Toroidal current asymmetry in tokamak disruptions
Strauss, H. R.
2014-10-01
It was discovered on JET that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current I ϕ. It was found that the toroidal current asymmetry was proportional to the vertical current moment asymmetry with positive sign for an upward vertical displacement event (VDE) and negative sign for a downward VDE. It was observed that greater displacement leads to greater measured I ϕ asymmetry. Here, it is shown that this is essentially a kinematic effect produced by a VDE interacting with three dimensional MHD perturbations. The relation of toroidal current asymmetry and vertical current moment is calculated analytically and is verified by numerical simulations. It is shown analytically that the toroidal variation of the toroidal plasma current is accompanied by an equal and opposite variation of the toroidal current flowing in a thin wall surrounding the plasma. These currents are connected by 3D halo current, which is π/2 radians out of phase with the n = 1 toroidal current variations.
Current control necessary for toroidal plasma equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagao, S.
1987-01-01
It is shown that a significant amount of dipole current is necessary for the plasma equilibrium of toroidal configurations in general. Through the vector product with the poloidal field, this dipole current force has to balance with the hoop force of plasma pressure itself of the annular shape. The measurement of such a current of dipole type may be interesting for the confirmation of the plasma equilibrium in the toroidal system. Moreover it is certained that there is a new mode of a tokamak operation with such a dipole current component and with smaller vertical field than that based on the classical tokamak theory. (author) [pt
Current disruption in toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-07-01
Attempts at raising the density or the plasma current in a tokamak above certain critical values generally result in termination of the discharge by a disruption. This sudden end of the plasma current and plasma confinement is accompanied by large induced voltages and currents in the outer structures which, in large tokamaks, can only be handled with considerable effort, and which will probably only be tolerable in reactors as rare accidents. Because of its crucial importance for the construction and operation of tokamaks, this phenomenon and its theoretical interpretation were the subject of a three-day symposium organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik at Garching from February 14 to 16. (orig./HT)
High current density toroidal pinch discharges with weak toroidal fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunsell, P.; Brzozowski, J.; Drake, J.R.; Hellblom, G.; Kaellne, E.; Mazur, S.; Nordlund, P.
1990-01-01
Toroidal discharges in the ultralow q regime (ULQ) have been studied in the rebuilt Extrap TI device. ULQ discharges are sustained for pulse lengths exceeding 1 ms, which corresponds to more than 10 resistiv shell times. Values for the safety factor at the vacuum vessel wall are between rational values: 1/(n+1) -2 . The magnetic fluctuation level increases during the transition between rational values of q(a). For very low values of q(a), the loop voltage increases and the toroidal field development in the discharge exhibits the characteristic behaviour of the setting-up phase of a field reversed pinch. (author) 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab
Operating tokamaks with steady-state toroidal current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.
1981-04-01
Continuous operation of a tokamak requires, among other things, a means of continuously providing the toroidal current. Various methods have been proposed to provide this current including methods which utilize radio-frequency waves in any of several frequency regimes. Here we elaborate on the prospects of incorporating these current-drive techniques in tokamak reactors, concentrating on the theoretical minimization of the power requirements
2-D skin-current toroidal-MHD-equilibrium code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feinberg, B.; Niland, R.A.; Coonrod, J.; Levine, M.A.
1982-09-01
A two-dimensional, toroidal, ideal MHD skin-current equilibrium computer code is described. The code is suitable for interactive implementation on a minicomptuer. Some examples of the use of the code for design and interpretation of toroidal cusp experiments are presented
Measurement of toroidal plasma current in RF heated helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besshou, Sakae
1993-01-01
This report describes the measurement of toroidal plasma current by a semiflexible Rogowski coil in a helical vacuum chamber. A Rogowski coil measures the toroidal plasma current with a resolution of 0.1 kA, frequency range of up to 1 kHz and sensitivity of 6.5 x 10 -9 V · s/A. We measured the spontaneous toroidal plasma current (from -1.2 to +1.2 kA) under electron cyclotron resonance heating at 0.94 T toroidal field in the Heliotron-E device. We found that the measured direction of toroidal plasma current changes its sign as in the predicted behavior of a neoclassical diffusion-driven bootstrap current, depending on the horizontal position of the plasma column. We explain the observed plasma currents in terms of the compound phenomenon of an ohmic current and a neoclassical diffusion-driven current. The magnitude of the neoclassical current component is smaller than the value predicted by a collisionless neoclassical theory. (author)
Current drive by asymmetrical heating in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gahl, J.M.
1986-01-01
This report describes the first experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions. A unidirectional fast Alfven wave launched by a slow-wave antenna inside the Texas Tech Tokamak, asymmetrically heated the ions. Measurements of the asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current with probes at the top and bottom of the toroidal plasma column confirmed the current generation indirectly. Current generation, obtained in a one-species, hydrogen plasma, is a phenomenon which had not been predicted previously. Calculations of the dispersion relation for the fast Alfven wave near the fundamental cyclotron resonance in a one-species, hydrogen plasma, using warm plasma theory, support the experimental results
Toroidal equilibrium of a non-neutral plasma with toroidal current, inertia and pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, S.N.; Avinash, K.
1992-01-01
Equilibrium of non-neutral clouds in a toroidal vessel with toroidal magnetic field is demonstrated in the presence of a toroidal current, finite mass and finite pressure. With a toroidal current, it is shown that in a large-aspect-ratio conducting torus the equilibrium is governed by competition between forces produced by image charges and image currents. When μ 0 ε 0 E r 2 >B θ 2 (whe re E r and B θ are the self electrostatic and self magnetic fields of the cloud), the confinement is electrostatic and plasma shifts inwards; when μ 0 ε 0 E r 2 θ 2 , the confinement is magnetic and plasma shifts outwards. For μ 0 ε 0 E r 2 = B θ 2 there is no equilibrium. With finite mass or finite pressure, it is shown, in a large-aspect-ratio approximation, that the fluid drift surfaces and equipotential surfaces are displaced with respect to each other. In both cases the fluid drift surfaces are shifted inwards from the equipotential surfaces. (author)
Current relaxation time scales in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikkelsen, D.R.
1987-02-01
An approximate normal mode analysis of plasma current diffusion in tokamaks is presented. The work is based on numerical solutions of the current diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are shown for a broad range of plasma conductivity profile shapes. Three classes of solutions are considered which correspond to three types of tokamak operation. Convenient approximations to the three lowest eigenvalues in each class are presented and simple formulae for the current relaxation time scales are given
Eddy current calculations for the Tore Supra toroidal field magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, J.
1983-01-01
An outline is given of the calculation of the eddy currents in the magnetic structures of a Tokamak, which can be assimilated to thin conductors, so that the three-dimensional problem can be reduced mathematically to a two-dimensional one, the variables being two orthogonal coordinates of the considered surface. A finite element method has been used in order to treat the complicated geometry of the set of the 18 toroidal field coil casings and mechanical structures of Tore Supra. This eddy current code has been coupled with an axisymmetric equilibrium code in order to simulate typical phases of a Tokamak discharge (plasma current rise, additional heating, disruption, cleaning discharge) and the losses in the toroidal field magnet have thus been calculated. (author)
Calculations of toroidal EXTRAP equilibria for different toroidal ring current configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.; Scheffel, J.
1985-12-01
EXTRAP is a concept in which a pure Z-pinch is generated along the axis of an octupole field. Experiments in a linear as well as in a sector geometry have demonstrated that the pinch becomes stable against instabilities for many Alfven times. The octupole field in EXTRAP is produced by four, external, current-carrying rings. In the toroidal geometry these rings must be supplemented by additional rings to compensate for the plasma loop force and transformer core leakage flux. Equilibrium studies are carried out for two basically ring designs. The studies are based on numerical equilibrium copmputations using the GOYA code. Sensitivity of the equilibrium to technical imperfections is also analyzed. (author)
Toroidal current asymmetry and boundary conditions in disruptions
Strauss, Henry
2014-10-01
It was discovered on JET that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal asymmetry of the plasma current. The toroidal current asymmetry ΔIϕ is proportional to the vertical current moment ΔMIZ , with positive sign for an upward vertical displacement event (VDE) and negative sign for a downward VDE. It was claimed that this could only be explained by Hiro current. It is shown that instead it is essentially a kinematic effect produced by the VDE displacement of a 3D magnetic perturbation. This is verified by M3D simulations. The simulation results do not require penetration of plasma into the boundary, as in the Hiro current model. It is shown that the normal velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field vanishes at the wall, in the small Larmor radius limit of electromagnetic sheath boundary conditions. Plasma is absorbed into the wall only via the parallel velocity, which is small, penetrates only an infinitesimal distance into the wall, and does not affect forces exerted by the plasma on the wall. Supported by USDOE and ITER.
Experiments on toroidal inductively coupled alternating-current gas discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lok, J.
1976-01-01
This report is on an experimental study of a toroidal, inductively coupled a.c. gas discharge sustained at pressures roughly between one tenth of a Torr and some tens of Torrs. After breakdown is obtained at low pressure, additional gas is let in. The energy is inductively coupled into the electrodeless discharge by means of an iron core transformer of which the toroidal plasma column is the secondary winding. The power dissipated in the plasma is between 80 and 260 kW and is delivered by a motor-generator system at a frequency of 8 kHz for times up to 2 seconds. A toroidal magnetic field of 0.5 T maximum can be supplied in a short pulse. Five different gases (hydrogen, deuterium, helium, argon, and nitrogen) are used. The pressure range in which the discharges are sustained is specified, and the dynamic current-voltage characteristics are given for different pressures. Some typical streak pictures with simultaneously obtained recordings of the time behaviour of the discharge current and of the loop voltage are presented for the initial phase - at low pressure - of the discharge. The shape and the position of fully developed discharges at various pressures are discussed on the basis of photographic observations. The temperature of hydrogen plasmas is derived both from the electrical conductivity and from the emission of line radiation. The values of the temperature obtained in these ways differ in magnitude and in time behaviour. A possible explanation of the discrepancy can be obtained in terms of expansion and contraction of electron density and temperature profiles during a period of the discharge current, if it is taken into account that the main part of the light emission always originates from the outer colder regions of the plasma. In a somewhat different pressure regime, this picture is confirmed by microwave measurements
Superconducting toroidal field coil current densities for the TFCX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalsi, S.S.; Hooper, R.J.
1985-04-01
A major goal of the Tokamak Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) study was to minimize the size of the device and achieve lowest cost. Two key factors influencing the size of the device employing superconducting magnets are toroidal field (TF) winding current density and its nuclear heat load withstand capability. Lower winding current density requires larger radial build of the winding pack. Likewise, lower allowable nuclear heating in the winding requires larger shield thickness between the plasma and coil. In order to achieve a low-cost device, it is essential to maximize the winding's current density and nuclear heating withhstand capability. To meet the above objective, the TFCX design specification adopted as goals a nominal winding current density of 3500 A/cm 2 with 10-T peak field at the winding and peak nuclear heat load limits of 1 MW/cm 3 for the nominal design and 50 MW/cm 3 for an advanced design. This study developed justification for these current density and nuclear heat load limits
Current generation by unidirectional lower hybrid waves in the ACT-1 toroidal device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.L.; Horton, R.; Ono, M.
1980-05-01
An unambiguious experimental observation of current generation by unidirectional lower hybrid waves in a toroidal plasma is reported. Up to 10 amperes of current was driven by 500 watts of rf power at 160 MHz
Generation of stable mixed-compact-toroid rings by inducing plasma currents in strong E rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayakumar, R.; Taggart, D.P.; Parker, M.R.; Fleischmann, H.H.
1989-01-01
In the RECE-Christa device, hybrid-type compact toroid rings are generated by inducing large toroidal plasma currents I rho in strong electron rings using a thin induction coil positioned along the ring axis. Starting from field-reversal values δ ο = 50 - 120 percent of the original pure fast-electron ring, the induced plasma current I rho raises δ to a maximum value of up to 240 percent with I rho contributing more than 50 percent of the total ring current. Quite interestingly, the generated hybrid compact toroid configurations appear gross-stable during the full I rho pulse length (half-amplitude width about 100 μs)
Electron current generated in a toroidal plasma on injection of high-energy neutrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Reznik, S.N.
1981-01-01
Problem of generation of electron current in toroidal plasma with a high-energy ion beam produced during neutral injection has been considered. The analysis was performed on the assumption that plasma is in the regime of rare collisions (banana regime) and ion beam velocity is considerably lower than thermal velocity of plasma ions. Formulae establishing the relation between beam current and electron current have been derived. It follows from them that toroidal affect considerably plasma current generated with the beam and under certain conditions result in changing this current direction in an area remoted from magne-- tic axis [ru
Improved plasma confinement by modulated toroidal current on HT-7 superconducting tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Jianshan; Zhao Junyu; Shen Biao; Luo Jiarong
2004-01-01
The improved confinement phase was observed during modulating toroidal current on the Hefei superconducting Tokamak-7 (HT-7). This improved plasma confinement phase is characterized by suppressing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities effectively, thus increased the central line averaged electron density and the central electron temperature about 33%, out-put steeper density profiles, and reduced hydrogen radiation from the edge as well. The global energy confinement time was increased by 27%-45%; The impurity radiation was reduced by modulation of plasma toroidal current; particle confinement time was increased about two times; a stronger radial negative electric field formed inside the limiter. The radial electric field during modulating current was calculated and disscused. (authors)
High current superconductors for tokamak toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fietz, W.A.
1976-01-01
Conductors rated at 10,000 A for 8 T and 4.2 K are being purchased for the first large coil segment tests at ORNL. Requirements for these conductors, in addition to the high current rating, are low pulse losses, cryostatic stability, and acceptable mechanical properties. The conductors are required to have losses less than 0.4 W/m under pulsed fields of 0.5 T with a rise time of 1 sec in an ambient 8-T field. Methods of calculating these losses and techniques for verifying the performance by direct measurement are discussed. Conductors stabilized by two different cooling methods, pool boiling and forced helium flow, have been proposed. Analysis of these conductors is presented and a proposed definition and test of stability is discussed. Mechanical property requirements, tensile and compressive, are defined and test methods are discussed
Modelling of the toroidal asymmetry of poloidal halo currents in conducting structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomphrey, N.; Bialek, J.M.; Part, W.
1998-01-01
During plasma disruptions, substantial toroidal and poloidal eddy currents are generated in the vacuum vessel and other plasma facing conducting structures. Eddy currents that conduct charge through paths which close through the plasma periphery are called halo currents, and these can be of substantial magnitude. Of particular concern for tokamak design and operation is the observed toroidal asymmetry of the halo current distribution: such an asymmetric distribution leads to problematic non-uniform forces on the conducting structures. The premise is adopted that the source of toroidal asymmetry is the plasma deformation resulting from the non-linear external kink instability that develops during the current quench phase of a disruption. A simple model is presented of the kinked plasma that allows an analytic calculation of the dependence of the toroidal peaking factor (TPF) on the ratio of the halo current to the total toroidal plasma current, I h /I p . Expressions for the TPF as a function of I h /I p are derived for m/n=2/1 and m/n=1/1 helical instabilities. The expressions depend on a single parameter, which measures the amplitude of the saturated state of the kink instability. A comparison with disruption data from experiments shows good agreement. Numerical experiments that simulate non-linear external kinks provide guidance on the values expected for the saturated amplitude. It is proposed that a simple plasma halo model is adequate for assessing the engineering impact of asymmetric halo currents, since the force distribution on the conducting structures depends mainly on the 'resistive distribution' of the eddy currents. A brief description is given of an electromagnetics code that calculates the time development of eddy currents in conducting structures, and the code is applied to two halo current disruption scenarios. These are used to emphasize the importance of having an accurate eddy current calculation to correctly estimate the engineering impact of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saint, A; Laird, J S; Bardos, R A; Legge, G J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T; Sekiguchi, H [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).
