide to the environment. Frequent VM migration may cause the services to high latency in the network and may disturb the network environment. These works focus to reduce the VM migration, improve SLA and energy consumption. Therefore, a reservation method known as RTBBE (RTBBE (Reservation Technique Bin BECK Entropy proposed in the study that is by allocating and assigning double upper threshold with entropy method with new overload detection PR (Polynomial Regression and a VM selection policy MUR (Minimum Utilization Rank had proposed in this study. The result shows that the proposed technique reduces the energy consumption, SLA and VM migration. Experimental shows that the proposed method reduce the energy up to 21.30 kWh when the overload detection PR combines with MUR, SLA of 0.00029% with IQR with MUR and 775 VM were migrated with LRR and MC.

  10. Floating Node Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique for Modeling Matrix Cracking-Delamination Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarvalho, N. V.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, S. T.; Baiz, P. M.; Ratcliffe, J. G.; Tay, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials that combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. In this study, the approach is applied to the modeling of delamination migration in cross-ply tape laminates. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration are all modeled using fracture mechanics based failure and migration criteria. The methodology proposed shows very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments.

  11. Floating Node Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique for Modeling Matrix Cracking-Delamination Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarvalho, Nelson V.; Chen, B. Y.; Pinho, Silvestre T.; Baiz, P. M.; Ratcliffe, James G.; Tay, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for high-fidelity modeling of progressive damage and failure in composite materials that combines the Floating Node Method (FNM) and the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) to represent multiple interacting failure mechanisms in a mesh-independent fashion. In this study, the approach is applied to the modeling of delamination migration in cross-ply tape laminates. Delamination, matrix cracking, and migration are all modeled using fracture mechanics based failure and migration criteria. The methodology proposed shows very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments.

  12. Crosstalk suppression in networked resistive sensor arrays using virtual ground technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai Saxena, Raghvendra; Semwal, Sushil Kumar; Singh Rana, Pratap; Bhan, R. K.

    2013-11-01

    In 2D resistive sensor arrays, the interconnections are reduced considerably by sharing rows and columns among various sensor elements in such a way that one end of each sensor is connected to a row node and other end connected to a column node. This scheme results in total N + M interconnections for N × M array of sensors. Thus, it simplifies the interconnect complexity but suffers from the crosstalk problem among its elements. We experimentally demonstrate that this problem can be overcome by putting all the row nodes at virtually equal potential using virtual ground of high gain operational amplifiers in negative feedback. Although it requires large number of opamps, it solves the crosstalk problem to a large extent. Additionally, we get the response of all the sensors lying in a column simultaneously, resulting in a faster scanning capability. By performing lock-in-amplifier based measurements on a light dependent resistor at a randomly selected location in a 4 × 4 array of otherwise fixed valued resistors, we have shown that the technique can provide 86 dB crosstalk suppression even with a simple opamp. Finally, we demonstrate the circuit implementation of this technique for a 16 × 16 imaging array of light dependent resistors.

  13. Performance Improvement of EduCloud using a refined Virtualization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Chakravarthy Gope

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clouds provide an inexpensive remote access to hardware and storage resources. It has become a widely used term in the industry. Academics has not remained unaware of this trend, and several educational solutions based on cloud technologies are already in place, especially for software as a service (SAAS cloud. Extending this usage to infrastructure and platform clouds (IAAS,PAAS has not been explored yet. There is no design to classify clouds based on different stages involved in the learning process of academics especially for computer science students. An implementation of platform service clouds is valued by both students and professors to achieve the course objectives and also these clouds offer a significant improvement over existing situations in labs where much effort was devoted to setting up the software necessary for course activities. These conventions strongly applies to other similar disciplines where students interact with resources that are not-self-contained (e.g., network nodes, databases, mechanical equipment etc besides programming or performing virtual experiments. For implementing IAAS and PAAS clouds the virtual machines (VMs in Amazon Clouds are used. But recent (August 6th 2011 events suggest that even a robust and efficient Amazon architecture suffers from down times and complications. So we propose an IO optimization technique to simplify management, lower costs and improve performance of cloud servers. An implementation of the proposed technique validates the claim

  14. The Authentication Techniques in Distributed E-Learning between Universities in Avicenna Virtual Campus Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Mahfouth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning become the most used and popular teaching method in universities with availability of E-learning tools and techniques, development of technology communications and networks. In this paper we will propose authentication techniques between universities in Avicenna Virtual Campus Project in Euro Mid Infrastructure Network. These universities are sharing a resources to support the E-learning System between them, since the universities are usually isolated graphically in the world. The system are in a risk and dangerous from hacking, viruses and un trusted peoples. The security issue is very important for the thousands of students, employees and instructors whom access the E-learning resources and translate data between universities network.

  15. The Immersive Virtual Reality Experience: A Typology of Users Revealed Through Multiple Correspondence Analysis Combined with Cluster Analysis Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Pedro J; Morais, Diogo; Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Saraiva, Tomaz

    2016-03-01

    Immersive virtual reality is thought to be advantageous by leading to higher levels of presence. However, and despite users getting actively involved in immersive three-dimensional virtual environments that incorporate sound and motion, there are individual factors, such as age, video game knowledge, and the predisposition to immersion, that may be associated with the quality of virtual reality experience. Moreover, one particular concern for users engaged in immersive virtual reality environments (VREs) is the possibility of side effects, such as cybersickness. The literature suggests that at least 60% of virtual reality users report having felt symptoms of cybersickness, which reduces the quality of the virtual reality experience. The aim of this study was thus to profile the right user to be involved in a VRE through head-mounted display. To examine which user characteristics are associated with the most effective virtual reality experience (lower cybersickness), a multiple correspondence analysis combined with cluster analysis technique was performed. Results revealed three distinct profiles, showing that the PC gamer profile is more associated with higher levels of virtual reality effectiveness, that is, higher predisposition to be immersed and reduced cybersickness symptoms in the VRE than console gamer and nongamer. These findings can be a useful orientation in clinical practice and future research as they help identify which users are more predisposed to benefit from immersive VREs.

  16. Application of rapid drilling technique of"one trip drilling" in Lukeqin heavy oil reservoir%“一趟钻”快速钻井技术在鲁克沁稠油油藏中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱峰; 肖华

    2012-01-01

    Lukeqin heavy oil reservoir is in great depth and developed with salt rocks, so the requirement for wellbore quality is high. Frequent tripping is the feature of the preexisting drilling process, and the drilling efficiency is low. Base on surveying a number of past field operations, the drilling history data is analyzed, and the matching speed raising technique is studied. The high efficient PDC bit and high efficiency BHA are designed and optimized, and the high quality matching drilling fluid is taken, to carry out the objective of two sections of drilling operations in one trip. The rapid drilling technique of one trip drilling improved greatly the drilling rate of Lukeqin heavy oil reservoir, and decreased the drilling cost. It effectively protected the reservoir, and played a great role in increasing oil reserve and production.%鲁克沁稠油油藏油层深、盐膏层发育,对井身质量要求高,原有的钻井工艺起下钻频繁,钻井时效低.在调研前期大量现场施工的基础上,分析了钻井井史资料,研究了提速配套技术,通过改变提速技术方案,设计优选了高效PDC钻头、高效井下动力钻具及采用优质配套的钻井液等措施,最终实现了二开“一趟钻”的目标.“一趟钻”快速钻井技术大幅度提高了鲁克沁稠油油藏的钻井速度,降低了钻井成本,有效地保护了油气层,为油田增储上产起到了较大的推动作用.

  17. Guam Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — DAWR collects Trip Ticket or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish directly from the fishermen. Similar to the trip ticket system in Saipan, this is a...

  18. Administration Trip Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Plan. (h) Army Community of Excellence. (i) Child development services. k. The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Manpower and Reserve Affairs ( ASAM ...RA) will — (1) Provide information as requested when the information falls under the purview of the ASAM &RA. (2) Provide recurring trip book

  19. Utility of iodine overlay technique and virtual unenhanced images for the characterization of renal masses by dual-energy CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Kim, Bohyun

    2011-12-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the utility of dual-energy CT for characterizing renal masses using iodine overlay techniques and virtual unenhanced images and to measure the potential radiation dose reduction for two-phase kidney CT compared with a standard three-phase protocol. Sixty patients with suspected renal masses underwent dual-energy CT including true unenhanced, dual-energy corticomedullary, and dual-energy late nephrographic phase imaging. Iodine overlay and virtual unenhanced images were derived from the corticomedullary and late nephrographic phases, respectively. The CT numbers of renal masses were calculated using the iodine overlay images superimposed on the virtual unenhanced images. The overall imaging quality of the true unenhanced images and of the virtual unenhanced images was also evaluated. The effective radiation doses for dual-energy CT and for true unenhanced imaging were calculated. For overlay or enhancement values on iodine overlay images, 36 simple cysts and 10 hemorrhagic cysts had an attenuation value of less than 20 HU, whereas 21 renal cell carcinomas showed an attenuation value of 20 HU or greater. Eleven angiomyolipomas contained macroscopic fat tissue. All renal masses were accurately classified on the basis of dual-energy CT. The imaging quality of the virtual unenhanced images from the corticomedullary and late nephrographic phases was inferior to the image quality of the true unenhanced images (p overlay techniques and virtual unenhanced images may be useful for characterizing renal masses.

  20. Virtual X-ray imaging techniques in an immersive casting simulation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ning [Visual Computing and Virtual Reality Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 405-1, Ewha-SK Telecom Building, 11-1, Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, 120-750 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: lining@ewha.ac.kr; Kim, Sung-Hee [Visual Computing and Virtual Reality Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 405-1, Ewha-SK Telecom Building, 11-1, Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, 120-750 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Ji-Hyun [Visual Computing and Virtual Reality Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 405-1, Ewha-SK Telecom Building, 11-1, Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, 120-750 Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang-Hyun [Center for e-Design, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 7-47, Songdo-Dong, Yeonsu-Ku, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jung-Gil [Center for e-Design, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 7-47, Songdo-Dong, Yeonsu-Ku, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung-Hee [Visual Computing and Virtual Reality Laboratory, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, 405-1, Ewha-SK Telecom Building, 11-1, Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, 120-750 Seoul (Korea, Republic of) and Center for Computer Graphics and Virtual Reality, Ewha Womans University, 400, Ewha-SK Telecom Building, 11-1, Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, 120-750 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: mhkim@ewha.ac.kr

    2007-08-15

    A computer code was developed to simulate radiograph of complex casting products in a CAVE{sup TM}-like environment. The simulation is based on the deterministic algorithms and ray tracing techniques. The aim of this study is to examine CAD/CAE/CAM models at the design stage, to optimize the design and inspect predicted defective regions with fast speed, good accuracy and small numerical expense. The present work discusses the algorithms for the radiography simulation of CAD/CAM model and proposes algorithmic solutions adapted from ray-box intersection algorithm and octree data structure specifically for radiographic simulation of CAE model. The stereoscopic visualization of full-size of product in the immersive casting simulation environment as well as the virtual X-ray images of castings provides an effective tool for design and evaluation of foundry processes by engineers and metallurgists.

  1. Application of virtual reality technique to a radiation protection training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, Brian K. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Kang, Ki Doo [KOrea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yoo Jin [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yon Sik [Kunsan National Univ., Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Using an Internet Virtual Reality (IVR) technique, a 3-dimensional (3-D) model for the radiation controlled area in a nuclear power plant was developed, and a feasibility study to develop a computational program to estimate radiation dose was performed. For this purpose, a pilot model with a dynamic function and bi-directional communication was developed. This model was enhanced from the existing 3-D single-directional communication. In this pilot model, a plant visitor needs to first pass a series of security checks. If the visitor enters the controlled area and approaches a radiation hazard area, alarms with a warning lamp will be initiated automatically. Throughout the test to connect this model from both domestic and international sites in various time zones, it has proven to perform well. Therefore, this model can be applied to broad fields as radiation protection procedures or radiation protection training with photographic data, and on-line dose assessment programs.

  2. Virtual queueing techniques for UBR+ service in ATM with fair access and minimum bandwidth guarantee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, K.Y.; Wu, Y.; Ren, W.

    1998-11-01

    The ATM Forum is currently discussing the need for a new best-effort service called UBR+, which is an enhancement to the existing UBR service, to support data traffic. The objective of the UBR+ service is to provide each user with a minimum service rate guarantee and a fair access to any excess available bandwidth. In this paper, the authors present a new efficient scheme for supporting this service. The key advantage of the scheme is that it employs only FIFO queueing (instead of per-VC queueing) and admits simple implementation in ATM switches. The ideas involve a simple scheduling mechanism that is based on per-VC queueing and incorporate the virtual queueing technique that can efficiently emulate per-VC queueing on a shared FIFO queue. Simulation results are presented to show that the schemes can deliver almost ideal performance for supporting the new service requirements of UBR+.

  3. See-through techniques for referential awareness in collaborative virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Argelaguet Sanz, Fernando; Kulik, Alexander; Kunert, André; Andújar Gran, Carlos Antonio; Froehlich, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Multi-user virtual reality systems enable natural collaboration in share virtual worlds. Users can talk to each other, gesture and point into the virtual scenery as if it were real. As in reality, refer ring to objects by pointing results often in a situation whereon objects are occluded from the other users’ viewpoints. While in reality this problem can only be solved by adapting the viewing position, specialized individual views of the shared virtual scene enable various other so...

  4. Analysis of computer-aided techniques for virtual planning in nasoalveolar moulding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffelbein, D J; Ritschl, L M; Rau, A; Wolff, K-D; Barbarino, M; Pfeifer, S; Schönberger, M; Wintermantel, E

    2015-05-01

    We compared two methods of planning virtual alveolar moulding as the first step in nasoalveolar moulding to provide the basis for an automated process to fabricate nasoalveolar moulding appliances by using computer-assisted design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM). First, the initial intraoral casts taken from seven newborn babies with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate were digitised. This was repeated for the target models after conventional nasoalveolar moulding had been completed. The initial digital model for each patient was then virtually modified by two different modelling techniques to achieve the corresponding target model: parametric and freeform modelling with the software Geomagic(®). The digitally-remodelled casts were quantitatively compared with the actual target model for each patient, and the comparison between the two modified models and the target model showed that freeform modelling of the initial cast was successful (mean (SD) deviation n=7, +0.723 (0.148) to -0.694 (0.157)mm) but needed continuous orientation and was difficult to automate. The results from the parametric modelling (mean (SD) deviation, n=7, +1.168 (0.185) to -1.067 (0.221)mm) were not as good as those from freeform modelling. During parametric modelling, we found some irregularities on the surface, and transverse growth of the maxilla was not accounted for. However, this method seems to be the right one as far as automation is concerned. In addition, an external algorithm must be implemented because the function of the commercial software is limited.

  5. Modeling and visualization techniques for virtual stenting of aneurysms and stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Jan; Grosskopf, Stefan; Nimsky, Christopher; Kapur, Tina; Freisleben, Bernd

    2012-04-01

    In this work, we present modeling and visualization techniques for virtual stenting of aneurysms and stenoses. In particular, contributions to support the computer-aided treatment of artery diseases - artery enlargement (aneurysm) and artery contraction (stenosis) - are made. If an intervention takes place, there are two different treatment alternatives for this kind of artery diseases: open surgery and minimally invasive (endovascular) treatment. Computer-assisted optimization of endovascular treatments is the main focus of our work. In addition to stent simulation techniques, we also present a computer-aided simulation of endoluminal catheters to support the therapy-planning phase. The stent simulation is based on a three-dimensional Active Contour Method and is applicable to both non-bifurcated (I-stents) and bifurcated stents (Y-stents). All methods are introduced in detail and are evaluated with phantom datasets as well as with real patient data from the clinical routine. Additionally, the clinical prototype that is based upon these methods is described.

  6. Noise Measurements Of Resistors With The Use Of Dual-Phase Virtual Lock-In Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Adam Witold

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of low-frequency noise properties of modern electronic components is a very demanding challenge due to the low magnitude of a noise signal and the limit of a dissipated power. In such a case, an ac technique with a lock-in amplifier or the use of a low-noise transformer as the first stage in the signal path are common approaches. A software dual-phase virtual lock-in (VLI technique has been developed and tested in low-frequency noise studies of electronic components. VLI means that phase-sensitive detection is processed by a software layer rather than by an expensive hardware lock-in amplifier. The VLI method has been tested in exploration of noise in polymer thick-film resistors. Analysis of the obtained noise spectra of voltage fluctuations confirmed that the 1/f noise caused by resistance fluctuations is the dominant one. The calculated value of the parameter describing the noise intensity of a resistive material, C = 1·10−21 m3, is consistent with that obtained with the use of a dc method. On the other hand, it has been observed that the spectra of (excitation independent resistance noise contain a 1/f component whose intensity depends on the excitation frequency. The phenomenon has been explained by means of noise suppression by impedances of the measurement circuit, giving an excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Virtual Manufacturing Techniques Designed and Applied to Manufacturing Activities in the Manufacturing Integration and Technology Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearrow, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the identified goals of EM3 is to implement virtual manufacturing by the time the year 2000 has ended. To realize this goal of a true virtual manufacturing enterprise the initial development of a machinability database and the infrastructure must be completed. This will consist of the containment of the existing EM-NET problems and developing machine, tooling, and common materials databases. To integrate the virtual manufacturing enterprise with normal day to day operations the development of a parallel virtual manufacturing machinability database, virtual manufacturing database, virtual manufacturing paradigm, implementation/integration procedure, and testable verification models must be constructed. Common and virtual machinability databases will include the four distinct areas of machine tools, available tooling, common machine tool loads, and a materials database. The machine tools database will include the machine envelope, special machine attachments, tooling capacity, location within NASA-JSC or with a contractor, and availability/scheduling. The tooling database will include available standard tooling, custom in-house tooling, tool properties, and availability. The common materials database will include materials thickness ranges, strengths, types, and their availability. The virtual manufacturing databases will consist of virtual machines and virtual tooling directly related to the common and machinability databases. The items to be completed are the design and construction of the machinability databases, virtual manufacturing paradigm for NASA-JSC, implementation timeline, VNC model of one bridge mill and troubleshoot existing software and hardware problems with EN4NET. The final step of this virtual manufacturing project will be to integrate other production sites into the databases bringing JSC's EM3 into a position of becoming a clearing house for NASA's digital manufacturing needs creating a true virtual manufacturing enterprise.

  8. Development and formability analysis of TRIP seamless steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhu Fuxian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the production technology of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was first introduced into the steel tube manufacture field to produce the steel tubes with high strength and plasticity. The TRIP seamless steel tubes with the microstructure of ferrite, bainite, retained austenite and a little martensite were successfully fabricated using a cold-drawn steel tube with two-stage heat treatment technique and continu- ous heat treatment process, respectively. The ring tensile test and cold bend test were carried out to study the formability of the newly developed TRIP seamless steel tube. The results showed that the TRIP seamless steel tubes have a good cold formability, and they are available to be used in the tube hydroforming process. In ad- dition, the equipment of continuous heat treatment developed in the current study can be used to produce TRIP steel tube, and it may serve as an important reference for the industrial production of TRIP steel tube.

  9. Virtual Instrumentation Techniques in Test and Evaluation of Launch Vehicle Avionics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sethunadh

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of virtual instrumentation and its importance in test and evaluation of launch vehicle avionics. The experiences at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC with virtual instrumentation systems, highlighting the virtual instrumentation-based checkout systems of pyro current monitoring package and video image processing unit are presented. The virtual instrumentation system-based checkouts present cost-effective, compact, and user-friendly human-machine interlaces for the test and evaluation of these packages. The issues of a common hardware-software platform for testing different telemetry packages and the capability of real-time virtual instruments for testing navigation, guidance, and control packages have been investigated.

  10. Measurement of elasticity of normal placenta using the Virtual Touch quantification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Size; Nan, Ruixia; Cui, Xiao Jing; Liang, Xian; Zhao, Yanan [Dept. of Ultrasound, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China); Li, Yueping [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College, Haikou (China)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the elasticity of normal placentas using the Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ) technique. This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. Fifty randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their second trimester and 50 randomly selected, healthy pregnant women in their third trimester with a single fetus were included, and their placentas underwent VTQ through shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements. The measurements were performed at different locations to sample different areas of the placenta. Measurements were performed 3-4 times in each location, the mean shear wave velocities were calculated without the highest and lowest values of measurements in each region, and the results were compared. The SWV of the placenta was 0.983±0.260 m/sec, and the minimal and maximal speed was 0.63 m/sec and 1.84 m/sec, respectively. There was no significant difference between the second and third trimester of VTQ of the placenta in terms of SWV (0.978±0.255 m/sec vs. 0.987±0.266 m/sec, P=0.711). The maternal age between second and third trimester was 27.9±4.3 years and 29.2±4.4 years, respectively; there was no significant difference between them (P=0.159). The results of this study show that the SWV of normal placenta tissue is 0.983±0.260 m/sec, it has little variation between the second and third trimesters, and the VTQ technique may potentially play an additional role in placenta evaluation.

  11. A Field Trip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱欢欢

    2012-01-01

    Today is Sunday. My father and I go on a field trip to the Wolf Mountain. There is a jungle(丛林) at the Wolf Mountain. We go into the jungle and see many trees, flowers and stones. In the trees, the squirrels(松鼠) are jumping. The butterflies are dancing over the flowers.%这个周末怎么过?外出效游很不错。若问郊游何处去,这个嘛,就请朱欢欢同学来告诉我们吧。

  12. Análisis y Visualización de Big Data mediante técnicas de realidad virtual = Big Data Visual Analytics using virtual reality techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Raya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gracias a los avances de la tecnología, el número de datos que son generados y su complejidad crece exponencialmente. Las nuevas técnicas de adquisición de datos, así como las técnicas de computación de altas prestaciones han posibilitado la gestión de grandes conjuntos de datos con mayor resolución. Sin embargo, nuestra capacidad en el incremento de cantidad y complejidad en la generación de datos actuales, supera nuestra habilidad para entenderlos fácilmente y darles sentido. En el presente trabajo, proponemos el uso de técnicas de realidad virtual que exploten los diferentes canales sensoriales para facilitar la visualización, análisis, interpretación e interacción de grandes conjuntos de datos complejos. Abstract Advances in technology have made it possible to increase the data size generated causing its complexity grows exponentially. New data acquisition and high performance computing techniques have enabled to manage large data sets with high resolution. However, the amount and complexity of current generation of data exceeds our ability to easily understand and make sense of them. In this paper, we propose the use of virtual reality techniques that exploit different sensory channels for improving the visualization, analysis, interpretation and interaction of large complex datasets.

  13. 30 CFR 57.14162 - Trip lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trip lights. 57.14162 Section 57.14162 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14162 Trip lights. On underground rail haulage, trip lights shall be used on the rear of pulled trips and on the front of pushed trips. Safety Practices and...

  14. Wireless virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Heming; Le-Ngoc, Tho

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBriefs is an overview of the emerging field of wireless access and mobile network virtualization. It provides a clear and relevant picture of the current virtualization trends in wireless technologies by summarizing and comparing different architectures, techniques and technologies applicable to a future virtualized wireless network infrastructure. The readers are exposed to a short walkthrough of the future Internet initiative and network virtualization technologies in order to understand the potential role of wireless virtualization in the broader context of next-generation ubiq

  15. EMOTION INTERACTION WITH VIRTUAL REALITY USING HYBRID EMOTION CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE TOWARD BRAIN SIGNALS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faris A. Abuhashish; Jamal Zraqou; Wesam Alkhodour; Mohd S. Sunar; Hoshang Kolivand

    2015-01-01

    .... Last decade many researchers focused on emotion classification in order to employ emotion in interaction with virtual reality, the classification will be done based on Electroencephalogram (EEG) brain signals...

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A VIRTUAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUE FOR THE UPSTREAM OIL INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Shahab D. Mohaghegh; Samuel Ameri

    2004-09-01

    The objective of the research and development work reported in this document was to develop a Virtual Intelligence Technique for optimization of the Preferred Upstream Management Practices (PUMP) for the upstream oil industry. The work included the development of a software tool for identification and optimization of the most influential parameters in upstream common practices as well as geological, geophysical and reservoir engineering studies. The work was performed in cooperation with three independent producing companies--Newfield Exploration, Chesapeake Energy, and Triad Energy--operating in the Golden Trend, Oklahoma. In order to protect data confidentiality, these companies are referred to as Company One, Two, Three in a randomly selected order. These producing companies provided geological, completion, and production data on 320 wells and participated in frequent technical discussions throughout the project. Research and development work was performed by Gas Technology Institute (GTI), West Virginia University (WVU), and Intelligent Solutions Inc. (ISI). Oklahoma Independent Petroleum Association (OIPA) participated in technology transfer and data acquisition efforts. Deliverables from the project are the present final report and a user-friendly software package (Appendix D) with two distinct functions: a characterization tool that identifies the most influential parameters in the upstream operations, and an optimization tool that seeks optimization by varying a number of influential parameters and investigating the coupled effects of these variations. The electronic version of this report is also included in Appendix D. The Golden Trend data were used for the first cut optimization of completion procedures. In the subsequent step, results from soft computing runs were used as the guide for detailed geophysical and reservoir engineering studies that characterize the cause-and-effect relationships between various parameters. The general workflow and the main

  17. Combined application of virtual imaging techniques and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography in diagnosing intracranial aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background The diagnostic value of virtual imaging combined with three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) for intracranial aneurysms has not been fully elucidated yet. This study aimed to evaluate the value of combined application of virtual imaging techniques and 3D-CTA in diagnosing patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) at the acute stage. Methods Eighty patients with non-traumatic SAH received 3D-CTA examinations. The raw CT data of these patients were reconstructed and transferred into the 3D mode through the surgical plan system based on virtual reality (VR) image, and the 3D virtual images of skulls and brain blood vessels were acquired. The location, size and shape of aneurysms and their anatomic relationship with adjacent tissues were measured from many points of view. Results Seventy-three aneurysms were detected in 68 of the 80 patients, but 2 aneurysms were detected in 2 of the 5 patients who had been found free of aneurysms previously and had received 3D-CTA examinations for a second time one month later. The 3D virtual images produced by the virtual imaging system were clear and vivid, and they could reveal the location and size of the aneurysm and its relations to the parent artery and skull directly. Conclusions The imaging of 3D-CTA is convenient, reliable and fast in diagnosing intracranial aneurysms and can be regarded as the first choice for the diagnosis and treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Combined with the surgical plan system based on the VR image, 3D-CTA may obtain more imaging information about aneurysms.

  18. Full scope simulator of a nuclear power plant control room using 3D stereo virtual reality techniques for operators training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Almeida, Adino Americo A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: mag@ien.gov.br; mol@ien.gov.br; adino@ien.gov.br; cmnap@ien.gov.br; Varela, Thiago F.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mail: phillips.rj@terra.com.br; Cunha, Gerson G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Metodos Computacionais em Engenharia (LAMCE)]. E-mail: gerson@lance.ufrj.br

    2007-07-01

    Practical training of nuclear power plants operators are partially performed by means of simulators. Usually these simulators are physical copies of the original control roam, needing a large space on a facility being also very expensive. In this way, the proposal of this paper is to implement the use of Virtual Reality techniques to design a full scope control room simulator, in a manner to reduce costs and physical space usage. (author)

  19. Implementation of dual-energy technique for virtual monochromatic and linearly mixed CBCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hao; Giles, William; Ren Lei; Bowsher, James; Yin Fangfang [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To implement dual-energy imaging technique for virtual monochromatic (VM) and linearly mixed (LM) cone beam CTs (CBCTs) and to demonstrate their potential applications in metal artifact reduction and contrast enhancement in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Methods: A bench-top CBCT system was used to acquire 80 kVp and 150 kVp projections, with an additional 0.8 mm tin filtration. To implement the VM technique, these projections were first decomposed into acrylic and aluminum basis material projections to synthesize VM projections, which were then used to reconstruct VM CBCTs. The effect of VM CBCT on the metal artifact reduction was evaluated with an in-house titanium-BB phantom. The optimal VM energy to maximize contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for iodine contrast and minimize beam hardening in VM CBCT was determined using a water phantom containing two iodine concentrations. The LM technique was implemented by linearly combining the low-energy (80 kVp) and high-energy (150 kVp) CBCTs. The dose partitioning between low-energy and high-energy CBCTs was varied (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% for low-energy) while keeping total dose approximately equal to single-energy CBCTs, measured using an ion chamber. Noise levels and CNRs for four tissue types were investigated for dual-energy LM CBCTs in comparison with single-energy CBCTs at 80, 100, 125, and 150 kVp. Results: The VM technique showed substantial reduction of metal artifacts at 100 keV with a 40% reduction in the background standard deviation compared to a 125 kVp single-energy scan of equal dose. The VM energy to maximize CNR for both iodine concentrations and minimize beam hardening in the metal-free object was 50 keV and 60 keV, respectively. The difference of average noise levels measured in the phantom background was 1.2% between dual-energy LM CBCTs and equivalent-dose single-energy CBCTs. CNR values in the LM CBCTs of any dose partitioning are better than those of 150 kVp single-energy CBCTs. The

  20. Roofmijten tegen trips in roos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnakker, J.; Leman, A.

    2012-01-01

    De californische trips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) van de familie van de Thripidae komt oorspronkelijk uit de westkust van Californië (Bryan & Smith, 1956). Haar introductie in Europa dateert van 1984. In de glastuinbouw is californische trips, één van de belangrijkste plagen. Ze vormt

  1. Field Trips: How and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Smedley C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the planning and preparation necessary to make field trips economically justifiable and educationally worthwhile. Student orientations and positive motivation are essential for successful fieldtrips. A description of a well-planned field trip to Rockport, Massachusetts, for a high school portfolio art class is included. (AM)

  2. Virtual Distances Methodology as Verification Technique for AACMMs with a Capacitive Sensor Based Indexed Metrology Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Acero

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new verification procedure for articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMMs together with a capacitive sensor-based indexed metrology platform (IMP based on the generation of virtual reference distances. The novelty of this procedure lays on the possibility of creating virtual points, virtual gauges and virtual distances through the indexed metrology platform’s mathematical model taking as a reference the measurements of a ball bar gauge located in a fixed position of the instrument’s working volume. The measurements are carried out with the AACMM assembled on the IMP from the six rotating positions of the platform. In this way, an unlimited number and types of reference distances could be created without the need of using a physical gauge, therefore optimizing the testing time, the number of gauge positions and the space needed in the calibration and verification procedures. Four evaluation methods are presented to assess the volumetric performance of the AACMM. The results obtained proved the suitability of the virtual distances methodology as an alternative procedure for verification of AACMMs using the indexed metrology platform.

  3. Virtual Distances Methodology as Verification Technique for AACMMs with a Capacitive Sensor Based Indexed Metrology Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Raquel; Santolaria, Jorge; Brau, Agustin; Pueo, Marcos

    2016-11-18

    This paper presents a new verification procedure for articulated arm coordinate measuring machines (AACMMs) together with a capacitive sensor-based indexed metrology platform (IMP) based on the generation of virtual reference distances. The novelty of this procedure lays on the possibility of creating virtual points, virtual gauges and virtual distances through the indexed metrology platform's mathematical model taking as a reference the measurements of a ball bar gauge located in a fixed position of the instrument's working volume. The measurements are carried out with the AACMM assembled on the IMP from the six rotating positions of the platform. In this way, an unlimited number and types of reference distances could be created without the need of using a physical gauge, therefore optimizing the testing time, the number of gauge positions and the space needed in the calibration and verification procedures. Four evaluation methods are presented to assess the volumetric performance of the AACMM. The results obtained proved the suitability of the virtual distances methodology as an alternative procedure for verification of AACMMs using the indexed metrology platform.

  4. All-optical virtual private network system in OFDM based long-reach PON using RSOA re-modulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Hun; Jung, Sang-Min; Kang, Su-Min; Han, Sang-Kook

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical virtual private network (VPN) system in an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based long reach PON (LR-PON). In the optical access network field, technologies based on fundamental upstream (U/S) and downstream (D/S) have been actively researched to accommodate explosion of data capacity. However, data transmission among the end users which is arisen from cloud computing, file-sharing and interactive game takes a large weight inside of internet traffic. Moreover, this traffic is predicted to increase more if Internet of Things (IoT) services are activated. In a conventional PON, VPN data is transmitted through ONU-OLT-ONU via U/S and D/S carriers. It leads to waste of bandwidth and energy due to O-E-O conversion in the OLT and round-trip propagation between OLT and remote node (RN). Also, it causes inevitable load to the OLT for electrical buffer, scheduling and routing. The network inefficiency becomes more critical in a LR-PON which has been researched as an effort to reduce CAPEX and OPEX through metro-access consolidation. In the proposed system, the VPN data is separated from conventional U/S and re-modulated on the D/S carrier by using RSOA in the ONUs to avoid bandwidth consumption of U/S and D/S unlike in previously reported system. Moreover, the transmitted VPN data is re-directed to the ONUs by wavelength selective reflector device in the RN without passing through the OLT. Experimental demonstration for the VPN communication system in an OFDM based LR-PON has been verified.

  5. Generation of 3D Virtual Geographic Environment Based on Laser Scanning Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jie; CHEN Xiaoyong; FumioYamazaki

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an experiment on the generation of 3D virtual geographic environment on the basis of experimental flight laser scanning data by a set of algorithms and methods that were developed to automatically interpret range images for extracting geo-spatial features and then to reconstruct geo-objects. The algorithms and methods for the interpretation and modeling of laser scanner data include triangulated-irregular-network (TIN)-based range image interpolation ; mathematical-morphology(MM)-based range image filtering,feature extraction and range image segmentation, feature generalization and optimization, 3D objects reconstruction and modeling; computergraphics (CG)-based visualization and animation of geographic virtual reality environment.

  6. Effective Design of Educational Virtual Reality Applications for Medicine Using Knowledge-Engineering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Filip; Bun, Pawel; Wichniarek, Radoslaw; Zawadzki, Przemyslaw; Hamrol, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Effective medical and biomedical engineering education is an important problem. Traditional methods are difficult and costly. That is why Virtual Reality is often used for that purpose. Educational medical VR is a well-developed IT field, with many available hardware and software solutions. Current solutions are prepared without methodological…

  7. Designing a Virtual Item Bank Based on the Techniques of Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Wei; Ho, Rong-Guey

    2011-01-01

    One of the major weaknesses of the item exposure rates of figural items in Intelligence Quotient (IQ) tests lies in its inaccuracies. In this study, a new approach is proposed and a useful test tool known as the Virtual Item Bank (VIB) is introduced. The VIB combine Automatic Item Generation theory and image processing theory with the concepts of…

  8. Engaging Students by Emphasising Botanical Concepts over Techniques: Innovative Practical Exercises Using Virtual Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonser, Stephen P.; de Permentier, Patrick; Green, Jacinta; Velan, Gary M.; Adam, Paul; Kumar, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Student interest in botany and enrolment in plant sciences courses tends to be low compared to that in other biological disciplines. One potential way of increasing student interest in botany is to focus on course material designed to raise student enthusiasm and satisfaction. Here, we introduce and evaluate virtual microscopy in botany teaching.…

  9. Effective Design of Educational Virtual Reality Applications for Medicine Using Knowledge-Engineering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górski, Filip; Bun, Pawel; Wichniarek, Radoslaw; Zawadzki, Przemyslaw; Hamrol, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Effective medical and biomedical engineering education is an important problem. Traditional methods are difficult and costly. That is why Virtual Reality is often used for that purpose. Educational medical VR is a well-developed IT field, with many available hardware and software solutions. Current solutions are prepared without methodological…

  10. Spiral CT arthrography of multiplanar reconstruction and virtual arthroscopy technique in diagnosis of knee with internal derangements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊传芝; 郝敬明

    2004-01-01

    5Objective:To evaluate the values of spiral CT arthrography with multiplanar reconstruction and virtual arthroscopy technique in diagnosis of internal derangements of the knee. Methods:Ten bovine knees were used for experiment. The menisci, anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and cartilage of these 10 bovine knees were injured with a hook. Each of the joints was injected with 100 mi air, then soon scanned with a PQ6000 spiral computed tomography scanner. The data obtained was input into the work station, and multiplanar reconstruction technique was used to illustrate lesions in the knees. The results of CT diagnosis were compared to those found by gross inspection of the specimens. Clinically, 10 knees of 9 patients diagnosed as internal derangement were evaluated with the same method after 50-70 ml air was injected into each of the joints. Nine months later, the data of 2 patients were used for CT endoscopy reconstruction. The results were compared with intraoperative findings. Results:Experimentally,the sensitivity and specificity were 88.9% and 93.9% by detection of meniscal abnormalities, 85.7% and 100% by detection of cruciate ligament lesions, and 72.7% and 100% by detection of cartilage damage, respectively. Clinically, the sensitivity and specificity were 90. 0% and 95.0% by detection of meulscal lesion. As to ligament, the figures were 85.7% and 100% respectively. Images of virtual arthroscopy simulated the images of real arthroscopy. Conclnsious:Spiral CT arthrography of multiplanar reconstruction technique offers fime images of internal structures of the knee, with clear border and internal structure. It is an accurate method for detecting meulscal, cruciate and collateral ligament and cartilaginous lesions that cause internal derangement of the knee.Virtual arthroscopy technique is a hopeful method for detecting reasons of derangement of the knee.

  11. Virtual Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokki, Tapio; Savioja, Lauri

    The term virtual acoustics is often applied when sound signal is processed to contain features of a simulated acoustical space and sound is spatially reproduced either with binaural or with multichannel techniques. Therefore, virtual acoustics consists of spatial sound reproduction and room acoustics modeling.

  12. TRIP illumines lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R. D.

    It is 8 yr since important measurements of lightning in single-cell thunderstorms were made during the Thunderstorm Research International Project (TRIP), yet no theoretical interpretation of the lightning generation mechanism from the data has been made. This tardiness in interpreting the data is undoubtedly related to the existing confusion in lightning generation theories.According to Chalmers [1967], there are two classes of thunderstorm charge separation theories: those that rely on gravitation and those that do not involve gravitation. In the gravitational class, Chalmers again distinguished two types of processes: those in which ions are naturally generated (e.g., by cosmic rays, etc.) and are then attached to particles in the cloud and those in which some process (e.g., collision, coagulation, etc.) generates positive and negatively charged particles from neutrals in the cloud. Some of these two process types, cited in Chalmers' work, are given in Table 1, together with some of the scientists who originally proposed these processes.

  13. Trip report Rainwater Basin Nebraska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat types. It is part of the...

  14. CNMI Commercial Purchases (Trip Ticket)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Division of Fish and Wildlife (DFW) collects 'Trip Ticket' or purchase invoice data from vendors that buy fish...

  15. Make My Trip Count 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Make My Trip Count (MMTC) commuter survey, conducted in September and October 2015 by GBA, the Pittsburgh 2030 District, and 10 other regional transportation...

  16. A new technique combining virtual simulation and methylene blue staining for the localization of small peripheral pulmonary lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Quickly and accurately localizing small peripheral pulmonary lesions can avoid prolonged operative time and unplanned open thoracotomy. In this study, we aimed to introduce and evaluate a new technique combining virtual simulation and methylene blue staining for the localization of small peripheral pulmonary lesions. Methods Seventy four (74) patients with 80 peripheral pulmonary lesions methylene blue dye was injected to the virtually identified point according to the surface point, angle and depth previously determined by the simulator. The wedge resection of the marked lesion was performed under video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and the specimens were sent for immediate pathologic examination. According to pathology results, appropriate surgical procedures were decided and undertaken. Results The average lesion size was 10.4±3.5 mm (range: 4-17 mm) and the average distance to the pleural surface was 9.4±4.9 mm. Our preoperative localization procedure was successful in 75 of 80 (94%) lesions. Histological examination showed 28 benign lesions and 52 lung cancers. The shortest distance between the edges of the stain and lesion was 5.1±3.1 mm. Localization time was 17.4±2.3 min. All patients with malignant lesions subsequently underwent lobectomy and systematic lymph node dissection. No complications were observed in all participants. Conclusions The novel technique combining the preoperative virtual simulation and methylene blue staining techniques has a high success rate for localizing small peripheral pulmonary lesions, particularly for those tiny lesions which are difficult to visualise and palpate during VATS. PMID:24512571

  17. Virtual Machine-level Software Transactional Memory: Principles, Techniques, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    VM-managed environment. ByteSTM is built by modifying Jikes RVM [3], a Java research virtual machine implemented in Java , using the optimizing...project have been publicly released as open-source software and research papers published at international conferences. In the following we summarize them... Research (AFOSR)/ RTC Arlington, Virginia 22203 Air Force Research Laboratory Air Force Materiel Command REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No

  18. Virtual instrumentation technique used in the nuclear digital signal processing system design: Energy and time measurement tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechousek, J., E-mail: pechous@prfnw.upol.c [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Experimental Physics, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Prochazka, R.; Prochazka, V. [Centre for Nanomaterial Research, Palacky University, Slechtitelu 11, 783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Frydrych, J. [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Experimental Physics, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2011-05-01

    In this report, computer-based digital signal processing system with a 200 MS s{sup -1} sampling digitizer is presented. Virtual instrumentation technique is used to easily develop a system which provides spectroscopy measurements such as amplitude and time signal analysis, with the time-of-flight facility. Several test measurements were performed to determine the characteristics of a system. The presented system may find its application in the coincidence measurement since the system is usable for different types of detectors and sensitive to decay lifetimes from tens of nanoseconds to seconds.

  19. Urban Socio-Economic Variables and Intra-Urban Trips in Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olayiwola, Solanke Muse

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relative influence of socio-economic variables of urban centers on intra-city tripgeneration. Data were collected on sixteen socio-economic variables and household trip generation in fourteen urbancenters of the state. The nature and degree of relationships between socio-economic variables and trips generated wereestablished through simple bivariate correlation technique. Multiple regression analysis was used to explain variablesthat predict trips generated. The princi...

  20. Development and formability analysis of TRIP seamless steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhu Fuxian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the production technology of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was first introduced into the steel tube manufacture field to produce the steel tubes with high strength and plasticity. The TRIP seamless steel tubes with the microstructure of ferrite,bainite,retained austenite and a little martensite were successfully fabricated using a cold-drawn steel tube with two-stage heat treatment technique and continu-ous heat treatment process,respectively. The ring tensile test and cold bend test were carried out to study the formability of the newly developed TRIP seamless steel tube. The results showed that the TRIP seamless steel tubes have a good cold formability,and they are available to be used in the tube hydroforming process. In ad-dition,the equipment of continuous heat treatment developed in the current study can be used to produce TRIP steel tube,and it may serve as an important reference for the industrial production of TRIP steel tube.

  1. Tripping Effects on the Friction Factor in Turbulent Pipe Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Bayoumi, O. A.; Durst, F.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2004-11-01

    Tripping devices are usually installed at the entrance of laboratory-scale pipe test sections to obtain a fully developed turbulent flow sooner. The tripping of laminar flow to induce turbulence can be carried out in different ways, such as using cylindrical wires, sand papers, well-organized tape letters, fences, etc. Claims of tripping effects have been made periodically since the classical experiments of Nikuradse (1932), which covered a significant range of Reynolds numbers. NikuradseÂ's data have become the metric by which theories are established, and have also been the subject of intense scrutiny. Several subsequent experiments reported friction factors as much as 5% lower than those measured by Nikuradse, and the authors of those reports attributed the difference to tripping effects. In the present study, measurements with and without ring tripping devices of different blocking areas of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% have been carried out to determine the effect of entrance condition on the developing flow field in pipes. Along with pressure drop measurements to compute the skin friction, both Pitot tube and hot-wire anemometry measurements have been used to accurately determine the mean velocity profile over the working test section at different Reynolds numbers in the range of 1× 10^5--4.5 × 10^5. The results we obtained suggest that the tripping technique has an insignificant effect on the wall friction factor, in agreement with Nikuradse's original data.

  2. Optimal calibration via virtual x-ray imaging for dual-energy techniques: application to glass wool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letang, Jean-Michel; Freud, N.; Peix, Gilles

    2003-04-01

    We present in this paper a technique that makes benefit of a virtual X-ray simulation tool to both assess the optimal spectra and calibrate a dual-energy technique. The proposed method is applied to the selective imaging of glass wool materials. To optimize the choice of energy spectra, a signal-to-noise (SNR) criterion on the materials estimated thickness is derived using a constant absorbed energy constraint in the detector. To study further its reliability, the criterion is related to the measurement quality, expressed by a contrast to noise ratio of the input projections, and to the inversion stability, expressed by a contrast to noise ration of the input projections, and to the inversion stability, expressed by the numerical conditioning of the linear dual-energy attenuation system. Once the choice of energy spectra is settled, apparent thicknesses are modeled as third order polynomials expressed in terms of X-ray attenuation measures. The best polynomial fit and the choice of the degree can again be advantageously assessed using virtual X-ray imaging. A semi-empirical catalog is here used to characterize the X-ray source spectrum, and attenuation coefficients for each corresponding compound substance are obtained from standard databases. After completion of those calibration phases, a glass wool phantom composed of PMMA and glass (combined step wedges) is used to validate using real experimental data the selected dual-energy protocol obtained by virtual X-ray imaging. The worse error on the estimated thickness is about 5% for both the binder and the glass fibers. Quantitative imaging in thickness of glass fibers and binder is finally presented.

  3. Trip Generation Model Based on Destination Attractiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Liya; GUAN Hongzhi; YAN Hai

    2008-01-01

    Traditional trip generation forecasting methods use unified average trip generation rates to determine trip generation volumes in various traffic zones without considering the individual characteristics of each traffic zone.Therefore,the results can have significant errors.To reduce the forecasting error produced by uniform trip generation rates for different traffic zones,the behavior of each traveler was studied instead of the characteristics of the traffic zone.This paper gives a method for calculating the trip efficiency and the effect of traffic zones combined with a destination selection model based on disaggregate theory for trip generation.Beijing data is used with the trip generation method to predict trip volumes.The results show that the disaggregate model in this paper is more accurate than the traditional method.An analysis of the factors influencing traveler behavior and destination selection shows that the attractiveness of the traffic zone strongly affects the trip generation volume.

  4. Microstructure characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welded TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Adachi, Yoshitaka; Peterson, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have not yet been successfully joined by any welding technique. It is desirable to search for a suitable welding technique that opens up for full usability of TRIP steels. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot......-mechanically affected zones (TMAZ), and two heat-affected zones (HAZ). The dual behavior of the microstructure in the zones is related to the two transition temperatures in steel: A1 and A3. In parts of the TMAZ the microstructure contains ultra fine-grained ferrite. This finding parallels the observation in thermo......-mechanically processed steels, where severe deformation at elevated temperatures is used to produce ultra fine-grained microstructures. Several possible transformation mechanisms could in principle explain the development of ultra fine-grained ferrite, e.g. dynamic recrystallization, strain-induced ferrite...

  5. Modified Virtual Air Guitar: A Concept Realized using Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Santiago

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Even amidst the hustle and bustle of busy lives, numerous people dream of playing a musical instrument. Unfortunately, many may never get a chance to touch one. But this doesn’t stop them from ‘air drumming’ or playing ‘air guitar’ passionately while listening to their favorite tunes. To encourage this passion for music, especially in the absence of a real instrument, we introduce to you the Virtual Air Guitar. This application allows one to showcase their guitar skills, regardless of their knowledge of playing a real guitar. It uses color tracking to detect inputs and a sound module incorporating the Karplus Strong algorithm to generate musical notes as an output. As a result, a simple webcam and brightly colored gloves are required to use the application. This application has enormous potential as a base for interactive guitar games, teaching music, and of course, to compose guitar based songs.

  6. Radiation dose rate map interpolation in nuclear plants using neural networks and virtual reality techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mol, Antonio Carlos A., E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear Rua Helio de Almeida, 75, Ilha do Fundao, P.O. Box 68550, 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq (Brazil); Pereira, Claudio Marcio N.A., E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear Rua Helio de Almeida, 75, Ilha do Fundao, P.O. Box 68550, 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores/CNPq (Brazil); Freitas, Victor Goncalves G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F., E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear Rua Helio de Almeida, 75, Ilha do Fundao, P.O. Box 68550, 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    This paper reports the most recent development results of a simulation tool for assessment of radiation dose exposition by nuclear plant's personnel, using artificial intelligence and virtual reality technologies. The main purpose of this tool is to support training of nuclear plants' personnel, to optimize working tasks for minimisation of received dose. A finer grid of measurement points was considered within the nuclear plant's room, for different power operating conditions. Further, an intelligent system was developed, based on neural networks, to interpolate dose rate values among measured points. The intelligent dose prediction system is thus able to improve the simulation of dose received by personnel. This work describes the improvements implemented in this simulation tool.

  7. Repositioning template for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flaps: an alternative technique to pre-plating and virtual surgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrone, M; Crosetti, E; Succo, G

    2014-08-01

    Oral malignancies involving the mandibular bone require a complex reconstructive plan. Mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is currently considered the best choice for functional and aesthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. This flap can be modelled with multiple osteotomies and can provide bone, muscle and skin for composite reconstruction. One of the most delicate aspects of mandibular reconstruction is the technique of bone modelling; the risk of prolonging the period of ischaemia and not restoring the correct maxillomandibular and occlusal relationships can ultimately lead to a higher rate of complications as well as poor aesthetic and functional results. Recently, there has been rising interest in virtual surgical planning and computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction in pre-operative planning; however, this is not always possible because of the costs involved and the set-up time for the entire procedure. In this paper, we present a simple and inexpensive technique for fibular free flap modelling and repositioning after segmental resection of the mandible; the technique entails the pre-operative preparation of a resin repositioning template on a stereolithographic model. This technique has been successfully applied in four cases: two cases underwent resection involving only the mandibular body, one case involving the mandibular body and symphysis and one case in which a ramus to ramus resection was performed. In this preliminary report, we show that the resin repositioning template is an easy, safe and useful tool for mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap.

  8. Comparison of subtemporal versus presigmoidal approaches for exposing petrous apex utilizing virtual reality technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke TANG

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To perform quantitative comparison of microanatomical features between subtemporal and presigmoidal minimally invasive approaches for exposing petrous apex on the basis of virtual reality image model.  Methods CT and MRI were performed on 15 adult cadaver heads (30 sides to establish virtual reality three-dimensional anatomical model of petrous apex. The superior edge of the root of temporal bone zygomatic process and the mastoidale on the calvaria were selected as landmark points of craniotomy through subtempral and presigmoidal approaches. Petrous apex was selected as exposure landmark point on the skull base. The lines between craniotomy and exposure landmark points were used as axis to outline a cylinder simulating surgical routes of subtemporal and presigmoidal approaches. Anatomical exposures in two surgical routes were observed and measured. Statistical comparison was launched by paired t test.  Results Surgical route of subtemporal approach passed through middle skull base and temporal lobe, and then reached petrous apex. Petrous bone drilling was performed to expose internal acoustic meatus, facial nerve and labyrinth. Then, trigeminal nerve, superior petrous sinus and cavernous sinus were exposed. Surgical route of presigmoidal approach was performed by drilling petrous bone through mastoid and passing vertical segment of facial nerve. Then, glomus jugulare, the lower cranial nerves, ossicular chain, labyrinth and internal carotid artery (ICA were exposed in turn. Reaching internal acoustic meatus, the route exposed anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA and facial-acoustic nerve complex. Reaching petrous apex, the route involved superior cerebellar artery, superior petrous sinus, inferior petrous sinus, cavernous sinus, trigeminal nerve and partial temporal lobe. The volumes of route, osseous structures, facial-acoustic complex, labyrinth and vein involved in presigmoidal approach were more than those in subtemporal

  9. Improved virtual queuing and dynamic EPD techniques for TCP over ATM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.; Siu, K.Y.; Ren, W.

    1998-11-01

    It is known that TCP throughput can degrade significantly over UBR service in a congested ATM network, and the early packet discard (EPD) technique has been proposed to improve the performance. However, recent studies show that EPD cannot ensure fairness among competing VCs in a congested network, but the degree of fairness can be improved using various forms of fair buffer allocation techniques. The authors propose an improved scheme that utilizes only a single shared FIFO queue for all VCs and admits simple implementation for high speed ATM networks. The scheme achieves nearly perfect fairness and throughput among multiple TCP connections, comparable to the expensive per-VC queuing technique. Analytical and simulation results are presented to show the validity of this new scheme and significant improvement in performance as compared with existing fair buffer allocation techniques for TCP over ATM.

  10. Virtual Lab Demonstrations Improve Students’ Mastery of Basic Biology Laboratory Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace A. Maldarelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology laboratory classes are designed to teach concepts and techniques through experiential learning. Students who have never performed a technique must be guided through the process, which is often difficult to standardize across multiple lab sections. Visual demonstration of laboratory procedures is a key element in teaching pedagogy. The main goals of the study were to create videos explaining and demonstrating a variety of lab techniques that would serve as teaching tools for undergraduate and graduate lab courses and to assess the impact of these videos on student learning. Demonstrations of individual laboratory procedures were videotaped and then edited with iMovie. Narration for the videos was edited with Audacity. Undergraduate students were surveyed anonymously prior to and following screening to assess the impact of the videos on student lab performance by completion of two Participant Perception Indicator surveys. A total of 203 and 171 students completed the pre- and posttesting surveys, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed to compare student perceptions of knowledge of, confidence in, and experience with the lab techniques before and after viewing the videos. Eleven demonstrations were recorded. Chi-square analysis revealed a significant increase in the number of students reporting increased knowledge of, confidence in, and experience with the lab techniques after viewing the videos. Incorporation of instructional videos as prelaboratory exercises has the potential to standardize techniques and to promote successful experimental outcomes.

  11. Generating Virtual Patients by Multivariate and Discrete Re-Sampling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutonico, D; Musuamba, F; Maas, H J; Facius, A; Yang, S; Danhof, M; Della Pasqua, O

    2015-10-01

    Clinical Trial Simulations (CTS) are a valuable tool for decision-making during drug development. However, to obtain realistic simulation scenarios, the patients included in the CTS must be representative of the target population. This is particularly important when covariate effects exist that may affect the outcome of a trial. The objective of our investigation was to evaluate and compare CTS results using re-sampling from a population pool and multivariate distributions to simulate patient covariates. COPD was selected as paradigm disease for the purposes of our analysis, FEV1 was used as response measure and the effects of a hypothetical intervention were evaluated in different populations in order to assess the predictive performance of the two methods. Our results show that the multivariate distribution method produces realistic covariate correlations, comparable to the real population. Moreover, it allows simulation of patient characteristics beyond the limits of inclusion and exclusion criteria in historical protocols. Both methods, discrete resampling and multivariate distribution generate realistic pools of virtual patients. However the use of a multivariate distribution enable more flexible simulation scenarios since it is not necessarily bound to the existing covariate combinations in the available clinical data sets.

  12. Virtual Sensors: Using Data Mining Techniques to Efficiently Estimate Remote Sensing Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok N.; Oza, Nikunj; Stroeve, Julienne

    2004-01-01

    Various instruments are used to create images of the Earth and other objects in the universe in a diverse set of wavelength bands with the aim of understanding natural phenomena. These instruments are sometimes built in a phased approach, with some measurement capabilities being added in later phases. In other cases, there may not be a planned increase in measurement capability, but technology may mature to the point that it offers new measurement capabilities that were not available before. In still other cases, detailed spectral measurements may be too costly to perform on a large sample. Thus, lower resolution instruments with lower associated cost may be used to take the majority of measurements. Higher resolution instruments, with a higher associated cost may be used to take only a small fraction of the measurements in a given area. Many applied science questions that are relevant to the remote sensing community need to be addressed by analyzing enormous amounts of data that were generated from instruments with disparate measurement capability. This paper addresses this problem by demonstrating methods to produce high accuracy estimates of spectra with an associated measure of uncertainty from data that is perhaps nonlinearly correlated with the spectra. In particular, we demonstrate multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs), Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with Radial Basis Function (RBF) kernels, and SVMs with Mixture Density Mercer Kernels (MDMK). We call this type of an estimator a Virtual Sensor because it predicts, with a measure of uncertainty, unmeasured spectral phenomena.

  13. Techniques for virtual lung nodule insertion: volumetric and morphometric comparison of projection-based and image-based methods for quantitative CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Sedlmair, Martin; Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-08-22

    Virtual nodule insertion paves the way towards the development of standardized databases of hybrid CT images with known lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess three methods (an established and two newly developed techniques) for inserting virtual lung nodules into CT images. Assessment was done by comparing virtual nodule volume and shape to the CT-derived volume and shape of synthetic nodules. 24 synthetic nodules (three sizes, four morphologies, two repeats) were physically inserted into the lung cavity of an anthropomorphic chest phantom (KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was imaged with and without nodules on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens) using a standard thoracic CT protocol at two dose levels (1.4 and 22 mGy CTDIvol). Raw projection data were saved and reconstructed with filtered back-projection and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE, strength 5) at 0.6 mm slice thickness. Corresponding 3D idealized, virtual nodule models were co-registered with the CT images to determine each nodule's location and orientation. Virtual nodules were voxelized, partial volume corrected, and inserted into nodule-free CT data (accounting for system imaging physics) using two methods: projection-based Technique A, and image-based Technique B. Also a third Technique C based on cropping a region of interest from the acquired image of the real nodule and blending it into the nodule-free image was tested. Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.) and deformation was assessed using the Hausdorff distance. Nodule volumes and deformations were compared between the idealized, CT-derived and virtual nodules using a linear mixed effects regression model which utilized the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] of the regional Hausdorff distance. Overall, there was a close concordance between the volumes of

  14. Techniques for virtual lung nodule insertion: volumetric and morphometric comparison of projection-based and image-based methods for quantitative CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Sedlmair, Martin; Choudhury, Kingshuk Roy; Pezeshk, Aria; Sahiner, Berkman; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    Virtual nodule insertion paves the way towards the development of standardized databases of hybrid CT images with known lesions. The purpose of this study was to assess three methods (an established and two newly developed techniques) for inserting virtual lung nodules into CT images. Assessment was done by comparing virtual nodule volume and shape to the CT-derived volume and shape of synthetic nodules. 24 synthetic nodules (three sizes, four morphologies, two repeats) were physically inserted into the lung cavity of an anthropomorphic chest phantom (KYOTO KAGAKU). The phantom was imaged with and without nodules on a commercial CT scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens) using a standard thoracic CT protocol at two dose levels (1.4 and 22 mGy CTDIvol). Raw projection data were saved and reconstructed with filtered back-projection and sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE, strength 5) at 0.6 mm slice thickness. Corresponding 3D idealized, virtual nodule models were co-registered with the CT images to determine each nodule’s location and orientation. Virtual nodules were voxelized, partial volume corrected, and inserted into nodule-free CT data (accounting for system imaging physics) using two methods: projection-based Technique A, and image-based Technique B. Also a third Technique C based on cropping a region of interest from the acquired image of the real nodule and blending it into the nodule-free image was tested. Nodule volumes were measured using a commercial segmentation tool (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc.) and deformation was assessed using the Hausdorff distance. Nodule volumes and deformations were compared between the idealized, CT-derived and virtual nodules using a linear mixed effects regression model which utilized the mean, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation (Mea{{n}RHD} , ST{{D}RHD} and C{{V}RHD}{) }~ of the regional Hausdorff distance. Overall, there was a close concordance between the volumes of the CT-derived and

  15. 41 CFR 301-71.106 - Who must sign a trip-by-trip authorization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must sign a trip-by-trip authorization? 301-71.106 Section 301-71.106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... ACCOUNTABILITY REQUIREMENTS Travel Authorization § 301-71.106 Who must sign a trip-by-trip authorization? The...

  16. 49 CFR 236.834 - Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip. 236.834 Section 236.834 Transportation Other... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.834 Trip. A movement... territory between the terminals for that locomotive; a movement in one direction. Cross Reference: Trip-arm...

  17. 45 CFR 1310.20 - Trip routing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip routing. 1310.20 Section 1310.20 Public... PROGRAM HEAD START TRANSPORTATION Special Requirements § 1310.20 Trip routing. (a) Each agency providing... the primary consideration. (b) The agency must also ensure that the following basic principles of trip...

  18. Virtual Screening Techniques to Probe the Antimalarial Activity of some Traditionally Used Phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibi, Indira G; Aswathy, Lilly; Jisha, Radhakrishnan S; Masand, Vijay H; Gajbhiye, Jayant M

    2016-01-01

    Malaria parasites show resistance to most of the antimalarial drugs and hence developing antimalarials which can act on multitargets rather than a single target will be a promising strategy of drug design. Here we report a new approach by which virtual screening of 292 unique phytochemicals present in 72 traditionally important herbs is used for finding out inhibitors of plasmepsin-2 and falcipain-2 for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum. Initial screenings of the selected molecules by Random Forest algorithm model of Weka using the bioassay datasets AID 504850 and AID 2302 screened 120 out of the total 292 phytochemicals to be active against the targets. Toxtree scan cautioned 21 compounds to be either carcinogenic or mutagenic and were thus removed for further analysis. Out of the remaining 99 compounds, only 46 compounds offered drug-likeness as per the 'rule of five' criteria. Out of ten antimalarial drug targets, only two target proteins such as 3BPF and 3PNR of falcipain-2 and 1PFZ and 2BJU of plasmepsin-2 are selected as targets. The potential binding of the selected 46 compounds to the active sites of these four targets was analyzed using MOE software. The docked conformations and the interactions with the binding pocket residues of the target proteins were understood by 'Ligplot' analysis. It has been found that 8 compounds are dual inhibitors of falcipain-2 and plasmepsin-2, with the best binding energies. Compound 117 (6aR, 12aS)-12a-Hydroxy-9-methoxy-2,3-dimethylenedioxy-8-prenylrotenone (Usaratenoid C) present in the plant Millettia usaramensis showed maximum molecular docking score.

  19. Texture developed during deformation of Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, M.; Shanta, C.; Asim, T.; Sushil, M.

    2015-04-01

    Automotive industry is currently focusing on using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) due to its high strength and formability for closure applications. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is promising material for this application among other AHSS. The present work is focused on the microstructure development during deformation of TRIP steel sheets. To mimic complex strain path condition during forming of automotive body, Limit Dome Height (LDH) tests were conducted and samples were deformed in servo hydraulic press to find the different strain path. FEM Simulations were done to predict different strain path diagrams and compared with experimental results. There is a significant difference between experimental and simulation results as the existing material models are not applicable for TRIP steels. Micro texture studies were performed on the samples using EBSD and X-RD techniques. It was observed that austenite is transformed to martensite and texture developed during deformation had strong impact on limit strain and strain path.

  20. Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Trip Development for Hyper-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Scott A.; Auslender, Aaron H.; Dilley, Authur D.; Calleja, John F.

    2000-01-01

    Boundary layer trip devices for the Hper-X forebody have been experimentally examined in several wind tunnels. Five different trip configurations were compared in three hypersonic facilities, the LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel, the LaRC 31 -Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel, and in the HYPULSE Reflected Shock Tunnel at GASL. Heat transfer distributions, utilizing the phosphor thermography and thin-film techniques, shock system details, and surface streamline patterns were measured on a 0.333-scale model of the Hyper-X forebody. Parametric variations include angles-of-attack of 0-deg, 2-deg, and 4-deg; Reynolds numbers based on model length of 1.2 to 15.4 million: and inlet cowl door simulated in both open and closed positions. Comparisons of transition due to discrete roughness elements have led to the selection of a trip configuration for the Hyper-X Mach 7 flight vehicle.

  1. Commissioning, evaluation, quality assurance and clinical application of a virtual micro MLC technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, M; Charland, P; Kim, B; Nico, A

    2003-02-01

    Multileaf collimators (MLCs) are a valuable tool in modern radiation therapy, offering flexible and convenient field shaping. One disadvantage, however, is the undulation of the dose distribution at the edge shaped by the leaves due to the finite leaf width. An attempt to reduce the effect of this undulation is the objective of the commercial linear accelerator package HD270, which incorporates three-dimensional couch translation together with leaf adjustment to emulate finer leaf widths. In this paper we report on the commissioning and evaluation of this feature, together with the development of a process for quality assurance, as well as description of a clinical application of this technique. It is concluded that this technique could be applied reliably to situations currently utilizing MLC for shielding, with little added cost in treatment time, provided that a comprehensive quality assurance program is in place to monitor the performance of this complicated procedure.

  2. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.

    2015-02-01

    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  3. A local active noise control system based on a virtual-microphone technique for railway sleeping vehicle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, J.; Egaña, J. M.; Viñolas, J.

    2006-11-01

    Low-frequency broadband noise generated on a railway vehicle by the wheel-rail interaction could be a big annoyance for passengers in sleeping cars. Low-frequency acoustic radiation is extremely difficult to attenuate by using passive devices. In this article, an active noise control (ANC) technique has been proposed for this purpose. A three-dimensional cabin was built in the laboratory to carry out the experiments. The proposed scheme is based on a Filtered-X Least Mean Square (FXLMS) control algorithm, particularised for a virtual-microphone technique. Control algorithms were designed with the Matlab-Simulink tool, and the Real Time Windows Target toolbox of Matlab was used to run in real time the ANC system. Referring to the results, different simulations and experimental performances were analysed to enlarge the silence zone around the passenger's ear zone and along the bed headboard. Attenuations of up to 20 and 15 dB(A) (re:20 μPa) were achieved at the passenger's ear in simulations and in experimental results, respectively.

  4. Recommendation system for trip planning

    OpenAIRE

    Hlupič, Marko

    2011-01-01

    The thesis describes a web application used for recommending tourist destinations and trip planning. Given that one location offers several tourist attractions and activities, the destination is divided into a location, containing only the name and the corresponding region, and the possible activity that could take place in that location. The users choose some activities and later on decide whether these locations met their expectations or not. The application is divided into two parts: the f...

  5. Special and Differential Treatments provisions in the TRIPs negotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

     A fundamental concept in our understanding of justice is the nature of equality of legal responsibility, which is the basis upon which World Trade Organization (WTO) membership and adherence to the TRIPs Agreement is based. In reality, however, while an ideal world would require all countries...... to provide the same level of IP protection, the imbalances between groups of countries in terms of their wealth, educational, and natural resources and their manufacturing capabilities mean that the equal treatment of patent protection internationally perpetuates inequalities at other levels. In reviewing...... that has led to a position of virtual deadlock....

  6. Model–Based Techniques for Virtual Sensing of Longitudinal Flight Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seren Cédric

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of fly-by-wire and increasing levels of automation significantly improve the safety of civil aircraft, and result in advanced capabilities for detecting, protecting and optimizing A/C guidance and control. However, this higher complexity requires the availability of some key flight parameters to be extended. Hence, the monitoring and consolidation of those signals is a significant issue, usually achieved via many functionally redundant sensors to extend the way those parameters are measured. This solution penalizes the overall system performance in terms of weight, maintenance, and so on. Other alternatives rely on signal processing or model-based techniques that make a global use of all or part of the sensor data available, supplemented by a model-based simulation of the flight mechanics. That processing achieves real-time estimates of the critical parameters and yields dissimilar signals. Filtered and consolidated information is delivered in unfaulty conditions by estimating an extended state vector, including wind components, and can replace failed signals in degraded conditions. Accordingly, this paper describes two model-based approaches allowing the longitudinal flight parameters of a civil A/C to be estimated on-line. Results are displayed to evaluate the performances in different simulated and real flight conditions, including realistic external disturbances and modeling errors.

  7. Technical guides/ methodological guide in case of tripping of a radioactivity detection gantry; Guides techniques / guide methodologique en cas de declenchement d'un portique de detection de radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The most of operators of reprocessing plants or waste disposal plants have equipment to detect radiation as gantry. To answer to a clarification need procedures can be followed during the tripping of a gantry. Procedures have been made by cards, they follow the regulation in force in the area of radiation protection and environment protection. With these cards there are an annexe giving the terms noticed in the cards, a glossary on radioactivity as well a list of organisms approved by the government to proceed to control for the workers protection against the hazards of ionizing radiations. (N.C.)

  8. Virtually There.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Jaron

    2001-01-01

    Describes tele-immersion, a new medium for human interaction enabled by digital technologies. It combines the display and interaction techniques of virtual reality with new vision technologies that transcend the traditional limitations of a camera. Tele-immersion stations observe people as moving sculptures without favoring a single point of view.…

  9. Virtual Trackballs Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Sporring, Jon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Rotation of three-dimensional objects by a two-dimensional mouse is a typical task in computer-aided design, operation simulations, and desktop virtual reality. The most commonly used rotation technique is a virtual trackball surrounding the object and operated by the mouse pointer. This article...... reviews and provides a mathematical foundation for virtual trackballs. The first, but still popular, virtual trackball was described by Chen et al. [CHECK END OF SENTENCE]. We show that the virtual trackball by Chen et al. does not rotate the object along the intended great circular arc on the virtual...... trackball and we give a correction. Another popular virtual trackball is Shoemake's quaternion implementation [CHECK END OF SENTENCE], which we show to be a special case of the virtual trackball by Chen et al.. Shoemake extends the scope of the virtual trackball to the full screen. Unfortunately, Shoemake...

  10. TRIP RATES FOR CONDOMINIUM CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirach Hirun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of large scale condominium construction projects had dramatically increased in Bangkok. Many projects had occurred in either densely populated areas or in central business districts, where traffic conditions were usually highly congested. To prevent traffic problems, a traffic impact study must be prepared and submitted for review by concerned public authorities. Unit trip generation rates were important data in traffic impact analysis. Without accurate unit trip generation rates, public agencies could not obtain accurate information on the traffic that will be generated. This study aimed to study trip rates and the factors affecting them for condominium construction project in Bangkok. The data were collected from 30 condominium construction sites located in 15 districts of Bangkok. The analysis used the linear regression method and was divided into three cases: 1 trip rates for all vehicles, 2 trip rates for classified vehicles, and 3 trip rates for all types of condominium. All case analyses considered weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday. The results found that trip rates related to the number of dwellings in the condominium. The trip rates for all vehicle types on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 10.636, 4.647, and 9.294 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rates for six-wheeled and ten-wheeled trucks on weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 2.046, 0.975, and 0.575 vehicles per 100 dwelling units per day respectively. The trip rate for four-wheeled trucks and passenger cars on weekdays was 1.960. Regarding condominium types, the trip rate for low rise condominiums for all vehicle types on weekdays was 5.315 while the trip rates for high rise condominiums for weekdays, Saturday, and Sunday were 3.965, 2.667, and 1.261 respectively.

  11. Computer simulation of equilibrium conditions following a plant 'trip'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, D.