1994-12-31
Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).
1993-12-31
Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.
Effect of eddy currents in the toroidal field coils of a tokamak with an air-core transformer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tani, Keiji; Kobayashi, Tomofumi; Tamura, Sanae
1975-02-01
The effect of eddy currents in the copper parts of the toroidal field coils is evaluated for a tokamak with the air-core transformer windings located inside the bore of the toroidal field coils. By introducing appropriate weights to the solutions obtained for a simplified cylindrical model, calculation is made of the induction toroidal electric field on the plasma axis in the presence of the eddy currents. The result shows that, to reduce the influence of the eddy currents on the induction one-turn voltage to the permissible level, it is necessary to choose the optimal number of turns and shape of the single conductor of the toroidal field coil. (auth.)
Basic toroidal Effects on Alfven Wave Current in Small Aspect Ratio Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burma, C.; Cuperman, S.; Komoshvili, K.
1998-01-01
The Alfven wave current drive (AWCD) in small aspect ratio Tokamaks is properly calculated, with consideration of the basic toroidicity effects present in (i) the dielectric tensor-operator (involving the strongly toroidal equilibrium profiles), (ii) the structure of the r.f. fields obtained as a solution of the wave equation (through Maxwell's equations' toroidal operators as well as the conversion rate and conversion layer location, depending also on the equilibrium profiles) and (iii) the formulation of the AWCD (which, besides its dependence on the r.f. fields - affected by toroidicity as mentioned at points (i) and (ii) - also requires the equilibrium-magnetic-surface averaging of non-resonant forces involved). Thus, we consider consistent equilibrium profiles with neo-classical conductivity corresponding to an ohmic START-like discharge; use a resistive (anisotropic) MHD dielectric tensor-operator Edith practically no limitations, adequate to describe the plasma response in the pre-heated stage ; solve numerically the 2(1/2)D full- wave equation by the aid of an advanced finite element code developed in; and evaluate the AWCD by the aid of the recently proposed, quite general formulation holding in the case of strongly toroidal fusion devices and including contributions due to helicity injection, momentum transfer and plasma Bow. A general discussion of the results obtained in this work is presented
On Current Drive and Wave Induced Bootstrap Current in Toroidal Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.
2008-01-01
A comprehensive treatment of wave-particle interactions in toroidal plasmas including collisional relaxation, applicable to heating or anomalous wave induced transport, has been obtained by using Monte Carlo operators satisfying quasi-neutrality. This approach enables a self-consistent treatment of wave-particle interactions applicable to the banana regime in the neoclassical theory. It allows an extension into a regime with large temperature and density gradients, losses and transport of particles by wave-particle interactions making the method applicable to transport barriers. It is found that at large gradients the relationship between radial electric field, parallel velocity, temperature and density gradient in the neoclassical theory is modified such that coefficient in front of the logarithmic ion temperature gradient, which in the standard neoclassical theory is small and counteracts the electric field caused by the density gradient, now changes sign and contributes to the built up of the radial electric field. The possibility to drive current by absorbing the waves on trapped particles has been studied and how the wave-particle interactions affect the bootstrap current. Two new current drive mechanisms are studied: current drive by wave induced bootstrap current and selective detrapping into passing orbits by directed waves.
Complete suppression of Pfirsch-Schlueter current in a toroidal l=3 stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Yasuhiko; Wakatani, Masahiro; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Pustovitov, V.D.
1999-10-01
Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) current is an inherent property of a finite pressure toroidal equilibrium of tokamak and stellarator. However, it was pointed out recently (V.D. Pustovitov, Nuclear Fusion 36 (1996) 583) that the P-S current would be suppressed completely if the external vertical field could be adjusted to satisfy the condition Ω= in an l=3 stellarator. Here Ω= 2 >/B 0 2 -2ε cosθ, l is a pole number, |B tilde| the vacuum helical magnetic field, B 0 the toroidal field, ε the inverse aspect ratio, θ the poloidal angle and denotes the average over the toroidal angle. An example of such a stellarator equilibrium is presented in this paper. For this stellarator equilibrium, behavior of rotational transform and Boozer magnetic spectrum is clarified when the pressure is increased. Both formation of helical magnetic axis and reduction of toroidal curvature are important ingredients to reduce the P-S current. However, the collisionless particle confinement is not improved in this example. (author)
On transport and the bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.
1987-01-01
The recently reported observation of the bootstrap current in a tokamak plasma highlights the problem of reconciling this neoclassical effect with the anomalous (i.e., non-neoclassical) electron thermal transport. This Comment reviews the bootstrap current and considers the implications of a self-consistent modification of neoclassical theory based on an enhanced electron-electron interaction. (author)
Methods of driving current by heating a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.
1980-08-01
In addition to the usual mechanism which utilizes the Ohmic transformer current, which is necessarily pulsed, there exist several steady-state mechanisms. Heating mechanisms which can lend themselves efficiently to continuous current generation include neutral beams, Alfven waves, ion-cyclotron waves, lower-hybrid waves and electron-cyclotron waves
Effect of halo current and its toroidal asymmetry during disruptions in JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neyatani, Y.; Yoshino, R.; Ando, T.
1995-01-01
A poloidal halo current due to a vertical displacement event (VDE) is observed in experimentally simulated VDE discharges and density limit disruptions in the JT-60U tokamak. In the case of a clockwise I p and B T discharge, the halo current flows into the vacuum vessel from the inside separatrix and goes back to the plasma from the outside separatrix. A maximum halo current is produced by a change in the poloidal flux generated by plasma current decay. A toroidal asymmetry factor of 2.5 is estimated from the requirements of the fracture of the carbon-fiber composite tiles. The toroidal asymmetry is caused by the poloidal field (PF) that is produced by the toroidal field (TF) ripple, the deformation of the vacuum vessel, the setting error between the vacuum vessel and the TF and PF coils, the low-n mode during current quench, etc. To consider this asymmetry, in JT-60U, one must estimate the total halo current as nearly 26% of the plasma current just before a current quench. 25 refs., 10 figs
Scaling with toroidal current of impurity transport in ATC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marmar, E.S.; Cohen, S.A.; Cecchi, J.L.
1976-06-01
An experiment measuring the scaling with changing plasma conditions of a parameter characteristic of the transport of aluminum injected into the ATC tokamak is discussed. This parameter is the time after injection at which the photon signal from Al XI reaches its maximum. It is found that the data are in agreement with the predictions of a computer code which uses neoclassical theory in the Pfirsch-Schluter regime. An approximate model describing impurity transport in ATC is also presented. This model is utilized to calculate the expected scaling with current of the aluminum transport assuming classical, neoclassical and pseudoclassical forms for the diffusion coefficient. The data are in agreement with both the neoclassical and pseudoclassical results from this model
The PBW Filtration, Demazure Modules and Toroidal Current Algebras
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Evgeny Feigin
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Let L be the basic (level one vacuum representation of the affine Kac-Moody Lie algebra ^g. The m-th space F_m of the PBW filtration on L is a linear span of vectors of the form x_1dots x_lv_0, where l ≤ m, x_i in ^g and v_0 is a highest weight vector of L. In this paper we give two descriptions of the associated graded space L^{gr} with respect to the PBW filtration. The ''top-down'' description deals with a structure of L^{gr} as a representation of the abelianized algebra of generating operators. We prove that the ideal of relations is generated by the coefficients of the squared field e_θ(z2, which corresponds to the longest root θ. The ''bottom-up'' description deals with the structure of L^{gr} as a representation of the current algebra g otimes C[t]. We prove that each quotient F_m/F_{m-1} can be filtered by graded deformations of the tensor products of m copies of g.
RF current drive in a toroidal plasna in the banana regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belikov, V.S.; Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Plotnik, I.S.
1982-01-01
The use of travelling waves for the steady-state current drive in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma in the banana regime is studied. The treatment is based on a quasi-linear equation for the electron distribution function averaged over the period of the particle motion along the small azimuth of the torus. It is show that the trapped electrons do not absorb the energy of the monochromatic (over frequency) RF field and thus only the circulating electrons contribute to the driving current and to the absorbed RF power. The current and the absorbed power are calculated by using the electron distribution function obtained for the case of narrow wave packet, both the toroidal magnetic field and the distortion of the electron distribution over transverse velocities being taken into consideration. The significant role of the barely carculating electrons is revealed. It is pointed out that the toroidal satellite resonances can affect the RF current drive by spreading and splitting the region of the wave-marticle interaction
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma
Controlling Confinement with Induced Toroidal Current in the Flexible Heliac TJ-II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romero, J A; Lopez-Bruna, D; Lopez-Fraguas, A; Ascasibar, E; TJ-II Team
2002-07-01
A method to control plasma particle an energy confinement in the TJ-II Heliac devices is reported A small toroidal current is induced in the plasma with the aid of a 0.2 Wb air core transformer. Plasma particle and energy confinement improve (degrade) with negative (positive) plasma current. For typical TJ-II discharges plasma density and temperature broaden considerably when plasma current is sufficiently negative, accounting for a 40% increase in stored energy. The experimental results agree qualitatively with the paradigm of instability growth rate modifications with magnetic shear. (Author) 18 refs.
Controlling Confinement with Induced Toroidal Current in the Flexible Heliac TJ-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, J. A.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Ascasibar, E.; TJ-II Team
2002-01-01
A method to control plasma particle an energy confinement in the TJ-II Heliac devices is reported A small toroidal current is induced in the plasma with the aid of a 0.2 Wb air core transformer. Plasma particle and energy confinement improve (degrade) with negative (positive) plasma current. For typical TJ-II discharges plasma density and temperature broaden considerably when plasma current is sufficiently negative, accounting for a 40% increase in stored energy. The experimental results agree qualitatively with the paradigm of instability growth rate modifications with magnetic shear. (Author) 18 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ardela, A.; Cooper, W.A.
1996-01-01
In this paper we resume a numerical study of the global stability of plasma with helical boundary deformation and non null net toroidal current. The aim was to see whether external modes with n=1,2 (n toroidal mode number) can be stabilized at values of β inaccessible to the tokamak. L=2,3 configurations with several aspect ratios and different numbers of equilibrium field periods are considered. A large variety of toroidal current densities and different pressure profiles are taken into account. Mercier stability is also investigated. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs
Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata.
1977-06-01
The relation between the current generation by RF travelling field and the accompanied power absorption is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gas pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (auth.)
Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata
1978-01-01
The relation between the current generated by RF travelling field and the absorbed power is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gap pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (author)
Stabilisation of ballooning modes in torsatrons with an externally applied toroidal current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, W.A.
1996-01-01
It has been found that ideal ballooning modes can impose very restrictive volume average β limits in torsatrons much below the typical values close to 5% that are required to be economically realisable as reactor systems and it has been shown that externally applied toroidal currents that are peaked can destabilise the Mercier criterion in this type of configuration. We will show here that if the applied currents are hollow, they can stabilise the ballooning modes without triggering Mercier instabilities and as a result raise the limiting β* from 2% to 5%. (author) 3 figs., 10 refs
Topological currents in neutron stars: kicks, precession, toroidal fields, and magnetic helicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charbonneau, James; Zhitnitsky, Ariel
2010-01-01
The effects of anomalies in high density QCD are striking. We consider a direct application of one of these effects, namely topological currents, on the physics of neutron stars. All the elements required for topological currents are present in neutron stars: degenerate matter, large magnetic fields, and parity violating processes. These conditions lead to the creation of vector currents capable of carrying momentum and inducing magnetic fields. We estimate the size of these currents for many representative states of dense matter in the neutron star and argue that they could be responsible for the large proper motion of neutron stars (kicks), the toroidal magnetic field and finite magnetic helicity needed for stability of the poloidal field, and the resolution of the conflict between type-II superconductivity and precession. Though these observational effects appear unrelated, they likely originate from the same physics — they are all P-odd phenomena that stem from a topological current generated by parity violation
External kinks in plasmas with helical boundary deformation and net toroidal current
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ardelea, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)
1997-11-01
The investigation of the global ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of plasmas with helical boundary shape and nonvanishing toroidal plasma current constitutes the principal aim of this work. Global external modes with small values of m,n (typically n = 1,2,3 and m = n+1) are studied, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively. The first and main part of the work concentrates on fixed boundary equilibria generated by systematically varying parameters such as the type and the magnitude of the boundary deformation, the number of equilibrium field periods N{sub per}, the aspect ratio, the toroidal current density profile, {beta} and the pressure profile. Due to the periodicity of the equilibrium, couplings between Fourier perturbation components with different toroidal mode numbers n occur and lead to the apparition of families of modes. The study of a particular (m,n) mode has to take into account all (m{sub l}, n{sub l}) perturbation components with n{sub 1} belonging to the same family as n. The stability analysis is carried out in the parameter region where the inverse rotational transform (the safety factor in the traditional tokamak notation) q{<=}2.0 and {beta}{<=}2%. A particular property of the configurations investigated is that equilibrium Fourier components (m{sub e}, N{sub per}n{sub e}) which are involved in the couplings between the (m,n) mode studied and the (m{sub k},n{sub k}) perturbation components with m{sub k}>n{sub k}>n that exhibit resonances in the q>1 region are very small. As a consequence, the contributions of the (m,n)x(m{sub k},n{sub k}) couplings to the potential energy are very weak. It is shown that a helical boundary deformation can stabilize the n=1,2,3 external modes; if {delta} is a measure of the plasma boundary deformation, then windows of stability [{delta}{sub min}, {delta}{sub max}] may exist for a large variety of equilibrium parameters. (author) figs., tabs., 44 refs.
On the definition of Pfirsch--Schlueter and bootstrap currents in toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coronado, M.; Wobig, H.
1992-01-01
In the plasma physics literature there appear two different definitions of Pfirsch--Schlueter current. One of them is predominantly used in equilibrium calculations and satisfies the condition I T =0. The other definition appears commonly in transport calculations and requires that the surface average of the dot product of the Pfirsch--Schlueter current density with the magnetic field vanish, i.e., left-angle J PS ·B right-angle=0. The difference between the definitions is a surface function. Within the framework of the moment equation approach, the total parallel current is completely determined through a surface average of Ohm's law; thus different definitions of Pfirsch--Schlueter current imply different expressions for the bootstrap current. Understanding the different implications of these two definitions is of particular importance when designing toroidal devices with minimized Pfirsch--Schlueter current or studying tokamaks with optimized bootstrap current. In this paper the definitions of Pfirsch--Schlueter and bootstrap current, as well as the expressions for the corresponding Pfirsch--Schlueter diffusion flux, are analyzed and discussed for the case of axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric plasmas. Although in cases like a current-free stellarator or a large-aspect-ratio tokamak both definitions are equivalent, they are in general different, and in order to avoid misunderstandings it is therefore important to use only one. The most appropriate definition is I T =0. In this paper the equations for determining the bootstrap current within the framework of the fluid equations are also analyzed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benedito Antonio Luciano
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Based on electrical and magnetic properties, such as saturation magnetization, initial permeability, and coercivity, in this work are presented some considerations about the possibilities of applications of nanocrystalline alloys in toroidal cores for current transformers. It is discussed how the magnetic characteristics of the core material affect the performance of the current transformer. From the magnetic characterization and the computational simulations, using the finite element method (FEM, it has been verified that, at the typical CT operation value of flux density, the nanocrystalline alloys properties reinforce the hypothesis that the use of these materials in measurement CT cores can reduce the ratio and phase errors and can also improve its accuracy class.