    When a process or part of a process experiences an emergency 'trip', the contained fluids redistribute themselves based upon the prevailing pressure gradients and depending upon the positions of valves at the time of the trip. Reverse flow through rotating compression machinery may occur, depending upon the locations of non-return valves. Reduction in pressure and mixing of cryogenic fluids of different compositions and/or temperatures can both lead to generation of significant volumes of vapour. This equilibration process is usually largely over in a matter of seconds rather than minutes. Key questions facing process and mechanical designers are: what is the settle-out pressure, and can we ensure relief valves do not lift following a trip? To answer these related questions it is necessary to analyse the state of the system prior to the trip, and then, based upon valve positions, etc., construct a model of the worst case probable scenarios for the qualitative redistribution of fluid inventory. At this point the simulation program may be employed to help calculate rigorously the final settle out conditions for each of the possible scenarios. This technique is particularly appropriate for cryogenic processes including refrigeration cycles. It is illustrated here with the help of a multistage hydrocarbon compressor example. Other related non-standard applications of the steady state process simulation program are identified.

  12. 50 CFR 622.44 - Commercial trip limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial trip limits. 622.44 Section 622... § 622.44 Commercial trip limits. Commercial trip limits are limits on the amount of the applicable... fishes in the EEZ may not combine a trip limit specified in this section with any trip or possession...

  13. Teaching Classic Literature with Comic Books and Virtual Lit Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the assignments the author created to engage preservice teachers in designing instructional materials that befit today's students to help them overcome hurdles sometimes present when learning classic literature. Secondary and middle school English teachers may find these assignments useful as well so their students, too,…

  14. Teaching Classic Literature with Comic Books and Virtual Lit Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardone, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the assignments the author created to engage preservice teachers in designing instructional materials that befit today's students to help them overcome hurdles sometimes present when learning classic literature. Secondary and middle school English teachers may find these assignments useful as well so their students, too,…

  15. Integrating sampling techniques and inverse virtual screening: toward the discovery of artificial peptide-based receptors for ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Germán M; Salomón, Luis A; Montero-Cabrera, Luis A; de la Vega, José M García; Mascini, Marcello

    2016-05-01

    A novel heuristic using an iterative select-and-purge strategy is proposed. It combines statistical techniques for sampling and classification by rigid molecular docking through an inverse virtual screening scheme. This approach aims to the de novo discovery of short peptides that may act as docking receptors for small target molecules when there are no data available about known association complexes between them. The algorithm performs an unbiased stochastic exploration of the sample space, acting as a binary classifier when analyzing the entire peptides population. It uses a novel and effective criterion for weighting the likelihood of a given peptide to form an association complex with a particular ligand molecule based on amino acid sequences. The exploratory analysis relies on chemical information of peptides composition, sequence patterns, and association free energies (docking scores) in order to converge to those peptides forming the association complexes with higher affinities. Statistical estimations support these results providing an association probability by improving predictions accuracy even in cases where only a fraction of all possible combinations are sampled. False positives/false negatives ratio was also improved with this method. A simple rigid-body docking approach together with the proper information about amino acid sequences was used. The methodology was applied in a retrospective docking study to all 8000 possible tripeptide combinations using the 20 natural amino acids, screened against a training set of 77 different ligands with diverse functional groups. Afterward, all tripeptides were screened against a test set of 82 ligands, also containing different functional groups. Results show that our integrated methodology is capable of finding a representative group of the top-scoring tripeptides. The associated probability of identifying the best receptor or a group of the top-ranked receptors is more than double and about 10 times higher

  16. An investigation of 3D images of the simultaneous-lightness-contrast illusion using a virtual-reality technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menshikova, G.Ya.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the problem of lightness perception. To clarify the role of depth in lightness perception two current models—the albedo hypothesis and the coplanar-ratio hypothesis—are discussed. To compare them the strength of the simultaneous-lightnesscontrast (SLC illusion was investigated as a function of three-dimensional (3D configurations of the test and background squares. In accordance with both hypotheses the changes in the depth arrangements of the test and background squares should result in changes in the illusory effect. However, the reasons for and the directions of these changes should be different. Five different types of 3D configurations were created in which the test squares were tilted at different angles to the background squares. A virtual-reality technique was used to present stereo pairs of different 3D configurations. Thirty-seven observers took part in the experiment. The method of constant stimuli was used to obtain psychometric functions. The displacements of these functions for 3D configurations in comparison with the 2D configuration allowed the estimation of illusion strength. The analysis of individual values of illusion strength revealed two groups of subjects. For the first group (38% of all participants the strength changed insignificantly depending on the 3D configurations. For the second group (62% of all participants significant differences were obtained for those configurations in which the test and background squares were perceived as differently illuminated. The changes in the SLC illusion strength for the second group were consistent with predictions made by the albedo hypothesis. Thus, it seems that the perceived illumination of a surface should be considered the main parameter for lightness estimations in 3D scenes.

  17. Spreading Geodiversity awareness in schools through field trips and ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagna, Alessandra; Giardino, Marco; Ferrero, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Geodiversity, unlike Biodiversity, is not a topic included in the Italian schools curriculum. Nevertheless, Geomorphology is taught at all levels, and it seems to be the right tool for introducing the students to the concepts related to Geodiversity. In this context, a research on the use of field trips and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) is being carried out for spreading the value of Geodiversity in Secondary Schools. Relevant international literature states that field trips are effective didactic tools for Earth Science education, because they stimulate an active learning process and allow students to appreciate the geological complexity of an area. On the other side, ICT allow students to get knowledge about the variety of landforms of their own territory by staying indoor, using virtual field trips and free software like Google Earth, Google Maps, Bing etc. In order to connect the two strategies, an innovative educational project is proposed here; it involves both the indoor and the outdoor activities, by enhancing a critical approach to the complexity of geological processes. As a starting point, a multimedia product on 20 Italian geological tours, designed for analyzing Geodiversity at a regional scale, has been tested with teachers and students, in order to understand its effectiveness by using it solely indoor. In a second phase, teachers and students have been proposed to compare and integrate indoor and outdoor activities to approach Geodiversity directly at a local scale, by means of targeted field trips. For achieving this goal, during the field trips, students used their mobile devices (smartphone and tablet) equipped with free and/or open source applications (Epicollect, Trimble Outdoor Navigator). These tools allow to track field trips, to gather data (geomorphological observations and related photographs), and to elaborate them in the laboratory; a process useful for reasoning on concepts such as spatial and temporal scales and for

  18. What? A Field Trip on the Playground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Barb

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: In this day and age of budget problems, school districts are cutting back on many programs, one of which is field trips. Why worry? There must be dozens of trips that can be made on the playground of your school. Let's look into activities that can be accomplished there. SOIL STUDIES: Have you ever…

  19. A model for TRIP steel constitutive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Menari, G

    2011-01-01

    A constitutive model is developed for TRIP steel. This is a steel which contains three or four different phases in its microstructure. One of the phases in TRIP steels is metastable austenite (Retained Austenite) which transforms to martensite upon deformation. The accompanying transformation strain

  20. Optimization of Train Trip Package Operation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Train trip package transportation is an advanced form of railway freight transportation, realized by a specialized train which has fixed stations, fixed time, and fixed path. Train trip package transportation has lots of advantages, such as large volume, long distance, high speed, simple forms of organization, and high margin, so it has become the main way of railway freight transportation. This paper firstly analyzes the related factors of train trip package transportation from its organizational forms and characteristics. Then an optimization model for train trip package transportation is established to provide optimum operation schemes. The proposed model is solved by the genetic algorithm. At last, the paper tests the model on the basis of the data of 8 regions. The results show that the proposed method is feasible for solving operation scheme issues of train trip package.

  1. A cone-beam CT based technique to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, G R J; Mommaerts, M Y; Abeloos, J; De Clercq, C; Lamoral, P; Neyt, N; Casselman, J; Schutyser, F

    2009-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is used for maxillofacial imaging. 3D virtual planning of orthognathic and facial orthomorphic surgery requires detailed visualisation of the interocclusal relationship. This study aimed to introduce and evaluate the use of a double CBCT scan procedure with a modified wax bite wafer to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface. The impressions of the dental arches and the wax bite wafer were scanned for ten patient separately using a high resolution standardized CBCT scanning protocol. Surface-based rigid registration using ICP (iterative closest points) was used to fit the virtual models on the wax bite wafer. Automatic rigid point-based registration of the wax bite wafer on the patient scan was performed to implement the digital virtual dental arches into the patient's skull model. Probability error histograms showed errors of wax bite wafer to set-up a 3D virtual augmented model of the skull with detailed dental surface.

  2. Vision-based precision inspection system for profile and performance of small and micro gears using the intelligent image processing techniques and virtual master gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahk, Heui Jae; Hwang, Young Min; Lee, Il Hwan; Ahn, Woo Jung

    2000-10-01

    As the product size become smaller, much smaller sized parts are increasingly required in many products fabrication such as cameras, camcorders, and electric appliances, etc. Small or micro gears whose sizes are about few hundred micrometers to few millimeters have been greatly required for the above products, as they become most efficient parts for power transmission. The small of micro gears are prone to geometrical and functioning inaccuracy during the micro fabrication processes, and thus the measurement system has been desired for the geometry and performance checking of gears. In this paper, a precision inspection system is developed for the gear checking, consisting of the optical vision microscope, vision image processing modules with subpixel accuracy, and the profile inspection software using the virtual master jigs/gears mathematically generated. For accurate analysis of the gear geometry from the captured gear image through the optical vision system, a highly accurate vision image processing algorithm has been implemented, where two dimensional subpixelling technique is developed having about one tenth subpixel accuracy. A mathematically generated mater gears/jigs are implemented: several core parameters of the gear profile are calculated from the comparison between the virtual master and the measured gears. Virtual precision ball jigs are simulated between gear teeth profile, and thus the runout parameter can be successfully evaluated from the virtual jig movement on the gear teeth image. The eccentricity parameters can also be calculated from the sinusoidal fitting of the virtual ball movement. The development precision inspection system for small or micro gears has been applied to practical gears of various range, and the essential gear parameters are successfully measured with sub micrometer accuracy.

  3. A cone-beam CT based technique to augment the 3D virtual skull model with a detailed dental surface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, G.R.; Mommaerts, M.Y.; Abeloos, J.V.S.; Clercq, C. De; Lamoral, P.; Neyt, N.; Casselman, J.W.; Schutyser, F.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is used for maxillofacial imaging. 3D virtual planning of orthognathic and facial orthomorphic surgery requires detailed visualisation of the interocclusal relationship. This study aimed to introduce and evaluate the use of a double CBCT scan procedure with a mod

  4. Virtual Reality Check: Teachers Use Bug-in-Ear Coaching to Practice Feedback Techniques with Student Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Marti; Carter, Richard A., Jr.; Aronin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There is not just one way to give feedback, nor is there just one kind of feedback. Bug-in-ear technology, which allows coaches to give teachers in the classroom immediate feedback, has been used successfully for 35 years. In an updated twist on this method, researchers at the University of Kansas used bug-in-ear coaching in a virtual classroom…

  5. Beam trip diagnostic system at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Hongtao; ZHAO Shenjie; LUO Chen; ZHAO Yubin; ZHANG Zhigang; FENG Ziqiang; MAO Dongqing; LIU Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the design and realization of beam trip diagnostic system at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF).The system can find out the first fault signal in the key operation signals related to the RF system by analyzing the time sequence,also it can decide which trips occurs first among the three superconducting RF stations.All the states of monitored signals in a time period ahead and behind beam trip are recorded.The results are compared with those from other diagnostic tools at SSRF.The work is of help in improving reliability of the superconducting RF system and stability of the storage ring operation.

  6. Virtual landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Bai, Peirui; Torigian, Drew A.

    2017-03-01

    Much has been published on finding landmarks on object surfaces in the context of shape modeling. While this is still an open problem, many of the challenges of past approaches can be overcome by removing the restriction that landmarks must be on the object surface. The virtual landmarks we propose may reside inside, on the boundary of, or outside the object and are tethered to the object. Our solution is straightforward, simple, and recursive in nature, proceeding from global features initially to local features in later levels to detect landmarks. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used as an engine to recursively subdivide the object region. The object itself may be represented in binary or fuzzy form or with gray values. The method is illustrated in 3D space (although it generalizes readily to spaces of any dimensionality) on four objects (liver, trachea and bronchi, and outer boundaries of left and right lungs along pleura) derived from 5 patient computed tomography (CT) image data sets of the thorax and abdomen. The virtual landmark identification approach seems to work well on different structures in different subjects and seems to detect landmarks that are homologously located in different samples of the same object. The approach guarantees that virtual landmarks are invariant to translation, scaling, and rotation of the object/image. Landmarking techniques are fundamental for many computer vision and image processing applications, and we are currently exploring the use virtual landmarks in automatic anatomy recognition and object analytics.

  7. Research progress on application of virtual reality technique in nursing field%虚拟现实技术在护理领域的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任延艳; 刘化侠; 武江华; 李蕾

    2011-01-01

    综述了虚拟现实技术在护理领域的应用意义和现状,并对其未来应用进行了展望.%It reviewed the significance and the status quo of application of virtual reality technique in nursing field.And it prospected the application of virtual reality technique in nursing field in the future.

  8. Organizaciones Virtuales Organizaciones Virtuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Cecilia Villegas Arias

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Organizations are new organizational forms originated from both the replacementof face to face communications by remote communications supported by electronic means,and from the accesibility of real time information about the operation of the company, forall employees.This article pursues the following goals: 1 To define virtual organization, review its sociotechnical antecedents and propose a preliminary classification into inter-organizationaland intra-organizational forms.  2 To discuss the characteristics of virtual organizationsand their impact on organizational design, and 3 To compare virtual organizations toother organizational forms.Las organizaciones virtuales son formas organizativas nuevas, que resultan de: primero, reemplazar las interacciones cara a cara con interacciones remotas, soportadas por comunicaciones electrónicas y segundo,  proveer acceso en tiempo real a toda la información de la empresa para todos los trabajadores.En este artículo se busca: 1 Definir organización virtual, revisar sus antecedentes y proponeruna clasificación básica preliminar de las mismas  2 Discutir las características de las organizaciones virtuales y sus implicaciones para el diseño organizativo 3 Comparar estaforma organizativa a las formas organizativas no virtuales.

  9. Virtually teaching virtual leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Thomas Duus; Nielsen, Rikke Kristine; Børgesen, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the challenges to virtual collaboration and leadership on basis of findings from a virtual course on collaboration and leadership. The course used for this experiment was designed as a practical approach, which allowed participants to experience curriculum phenomen...

  10. Single-trip subsea completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.J.; Lorenzatto, R.A.; Rittershaussen, J.H.; Barreto, J.L.; Filho, E.L.

    1994-12-31

    Reliability of completion equipment and rig time are becoming more and more critical for subsea completions because of continually increasing water depths in which operators are being required to complete wells. In addition, completion designs must reflect the more stringent economic requirements of today`s oil and gas industry. This paper describes the use of a single-trip completion system that has been successfully and economically installed in the offshore Marimba and Bonito fields of South America. This new completion system has the capability to land the tubing hanger and install it in the wellhead before setting the packer and compensating for subsequent tubing movement. The new system also can employ pre-job calculations--based on initial well conditions and anticipated conditions during production--that help determine appropriate completion configurations and bottomhole equipment compatibility. Many failures in offshore wells, whether platform or subsea, can be attributed to inappropriate application of downhole completion tools or methods. Use of pre-job calculations during the equipment design stage can facilitate proper selection of design criteria and can help ensure operational safety and cost efficiency. The development of this new completion system is discussed in detail. Three case histories that document successful test completions is reviewed along with the economic gains and advantages that the reduction in rig time generated.

  11. Large Pelagic Logbook Trip Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch and effort for fishing trips that are taken by vessels with a Federal permit issued for the swordfish and sharks under the Highly...

  12. Lobster Processing and Sales Trip Report Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated log which is required to be mailed in to NMFS after a fishing trip. This data set includes lobster processing and sales information...

  13. Trip report : Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This trip report is on a visit to Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge on September 20 and 21 2001. Wetlands inspected on the Moore Drainage included Martin,...

  14. Pre-Trip Notification Database (PTNS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The PTNS contains pre-trip notification data from vessels participating in the Northeast Multispecies groundfish fishery from 2010 to present and the Longfin squid...

  15. Kotzebue and Cape Lisburne, 1985: Trip report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This trip report summarizes the activities, results, and conclusions and recommendations of a visit to the Ann Stevens-Cape Lisburne sub-unit of the Alaska Maritime...

  16. TRIP RATES FOR CONDOMINIUM CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Wirach Hirun

    2015-01-01

    The number of large scale condominium construction projects had dramatically increased in Bangkok. Many projects had occurred in either densely populated areas or in central business districts, where traffic conditions were usually highly congested. To prevent traffic problems, a traffic impact study must be prepared and submitted for review by concerned public authorities. Unit trip generation rates were important data in traffic impact analysis. Without accurate unit trip generation rates, ...

  17. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  18. 28 CFR 570.45 - Violation of escorted trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Violation of escorted trip. 570.45... RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.45 Violation of escorted trip. (a) Staff shall process as an escapee an inmate who absconds from an escorted trip. (b) Staff may take disciplinary action...

  19. Field Trip - Conservation of Carnivores in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    Field trips are a key component of our curriculum at ISWB. Classroom teaching is invaluable but field trips provide pupils with a tangible connection to pertinent issues of conservation. ISWB realises the importance of out of the classroom learning in field trips and to this end our students have an opportunity to partake in a number of 3-5 day field trips per academic year. In 2016, several Year 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 students visited the AfriCat Foundation on Okonjima in central Namibia for 4 days to learn about the conservation of the predator population in Namibia. The trips were very successful and another trip this year to AfriCat North close to Etosha National Park, where the students will work closely with the local farming communities, is planned. AfriCat provides Environmental Education programmes for the youth of Namibia giving them a greater understanding of the importance of wildlife conservation. Their main objective is promoting predator and environmental awareness amongst the youth of Namibia. AfriCat Environmental Education Programme is based on 1997 UNESCO-UNEP Environmental Education objectives. "Attitudes: To raise concern about problems, values, personal responsibility and willingness to participate/act. In the end, we conserve only what we love. We will love only what we understand. We will understand only what we are taught."

  20. Virtual reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokras, V. [Liebherr Mining Equipment Co. (US)

    2005-03-01

    The paper weighs up the pros and cons between virtual prototyping and physical prototyping. Liebherr Mining Equipment Co. (LME) started evaluating the multi-body dynamic simulation of a full truck six years ago. LME has developed a series of dynamic models to optimise design of its T282B diesel-electric truck. Also, LME has developed a GPS-based technique called Virtual Mine Site that allows easy obtaining of a haul cycle 3D road profile for a specific mine site. The system can obtain not only a travel path and elevation profile but also body pitch, roll and acceleration components, allowing design optimisation and validation for structural and mechanical components. 2 figs., 2 photos.

  1. Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost without late arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-Qiang; Zhao, Lin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip cost without late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has significant effects on each electric vehicle's trip cost and the corresponding total trip costs and that the effects are dependent on its time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent effects on the minimum value of the system's total trip cost.

  2. Visual capture and the experience of having two bodies – Evidence from two different virtual reality techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas eHeydrich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In neurology and psychiatry the detailed study of illusory own body perceptions has suggested close links between bodily processing and self-consciousness. One such illusory own body perception is heautoscopy where patients have the sensation of being reduplicated and to exist at two or even more locations. In previous experiments, using a video head-mounted display, self-location and self-identification were manipulated by applying conflicting visuo-tactile information. Yet the experienced singularity of the self was not affected, i.e. participants did not experience having multiple bodies or selves. In two experiments presented in this paper, we investigated self-location and self-identification while participants saw two virtual bodies (video-generated in study 1 and 3D computer generated in study 2 that were stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their own body. In both experiments, we report that self-identification with two virtual bodies was stronger during synchronous stroking. Furthermore, in the video generated setup with synchronous stroking participants reported a greater feeling of having multiple bodies than in the control conditions. In study 1, but not in study 2, we report that self-location – measured by anterior posterior drift – was significantly shifted towards the two bodies in the synchronous condition only. Self-identification with two bodies, the sensation of having multiple bodies, and the changes in self-location show that the experienced singularity of the self can be studied experimentally. We discuss our data with respect to ownership for supernumerary hands and heautoscopy. We finally compare the effects of the video and 3D computer generated head-mounted display technology and discuss the possible benefits of using either technology to induce changes in illusory self-identification with a virtual body.

  3. Visual capture and the experience of having two bodies – Evidence from two different virtual reality techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydrich, Lukas; Dodds, Trevor J.; Aspell, Jane E.; Herbelin, Bruno; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Mohler, Betty J.; Blanke, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    In neurology and psychiatry the detailed study of illusory own body perceptions has suggested close links between bodily processing and self-consciousness. One such illusory own body perception is heautoscopy where patients have the sensation of being reduplicated and to exist at two or even more locations. In previous experiments, using a video head-mounted display, self-location and self-identification were manipulated by applying conflicting visuo-tactile information. Yet the experienced singularity of the self was not affected, i.e., participants did not experience having multiple bodies or selves. In two experiments presented in this paper, we investigated self-location and self-identification while participants saw two virtual bodies (video-generated in study 1 and 3D computer generated in study 2) that were stroked either synchronously or asynchronously with their own body. In both experiments, we report that self-identification with two virtual bodies was stronger during synchronous stroking. Furthermore, in the video generated setup with synchronous stroking participants reported a greater feeling of having multiple bodies than in the control conditions. In study 1, but not in study 2, we report that self-location – measured by anterior posterior drift – was significantly shifted towards the two bodies in the synchronous condition only. Self-identification with two bodies, the sensation of having multiple bodies, and the changes in self-location show that the experienced singularity of the self can be studied experimentally. We discuss our data with respect to ownership for supernumerary hands and heautoscopy. We finally compare the effects of the video and 3D computer generated head-mounted display technology and discuss the possible benefits of using either technology to induce changes in illusory self-identification with a virtual body. PMID:24385970

  4. Virtual Trackballs Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Sporring, Jon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Rotation of three-dimensional objects by a two-dimensional mouse is a typical task in computer-aided design, operation simulations, and desktop virtual reality. The most commonly used rotation technique is a virtual trackball surrounding the object and operated by the mouse pointer. This article...

  5. Virtual colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonoscopy - virtual; CT colonography; Computed tomographic colonography; Colography - virtual ... Differences between virtual and conventional colonoscopy include: VC can view the colon from many different angles. This is not as easy ...

  6. Kinematic Analysis on the Serve Technique of Elite Tennis Player GrigorDimitrov Based on 3D Virtual Reality Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chuan Jia Du; Ji He Zhou; Shuai Wang

    2016-01-01

      By using three-dimensional video analysis, we made a kinematic analysis on Grigor Dimitrov's Serve technique, aiming at finding the kinematic characteristics of his serve technique during various stages...

  7. Development of Networked Virtual Experiment System Based on Virtual Campus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-tai Guo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s higher education has been going through a period of rapid expansion in undergraduate population,and this means a much heavier demand on teaching resources such as laboratories, experiments, teaching staff,etc., which cannot possibly be made available all of a sudden.To deal with this situation, we found virtual reality (VR technology very helpful. Virtual reality (VR has found many applications in education; and the resources of virtual education such as virtual campus, virtual laboratory etc. are used more and more widely, especially in the field of higher education. But so far virtual campus was mainly regarded as a means of image exhibition, and virtual laboratories were no more than 2D display of experimental processes and equipments. To make better use of these resources, this paper puts forward the concept of networked virtual experiment systems based on virtual campus by combining the virtual laboratory and virtual campus with the technique of LAN (Local area network, and establishes its theoretical model. Finally, a networked virtual experiment system based on virtual campus is developed using VRML and 3DSMAX. Networked virtual experiment system based on virtual campus has a promising future for various applications in higher education.

  8. Characterization of micro machined surface from TRIP/TWIP steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaga M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution micro machining induced changes in surface morphology, including phase transformation from fcc-austenite into hcp- and bcc-martensite as well as defined surface topography of TRIP/TWIP steel was characterized by scanning electron microscopy using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD technique. For this, applying micro milling and micro grinding processes with tool diameter of 45 µm, structures were machined into flat specimen surfaces of X30MnAl17–1 steel in defined areas previously characterized by EBSD.

  9. Networked 3D Virtual Museum System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Virtual heritage has become increasingly important in the conservation, preservation, and interpretation of our cultural and natural history. Moreover, rapid advances in digital technologies in recent years offer virtual heritage new direction. This paper introduces our approach toward a networked 3D virtual museum system, especially, how to model, manage, present virtual heritages and furthermore how to use computer network for the share of virtual heritage in the networked virtual environment. This paper first addresses a 3D acquisition and processing technique for virtual heritage modeling and shows some illustrative examples. Then, this paper describes a management of virtual heritage assets that are composed by various rich media. This paper introduces our schemes to present the virtual heritages, which include 3D virtual heritage browser system, CAVE system, and immersive VR theater. Finally, this paper presents the new direction of networked 3D virtual museum of which main idea is remote guide of the virtual heritage using the mixed reality technique.

  10. Virtual reality for engineering

    CERN Document Server

    De Gennaro, Silvano; CERN. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    Virtual Reality for Engineers. Virtual Reality is a very powerful visualization technique for 3D data, which can bring enormous benefits to engineering design. CAD models can be exported to a VR application and used as "Virtual Prototypes". Virtual Prototypes are an ideal replacement for wooden models as they can be generated automatically from most CAD products. They are totally reliable, they can be updated in a matter of minutes, and they allow designers to explore them from inside, on a one-to-one scale and using a 3D-stereo vision. Navigation can be performed using a number of instinctive tools, such as joysticks, spaceballs, VR helmets and 3D mice. The lectures will cover today's Virtual Reality products and methods, and describe how to transform CAD models into Virtual Prototypes. A "hands on" VR experience featuring the LHC detectors models can be organized for people interested.

  11. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-09-08

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) query processing. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler’s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler’s preference, it will be recommended to the traveler. This type of queries can enable many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in UOTS query processing, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are or- dered. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. Our approach is verified to be effective in reducing both CPU time and disk I/O time.

  12. User Oriented Trajectory Search for Trip Recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Ruogu

    2012-07-08

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attention in recent years. In this thesis, we propose and investigate the methods to find and recommend the best trajectory to the traveler, and mainly focus on a novel technique named User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) query processing. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler’s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler’s preference, it will be recommended to the traveler. This type of queries can enable many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in UOTS query processing, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. Extensive experiments are conducted on both real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. Our approach is verified to be effective in reducing both CPU time and disk I/O time.

  13. A Novel Grid Impedance Estimation Technique based on Adaptive Virtual Resistance Control Loop Applied to Distributed Generation Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghzaiel, Walid; Jebali-Ben Ghorbal, Manel; Slama-Belkhodja, Ilhem;

    2013-01-01

    The penetration of the distributed power generation systems (DPGSs) based on renewable sources (PV, WT) is strongly dependent on the quality of the power injected to the utility grid. However, the grid impedance variation, mainly caused by grid faults somewhere in the electric network, can degrade...... the power quality and even damage some sensitive loads connected at the point of the common coupling (PCC). This paper presents detection-estimation method of the grid impedance variation. This estimation tehnique aims to improve the dynamic of the distributed generation (DG) interfacing inverter control...... and to take the decision of either keep the DG connected, or disconnect it from the utility grid. The proposed method is based on a fast and easy grid fault detection method. A virtual damping resistance is used to drive the system to the resonance in order to extract the grid impedance parameters, both...

  14. ABOUT RISK PROCESS ESTIMATION TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED BY A VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION WHICH IS DIRECTED TOWARDS THE INSURANCE BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covrig Mihaela

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In a virtual organization directed on the insurance business, the estimations of the risk process and of the ruin probability are important concerns: for researchers, at the theoretical level, and for the management of the company, as these influence the insurer strategy. We consider the evolution over an extended period of time of the insurer surplus process. In this paper, we present some methods for the estimation of the ruin probability and for the evaluation of a reserve fund. We discuss the ruin probability with respect to: the parameters of the individual claim distribution, the load factor of premiums and the intensity parameter of the number of claims process. We analyze the model in which the premiums are computed according to the mean value principle. Also, we attempt the case when the initial capital is proportional to the expected value of the individual claim. We give numerical illustration.

  15. MCMII and the TriP chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan Estrada et al.

    2003-12-19

    We describe the development of the electronics that will be used to read out the Fiber Tracker and Preshower detectors in Run IIb. This electronics is needed for operation at 132ns bunch crossing, and may provide a measurement of the z coordinate of the Fiber Tracker hits when operating at 396ns bunch crossing. Specifically, we describe the design and preliminary tests of the Trip chip, MCM IIa, MCM IIb and MCM IIc. This document also serves as a user manual for the Trip chip and the MCM.

  16. Some notes on the big trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: pedrogonzalez@mi.madritel.es

    2006-03-30

    The big trip is a cosmological process thought to occur in the future by which the entire universe would be engulfed inside a gigantic wormhole and might travel through it along space and time. In this Letter we discuss different arguments that have been raised against the viability of that process, reaching the conclusions that the process can actually occur by accretion of phantom energy onto the wormholes and that it is stable and might occur in the global context of a multiverse model. We finally argue that the big trip does not contradict any holographic bounds on entropy and information.

  17. 虚拟现实技术在眼科教学中的应用%The application of virtual reality technique in ophthalmology teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿; 张科

    2015-01-01

    With the development of medical theory and technology, the traditional teaching patterns have fallen behind the requirements for the training of medical students. Recently, virtual reality techniques have been proved to be effective in the practice of medical education. Through sum-marizing the experience of building simulation systems of eye anatomy, clinical features of eye and simulation practice, the author has elaborated the role of virtual reality technology in ophthalmology teaching theory and practice, which is of profound significance to improve the overall level of ophthal-mology teaching.%随着医学理论与技术的发展,传统的教学形式已不能满足当前医学教育的需要。近年来把虚拟现实技术引入医学教学,是比较新颖并切实有效的方法。在此,通过总结建造人眼解剖模拟系统、各种眼病临床特征的模拟系统以及仿真实践训练模拟系统的经验,阐述了虚拟现实技术在眼科理论和实践教学中的作用,这对提高眼科学教学整体水平有着积极意义。

  18. Virtually Abelian quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro D'Ariano, Giacomo; Erba, Marco; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    We study discrete-time quantum walks on Cayley graphs of non-Abelian groups, focusing on the easiest case of virtually Abelian groups. We present a technique to reduce the quantum walk to an equivalent one on an Abelian group with coin system having larger dimension. This method allows one to extend the notion of wave-vector to the virtually Abelian case and study analytically the walk dynamics. We apply the technique in the case of two quantum walks on virtually Abelian groups with planar Cayley graphs, finding the exact solution in terms of dispersion relation.

  19. Taking Science Online: Evaluating Presence and Immersion through a Laboratory Experience in a Virtual Learning Environment for Entomology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard; Klesath, Marta; Meyer, John

    2009-01-01

    A 3-D virtual field trip was integrated into an online college entomology course and developed as a trial for the possible incorporation of future virtual environments to supplement online higher education laboratories. This article provides an explanation of the rationale behind creating the virtual experience, the Bug Farm; the method and…

  20. Virtual Solar Energy Center: A Case Study of the Use of Advanced Visualization Techniques for the Comprehension of Complex Engineering Products and Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kenneth August, III

    Industry has a continuing need to train its workforce on recent engineering developments, but many engineering products and processes are hard to explain because of limitations of size, visibility, time scale, cost, and safety. The product or process might be difficult to see because it is either very large or very small, because it is enclosed within an opaque container, or because it happens very fast or very slowly. Some engineering products and processes are also costly or unsafe to use for training purposes, and sometimes the domain expert is not physically available at the training location. All these limitations can potentially be addressed using advanced visualization techniques such as virtual reality. This dissertation describes the development of an immersive virtual reality application using the Six Sigma DMADV process to explain the main equipment and processes used in a concentrating solar power plant. The virtual solar energy center (VEC) application was initially developed and tested in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) during 2013 and 2014. The software programs used for development were SolidWorks, 3ds Max Design, and Unity 3D. Current hardware and software technologies that could complement this research were analyzed. The NVIDA GRID Visual Computing Appliance (VCA) was chosen as the rendering solution for animating complex CAD models in this application. The MiddleVR software toolkit was selected as the toolkit for VR interactions and CAVE display. A non-immersive 3D version of the VEC application was tested and shown to be an effective training tool in late 2015. An immersive networked version of the VEC allows the user to receive live instruction from a trainer being projected via depth camera imagery from a remote location. Four comparative analysis studies were performed. These studies used the average normalized gain from pre-test scores to determine the effectiveness of the various training methods. With the DMADV approach

  1. Virtual Worlds

    OpenAIRE

    Novák, František

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis is focused on highlighting the development of virtual worlds. The paper summarizes the evolution of virtual reality. Current virtual worlds are compared in fundamental aspects, such as sociology, economics and education. Social sphere describes the interaction in virtual reality and its specialities. Economical sphere is focused on comparison of real and virtual economies, including their economic indicators. Educational sphere describes the sciences, which are best usea...

  2. NEWS: A trip to CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, A. D.

    2000-07-01

    the canteen. Over lunch we mixed with physicists of many different nationalities and backgrounds. Figure 1 Figure 1. In the afternoon we visited Microcosm, the CERN visitors centre, and the LEP control room and also the SPS. Here the students learned new applications for much of the physics of standing waves and resonance that they had been taught in the classroom. Later that night, we visited a bowling alley where momentum and collision theory were put into practice. The following morning we returned to CERN and visited the large magnet testing facility. Here again physics was brought to life. We saw superconducting magnets being assembled and tested and the students gained a real appreciation of the problems and principles involved. The afternoon was rounded off by a visit to a science museum in Geneva - well worth a visit, as some of us still use some of the apparatus on display. Friday was our last full day so we visited Chamonix in the northern Alps. In the morning, we ascended the Aiguille de Midi - by cable car. Twenty minutes and 3842 m later we emerged into 50 km h-1 winds and -10 °C temperature, not counting the -10 °C wind chill factor. A crisp packet provided an unusual demonstration of the effects of air pressure (figure 2). Figure 2 Figure 2. The views from the summit were very spectacular though a few people experienced mild altitude sickness. That afternoon the party went to the Mer de Glace. Being inside a 3 million year-old structure moving down a mountain at 3 cm per day was an interesting experience, as was a tot of whisky with 3 million year-old water. Once again the local scenery was very photogenic and the click and whirr of cameras was a constant background noise. Saturday morning saw an early start for the long drive home. Most students - and some staff - took the opportunity to catch up on their sleep. Thanks are due to many people without whom the trip would never have taken place. Anne Craige, Stuart Williams

  3. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Parameters in Functionally Graded Material Plates with Cracks by Graded Finite Element Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finite element software ABAQUS and graded element method, we developed a dummy node fracture element, wrote the user subroutines UMAT and UEL, and solved the energy release rate component of functionally graded material (FGM plates with cracks. An interface element tailored for the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT was applied. Fixed cracks and moving cracks under dynamic loads were simulated. The results were compared to other VCCT-based analyses. With the implementation of a crack speed function within the element, it can be easily expanded to the cases of varying crack velocities, without convergence difficulty for all cases. Neither singular element nor collapsed element was required. Therefore, due to its simplicity, the VCCT interface element is a potential tool for engineers to conduct dynamic fracture analysis in conjunction with commercial finite element analysis codes.

  4. Digital image multiplexing/demultiplexing method using spatial spectral diffusion and virtual phase conjugation technique for reduction of dynamic range consumption in holographic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yuta; Okamoto, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Masanori; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Tomita, Akihisa

    2017-09-01

    The recording density in holographic data storage (HDS) systems is determined by the dynamic range of the recording medium. If a hologram is recorded with a small exposure, the consumption amount of the dynamic range per hologram is reduced, and the recording density can be improved. In this report, we propose a digital image multiplexing/demultiplexing method using spatial spectral diffusion and a virtual phase conjugation technique to reduce the consumption amount of the dynamic range in a recording medium. In our method, multiple signals are simultaneously recorded in a medium by multiplexing those signals using a beam combiner before recording, unlike the general multiplexing method of HDS. Then, each original signal can be reproduced independently by utilizing the property of a random diffuser and a phase-conjugated light. In the simulation, we confirmed that our method can improve the recording density because the consumption of the dynamic range is reduced.

  5. Automobile trip to Fish Springs, March 16, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These memoranda describe trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of these trips was to access the condition of the land in the Fish Springs area.

  6. Southeast Region Headboat Survey-Trip Estimates by Type

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a summary of the number of trips by vessel/area/month/trip type through time and is a means of gauging headboat fishery effort and compliance through time.

  7. Lacreek NWR : Trip report, July 19-21, 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum to the Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge manager reporting a trip, on July 19-21, 1995, to evaluate wetland and upland management on the refuge. The trip...

  8. Trip-Induced Transition Measurements in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Johansen, Craig T.; Goyne, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of mean streamwise velocity, fluctuating streamwise velocity, and instantaneous streamwise velocity profiles in a hypersonic boundary layer were obtained over a 10-degree half-angle wedge model. A laser-induced fluorescence-based molecular tagging velocimetry technique was used to make the measurements. The nominal edge Mach number was 4.2. Velocity profiles were measured both in an untripped boundary layer and in the wake of a 4-mm diameter cylindrical tripping element centered 75.4 mm downstream of the sharp leading edge. Three different trip heights were investigated: k = 0.53 mm, k = 1.0 mm and k = 2.0 mm. The laminar boundary layer thickness at the position of the measurements was approximately 1 mm, though the exact thickness was dependent on Reynolds number and wall temperature. All of the measurements were made starting from a streamwise location approximately 18 mm downstream of the tripping element. This measurement region continued approximately 30 mm in the streamwise direction. Additionally, measurements were made at several spanwise locations. An analysis of flow features show how the magnitude, spatial location, and spatial growth of streamwise velocity instabilities are affected by parameters such as the ratio of trip height to boundary layer thickness and roughness Reynolds number. The fluctuating component of streamwise velocity measured along the centerline of the model increased from approximately 75 m/s with no trip to +/-225 m/s with a 0.53-mm trip, and to +/-240 m/s with a 1-mm trip, while holding the freestream Reynolds number constant. These measurements were performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  9. Class Trips in Cyberspace: No Passports Required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes examples of electronic field trips for elementary and secondary school students taking place during the 1996-97 school year. Topics include Mayan civilization, wildlife migration, geothermal hot spots, Antarctica, sailboat voyages, baseball and math, viruses, Hong Kong, and offerings from National Geographic. (LRW)

  10. Field Trip to a Rocky Shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine Univ., Orono. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Field trip activities designed for use on Maine's coast are provided, with brief definitions of the major physical zones to be found in this area. An introduction to the study of zonation of plants and animals living on the rocky shore is presented along with a list of the materials needed and the procedures to be followed when making a study of…

  11. The SMS-GPS-Trip-Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Weber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a new method for collecting travel behavior data, based on a combination of GPS tracking and SMS technology, coined the SMS–GPS-Trip method. The state-of-the-art method for collecting data for activity based traffic models is a combination of travel diaries and GPS tracking...

  12. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  13. The TRIP from ULF to ARF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Manuel; Serrano, Manuel

    2010-04-13

    ARF is a key activator of p53, and together they form a critical duo for protection against cancer. Previous evidence had recognized the regulatory potential of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of ARF. The recent identification of TRIP12/ULF as a ubiquitin ligase of ARF adds an important missing piece to the ARF/p53 pathway.

  14. Microstructural Development during Welding of TRIP steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirthalingam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are promising solutions for the production of lighter automobiles which reduce fuel consumption and increase passenger safety by improving crash-worthiness. Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel (TRIP) are part of the advanced high strength steels which

  15. Microstructural Development during Welding of TRIP steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirthalingam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are promising solutions for the production of lighter automobiles which reduce fuel consumption and increase passenger safety by improving crash-worthiness. Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel (TRIP) are part of the advanced high strength steels which off

  16. Abnormal Events for Emergency Trip in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Guk Hun; Choi, M. J.; Park, S. I.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, S. J.; Park, J. H.; Kwon, I. C

    2006-12-15

    This report gathers abnormal events related to emergency trip of HANARO that happened during its operation over 10 years since the first criticality on February 1995. The collected examples will be utilized to the HANARO's operators as a useful guide.

  17. Development of RPS trip logic based on PLD technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Dong Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    The majority of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in today's nuclear power plants (NPPs) are based on analog technology. Thus, most existing I and C systems now face obsolescence problems. Existing NPPs have difficulty in repairing and replacing devices and boards during maintenance because manufacturers no longer produce the analog devices and boards used in the implemented I and C systems. Therefore, existing NPPs are replacing the obsolete analog I and C systems with advanced digital systems. New NPPs are also adopting digital I and C systems because the economic efficiencies and usability of the systems are higher than the analog I and C systems. Digital I and C systems are based on two technologies: a microprocessor based system in which software programs manage the required functions and a programmable logic device (PLD) based system in which programmable logic devices, such as field programmable gate arrays, manage the required functions. PLD based systems provide higher levels of performance compared with microprocessor based systems because PLD systems can process the data in parallel while microprocessor based systems process the data sequentially. In this research, a bistable trip logic in a reactor protection system (RPS) was developed using very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language (VHDL), which is a hardware description language used in electronic design to describe the behavior of the digital system. Functional verifications were also performed in order to verify that the bistable trip logic was designed correctly and satisfied the required specifications. For the functional verification, a random testing technique was adopted to generate test inputs for the bistable trip logic.

  18. Mars rapid round trip mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzi Amade', Nicola

    The present research is divided in two parts. The first part is a well defined mathematical problem, with exact rules and results, in which the basic constraints for interplanetary round trip travels are used to calculate an interplanetary train schedule (ITS) of missions to Mars, in the general case of orbits with non-zero eccentricity and non-zero inclination. Several possible options for round trip travels to Mars are considered. In particular, options at high energy, which allow rapid round trip missions, are discussed. These options have important applications for human travels to Mars. The second part of the research is about systems engineering aspects, which are intrinsically less exact, since they can change with time due, for example, to technology development or economic and political factors. For the case of a selected human rapid round trip mission to Mars, the development of a mission architecture, an assessment of the masses involved in the mission (such as the initial masses required in LEO), an estimate of the necessary number of launches, and a preliminary analysis of the radiation protection requirements, are performed. The main problem that justifies the existence of basic constraints for round trip missions is that by increasing the DeltaV of a mission, in general the total round trip time does not vary much, because a higher DeltaV can only reduce the transfer time and it simply increases the stay-time on the target planet. However, if the DeltaV is increased beyond a well-defined level, the total round trip time has a sudden drop in duration that makes fast round trips possible. This is due to the fact that the traveler can go back before the home planet makes one extra revolution around the Sun. For a sufficiently high DeltaV, a round trip to Mars can change in duration from 2.7 years to about 5 months. For Mars missions, the round trip times are calculated for different DeltaV's and for different transfer trajectories (T1, T2, etc.). An

  19. Austenite stability in TRIP steels studied by synchrotron radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blondé, R.

    2014-01-01

    TRIP steel is a material providing great mechanical properties. Such steels show a good balance between high-strength and ductility, not only as a result of the fine microstructure, but also because of the well-known TRIP effect. The Transformation Induced-Plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon is the transfo

  20. A Field Trip Planning Guide for Early Childhood Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sylvia S.; Seevers, Randy L.

    2003-01-01

    This article provides a guide for planning field trips for educational engagement of all children in early childhood education settings. Based on interviews, environmental assessments, and evaluations of activities, it includes field trip considerations and a field trip planning guide that includes the teacher, the parents, and the field site…

  1. Teachers' Sources of Knowledge for Field Trip Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Bryan M.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers draw from many personal and professional experiences when organising and leading field trips. In order to identify the influences on teachers' field trip practices, I used surveys, interviews, artifacts and observations gathered from teachers who led trips to an aquarium. Findings clarified the types of influence and the impact that these…

  2. 46 CFR 58.01-30 - Trial-trip observance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trial-trip observance. 58.01-30 Section 58.01-30... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-30 Trial-trip observance. The operation of main and auxiliary engines, boilers, steering gear, and auxiliaries shall be observed on the trial trip of...

  3. 50 CFR 648.293 - Tilefish trip limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tilefish trip limits. 648.293 Section 648... Tilefish Fishery § 648.293 Tilefish trip limits. Any vessel of the United States fishing under a tilefish... trip, count as landings under the IFQ Allocation permit. ...

  4. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Daily or after trip test. 236.586 Section 236.586..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.586 Daily or after trip test... calendar day or within 24 hours before departure upon each trip. (b) Each equipped locomotive shall be...

  5. Austenite stability in TRIP steels studied by synchrotron radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blondé, R.

    2014-01-01

    TRIP steel is a material providing great mechanical properties. Such steels show a good balance between high-strength and ductility, not only as a result of the fine microstructure, but also because of the well-known TRIP effect. The Transformation Induced-Plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon is the

  6. Microstructure and compression strength of novel TRIP-steel/Mg-PSZ composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, H.; Aneziris, C. G.; Kolbe, A.; Martin, U.; Müller, A.; Schärfl, W.; Herrmann, M.

    2010-07-01

    A novel steel-based composite material, composed of metastable austenitic stainless steel as matrix and up to 15 % zirconia as reinforcement, is processed by two powder metallurgy routes. The matrix exhibits the so-called TRIP-effect (TRIP: TRansformation-Induced Plasticity) and shows a deformation-induced formation of martensite. Compression tests of rod samples processed by cold isostatic pressing show increased strength compared to the non-reinforced steel matrix up to 20 % strain. Three-point bending tests show, however, reduced ductility for high zirconia contents. Filigree honeycomb structures were produced by a novel extrusion technique with extraordinary high values of specific energy absorption.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY: SCHOOL TRIP AND SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL ACADEMIC TRIP IN THE NORTH-WEST OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIANCA SORINA RĂCĂŞAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study proposes a comparative approach of two forms of non-formal educational activities: the school trip and the scientific educational academic trip with their similarities and differences regarding both tourist and pedagogical levels. In order to acquire this goal the following objectives have been set: analysing a geographical-tourist itinerary, analysing the involved tourist services, analysing the trip planner for the specified itinerary, analysing certain teaching activities, differentiated based on the level of study (pre-university/superior, analysing students and undergraduates’ worksheets after they have been completed according to the requirements. Consequently a series of similarities have appeared between the school trip and the academic trip, especially related to the theme, purpose, evaluation form, participants’ involvement degree, structure and integrated tourist elements (from attractions to services. On the other hand, the main differences that were highlighted, starting with educational level, age difference, and participants’ number have had repercussions on the quantitative and qualitative particularities of the tasks and last but not least, on the evaluation product (students’ portfolios and undergraduates’ trip notebooks.

  8. Repositioning template for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap: an alternative technique to pre-plating and virtual surgical planning

    OpenAIRE

    Berrone, M.; Crosetti, E.; Succo, G

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Oral malignancies involving the mandibular bone require a complex reconstructive plan. Mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is currently considered the best choice for functional and aesthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. This flap can be modelled with multiple osteotomies and can provide bone, muscle and skin for composite reconstruction. One of the most delicate aspects of mandibular reconstruction is the technique of bone modelling; the risk of prolonging...

  9. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Watanabe

    Full Text Available We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10 both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h. After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min. When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  10. Activity time budget during foraging trips of emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinichi; Sato, Katsufumi; Ponganis, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    We developed an automated method using depth and one axis of body acceleration data recorded by animal-borne data loggers to identify activities of penguins over long-term deployments. Using this technique, we evaluated the activity time budget of emperor penguins (n = 10) both in water and on sea ice during foraging trips in chick-rearing season. During the foraging trips, emperor penguins alternated dive bouts (4.8 ± 4.5 h) and rest periods on sea ice (2.5 ± 2.3 h). After recorder deployment and release near the colony, the birds spent 17.9 ± 8.4% of their time traveling until they reached the ice edge. Once at the ice edge, they stayed there more than 4 hours before the first dive. After the first dive, the mean proportions of time spent on the ice and in water were 30.8 ± 7.4% and 69.2 ± 7.4%, respectively. When in the water, they spent 67.9 ± 3.1% of time making dives deeper than 5 m. Dive activity had no typical diurnal pattern for individual birds. While in the water between dives, the birds had short resting periods (1.2 ± 1.7 min) and periods of swimming at depths shallower than 5 m (0.25 ± 0.38 min). When the birds were on the ice, they primarily used time for resting (90.3 ± 4.1% of time) and spent only 9.7 ± 4.1% of time traveling. Thus, it appears that, during foraging trips at sea, emperor penguins traveled during dives >5 m depth, and that sea ice was primarily used for resting. Sea ice probably provides refuge from natural predators such as leopard seals. We also suggest that 24 hours of sunlight and the cycling of dive bouts with short rest periods on sea ice allow emperor penguins to dive continuously throughout the day during foraging trips to sea.

  11. Analysis of electric vehicle's trip cost allowing late arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Wei-Yi; Zhao, Lin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we use a car-following model to study each electric vehicle's trip cost and the total trip cost allowing late arrival. The numerical result show that the electricity cost has great effects on each commuter's trip cost and the total trip costs and that these effects are dependent on each commuter's time headway at the origin, but the electricity cost has no prominent impacts on the minimum value of total trip cost under each commuter's different time headway at the origin.

  12. Step-by-step surgical technique for mandibular reconstruction with fibular free flap: application of digital technology in virtual surgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succo, G; Berrone, M; Battiston, B; Tos, P; Goia, F; Appendino, P; Crosetti, E

    2015-06-01

    At present, mandibular reconstruction with a fibular free flap is the gold standard for functional and esthetic rehabilitation after oncological surgery. The purpose of this study was to describe the computer-assisted mandibular reconstruction procedure adopting the customized solution Synthes ProPlan CMF. The study reports five consecutive patients with benign or malignant disease requiring mandibular reconstruction using a microvascular fibular free flap, pre-operative virtual planning, construction of cutting guides and customized laser pre-bent titanium plates. The surgical technique is discussed in a step-by-step fashion. The average post-operative hospital stay was 18 ± 3 days. Ischemia time was recorded in all five cases, with an average of 75 ± 8 min. No problems were encountered in any surgical step and there were no major complications. Excellent precision of cutting guides and a good fit of pre-bent plates were found on both the mandible and fibula. There was excellent precision in bone to bone contact and position between mandible and fibula graft. Measurement data from the pre-operative and post-operative CT scans were compared. The average difference (Δ) between programed segment lengths and CT control segment lengths was 0.098 ± 0.077 cm. Microsurgical mandibular reconstruction using a virtual surgical planning yields significantly shorter ischemia times and allows more precise osteotomies. The technology is becoming increasingly recognized for its ability to optimize surgical outcomes and minimize operating time. Considering that the extent of resection can be wider than predicted, this results in safer modeling of the fibula only after frozen sections have demonstrated the radicality of resection.

  13. 基于虚拟技术的创新在现代色谱分析教学中的应用%Application and discussion on the technique analysis of modern chromatography teaching based on virtual technique innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳福智

    2014-01-01

    The virtual reality technology in teaching chromatographic analysis were analyzed in this article, and further to explore the advantages and disadvantages of this technique in chromatographic analysis teaching, aimed at making it play a better role in the chromatographic analysis of teaching.%对虚拟现实技术在色谱分析教学中的应用进行了分析,并进一步探讨了该技术在色谱分析教学中表现出的优点和不足,旨在使其在色谱分析教学中发挥更好的作用。

  14. Predicting Fracture Toughness of TRIP 800 using Phase Properties Characterized by In-Situ High Energy X-Ray Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soulami, Ayoub; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Ren, Yang; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2010-05-01

    TRansformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel is a typical representative of 1st generation advanced high strength steel (AHSS) which exhibits a combination of high strength and excellent ductility due to its multiphase microstructure. In this paper, we study the crack propagation behavior and fracture resistance of a TRIP 800 steel using a microstructure-based finite element method with the various phase properties characterized by in-situ high energy Xray diffraction (HEXRD) technique. Uniaxial tensile tests on the notched TRIP 800 sheet specimens were also conducted, and the experimentally measured tensile properties and R-curves (Resistance curves) were used to calibrate the modeling parameters and to validate the overall modeling results. The comparison between the simulated and experimentally measured results suggests that the micromechanics based modeling procedure can well capture the overall complex crack propagation behaviors and the fracture resistance of TRIP steels. The methodology adopted here may be used to estimate the fracture resistance of various multiphase materials.

  15. Virtual box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  16. Field trips along the Geological Transpyrenean Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Marion; Dekeyser, Dominique; Richert, Jean Paul; Gruneisen, Pierre; Vazquez-Prada, Diego; Lacazedieu, Annie

    2015-04-01

    GeolVal association, www.geolval.fr , in collaboration with Geoambiente association, created a serie of pedagogical explanations about Pyrenees landscapes along the road from France to Spain, linking the towns of Pau, Oloron,Jaca and Mallos de Riglos. It was a ten years work that lasted in 2008. http://www.routetranspyreneenne.com/home_f.php We can now use this "treasure" with tourists, students and mix some landscapes explanations from a road site with a little field trip along mountain in order to "touch" the rocks. We are working about the importance of field in the way the students understand geosciences and try to organize field trips that aim to simplify and make concrete some key concepts. We also began an interactive software version of this work, presented through a pilot application, made in collaboration with Total petroleum firm.

  17. The Use of Virtual Reality Tools in the Reading-Language Arts Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, J. Michael; Pilgrim, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    This article presents virtual reality as a tool for classroom literacy instruction. Building on the traditional use of images as a way to scaffold prior knowledge, we extend this idea to share ways virtual reality enables experiential learning through field trip-like experiences. The use of technology tools such Google Street view, Google…

  18. Kinematic Analysis on the Serve Technique of Elite Tennis Player Grigor•Dimitrov Based on 3D Virtual Reality Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Chuan Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By using three-dimensional video analysis, we made a kinematic analysis on Grigor Dimitrov’s Serve technique, aiming at finding the kinematic characteristics of his serve technique during various stages. The results showed that: (1 During the stage of tossing the ball and lifting the racket, the tossing height of the ball was at minimum appropriately, while the elbow extension of the tossing arm was stright, and the angle of his left knee was 95.4°, which is beneficial to making greater kicking power; (2 At the back-swing stage, Dimitrov’s both feet made a great range of pedal and stretch quickly, and the “scratch-back” posture is obvious, and momentum caused by the kicking and coxae-turning was rather large; (3 When hitting the ball, the contact point was accurate and the speed of the racket head was high, which passed a relatively large initial momentum to the ball; (4 Dimitrov’s entire service action was integral and coordinate, smooth and powerful, which was in accordance relatedly with kinematic characteristics

  19. Virtual screening against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, P; Herdlinger, S; Schuster, D

    2011-01-01

    The development of novel drugs against obesity is one of the top priorities of worldwide drug research. In recent years, it has been facilitated by the application of virtual screening methods. In this review, we give a short introduction into obesity-related protein targets and computer-aided drug design techniques. Furthermore, we highlight the most successful virtual screening studies, outline their results, and provide suggestions for future anti-obesity drug development.

  20. Your private trips with Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlson Wagonlit Travel

    2015-01-01

    Your Carlson Wagonlit Travel agency at CERN (building 62) also organizes private trips!     Do not hesitate to contact the “Tourism” team, at your disposal from Monday to Friday from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Phone: 72763. E-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch. Since 1 January 2015, everyone working at CERN benefits from lower booking fees.

  1. TRIPs Agreement, Important Multilateral WTO Treaty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Maria Florescu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting the content and the frame of the TRIPs. Agreement. It starts by introducing the reader to the terms that defined the world economical climate by the time of the Agreement negociation. Also, it explains the need of having an Agreement on intellectual property rights with impact on the business world. Moreover, the article reviews the main provisions of the Agreement and the most important intellectual property rights.

  2. VEHICLE OWNERSHIP AND TRIP GENERATION MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarathep SILLAPARCHARN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address some important issues of a rapid growth in vehicle ownership, how different types of vehicles interact and how these growths affect a number of trip generations, especially in a country undergoing fast economic development, such as Thailand. The forecasts of such growth are important for strategic transport decision-making, travel demand forecasts and other policy issues at both regional and national levels. For these reasons, a series of vehicle ownership models, which include: (1 car, (2 motorcycle, (3 truck and heavy goods vehicle and (4 bus and coach models, are proposed together with a trip generation model. These models are built upon the limited aggregate data, both time series and cross sectional and disaggregated spatially by province, using non-log-linear weighted least squares regression for motor vehicle ownership models and exponential modelling for a trip generation model. The inputs required are basically forecasted gross provincial products per capita and population level. All proposed models have good statistical properties, i.e. all statistically significant coefficients and high adjusted R squared value and very good fits which are within 12% of observed values during the base years. The car ownership model also gives reasonable car ownership elasticities with respect to income and a sensible saturation level when compared with other studies. The forecast for a case of increasing income shows that the car and truck ownership level will increase together with the trip generation level. However, as people own more cars, the motorcycle and bus ownership levels will decrease as there might be a switch to car ownership.

  3. Microstructural Development during Welding of TRIP steels

    OpenAIRE

    Amirthalingam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are promising solutions for the production of lighter automobiles which reduce fuel consumption and increase passenger safety by improving crash-worthiness. Transformation Induced Plasticity Steel (TRIP) are part of the advanced high strength steels which offers a high strength and toughness combination with excellent uniform elongation. However, the higher alloying content of these steel limits their weldability and the thermal cycle of a welding proc...

  4. Ambient clumsiness in virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzanka, Silvia; Behar, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental pursuit of Virtual Reality is the experience of a seamless connection between the user's body and actions within the simulation. Virtual worlds often mediate the relationship between the physical and virtual body through creating an idealized representation of the self in an idealized space. This paper argues that the very ubiquity of the medium of virtual environments, such as the massively popular Second Life, has now made them mundane, and that idealized representations are no longer appropriate. In our artwork we introduce the attribute of clumsiness to Second Life by creating and distributing scripts that cause users' avatars to exhibit unpredictable stumbling, tripping, and momentary poor coordination, thus subtly and unexpectedly intervening with, rather than amplifying, a user's intent. These behaviors are publicly distributed, and manifest only occasionally - rather than intentional, conscious actions, they are involuntary and ambient. We suggest that the physical human body is itself an imperfect interface, and that the continued blurring of distinctions between the physical body and virtual representations calls for the introduction of these mundane, clumsy elements.

  5. The Application of Virtual Reality on Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zehui

    The features and classifications of Virtual Reality Techniques have been summarized and recommendation of applying Virtual Reality on distance education has been made. Future research is needed on the design and implementation of virtual classroom and courseware.

  6. Outbursts formation on low carbon and trip steel grades during hot-dip galvanisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, E. J.; Lamm, L.; Gilles, M.

    2004-12-01

    Low carbon and TRIP grade steels have been hot dip galvanised in order to study outbursts formation. Microstructure and texture of intermetallic phases have been observed after selective electrochemical etching by scanning electron microscopy. Potential versus time (chronopotentiometric) characteristics were recorded in order to monitor surface modifications. This combination of techniques enable to quantify and observe intermetallic phase one by one. The overall thickness of coating on both substrates are similar. However, microstructures of Fe-Zn intermetallic phases are very different on both grades. In particular, the V phase is dense on standard steel but develops a highly branched filament structure on TRIP steel. The transformation of V phase to d and G1 are limited on TRIP steel. Differences of texture provide clues for understanding mechanisms of formation of outbursts. They can account for the differences of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. Silicon from the substrate influences the reactivity of TRIP steels due to capping and local reactions. La formation des outbursts a été étudiée sur un acier bas carbone et sur un acier TRIP galvanisés. Les épaisseurs des revêtements sont similaires. Néanmoins, les observations microscopiques et les érosions électrochimiques montrent que la répartition des phases intermétalliques et leurs microstructures diffèrent sensiblement en fonction de la nature du substrat. Ces différences expliquent les propriétés mécaniques et anticorrosions. L’encapsulation de la surface par les oxydes de silicium freine la transformation de la phase dzêta en delta et gamma sur l’acier TRIP.

  7. Effect of Microstructure in TRIP Steel on Its Tensile Behavior at High Strain Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The relationships between microstructure of 0.195C-1.6Si-1.58Mn TRIP steel and its dynamic mechanical properties at high strain rate were investigated. The effect of microstructures on dynamic properties was discussed and the comparison with its static mechanical properties was also presented. The specimens of TRIP steel via three heat treatment techniques exhibit different morphological structures, responsible for their dynamic mechanical performances. The dynamic tensile testing was performed on self-made pneumatic tensile impact tester. The results showed that the size, volume fraction, morphology and distribution of retained austenite all affect the final mechanical properties at high strain rate. Among them, the second phase (retained austenite+bainite) with net structure severely decreases the elongation of TRIP steel in spite of the fact that it enhances strength because it restrains ferrite deformation. In order to obtain the excellent combination of strength and elongation, rational matching of morphology, size and volume fraction of several phases in TRIP steel can be obtained via proper heat treatment techniques.

  8. Development of field programmable gate array-based reactor trip functions using systems engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Cheon; Ahmed, Ibrahim [Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Design engineering process for field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based reactor trip functions are developed in this work. The process discussed in this work is based on the systems engineering approach. The overall design process is effectively implemented by combining with design and implementation processes. It transforms its overall development process from traditional V-model to Y-model. This approach gives the benefit of concurrent engineering of design work with software implementation. As a result, it reduces development time and effort. The design engineering process consisted of five activities, which are performed and discussed: needs/systems analysis; requirement analysis; functional analysis; design synthesis; and design verification and validation. Those activities are used to develop FPGA-based reactor bistable trip functions that trigger reactor trip when the process input value exceeds the setpoint. To implement design synthesis effectively, a model-based design technique is implied. The finite-state machine with data path structural modeling technique together with very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language and the Aldec Active-HDL tool are used to design, model, and verify the reactor bistable trip functions for nuclear power plants.

  9. Field trips local and abroad: What every field trip leader needs to know about insurance coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanelly, T.

    2016-12-01

    Leading field trips locally or internationally is an essential part of being a geoscience educator. Being a field trip guide and coordinator often means that you will be responsible for minors (under the age of 21), transportation, and touring (e.g. hiking, exploring) in unique and sometimes rugged environments. Professors, and alike, at universities and colleges may not have adequate insurance covered should a student(s) render maladies, or worse death, under your advisement. This poster outlines questions that could be presented to your university or college's lawyer to ensure field trip guides are properly covered for liability in most situations. Additionally, it will provide explanation for common legal terms often used when explaining insurance coverage relating to university or college employment. Lastly, this poster will provide suggestions on how to pursue professional coverage polices that can protect you both in the field and in the classroom/laboratory.

  10. Orbital Transfer Techniques for Round-Trip Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Damon

    2013-01-01

    The human exploration of Phobos and Deimos or the retrieval of a surface sample launched to low-Mars orbit presents a highly constrained orbital transfer problem. In general, the plane of the target orbit will not be accessible from the arrival or departure interplanetary trajectories with an (energetically optimal) tangential burn at periapsis. The orbital design is further complicated by the addition of a high-energy parking orbit for the relatively massive Deep Space Vehicle to reduce propellant expenditure, while the crew transfers to and from the target orbit in a smaller Space Exploration Vehicle. The proposed strategy shifts the arrival and departure maneuvers away from periapsis so that the apsidal line of the parking orbit lies in the plane of the target orbit, permitting highly efficient plane change maneuvers at apoapsis of the elliptical parking orbit. An apsidal shift during the arrival or departure maneuver is approximately five times as efficient as maneuvering while in Mars orbit, thus significantly reducing the propellant necessary to transfer between the arrival, target, and departure orbits.

  11. Orbital Transfer Techniques for Round-Trip Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Damon

    2013-01-01

    The human exploration of Phobos and Deimos or the retrieval of a surface sample launched to low-Mars orbit presents a highly constrained orbital transfer problem. In general, the plane of the target orbit will not be accessible from the arrival or departure interplanetary trajectories with an (energetically optimal) tangential burn at periapsis. The orbital design is further complicated by the addition of a high-energy parking orbit for the relatively massive Deep Space Vehicle to reduce propellant expenditure, while the crew transfers to and from the target orbit in a smaller Space Exploration Vehicle. The proposed strategy shifts the arrival and departure maneuvers away from periapsis so that the apsidal line of the parking orbit lies in the plane of the target orbit, permitting highly efficient plane change maneuvers at apoapsis of the elliptical parking orbit. An apsidal shift during the arrival or departure maneuver is approximately five times as efficient as maneuvering while in Mars orbit, thus significantly reducing the propellant necessary to transfer between the arrival, target, and departure orbits.

  12. Development of trip coverage analysis methodology - CATHENA trip coverage analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong Ho; Ohn, M. Y.; Cho, C. H.; Huh, J. Y.; Na, Y. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, B. G.; Kim, H. H.; Kim, S. W.; Bae, C. J.; Kim, T. M.; Kim, S. R.; Han, B. S.; Moon, B. J.; Oh, M. T. [Korea Power Engineering Co., Yongin (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    This report describes the CATHENA model for trip coverage analysis. This model is prepared based on the Wolsong 2 design data and consist of primary heat transport system, shutdown system, steam and feedwater system, reactor regulating system, heat transport pressure and inventory control system, and steam generator level and pressure control system. The new features and modified parts from the Wolsong 2 CATHENA LOCA Model required for trip coverage analysis is described. this model is tested by simulation of steady state at 100 % FP and at several low powers. Also, the cases of power rundown and power runup are tested. 17 refs., 124 figs., 19 tabs. (Author)

  13. Modeling Fatigue Damage Onset and Progression in Composites Using an Element-Based Virtual Crack Closure Technique Combined With the Floating Node Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Nelson V.; Krueger, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed to model the onset and propagation of matrix cracks and delaminations in carbon-epoxy composites subject to fatigue loading. An extended interface element, based on the Floating Node Method, is developed to represent delaminations and matrix cracks explicitly in a mesh independent fashion. Crack propagation is determined using an element-based Virtual Crack Closure Technique approach to determine mixed-mode energy release rates, and the Paris-Law relationship to obtain crack growth rate. Crack onset is determined using a stressbased onset criterion coupled with a stress vs. cycle curve and Palmgren-Miner rule to account for fatigue damage accumulation. The approach is implemented in Abaqus/Standard® via the user subroutine functionality. Verification exercises are performed to assess the accuracy and correct implementation of the approach. Finally, it was demonstrated that this approach captured the differences in failure morphology in fatigue for two laminates of identical stiffness, but with layups containing ?deg plies that were either stacked in a single group, or distributed through the laminate thickness.

  14. Vehicle Routing Problem with Backhaul, Multiple Trips and Time Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Oscar Ong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation planning is one of the important components to increase efficiency and effectiveness in the supply chain system. Good planning will give a saving in total cost of the supply chain. This paper develops the new VRP variants’, VRP with backhauls, multiple trips, and time window (VRPBMTTW along with its problem solving techniques by using Ant Colony Optimization (ACO and Sequential Insertion as initial solution algorithm. ACO is modified by adding the decoding process in order to determine the number of vehicles, total duration time, and range of duration time regardless of checking capacity constraint and time window. This algorithm is tested by using set of random data and verified as well as analyzed its parameter changing’s. The computational results for hypothetical data with 50% backhaul and mix time windows are reported.

  15. Construction of 3D Digital Community Based on Virtual Reality Technique%基于虚拟现实技术的3维数字社区建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金平; 王克峰

    2012-01-01

    数字社区是虚拟现实技术与地理信息技术相结合的具体应用。文章结合3维数字社区建设的实例,探讨了基于虚拟实现技术的3维数字社区建设的具体方法和关键技术。%Digital community is a practical application of virtual reality technique combined with geographic information technique. This paper probes into the pivotal techniques and practical methods of constructing 3D digital community based on virtual reality utilizing 3D digital community construction as a practical example.

  16. From the history of the recognitions of the remains to the reconstruction of the face of Dante Alighieri by means of techniques of virtual reality and forensic anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benazzi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The work consists of the reconstruction of the face of the great poet called Dante Alighieri through a multidisciplinary approach that matches traditional techniques (manual ones, usually used in forensic anthropology, with digital methodologies that take advantage of technologies born in manufacturer-military fields but that are more and more often applied to the field of the cultural heritage. Unable to get the original skull of Dante, the work started from the data and the elements collected by Fabio Frassetto and Giuseppe Sergi, two important anthropologists, respectively at the University of Bologna and Rome, in an investigation carried out in 1921, sixth century anniversary of his death, on the remains of the poet collected in Ravenna. Thanks to this, we have a very accurate description of Dante’s bones, including 297 metric data inherent to the whole skeleton, some photographs in the scale of the skull, the various norms and many other bones, as well as a model of the skull subsequently realized by Frassetto. According to these information, a geometric reconstruction of Dante Alighieri skull including the jaw was carried out through the employment and integration of the instruments and technologies of the virtual reality, and from this the relative physical model through fast prototype was realized. An important aspect of the work regards in a particular manner the methodology of 3D modelling proposed for the new reconstruction of the jaw (not found in the course of the 1921 recognition, starting from a reference model. The model of the skull prototype is then useful as the basis for the successive stage of facial reconstruction through the traditional techniques of forensic art.

  17. Feature Recognition for Virtual Machining

    OpenAIRE

    Xú, Shixin; Anwer, Nabil; Qiao, Lihong

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Virtual machining uses software tools to simulate machining processes in virtual environments ahead of actual production. This paper proposes that feature recognition techniques can be applied in the course of virtual machining, such as identifying some process problems, and presenting corresponding correcting advices. By comparing with the original CAD model, form errors of the machining features can be found. And then corrections are suggested to process designers. T...

  18. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding

    Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steels have been developed for automotive applications due to the excellent high strength and formability. The microstructure of TRIP steels is a complex mixture of various microstructural constituents; ferrite, bainite, martensite and retained austenite....... The TRIP effect is activated under the influence of an external load, thereby leading to a martensitic transformation of the retained austenite. This transformation induced plasticity contributes to the excellent mechanical properties of this class of steels and provides high tensile strength without...... and thereby reduced weight of the vehicles. One of the limitations for the wide application of TRIP steel is associated with joining, since so far no method has succeeded in joining TRIP steel, without comprising the steel properties. In this study, the potential of joining TRIP steel with Friction Stir Spot...

  19. Geographical and Statistical Analysis on the Relationship between Land-Use Mixture and Home-Based Trip Making and More: Case of Richmond, Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin - Shan MA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Richmond, Virginia has implemented numerous mixed land-use policies to encourage non-private-vehicle commuting for decades based on the best practices of other cities and the assumption that land-use mixture would positively lead to trip reduction. This paper uses both Geographical Information Systems (GIS and statistical tools to empirically test this hypothesis. With local land use and trip making data as inputs, it first calculates two common indices of land-use mixture - entropy and dissimilarity indices, using GIS tool, supplemented by Microsoft Excel. Afterwards, it uses Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS to calculate the correlation matrices among land-use mixture indices, socioeconomic variables, and home-based work/other trip rates, followed by a series of regression model runs on these variables. Through this study, it has been found that land-use mixture has some but weak effects on home-based work trip rate, and virtually no effects on home-based other trip rate. In contrast, socioeconomic variables, especially auto ownership, have larger effects on home-based trip making.