Effects of toroidal currents upon magnetic configurations and stability in Wendelstein 7-AS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weller, A.; Anton, M.; Brakel, R.; Geiger, J.; Hirsch, M.; Jaenicke, R.; Klose, S.; Werner, A.; Sallander, E.
2001-01-01
The proposal of new concepts for current carrying hybrid stellarators has raised the issue if current driven instabilities, in particular major disruptions, may be suppressed or mitigated by the externally provided poloidal magnetic field. In W7-AS the internal toroidal currents such as bootstrap and Okhawa currents are cancelled by opposite currents driven inductively or by electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). In this way the edge rotational transform is controlled, and net current-free stable plasmas are maintained. On the other hand, the current drive systems provide a flexible tool to investigate current driven instabilities as well as various issues concerning the effect of magnetic shear on confinement and MHD mode behaviour. The stability studies in the presence of significant toroidal currents have been made in the accessible range of the external rotational transform slash-l ext =0.30...0.56 involving the low order rational surfaces slash-l = 1/2, 3/2, 3/4 and 1. In addition the rational surfaces slash-l=1/3 and 1/4 could be accessed by reverse current drive. Target plasmas heated by electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), neutral beam injection (NBI) or both were investigated in order to assess to which extent the stability depends on particular current density profiles. Disruption-like events, preceded by tearing mode activity, have been observed in a wide range of the external rotational transform. The mode structures have been analyzed by X-ray tomography, electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics and magnetic measurements. The experimental data are roughly consistent with stability calculations on the basis of a cylindrical Δ'-analysis. In contrast to the tokamak case the plasma equilibrium is maintained even after a thermal collapse enabling a recovery of plasma energy and inductive current. The improved positional stability can result in the formation of very large magnetic islands. Severe disruption-like effects may be controlled by
Current drive by neutral beams, rotating magnetic fields and helicity injection in compact toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farengo, R.
2002-01-01
A Monte-Carlo code is used to study neutral beam current drive in Spheromaks. The exact particle trajectories are followed in the self-consistent equilibria calculated including the beam current. Reducing Z(eff) does not increase the current drive efficiency because the reduction of the stopping cross section is compensated by an increase in the electron canceling current. Significant changes in the safety factor profile can be produced with relatively low beam currents. Minimum dissipation states of a flux core spheromak sustained by helicity injection are presented. Helicity balance is used as a constraint and the resistivity is considered to be non-uniform. Two types of relaxed states are found; one has a central core of open flux surrounded by a toroidal region of closed flux surfaces and the other has the open flux wrapped around the closed flux surfaces. Non-uniform resistivity effects can be very important due to the changes they produce in the safety factor profile. A hybrid, fluid electrons particle ions, code is employed to study ion dynamics in FRCs sustained by rotating magnetic fields. (author)
Numerical simulations of the radio-frequency-driven toroidal current in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.
2014-01-01
Radio-frequency (rf) waves are a powerful tool for improving the performance and stability of tokamak plasmas through heating and current drive mechanisms, allowing current density profile control and steady-state operation. From first principles, and taking advantage from the ordering between the various time and space scales, fast and powerful numerical tools have been developed to calculate the rf-driven current. The current drive problem in tokamaks is first introduced with the purpose of maintaining a steady-state self-organized toroidal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium, such that a minimal amount of the fusion power has to be recycled to control the plasma current. The strict criterion that characterizes a steady-state discharge is derived from the response of the tokamak, considered as a transformer, and of the plasma, when an external source of current is applied. The calculation of a rf-driven source of current requires solving self-consistently a set of equations describing the dynamics of wave fields and charged particles in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. The range of applicability of these equations is discussed, as well as numerical methods developed to solve them, such as the ray-tracing code C3PO and the three-dimensional linearized relativistic bounce-averaged electron Fokker-Planck solver LUKE. Simulations of current drive by lower-hybrid waves are presented to illustrate the applications of our numerical tools. Current drive modeling includes the effect of electron density fluctuations at the plasma edge, and the case of electron cyclotron waves used for stabilization of the 3/2 neoclassical tearing modes in ITER is studied in detail. Finally, ongoing developments, including cross effects between momentum and configuration spaces, aiming at improving current drive calculations are discussed. (authors)
Saito, Hiraku; Uenishi, Kenta; Miura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Chihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi
2018-03-01
Magnetization measurements under direct electric current were performed in a toroidal magnetic ordered state of UNi4B to test a recent theoretical prediction of current-induced magnetization in a metallic system lacking local-inversion symmetry. We found that electric current parallel to [2\\bar{1}\\bar{1}0] and [0001] in the hexagonal 4-index notation induces a uniform magnetization along the [01\\bar{1}0] direction. The observed behavior of the induced magnetization is essentially consistent with the theoretical prediction; however, it also shows an inconsistency suggesting that the antiferromagnetic state of UNi4B could not be simply regarded as a uniform toroidal order in the ideal honeycomb layered structure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roccella, M.; Marin, A.; Lucca, F.; Merola, M.
2008-01-01
A detailed evaluation of the EM loads in the ITER divertor during plasma disruptions is mandatory for the correct dimensioning of the divertor component. The EM loads during plasma disruptions are mainly produced by: (1) toroidal flux variation (TFV) during the thermal quench (TQ) and current quench (CQ); (2) halo currents (HC); and (3) poloidal flux variation (PFV) during TQ and CQ phase. The new ITER reference disruption and the last changes in the divertor design have been considered in the EM models created to calculate all the EM loads due to TFV, HC and PFV. All the analyses have been performed for the three different main design options of the divertor plasma facing units (PFU). The effects of PFV have been analyzed using an EM-zooming procedure that has allowed a good detail of the component model, while new numerical approaches have been developed for the evaluation of the effects due to TFV and HC maintaining the same detail for the divertor model. Separate models have been developed to evaluate the equivalent electrical resistivities of the various PFU options; this allows in the full 3D model a strong simplification of a geometry which would otherwise be very complex. The effect of an electrical surface bridging of the PFU castellation has also been taken into account
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roccella, M. [L.T. Calcoli S.a.S. Piazza Prinetti, 26/B, Merate (Lecco) (Italy)], E-mail: massimo.roccella@ltcalcoli.it; Marin, A.; Lucca, F. [L.T. Calcoli S.a.S. Piazza Prinetti, 26/B, Merate (Lecco) (Italy); Merola, M. [ITER Team, Cadarache (France)
2008-12-15
A detailed evaluation of the EM loads in the ITER divertor during plasma disruptions is mandatory for the correct dimensioning of the divertor component. The EM loads during plasma disruptions are mainly produced by: (1) toroidal flux variation (TFV) during the thermal quench (TQ) and current quench (CQ); (2) halo currents (HC); and (3) poloidal flux variation (PFV) during TQ and CQ phase. The new ITER reference disruption and the last changes in the divertor design have been considered in the EM models created to calculate all the EM loads due to TFV, HC and PFV. All the analyses have been performed for the three different main design options of the divertor plasma facing units (PFU). The effects of PFV have been analyzed using an EM-zooming procedure that has allowed a good detail of the component model, while new numerical approaches have been developed for the evaluation of the effects due to TFV and HC maintaining the same detail for the divertor model. Separate models have been developed to evaluate the equivalent electrical resistivities of the various PFU options; this allows in the full 3D model a strong simplification of a geometry which would otherwise be very complex. The effect of an electrical surface bridging of the PFU castellation has also been taken into account.
Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohkawa, T.; Schaffer, M.J.
1981-01-01
Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof
Observation of Cocurrent Toroidal Rotation in the EAST Tokamak with Lower-Hybrid Current Drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Yuejiang; Xu Guosheng; Wang Fudi; Wang Mao; Fu Jia; Li Yingying; Zhang Wei; Zhang Wei; Chang Jiafeng; Lv Bo; Qian Jinping; Shan Jiafang; Liu Fukun; Ding Siye; Wan Baonian; Lee, Sang-Gon; Bitter, Manfred; Hill, Kenneth
2011-01-01
Lower-hybrid waves have been shown to induce a cocurrent change in toroidal rotation of up to 40 km/s in the L-mode plasma core region and 20 km/s in the edge of the EAST tokamak. This modification of toroidal rotation develops on different time scales. For the edge, the time scale is no more than 100 ms, but for the core the time scale is around 1 s. A simple model based on turbulent equipartition and thermoelectric pinch predicts the experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Burkhardt, L.C.; Di Marco, J.N.; Haberstich, A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Howell, R.B.; Karr, H.J.; Schofield, A.E.
1977-01-01
The scaling properties of a toroidal reversed-field Z pinch have been investigated over a limited range by comparing two experiments having conducting walls and discharge-tube minor diameters which differ by a factor of approximately 1.5. Both the confinement time of the plasma column and the electron temperature were found to increase about a factor of two with the increased minor diameter. Both the poloidal field diffusion and the decay of the toroidal reversed field were significantly reduced with the larger tube diameter. These results support the hypothesis that the loss of stability later in the discharge is caused by diffusion-induced deterioration of initially favourable plasma-field profiles to MHD unstable ones. This conclusion has been verified by stability analysis of the magnetic field profiles. Fusion reactor calculations show that small reactors are conceptually possible assuming good containment can be achieved for current densities approximately >20MAm -2 . (author)
Nanorobotics current approaches and techniques
Ferreira, Antoine
2013-01-01
Nanorobot devices now perform a wide variety of tasks at the nanoscale in a wide variety of fields including but not limited to fields such as manufacturing, medicine, supply chain, biology, and outer space. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is a comprehensive overview of this interdisciplinary field with a wide ranging discussion that includes nano-manipulation and industrial nanorobotics, nanorobotics in biology and medicine, nanorobotic sensing, navigation and swarm behavior, and protein and DNA-based nanorobotics. Also included is the latest on topics such as bio-nano-actuators and propulsion and navigation of nanorobotic systems using magnetic fields. Nanorobotics: Current Approaches and Techniques is an ideal book for scientists, researchers, and engineers actively involved in applied and robotic research and development.
Alfven continuum with toroidicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riyopoulos, S.; Mahajan, S.M.
1985-06-01
The symmetry property of the MHD wave propagation operator is utilized to express the toroidal eigenmodes as a superposition of the mutually orthogonal cylindrical modes. Because of the degeneracy among cylindrical modes with the same frequency but resonant surfaces of different helicity the toroidal perturbation produces a zeroth order mixing of the above modes. The toroidal eigenmodes of frequency ω 0 2 have multiple resonant surfaces, with each surface shifted relative to its cylindrical position and carrying a multispectral content. Thus a single helicity toroidal antenna of frequency ω 0 couples strongly to all different helicity resonant surfaces with matching local Alfven frequency. Zeroth order coupling between modes in the continuum and global Alfven modes also results from toroidicity and degeneracy. Our perturbation technique is the MHD counterpart of the quantum mechanical methods and is applicable through the entire range of the MHD spectrum
Formation of a compact torus using a toroidal plasma gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levine, M.A.; Pincosy, P.A.
1981-01-01
Myers, Levine and Pincosy earlier reported results using a toroidal plasma gun. The device differs from the usual coaxial plasma gun in the use of a strong toroidal bias current for enhanced efficiency, a pair of disk-like accelerating electrodes for reduced viscosity and a fast pulsed toroidal gas valve for more effective use of the injected gas sample. In addition, a technique is used for generating a toroidal current in the plasma ring. The combination offers an opportunity to deliver a plasma with a large amount of energy and to vary the density and relative toroidal and poloidal magnetic field intensities over a range of values. It is the purpose of this paper to report further experimental results, to project the gun's applications to the formation of a compact torus, and to propose a simple modification of the present apparatus as a test
2009-01-01
three axis fluxgate magnetometer , CMOS sun and star sensors, and a Kalman filter. The work and tasks that have been accomplished on the TOROID... magnetometer . The problem was found to be a missing ferrite bead which connects the 12V power supply to the op-amps which are used to appropriately...establish an overall operational timeline for TOROID. Testing and calibration was performed on the three-axis magnetometer which is primary attitude
Submucosal tunneling techniques: current perspectives.
Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Rafiq, Kazi; Fujihara, Shintaro; Nishiyama, Noriko; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Matsunaga, Tae; Tani, Johji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Oryu, Makoto; Iwama, Hisakazu; Masaki, Tsutomu
2014-01-01
Advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection include a submucosal tunneling technique, involving the introduction of tunnels into the submucosa. These tunnels permit safer offset entry into the peritoneal cavity for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery. Technical advantages include the visual identification of the layers of the gut, blood vessels, and subepithelial tumors. The creation of a mucosal flap that minimizes air and fluid leakage into the extraluminal cavity can enhance the safety and efficacy of surgery. This submucosal tunneling technique was adapted for esophageal myotomy, culminating in its application to patients with achalasia. This method, known as per oral endoscopic myotomy, has opened up the new discipline of submucosal endoscopic surgery. Other clinical applications of the submucosal tunneling technique include its use in the removal of gastrointestinal subepithelial tumors and endomicroscopy for the diagnosis of functional and motility disorders. This review suggests that the submucosal tunneling technique, involving a mucosal safety flap, can have potential values for future endoscopic developments.
Current drive by neutral beams, rotating magnetic fields and helicity injection in compact toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farengo, R.; Arista, N.R.; Lifschitz, A.F.; Clemente, R.A.
2003-01-01
The use of neutral beams (NB) for current drive and heating in spheromaks, the relaxed states of flux core spheromaks (FCS) sustained by helicity injection and the effect of ion dynamics on rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive in spherical tokamaks (ST) are studied. (author)
Saito, Hiraku; Uenishi, Kenta; Miura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Chihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi
2018-01-01
Magnetization measurements under direct electric currents were performed for toroidal magnetic ordered state of UNi$_4$B to test a recent theoretical prediction of current-induced magnetization in a metallic system lacking local inversion symmetry.We found that each of the electric currents parallel to [$2\\bar{1}\\bar{1}0$] and [$0001$] in the hexagonal 4-index notation induces uniform magnetization in the direction of [$01\\bar{1}0$].The observed behavior of the induced magnetization is essent...
High-efficiency toroidal current drive using low-phase-velocity kinetic Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puri, S.