  20. Virtual colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, D J

    1997-04-01

    A new method for colon examination, virtual colonoscopy, has been created by combining spiral computed tomography and virtual reality computer technology. If virtual colonoscopy proves equal to or superior to traditional colonoscopy in sensitivity and specificity for cancer screening, it would yield significant clinical and public health benefits because of its potential for increased acceptance among patients as well as its considerably lower cost and risks.

  1. Virtual volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. Christian; Prange, Richard E.

    2007-03-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation strategy.

  2. Virtual volatility

    OpenAIRE

    A. Christian Silva; Prange, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of virtual volatility. This simple but new measure shows how to quantify the uncertainty in the forecast of the drift component of a random walk. The virtual volatility also is a useful tool in understanding the stochastic process for a given portfolio. In particular, and as an example, we were able to identify mean reversion effect in our portfolio. Finally, we briefly discuss the potential practical effect of the virtual volatility on an investor asset allocation st...

  3. Virtual Reflexes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Virtual Reality is used successfully to treat people for regular phobias. A new challenge is to develop Virtual Reality Exposure Training for social skills. Virtual actors in such systems have to show appropriate social behavior including emotions, gaze, and keeping distance. The behavior must be realistic and real-time. Current approaches consist of four steps: 1) trainee social signal detection, 2) cognitive-affective interpretation, 3) determination of the appropriate bodily responses, and...

  4. Virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, JM; Chan, KW; Gibson, I.

    1998-01-01

    Virtual reality is still in its infancy. However, many contemporary applications already have proven virtual reality to be indispensable to everyday life. For instance, the technology of virtual product design and manufacturing makes the new products better and cheaper. The applications of VR in medicine allow doctors to diagnose a disease more accurately. Without a doubt, it has and will foster more innovative research and applications. High-resolution, low-lag and low-price systems will be ...

  5. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  6. Hunton Group core workshop and field trip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K.S. [ed.

    1993-12-31

    The Late Ordovician-Silurian-Devonian Hunton Group is a moderately thick sequence of shallow-marine carbonates deposited on the south edge of the North American craton. This rock unit is a major target for petroleum exploration and reservoir development in the southern Midcontinent. The workshop described here was held to display cores, outcrop samples, and other reservoir-characterization studies of the Hunton Group and equivalent strata throughout the region. A field trip was organized to complement the workshop by allowing examination of excellent outcrops of the Hunton Group of the Arbuckle Mountains.

  7. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800 who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics, neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other

  8. Trip distribution for limited destinations: a case study for grocery shopping trips in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Sander; Thomas, Tom; Tutert, Bas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new trip distribution model for destinations that are not homogeneously distributed. The model is a gravity model in which the spatial configuration of destinations is incorporated in the modeling process. The performance was tested on a survey with reported grocery sho

  9. Virtual Laboratories and Virtual Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, Piet

    2007-01-01

    Since we cannot put stars in a laboratory, astrophysicists had to wait till the invention of computers before becoming laboratory scientists. For half a century now, we have been conducting experiments in our virtual laboratories. However, we ourselves have remained behind the keyboard, with the screen of the monitor separating us from the world we are simulating. Recently, 3D on-line technology, developed first for games but now deployed in virtual worlds like Second Life, is beginning to make it possible for astrophysicists to enter their virtual labs themselves, in virtual form as avatars. This has several advantages, from new possibilities to explore the results of the simulations to a shared presence in a virtual lab with remote collaborators on different continents. I will report my experiences with the use of Qwaq Forums, a virtual world developed by a new company (see http://www.qwaq.com)

  10. Effect of Field Trip On Students’ Academic Performance in Basic Technology in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ganiyu Alasela Amosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of field trip in teaching and learning helps to bring about effective and efficient learning in Basic Technology. Field trip is a group excursion away from the normal education environment for firsthand experience of an historic site or place of special interest. This study therefore was geared toward finding out the effect of field trip on students’ academic performance in learning practical skills in Basic Technology in Ilorin, Nigeria. A pre‐test, post‐test and control group quasi‐experimental design was adopted for this study. Two sampled upper basic Schools were selected from Ilorin East Local Government Area of Kwara State using purposive sampling technique. The two sampled upper basic Schools comprised 50 students who were randomly assigned to treatment (25 students and control (25 students groups. Analysis of Co‐variance (ANCOVA was used to analyze the data collected. The findings revealed that at significant level, the value produced F (2, 22 = 3.44 > 0.109 Therefore, hypothesis one was rejected. Also, at 0.05 significant level, the value produced F (2, 9 = 4.26 > 0.433. Therefore, hypothesis two was rejected. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that; teachers should take students on field trip so as to promote and encourage active engagement in learning, self‐motivation, discovery learning and learning by experience.

  11. TripSense: A Trust-Based Vehicular Platoon Crowdsensing Scheme with Privacy Preservation in VANETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Lu, Rongxing; Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a trust-based vehicular platoon crowdsensing scheme, named TripSense, in VANET. The proposed TripSense scheme introduces a trust-based system to evaluate vehicles' sensing abilities and then selects the more capable vehicles in order to improve sensing results accuracy. In addition, the sensing tasks are accomplished by platoon member vehicles and preprocessed by platoon head vehicles before the data are uploaded to server. Hence, it is less time-consuming and more efficient compared with the way where the data are submitted by individual platoon member vehicles. Hence it is more suitable in ephemeral networks like VANET. Moreover, our proposed TripSense scheme integrates unlinkable pseudo-ID techniques to achieve PM vehicle identity privacy, and employs a privacy-preserving sensing vehicle selection scheme without involving the PM vehicle's trust score to keep its location privacy. Detailed security analysis shows that our proposed TripSense scheme not only achieves desirable privacy requirements but also resists against attacks launched by adversaries. In addition, extensive simulations are conducted to show the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed scheme.

  12. Ring aggregation pattern of Human Travel Trips

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zi-Yang; Zhu, Peng; Qin, Yong; Jia, Li-Min

    2015-01-01

    Although a lot of attentions have been paid to human mobility, the relationship between travel pattern with city structure is still unclear. Here we probe into this relationship by analyzing the metro passenger trip data.There are two unprecedented findings. One, from the average view a linear law exists between the individual's travel distance with his original distance to city center. The mechanism underlying is a travel pattern we called "ring aggregation", i.e., the daily movement of city passengers is just aggregating to a ring with roughly equal distance to city center.Interestingly, for the round trips the daily travel pattern can be regarded as a switching between the home ring at outer area with the office ring at the inner area. Second, this linear law and ring aggregation pattern seems to be an exclusive characteristic of the metro system. It can not be found in short distance transportation modes, such as bicycle and taxi, neither as multiple transportation modes. This means the ring aggregation p...

  13. Value of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic reconstruction technique in dual-energy CT for planning of transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Simon S.; Albrecht, Moritz H.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Huesers, Kristina; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Booz, Christian; Bodelle, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W.; Metzger, Sarah C.; Vogl, Thomas J.; Lehnert, Thomas [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate objective and subjective image quality of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstruction technique in dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) angiography prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Datasets of 47 patients (35 men; 64.1 ± 10.9 years) who underwent DECT angiography of heart and vascular access prior to TAVR were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F{sub 0}.5), VMI+, and traditional monoenergetic (VMI) algorithms in 10-keV intervals from 40-100 keV. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 564 arterial segments were evaluated. Subjective analysis was rated by three blinded observers using a Likert scale. Mean SNR and CNR were highest in 40 keV VMI+ series (SNR, 27.8 ± 13.0; CNR, 26.3 ± 12.7), significantly (all p < 0.001) superior to all VMI series, which showed highest values at 70 keV (SNR, 18.5 ± 7.6; CNR, 16.0 ± 7.4), as well as linearly-blended F{sub 0}.5 series (SNR, 16.8 ± 7.3; CNR, 13.6 ± 6.9). Highest subjective image quality scores were observed for 40, 50, and 60 keV VMI+ reconstructions (all p > 0.05), significantly superior to all VMI and standard linearly-blended images (all p < 0.01). Low-keV VMI+ reconstructions significantly increase CNR and SNR compared to VMI and standard linear-blending image reconstruction and improve subjective image quality in preprocedural DECT angiography in the context of TAVR planning. (orig.)

  14. Constructing the Virtual Production Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙连胜; 宁汝新

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the constructing technology of virtual production line, the structure model of virtual production line was presented, and the object-oriented technique was used to establish its basic classes and relevant models, including solid model, behavior model and object-oriented Petri net based control model, and based on this, the constructing of virtual production line was realized. The application proved that the virtual production line had many good characteristics, such as visualization, interaction, multi-layer and reusability, and it's an efficient tool of analyzing and modeling for layout planning and rapidly reconfiguring of production line.

  15. Virtual materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    an interesting platform for further development including virtual materiality and agency. If we choose to proceed along this line – some of our steps would include attention to the following points: 1. Working with virtual realities first of all undermines a pure realist conceptualization of materiality. We need......There are two questions that feed the curiosity of this paper: a theoretical question connected to the conceptualization of materiality across the real/virtual divide and an empirical question connected to the understanding of virtual experiences in children’s lives when studied in relation...... as their recounts of them and 3. the consumption of other media products like movies, reality shows, YouTube videos etc. How do we theorize ‘matter’ in such dimensions? Is it possible to theorize virtual matter as ‘materiality’ in line with any real life materiality? What conceptualization will help us understand...

  16. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...... for performing these projects. This paper compares best practices with practiced practices for virtual projects and discusses ways to bridge the gap between them. We have studied eleven virtual projects in five Danish organizations and compared them with a predefined list of best practices compiled from...... that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects...

  17. Virtual Exploratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes the notion of activity-systems to denote a virtual frame of activity that requires mutually coordinated action. The underlying assumption is that such framings may support the informal learning and reflective practices of actors, and especially so, when they are provoking...... and challenging. It is suggested that the prevailing ‘traditions’ of collaborative learning and knowledge sharing need to be challenged and complemented, if we are to be able to support the variety and the diversity in the repertoires of virtual learning activities. In order to conceptualize such activity......-systems, the paper introduces the designing strategy referred to as virtual exploratories. Some of the advanced virtual worlds may inspire the design of such provoking and challenging virtual exploratories, and especially the Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGS). However, if we have to learn from...

  18. 虚拟现实技术在医学领域的应用%Application of Virtual Reality Technique in Biomedical Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆芒; 刘云; 张昕

    2016-01-01

    Virtual reality technology as the most popular science and technology development direction is widely used in many fields.This paper briefly introduces the basic concepts and characteristics of virtual reality technology, the application of virtual reality technology in the field of medicine were reviewed, focusing on the virtual surgery system, virtual medical education, clinical application, remote medical treatment, virtual human technology and method.%虚拟现实技术作为目前最热门的科技发展方向被广泛应用于多个领域。本文简要介绍了虚拟现实技术的基本概念与特点,对虚拟现实技术在医学领域中的应用进行综述,重点阐述了虚拟手术系统、虚拟医学教育、虚拟临床应用、虚拟远程医疗、虚拟人体等技术与方法。

  19. Diagnostic Value of Multidetector CT and Its Multiplanar Reformation, Volume Rendering and Virtual Bronchoscopy Postprocessing Techniques for Primary Trachea and Main Bronchus Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Luo

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic value of multidetector CT (MDCT and its multiplanar reformation (MPR, volume rendering (VR and virtual bronchoscopy (VB postprocessing techniques for primary trachea and main bronchus tumors.Detection results of 31 primary trachea and main bronchus tumors with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB postprocessing techniques, were analyzed retrospectively with regard to tumor locations, tumor morphologies, extramural invasions of tumors, longitudinal involvements of tumors, morphologies and extents of luminal stenoses, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae, and internal features of tumors. The detection results were compared with that of surgery and pathology.Detection results with MDCT and its MPR, VR and VB were consistent with that of surgery and pathology, included tumor locations (tracheae, n = 19; right main bronchi, n = 6; left main bronchi, n = 6, tumor morphologies (endoluminal nodes with narrow bases, n = 2; endoluminal nodes with wide bases, n = 13; both intraluminal and extraluminal masses, n = 16, extramural invasions of tumors (brokethrough only serous membrane, n = 1; 4.0 mm-56.0 mm, n = 14; no clear border with right atelectasis, n = 1, longitudinal involvements of tumors (3.0 mm, n = 1; 5.0 mm-68.0 mm, n = 29; whole right main bronchus wall and trachea carina, n = 1, morphologies of luminal stenoses (irregular, n = 26; circular, n = 3; eccentric, n = 1; conical, n = 1 and extents (mild, n = 5; moderate, n = 7; severe, n = 19, distances between main bronchus tumors and trachea carinae (16.0 mm, n = 1; invaded trachea carina, n = 1; >20.0 mm, n = 10, and internal features of tumors (fairly homogeneous densities with rather obvious enhancements, n = 26; homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; homogeneous density without obvious enhancement, n = 1; not enough homogeneous density with obvious enhancement, n = 1; punctate calcification with obvious enhancement, n = 1; low density

  20. Development of Teacher Attitude Scale towards the Field Trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    A field trip is an excursion by group of students with teachers to a place away from classroom such as natural field, science center, and zoo. So, it is an important tool for renewable energy education. This study was carried out to develop a new scale for measuring teacher attitudes towards the field trip. Teacher attitude scale towards the field…

  1. The "Science" Behind a Successful Field Trip to the Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine Marie; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    A field trip to the local zoo is often a staple in many elementary school curricula. Many zoos offer free entry to local teachers and their students. Teachers take students on field trips to enrich the curriculum, make connections to what students are learning in school, and provide students with meaningful learning experiences (Kisiel 2007).…

  2. The "Science" Behind a Successful Field Trip to the Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Catherine Marie; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2011-01-01

    A field trip to the local zoo is often a staple in many elementary school curricula. Many zoos offer free entry to local teachers and their students. Teachers take students on field trips to enrich the curriculum, make connections to what students are learning in school, and provide students with meaningful learning experiences (Kisiel 2007).…

  3. Experimental Evaluation of Field Trips on Instruction in Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Norval L.

    To determine the effect of field trips on student achievement in each of four subject matter areas in vocational agriculture, 12 schools offering approved programs were randomly selected and divided into a treatment group and a control group. Uniform teaching outlines and reference materials were provided to each group. While no field trips were…

  4. Field Trips: A Look at Environmental Effects on Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, John H.

    1983-01-01

    Six studies on school field trip learning are reviewed. Among the findings reported are those indicating that students' perceptions of the novelty of the trip affects what they learn, and that imposed learning will be inhibited in settings where novelty is either extremely great or small. (Author/JN)

  5. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  6. Valuation of a transfer in a multimodal public transport trip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakenbos, R.; La Paix Puello, L.C.; Nijenstein, S.; Geurs, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of chain mobility is considered a major issue in public transport use. Transfers within a public transport trip are the least appreciated part of the trip. This research quantifies the experienced transfer disutility of a transfer between BTM and train. The influence of travel time, tran

  7. [Managing health risks of workers in business trip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, E V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents data of prospective observation over the risk management system concerning health of international oil and gas company workers in business trips. The management system included training and screening of workers under risk, specific prophylaxis and other measures. The authors described problems of the risk management system implementation, suggested recommendations to control risks connected with business trips.

  8. Gezocht: de beste roofmijt voor Californische trips in roos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkesteijn, M.; Pijnakker, J.

    2012-01-01

    De Californische trips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is een van de belangrijkste plagen in de glastuinbouw. De introductie van deze trips dateert van 1984. Het plaaginsect vormt nu een struikelblok voor de verdere uitbreiding van geïntegreerde bestrijding. In roos kan een klein aantal van deze tripse

  9. 14 CFR 380.46 - Charter trip reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Charter trip reporting. 380.46 Section 380.46 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Direct Air Carriers § 380.46 Charter trip...

  10. Harvesting Collective Trend Observations from Large Scale Study Trips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Ovesen, Nis

    2014-01-01

    To enhance industrial design students’ decoding and understanding of the technological possibilities and the diversity of needs and preferences in different cultures it is not unusual to arrange study trips where such students acquire a broader view to strengthen their professional skills...... and approach, hence linking the design education and the design culture of the surrounding world. To improve the professional learning it is useful, though, to facilitate and organize the trips in a way that involves systematic data collection and reporting. This paper presents a method for facilitating study...... trips for engineering students in architecture & design and the results from crowd-collecting a large amount of trend observations as well as the derived experience from using the method on a large scale study trip. The method has been developed and formalized in relation to study trips with large...

  11. File System Virtual Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    some of my closest friendships. Ashraf, Ippo and Neil made life much more fun. Mike Merideth introduced me to fine scotch, hi-fi speakers, and piano ...system virtual appliances (4) We analyze the sources of latency in traditional inter-VM communica- tion techniques and present a novel energy- and...tiple file system implementations within the Sun UNIX kernel” [52]. This was achieved through two techniques . First, outside the file system layer

  12. Volumetric Virtual Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Taosong

    2000-01-01

    Driven by fast development of both virtual reality and volume visualization, we discuss some critical techniques towards building a volumetric VR system, specifically the modeling, rendering, and manipulations of a volumetric scene.Techniques such as voxel-based object simplification, accelerated volume rendering,fast stereo volume rendering, and volumetric "collision detection" are introduced and improved, with the idea of demonstrating the possibilities and potential benefits of incorporating volumetric models into VR systems.

  13. User oriented trajectory search for trip recommendation

    KAUST Repository

    Shang, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    Trajectory sharing and searching have received significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, we propose and investigate a novel problem called User Oriented Trajectory Search (UOTS) for trip recommendation. In contrast to conventional trajectory search by locations (spatial domain only), we consider both spatial and textual domains in the new UOTS query. Given a trajectory data set, the query input contains a set of intended places given by the traveler and a set of textual attributes describing the traveler\\'s preference. If a trajectory is connecting/close to the specified query locations, and the textual attributes of the trajectory are similar to the traveler\\'e preference, it will be recommended to the traveler for reference. This type of queries can bring significant benefits to travelers in many popular applications such as trip planning and recommendation. There are two challenges in the UOTS problem, (i) how to constrain the searching range in two domains and (ii) how to schedule multiple query sources effectively. To overcome the challenges and answer the UOTS query efficiently, a novel collaborative searching approach is developed. Conceptually, the UOTS query processing is conducted in the spatial and textual domains alternately. A pair of upper and lower bounds are devised to constrain the searching range in two domains. In the meantime, a heuristic searching strategy based on priority ranking is adopted for scheduling the multiple query sources, which can further reduce the searching range and enhance the query efficiency notably. Furthermore, the devised collaborative searching approach can be extended to situations where the query locations are ordered. The performance of the proposed UOTS query is verified by extensive experiments based on real and synthetic trajectory data in road networks. © 2012 ACM.

  14. USING DECISION TREES FOR ESTIMATING MODE CHOICE OF TRIPS IN BUCA-IZMIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Oral

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers develop transportation plans and models for providing sustainable transport systems in urban areas. Mode Choice is one of the stages in transportation modelling. Data mining techniques can discover factors affecting the mode choice. These techniques can be applied with knowledge process approach. In this study a data mining process model is applied to determine the factors affecting the mode choice with decision trees techniques by considering individual trip behaviours from household survey data collected within Izmir Transportation Master Plan. From this perspective transport mode choice problem is solved on a case in district of Buca-Izmir, Turkey with CRISP-DM knowledge process model.

  15. The virtual knife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann

    and order books. The Danish Meat Research Institute (DMRI) is currently constructing a representative database of virtual representations of pigs using X-ray Computed Tomography (CT). The database will serve as the foundation for the diversity modeling of pigs and for extracting predictors of quality...... and optimal use. This thesis integrates well-known techniques from the medical image analysis into the development of tools for automated analysis of the morphology of pigs. E.g. elastic image matching has been applied to establish spatial correspondence between the virtual representations of pigs...

  16. Virtual Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyori, Ladislao Pablo

    1996-01-01

    Presents a manifesto proposing the creation of a new kind of poetry--virtual poetry--that exists only in electronic space and computer networks. States that this new poetry is interactive, animated, hyper-linked, and navigational. (PA)

  17. Virtual Exploratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes the notion of activity-systems to denote a virtual frame of activity that requires mutually coordinated action. The underlying assumption is that such framings may support the informal learning and reflective practices of actors, and especially so, when they are provoking...... and challenging. It is suggested that the prevailing ‘traditions’ of collaborative learning and knowledge sharing need to be challenged and complemented, if we are to be able to support the variety and the diversity in the repertoires of virtual learning activities. In order to conceptualize such activity...... the design and activity of the advanced virtual worlds and role-playing games, then the empirical research on the actors’ activity, while they are acting, is an important precondition to it. A step towards the conception of such a designing strategy for virtual exploratories is currently pursued...

  18. Virtual Workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Bygholm, Ann

    In relation to the Tutor course in the Mediterranean Virtual University (MVU) project, a virtual workshop “Getting experiences with different synchronous communication media, collaboration, and group work” was held with all partner institutions in January 2006. More than 25 key-tutors within MVU...... participated from different institutions in the workshop. The result of the workshop was experiences with different communication tools and media. Facing the difficulties and possibilities in collaborateting virtually concerned around group work and development of a shared presentation. All based on getting...... experiences for the learning design of MVU courses. The workshop intented to give the participants the possibility to draw their own experiences with issues on computer supported collaboration, group work in a virtual environment, synchronous and asynchronous communication media, and different perspectives...

  19. Virtual Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)

  20. Value of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic reconstruction technique in dual-energy CT for planning of transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Simon S; Albrecht, Moritz H; Wichmann, Julian L; Hüsers, Kristina; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Booz, Christian; Bodelle, Boris; Bauer, Ralf W; Metzger, Sarah C; Vogl, Thomas J; Lehnert, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate objective and subjective image quality of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstruction technique in dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) angiography prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Datasets of 47 patients (35 men; 64.1 ± 10.9 years) who underwent DECT angiography of heart and vascular access prior to TAVR were reconstructed with standard linear blending (F_0.5), VMI+, and traditional monoenergetic (VMI) algorithms in 10-keV intervals from 40-100 keV. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 564 arterial segments were evaluated. Subjective analysis was rated by three blinded observers using a Likert scale. Mean SNR and CNR were highest in 40 keV VMI+ series (SNR, 27.8 ± 13.0; CNR, 26.3 ± 12.7), significantly (all p VMI series, which showed highest values at 70 keV (SNR, 18.5 ± 7.6; CNR, 16.0 ± 7.4), as well as linearly-blended F_0.5 series (SNR, 16.8 ± 7.3; CNR, 13.6 ± 6.9). Highest subjective image quality scores were observed for 40, 50, and 60 keV VMI+ reconstructions (all p > 0.05), significantly superior to all VMI and standard linearly-blended images (all p VMI+ reconstructions significantly increase CNR and SNR compared to VMI and standard linear-blending image reconstruction and improve subjective image quality in preprocedural DECT angiography in the context of TAVR planning. • VMI+ combines increased contrast with reduced image noise. • VMI+ shows substantially less image noise than traditional VMI. • 40-keV reconstructions show highest SNR/CNR of the aortic and iliofemoral access route. • Observers overall prefer 60 keV VMI+ images. • VMI+ DECT imaging helps improve image quality for TAVR planning.

  1. Investigation of a turbulent spot and a tripped turbulent boundary layer flow using time-resolved tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, A.; Geisler, R.; Elsinga, G.E.; Scarano, F.; Dierksheide, U.

    2007-01-01

    In this feasibility study the tomographic PIV technique has been applied to time resolved PIV recordings for the study of the growth of a turbulent spot in a laminar flat plate boundary layer and to visualize the topology of coherent flow structures within a tripped turbulent flat plate boundary lay

  2. Virtual reality and virtual bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Catherine; Korba, Larry W.; Shaw, Christopher D.; Green, Mark

    1994-04-01

    There are many ways to produce the sense of `presence' or telepresence in the user of virtual reality. For example attempting to increase the realism of the visual environment is a commonly accepted strategy. In contrast, this paper explores a way for the user to feel present in an unrealistic virtual body. It investigates an unusual approach, proprioceptive illusions. Proprioceptive or body illusions are used to generate and explore the experience of virtuality and presence outside of the normal body limits. These projects are realized in art installations.

  3. 双支架术式的体外模拟研究%Two-stent techniques for coronary bifurcation:insight from in vitro and virtual bench testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓飞; 张俊杰; 葛震; 肖平喜; 叶飞; 陈绍良

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences of various two-stent techniques in vitro and virtual bench testing. Methods Stent implantation with classic crush, double kissing ( DK) crush and culotte stenting techniques were performed in the silicone simulation model of bifurcation vessels with various distal bifurcation angles. The whole processes were recorded by a micro-focus camera. Results Distal side branch (SB) re-crossing in classical crush technique left a significant gap without stent coverage near the carina in T type bifurcation model after final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) . The gap was also noted in either classic crush with proximal SB re-crossing or DK crush with two times proximal SB re-crossing in T type bifurcation model. The size of the gap in DK crush technique was smaller than that of classic crush. In Y type bifurcation model, both DK crush and culotte stenting left no gap compared to T type bifurcation model. Two times proximal SB re-crossing in culotte stenting resulted in a new stent carina formation after FKBI. Conclusions Distal bifurcation angle was an anatomatic predictor of gap formation in two-stent technique. In T type bifurcation model, the size of gap in DK crush technique was smaller than that of classic crush. It was suggested to perform two times proximal SB re-crossing for DK crush technique and distal SB re-crossing for culotte stenting.%目的:研究不同双支架术式(包括经典挤压支架术、双对吻挤压支架术和裙裤支架术)在不同分叉角度的分叉血管模型中的表现。方法基于不同分叉角度的硅树脂分叉血管模型,全程使用微聚焦相机照相,观察运用不同双支架术后的支架形态学以及分支开口间隙区的差异。结果基于“T”型分叉(远端分叉角度90°):运用经典挤压支架术,再次放置导丝从远端网眼进入分支,完成对吻扩张后,分支开口嵴侧无支架钢梁覆盖;无论是经典挤压支架术(再次放置

  4. Interactive Virtual Cinematography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    a limit in this approach: to bridge the gap between automatic and manual cameras the camera objective should be influenced by the player. In our view, the camera control system should be able to learn camera preferences from the user and adapt the camera setting to improve the player experience. Therefore...... control architecture able to generate real-time, smooth and well composed camera animations. Moreover, we have designed and tested an approach to model the player's camera preferences using machine learning techniques and to tailor the automatic camera behaviour to the player and her game-play style......A virtual camera represents the point-of-view of the player through which she perceives the game world and gets feedback on her actions. Thus, the virtual camera plays a vital role in 3D computer games and aects player experience and enjoyability in games. Interactive virtual cinematography...

  5. Local shear texture formation in adiabatic shear bands by high rate compression of high manganese TRIP steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Yang, P.; Mao, W. M.; Cui, F. E.

    2015-04-01

    Local shear textures in ASBs of high manganese TRIP steels under high rate straining are determined and the influences of initial microstructure is analyzed using EBSD technique. It is seen that even at the presence of majority of two types of martensite before deformation, ASB is preferred to evolve in austenite, rather than in martenite, due to reverse transformation. Ultrafine grains of thress phases due to dynamic recrystallization are formed and all show shear textures. The less ε-martensite in ASB is distributed as islands and its preferred orientation can be found to originate from the variants in matrix. The grain orientation rotation around ASB in multi-phase alloy reveals significant influence of α'- martensite on texture in ASB. The mechanism of local texture formation in ASB of high manganese TRIP steel is proposed in terms of the interaction of early TRIP and later reverse transformation.

  6. Virtual instrumentation: Introduction of virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Ödlund, Erika

    2007-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the next large particle accelerator developed at CERN, constructed to enable studies of particles. The acceleration of the particles is carried out using magnets operating at about 1.9 K, a temperature achieved by regulating flow of superfluid helium. For economical reasons, control of the helium flow is based on feedback of virtual flow meter (VFT) estimates instead of real instrumentation. The main purpose of this work is to develop a virtual flow meter wi...

  7. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  8. Using Heavy Clique Base Coarsening to Enhance Virtual Network Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Shahin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Network virtualization allows cloud infrastructure providers to accommodate multiple virtual networks on a single physical network. However, mapping multiple virtual network resources to physical network components, called virtual network embedding (VNE, is known to be non-deterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard. Effective virtual network embedding increases the revenue by increasing the number of accepted virtual networks. In this paper, we propose virtual network embedding algorithm, which improves virtual network embedding by coarsening virtual networks. Heavy Clique matching technique is used to coarsen virtual networks. Then, the coarsened virtual networks are enhanced by using a refined Kernighan-Lin algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared with existing algorithms using extensive simulations, which show that the proposed algorithm improves virtual network embedding by increasing the acceptance ratio and the revenue.

  9. The Destiny of Universes After the Big Trip

    CERN Document Server

    Yurov, A V

    2007-01-01

    The big trip can be describe with the help of the Wheeler-DeWitt wave equation ${\\hat H}\\psi(w,a)=0$. The probability to find the universe after big trip in the state with $w=w_0$ will be maximal if $\\partial\\psi(w,a)/\\partial w|_{w=w_0}=0$ for any values of the scale factor $a$. It is shown that this will be the case if and only if $w_0=-1/3$. This fact allows one to suggest that vast majority of universes in multiverse must be in this state after their big trips.

  10. Advanced transportation concept for round-trip space travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chen-Wan L.

    1988-01-01

    A departure from the conventional concept of round-trip space travel is introduced. It is shown that a substantial reduction in the initial load required of the Shuttle or other launch vehicle can be achieved by staging the ascent orbit and leaving fuel for the return trip at each stage of the orbit. Examples of round trips from a low-inclination LEO to a high-inclination LEO and from an LEO to a GEO are used to show the merits of the new concept. Potential problem areas and research needed for the development of an efficient space transportation network are discussed.

  11. REVIEW AND PROSPECT OF HIGH STRENGTH LOW ALLOY TRIP STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. Li; P. Wollants; Y.L. He; B.C. De Cooman; X.C. Wei; Z.Y. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Research status of high strength low alloy TRIP (transformation induced plasticity)steels for automobile structural parts is briefly described. Composition and microstructure factors especially the morphology, size and volume fraction of retained austenite,which largely influence the strength and ductility of the steel, are reviewed and discussed one after another. Modelling of the inter-critical annealing and martempering processes as well as the designing of the TRIP steel aided by commercial software are introduced. Some special aspects of the dynamic mechanical properties of TRIP steel are firstly reported.

  12. Virtual Reference Interferometry: Theory & Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Michael Anthony

    This thesis introduces the idea that a simulated interferogram can be used as a reference for an interferometer. This new concept represents a paradigm shift from the conventional thinking, where a reference is the phase of a wavefront that traverses a known path. The simulated interferogram used as a reference is called a virtual reference. This thesis develops the theory of virtual reference interferometry and uses it for the characterization of chromatic dispersion in short length (virtual reference combines the advantages of these techniques so that it is both accurate and easy to operate. Chromatic dispersion measurements based on virtual reference interferometry have similar accuracy as the best conventional measurement techniques due to the ability to measure first and second order dispersion directly from the interference pattern. Unique capabilities of virtual reference interferometry are demonstrated, followed by a derivation of the operational constraints and system parameters. The technique is also applied to the characterization of few-mode fibers, a hot topic in telecommunications research where mode division multiplexing promises to expand network bandwidth. Also introduced is the theory of dispersive virtual reference interferometry, which can be used to overcome the bandwidth limitations associated with the measurement of near-zero dispersion-length optical components via compression of the interference pattern. Additionally, a method for utilizing the virtual reference interferometer in a low-coherence setup is introduced, enabling characterization in new wavelength ranges and further reducing the cost of characterization.

  13. Magical Stories: Blending Virtual Reality and Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Hilary

    Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques and virtual reality (VR) make possible powerful interactive stories, and this paper focuses on examples of virtual characters in three dimensional (3-D) worlds. Waldern, a virtual reality game designer, has theorized about and implemented software design of virtual teammates and opponents that incorporate AI…

  14. Walking in Place Through Virtual Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Niels Chr.; Serafin, Stefania; Nordahl, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Immersive virtual reality (IVR) is seemingly on the verge of entering the homes of consumers. Enabling users to walk through virtual worlds in a limited physical space presents a challenge. With an outset in a taxonomy of virtual travel techniques, we argue that Walking-in-Place (WIP) techniques...... constitute a promising approach to virtual walking in relation to consumer IVR. Subsequently we review existing approaches to WIP locomotion and highlight the need for a more explicit focus on the perceived naturalness of WIP techniques; i.e., the degree to which WIP locomotion feels like real walking...

  15. Virtual temporal bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Ming-guo; ZHANG Shao-xiang; LIU Zheng-jin; TAN Li-wen; WANG Yu-su; DENG Jun-hui; TANG Ze-sheng

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To provide the virtual model of the temporal bone for improving 3-dimension (3D) visualization of the inner ear. Methods: Plastination technique was used to make equidistant serial thin sections 1.0 mm in thickness. On SGI workstation, a Contours+Marching Cubes algorithm was selected to reconstruct the temporal bone and intratemporal structures in 3D, then to view the middle ear, inner ear, and intratemporal structures which imitate the scenes observed by the traditional endoscopy. Results: The virtual model of the temporal bone was successfully constructed, with all reconstructed structures being represented individually or jointly and being rotated continuously in any plane. Virtual endoscopy improved 3D visualization of the middle ear, inner ear, and intratemporal structures. Conclusion: The reconstructed model can be used for the medical students to rehearse or review the surgeries on this part and for the surgeons to develop a new approach for operation. Virtual otoscopy stands as a promising new visualization technique for elucidating the structure and relation of the middle ear, inner ear, and intratemporal structures.

  16. Peer Pressure Road Trip 2012 - A Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popnoe, Olivia

    2012-10-01

    Each year since 2005 the Angelo State University SPS ``Peer Pressure Team'' has travelled for a week in May to promote physics and other sciences for grades K-12. This year, the Peer Pressure Team visited schools in West Texas and New Mexico. This was the first year the team has traveled outside of Texas, inspired by the SPS 2012 theme ``Physics Beyond Borders.'' The purpose of the Road Tours is to encourage an interest in science in children in grades K-12 and give experience in presenting and explaining physics to the undergraduate volunteers. The schools attended are carefully selected based on socioeconomic need and an underrepresentation in physics, as well as other sciences. During this week, the Peer Pressure Team saw about 1,500 students over 10 shows. Surveys were given to teachers post-demonstration to have students complete and return so the Team could gauge the effectiveness of the outreach program. In addition, the surveys allow the Team to determine which demonstrations had the most impact. We present the details of this year's road trip with the results and analysis of the survey data.

  17. You Can't Reach for the Stars if You are Tripping Over the Ground! (Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Darcy; Raysich, Mark; Kirkland, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Although there are very few mishaps related to ground, vehicle or payload processing at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), employees have experienced a significant number of injuries due to slips, trips, and falls outside of performing flight processing operations. Slips, trips, and falls are major causes of occupational injuries at KSC, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and in general industry. To help KSC employees avoid these injuries, and allow them to be fully productive, KSC launched an initiative in 2013 to reduce slips, trips, and falls. This initiative is based on a four-part model focusing on DATA analysis, HAZARD awareness, PREVENTIVE methods, and BALANCE.

  18. Virtual care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Annette; Aaløkke Ballegaard, Stinne

    point out how issues of trust and surveillance, which are always negotiated in care relations, are in fact accentuated in this kind of virtual care work. Moreover, we stress that the contemporary institutional context, organization and time schedules have a vast impact on the practices developed....... of retrenchment, promising better quality, empowerment of citizens and work that is smarter and more qualified. Through ethnographic field studies we study the introduction of virtual home care in Danish elderly care, focusing on the implications for relational work and care relations. Virtual home care entails...... the performance of specific home care services by means of video conversations rather than physical visits in the citizens’ homes. As scholars within the STS tradition maintain, technologies do not simply replace a human function; they rather transform care work, redistributing tasks between citizens, technology...

  19. Virtual Tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Security Engineering Dept.

    1997-08-01

    The primary responsibility of an intrusion detection system (IDS) operator is to monitor the system, assess alarms, and summon and coordinate the response team when a threat is acknowledged. The tools currently provided to the operator are somewhat limited: monitors must be switched, keystrokes must be entered to call up intrusion sensor data, and communication with the response force must be maintained. The Virtual tower is an operator interface assembled from low-cost commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software; it enables large amounts of data to be displayed in a virtual manner that provides instant recognition for the operator and increases assessment accuracy in alarm annunciator and control systems. This is accomplished by correlating and fusing the data into a 360-degree visual representation that employs color, auxiliary attributes, video, and directional audio to prompt the operator. The Virtual Tower would be a valuable low-cost enhancement to existing systems.

  20. Virtual Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In the United States, exposure to media violence is becoming an inescapable component of children's lives. With the rise in new technologies, such as tablets and new gaming platforms, children and adolescents increasingly are exposed to what is known as "virtual violence." This form of violence is not experienced physically; rather, it is experienced in realistic ways via new technology and ever more intense and realistic games. The American Academy of Pediatrics continues to be concerned about children's exposure to virtual violence and the effect it has on their overall health and well-being. This policy statement aims to summarize the current state of scientific knowledge regarding the effects of virtual violence on children's attitudes and behaviors and to make specific recommendations for pediatricians, parents, industry, and policy makers.

  1. Virtual Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In four ways, massively multiplayer online role-playing games may serve as tools for advancing sustainability goals, and as laboratories for developing alternatives to current social arrangements that have implications for the natural environment. First, by moving conspicuous consumption and other usually costly status competitions into virtual environments, these virtual worlds might reduce the need for physical resources. Second, they provide training that could prepare individuals to be teleworkers, and develop or demonstrate methods for using information technology to replace much transportation technology, notably in commuting. Third, virtual worlds and online games build international cooperation, even blending national cultures, thereby inching us toward not only the world consciousness needed for international agreements about the environment, but also toward non-spatial government that cuts across archaic nationalisms. Finally, realizing the potential social benefits of this new technology may urge us to reconsider a number of traditional societal institutions.

  2. Refuge Trip Report for White River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the refuge trip to White River National Wildlife River to assess the potential of increasing the quantity and quality waterfowl wintering...

  3. Hawaii Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2004 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data for the Hawaii-based longline fleet for the period August 2004 to present. The data collection includes 10...

  4. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  5. Trip report : Alamosa and Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary a trip to Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge and Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge in 1991, and focuses on the hydrology and soil habitat...

  6. [August 1992 trip report : Kirwin NWR and Rainwater Basin WMD

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This trip report evaluates the current years farming and grazing results for Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge and Rainwater Basin Wetland Management District.

  7. Reducing Carbon Emissions from Shopping Trips: Evidence from China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jing Li; Pingyu Zhang; Kevin Lo; Meng Guo; Mark Wang

    2015-01-01

      With rising income and the emergence of modern shopping centers in urban China, shopping trips by private car becomes more and more common, leading to higher carbon emissions in the transport sector...

  8. Trip to Fish Springs - August 21, 22, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge in August 1959. The following topics are outlined; water...

  9. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    on individual shopping trips is a prerequisite for developing customer loyalty. However, there is surprisingly little research focusing on satisfaction with individual shopping trips. On the contrary, satisfaction is normally conceptualised and studied as an overall evaluation of a given retailer based on all...... mechanisms may be at work than in other retail settings such as themed flagship stores, which are visited less regularly and are oriented more towards creating hedonic shopping experiences. This paper develops a conceptual framework for analysing customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip...... experiences in grocery retailing. The framework makes at least two important contributions to the literature. First, it focuses on customer satisfaction with individual shopping trips whereas previous research and theoretical frameworks have addressed either overall satisfaction with the retailer, service...

  10. [Febuary 1987 trip report : Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This trip report from February 2426, 1987 reviews the grazing treatments on various units, the wildlife production goals, and maps of units for Kirwin National...

  11. Prediction of the mechanical behaviour of TRIP steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Tekkaya, A.E.; Hirt, G.

    2011-01-01

    TRIP steel typically contains four different phases, ferrite, bainite, austenite and martensite. During deformation the metastable retained austenite tends to transform to stable martensite. The accompanying transformation strain has a beneficial effect on the ductility of the steel during forming.

  12. American Samoa Longline Fishery Trip Expenditure (2006 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset for trip expenditure data for the American Samoa-based longline fleet from August 2006 to present. The dataset includes 10 variable...

  13. Local zone wise elastic and plastic properties of electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy using digital image correlation technique: A comparative study between uniform stress and virtual fields method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranath, K. M.; Ramji, M.

    2015-05-01

    Joining of materials using welding results in the formation of material zones with varying microstructure across the weld. Extraction of the mechanical properties of those individual heterogeneous zones are important in designing components and structures comprised of welds. In this study, the zone wise local extraction of the elastic and plastic properties of an electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy has been carried out using both the uniform stress method (USM) and the virtual fields method (VFM) involving digital image correlation (DIC) technique. The surface strain field obtained using DIC technique from a transverse weld specimen tensile testing is used for extracting the zone wise strain evolution. Initially, using uniform stress assumption, zone wise full range stress-strain curves are extracted. In USM methodology, the elastic and plastic material models are fitted to the zone wise stress-strain curves and required parameters are extracted from it. But inherent disadvantage is lot of images need to be processed for the parameter extraction. Recently, VFM is gaining lot of popularity in characterization domain as it is robust, accurate and faster. VFM is based on the principle of virtual work where, the weak form of local equilibrium equations and kinematically admissible virtual displacement fields are utilized for parameter extraction. Hollomon's power law is used here as the hardening rule. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, yield stress, strength coefficient and strain hardening exponent are the parameters extracted zone wise using both USM and VFM. A Vicker's microhardness measurement is also conducted across the weld zone towards mapping the strength behavior. Fusion zone has reported higher yield strength, strength coefficient and Poisson's ratio. Young's modulus value is found decreasing from base metal towards the fusion zone. The trend observed in parameter variation across the weld zone obtained by both USM and VFM compares very well. Due

  14. Accommodation of the spinal cat to a tripping perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eZhong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult cats with a complete spinal cord transection at T12-T13 can relearn over a period of days-to-weeks how to generate full weight-bearing stepping on a treadmill or standing ability if trained specifically for that task. In the present study, we assessed short-term (msec-min adaptations by repetitively imposing a mechanical perturbation on the hindlimb of chronic spinal cats by placing a rod in the path of the leg during the swing phase to trigger a tripping response. The kinematics and EMG were recorded during control (10 steps, trip (1 to 60 steps with various patterns and then release (without any tripping stimulus, 10 to 20 steps sequences. Our data show that the activation patterns and kinematics of the hindlimb in the step cycle immediately following the initial trip (mechanosensory stimulation of the dorsal surface of the paw was modified in a way that increased the probability of avoiding the obstacle in the subsequent step. This indicates that the spinal sensorimotor circuitry reprogrammed the trajectory of the swing following a perturbation prior to the initiation of the swing phase of the subsequent step, in effect attempting to avoid the re-occurrence of the perturbation. The average height of the release steps was elevated compared to control regardless of the pattern and the length of the trip sequences. In addition, the average impact force on the tripping rod tended to be lower with repeated exposure to the tripping stimulus. EMG recordings suggest that the semitendinosus, a primary knee flexor, was a major contributor to the adaptive tripping response. These results demonstrate that the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry can modulate the activation patterns of the hindlimb motor pools within the time frame of single step in a manner that tends to minimize repeated perturbations. Furthermore, these adaptations remained evident for a number of steps after removal of the mechanosensory stimulation.

  15. 2006年Trip-Hop专辑回顾之三

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尔吉亚

    2007-01-01

    @@ Artist: Antrabata Title:Elephant Reveries Label: Self-Released Date: 2006 My Rating:★★★★ 当最近几年英国本土的Trip-Hop热潮慢慢褪去时,邻居法国那边却开始涌现出一大批地下的Trip-Hop乐队,Antrabata就是其中之一.

  16. Language Travel or Language Tourism: Have Educational Trips Changed So Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This article points out the changes in organization, students and language learning that language trips, as contrasted with educational trips (of which language trips are a subgroup) have gone through in the last years. The article emphasizes the need to differentiate between language trips and language tourism based on issues of additional…

  17. 41 CFR 302-5.2 - What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.2 Section 302-5.2 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Employee's Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.2 What is the purpose of the househunting trip expenses...

  18. 75 FR 29678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Reductions to Trip...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Reductions to Trip Limits for Five Groundfish Stocks... limits: 5,000 lb (2,268.0 kg) per trip for GB winter flounder; and 2,500 lb (1,134.0 kg) per trip for GB..., NMFS (Regional Administrator) to increase or decrease the trip limits for vessels in the common pool to...

  19. 41 CFR 302-5.4 - Who is not eligible for a househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.4 Section 302-5.4 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Employee's Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.4 Who is not eligible for a househunting trip expenses...

  20. 76 FR 30035 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Increase...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Increase for the Common Pool Fishery...), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; inseason adjustment of trip limit. SUMMARY: NMFS increases the trip limit... Regional Administrator (RA) to adjust the trip limits for common pool vessels in order to optimize the...

  1. 41 CFR 302-5.12 - When must my househunting trip be completed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... househunting trip be completed? 302-5.12 Section 302-5.12 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Employee's Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.12 When must my househunting trip be completed? You and/or your spouse must...

  2. 41 CFR 302-5.3 - Am I eligible for a househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.3 Section 302-5.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Employee's Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.3 Am I eligible for a househunting trip expenses allowance? You are eligible...

  3. 78 FR 54194 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery... percent of its Gulf of Maine (GOM) haddock allocation of 2 mt. Despite a trip limit reduction for SNE/MA... overharvest, the trip limit for SNE/MA winter flounder is reduced to 300 lb (136.1 kg) per trip, and the GOM...

  4. 41 CFR 302-5.7 - Who may travel on a househunting trip at Government expense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... househunting trip at Government expense? 302-5.7 Section 302-5.7 Public Contracts and Property Management... SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Employee's Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.7 Who may travel on a househunting trip at Government expense? Only you and...

  5. Diplomacy and science in the context of World War II: Arthur Compton's 1941 trip to Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Junior, Olival Freire

    2014-01-01

    Historical literature has traced US efforts to bring Latin American countries over to the side of the Allies in WWII. Following a period of hesitation and negotiation with the US and Germany, the Brazilian government aligned itself with the US. What remains virtually unknown is the involvement of scientists in these diplomatic arrangements. Recently unearthed material has shown that Arthur Compton's 1941 trip to a scientific conference on cosmic rays in Brazil was linked to efforts led by the Office for Inter-American Affairs under Nelson Rockefeller. For the Brazilian physicists, who, under the leadership of Gleb Wataghin, had excelled in this area of research during the late 1930s, science was a strong motivation for the visit; it was not, however, devoid of political connotations and professional interests.

  6. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  7. Virtual Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    2013-01-01

    In the Scandinavian countries: Sweden, Norway and Denmark, the project GNU (Grænseoverskridende Nordisk Undervisning, i.e. Transnational Nordic Teaching) is experimenting with ways of conducting teaching across the borders in the elementary schools. The cloud classes are organised with one class ...... and benefits in regard to learning and pedagogy with virtual classroom....

  8. Virtual Savannah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Savannah is constructed to visualize parts of a curriculum, which the educational service at Aalborg Zoo has difficulties in teaching children visiting the zoo. It contains rich media like audio, text, video and picture galleries about African ecology, but some of this episodic information...

  9. Virtual Expo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The online version of the 2010 Shanghai Expo shows the future glory The 2010 Shanghai Expo is now open and letting visitors explore almost all its pavilions and exhib-its-virtually. The website for the World Expo launched on November 12,

  10. Virtual Savannah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper; Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Savannah is constructed to visualize parts of a curriculum, which the educational service at Aalborg Zoo has difficulties in teaching children visiting the zoo. It contains rich media like audio, text, video and picture galleries about African ecology, but some of this episodic information...

  11. Virtual patrolling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlist, van der M.; Wismans, L.J.J.; Beek, van P.; Suijs, L.C.W.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25 per cent of all congestion on motorways is caused by incidents. By virtual patrolling, incidents e.g. queues, accidents and car breakdowns on a road network, can be predicted or detected in an early stage. This early detection and prediction of an incident likely to happen, offers t

  12. Virtual Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the current state of the art in virtual reality (VR), its historical background, and future possibilities. Highlights include applications in medicine, art and entertainment, science, business, and telerobotics; and VR for information science, including graphical display of bibliographic data, libraries and books, and cyberspace.…

  13. Virtual Savannah

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Søren; Rodil, Kasper; Rehm, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    and the navigation. The test depicted how they managed to search the virtual world for answers in patterns related to restrictions in the system and using graphical points of interest as reference points. Collecting information about the complete interaction provides teachers with a tool to assess the individual...

  14. FRAUDULENT ACTIVITIES USING VIRTUAL MEETINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne James

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates fraudulent and illegal activities that take place through virtual meeting systems. The first section gives an introduction to the problem. Section two describes some cases of fraudulent activity using virtual meeting systems. Section three explores some means of capturing such fraudulent activities so thatcriminals can be brought to justice. Section four provides a solution for capturing virtual meeting conversations in a way that could be admissible in court. Section five discusses tell-tale signs that indicates that a conversation maybe fraudulent. Section six discusses Artificial Intelligence (AI techniques that might be used to detectvirtual meeting crime. Section seven discusses the conclusion to the paper.

  15. Development of a Trip Energy Estimation Model Using Real-World Global Positioning System Driving Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-15

    A data-driven technique for estimation of energy requirements for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed. Based on over 700,000 miles of driving data, the technique has been applied to generate a model that estimates trip energy requirements. The model uses a novel binning approach to categorize driving by road type, traffic conditions, and driving profile. The trip-level energy estimations can easily be aggregated to any higher-level transportation system network desired. The model has been tested and validated on the Austin, Texas, data set used to build this model. Ground-truth energy consumption for the data set was obtained from Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) vehicle simulation results. The energy estimation model has demonstrated 12.1 percent normalized total absolute error. The energy estimation from the model can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations, to reduce energy consumption. The model can also be used to determine more accurate energy consumption of regional or national transportation networks if trip origin and destinations are known. Additionally, this method allows the estimation tool to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  16. Fundamental study of the austenite formation and decomposition in low-silicon, aluminum added TRIP steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Enrique

    2005-11-01

    TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels are under development for automotive applications that require high strength and excellent formability. Conventional TRIP steels consist of a multiphase microstructure comprised of a ferrite matrix with a dispersion of bainite and metastable retained austenite. The high ductility exhibited by these steels results from the transformation of the metastable retained austenite to martensite during straining. In conventional TRIP steel processing, the multiphase microstructure is obtained by controlled cooling from the alpha + gamma region to an isothermal holding temperature. During this holding, bainite forms and carbon is rejected out into the austenite, which lowers the Ms temperature and stabilizes the austenite to room temperature. In this research project, a fundamental study of a low-Si, Mo-Nb added cold rolled TRIP steel with and without Al additions was conducted. In this study, the recrystallization of cold-rolled ferrite, the formation of austenite during intercritical annealing and the characteristics of the decomposition of the intercritically annealed austenite by controlled cooling rates were systematically assessed. Of special interest were: (i) the effect of the initial hot band microstructure, (ii) the formation of epitaxial ferrite during cooling from the intercritical annealing temperature to the isothermal holding temperature, (iii) the influence of the intercritically annealed austenite on the formation of bainite during the isothermal holding temperature, and (iv) the influence of the processing variables on the type, amount, composition and stability of the retained austenite. During this research study, techniques such as OM, SEM, EBSD, TEM, XRD and Magnetometry were used to fully characterize the microstructures. Furthermore, a Gleeble 3500 unit at US Steel Laboratories was used for dilatometry studies and to simulate different CGL processing routes, from which specimens were obtained to evaluate

  17. Vagrant virtual development environment cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Chad

    2015-01-01

    If you are a software developer or administrator who wishes to create simple, reusable environments using Vagrant, this book is the perfect choice for you. Whether you are a system administrator with extensive experience in virtualization or a developer wishing to create development scripts for cloud deployment, you will find easy-to-follow recipes and techniques in this book that will allow you to create robust and reproducible virtual environments.

  18. Socio-economic determinants of tourism trips by Jambi residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardiani Hardiani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis: 1 karakteristik perjalanan penduduk di Provinsi Jambi baik untuk tujuan wisata maupun tujuan lainnya; 2 karakteristik penduduk yang melakukan perjalanan wisata di Provinsi Jambi; 3 Faktor-faktor sosial ekonomi yang mempengaruhi perjalanan wisata penduduk di Provinsi Jambi. Data bersumber dari “raw data” SUSENAS Tahun 2015 Provinsi Jambi. Untuk menganalisis karakteristik perjalanan penduduk, dan karakteristik individu wisatawan dilakukan secara deskriptif. Untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi perjalanan wisata penduduk digunakan model regresi binary logistik. Hasil penelitian menemukan: 1. Aktivitas perjalanan penduduk di Provinsi Jambi masih relatif rendah. Hanya 14,14 persen dari total penduduk yang pernah melakukan perjalanan dalam enam bulan terakhir; 2  Selain rendahnya aktivitas perjalanan tersebut, aktivitas perjalanan untuk wisata juga masih relatif terbatas. Hanya 17,79 persen total penduduk yang melakukan perjalanan untuk berwisata; 3 Objek tujuan wisata penduduk Provinsi Jambi didominasi objek wisata yang ada di Provinsi Jambi sendiri, selain objek wisata yang ada di provinsi-provinsi berdekatan yaitu Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Barat dan Bengkulu; 4. Perjalanan wisata penduduk didominasi oleh perjalanan wisata keluarga, sehingga relatif didominasi oleh anak-anak dan orang tua; 5 Faktor-faktor sosial ekonomi yang berpengaruh nyata terhadap perjalanan wisata penduduk adalah umur, pendidikan dan status dalam keluarga. Selain itu, terdapat perbedaan probabilita perjalanan penduduk untuk wisata antara kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Jambi. Kata Kunci: objek wisata, wisata keluarga, perjalanan wisata    Abstract This study aims to analyze: 1 characteristics of trips generated by Jambi residents both for tourism purposes or other purposes; 2 characteristics of Jambi residents going on a tourism trip; 3 Socio-economic factors affecting tourism trips generated by Jambi

  19. Virtual Reality: A State-of-the-Art Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning-Ning Zhou; Yu-Long Deng

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a survey on virtual reality systems and provides an in-depth understanding toward the notion of immersion, according to the semantic meanings of the terms "virtual" and "reality". The paper analyses the structure and functions of a virtual reality system and takes the three dimensional display as the immersive medium to identify the key issues for construction of virtual environments. The paper also reviews the development of virtual reality technology and introduces new image processing techniques into the design of virtual reality systems and virtual environments.

  20. Taking the trip of a lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, David

    2008-01-01

    Upon receiving this book I was somewhat sceptical to see that the author, David Toomey, is not a physicist but instead has a PhD in English literature and teaches technical and non-fiction writing at the University of Massachusetts in the US. As I began to read it, however, my attitude changed. To many physicists, a book about time travel would be virtually indistinguishable from a piece of science fiction, particularly when there are no equations or experimental results provided. To have any chance of presenting the work in a convincing manner, therefore, any author of such a book must be quite skilled. Toomey not only accomplishes this, but also makes the book an enjoyable read.

  1. Sensorial Virtualization: Coupling Gaming and Virtual Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garbaya, S.; Miraoui, C.; Wendrich, R.E.; Lim, T.; Stanescu, I.A.; Hauge, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality and virtualization are currently used to design complex systems and demonstrate that they represent the functionalities of real systems. However, the design refinement of the virtual environment (VE) and distributed virtual environment (DVE) are still time consuming and costly, as it

  2. Integration of genetic virtual screening patterns and latent multivariate modeling techniques for QSAR optimization based on combinations and/or interactions between peptides and proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Both the concept and the model of snug quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) were pro-posed and developed for molecular design through constructing QSAR based on some known mode of receptor/ligand interactions. Many disadvantages of traditional models can be avoided by using the proposed method because the traditional models only determined upon molecular structural features in sample sets themselves. A genetic virtual screening of peptide/protein combinations (GVSPPC) is proposed for the first time by utilizing this idea to examine peptide/protein affinity activities. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed for screening combinative targets with an interaction mode for virtual receptors. GVSPPC succeeds in disposing difficulties in rational QSAR,in order to search for the ligand/receptor interactions on conditions of unknown structures. Some bioactive oligo-/poly-peptide systems covering 58 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and 18 double site mutation residues in camel antibody protein cAb-Lys3 were investigated by GVSPPC with satisfactory results (R 2 cu>0.91,Q 2 cv > 0.86,ERMS=0.19-0.95),respectively,which demonstrates that GVSPPC is more inter-pretable in the ligand-receptor interaction than the traditional QSAR method.

  3. Integration of genetic virtual screening patterns and latent multivariate modeling techniques for QSAR optimization based on combinations and/or interactions between peptides and proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ZhiLiang; CHEN Gang; LI GenRong; TIAN FeiFei; WU ShiRong; YANG ShanBin; YANG ShengXi; ZHOU Yuan; ZHANG QiaoXia; QIN RenHui; MEI Hu

    2008-01-01

    Both the concept and the model of snug quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) were pro-posed and developed for molecular design through constructing QSAR based on some known mode of receptor/ligand interactions. Many disadvantages of traditional models can be avoided by using the proposed method because the traditional models only determined upon molecular structural features in sample sets themselves. A genetic virtual screening of peptide/protein combinations (GVSPPC) is proposed for the first time by utilizing this idea to examine peptide/protein affinity activities. A genetic algorithm (GA) was developed for screening combinative targets with an interaction mode for virtual receptors. GVSPPC succeeds in disposing difficulties in rational QSAR, in order to search for the ligand/receptor interactions on conditions of unknown structures. Some bioactive oligo-/poly-peptide systems covering 58 angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and 18 double site mutation residues in camel antibody protein cAb-Lys3 were investigated by GVSPPC with satisfactory results (Rcu2 > 0.91, Qcv2 0.86, ERMS = 0.19-0.95), respectively, which demonstrates that GVSPPC is more inter-pretable in the ligand-receptor interaction than the traditional QSAR method.

  4. Virtual teams

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes some early results from observing and interviewing groups working to achieve intellectually complex tasks that required the use of computers, WWW and other research resources. Three groups were virtual (they were working at a distance and rarely meeting face to face) and two groups were simple control groups They were real groups (working in relatively close proximity so that face to face contact was possible most of the time). All five teams completed their tasks but a s...

  5. Virtual anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gerhard W

    2015-02-01

    Comparative morphology, dealing with the diversity of form and shape, and functional morphology, the study of the relationship between the structure and the function of an organism's parts, are both important subdisciplines in biological research. Virtual anthropology (VA) contributes to comparative morphology by taking advantage of technological innovations, and it also offers new opportunities for functional analyses. It exploits digital technologies and pools experts from different domains such as anthropology, primatology, medicine, paleontology, mathematics, statistics, computer science, and engineering. VA as a technical term was coined in the late 1990s from the perspective of anthropologists with the intent of being mostly applied to biological questions concerning recent and fossil hominoids. More generally, however, there are advanced methods to study shape and size or to manipulate data digitally suitable for application to all kinds of primates, mammals, other vertebrates, and invertebrates or to issues regarding plants, tools, or other objects. In this sense, we could also call the field "virtual morphology." The approach yields permanently available virtual copies of specimens and data that comprehensively quantify geometry, including previously neglected anatomical regions. It applies advanced statistical methods, supports the reconstruction of specimens based on reproducible manipulations, and promotes the acquisition of larger samples by data sharing via electronic archives. Finally, it can help identify new, hidden traits, which is particularly important in paleoanthropology, where the scarcity of material demands extracting information from fragmentary remains. This contribution presents a current view of the six main work steps of VA: digitize, expose, compare, reconstruct, materialize, and share. The VA machinery has also been successfully used in biomechanical studies which simulate the stress and strains appearing in structures. Although

  6. Product lifecycle-oriented virtual assembly technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-hua; NING Ru-xin; YAO Jun; WAN Bi-le

    2006-01-01

    VA (virtual assembly) provides a more efficient,intuitive and convenient method for assembly process modeling,simulation and analysis.Previous researches about VA are almost isolated and dispersive,and have not established the understanding and definition of VA from a macroscopical and integrated view.Based on the analysis of the connotations of VA,a PLO-VATA (product lifecycle-oriented virtual assembly technology architecture) is proposed,in this architecture,VA is decomposed into four basic elements:principles and methodology of DFA (design for assembly),assembly analysis and evaluation,virtual assembly model and virtual assembly toolkits.Immersion,concurrence,integration and collaboration are the four main characteristics of VA being put forward.The key techniques of VA including virtual assembly model,virtual assembly analysis and evaluation,and virtual assembly process planning are discussed.Finally,a prototype system is built to validate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  7. Designing a Virtual Manikin Animation Framework Aimed at Virtual Prototyping

    CERN Document Server

    Rennuit, Antoine; Andriot, Claude; Guillaume, François; Chevassus, Nicolas; Chablat, Damien; Chedmail, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    In the industry, numerous commercial packages provide tools to introduce, and analyse human behaviour in the product's environment (for maintenance, ergonomics...), thanks to Virtual Humans. We will focus on control. Thanks to algorithms newly introduced in recent research papers, we think we can provide an implementation, which even widens, and simplifies the animation capacities of virtual manikins. In order to do so, we are going to express the industrial expectations as for Virtual Humans, without considering feasibility (not to bias the issue). The second part will show that no commercial application provides the tools that perfectly meet the needs. Thus we propose a new animation framework that better answers the problem. Our contribution is the integration - driven by need ~ of available new scientific techniques to animate Virtual Humans, in a new control scheme that better answers industrial expectations.

  8. The return trip is felt shorter only postdictively: A psychophysiological study of the return trip effect [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Ozawa

    Full Text Available The return trip often seems shorter than the outward trip even when the distance and actual time are identical. To date, studies on the return trip effect have failed to confirm its existence in a situation that is ecologically valid in terms of environment and duration. In addition, physiological influences as part of fundamental timing mechanisms in daily activities have not been investigated in the time perception literature. The present study compared round-trip and non-round-trip conditions in an ecological situation. Time estimation in real time and postdictive estimation were used to clarify the situations where the return trip effect occurs. Autonomic nervous system activity was evaluated from the electrocardiogram using the Lorenz plot to demonstrate the relationship between time perception and physiological indices. The results suggest that the return trip effect is caused only postdictively. Electrocardiographic analysis revealed that the two experimental conditions induced different responses in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in sympathetic nervous function, and that parasympathetic function correlated with postdictive timing. To account for the main findings, the discrepancy between the two time estimates is discussed in the light of timing strategies, i.e., prospective and retrospective timing, which reflect different emphasis on attention and memory processes. Also each timing method, i.e., the verbal estimation, production or comparative judgment, has different characteristics such as the quantification of duration in time units or knowledge of the target duration, which may be responsible for the discrepancy. The relationship between postdictive time estimation and the parasympathetic nervous system is also discussed.

  9. Understanding intra-urban trip patterns from taxi trajectory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Kang, Chaogui; Gao, Song; Xiao, Yu; Tian, Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Intra-urban human mobility is investigated by means of taxi trajectory data that are collected in Shanghai, China, where taxis play an important role in urban transportation. From the taxi trajectories, approximately 1.5 million trips of anonymous customers are extracted on seven consecutive days. The globally spatio-temporal patterns of trips exhibit a significant daily regularity. Since each trip can be viewed as a displacement in the random walk model, the distributions of the distance and direction of the extracted trips are investigated in this research. The direction distribution shows an NEE-SWW-dominant direction, and the distance distribution can be well fitted by an exponentially truncated power law, with the scaling exponent β = 1.2 ± 0.15. The observed patterns are attributed to the geographical heterogeneity of the study area, which makes the spatial distribution of trajectory stops to be non-uniform. We thus construct a model that integrates both the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect, to interpret the observed patterns. Our Monte Carlo simulation results closely match to the observed patterns and thus validate the proposed model. According to the proposed model, in a single-core urban area, the geographical heterogeneity and distance decay effect improve each other when influencing human mobility patterns. Geographical heterogeneity leads to a faster observed decay, and the distance decay effect makes the spatial distribution of trips more concentrated.

  10. Evidence, explanations, and recommendations for teachers' field trip strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebar, Bryan

    Field trips are well recognized by researchers as an educational approach with the potential to complement and enhance classroom science teaching by exposing students to unique activities, resources, and content in informal settings. The following investigation addresses teachers' field trip practices in three related manuscripts: (1) A study examining the details of teachers' pedagogical strategies intended to facilitate connections between students' experiences and the school curricula while visiting an aquarium; (2) A study documenting and describing sources of knowledge that teachers draw from when leading field trips to an aquarium; (3) A position paper that reviews and summarizes research on effective pedagogical strategies for field trips. Together these three pieces address key questions regarding teachers' practices on field trips: (1) What strategies are teachers employing (and not employing) during self-guided field trips to facilitate learning tied to the class curriculum? (2) What sources of knowledge do teachers utilize when leading field trips? (3) How can teachers be better prepared to lead trips that promote learning? The Oregon Coast Aquarium served as the field trip site for teachers included in this study. The setting suited these questions because the aquarium serves tens of thousands of students on field trips each year but provides no targeted programming for these students as they explore the exhibits. In other words, the teachers who lead field trips assume much of the responsibility for facilitating students' experience. In order to describe and characterize teachers' strategies to link students' experiences to the curriculum, a number of teachers (26) were observed as they led their students' visit to the public spaces of the aquarium. Artifacts, such as worksheets, used during the visit were collected for analysis as well. Subsequently, all teachers were surveyed regarding their use of the field trip and their sources of knowledge for

  11. Appraisal of boundary layer trips for landing gear testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Philip; Feltham, Graham; Ekmekci, Alis

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic similarity during scaled model testing is difficult to maintain. Forced boundary layer transition via a surface protuberance is a common method used to address this issue, however few guidelines exist for the effective tripping of complex geometries, such as aircraft landing gears. To address this shortcoming, preliminary wind tunnel tests were performed at Re = 500,000. Surface transition visualisation and pressure measurements show that zigzag type trips of a given size and location are effective at promoting transition, thus preventing the formation of laminar separation bubbles and increasing the effective Reynolds number from the critical regime to the supercritical regime. Extension of these experiments to include three additional tripping methods (wires, roughness strips, CADCUT dots) in a range of sizes, at Reynolds number of 200,000 and below, have been performed in a recirculating water channel. Analysis of surface pressure measurements and time resolved PIV for each trip device, size and location has established a set of recommendations for successful use of tripping for future, low Reynolds number landing gear testing.

  12. Elastic tripping analysis of corroded flat-bar stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tripping of stiffeners is one of the buckling modes of stiffened panel which could rapidly lead to its catastrophic failure. Loss of thickness in web and flange due to corrosion reduces elastic buckling strength of stiffeners. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. Since the real corroded plate has rough surfaces, to estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required. There is a little study on strength analysis of corroded plates with rough surface especially as a function of corrosion degrees. The aim of present work is to analyze elastic tripping stress of flat bar stiffeners with both-sided corroded surfaces. Undulated surfaces are generated based on the power spectrum of the corroded surface. Elastic tripping stress is calculated using ANSYS code. Finite elements method is employed to analyze elastic tripping stress of corroded steel flat bars with both sided rough surfaces. Comparing the results with elastic tripping strength of corroded flat bars with uniform thickness, a reduction factor is proposed. It is found that reduction factor of buckling strength by uniform thickness assumption is overestimated.

  13. Vanpool trip planning based on evolutionary multiple objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Yang, Disheng; Feng, Shibing; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    Carpool and vanpool draw a lot of researchers’ attention, which is the emphasis of this paper. A concrete vanpool operation definition is given, based on the given definition, this paper tackles vanpool operation optimization using user experience decline index(UEDI). This paper is focused on making each user having identical UEDI and the system having minimum sum of all users’ UEDI. Three contributions are made, the first contribution is a vanpool operation scheme diagram, each component of the scheme is explained in detail. The second contribution is getting all customer’s UEDI as a set, standard deviation and sum of all users’ UEDI set are used as objectives in multiple objective optimization to decide trip start address, trip start time and trip destination address. The third contribution is a trip planning algorithm, which tries to minimize the sum of all users’ UEDI. Geographical distribution of the charging stations and utilization rate of the charging stations are considered in the trip planning process.

  14. SAME-DAY TRIPS: A CHANCE OF URBAN DESTINATION DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Simicevic

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis, the decline of standard and climatic factors influence the allocation of tourism trends at the global level. Certain types of tourist movements start up and develop; they have been present, but not sufficiently studied by authors. They also include a short trip or visit to a particular destination. Considering their characteristics, they do not require a lot of money and they make an increasingly important segment of the tourism market. Therefore, the importance of same-day trips should not be neglected on today's tourism market. Although in practice this part of the tourist offers and demand has not often been attached enough importance, same day trip can achieve a very significant inflow of funds and encourage the development of many potential tourist destinations. For all the reasons mentioned above, and because of its importance, the organization of same day-trips should be the fundamental basis and essential focus for tourism development. Taking into consideration that inbound tourist agencies show special interest for same-day trips, we have tried to give a starting point for further research in this part of the tourism market.

  15. Customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip experiences in grocery retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G; Jensen, Birger Boutrup

    on individual shopping trips is a prerequisite for developing customer loyalty. However, there is surprisingly little research focusing on satisfaction with individual shopping trips. On the contrary, satisfaction is normally conceptualised and studied as an overall evaluation of a given retailer based on all...... encounters with that retailer. There are relatively few studies of satisfaction within the grocery retail sector. However, because grocery shopping is a frequently recurring activity that is often routine and task-oriented in nature, and thus dominated by utilitarian rather than hedonic concerns, different...... mechanisms may be at work than in other retail settings such as themed flagship stores, which are visited less regularly and are oriented more towards creating hedonic shopping experiences. This paper develops a conceptual framework for analysing customer satisfaction with individual shopping trip...

  16. Estimation of Origin-Destination Trip Matrices for Small Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Novačko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of data assessment for the requirements of a classical four-step model of traffic demand in individual traffic in small cities. The procedure is carried out by creating an initial origin-destination trip matrix using data from the traffic count and by defining the average rate of trip generation within single households. The research applied fuzzy logic for the correction of the initial trip matrix. The paper also presents the recommendations for defining the borders of traffic zones, as well as the locations of traffic counts. A flowchart has been used to show a summarized presentation of the proposed model. In the last part of the paper the model was tested on an example of a smaller city in the Republic of Croatia.