1991-09-01
A method for obtaining efficient current drive in Tokamaks using low-phase-velocity (v ρ = ω/K parallel ∝ 0.1v te ) kinetic Alfen wave is proposed. The wave momentum, imparted primarily to the trapped electrons by Landau damping, is stored as the canonical angular momentum via the Ware pinch. In steady state, collisions restore the pinched electrons to their original phase-space configuration, in the process releasing the stored canonical angular momentum to the background ions and electrons in proportion to the respective collision frequencies. Despite the loss of a part of the original impulse to the plasma ions, well over half the wave momentum is ultimately delivered to the bulk-plasma electrons, resulting in an efficient current drive. A normalized current-drive efficiency γ = R 0 20 > I/P ∝ 2 would be feasible using the subthermal kinetic-Alfen-wave current drive in a Tokamak of reactor parameters. Optimum antenna loading conditions are described. The problem of accessibility is discussed. In an elongated, high-β plasma with a density dependence n e ∝ (1-ρ 2 ) Χn , accessibility is restricted to ρ > or approx. 3/(4A Χn ), where A is the aspect ratio. For current drive at still lower values of ρ, operation in conjunction with fast-wave current drive is suggested. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koprivica, Branko, E-mail: branko.koprivica@ftn.kg.ac.rs; Milovanovic, Alenka, E-mail: alenka.milovanovic@ftn.kg.ac.rs
2016-04-01
The aim of this paper is to present a new procedure for the electromagnetic analysis of a measuring current transformer under sinusoidal conditions in its electrical and magnetic circuit. The influence of the magnetic hysteresis has been taken into account using the measured inverse magnetization curve and phase lag between the time waveforms of the magnetic field and the magnetic induction. Using the proposed analysis, ratio and phase errors of the current transformer have been calculated. The results of the calculation have been compared with experimental results and a good agreement has been found.
Onset of current-driven turbulence on application of a low toroidal electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Yukio; Watanabe, Takechiyo; Nagao, Akihiro; Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Itoh, Satoshi
1982-01-01
The critical condition for current-driven instability excited in a turbulently-heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma is investigated experimentally. A resistive hump in the loop voltage, plasma density fluctuation and rapid increase in electron temperature in the skin layer are simultaneously observed when the electron drift velocity equals the critical drift velocity for low-frequency ion acoustic instability. (author)
Onset of current-driven turbulence on application of a low toroidal electric field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Yukio; Watanabe, Takechiyo; Nagao, Akihiro; Nakamura, Kazuo; Hiraki, Naoji; Itoh, Satoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1982-06-01
The critical condition for current-driven instability excited in a turbulently-heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma is investigated experimentally. A resistive hump in the loop voltage, plasma density fluctuation and rapid increase in electron temperature in the skin layer are simultaneously observed when the electron drift velocity equals the critical drift velocity for low-frequency ion acoustic instability.
Neoclassical transport in toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wobig, H.
1992-01-01
The neoclassical theory of general toroidal equilibria is reformulated. The toroidal equilibrium of tokamaks and stellarators are described in Hamada coordinates. The relevant geometrical parameters are identified and it is shown how the reduction of Pfirsch-Schluter currents affects neoclassical transport and bootstrap effects. General flux-friction relations between thermodynamic forces and fluxes are derived. In drift-kinetic approximation the neoclassical transport coefficients are Onsager symmetric. Since a toroidal loop voltage is included, the theory is valid for all toroidal systems. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshinaga, T.; Uchida, M.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.
2007-01-01
An estimation model of plasma current density distribution for the start-up phase of toroidal plasmas generated by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in the low aspect ratio torus experiment device is presented. The model assumes a power law parabolic current profile having seven fitting parameters. Its position, extent and broadness (or steepness) are fitted by adjusting these parameters to the observed magnetic flux signals. The adequacy of the model has been examined and confirmed by comparisons of the reconstructed current profiles and the resultant poloidal flux surfaces with the plasma images at visible light range at various stages of start-up discharges, including both the initial open field phase, the subsequent closed field phase, the current decay phase after ECH is turned off and also by a current-profile limiting experiment. This method may be useful for the study of non-inductive start-up experiments by ECH, where there is no appropriate MHD constraint on the current distribution as that in the full tokamak discharge plasmas
A condition for small bootstrap current in three-dimensional toroidal configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikhailov, M. I., E-mail: mikhaylov-mi@nrcki.ru [National Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Nührenberg, J.; Zille, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)
2016-11-15
It is shown that, if the maximum of the magnetic field strength on a magnetic surface in a threedimensional magnetic confinement configuration with stellarator symmetry constitutes a line that is orthogonal to the field lines and crosses the symmetry line, then the bootstrap current density is smaller compared to that in quasi-axisymmetric (qa) [J. Nührenberg et al., in Proc. of Joint Varenna−Lausanne Int. Workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas, Varenna, 1994, p. 3] and quasi-helically (qh) symmetric [J. Nührenberg and R. Zille, Phys. Lett. A 129, 113 (1988)] configurations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.
1982-04-01
Ideal MHD-equilibria for the toroidal EXTRAP configuration have been computed with an equilibrium code. The free-boundary prob- lem is solved by using the condition that the current density is proportional to r on a flux surface. It is found that the toroidal Z-pinch, initially induced in the central zero-field region of a transverse octupole field, drifts radially outwards producing an inverse -D shaped cross-section. The plasma current of this high- beta equilibrium may be increased if the plasma is pushed back by altering the external confining magnetic field as demonstrated. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takizawa, Teruhiro; Shizuoka, Yoshihide.
1982-01-01
Purpose: To reduce the shielding capacity of a current breaker for a current transformer coil and to facilitate the manufacture and the assembly of the current transformer coil. Constitution: A first current transformer coil is provided between a vacuum container for enclosing a plasma and a toroidal magnetic field coil, and a secon current transformer coil is provided outside the toroidal magnetic field coil. The rise of the plasma current is performed by the variation in the current of the coil of the first transformer having high electromagnetic coupling with the plasma current, and the variation in the magnetic flux necessary for maintaining the plasma is performed by the variation in the current of the second transformer coil. In this manner, the current shielding capacity of the first transformer coil can be reduced to decrease the number of coil turns, thereby facilitating the manufacture and assembly. (Seki, T.)
Sharapov, S. E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Bobkov, B.; Classen, I. G. J.; Ferreira, J.; Figueiredo, A.; Fitzgerald, M.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Gallart, D.; Geiger, B.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Johnson, T.; Lauber, P.; Mantsinen, M.; Nabais, F.; Nikolaeva, V.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Schneider, P. A.; Snicker, A.; Vallejos, P.; the AUG Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team
2018-01-01
Dedicated studies performed for toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) in ASDEX-Upgrade (AUG) discharges with monotonic q-profiles have shown that electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can make TAEs more unstable. In these AUG discharges, energetic ions driving TAEs were obtained by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). It was found that off-axis ECRH facilitated TAE instability, with TAEs appearing and disappearing on timescales of a few milliseconds when the ECRH power was switched on and off. On-axis ECRH had a much weaker effect on TAEs, and in AUG discharges performed with co- and counter-current electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), the effects of ECCD were found to be similar to those of ECRH. Fast ion distributions produced by ICRH were computed with the PION and SELFO codes. A significant increase in T e caused by ECRH applied off-axis is found to increase the fast ion slowing-down time and fast ion pressure causing a significant increase in the TAE drive by ICRH-accelerated ions. TAE stability calculations show that the rise in T e causes also an increase in TAE radiative damping and thermal ion Landau damping, but to a lesser extent than the fast ion drive. As a result of the competition between larger drive and damping effects caused by ECRH, TAEs become more unstable. It is concluded, that although ECRH effects on AE stability in present-day experiments may be quite significant, they are determined by the changes in the plasma profiles and are not particularly ECRH specific.
Toroidal drift magnetic pumping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canobbio, E.
1977-01-01
A set of azimuthal coils which carry properly dephased rf-currents in the KHz frequency range can be used to heat toroidal plasmas by perpendicular Landau damping of subsonic Alfven waves. The heating mechanism and the rf-field structure are discussed in some detail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Okamoto, Masao.
1992-05-01
Effects of external momentum sources, i.e., fast ions produced by the neutral beam injection and an external inductive electric field, on the neoclassical ion parallel flow, current, and rotation are analytically investigated for a simple plasma in general toroidal systems. It is shown that the contribution of the external sources to the ion parallel flow becomes large as the collision frequency of thermal ions increases because of the momentum conservation of Coulomb collisions and sharply decreasing viscosity coefficients, with collision frequency. As a result, the beam-driven parallel flow of thermal ions becomes comparable to that of electrons in the Pfirsh-Schluter collisionality regime, whereas in the 1/μ or banana regime it is smaller than that of electrons by the order of √(m e /m i ) (m e and m i are electron and ion masses). This beam-driven ion parallel flow can not produce a large beam-driven current because of the cancellation with electron parallel flow, but produces a large toroidal rotation of ions. As both electrons and ions approach the Pfirsh-Schluter collisionality regime the contribution of thermodynamical forces becomes negligibly small and the large toroidal rotation of ions is predominated by the beam-driven component in the non-axisymmetric configuration with large helical ripples. (author)
Tokamak configuration analysis with the method of toroidal multipoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micozzi, P.; Alladio, F.; Crisanti, F.; Marinucci, M.; Tanga, A.
1989-01-01
In the study of tokamak machines able to sustain plasmas of thermonuclear interest (JIT, IGNITOR, NET, CIT, ET), there is a strong quest for engineering optimization of the circuital components close to the plasma. We have developed a semianalytical axisymmetric MHD equilibrium code based on the technique of the poloidal ψ flux function expansion in toroidal harmonic series. This code is able to optimize the necessary currents in the poloidal circuits in order to sustain a plasma of fixed shape (also x-point configuration), toroidal current and poloidal β. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs
Compensation techniques for operational amplifier bias current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, M.S.
1981-01-01
Two techniques are proposed for the compensation of the input current on operational amplifiers that can be used on inverting and non-inverting configurations. A qualitative analysis of temperature drift problems is made, and as a practical application, the construction of a voltage follower for high impedance measurements is presented. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoepfel, H.; Mazzitelli, G.
1984-01-01
The article is a rather detailed report on the highlights in the area of the ''Heating in toroidal plasmas'', as derived from the presentations and discussions at the international symposium with the same name, held in Rome, March 1984. The symposium covered both the physics (experiments and theory) and technology of toroidal fusion plasma heating. Both large fusion devices (either already in operation or near completion) requiring auxiliary heating systems at the level of tens of megawatts, as well as physics of their heating processes and their induced side effects (as studied on smaller devices), received attention. Substantial progress was reported on the broad front of auxiliary plasma heating and Ohmic heating. The presentation of the main conclusions of the symposium is divided under the following topics: neutral-beam heating, Alfven wave heating, ion cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating, RF current drive, electron cyclotron heating, Ohmic heating and special contributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostenko, A.I.; Kravchenko, M.Yu.; Monoszon, N.A.; Trokhachev, G.V.
1979-01-01
The method and calculation results of stability of a superconducting coil of the toroidal magnetic field in the T-10M installation to plasma current breakaway are presented. The calculations were performed for two values of the magnetic field induction in the centre of the plasma cross section: 3.5 and 5 T. The calculation of energy losses and heating of the superconducting coil was performed assuming the plasma current in case of breakaway decreases to zero with an infinite rate, so that the estimations obtained are maxiaum. It is shown that in case of 3.5 T induction the superconducting coil exhibits resistance to plasma current breakaways, and in case of 5 T it is necessary to use electromagnetic screening to provide stability
Tunable plasmonic toroidal terahertz metamodulator
Gerislioglu, Burak; Ahmadivand, Arash; Pala, Nezih
2018-04-01
Optical modulators are essential and strategic parts of micro- and nanophotonic circuits to encode electro-optical signals in the optical domain. Here, by using arrays of multipixel toroidal plasmonic terahertz (THz) metamolecules, we developed a functional plasmonic metamodulator with high efficiency and tunability. Technically, the dynamic toroidal dipole induces nonradiating charge-current arrangements leading to have an exquisite role in defining the inherent spectral features of various materials. By categorizing in a different family of multipoles far from the traditional electromagnetic multipoles, the toroidal dipole corresponds to poloidal currents flowing on the surface of a closed-loop torus. Utilizing the sensitivity of the optically driven toroidal momentum to the incident THz beam power and by employing both numerical tools and experimental analysis, we systematically studied the spectral response of the proposed THz plasmonic metadevice. In this Rapid Communication, we uncover a correlation between the existence and the excitation of the toroidal response and the incident beam power. This mechanism is employed to develop THz toroidal metamodulators with a strong potential to be employed for practical advanced and next-generation communication, filtering, and routing applications.
Mirror theory applied to toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, R.H.
1987-01-01
Central features of a mirror plasma are strong departures from Maxwellian distribution functions, ambipolar potentials and densities which vary along a field line, and losses, and the mirror field itself. To examine these features, mirror theorists have developed analytical and numerical techniques to solve the Fokker-Planck equation, evaluate the potentials consistent with the resulting distribution functions, and assess the microstability of these distributions. Various combinations of mirror-plasma fetures are present and important in toroidal plasmas as well, particularly in the edge region and in plasmas with strong r.f. heating. In this paper we survey problems in toroidal plasmas where mirror theory and computational techniques are applicable, and discuss in more detail three specific examples: calculation of the toroidal generalization of the Spitzer-Haerm distribution function (from which trapped-particle effects on current drive can be calculated), evaluation of the nonuniform potential and density set up by pulsed electron-cyclotron heating, and calculation of steady-state distribution functions in the presence of strong r.f. heating and collisions. 37 refs., 3 figs
Mirror theory applied to toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, R.H.
1987-01-01
Central features of a mirror plasma are strong departures from Maxwellian distribution functions, ambipolar potentials and densities which vary along a field line, end losses, and the mirror field itself. To examine these features, mirror theorists have developed analytical and numerical techniques to solve the Fokker-Planck equation, evaluate the potentials consistent with the resulting distribution functions, and assess the microstability of these distributions. Various combinations of mirror-plasma features are present and important in toroidal plasmas as well, particularly in the edge region and in plasmas with strong rf heating. In this paper we survey problems in toroidal plasmas where mirror theory and computational techniques are applicable, and discuss in more detail three specific examples: calculation of the toroidal generalization of the Spitzer-Haerm distribution function (from which trapped-particle effects on current drive can be calculated), evaluation of the nonuniform potential and density set up by pulsed electron-cyclotron heating, and calculation of steady-state distribution functions in the presence of strong rf heating and collisions. 37 refs
Machine monitoring via current signature analysis techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, S.F.; Castleberry, K.N.; Nowlin, C.H.
1992-01-01
A significant need in the effort to provide increased production quality is to provide improved plant equipment monitoring capabilities. Unfortunately, in today's tight economy, even such monitoring instrumentation must be implemented in a recognizably cost effective manner. By analyzing the electric current drawn by motors, actuator, and other line-powered industrial equipment, significant insights into the operations of the movers, driven equipment, and even the power source can be obtained. The generic term 'current signature analysis' (CSA) has been coined to describe several techniques for extracting useful equipment or process monitoring information from the electrical power feed system. A patented method developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described which recognizes the presence of line-current modulation produced by motors and actuators driving varying loads. The in-situ application of applicable linear demodulation techniques to the analysis of numerous motor-driven systems is also discussed. The use of high-quality amplitude and angle-demodulation circuitry has permitted remote status monitoring of several types of medium and high-power gas compressors in (US DOE facilities) driven by 3-phase induction motors rated from 100 to 3,500 hp, both with and without intervening speed increasers. Flow characteristics of the compressors, including various forms of abnormal behavior such as surging and rotating stall, produce at the output of the specialized detectors specific time and frequency signatures which can be easily identified for monitoring, control, and fault-prevention purposes. The resultant data are similar in form to information obtained via standard vibration-sensing techniques and can be analyzed using essentially identical methods. In addition, other machinery such as refrigeration compressors, brine pumps, vacuum pumps, fans, and electric motors have been characterized
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibrahim, Ahmad M.; Polunovskiy, Eduard; Loughlin, Michael J.; Grove, Robert E.; Sawan, Mohamed E.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Assess the detailed distribution of the nuclear heating among the components of the ITER toroidal field coils. • Utilize the FW-CADIS method to dramatically accelerate the calculation of detailed nuclear analysis. • Compare the efficiency and reliability of the FW-CADIS method and the MCNP weight window generator. - Abstract: Because the superconductivity of the ITER toroidal field coils (TFC) must be protected against local overheating, detailed spatial distribution of the TFC nuclear heating is needed to assess the acceptability of the designs of the blanket, vacuum vessel (VV), and VV thermal shield. Accurate Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions of the TFC nuclear heating are challenged by the small volumes of the tally segmentations and by the thick layers of shielding provided by the blanket and VV. To speed up the MCNP calculation of the nuclear heating distribution in different segments of the coil casing, ground insulation, and winding packs of the ITER TFC, the ITER Organization (IO) used the MCNP weight window generator (WWG). The maximum relative uncertainty of the tallies in this calculation was 82.7%. In this work, this MCNP calculation was repeated using variance reduction parameters generated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) code and both MCNP calculations were compared in terms of computational efficiency and reliability. Even though the ADVANTG MCNP calculation used less than one-sixth of the computational resources of the IO calculation, the relative uncertainties of all the tallies in the ADVANTG MCNP calculation were less than 6.1%. The nuclear heating results of the two calculations were significantly different by factors between 1.5 and 2.3 in some of the segments of the furthest winding pack turn from the plasma neutron source. Even though the nuclear heating in this turn may not affect the ITER design because it is much smaller than the nuclear heating in the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibrahim, Ahmad M., E-mail: ibrahimam@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Polunovskiy, Eduard; Loughlin, Michael J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon Sur Verdon, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance (France); Grove, Robert E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Sawan, Mohamed E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • Assess the detailed distribution of the nuclear heating among the components of the ITER toroidal field coils. • Utilize the FW-CADIS method to dramatically accelerate the calculation of detailed nuclear analysis. • Compare the efficiency and reliability of the FW-CADIS method and the MCNP weight window generator. - Abstract: Because the superconductivity of the ITER toroidal field coils (TFC) must be protected against local overheating, detailed spatial distribution of the TFC nuclear heating is needed to assess the acceptability of the designs of the blanket, vacuum vessel (VV), and VV thermal shield. Accurate Monte Carlo calculations of the distributions of the TFC nuclear heating are challenged by the small volumes of the tally segmentations and by the thick layers of shielding provided by the blanket and VV. To speed up the MCNP calculation of the nuclear heating distribution in different segments of the coil casing, ground insulation, and winding packs of the ITER TFC, the ITER Organization (IO) used the MCNP weight window generator (WWG). The maximum relative uncertainty of the tallies in this calculation was 82.7%. In this work, this MCNP calculation was repeated using variance reduction parameters generated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory AutomateD VAriaNce reducTion Generator (ADVANTG) code and both MCNP calculations were compared in terms of computational efficiency and reliability. Even though the ADVANTG MCNP calculation used less than one-sixth of the computational resources of the IO calculation, the relative uncertainties of all the tallies in the ADVANTG MCNP calculation were less than 6.1%. The nuclear heating results of the two calculations were significantly different by factors between 1.5 and 2.3 in some of the segments of the furthest winding pack turn from the plasma neutron source. Even though the nuclear heating in this turn may not affect the ITER design because it is much smaller than the nuclear heating in the
Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.
1997-01-01
The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author)
Neutron diffusion in spheroidal, bispherical, and toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.M.R.
1986-01-01
The neutron flux has been studied around absorbing bodies of spheroidal, bispherical, and toroidal shapes in an infinite nonabsorbing medium. Exact solutions have been obtained by using effective boundary conditions at the surfaces of the absorbing bodies. The problems considered are as follows: 1. Neutron flux and current distributions around prolate and oblate spheroids. It is shown that an equivalent sphere approximation can lead to accurate values for the rate of absorption. 2. Neutron flux and current in a bispherical system of unequal spheres. Three separate situations arise here: (a) two absorbing spheres, (b) two spherical sources, and (c) one spherical source and one absorbing sphere. It is shown how the absorption rate in the two spheres depends on their separation. 3. Neutron flux and current in a toroidal system: (a) an absorbing toroid and (b) a toroidal source. The latter case simulates the flux distribution from a thermonuclear reactor vessel. Finally, a brief description of how these techniques can be extended to multiregion problems is given
Numerical determination of axisymmetric toroidal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.L.; Dalhed, H.E.; Greene, J.M.
1978-07-01
Numerical schemes for the determination of stationary axisymmetric toroidal equilibria appropriate for modeling real experimental devices are given. Iterative schemes are used to solve the elliptic nonlinear partial differential equation for the poloidal flux function psi. The principal emphasis is on solving the free boundary (plasma-vacuum interface) equilibrium problem where external current-carrying toroidal coils support the plasma column, but fixed boundary (e.g., conducting shell) cases are also included. The toroidal current distribution is given by specifying the pressure and either the poloidal current or the safety factor profiles as functions of psi. Examples of the application of the codes to tokamak design at PPPL are given
High current density ion beam measurement techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, W.C.; Sawatzky, E.
1976-01-01
High ion beam current measurements are difficult due to the presence of the secondary particles and beam neutralization. For long Faraday cages, true current can be obtained only by negative bias on the target and by summing the cage wall and target currents; otherwise, the beam will be greatly distorted. For short Faraday cages, a combination of small magnetic field and the negative target bias results in correct beam current. Either component alone does not give true current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique; Puerta, Julio
2009-01-01
Non-linear plasma diffusion effects due to hole currents in tokamaks is analyzed in this work. Since the recent discovery of hole currents in tokamaks, this matter has become very important in confinement and instabilities in tokamaks plasmas. The analysis here presented includes non-linear flows as well as hole currents. In the case of low vorticity plasmas our treatment is performed using MHD equations, an it is more suitable for plasmas with very low levels of turbulence, as in the H-mode. The present treatment follows the lines of previous works, and some of the equations and results look like those obtained on these papers. However, the form of the family of the magnetic surfaces is very different to previous treatment, since the hole current modifies those families in a very important way. Elliptic plasmas with triangularity are considered. Pfirsch-Schlueter type currents are obtained for these generalized cases. Diffusion with and without holes are calculated and compared for several values of ellipticity and triangularity. Negative and positive triangularities are considered. In most of the calculations triangularity improves confinement, but the results are different for the positive than for the negative case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustovitov, V.D.
2001-01-01
Restrictions on magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, these follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is analysed. The general rule is emphasized that information obtained from external magnetic measurements is insufficient for reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks and in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the self-field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface alone. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pustovitov, V.D.
2000-04-01
The restrictions of the magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, they follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of particular examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is given and analyzed. A general rule is emphasized that the information obtained from external magnetic measurements is obviously insufficient for the reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks or in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the own field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface only. (author)
A numerical solution for a toroidal plasma in equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hintz, E.; Sudano, J.P.
1982-01-01
The iterative techniques alternating direction implicit (ADI), sucessive ove-relaxation (SOR) and Gauss-Seidel are applied to a nonlinear elliptical second order differential equation (Grand-Shafranov). This equation was solve with the free boundary conditions plasma-vacuum interface over a rectangular section in cylindrical coordinates R and Z. The current density profile, plasma pressure profile, magnetic and isobaric surfaces are numerically determined for a toroidal plasma in equilibrium. (L.C.) [pt
Stationary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of toroidal plasma in rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Missiato, O.
1986-01-01
The stationary equations of classical magnetohydrodynamics are utilized to study the toroidal motion of a thermonuclear magnetically - confined plasma with toroidal symmetry (Tokamak). In the present work, we considered a purely toroidal stationary rotation and te problem is reduced to studing a second order partial differencial equation of eliptic type Maschke-Perrin. Assuming that the temperature remains constant on the magnetic surfaces, an analitic solution, valid for low Mach numbers (M ≤ 0 .4), was obtained for the above-mentioned equation by means of a technique developed by Pantuso Sudano. From the solution found, we traced graphs for the quantities which described the equilibrium state of the plasma, namely: mass density, pressure, temperature, electric current density and toroidal magnetic field. Finally we compare this analitical model with others works which utilized differents analitical models and numerical simulations. We conclude that the solutions obtained are in good agreement with the previos results. In addition, however, our model contains the results of Sudano-Goes with the additional advantage of employing much simple analitical expressions. (author) [pt
Hedberg V
On the 15th of June 2001 the EB approved a new conceptual design for the toroid shield. In the old design, shown in the left part of the figure above, the moderator part of the shielding (JTV) was situated both in the warm and cold areas of the forward toroid. It consisted both of rings of polyethylene and hundreds of blocks of polyethylene (or an epoxy resin) inside the toroid vacuum vessel. In the new design, shown to the right in the figure above, only the rings remain inside the toroid. To compensate for the loss of moderator in the toroid, the copper plug (JTT) has been reduced in radius so that a layer of borated polyethylene can be placed around it (see figure below). The new design gives significant cost-savings and is easier to produce in the tight time schedule of the forward toroid. Since the amount of copper is reduced the weight that has to be carried by the toroid is also reduced. Outgassing into the toroid vacuum was a potential problem in the old design and this is now avoided. The main ...
2002-01-01
Because of its exceptional size, it was not feasible to assemble and test the Barrel Toroid - made of eight coils - as an integrated toroid on the surface, prior to its final installation underground in LHC interaction point 1. It was therefore decided to test these eight coils individually in a dedicated test facility.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari; Miyahara, Akira.
1983-06-01
The concept of the limiter-divertor proposed by Mirnov is extended to a toroidal limiter-divertor (which we call moving toroidal limiter) using the stream of ferromagnetic balls coated with a low Z materials such as plastics, graphite and ceramics. An important advantage of the use of the ferromagnetic materials would be possible soft landing of the balls on a catcher, provided that the temperature of the balls is below Curie point. Moreover, moving toroidal limiter would work as a protector of the first wall not only against the vertical movement of plasma ring but also against the violent inward motion driven by major disruption because the orbit of the ball in the case of moving toroidal limiter distributes over the small major radius side of the toroidal plasma. (author)
Samus Toroid Installation Fixture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stredde, H.; /Fermilab
1990-06-27
The SAMUS (Small Angle Muon System) toroids have been designed and fabricated in the USSR and delivered to D0 ready for installation into the D0 detector. These toroids will be installed into the aperture of the EF's (End Toroids). The aperture in the EF's is 72-inch vertically and 66-inch horizontally. The Samus toroid is 70-inch vertically by 64-inch horizontally by 66-inch long and weighs approximately 38 tons. The Samus toroid has a 20-inch by 20-inch aperture in the center and it is through this aperture that the lift fixture must fit. The toroid must be 'threaded' through the EF aperture. Further, the Samus toroid coils are wound about the vertical portion of the aperture and thus limit the area where a lift fixture can make contact and not damage the coils. The fixture is designed to lift along a surface adjacent to the coils, but with clearance to the coil and with contact to the upper steel block of the toroid. The lift and installation will be done with the 50 ton crane at DO. The fixture was tested by lifting the Samus Toroid 2-inch off the floor and holding the weight for 10 minutes. Deflection was as predicted by the design calculations. Enclosed are sketches of the fixture and it relation to both Toroids (Samus and EF), along with hand calculations and an Finite Element Analysis. The PEA work was done by Kay Weber of the Accelerator Engineering Department.
Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status.
Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca
2014-08-01
Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography.
Influence of toroidal rotation on tearing modes
Cai, Huishan; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding
2017-10-01
Tearing modes stability analysis including toroidal rotation is studied. It is found that rotation affects the stability of tearing modes mainly through the interaction with resistive inner region of tearing mode. The coupling of magnetic curvature with centrifugal force and Coriolis force provides a perturbed perpendicular current, and a return parallel current is induced to affect the stability of tearing modes. Toroidal rotation plays a stable role, which depends on the magnitude of Mach number and adiabatic index Γ, and is independent on the direction of toroidal rotation. For Γ >1, the scaling of growth rate is changed for typical Mach number in present tokamaks. For Γ = 1 , the scaling keeps unchanged, and the effect of toroidal rotation is much less significant, compared with that for Γ >1. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program and National Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 2014GB106004, No. 2013GB111000, No. 11375189, No. 11075161 and No. 11275260, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS.
Experimental studies of compact toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
The Berkeley Compact Toroid Experiment (BCTX) device is a plasma device with a Marshall-gun generated, low aspect ratio toroidal plasma. The device is capable of producing spheromak-type discharges and may, with some modification, produce low-aspect ratio tokamak configurations. A unique aspect of this experimenal devie is its large lower hybrid (LH) heating system, which consists of two 450MHz klystron tubes generating 20 megawatts each into a brambilla-type launching structure. Successful operation with one klystron at virtually full power (18 MW) has been accomplished with 110 μs pulse length. A second klystron is currently installed in its socket and magnet but has not been added to the RF drive system. This report describes current activities and accomplishments and describes the anticipated results of next year's activity
Spherical tokamak without external toroidal fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaw, P.K.; Avinash, K.; Srinivasan, R.
2001-01-01
A spherical tokamak design without external toroidal field coils is proposed. The tokamak is surrounded by a spheromak shell carrying requisite force free currents to produce the toroidal field in the core. Such equilibria are constructed and it is indicated that these equilibria are likely to have robust ideal and resistive stability. The advantage of this scheme in terms of a reduced ohmic dissipation is pointed out. (author)
Compact toroid formation, compression, and acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degnan, J.H.; Peterkin, R.E. Jr.; Baca, G.P.; Beason, J.D.; Bell, D.E.; Dearborn, M.E.; Dietz, D.; Douglas, M.R.; Englert, S.E.; Englert, T.J.; Hackett, K.E.; Holmes, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Lehr, F.M.; Marklin, G.J.; Mullins, B.W.; Price, D.W.; Roderick, N.F.; Ruden, E.L.; Sovinec, C.R.; Turchi, P.J.; Bird, G.; Coffey, S.K.; Seiler, S.W.; Chen, Y.G.; Gale, D.; Graham, J.D.; Scott, M.; Sommars, W.
1993-01-01
Research on forming, compressing, and accelerating milligram-range compact toroids using a meter diameter, two-stage, puffed gas, magnetic field embedded coaxial plasma gun is described. The compact toroids that are studied are similar to spheromaks, but they are threaded by an inner conductor. This research effort, named MARAUDER (Magnetically Accelerated Ring to Achieve Ultra-high Directed Energy and Radiation), is not a magnetic confinement fusion program like most spheromak efforts. Rather, the ultimate goal of the present program is to compress toroids to high mass density and magnetic field intensity, and to accelerate the toroids to high speed. There are a variety of applications for compressed, accelerated toroids including fast opening switches, x-radiation production, radio frequency (rf) compression, as well as charge-neutral ion beam and inertial confinement fusion studies. Experiments performed to date to form and accelerate toroids have been diagnosed with magnetic probe arrays, laser interferometry, time and space resolved optical spectroscopy, and fast photography. Parts of the experiment have been designed by, and experimental results are interpreted with, the help of two-dimensional (2-D), time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations. When not driven by a second discharge, the toroids relax to a Woltjer--Taylor equilibrium state that compares favorably to the results of 2-D equilibrium calculations and to 2-D time-dependent MHD simulations. Current, voltage, and magnetic probe data from toroids that are driven by an acceleration discharge are compared to 2-D MHD and to circuit solver/slug model predictions. Results suggest that compact toroids are formed in 7--15 μsec, and can be accelerated intact with material species the same as injected gas species and entrained mass ≥1/2 the injected mass
Steady state compact toroidal plasma production
Turner, William C.