  17. Are short daily trips compensated by higher leisure mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    Studies in several cities have shown that inner-city residents travel shorter distances and use cars less for local transport than suburbanites do. However, according to some authors, a low daily amount of travel is likely to be compensated through more extensive leisure mobility at weekends...... and on holidays. On the basis of a study of residential location and travel in the Copenhagen metropolitan area, this paper addresses the phenomenon of compensatory travel. For travel within ‘weekend trip distance’ from the residence, inner-city living appears to have a certain compensatory effect in the form...... of a higher frequency of medium-distance leisure trips. Probably, this reflects a shortage of nature in the immediate surroundings of the dwelling as well as less leisure time tied to gardening and house maintenance. These compensatory trips imply a slight reduction of the transport-reducing effect of inner...

  18. Resistance Spot Weldability of Galvanize Coated and Uncoated TRIP Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayriye Ertek Emre

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the resistance spot weldabilty of zinc galvanize-coated and uncoated TRIP800 steels was investigated in detail. Depending on the welding parameters such as welding current and welding time, the effects of zinc coating on the weld nugget geometry, the tensile shear strength, the failure modes, the hardness, and the microstructure of the resistance spot-welded sample were studied, and the results are compared with that of uncoated weldment. The coating on the surface of the TRIP steel causes a decrease in the weld nugget size and tensile shear strength of the weldment, and it changes to failure mode of the test sample from pullout to interfacial or partial interfacial fracture. As compared with the uncoated sample, the galvanized TRIP800 steel weldment has required a larger critical nugget size for achieving the desired pullout fracture mode and acceptable tensile shear strength.

  19. Transforming an Exposure trip to Botanical Expedition: Introducing Ecological Research thru Exposure Trip in an Eco-tourism Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available – Fieldtrips can be considered as one of the three avenues through which science can be taught - through formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. An exposure trip at Bangkong Kahoy Valley Field Study Center was arranged for a class of BS Biology and BS Education students enrolled in Ecology Course. This approach purposefully transformed the usual exposure trip from being a casual site visit into a focused and productive learning experience. This transformation from exposure trip to a botanical expedition has exceeded the initial activity goals. Rather than a day off from learning, the time spent at the study center has been a meaningful opportunity to engage students in an active ecological research project while delivering valuable science content. Employing the descriptive survey design, the learning gains of the students were assessed and students were directed to do a guided reflection writing using the ORID Model of Focused Conversation. The learning gains and reflections of the students confirmed that students can collaboratively develop focused research questions, make meaning from a variety of sources, carry out a vegetation analysis and conduct surveys on socio-economic status, plant resource utilization and ecotourism assessment of the host community. As students prepared for their trip and synthesized their learning afterward, they were able to come up with very impressive and scientifically sound research outputs.

  20. TRIP: General computer algebra system for celestial mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, J.; Gastineau, M.

    2012-10-01

    TRIP is an interactive computer algebra system that is devoted to perturbation series computations, and specially adapted to celestial mechanics. Its development started in 1988, as an upgrade of the special purpose FORTRAN routines elaborated by J. Laskar for the demonstration of the chaotic behavior of the Solar System. TRIP is a mature and efficient tool for handling multivariate generalized power series, and embeds two kernels, a symbolic and a numerical kernel. This numerical kernel communicates with Gnuplot or Grace to plot the graphics and allows one to plot the numerical evaluation of symbolic objects.

  1. Bake hardening behavior of TRIP and DP steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng Zhang; Renyu Fu; Mei Zhang; Rendong Liu; Xicheng Wei; Lin Li

    2008-01-01

    The bake hardening (BH) behavior of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and dual-phase (DP) steels after different prestrains was studied. The experimental results indicate that TRIP steel exhibits good BH ability while DP steel does not, and prestrain displays a strong effect on the BH values of both steels. The comparison of microstructures of the two steels showed that the hard second phase in the matrix might be harmful to the BH ability. For deformed specimens, baking resulted in a loss of uniform elongation, but there was no obvious decrease in uniform elongation for unprestrained specimens.

  2. Understanding Trajectories of Experience in Situated Learning Field Trips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Canova Calori

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role context plays in promoting engagement and exploration in situated learning experiences during field trips. We look at field trips where children engage with the physical and social context in order to learn about cultural and social aspects of the city they live in. By drawing on empirical data collected by means of qualitative methods, we discuss how learning unfolds along trajectories of experience towards pre-defined and emerging learning objectives. We reflect of the role technology can play in sup-porting learning experiences outside the classroom.

  3. Pig herd monitoring and undesirable tripping and stepping prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronskyte, Ruta; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hviid, Marchen Sonja

    2015-01-01

    at the slaughterhouse and identify undesirable events such as pigs tripping or stepping on each other. In this paper, we monitor pig behavior in color videos recorded during unloading from transportation trucks. We monitor the movement of a pig herd where the pigs enter and leave a surveyed area. The method is based...... performed the unloading of the pigs from the trucks in the available datasets, indicates that the drivers perform significantly differently. Driver 1 has 2.95 times higher odds to have pigs tripping and stepping on each other than the two others, and Driver 2 has 1.11 times higher odds than Driver 3. (C...

  4. Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Gupta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An artificial environment created with co mputer hardware and software and presented to the user in such a way that it appears and feels like a real environment. To "enter" a virtual reality, a user does special gloves, earphones, and goggles, all of which receive their input from the computer system. In this way, at least three of the five senses are controlled by the computer. In addition to feeding sensory input to the user, the devices also monitor the user's actions

  5. 虚拟现实技术构建岩骨三维解剖模型%Application of virtual reality technique in construction of 3-dimensional petrons bone model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤可; 莫大鹏; 鲍圣德; 伊志强

    2009-01-01

    目的 利用虚拟现实技术构建岩骨三维解剖模型,探讨其应用价值.方法 对15例尸头进行CT平扫.获得DICOM数据利用虚拟现实技术进行图像三维重建,提取并重建岩骨表面、听骨链等骨性结构三维图像,利用反转图像强度技术获得岩骨骨管和压迹内结构三维图像.在虚拟影像中测量膝状神经节、耳蜗、颈内动脉、颈静脉球、内听道外口之间距离.结果 虚拟现实三维影像能直观清楚地显示岩骨内神经、血管和骨性结构的空间关系,三维影像数据测量方便快捷,不受死角限制.结论 虚拟现实系统所构建岩骨三维解剖模型,可视化效果良好并可测量解剖数据.%Objective To evaluate the application of virtual reality system in construction of 3-dimensional petrous bone model.Methods The DICOM data of the CT performed for 15 adult cadaver heads were transferred to and reconstructed in the Destroscope virtual reality system.Images were extracted to show surface of petrous bone and ossicular chain.The images of structures in osseous tube and impression of petrous bone were extracted by the skill of invert intensity.The lengths of correlated anatomical structures such as geniculate ganglion,cochlear,internal carotid artery,glomus jugulare,external aperture of inner acoustic meatus were measured in the virtual reality environment.Results Three-dimensional images could illustrate the spatial relationship of anatomic structures related to the petrous bone distinctly.The data of measure were obtained conveniently,which had no dead angles of observation.Conclusion The 3-dimentional petrous bone model constructed by virtual reality technique can be used in anatomic research with good visualization.

  6. 基于虚拟化硬件3D图形加速的渲染云框架%A Rendering Cloud Frame Based on 3D-Graphics-Accelerating Technique for Virtualization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王总辉; 史梳酥; 陈文智

    2012-01-01

    Rendering cloud is one specific part of cloud computing. At the same time, as a typical example of the trend which extends compute-intensive applications to cloud, it has a bright future. The main works that are directly related to it now are classical rendering clusters and Nvidia' s reality server platform. However, the former could not support virtualization, which is one of the bases of cloud computing, and the latter puts limitation on the hardware that a rendering cloud could use, plus it could not support different GPU to work together. This paper has an analysis on 3D graphics accelerating technique for virtualization, such as VMGL, VMware, Xen and VirtualBox. Then it compares the practicability of expanding 3D graphics accelerating solutions to rendering cloud. After that, the paper proposes a rendering cluster which is based on VMGL. At last, it has a further step on the rendering cluster and finally comes up with a flexible rendering cloud frame which is based on virtualization and can support different GPU to work together.%渲染云作为云计算的一个特定细分,同时作为把对计算能力敏感的应用程序扩展到云计算这一趋势的典型代表,具有广阔的发展前景.当前与渲染云直接相关的工作主要有传统的各种渲染集群以及Nvidia的RealityServer平台.但是前者不支持作为云计算基础的虚拟化技术,后者限制了渲染云平台的硬件,并且不能整合各种不同的图形加速设备使其协同工作.本文首先分析了VMGL、VMware、Xen以及VirtualBox等虚拟机3D图形加速技术,并对用这些技术实现渲染云的可行性进行比较,提出了基于VMGL的渲染集群方案.接着在渲染集群的基础上对渲染云相关技术进行了研究,提出了一个灵活、能够支持不同3D图形加速设备协同工作的、基于虚拟化的渲染云框架.

  7. Efficient Method to Extract Coupling Ratio and Round-trip Loss Parameters of Optical Waveguide Ring Resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiu-you; PANG Fu-fei; FANG Zu-jie; ZHAO Ming-shan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the measurement of the contrast ratios of the transmission spectra from the throughput and drop ports of ring resonator, an efficient method is proposed to extract the coupling ratio and round-trip loss of the integrated optical waveguide ring resonator. The parameters of a racetrack resonator prepared by ion-exchange technique in K9 optical glass substrate are examined, which demonstrates the validity of this method. The accuracy and applicable range of this method are also discussed.

  8. Factors affecting elementary principals' and teachers' decisions to support outdoor field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    Outdoor field trips are recommended in science education reform, yet they are not frequently taken. Barriers may prevent elementary public school teachers from participating in outdoor field trips (Mirka, 1973; Falk & Balling, 1979; Ham, 1988; Orion, 1993). To determine what would increase students' attendance at a nature preserve, factors that may affect elementary private and public school principals' and teachers' decisions to support field trips were identified and compared. Private school principals supported field trips. They believed field trips were safe, and easy to arrange, and that the field trips helped students experience culture in the community. Experienced public school principals who were supportive and believed field trips should be required believed field trips fit into the teacher's lesson plan and were taken for enrichment. Public school principals who were less experienced with field trips believed field trips should be extracurricular. They believed that field trips served as a reward, and that they needed more information. They did not support field trips. Private school teachers believed that field trips did not have overly demanding administrative concerns. They believed field trips were safe, easy to arrange, and were supported by their administrator. Public school teachers who supported field trips and believed field trips should be required were white, female, experienced, and older. They believed that field trips were safe, easy to arrange, enjoyable, and that they had enough help to conduct trips. Public school teachers who may not support trips had administrative concerns, and they did not believe field trips met the needs of students. These were male, white or non-white, young or middle-aged, and less experienced. They may believe field trips are a waste of time and money. They believed they had a nonsupportive administrator. Money for transportation was a barrier for older public school teachers and principals. No improvement on

  9. Virtualization-support Cases in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soler, José

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents cases of applying hardware virtualization techniques as support for education activities in two different courses and a master thesis within the degree International MSc on Telecommunication Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The triggering problem...... is presented in each of the cases, together with the benefits and drawbacks of using virtualization to cope with it....

  10. Virtual screening of virtual libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Darren V S

    2003-01-01

    Virtual screening of virtual libraries (VSVL) is a rapidly changing area of research. Great efforts are being made to produce better algorithms, selection methods and infrastructure. Yet, the number of successful examples in the literature is not impressive, although the quality of work certainly is high. Why is this? One reason is that these methods tend to be applied at the lead generation stage and therefore there is a large lead-time before successful examples appear in the literature. However, any computational chemist would confirm that these methods are successful and there exists a glut of start-up companies specialising in virtual screening. Moreover, the scientific community would not be focussing so much attention on this area if it were not yielding results. Even so, the paucity of literature data is certainly a hindrance to the development of better methods. The VSVL process is unique within the discovery process, in that it is the only method that can screen the > 10(30) genuinely novel molecules out there. Already, some VSVL methods are evaluating 10(13) compounds, a capacity that high throughput screening can only dream of. There is a huge potential advantage for the company that develops efficient and effective methods, for lead generation, lead hopping and optimization of both potency and ADME properties. To do this, it requires more than the software, it requires confidence to exploit the methodology, to commit synthesis on the basis of it, and to build this approach into the medicinal chemistry strategy. It is a fact that these tools remain quite daunting for the majority of scientists working at the bench. The routine use of these methods is not simply a matter of education and training. Integration of these methods into accessible and robust end user software, without dilution of the science, must be a priority. We have reached a coincidence, where several technologies have the required level of maturity predictive computational chemistry

  11. Use of dual-energy CT and virtual non-calcium techniques to evaluate post-traumatic bone bruises in knees in the subacute setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ai, Songtao [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Qu, Mingliang; Glazebrook, Katrina N.; Liu, Yu; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Rhee, Peter C. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedics, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) and virtual non-calcium (VNCa) imaging to detect magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-demonstrated bone bruises several weeks after unilateral knee injury. Patients with unilateral knee injury and MRI-confirmed bone bruises who had undergone a DECT scan of both knees were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists evaluated VNCa images for bruises in four regions per knee without knowing the MRI results. The mean CT numbers were calculated for the lesion-positive and lesion-negative regions of the injured knee, and the contralateral knee. Fourteen patients with a total of 36 regions positive for bone bruises on MRI were identified. The median delay between injury and DECT was 37 days (range, 11-99 days). The mean CT numbers in VNCa images for lesion-positive and lesion-negative regions were -7.6 ± 24.9 HU and -58.2 ± 19.5 HU, respectively. There were no significant differences in mean CT number between the lesion-negative regions in the injured knee and the contralateral knee. No resolution of bruising was seen before week 5, and bone bruising was still identifiable in one out of the two patients scanned at 10 weeks following injury. DECT and VNCa images can identify bone bruising for at least 10 weeks after injury. (orig.)

  12. Design of a Channel Error Simulator using Virtual Instrument Techniques for the Initial Testing of TCP/IP and SCPS Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Stephen; Wang, Ru-Hai

    1999-01-01

    There exists a need for designers and developers to have a method to conveniently test a variety of communications parameters for an overall system design. This is no different when testing network protocols as when testing modulation formats. In this report, we discuss a means of providing a networking test device specifically designed to be used for space communications. This test device is a PC-based Virtual Instrument (VI) programmed using the LabVIEW(TM) version 5 software suite developed by National Instruments(TM)TM. This instrument was designed to be portable and usable by others without special, additional equipment. The programming was designed to replicate a VME-based hardware module developed earlier at New Mexico State University (NMSU) and to provide expanded capabilities exceeding the baseline configuration existing in that module. This report describes the design goals for the VI module in the next section and follows that with a description of the design of the VI instrument. This is followed with a description of the validation tests run on the VI. An application of the error-generating VI to networking protocols is then given.

  13. The virtual articulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisler, A; Bockholt, U; Kordass, B; Suchan, M; Voss, G

    2002-01-01

    The virtual articulator (VA) is intended for use as a tool for the analysis fo the complex static and dynamic occlusal relations. Its chief application is in individual diagnosis and the simulation of the mechanical articulator. As entry data, the VA requires digital, 3-dimensional representations of the jaws and patient-specific data on jaw movement. It then simulates jaw movement and provides a dynamic visualization of the occlusal contacts. If no patient-specific data are available, the modus operandi of the mechanical articulator can be simulated. Virtual reality (VR) techniques applied in computer-aided diagnosis are revolutionizing medical routine in many disciplines. Particularly in the field of dental engineering, VR combined with CAD/CAM technology has great potential in implant planning and design in terms of greater precision and shorter treatment duration. The geometry of teeth can be digitized, the implant models can be designed with specialized CAD systems, and the final implants can be manufactured with a CNC machine. In this context, the virtual articulator completes the digital manufacturing process.

  14. Trust and virtual worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Thorseth, May

    2011-01-01

    We collect diverse philosophical analyses of the issues and problems clustering around trust online with specific attention to establishing trust in virtual environments. The book moves forward important discussions of how virtual worlds and virtuality are to be defined and understood; the role o...... by virtuality, such as virtual child pornography. The introduction further develops a philosophical anthropology, rooted in Kantian ethics, phenomenology, virtue ethics, and feminist perspectives, that grounds a specific approach to ethical issues in virtual environments....

  15. A Trip Through the Virtual Ocean: Understanding Basic Oceanic Process Using Real Data and Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    How can we effectively teach undergraduates the fundamentals of physical, chemical and biological processes in the ocean? Understanding physical circulation and biogeochemical processes is essential, yet it can be difficult for an undergraduate to easily grasp important concepts such as using temperature and salinity as conservative tracers, nutrient distribution, ageing of water masses, and thermocline variability. Like many other topics, it is best learned not in a lecture setting, but working with real data: plotting values, making predictions, and making mistakes. Part I: Using temperature and salinity values from any location in the world ocean (World Ocean Atlas), combined with an excellent user interface (http://ferret.pmel.noaa.gov), students are asked to answer a series of specific questions related to ocean circulation. Using established temperature and salinity values to characterize different water masses, students are able to identify various water masses and gain insight to physical circulation processes. Questions related to ocean circulation include: How far south and at what depth does NADW extend into the S. Atlantic? Is deep water formed in the North Pacific? How and why does the depth of the thermocline vary with latitude in the Atlantic Ocean? How deep does the Mediterranean Water descend as it leaves the Straits of Gibraltar? How far into the Atlantic can you see the influence of the Amazon River? Is there any Antarctic Bottom Water in the North Pacific? Collaborating with another student typically leads to increased engagement. Especially in large lecture settings, where one teacher is not able to address student questions or concerns, working in pairs or in groups of three is best. Part II: Using the same web-based viewer and data set students are subsequently assigned one oceanic property (phosphate, nitrate, silicate, O2, or AOU) and asked to construct three different plots: 1) vertical depth profile at one location; 2) latitude vs. depth at 20°W; and 3) a latitude vs. longitude at 4,000 m depth in the entire ocean. Students do this work at home, and come to class prepared with hypotheses that explain variations of their variable observed in their figures. Nutrients, for example, are typically depleted in the surface ocean, increase at intermediate depths, and then typically decrease in deep water. How do oceanic processes drive these variations? In the context of the other variables, and with the help of other group members, they typically develop an understanding of surface productivity, respiration of organic matter in deeper waters, upwelling of deeper water, ocean circulation, insolation, evaporation, precipitation, and temperature dependence of gas solubility. Students then prepare a written explanation to accompany the plots. Cartoon-like depictions of nutrient profiles typically presented in introductory texts have their place, but they lack the complexity inherent in real data. The objective is to mimic the excitement of discovery and the challenge of developing a hypothesis to explain existing data. The ability to develop viable hypotheses to explain real data with real variability are what motivate and inspire many scientists. How can we expect to motivate and inspire students with lackluster descriptions of ocean processes?

  16. Virtual Product Development Integrated with KBE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wenhua; MA Dengzhe

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the integration modes of the virtual product development with KBE. The system architecture of virtual product development with KBE has been built and the key technique has been studied to support the system. Knowledge driven method has been put forward based on the traditional theory as a new method of virtual product development. An applied case is presented by taking moving cone assembly as an example to illustrate the process of knowledge driven method in detail. This concludes virtual product development integrated with KBE is feasible to raise the design efficiency and promote the sharing of information and knowledge.

  17. Virtual Sewing Based on Draping Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Ming-hao; MA Jiang-li; ZHANG Chi; ZHANG Zu-fang; FANG Xiao-wei

    2007-01-01

    Virtual sewing is one of the key techniques in the realization of 3D computer aided garment design. After aualysis and comparison, this article brings forward a method of virtual sewing based on draping knowledge. Two new concepts are introduced. One is the conversion of garment pattern pieces' attributes and the other is the "clothes shell"--a middleware to simplify the mapping process. Meanwhile, the method implements the mapping process and completes virtual sewing by setting anchor points and lines on the virtual model. The method has been applied to a simulation system and proved to be successful.

  18. CNMI, American Samoa, and Guam Small Boat Fishery Trip Expenditure (2009 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a time-series dataset of trip expenditure data including actual fishing trip expenses, input usage, and input prices, for boat-based reef fish, bottomfish,...

  19. How combined trip purposes are associated with transport choice for short distance trips. Results from a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Eline; Slinger, Minke; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Schuit, Jantine

    2014-01-01

    One way to increase physical activity is to stimulate a shift from car use to walking or cycling. In single-purpose trips, purpose was found to be an important predictor of transport choice. However, as far as known, no studies have been conducted to see how trips with combined purposes affect this decision. This study was designed to provide insight into associations between combined purposes and transport choice. An online questionnaire (N = 3,663) was used to collect data concerning transport choice for four primary purposes: shopping, going to public natural spaces, sports, and commuting. Per combination of primary trip purpose and transport choice, participants were asked to give examples of secondary purposes that they combine with the primary purpose. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the odds of both cycling and walking versus car use. Primary trip purposes combined with commuting, shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care were more likely to be made by car than by cycling or walking. Combinations with visiting catering facilities, trips to social infrastructure facilities, recreational outings, trips to facilities for the provision of daily requirements or private contacts during the trip were more likely to be made by walking and/or cycling than by car. Combined trip purposes were found to be associated with transport choice. When stimulating active transport focus should be on the combined-trip purposes which were more likely to be made by car, namely trips combined with commuting, other shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care.

  20. Systematic comparison of trip distribution laws and models

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Ramasco, José J

    2016-01-01

    Trip distribution laws are basic for the travel demand characterization needed in transport and urban planning. Several approaches have been considered in the last years. One of them is the so-called gravity law, in which the number of trips is assumed to be related to the population at origin and destination and to decrease with the distance. The mathematical expression of this law resembles Newton's law of gravity, which explains its name. Another popular approach is inspired by the theory of intervening opportunities and it has been concreted into the so-called radiation models. Individuals are supposed to travel until they find a job opportunity, so the population and jobs spatial distributions naturally lead to a trip flow network. In this paper, we perform a thorough comparison between the gravity and the radiation approaches in their ability at estimating commuting flows. We test the gravity and the radiation laws against empirical trip data at different scales and coming from different countries. Diff...

  1. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Spot Welding of TRIP Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Trine Colding; Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the feasibility of friction stir spot welding of TRIP steel is investigated. In addition to manufacturing successful welds, the present study aims at a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms occurring at the (sub)micron scale during friction stir spot welding. As one of the main...

  2. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  3. Un Viaje al Aeropuerto (A Trip to the Airport).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This illustrated, bilingual Spanish-English intermediate reader describes a class trip to an airport, in which the class tours the airport, and learns about airport activities, the parts of an airplane, and other related topics. Each page of the text is illustrated with a drawing. The narrative is followed by a list of 24 suggested learning…

  4. What drives people? Analyzing leisure-shopping trip decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ceunynck, T.; Kusumastuti, D.; Hannes, E.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the strong increase in the number of leisure-shopping trips, a shift towards more sustainable leisure-shopping behaviour is desirable. This can be attained by having a better insight into people’s reasoning in choosing a transport mode and shopping location for this type of activities. Th

  5. What drives people? Analyzing leisure-shopping trip decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ceunynck, T.; Kusumastuti, Diana; Hannes, E.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.

    2011-01-01

    Because of the strong increase in the number of leisure-shopping trips, a shift towards more sustainable leisure-shopping behaviour is desirable. This can be attained by having a better insight into people’s reasoning in choosing a transport mode and shopping location for this type of activities. Th

  6. Solving touristic trip planning problem by using taboo search approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Sylejmani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an algorithm that automatically plans a touristic trip by considering some hard and soft constrains. Opening and closing hours of POIs, trip duration and trip allocated budget represent the hard constraints, while the satisfaction factors of the POIs and travelling distance in the trip are considered as soft constraints. We use the soft constraints to evaluate the generated solution of the algorithm. The algorithm is developed by utilizing the taboo search method as a meta heuristic. The operators of Swap, Insert and Delete are used to explore the search space. The Swap and Insert operator are used in each iteration of the algorithm loop, while the Delete operator is used whenever the algorithm tends to enter in an endless cycle. The algorithm is developed by using Java programming language, while the data repositories are created in the XML format. The algorithm is tested with 40 instances of POIs of the city of Vienna. Various entry parameters of the algorithm are used to test its performance. The results gained are discussed and compared in respect to the optimal solution.

  7. The LEP RF Trip and Beam Loss Diagnostics System

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Beetham, G; Ciapala, Edmond; Juillard, J C; Olsen, R

    2002-01-01

    During the last years of operation the number of operationally independent RF stations distributed around LEP reached a total of 40. A serious difficulty when running at high energy and high beam intensities was to establish cause and effect in beam loss situations, where the trip of any single RF station would result in beam loss, rapidly producing further multiple RF station trips. For the last year of operation a fast post-mortem diagnostics system was developed to allow precise time-stamping of RF unit trips and beam intensity changes. The system was based on eight local DSP controlled fast acquisition and event recording units, one in each RF sector, connected to critical RF control signals and fast beam intensity monitors and synchronised by GPS. The acquisition units were armed and synchronised at the start of each fill. At the end of the fill the local time-stamped RF trip and beam intensity change history tables were recovered, events ordered and the results stored in a database for subsequent analys...

  8. Geïntegreerde bestrijding van trips in witte kool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putter, de H.; Kruistum, van G.

    2003-01-01

    Effectief beheersen van trips in o.a. sluitkool met potentieële nieuwe chemische en of biologische middelen. In dit onderzoek van 2003 was alleen het chemische middel werkzaam, echter niet tot aan de oogst. Het onderzoek met de toegepaste middelen leidt voorlopig niet tot een toepassing in de prakti

  9. Environmental Effects on Learning: The Outdoor Field Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, W. Wade; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports effects of an outdoor field trip on learning within the context of a community-based Summery Ecology Program for children between 7 and 13 years of age. Results include the finding that novel environments are poor settings for imposed task learning when compared with familiar environments. (CS)

  10. Examining the Effects of Field Trips on Science Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Leila A.; Katzman, William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work-in-progress study is to examine science identity of elementary school students in relation to participation in science. The questions asked in this initial analysis were: How will a field trip to a science research and learning center affect students' desires to learn and participate in science and does interviewing…

  11. Controlled Tripping of Overheated Lines Mitigates Power Outages

    CERN Document Server

    Pfitzner, René; Chertkov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We study cascades of blackouts in the model of the Polish (transmission) power grid (2700 nodes and 3504 transmission lines). A cascade is initiated by a sufficiently severe initial contingency tripping. The cascade advances via sequential tripping of many more overheated lines (with the thermal limits exceeded), islanding loads and generators and eventually arriving at a fixed point with the surviving part of the system being power- flow-balanced and the rest of the system being outaged. Utilizing the quasi-static model for cascade propagation, introduced in our earlier study (Statistical Classification of Cascading Failures in Power Grids, IEEE PES GM 2011), we analyze how the severity of the cascade depends on the order of tripping overheated lines. Our main observation is that the order of tripping has a tremendous effect on the size of the resulting outage: the probability distribution function of the outage size is broad; moreover in many of the cases studied, picking an overheated line at random result...

  12. Tera-OP Reliable Intelligently Adaptive Processing System (TRIPS) Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    custom datapath . 5.1.3 Verification The partitioned nature of the TRIPS chip facilitated a highly hierarchical verification strategy. Each of the 11...cycle bubble as a control message is sent one cycle in advance of the data message to wake up the target instruction. Figure 43(b) shows the datapath

  13. TRIPS Agreement, International Technology Transfer and Least Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Shugurov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the role of the trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS Agreement in facilitation the international technology transfer to least developed countries (LDCs. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the new conditions of technology development of LDCs connected with TRIPS adoption. Special attention is paid to the potentials of Article 66.2 for solving the problem of LDCs capacity building. The article presents detailed analysis of the discussions on the impact of the TRIPS provisions concerning the strengthening of the intellectual property rights (IPRs and the protection of technology transfer to LDCs. An important finding of this study is the recognition of the need to take urgent measures for the transition unto a new model of partnership between developed countries and LDCs in area of technology transfer and IPRs protection. The study concluded that a new model needed to be elaborated at the international level should be based on the effective implementation of Article 66.2 of the TRIPS Agreement.

  14. Sense of place in outdoor-pursuits trip groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon L. Todd; Anderson B. Young; Lynn S. Anderson; Timothy S. O' Connell; Mary Breunig

    2009-01-01

    Studies have revealed that sense of community and group cohesion increase significantly over time in outdoor-pursuits trip groups. This study sought to understand similar development of sense of place. Do people simultaneously become more attached to or dependent on the natural environment as they grow closer to each other? Results from a study of college students...

  15. Journal of South African Trip: January 14-March 1, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Carl R.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a personal account, dictated en route, of Carl Rogers' experiences during his trip to South Africa. Documents extensive commitment to people and to a process leading to peace. Journal ends with conviction that violence can be avoided and that no group really wants violence. (Author)

  16. Evidence Based Prevention of Occupational Slips, Trips and Falls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about one third of the compensated occupational injuries and half of the most serious occupational injuries in merchant seafaring are related to slips, trips and falls (STF)-events. Among the elderly, STF is the risk factor that causes the largest number of inpatient days...

  17. Realidad virtual y materialidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Herranz, Fernando Miguel

    2009-01-01

    1. Fenomenología de partida: Real / Simbólico / Imaginario 2. Realidad 3. Virtual 3.1. Virtual / real / posible / probable 3.2. Los contextos de la realidad virtual A) REALIDAD VIRTUAL INMERSIVA B) REALIDAD VIRTUAL NO INMERSIVA C) REALIDAD VIRTUAL Y DIGITALIZACIÓN 3.3. Cruce virtual / real 3.4. Cuestiones filosóficas 4. Materialidad 5. Materialidad y descentramiento 5.1. Ejemplos de descentramiento en los contextos de Realidad Virtual A’) DUALISMO CARTESIANO, CUERPO Y «CIBORG » B’) EL ESPÍRIT...

  18. The Virtual Dressing Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    2013-01-01

    the standard sizes to fit a customized 2D or 3D mannequin before buying. (3) 3D camera and laser technologies which acquire 3D information of the costumer, enabling estimation of the body shape and measurements. Additionally, we conduct user studies to investigate the user behavior when buying clothes...... kinds: (1) virtual real-time 2D image/video techniques, where the consumer gets to superimpose the clothes on their real-time video to visualize themselves wearing the clothes. (2) 2D and 3D mannequins, where a web-application uses the body measurements provided by the customer, to superimpose...

  19. Grids, Clouds and Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Cafaro, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Research into grid computing has been driven by the need to solve large-scale, increasingly complex problems for scientific applications. Yet the applications of grid computing for business and casual users did not begin to emerge until the development of the concept of cloud computing, fueled by advances in virtualization techniques, coupled with the increased availability of ever-greater Internet bandwidth. The appeal of this new paradigm is mainly based on its simplicity, and the affordable price for seamless access to both computational and storage resources. This timely text/reference int

  20. 75 FR 59154 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Reductions and Gear Modifications for the...) per days-at-sea (DAS) up to 1000 lb (453.6 kg) per trip, Georges Bank (GB) yellowtail flounder to 100 lb (45.4 kg) per trip, and white hake to 100 lb (45.4 kg) per DAS up to 500 lb (226.8 kg) per trip...

  1. Virtual Touch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenslie, Ståle

    The central focus of this thesis is the use and experience of touch in artistic, multimodal and computer-based environments. The haptic experience of touch is an area that has only received limited research-based interest. Touch is too often seen as the effect, and not the cause of our everyday...... Erotogod. The third chapter investigates the foundations of touch through a physiological and psychological approach. Chapter four presents an alternative haptic history of Virtual Realities through the presentation and discussion of several technological and artistic works that are computer......-based. In chapter five touch is approached from a theoretical point of view. It develops a theory of touch based on phenomenology and shows how this approach advances an embodied thinking. Chapter six presents practice-based experiments of touch through the Erotogod installation. The last and seventh part...

  2. Virtual materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    to bullying practices in school. The theoretical question concerns the conceptual challenges that arise from empirical data which contain 1. children’s narratives about matter and meaning as they intertwine in their nightly dreams, 2. the observations of children’s’ computer gaming practices as well...... the character and effects of the skeleton army, which came across the sea to drown the boys in Phillip’s school class: a central scene in one of the dreams he recounted? Are the boat and the water in that dream materialities? Discourse? Part of some kind of enacted subjectivity? How will our decision of which......, experiences etc. Among these many interacting forces technologies play a crucial part – as do bodies, whether they are fighting, playing, dreaming, loving or hating bodies. And as do weapons - whether in the shape of virtual weapons of the computer games (as in e.g. Battlefield, Counter Strike, Grand Theft...

  3. Virtual Laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Hut, P

    2006-01-01

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

  4. Cable Harness Assembly Planning in Virtual Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhua; NING Ruxin; BAI Shuqing; WANG Bile

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of characteristic of cable harness planning in virtual environment, a discrete control node modeling (DCNM) method of cable harness in virtual environment and the cable harness assembly routing technique based on it are proposed. DCNM converts a cable harness into continuous flexed line segments connected by a series of section center points, and the design can realize cable harness planning through controlling those control nodes. This method of cable harness routing in the virtual environment breaks the status that virtual assembly process planning is just suitable for the rigid components at present, and impulse the virtual assembly process planning to be more practical. Relation algorithms have been verified in a self-developed system named virtual cable harness assembly planning (VCHAP) system, and this VCHAP system has been applied in assembly process planning of aerospace-related products.

  5. Separation and sampling of ice nucleation chamber generated ice particles by means of the counterflow virtual impactor technique for the characterization of ambient ice nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Ludwig; Mertes, Stephan; Kästner, Udo; Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Frank, Fabian; Nillius, Björn; Worringen, Annette; Kandler, Konrad; Ebert, Martin; Stratmann, Frank

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, the German research foundation (DFG) research group called Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT (FOR 1525, project STR 453/7-1) was established with the objective to achieve a better understanding concerning heterogeneous ice formation. The presented work is part of INUIT and aims for a better microphysical and chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosol particles that have the potential to act as ice nuclei (IN). For this purpose a counterflow virtual impactor (Kulkarni et al., 2011) system (IN-PCVI) was developed and characterized in order to separate and collect ice particles generated in the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH; Bundke et al., 2008) and to release their IN for further analysis. Here the IN-PCVI was used for the inertial separation of the IN counter produced ice particles from smaller drops and interstitial particles. This is realized by a counterflow that matches the FINCH output flow inside the IN-PCVI. The choice of these flows determines the aerodynamic cut-off diameter. The collected ice particles are transferred into the IN-PCVI sample flow where they are completely evaporated in a particle-free and dry carrier air. In this way, the aerosol particles detected as IN by the IN counter can be extracted and distributed to several particle sensors. This coupled setup FINCH, IN-PCVI and aerosol instrumentation was deployed during the INUIT-JFJ joint measurement field campaign at the research station Jungfraujoch (3580m asl). Downstream of the IN-PCVI, the Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ALABAMA; Brands et al., 2011) was attached for the chemical analysis of the atmospheric IN. Also, number concentration and size distribution of IN were measured online (TROPOS) and IN impactor samples for electron microscopy (TU Darmstadt) were taken. Therefore the IN-PCVI was operated with different flow settings than known from literature (Kulkarni et al., 2011), which required a further characterisation of its cut

  6. 采用虚拟样机技术的四足机器人仿真研究%Simulation of a quadruped robot based on virtual prototyping technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锦荣; 李锋; 张建华

    2013-01-01

    针对机器人抬腿和落腿时刻足端与地面冲击力过大的特点,建立了四足机器人的虚拟样机并进行仿真分析,对机器人的结构进行优化.通过对四足哺乳动物的结构分析,确定了四足机器人的结构框架;利用ADAMS软件建立四足机器人的仿真模型,并在仿真模型的基础上,分析机器人的运动特性,针对薄弱环节进行改进和验证,最终获得最优的结构设计方案.%As the impact between robot' s legs and the ground is too large while it lifting and downing,a quadruped mammal-like robot' s virtual prototype has been established and simulation analysis has been done to optimize the structure of the robot. Design the structure of a quadruped mammal-like robot by simplifying the structure of a quadruped mammal. Establish simulation model of a quadruped mammal-like robot using ADAMS, and analyze the robot kinematics based on the simulation model, improve and validate weaknesses,ultimately,obtain optimal structure of the final design. This method improved the robot design,and the movement characteristics of the robot can be known before the physical prototype is produced.