1986-01-01
Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.
TFTR toroidal field coil design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, G.E.; Punchard, W.F.B.
1977-01-01
The design of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Toroidal Field (TF) magnetic coils is described. The TF coil is a 44-turn, spiral-wound, two-pancake, water-cooled configuration which, at a coil current of 73.3 kiloamperes, produces a 5.2-Tesla field at a major radius of 2.48 meters. The magnetic coils are installed in titanium cases, which transmit the loads generated in the coils to the adjacent supporting structure. The TFTR utilizes 20 of these coils, positioned radially at 18 0 intervals, to provide the required toroidal field. Because it is very highly loaded and subject to tight volume constraints within the machine, the coil presents unique design problems. The TF coil requirements are summarized, the coil configuration is described, and the problems highlighted which have been encountered thus far in the coil design effort, together with the development tests which have been undertaken to verify the design
The role of fluctuation-induced transport in a toroidal plasma with strong radial electric fields
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.
1981-01-01
Previous work employing digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques is extended to demonstrate that radial fluctuation-induced transport is the dominant ion transport mechanism in an electric field dominated toroidal plasma. Such transport can be made to occur against a density gradient, and hence may have a very beneficial effect on confinement in toroidal plasmas of fusion interest. It is shown that Bohm or classical diffusion down a density gradient, the collisional Pedersen-current mechanism, and the collisionless electric field gradient mechanism described by Cole (1976) all played a minor role, if any, in the radial transport of this plasma.
The effect of sheared toroidal rotation on pressure driven magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hegna, C. C. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2016-05-15
The impact of sheared toroidal rotation on the evolution of pressure driven magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a resistive magnetohydrodynamics model augmented by a neoclassical Ohm's law. Particular attention is paid to the asymptotic matching data as the Mercier indices are altered in the presence of sheared flow. Analysis of the nonlinear island Grad-Shafranov equation shows that sheared flows tend to amplify the stabilizing pressure/curvature contribution to pressure driven islands in toroidal tokamaks relative to the island bootstrap current contribution. As such, sheared toroidal rotation tends to reduce saturated magnetic island widths.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerald, Rex E. II; Sanchez, Jairo; Rathke, Jerome W.
2004-08-10
A video toroid cavity imager for in situ measurement of electrochemical properties of an electrolytic material sample includes a cylindrical toroid cavity resonator containing the sample and employs NMR and video imaging for providing high-resolution spectral and visual information of molecular characteristics of the sample on a real-time basis. A large magnetic field is applied to the sample under controlled temperature and pressure conditions to simultaneously provide NMR spectroscopy and video imaging capabilities for investigating electrochemical transformations of materials or the evolution of long-range molecular aggregation during cooling of hydrocarbon melts. The video toroid cavity imager includes a miniature commercial video camera with an adjustable lens, a modified compression coin cell imager with a fiat circular principal detector element, and a sample mounted on a transparent circular glass disk, and provides NMR information as well as a video image of a sample, such as a polymer film, with micrometer resolution.
A steady-state axisymmetric toroidal system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.
1984-01-01
Conditions for achieving a steady state in an axisymmetric toroidal system are studied with emphasis on a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration. The analysis is carried out for the electromotive force produced by the Ohkawa current that is induced by neutral-beam injection. It turns out that, since the perpendicular component of the current j-vectorsub(perpendicular) to the magnetic field can be generated automatically by the diamagnetic effect, only the parallel component j-vectorsub(parallel) must be driven by the electromotive force. The drive of j-vectorsub(parallel) generates shear in the field line so that the pure toroidal field on the magnetic axis is rotated towards the plasma boundary and matched to the external field lines. This matching condition determines the necessary amount of injection beam current and power. It is demonstrated that a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration requires only a small amount of current-driving beam power because almost all the toroidal current except that close to the magnetic axis is carried by the diamagnetic current due to high beta. A low-beta tokamak, on the other hand, needs very high current-driving power since most of the toroidal current is composed of j-vectorsub(parallel) which must be driven by the beam. (author)
Toroidal nuclear fusion device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Yutaka; Kasahara, Tatsuo; Takizawa, Teruhiro.
1975-01-01
Object: To design a device so as to be formed into a large-size and to arrange ports, through which neutral particles enter, in inclined fashion. Structure: Toroidal coils are wound about vacuum vessels which are divided into plural number. In the outer periphery of the vacuum vessels, ports are disposed inclined in the peripheral direction of the vacuum vessels and communicated with the vacuum vessels, and wall surfaces opposed to the ports of the toroidal coils adjacent at least the inclined sides of the ports are inclined substantially simularly to the port wall surfaces. (Kamimura, M.)
Plasma Discharge in Toroidal System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usada, Widdi; Suryadi; Purwadi, Agus; Kasiyo
1996-01-01
A toroidal discharge apparatus has been made as an initial research in magnetic confinement system. This system consists of a capacitor, a RF source, an igniter system, a primary coil, a torus, and completed by Rogowski probe as a current detector. In this system, the discharge occurs when the minimum voltage is operated at 5 kV. The experiment result shows that the coupling factor is 0.35, it is proved that there is an equality between estimated and measurement results of the primary inductance i.e 8.5 μH
PDX toroidal field coils stress analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikodem, Z.D.; Smith, R.A.
1975-01-01
A method used in the stress analysis of the PDX toroidal field coil is developed. A multilayer coil design of arbitrary dimensions in the shape of either a circle or an oval is considered. The analytical model of the coil and the supporting coil case with connections to the main support structure is analyzed using the finite element technique. The three dimensional magnetic fields and the non-uniform body forces which are a loading condition on a coil due to toroidal and poloidal fields are calculated. The method of analysis permits rapid and economic evaluations of design changes in coil geometry as well as in coil support structures. Some results pertinent to the design evolution and their comparison are discussed. The results of the detailed stress analysis of the final coil design due to toroidal field, poloidal field and temperature loads are presented
Electromagnetic considerations for RF current density imaging [MRI technique].
Scott, G C; Joy, M G; Armstrong, R L; Henkelman, R M
1995-01-01
Radio frequency current density imaging (RF-CDI) is a recent MRI technique that can image a Larmor frequency current density component parallel to B(0). Because the feasibility of the technique was demonstrated only for homogeneous media, the authors' goal here is to clarify the electromagnetic assumptions and field theory to allow imaging RF currents in heterogeneous media. The complete RF field and current density imaging problem is posed. General solutions are given for measuring lab frame magnetic fields from the rotating frame magnetic field measurements. For the general case of elliptically polarized fields, in which current and magnetic field components are not in phase, one can obtain a modified single rotation approximation. Sufficient information exists to image the amplitude and phase of the RF current density parallel to B(0) if the partial derivative in the B(0) direction of the RF magnetic field (amplitude and phase) parallel to B(0) is much smaller than the corresponding current density component. The heterogeneous extension was verified by imaging conduction and displacement currents in a phantom containing saline and pure water compartments. Finally, the issues required to image eddy currents are presented. Eddy currents within a sample will distort both the transmitter coil reference system, and create measurable rotating frame magnetic fields. However, a three-dimensional electro-magnetic analysis will be required to determine how the reference system distortion affects computed eddy current images.
Models for large superconducting toroidal magnet systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arendt, F.; Brechna, H.; Erb, J.; Komarek, P.; Krauth, H.; Maurer, W.
1976-01-01
Prior to the design of large GJ toroidal magnet systems it is appropriate to procure small scale models, which can simulate their pertinent properties and allow to investigate their relevant phenomena. The important feature of the model is to show under which circumstances the system performance can be extrapolated to large magnets. Based on parameters such as the maximum magnetic field and the current density, the maximum tolerable magneto-mechanical stresses, a simple method of designing model magnets is presented. It is shown how pertinent design parameters are changed when the toroidal dimensions are altered. In addition some conductor cost estimations are given based on reactor power output and wall loading
Effects of toroidicity on resistive tearing modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izzo, R.; Monticello, D.A.; Manickam, J.; Strauss, H.R.; Grimm, R.; McGuire, K.
1983-03-01
A reduced set of resistive MHD equations is solved numerically in three dimensions to study the stability of tokamak plasmas. Toroidal effects are included self-consistently to leading and next order in inverse aspect ratio, epsilon. The equations satisfy an energy integral. In addition, the momentum equation yields the Grad-Shafranov equation correct to all orders in epsilon. Low beta plasma are studied using several different q-profiles. In all cases, the linear growth rates are reduced by finite toroidicity. Excellent agreement with resistive PEST is obtianed. In some cases, toroidal effects lead to complete stabilization of the mode. Nonlinear results show smaller saturated island widths for finite aspect ratio compared to the cylindrical limit. If the current channel is wide enough so as to produce steep gradients towards the outside of the plasma, both the finite aspect ratio cases and cylindrical cases disrupt
Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing
García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto
2011-01-01
Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754
ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field
2006-01-01
Â OnÂ 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canobbio, E.
1981-01-01
This paper reports on the 2nd Joint Grenoble-Varenna International Symposium on Heating in Toroidal Plasmas, held at Como, Italy, from the 3-12 September 1980. Important problems in relation to the different existing processes of heating. The plasma were identified and discussed. Among others, the main processes discussed were: a) neutral beam heating, b) ion-(electron)-cyclotron resonance heating, c) hybrid resonance and low frequency heating
Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geinitz, Hans
2015-01-01
Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Eddy current technique applied to automated tube profilometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobbeni, D.; Melsen, C. van
1982-01-01
The use of eddy current methods in the first totally automated pre-service inspection of the internal diameter of PWR steam generator tubes is described. The technique was developed at Laborelec, the Belgian Laboratory of the Electricity Supply Industry. Details are given of the data acquisition system and of the automated manipulator. Representative tube profiles are illustrated. (U.K.)
Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.
Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.
1979-01-01
A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions
Toroidal vortices in resistive magnetohydrodynamic equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, D.; Bates, J.W.; Li, S.
1997-01-01
When a time-independent electric current flows toroidally in a uniform ring of electrically conducting fluid, a Lorentz force results, jxB, where j is the local electric current density, and B is the magnetic field it generates. Because of purely geometric effects, the curl of jxB is nonvanishing, and so jxB cannot be balanced by the gradient of any scalar pressure. Taking the curl of the fluid close-quote s equation of motion shows that the net effect of the jxB force is to generate toroidal vorticity. Allowed steady states necessarily contain toroidal vortices, with flows in the poloidal directions. The flow pattern is a characteristic open-quotes double smoke ringclose quotes configuration. The effect seems quite general, although it is analytically simple only in special limits. One limit described here is that of high viscosity (low Reynolds number), with stress-free wall boundary conditions on the velocity field, although it is apparent that similar mechanical motions will result for no-slip boundaries and higher Reynolds numbers. A rather ubiquitous connection between current-carrying toroids and vortex rings seems to be implied, one that disappears in the open-quotes straight cylinderclose quotes limit. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
ATLAS: Full power for the toroid magnet
2006-01-01
The 9th of November was a memorable day for ATLAS. Just before midnight, the gigantic Barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas in the coil windings, with an electrical current of 21000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils (as seen on the graph). This achievement was obtained after several weeks of commissioning. The ATLAS Barrel Toroid was first cooled down for about six weeks in July-August to -269Â°C (4.8 K) and then powered up step-by-step in successive test sessions to 21 kA. This is 0.5 kA above the current required to produce the nominal magnetic field. Afterwards, the current was safely switched off and the stored magnetic energy of 1.1 gigajoules was dissipated in the cold mass, raising its temperature to a safe -218Â°C (55 K). 'We can now say that the ATLAS Barrel Toroid is ready for physics,' said Herman ten Kate, project leader for the ATLAS magnet system. The ATLAS barrel toroid magnet is the result of a close collaboration between the magnet la...
Formation of a compact toroid for enhanced efficiency
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mozgovoy, A. G. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Romadanov, I. V.; Ryzhkov, S. V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)
2014-02-15
We report here our results on the formation of a plasma configuration with the generic name of compact toroid (CT). A method of compact toroid formation to confine, heat and compress a plasma is investigated. Formation of a compact torus using an additional toroidal magnetic field helps to increase the plasma current to a maintainable level of the original magnetic field. We design the Compact Toroid Challenge (CTC) experiment in order to improve the magnetic flux trapping during field reversal in the formation of a compact toroid. The level of the magnetic field immersed in the plasma about 70% of the primary field is achieved. The CTC device and scheme of high level capturing of magnetic flux are presented.
Mechanical Commissioning of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Magnet
Foussat, A; Dudarev, A; Bajas, H; Védrine, P; Berriaud, C; Sun, Z; Sorbi, M
2008-01-01
ATLAS is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Its features include the 4 T Barrel Toroid magnet, the largest superconducting magnet (25 m long, 20 m diameter) that provides the magnetic field for the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The coils integrated at CERN, were tested individually at maximum current of 22 kA in 2005. Following the mechanical assembly of the Barrel Toroid in the ATLAS underground cavern, the test of the full Barrel Toroid was performed in October 2006. Further tests are foreseen at the end 2007 when the system will include the two End Cap Toroids (ECT). The paper gives an overview of the good mechanical test results achieved in comparison with model predictions and the experience gained in the mechanical behavior of the ATLAS Toroidal coils is discussed.
Elastic stability and vibration of toroidal magnets for fusion reactors. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, F.C.; Swanson, C.
1975-09-01
The vibration and elastic stability of a set of discrete superconducting toroidal field magnets arranged to form a ''bumpy'' torus is examined. The mutual destabilizing magnetic forces between magnet pairs are calculated using a numerical differential inductance technique. It is shown that the mutual attractive magnetic forces can produce elastic buckling of the entire toroidal set. The vibration modes of the set are also found as functions of the coil current. The response of the set of magnets to an earthquake type motion of the toroidal base is calculated. The calculations have been incorporated in a computer code which accompanies the report. Measurements are made of the lateral stiffness of a flexible, planar, superconducting coil between two rigid coils in series. These tests show a dramatic decrease in the natural bending frequency with subsequent elastic instability or ''buckling'' at a critical value of the current in the coils. These observations support a magnetoelastic analysis which shows that proposed designs, of toroidal field coils for Tokamak fusion reactors, have insufficient lateral support for mechanical stability of the magnets
Runaway electrons in toroidal discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoepfel, H.
1979-01-01
Experimental and theoretical studies of runaway electrons in toroidal devices are reviewed here, with particular reference to tokamaks. The complex phenomenology of runaway effects, which have been the subject of research for the past twenty years, is organized within the framework of a number of physical models. The mechanisms and rates for runaway production are discussed first, followed by sections on runaway-driven kinetic relaxation processes and runaway orbit confinement. Next, the equilibrium and stability of runaway-dominated discharges are reviewed. Models for runaway production at early times in the discharge and the scaling of runaway phenomena to larger devices are also discussed. Finally, detection techniques and possible applications of runaways are mentioned. (author)
Superconducting endcap toroid design report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walters, C.R.; Baynham, D.E.; Holtom, E.; Coombs, R.C.
1992-10-01
The Atlas Experiment proposed for the LHC machine will use toroidal magnet systems to achieve high muon momentum resolutions. One of the options under consideration is an air cored superconducting toroidal magnet system consisting of a long barrel toroid with small and cap toroids inserted in it to provide high resolution at high pseudorapidity. The design of the barrel toroid has been studied over the past two years and the design outline is given in a Saclay Report. More recently consideration has been given to an end cap toroid system which is based on air cored superconducting coils. This report presents the basic engineering design of such a system, the proposals for fabrication, assembly and installation, and an outline cost estimate for one end cap is presented in Appendix 1.
Supporting device for Toroidal coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araki, Takao.
1985-01-01
Purpose: To reduce the response of a toroidal coil supporting device upon earthquakes and improve the earthquake proofness in a tokamak type thermonuclear device. Constitution: Structural materials having large longitudinal modulus and enduring great stresses, for example, stainless steels are used as the toroidal coil supporting legs and heat insulating structural materials are embedded in a nuclear reactor base mats below the supporting legs. Furthermore, heat insulating concretes are spiked around the heat insulating structural materials to prevent the intrusion of heat to the toroidal coils. The toroidal coils are kept at cryogenic state and superconductive state for the conductors. In this way, the period of proper vibrations of the toroidal coils and the toroidal coil supporting structures can be shortened thereby decreasing the seismic response. Furthermore, since the strength of the supporting legs is increased, the earthquake proofness of the coils can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)
Expansion of parameter space for Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode experiments in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Chang, Z.Y.; Fredrickson, E.; Hammett, G.W.; Bush, C.; Nazikian, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Snipes, J.; Taylor, G.
1993-05-01
Several techniques were used to excite toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at magnetic fields above 10 kG. These involve pellet injection to raise the plasma density, variation of plasma current to change the energetic ion orbit and the q-profile, and ICRF heating to produce energetic hydrogen ions at velocities comparable to 3.5 MeV alpha particles. These experimental results are presented and relevance to fusion reactors are discussed
Defect detection in conducting materials using eddy current testing techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brauer Hartmut
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Lorentz force eddy current testing (LET is a novel nondestructive testing technique which can be applied preferably to the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic moving conductors. The LET is compared (similar testing conditions with the classical eddy current testing (ECT. Numerical FEM simulations have been performed to analyze the measurements as well as the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic conductors. The results are compared with measurements to test the feasibility of defect identification. Finally, the use of LET measurements to estimate of the electrical conductors under test are described as well.
Toroidal rotation studies in KSTAR
Lee, S. G.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, J. W.; Kim, Y. S.; Ko, W. H.; Terzolo, L.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; KSTAR Team
2014-10-01
Investigation of the toroidal rotation is one of the most important topics for the magnetically confined fusion plasma researches since it is essential for the stabilization of resistive wall modes and its shear plays an important role to improve plasma confinement by suppressing turbulent transport. The most advantage of KSTAR tokamak for toroidal rotation studies is that it equips two main diagnostics including the high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) and charge exchange spectroscopy (CES). Simultaneous core toroidal rotation and ion temperature measurements of different impurity species from the XICS and CES have shown in reasonable agreement with various plasma discharges in KSTAR. It has been observed that the toroidal rotation in KSTAR is faster than that of other tokamak devices with similar machine size and momentum input. This may due to an intrinsically low toroidal field ripple and error field of the KSTAR device. A strong braking of the toroidal rotation by the n = 1 non-resonant magnetic perturbations (NRMPs) also indicates these low toroidal field ripple and error field. Recently, it has been found that n = 2 NRMPs can also damp the toroidal rotation in KSTAR. The detail toroidal rotation studies will be presented. Work supported by the Korea Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning under the KSTAR project.
Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Linz Univ. (Austria). Medical Faculty; Roach, Mack III [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Van As, Nicholas (ed.) [The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton Surrey (United Kingdom)
2015-04-01
Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques
Monmasson, Eric
2013-01-01
A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.
Current STR-based techniques in forensic science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai
2013-01-01
Full Text Available DNA analysis in forensic science is mainly based on short tandem repeat (STR genotyping. The conventional analysis is a three-step process of DNA extraction, amplification and detection. An overview of various techniques that are currently in use and are being actively researched for STR typing is presented. The techniques are separated into STR amplification and detection. New techniques for forensic STR analysis focus on increasing sensitivity, resolution and discrimination power for suboptimal samples. These are achieved by shifting primer-binding sites, using high-fidelity and tolerant polymerases and applying novel methods to STR detection. Examples in which STRs are used in criminal investigations are provided and future research directions are discussed.
Stellarator approach to toroidal plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.L.
1981-12-01
An overview is presented of the development and current status of the stellarator approach to controlled thermonuclear confinement. Recent experimental, theoretical, and systems developments have made this concept a viable option for the evolution of the toroidal confinement program. Some experimental study of specific problems associated with departure from two-dimensional symmetry must be undertaken before the full advantages and opportunities of steady-state, net-current-free operation can be realized
Development of Toroidal Core Transformers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Leon, Francisco [New York Univ. (NYU), Brooklyn, NY (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
2014-08-01
The original objective of this project was to design, build and test a few prototypes of single-phase dry-type distribution transformers of 25 kVA, 2.4 kV primary to 120 V transformers using cores made of a continuous steel strip shaped like a doughnut (toroid). At different points during the development of the project, the scope was enhanced to include the more practical case of a 25 kVA transformer for a 13.8 kV primary system voltage. Later, the scope was further expanded to design and build a 50 kVA unit to transformer voltage from 7.62 kV to 2x120 V. This is a common transformer used by Con Edison of New York and they are willing to test it in the field. The project officially started in September 2009 and ended in May 2014. The progress was reported periodically to DOE in eighteen quarterly reports. A Continuation Application was submitted to DOE in June 2010. In May 2011 we have requested a non-cost extension of the project. In December 2011, the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO) was updated to reflect the real conditions and situation of the project as of 2011. A second Continuation Application was made and funding was approved in 2013 by DOE and the end date was extended to May 2014. The technical challenges that were overcome in this project include: the development of the technology to pass the impulse tests, derive a model for the thermal performance, produce a sound mechanical design, and estimate the inrush current. However, the greatest challenge that we faced during the development of the project was the complications of procuring the necessary parts and materials to build the transformers. The actual manufacturing process is relatively fast, but getting all parts together is a very lengthy process. The main products of this project are two prototypes of toroidal distribution transformers of 7.62 kV (to be used in a 13.8 kV system) to 2x120 V secondary (standard utilization voltage); one is rated at 25 kVA and the other at 50 kVA. The 25 k
Toroidal simulation magnet tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walstrom, P.L.; Domm, T.C.
1975-01-01
A number of different schemes for testing superconducting coils in a simulated tokamak environment are analyzed for their merits relative to a set of test criteria. Two of the concepts are examined in more detail: the so-called cluster test scheme, which employs two large background field coils, one on either side of the test coil, and the compact torus, a low-aspect ratio toroidal array of a small number of coils in which all of the coils are essentially test coils. Simulation of the pulsed fields of the tokamak is discussed briefly
Neoclassical poloidal and toroidal rotation in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.B.; Diamond, P.H.; Groebner, R.J.
1991-01-01
Explicit expressions for the neoclassical poloidal and toroidal rotation speeds of primary ion and impurity species are derived via the Hirshman and Sigmar moment approach. The rotation speeds of the primary ion can be significantly different from those of impurities in various interesting cases. The rapid increase of impurity poloidal rotation in the edge region of H-mode discharges in tokamaks can be explained by a rapid steepening of the primary ion pressure gradient. Depending on ion collisionality, the poloidal rotation speed of the primary ions at the edge can be quite small and the flow direction may be opposite to that of the impurities. This may cast considerable doubts on current L to H bifurcation models based on primary ion poloidal rotation only. Also, the difference between the toroidal rotation velocities of primary ions and impurities is not negligible in various cases. In Ohmic plasmas, the parallel electric field induces a large impurity toroidal rotation close to the magnetic axis, which seems to agree with experimental observations. In the ion banana and plateau regime, there can be non-negligible disparities between primary ion and impurity toroidal rotation velocities due to the ion density and temperature gradients. Detailed analytic expressions for the primary ion and impurity rotation speeds are presented, and the methodology for generalization to the case of several impurity species is also presented for future numerical evaluation
Commissioning Test of ATLAS End-Cap Toroidal Magnets
Dudarev, A; Foussat, A; Benoit, P; Jeckel, M; Olyunin, A; Kopeykin, N; Stepanov, V; Deront, L; Olesen, G; Ponts, X; Ravat, S; Sbrissa, K; Barth, J; Bremer, J; Delruelle, J; Metselaar, J; Pengo, R; Pirotte, O; Buskop, J; Baynham, D E; Carr, F S; Holtom, E
2009-01-01
The system of superconducting toroids in the ATLAS experiment at CERN consists of three magnets. The Barrel Toroid was assembled and successfully tested in 2006. Next, two End-Cap Toroids have been tested on surface at 77 K and installed in the cavern, 100-m underground. The End Cap Toroids are based on Al stabilized Nb-Ti/Cu Rutherford cables, arranged in double pancake coils and conduction cooled at 4.6 K. The nominal current is 20.5 kA at 4.1 T peak field in the windings and the stored energy is 250 MJ per toroid. Prior to final testing of the entire ATLAS Toroidal system, each End Cap Toroid passed a commissioning test up to 21 kA to guarantee a reliable performance in the final assembly. In this paper the test results are described. It includes the stages of test preparation, isolation vacuum pumping and leak testing, cooling down, step-by-step charging to full current, training quenches and quench recovery. By fast discharges the quench detection and protection system was checked to demonstrate a safe e...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.L.
1985-01-01
The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a new magnetic confinement plasma device under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that will lead to improvements in toroidal magnetic fusion reactors. The ATF is a type of stellerator, known as a ''torsatron'' which theoretically has the capability to operate at greater than or equal to8% beta in steady state. The ATF plasma has a major radius of 2.1 m, an average minor radius of 0.3 m, and a field of 2 T for a 2 s duration or 1 T steady state. The ATF device consists of a helical field (HF) coil set, a set of poloidal field (PF) coils, an exterior shell structure to support the coils, and a thin, helically contoured vacuum vessel inside the coils. The ATF replaces the Impurities Studies Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak at ORNL and will use the ISX-B auxiliary systems including 4 MW of electron cyclotron heating. The ATF is scheduled to start operation in late 1986. An overview of the ATF device is presented, including details of the construction process envisioned. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs
Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, P.B.
1985-01-01
The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a new magnetic plasma confinement device, under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which will lead to improvements in toroidal magnetic fusion reactors. ATF is a type of stellarator known as a torsatron which theoretically has the capability at greater than or equal to8% beta in steady state. The ATF plasma has a major radius of 2.1 m, an average minor radius of 0.3 m, and a field of 2 T for a 5-s duration or 1 T steady state. The ATF device consists of a helical field (HF) coil set, a set of poloidal field (PF) coils, an exterior shell structure to support the coils, and a thin helically contoured vacuum vessel inside the coils. The ATF replaces the ISX-B tokamak at ORNL and will use the ISX-B auxiliary systems including 4 MW of neutral injection heating and 0.2 MW of electron cyclotron heating. ATF device is scheduled to start operation in the fall of 1986. An overview of the ATF device is presented including details of the construction process envisioned
Eddy current techniques for super duplex stainless steel characterization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camerini, C.; Sacramento, R.; Areiza, M.C.; Rocha, A.; Santos, R.; Rebello, J.M.; Pereira, G.
2015-01-01
Super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) is a two-phase material where the microstructure consists of grains of ferrite (δ) and austenite (γ). SDSS exhibit an attractive combination of properties, such as: strength, toughness and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Nevertheless, SDSS attain these properties after a controlled solution heat treatment, leading to a similar volumetric fraction of δ and γ. Any further heat treatment, welding operation for example, can change the balance of the original phases, or may also lead to precipitation of a deleterious phase, such as sigma (σ). For these situations, the material corrosion resistance is severely impaired. In the present study, several SDSS samples with low σ phase content and non-balanced microstructure were intentionally obtained by thermally treating SDSS specimens. Electromagnetic techniques, conventional Eddy Current Testing (ECT) and Saturated Low Frequency Eddy Current (SLOFEC), were employed to characterize the SDSS samples. The results showed that ECT and SLOFEC are reliable techniques to evaluate σ phase presence in SDSS and can provide an estimation of the δ content. - Highlights: • Sigma phase precipitation, even for low amounts, dramatically affects SDSS properties. • SDSS samples were thermally treated and carefully characterized by X-Ray Diffraction. • NDT techniques detected low amounts of sigma phase in SDSS microstructure
Eddy current techniques for super duplex stainless steel characterization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Camerini, C., E-mail: cgcamerini@metalmat.ufrj.br [Laboratory of Non-Destructive Testing, Corrosion and Welding, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sacramento, R.; Areiza, M.C.; Rocha, A. [Laboratory of Non-Destructive Testing, Corrosion and Welding, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos, R. [PETROBRAS R& D Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rebello, J.M.; Pereira, G. [Laboratory of Non-Destructive Testing, Corrosion and Welding, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2015-08-15
Super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) is a two-phase material where the microstructure consists of grains of ferrite (δ) and austenite (γ). SDSS exhibit an attractive combination of properties, such as: strength, toughness and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Nevertheless, SDSS attain these properties after a controlled solution heat treatment, leading to a similar volumetric fraction of δ and γ. Any further heat treatment, welding operation for example, can change the balance of the original phases, or may also lead to precipitation of a deleterious phase, such as sigma (σ). For these situations, the material corrosion resistance is severely impaired. In the present study, several SDSS samples with low σ phase content and non-balanced microstructure were intentionally obtained by thermally treating SDSS specimens. Electromagnetic techniques, conventional Eddy Current Testing (ECT) and Saturated Low Frequency Eddy Current (SLOFEC), were employed to characterize the SDSS samples. The results showed that ECT and SLOFEC are reliable techniques to evaluate σ phase presence in SDSS and can provide an estimation of the δ content. - Highlights: • Sigma phase precipitation, even for low amounts, dramatically affects SDSS properties. • SDSS samples were thermally treated and carefully characterized by X-Ray Diffraction. • NDT techniques detected low amounts of sigma phase in SDSS microstructure.
Current techniques for the investigation of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riou, L.; Broisat, A.; Fagret, D.; Ghezzi, C.