  7. Anti-Toxoplasma Activities of 24 Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones In Vitro: Prediction of Activity by Molecular Topology and Virtual Computational Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalbes, Rafael; Brun-Pascaud, Monique; Garcia-Domenech, Ramon; Galvez, Jorge; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Doucet, Jean-Pierre; Derouin, Francis

    2000-01-01

    The apicoplast, a plastid-like organelle of Toxoplasma gondii, is thought to be a unique drug target for quinolones. In this study, we assessed the in vitro activity of quinolones against T. gondii and developed new quantitative structure-activity relationship models able to predict this activity. The anti-Toxoplasma activities of 24 quinolones were examined by means of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) using topological indices as structural descriptors. In parallel, in vitro 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were determined in tissue culture. A multilinear regression (MLR) analysis was then performed to establish a model capable of classifying quinolones by in vitro activity. LDA and MLR analysis were applied to virtual structures to identify the influence of each atom or substituent of the quinolone ring on anti-Toxoplasma activity. LDA predicted that 20 of the 24 quinolones would be active against T. gondii. This was confirmed in vitro for most of the quinolones. Trovafloxacin, grepafloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin were the quinolones most potent against T. gondii, with IC50s of 0.4, 2.4, 4.1, and 5.1 mg/liter, respectively. Using MLR analysis, a good correlation was found between measured and predicted IC50s (r2 = 0.87, cross-validation r2 = 0.74). MLR analysis showed that the carboxylic group at position C-3 of the quinolone ring was not essential for anti-Toxoplasma activity. In contrast, activity was totally dependent on the presence of a fluorine at position C-6 and was enhanced by the presence of a methyl group at C-5 or an azabicyclohexane at C-7. A nucleophilic substituent at C-8 was essential for the activity of gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin. PMID:10991859

  8. Developing a Virtual Physics World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Margaret; McIntyre, Timothy J.; McGrath, Dominic; Savage, Craig M.; Williamson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the successful implementation of a development cycle for a physics teaching package based on game-like virtual reality software is reported. The cycle involved several iterations of evaluating students' use of the package followed by instructional and software development. The evaluation used a variety of techniques, including…

  9. Developing a Virtual Physics World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Margaret; McIntyre, Timothy J.; McGrath, Dominic; Savage, Craig M.; Williamson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the successful implementation of a development cycle for a physics teaching package based on game-like virtual reality software is reported. The cycle involved several iterations of evaluating students' use of the package followed by instructional and software development. The evaluation used a variety of techniques, including…

  10. Microsoft Virtualization Master Microsoft Server, Desktop, Application, and Presentation Virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Olzak, Thomas; Boomer, Jason; Keefer, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    Microsoft Virtualization helps you understand and implement the latest virtualization strategies available with Microsoft products. This book focuses on: Server Virtualization, Desktop Virtualization, Application Virtualization, and Presentation Virtualization. Whether you are managing Hyper-V, implementing desktop virtualization, or even migrating virtual machines, this book is packed with coverage on all aspects of these processes. Written by a talented team of Microsoft MVPs, Microsoft Virtualization is the leading resource for a full installation, migration, or integration of virtual syste

  11. Nuevos atrayentes de trips ayudan a los agricultores en el control de plagas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.

    2007-01-01

    Los trips constituyen una plaga importante que afecta a muchos cultivos diferentes. El año pasado se probaron con éxito, en situaciones prácticas, aromas atrayentes de trips de las flores y trips de la cebolla. El producto, que estará a disposición de los cultivadores en junio, resultó efectivo en t

  12. Nuevos atrayentes de trips ayudan a los agricultores en el control de plagas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.

    2007-01-01

    Los trips constituyen una plaga importante que afecta a muchos cultivos diferentes. El año pasado se probaron con éxito, en situaciones prácticas, aromas atrayentes de trips de las flores y trips de la cebolla. El producto, que estará a disposición de los cultivadores en junio, resultó efectivo en t

  13. Questionnaire-based person trip visualization and its integration to quantitative measurements in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2016-06-01

    With telecommunication development in Myanmar, person trip survey is supposed to shift from conversational questionnaire to GPS survey. Integration of both historical questionnaire data to GPS survey and visualizing them are very important to evaluate chronological trip changes with socio-economic and environmental events. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) visualize questionnaire-based person trip data, (b) compare the errors between questionnaire and GPS data sets with respect to sex and age and (c) assess the trip behaviour in time-series. Totally, 345 individual respondents were selected through random stratification to assess person trip using a questionnaire and GPS survey for each. Conversion of trip information such as a destination from the questionnaires was conducted by using GIS. The results show that errors between the two data sets in the number of trips, total trip distance and total trip duration are 25.5%, 33.2% and 37.2%, respectively. The smaller errors are found among working-age females mainly employed with the project-related activities generated by foreign investment. The trip distant was yearly increased. The study concluded that visualization of questionnaire-based person trip data and integrating them to current quantitative measurements are very useful to explore historical trip changes and understand impacts from socio-economic events.

  14. A Heuristic for Locating Electric Vehicle Charging Stations for Trip Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Røpke, Stefan

    We present the problem of locating a limited number of electric vehiclecharging stations for a given set of trip chains, each of which consistsof a series of linked short trips and is represented by a sequence ofintervening stops along the trip chain. The objective of this problemis to maximize...

  15. Nuevos atrayentes de trips ayudan a los agricultores en el control de plagas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Kogel, de W.J.; Teulon, D.

    2007-01-01

    Los trips constituyen una plaga importante que afecta a muchos cultivos diferentes. El año pasado se probaron con éxito, en situaciones prácticas, aromas atrayentes de trips de las flores y trips de la cebolla. El producto, que estará a disposición de los cultivadores en junio, resultó efectivo en

  16. 78 FR 65888 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery... Handgear A, Handgear B, and Small Vessel Category permits be adjusted relative to the cod trip limits for DAS vessels, and these adjustments are specified in Table 3. These trip limit adjustments for all...

  17. 49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall be...

  18. 78 FR 10556 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery... fishing year. This rule also decreases the trip limits for white hake and pollock. This is intended to...) established the current trip limits for the common pool vessels fishing under a Category A day-at-sea (DAS...

  19. 41 CFR 302-5.100 - How should we administer the househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.100 Section 302-5.100 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Agency Responsibilities § 302-5.100 How should we administer the househunting trip expenses allowance? You should...

  20. 41 CFR 302-5.102 - Under what circumstances may we authorize a househunting trip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... may we authorize a househunting trip? 302-5.102 Section 302-5.102 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Agency Responsibilities § 302-5.102 Under what circumstances may we authorize a househunting trip? You may authorize a...

  1. 76 FR 18661 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustments for the Common Pool Fishery... Southern New England (SNE)/Mid-Atlantic (MA) yellowtail flounder, and reduces the trip limit GOM cod and... additional overharvest of these stocks relative to the pertinent common pool sub-ACLs. DATES: The trip limit...

  2. 78 FR 53486 - Addition of Round-Trip Mailer Product to the Competitive Product List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Round-Trip Mailer Product to the Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal Service TM ACTION: Notice... Commission to add a product called ``Round-Trip Mailer'' to the competitive product list. DATES: Effective... (Commission) a request to add a ``Round-Trip Mailer'' product to its competitive product list, pursuant to...

  3. 75 FR 44924 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Reduction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Reduction and Trawl Gear Restriction AGENCY: National..., Northeast (NE) Region, NMFS (Regional Administrator) to increase or decrease the trip limits for vessels in... common pool sub-ACL prior to April 30, 2011, would require drastic trip limit reductions and/or...

  4. 78 FR 42478 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Trip Limit Adjustment for the Common Pool Fishery... winter flounder and GOM haddock. DATES: The trip limit decrease for SNE/MA winter flounder is effective... of 136 mt (299,829 lb). The current trip limit for SNE/MA winter flounder is 5,000 lb (2,268 kg) per...

  5. Disguising Rotational Gain for Redirected Walking in Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paludan, Anders Glud; Elbaek, Jacob; Mortensen, Mathias Helmuth

    2016-01-01

    In virtual reality environments that allow users to walk freely, the area of the virtual environment (VE) is constrained to the size of the tracking area. By using redirection techniques, this problem can be partially circumvented; one of the techniques involves rotating the user more or less...... in the virtual world than in the physical world; this technique is referred to as rotational gain. This paper seeks to further investigate this area, examining the effect of visual density in the VE....

  6. The Practice of Prospective Science Teachers regarding the Planning of Education Based Trips: Evaluation of Six Different Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explain how planning educational trips out of school environments for training purposes should be as well as to determine the opinions and the practices of prospective science teachers. The study that lasted for two years was carried out in parallel with the elective course "Science Education in Informal Learning…

  7. Surveillance and Datenschutz in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikic, Sabine; Lehmann-Grube, Fritz; Sablatnig, Jan

    Virtual environments are becoming more and more accepted, and part of the everyday online experience for many users. This offers new potential for both surveillance and data mining. Some of the techniques used are discussed in this paper.

  8. Trip report: Marshall Space Center computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, J. R.; Andrews, M. K.

    BIR Inc. is a small company out of the Chicago area which sells equipment for producing images by tomography. They have built a relatively large instrument, called ACTIS, for NASA at the Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama and still gave access to this instrument. BIR has a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the utility of computed tomography (CT) for characterization of nuclear and hazardous waste within the DOE complex. As part of this effort, the potential of this technique for obtaining images of canistered waste forms has been investigated. Funding for data acquisition was provided through this grant.

  9. Using GIS for planning field trips: In-situ assessment of Geopoints for field trips with mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Sarah; Kisser, Thomas; Ditter, Raimund

    2016-04-01

    Up to now no application is existing for collecting data via mobile devices using a geographical information system referring to the evaluation of Geopoints. Classified in different geographical topics a Geopark can be rated for suitability of Geopoints for field trips. The systematically acquisition of the suitability of Geopoints is necessary, especially when doing field trips with lower grade students who see a physical-geographic phenomenon for the first time. For this reason, the development of such an application is an invention for easy handling evaluations of Geopoints on the basis of commonly valid criteria like esthetic attraction, interestingness, and pithiness (Streifinger 2010). Collecting data provides the opportunity of receiving information of particularly suitable Geopoints out of the sight from students, tourists and others. One solution for collecting data in a simple and intuitive form is Survey123 for ArcGIS (http://survey123.esri.com/#/). You can create surveys using an ArcGIS Online organizational account and download your own survey or surveys "that may have been shared with you" (https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) on your mobile device. "Once a form is downloaded, you will be able to start collecting data."(https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/survey-123-for-arcgis/id993015031?mt=8) Free of cost and use while disconnected the application can easily be used via mobile device on field trips. On a 3-day field trip which is held three times per year in the Geopark Bergstraße-Odenwald Survey123 is being used to evaluate the suitability of different Geopoints for different topics (geology, soils, vegetation, climate). With every field trip about 25 students take part in the survey and evaluate each Geopoint at the route. So, over the time, the docents know exactly which Geopoints suites perfect for teaching geology for example, and why it suites that good. The field trip is organized in an innovative way. Before

  10. Utility of the iodine overlay technique and virtual nonenhanced images for the preoperative T staging of colorectal cancer by dual-energy CT with tin filter technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiao-Yun; Hsu, Jui-Sheng; Jaw, Twei-Shiun; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Shih, Ming-Chen Paul; Lee, Chien-Hung; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lai, Ming-Lai; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and the potential radiation dose reduction of dual-energy CT (DECT) for tumor (T) staging of colorectal cancer (CRC) using iodine overlay (IO) and virtual nonenhanced (VNE) images. This retrospective study included 103 consecutive patients who underwent nonenhanced CT and enhanced DECT for preoperative CRC staging. Enhanced weighted-average (WA), IO and VNE images were reconstructed from enhanced 80 kVp and Sn140 kVp scans. Two radiologists assessed image qualities of the true nonenhanced (TNE) and VNE images. For T-staging, another two radiologists independently interpreted all scans in two separate reading sessions: in the first session, only images derived from the single phase DECT acquisition (IO and VNE images) were read. In the second reading session after 30 to 50 (average:42) days, the same assessment was again performed with the TNE and enhanced WA images thereby simulating conventional dual-phase single-energy CT. The tumor node metastasis (TNM) system was used for staging with histopathologic reports as gold standard. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the tumors and normal reference tissues showed significant correlation between the TNE and VNE images (Poverlay value (48.4 HU±12.2) and enhancement (49.4 HU±11.8) value of CRCs had no significant difference (P = 0.52).The mean image noise on TNE (5.0±1.1) and VNE (5.3±1.1) images were similar (P = 0.07). The quantitative qualities of the VNE images were mildly inferior to the TNE images. Overall accuracy of T-stage CRC when using single-phase acquisition was slightly better than the dual-phase acquisition (90.3% vs 87.4%) (P = 0.51). The mean dose of the single-phase DECT acquisition was 6.2 mSv comparing with 14.3 mSv of dual-phase. Single-phase DECT using IO and VNE images yields a high accuracy in T-staging of CRCs. Thereby, the radiation exposure of the patients can be reduced.

  11. Virtual reality simulator for training on photoselective vaporization of the prostate with 980 nm diode laser and learning curve of the technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, J C; Arance, I; García-Tello, A; Las Heras, M M; Andrés, G; Gimbernat, H; Lista, F; Ramón de Fata, F

    2014-09-01

    The utility of a virtual reality simulator for training of the photoselective vaporization of the prostate with diode laser was studied. Two experiments were performed with a simulator (VirtaMed AG, Zürich, Switzerland) with software for specific training in prostate vaporization in contact mode with Twister fiber (Biolitec AG, Jena, German). Eighteen surgeons performed ablation of the prostate (55 cc) twice and compared the score obtained (190 points efficacy and 80 safety) in the second one of them by experience groups (medical students, residents, specialists). They also performed a spatial orientation test with scores of 0 to 6. After, six of these surgeons repeated 15 ablations of the prostate (55 and 70 ml). Improvement of the parameters obtained was evaluated to define the learning curve and how experience, spatial orientation skills and type of sequences performed affects them. Global efficacy and safety score was different according to the grade of experience (P=.005). When compared by pairs, specialist-student differences were detected (p=0.004), but not specialist-resident (P=.12) or resident-student (P=.2). Regarding efficacy of the procedure, specialist-student (p=0.0026) and resident-student (P=.08) differences were detected. The different partial indicators in terms of efficacy were rate of ablation (P=.01), procedure time (P=.03) and amount of unexposed capsule (p=0.03). Differences were not observed between groups in safety (P=.5). Regarding the learning curve, percentage median on the total score exceeded 90% after performing 4 procedures for prostates of 55 ml and 10 procedures for prostate glands of 70 ml. This course was not modified by previous experience (resident-specialist; P=.6). However, it was modified according to the repetition sequence (progressive-random; P=.007). Surgeons whose spatial orientation was less than the median of the group (value 2.5) did not surpass 90% of the score in spite of repetition of the procedure. Simulation

  12. Utility of the iodine overlay technique and virtual nonenhanced images for the preoperative T staging of colorectal cancer by dual-energy CT with tin filter technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Yun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and the potential radiation dose reduction of dual-energy CT (DECT for tumor (T staging of colorectal cancer (CRC using iodine overlay (IO and virtual nonenhanced (VNE images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 103 consecutive patients who underwent nonenhanced CT and enhanced DECT for preoperative CRC staging. Enhanced weighted-average (WA, IO and VNE images were reconstructed from enhanced 80 kVp and Sn140 kVp scans. Two radiologists assessed image qualities of the true nonenhanced (TNE and VNE images. For T-staging, another two radiologists independently interpreted all scans in two separate reading sessions: in the first session, only images derived from the single phase DECT acquisition (IO and VNE images were read. In the second reading session after 30 to 50 (average:42 days, the same assessment was again performed with the TNE and enhanced WA images thereby simulating conventional dual-phase single-energy CT. The tumor node metastasis (TNM system was used for staging with histopathologic reports as gold standard. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs of the tumors and normal reference tissues showed significant correlation between the TNE and VNE images (P<0.01. The mean iodine overlay value (48.4 HU±12.2 and enhancement (49.4 HU±11.8 value of CRCs had no significant difference (P = 0.52.The mean image noise on TNE (5.0±1.1 and VNE (5.3±1.1 images were similar (P = 0.07. The quantitative qualities of the VNE images were mildly inferior to the TNE images. Overall accuracy of T-stage CRC when using single-phase acquisition was slightly better than the dual-phase acquisition (90.3% vs 87.4% (P = 0.51. The mean dose of the single-phase DECT acquisition was 6.2 mSv comparing with 14.3 mSv of dual-phase. CONCLUSION: Single-phase DECT using IO and VNE images yields a high accuracy in T-staging of CRCs

  13. Analysis of Virtual Sensors for Predicting Aircraft Fuel Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous research described the use of machine learning algorithms to predict aircraft fuel consumption. This technique, known as Virtual Sensors, models fuel...

  14. Virtual Exploration of Earth's Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Bruce, G.; Semken, S. C.; Summons, R. E.; Buxner, S.; Horodyskyj, L.; Kotrc, B.; Swann, J.; Klug Boonstra, S. L.; Oliver, C.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional introductory STEM courses often reinforce misconceptions because the large scale of many classes forces a structured, lecture-centric model of teaching that emphasizes delivery of facts rather than exploration, inquiry, and scientific reasoning. This problem is especially acute in teaching about the co-evolution of Earth and life, where classroom learning and textbook teaching are far removed from the immersive and affective aspects of field-based science, and where the challenges of taking large numbers of students into the field make it difficult to expose them to the complex context of the geologic record. We are exploring the potential of digital technologies and online delivery to address this challenge, using immersive and engaging virtual environments that are more like games than like lectures, grounded in active learning, and deliverable at scale via the internet. The goal is to invert the traditional lecture-centric paradigm by placing lectures at the periphery and inquiry-driven, integrative virtual investigations at the center, and to do so at scale. To this end, we are applying a technology platform we devised, supported by NASA and the NSF, that integrates a variety of digital media in a format that we call an immersive virtual field trip (iVFT). In iVFTs, students engage directly with virtual representations of real field sites, with which they interact non-linearly at a variety of scales via game-like exploration while guided by an adaptive tutoring system. This platform has already been used to develop pilot iVFTs useful in teaching anthropology, archeology, ecology, and geoscience. With support the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, we are now developing and evaluating a coherent suite of ~ 12 iVFTs that span the sweep of life's history on Earth, from the 3.8 Ga metasediments of West Greenland to ancient hominid sites in East Africa. These iVFTs will teach fundamental principles of geology and practices of scientific inquiry, and expose

  15. Research of Virtual Simulation of Traditional Chinese Bone Setting Techniques Based on Kinect Skeletal Information%基于Kinect骨骼信息的中医正骨手法虚拟仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱鹏; 倪晨; 张俊忠; 曹慧

    2014-01-01

    Using the Kinect sensor and LabVIEW virtual instrument development platform to conduct the research to propose the method of gaining the hand movements trails based on the human skeleton informa-tion. Firstly,getting the human skeleton information and data through Kinect and designing the simple mod-els of human hands and limbs. Secondly,calculating the related data of flexion and rotation the two basic techniques of bone setting in motion. Finally ,using the waveform chart to display the numerical variation on time. The results show that the design can realize the more accurate virtual simulation of hand movements. The obtained data can be used for further research of the teaching and training system of virtual manipula-tive reduction of orthopedics and traumatology of traditional Chinese medicine as important data base.%采用Kinect传感器与LabVIEW虚拟仪器开发平台对课题进行研究,提出一种基于人体骨骼信息的手部运动轨迹获取方式。首先利用Kinect获取人体的骨骼信息数据并设计人体双手与肢体的简单模型,然后设计计算方法获取正骨手法中屈伸、旋转这两个基础手法动作在运动过程中产生的相关数据,最后对获取的时刻变化数值采用波形图表进行显示。结果表明,通过该设计方案,可实现对手部运动较为精准的虚拟仿真。获取的数据可以为开展关于虚拟中医正骨手法复位教学与训练系统的研究和设计提供重要的基础数据。

  16. Virtual Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, P.

    At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations playa central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simulated dialogues between code developers, thus sharing not only the code, but also the motivations behind the code.

  17. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after…

  18. Using a Field Trip Inventory to Determine If Listening to Elementary School Students' Conversations, While on a Zoo Field Trip, Enhances Preservice Teachers' Abilities to Plan Zoo Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia; Mathews, Cathy; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether listening to spontaneous conversations of elementary students and their teachers/chaperones, while they were visiting a zoo, affected preservice elementary teachers' conceptions about planning a field trip to the zoo. One hundred five preservice elementary teachers designed field trips prior to and after…

  19. JUST in time health emergency interventions: an innovative approach to training the citizen for emergency situations using virtual reality techniques and advanced IT tools (the Web-CD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganas, A; Tsiknakis, M; Leisch, E; Karefilaki, L; Monsieurs, K; Bossaert, L L; Giorgini, F

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the first of the two systems developed by JUST, a collaborative project supported by the European Union under the Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme. The most innovative content of the project has been the design and development of a complementary training course for non-professional health emergency operators, which supports the traditional learning phase, and which purports to improve the retention capability of the trainees. This was achieved with the use of advanced information technology techniques, which provide adequate support and can help to overcome the present weaknesses of the existing training mechanisms.

  20. JUST in time health emergency interventions: an innovative approach to training the citizen for emergency situations using virtual reality techniques and advanced IT tools (the VR Tool).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manganas, A; Tsiknakis, M; Leisch, E; Ponder, M; Molet, T; Herbelin, B; Magnetat-Thalmann, N; Thalmann, D; Fato, M; Schenone, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the second of the two systems developed by JUST, a collaborative project supported by the European Union under the Information Society Technologies (IST) Programme. The most innovative content of the project has been the design and development of a complementary training course for non-professional health emergency operators, which supports the traditional learning phase, and which purports to improve the retention capability of the trainees. This was achieved with the use of advanced information technology techniques, which provide adequate support and can help to overcome the present weaknesses of the existing training mechanisms.

  1. Galvanizability of Advanced High-Strength Steels 1180TRIP and 1180CP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. S.; Kwak, J. H.; Kim, J. S.; Liu, Y. H.; Gao, N.; Tang, N.-Y.

    2009-08-01

    In general, Si-bearing advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) possess excellent mechanical properties but poor galvanizability. The galvanizability of a transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel 1180TRIP containing 2.2 pct Mn and 1.7 pct Si and a complex phase steel 1180CP containing 2.7 pct Mn and 0.2 pct Si was extensively studied using a galvanizing simulator. The steel coupons were annealed at fixed dew points in the simulator. The surface features of the as-annealed steel coupons, together with galvanized and galvannealed coatings, were carefully examined using a variety of advanced analysis techniques. It was found that various oxides formed on the surface of these steels, depending on the steel composition and on the dew point control. Coating quality was good at 0 °C dew point but deteriorated as the dew point decreased to -35 °C and -65 °C. Based on the findings, guidance was provided for improving galvanizability by adjusting the Mn:Si ratio in steel compositions according to the dew point.

  2. Quantitative Analysis on Carbide Precipitation in V-Ti Microalloyed TRIP Steel Containing Aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Shiyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing fine precipitates is an important way to enhance the properties of transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP steels. In present work, two V-Ti microalloyed TRIP steels containing aluminum with different content were compared. The average size, size distribution and numbers of vanadium-titanium carbides in samples cold rolled, quenched after being held at 800°C and quenched after intercritical annealing at 800°C and being held at bainitic isothermal transformation temperature of 400°C were investigated by using the technique of carbon extraction replica, twin jet chemical polishing thinning and transmission electron microscopy. The carbides were identified to be (Ti,VC precipitates in steel A and VC in steel B respectively, precipitated mainly from ferrites grains. The average equivalent radius was 3~6nm. Comparison of the experimental results in A and B steel revealed low carbon diffusion rate caused by aluminum inhibited the coarsening of vanadium-titanium carbides. The experimental results also showed that VC carbides dissolution occurred during the intercritical annealing at 800°C.

  3. Virtual button interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jake S.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method of issuing commands to a computer by a user interfacing with a virtual reality environment. To issue a command, the user directs gaze at a virtual button within the virtual reality environment, causing a perceptible change in the virtual button, which then sends a command corresponding to the virtual button to the computer, optionally after a confirming action is performed by the user, such as depressing a thumb switch.

  4. Virtual goods recommendations in virtual worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Hsiu-Yu; Chen, Jyun-Hung; Liu, Duen-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies' intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others' homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users' buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment's data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

  5. Virtual Goods Recommendations in Virtual Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual worlds (VWs are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies’ intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable virtual goods fit for their virtual home in daily virtual life. In the VWs, users decorate their houses, visit others’ homes, create families, host parties, and so forth. Users establish their social life circles through these activities. This research proposes a novel virtual goods recommendation method based on these social interactions. The contact strength and contact influence result from interactions with social neighbors and influence users’ buying intention. Our research highlights the importance of social interactions in virtual goods recommendation. The experiment’s data were retrieved from an online VW platform, and the results show that the proposed method, considering social interactions and social life circle, has better performance than existing recommendation methods.

  6. Assuring microstructural homegeniety in dual phase and trip steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.; Zwaag, S. van der [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft Univ., Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    The presence of ferrite/pearlite bands in dual phase and TRIP assisted steels is a consequence of microchemical segregation which causes mechanical properties anisotropy. Such inhomogeneous phase distribution produces a lowering of the mechanical properties such as fracture behaviour. This anisotropy is commonly not accounted in micromechanics computations which often assume a random distribution of phases in the solid. The present paper deals with an integral model for this undesirable band formation accounting for the solute segregation caused by solidification, microcomponent diffusion present in the austenitisation process, and the nucleation of the transformed phase in segregated regions. In the present work, the model was applied to two industrial grade dual phase steels and two TRIP assisted steels. The influence of such parameters on band formation is summarised in a number of ''band prevention plots'', which are aimed at providing the optimum processing conditions for ferrite/pearlite band prevention. (orig.)

  7. Introducing soil forming factors with mini campus field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinton, John; Haygarth, Phil

    2013-04-01

    Students like field work, yet the proportion of time spent in the field during many soil science courses is small. Here we describe an introductory lecture on the soil forming factors based around a mini field trip in which we spend 45 minutes exploring these factors on the Lancaster University campus. In the 'trip' we visit some woodland to consider the effects of organic matter , vegetation and time on soil development and then take in a football pitch to examine the effects of landscape position, parent material and climate. Student responses are overwhelmingly positive and we suggest that more use can be made of our often mundane surroundings to explore soil formation. Soil functions and soil processes.

  8. Tera-Op Reliable Intelligently Adaptive Processing System (TRIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    AFRL-IF-WP-TR-2004-1514 TERA -OP RELIABLE INTELLIGENTLY ADAPTIVE PROCESSING SYSTEM (TRIPS) Stephen W. Keckler, Doug Burger, Michael Dahlin...03/31/2004 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F33615-01-C-1892 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TERA -OP RELIABLE INTELLIGENTLY ADAPTIVE PROCESSING...influence beyond the scope of this project; the influence is expected to increase with the fabrication of the prototype in phase 2. 1 2 Introduction The Tera

  9. Are short daily trips compensated by higher leisure mobility?

    OpenAIRE

    Petter Næss

    2006-01-01

    Studies in several cities have shown that inner-city residents travel shorter distances and use cars less for local transport than suburbanites do. However, according to some authors, a low daily amount of travel is likely to be compensated through more extensive leisure mobility at weekends and on holidays. On the basis of a study of residential location and travel in the Copenhagen metropolitan area, this paper addresses the phenomenon of compensatory travel. For travel within ‘weekend trip...

  10. Urban association rules: uncovering linked trips for shopping behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, Yuji; Hobin, Juan N Bautista; Ratti, Carlo; Blat, Josep

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce the method of urban association rules and its uses for extracting frequently appearing combinations of stores that are visited together to characterize shoppers' behaviors. The Apriori algorithm is used to extract the association rules (i.e., if -> result) from customer transaction datasets in a market-basket analysis. An application to our large-scale and anonymized bank card transaction dataset enables us to output linked trips for shopping all over the city: the method enables us to predict the other shops most likely to be visited by a customer given a particular shop that was already visited as an input. In addition, our methodology can consider all transaction activities conducted by customers for a whole city in addition to the location of stores dispersed in the city. This approach enables us to uncover not only simple linked trips such as transition movements between stores but also the edge weight for each linked trip in the specific district. Thus, the proposed methodo...

  11. 41 CFR 302-5.5 - Must my agency authorize payment of a househunting trip expenses allowance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... payment of a househunting trip expenses allowance? 302-5.5 Section 302-5.5 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Employee's Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.5 Must my agency authorize payment of a househunting trip...

  12. 41 CFR 302-5.16 - May I receive an advance of funds for househunting trip expenses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of funds for househunting trip expenses? 302-5.16 Section 302-5.16 Public Contracts and Property...) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Employee's Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.16 May I receive an advance of funds for househunting trip...

  13. 41 CFR 302-5.17 - Am I in a duty status when I perform a househunting trip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... when I perform a househunting trip? 302-5.17 Section 302-5.17 Public Contracts and Property Management... SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Employee's Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.17 Am I in a duty status when I perform a househunting trip? Yes, you are in...

  14. 41 CFR 302-5.10 - How soon may I and/or my spouse begin a househunting trip?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... spouse begin a househunting trip? 302-5.10 Section 302-5.10 Public Contracts and Property Management... SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 5-ALLOWANCE FOR HOUSEHUNTING TRIP EXPENSES Employee's Allowance For Househunting Trip Expenses § 302-5.10 How soon may I and/or my spouse begin a househunting trip? You may begin...

  15. Using Online Field Trips and Tours in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2010-01-01

    While not focusing directly on art, music, or literature, classroom teachers, students, and supervisors can find many virtual tours of museum offices, and agencies that do have art content. The use of virtual tours can be extremely effective--whether used as an entire classroom experience (such as the teacher guiding students through a tour using…

  16. Real Time Animation of Virtual Humans: A Trade-off Between Naturalness and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welbergen, H.; van Basten, B.J.H.; Egges, A.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Overmars, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual humans are employed in many interactive applications using 3D virtual environments, including (serious) games. The motion of such virtual humans should look realistic (or ‘natural’) and allow interaction with the surroundings and other (virtual) humans. Current animation techniques differ in

  17. Mechanisms influencing student understanding on an outdoor guided field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Nourah Al-Rashid

    Field trips are a basic and important, yet often overlooked part of the student experience. They provide the opportunity to integrate real world knowledge with classroom learning and student previous personal experiences. Outdoor guided field trips leave students with an increased understanding, awareness and interest and in science. However, the benefits of this experience are ambiguous at best (Falk and Balling, 1982; Falk and Dierking, 1992; Kisiel, 2006.) Students on an outdoor guided field trip to a local nature park experienced a significant increase in their understanding of the rock cycle. The changes in the pre-field trip test and the post-field trip test as well as their answers in interviews showed a profound change in the students' understanding and in their interest in the subject matter. The use of the "student's voice" (Bamberger and Tal, 2008) was the motivation for data analysis. By using the students' voice, I was able to determine the mechanisms that might influence their understanding of a subject. The central concepts emerging from the data were: the outdoor setting; the students' interest; the social interaction. From these central concepts, a conceptual model was developed. The outdoor setting allows for the freedom to explore, touch, smell and movement. This, in turn, leads to an increased interest in subject matter. As the students are exploring, they are enjoying themselves and become more open to learning. Interest leads to a desire to learn (Dewey, 1975). In addition to allowing the freedom to explore and move, the outdoor setting creates the condition for social interaction. The students talk to each other as they walk; they have in-depth discourse regarding the subject matter---with the teachers, each other and with the guides. The guides have an extremely important role in the students' learning. The more successful guides not only act as experts, but also adjust to the students' needs and act or speak accordingly. The

  18. The Use of 3d Scanning and Photogrammetry Techniques in the Case Study of the Roman Theatre of Nikopolis. Surveying, Virtual Reconstruction and Restoration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilis, T.; Kouimtzoglou, T.; Magnisali, M.; Tokmakidis, P.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the specific methods by which 3D scanning and photogrammetric techniques were incorporated into the architectural study, the documentation and the graphic restoration study of the monument of the ancient theatre of Nikopolis. Traditional methods of surveying were enhanced by the use of 3D scanning and image-based 3D reconstruction and 3D remodelling and renderings. For this reason, a team of specialists from different scientific fields has been organized. This presented the opportunity to observe every change of the restoration design process, not only by the use of common elevations and ground plans, but also in 3D space. It has been also very liberating to know how the monument will look like in this unique site after the restoration, so as to obtain at the study stage the best intervention decisions possible. Moreover, these modern work tools helped of course to convince the authorities for the accuracy of the restoration actions and finally to make the proposal clear to the public.

  19. Determination of Biology Department Students' Past Field Trip Experiences and Examination of Their Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Planning and Organising Educational Field Trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the past field trip experiences of pre-service teachers who are graduates of Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology and who had pedagogical formation training certificate and to examine their self-efficacy beliefs in planning and organizing field trips with regard to different variables. The study was…

  20. Using virtual machine monitors to overcome the challenges of monitoring and managing virtualized cloud infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiah, Mervat Adib; Brohi, Sarfraz Nawaz; Chuprat, Suriayati

    2012-01-01

    Virtualization is one of the hottest research topics nowadays. Several academic researchers and developers from IT industry are designing approaches for solving security and manageability issues of Virtual Machines (VMs) residing on virtualized cloud infrastructures. Moving the application from a physical to a virtual platform increases the efficiency, flexibility and reduces management cost as well as effort. Cloud computing is adopting the paradigm of virtualization, using this technique, memory, CPU and computational power is provided to clients' VMs by utilizing the underlying physical hardware. Beside these advantages there are few challenges faced by adopting virtualization such as management of VMs and network traffic, unexpected additional cost and resource allocation. Virtual Machine Monitor (VMM) or hypervisor is the tool used by cloud providers to manage the VMs on cloud. There are several heterogeneous hypervisors provided by various vendors that include VMware, Hyper-V, Xen and Kernel Virtual Machine (KVM). Considering the challenge of VM management, this paper describes several techniques to monitor and manage virtualized cloud infrastructures.