2005-01-01
Atherosclerosis is the single most important contributor to cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Atherosclerosis complications such as vulnerable coronary plaque rupture or erosion result in acute coronary events, i.e. myocardial infarction and sudden death. Vulnerable plaques initially develop eccentrically without impeding on the vessel lumen and are therefore not detectable using angiography. New techniques for the investigation of vulnerable plaques are needed to identify and treat vulnerable patients. Invasive techniques require the use of intracoronary probes and are thereby not applicable to large populations of patients. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are the most promising invasive modalities. They provide morphological data that could potentially be associated with a more functional approach such as thermography, elasto-graphy, or spectroscopy, Non-invasive techniques are better suited for studying larger populations of patients. Computed tomography is currently used for calcium scoring, but the biological meaning and the prognostic value of this index remain to be fully determined. Non-invasive coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) faces numerous technical challenges, and it essentially provides morphological data. Molecular nuclear imaging offers a great sensitivity and the ability to provide metabolic data about atherosclerotic lesions. New potential tracers of vulnerable plaques are currently being evaluated. Nuclear Medicine should therefore play a major role in the future as a non invasive imaging modality for the assessment of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. (author)
1D equation for toroidal momentum transport in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rozhansky, V A; Senichenkov, I Yu
2010-01-01
A 1D equation for toroidal momentum transport is derived for a given set of turbulent transport coefficients. The averaging is performed taking account of the poloidal variation of the toroidal fluxes and is based on the ambipolar condition of the zero net radial current through the flux surface. It is demonstrated that taking account of the Pfirsch-Schlueter fluxes leads to a torque in the toroidal direction which is proportional to the gradient of the ion temperature. This effect is new and has not been discussed before. The boundary condition at the separatrix, which is based on the results of the 2D simulations of the edge plasma, is formulated.
Quantum mechanics of toroidal anions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, G.N.
1990-01-01
We consider a toroidal solenoid with an electric charge attached to it. It turns out that statistical properties of the wave function describing interacting toroidal anions depend on both their relative position and orientation. The influence of the particular gauge choice on the exchange properties of the wave function is studied. 30 refs.; 6 figs
Principle of the electrically induced Transient Current Technique
Bronuzzi, J.; Moll, M.; Bouvet, D.; Mapelli, A.; Sallese, J. M.
2018-05-01
In the field of detector development for High Energy Physics, the so-called Transient Current Technique (TCT) is used to characterize the electric field profile and the charge trapping inside silicon radiation detectors where particles or photons create electron-hole pairs in the bulk of a semiconductor device, as PiN diodes. In the standard approach, the TCT signal originates from the free carriers generated close to the surface of a silicon detector, by short pulses of light or by alpha particles. This work proposes a new principle of charge injection by means of lateral PN junctions implemented in one of the detector electrodes, called the electrical TCT (el-TCT). This technique is fully compatible with CMOS technology and therefore opens new perspectives for assessment of radiation detectors performances.
Device for supporting a toroidal coil in a toroidal type nuclear fusion device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitazawa, Hakaru; Sato, Hiroshi.
1975-01-01
Object: To easily manufacture a center block having a strength sufficient to withstand an electromagnetic force exerted on the center of toroidal of a toroidal coil and to increase its reliability. Structure: In a device for supporting toroidal coils wherein the electromagnetic force exerted on the center of toroidal of a plurality of toroidal coils arranged in toroidal fashion, the contact surface between the toroidal coil and the center block is arranged parallel to the center axis of toroidal so as to receive the electromagnetic force exerted on the center of toroidal of the toroidal coil as the component of force in a radial direction. (Taniai, N.)
Chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatori, Tadatsugu; Abe, Yoshihiko; Urata, Kazuhiro; Irie, Haruyuki.
1989-05-01
This is an introductory review of chaotic magnetic field line in plasmas, together with some new results, with emphasis on the long-time tail and the fractional Brownian motion of the magnetic field line. The chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas is a typical chaotic phenomena in the Hamiltonian dynamical systems. The onset of stochasticity induced by a major magnetic perturbation is thought to cause a macroscopic rapid phenomena called the current disruption in the tokamak discharges. Numerical simulations on the basis of magnetohydrodynamics reveal in fact the disruptive phenomena. Some dynamical models which include the area-preserving mapping such as the standard mapping, and the two-wave Hamiltonian system can model the stochastic magnetic field. Theoretical results with use of the functional integral representation are given regarding the long-time tail on the basis of the radial twist mapping. It is shown that application of renormalization group technique to chaotic orbit in the two-wave Hamiltonian system proves decay of the velocity autocorrelation function with the power law. Some new numerical results are presented which supports these theoretical results. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. S. de Villiers
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This research focuses on the inversion of geomagnetic variation field measurement to obtain source currents in the ionosphere. During a geomagnetic disturbance, the ionospheric currents create magnetic field variations that induce geoelectric fields, which drive geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in power systems. These GIC may disturb the operation of power systems and cause damage to grounded power transformers. The geoelectric fields at any location of interest can be determined from the source currents in the ionosphere through a solution of the forward problem. Line currents running east–west along given surface position are postulated to exist at a certain height above the Earth's surface. This physical arrangement results in the fields on the ground having the magnetic north and down components, and the electric east component. Ionospheric currents are modelled by inverting Fourier integrals (over the wavenumber of elementary geomagnetic fields using the Levenberg–Marquardt technique. The output parameters of the inversion model are the current strength, height and surface position of the ionospheric current system. A ground conductivity structure with five layers from Quebec, Canada, based on the Layered-Earth model is used to obtain the complex skin depth at a given angular frequency. This paper presents preliminary and inversion results based on these structures and simulated geomagnetic fields. The results show some interesting features in the frequency domain. Model parameters obtained through inversion are within 2% of simulated values. This technique has applications for modelling the currents of electrojets at the equator and auroral regions, as well as currents in the magnetosphere.
Proton current measurements using the prompt gamma ray diagnostic technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leeper, R.J.; Burns, E.J.T.; Johnson, D.J.; McMurtry, W.M.
1981-01-01
Prompt gamma ray signals from the nuclear reaction 7 Li(p,γ) 8 Be have been used to make time resolved proton current measurements. In these measurements, the proton beam was allowed to strike cylindrical thick lithium metal targets. The time integrated proton current was measured using gamma activation of copper via the reaction 63 Cu(γ,n) 62 Cu(β+). The positron activity of the copper sample was easily measured using coincidence counting techniques. The number of 62 Cu atoms produced per proton incident on a thick Li metal target was determined with separate calibration runs performed on the Sandia 2.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The time history of the prompt gamma production was measured using six EGG NPM-54 scintillator photomultiplier combinations shielded by 96.5 cm of concrete and 5.1 cm of Pb. The use of six scintillator photomultiplier combinations was necessary to increase the statistical precision of the data. The normalization of the prompt gamma time history data with the total time integrated proton-current measurement yielded the absolute time resolved proton current on target. Data from runs performed on the Sandia Proto I accelerator will be presented
TIBER-II TF [toroidal-field] winding pack design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerns, J.A.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.; Summers, L.T.
1987-01-01
The superconducting, toroidal-field (TF) coils in the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Engineering Reactor (TIBER II) are designed with cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) using Nb 3 Sn composite strands. To design the CICC winding pack, we used an optimization technique that maximizes the conductor stability without violating the constraints imposed by the structure, electrical insulation, quench protection, and fabrication technique. Detailed helium-properties codes calculate the heat removal along a flow path, and detailed field calculations determine the temperature, current, and stability margins. The conductor sheath is designed as distributed structure to partially support the combined in-plane and out-of-plane loads generated within the winding pack. Pancakes of the coil are wound, reacted, and insulated before being potted in the case. This design is aggressive but fully consistent with good engineering practice. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
Eddy current techniques for super duplex stainless steel characterization
Camerini, C.; Sacramento, R.; Areiza, M. C.; Rocha, A.; Santos, R.; Rebello, J. M.; Pereira, G.
2015-08-01
Super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) is a two-phase material where the microstructure consists of grains of ferrite (δ) and austenite (γ). SDSS exhibit an attractive combination of properties, such as: strength, toughness and stress corrosion cracking resistance. Nevertheless, SDSS attain these properties after a controlled solution heat treatment, leading to a similar volumetric fraction of δ and γ. Any further heat treatment, welding operation for example, can change the balance of the original phases, or may also lead to precipitation of a deleterious phase, such as sigma (σ). For these situations, the material corrosion resistance is severely impaired. In the present study, several SDSS samples with low σ phase content and non-balanced microstructure were intentionally obtained by thermally treating SDSS specimens. Electromagnetic techniques, conventional Eddy Current Testing (ECT) and Saturated Low Frequency Eddy Current (SLOFEC), were employed to characterize the SDSS samples. The results showed that ECT and SLOFEC are reliable techniques to evaluate σ phase presence in SDSS and can provide an estimation of the δ content.
Investigations of toroidal wave numbers of the kink instabilities in a toroidal pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamajima, Takataro; Irisawa, Juichi; Tsukada, Tokuaki; Sugito, Osamu; Maruyama, Hideaki
1979-01-01
The axial toroidal wave numbers of the kink instability of toroidal pinch plasma were measured and investigated with a specially designed coil, and the results were compared with the MHD theory. The schematic figure and the particulars of the experimental apparatus are briefly illustrated in the first part. The method of generating theta-Z pinch plasma, the wave form of the magnetic flux density in Z-direction and the plasma current are also explained. The 360 deg stereoscopic framing photographs were taken with an image converter camera at the intervals of 0.5 μs after the initiation of the main electric discharge in Z-circuit. From these photographs, the growth of the kink instability was observed. The measured magnetic field distribution at t = 2 μs is presented. In the second part, the radial displacement of plasma and toroidal wave number were measured from the above framing photographs. Then the spectra of plasma displacement were analyzed by the Fourier analysis. The measured results of toroidal wave number was analyzed by both the skin current model and the diffuse current model. Many new results obtained from the present study were mainly derived from the observation of the framing photographs, and they are summarized in the final part of this paper. (Aoki, K.)
Effect of toroidicity during lower hybrid mode conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riyopoulos, S.; Mahajan, S.
1985-11-01
The effect of toroidicity during lower hybrid mode conversion is examined by treating the wave propagation in an inhomogeneous medium as an eigenvalue problem for ω 2 (m,n),m,n poloidal and toroidal wave numbers. Since the frequency regime near ω 2 = ω/sub LH/ 2 is an accumulation point for the eigenvalue spectrum, the degenerate perturbation technique must be applied. The toroidal eigenmodes are constructed by a zeroth order superposition of monochromatic solutions with different poloidal dependence m, thus they generically exhibit a wide spectrum in k/sub parallel/ for given fixed ω 2 even for small inverse aspect ratio epsilon. In case that the average is in the neighborhood of k/sub min/, the minimum wave number for accessibility of the mode conversion regime, it is expected that excitation of toroidal modes rather than geometric optics will determine the wave coupling to the plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romadanov, I.V.; Ryzhkov, S.V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru
2014-12-15
Highlights: • Compact torus formation method with high level of magnetic flux is proposed. • A compact torus is produced in a theta-pinch-coil with pulse mode of operation. • Key feature is a pulse of current in an axial direction. • We report a level of linked magnetic flux is higher than theta-pinch results. - Abstract: The present work reports on compact toroid hydrogen plasma creation by means of a specially designed discharge system and results of magnetic fields introduction. Experiments in the compact toroid challenge (CTC) device at P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN) have been conducted since 2005. The CTC device differs from the conventional theta-pinch formation in the use of an axial current for enhanced efficiency. We have used a novel technique to maximize the flux linked to the plasma. The purpose of this method is to increase the energy input into the plasma and the level of trapped magnetic flux using an additional toroidal magnetic field. A study of compact torus formation with axial and toroidal currents was done and a new method is proposed and implemented.
Generation of toroidal pre-heat plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, Nagayasu; Tamaru, Ken; Nagata, Akiyoshi.
1979-01-01
The characteristics of toroidal plasma in the initial stage of electric discharge were investigated. A small toroidal-pinch system was used for the present work. A magnetic probe was used to measure the magnetic field. The time of beginning of discharge was determined by observing the variation of the magnetic field. The initial gas pressure dependence of the induced electric field regions, in which electric discharge can be caused, was studied. It is necessary to increase the initial induced electric field for starting discharge. The delay time of large current discharge was measured, and it was about 2 microsecond. Dependences of the electric fields at the beginning of discharge on the charging voltage of capacitors, on the initial gas pressure, and on the discharge frequency were studied. The formation mechanism of plasma column was analyzed. (Kato, T.)
Form coefficient of helical toroidal solenoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amelin, V.Z.; Kunchenko, V.B.
1982-01-01
For toroidal solenoids with continuous spiral coil, winded according to the laws of equiinclined and simple cylindrical spirals with homogeneous, linearly increasing to the coil periphery and ''Bitter'' distribution of current density, the analytical expressions for the dependence between capacity consumed and generated magnetic field, expressions for coefficients of form similar to Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids are obtained and dependence of the form coefficient and relative volume of solenoid conductor on the number of revolutions of screw line per one circumvention over the large torus radius is also investigated. Analytical expressions of form coefficients and graphical material permit to select the optimum geometry as to capacity consumed both for spiral (including ''force-free'') and conventional toroidal solenoids of magnetic systems in thermonulear installations
Advances in Current Rating Techniques for Flexible Printed Circuits
Hayes, Ron
2014-01-01
Twist Capsule Assemblies are power transfer devices commonly used in spacecraft mechanisms that require electrical signals to be passed across a rotating interface. Flexible printed circuits (flex tapes, see Figure 2) are used to carry the electrical signals in these devices. Determining the current rating for a given trace (conductor) size can be challenging. Because of the thermal conditions present in this environment the most appropriate approach is to assume that the only means by which heat is removed from the trace is thru the conductor itself, so that when the flex tape is long the temperature rise in the trace can be extreme. While this technique represents a worst-case thermal situation that yields conservative current ratings, this conservatism may lead to overly cautious designs when not all traces are used at their full rated capacity. A better understanding of how individual traces behave when they are not all in use is the goal of this research. In the testing done in support of this paper, a representative flex tape used for a flight Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) application was tested by energizing individual traces (conductors in the tape) in a vacuum chamber and the temperatures of the tape measured using both fine-gauge thermocouples and infrared thermographic imaging. We find that traditional derating schemes used for bundles of wires do not apply for the configuration tested. We also determine that single active traces located in the center of a flex tape operate at lower temperatures than those on the outside edges.
Turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in low flow gyrokinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J
2010-01-01
We derive a self-consistent equation for the turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks in the low flow ordering that only requires solving gyrokinetic Fokker-Planck and quasineutrality equations correct to second order in an expansion on the gyroradius over scale length. We also show that according to our orderings the long wavelength toroidal rotation and the long wavelength radial electric field satisfy the neoclassical relation that gives the toroidal rotation as a function of the radial electric field and the radial gradients of pressure and temperature. Thus, the radial electric field can be solved for once the toroidal rotation is calculated from the transport of toroidal angular momentum. Unfortunately, even though this methodology only requires a gyrokinetic model correct to second order in gyroradius over scale length, current gyrokinetic simulations are only valid to first order. To overcome this difficulty, we exploit the smallish ratio B p /B, where B is the total magnetic field and B p is its poloidal component. When B p /B is small, the usual first order gyrokinetic equation provides solutions that are accurate enough to employ for our expression for the transport of toroidal angular momentum. We show that current δf and full f simulations only need small corrections to achieve this accuracy. Full f simulations, however, are still unable to determine the long wavelength, radial electric field from the quasineutrality equation.
Investigation of intrinsic toroidal rotation scaling in KSTAR
Yoo, J. W.; Lee, S. G.; Ko, S. H.; Seol, J.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, J. H.
2017-07-01
The behaviors of an intrinsic toroidal rotation without any external momentum sources are investigated in KSTAR. In these experiments, pure ohmic discharges with a wide range of plasma parameters are carefully selected and analyzed to speculate an unrevealed origin of toroidal rotation excluding any unnecessary heating sources, magnetic perturbations, and strong magneto-hydrodynamic activities. The measured core toroidal rotation in KSTAR is mostly in the counter-current direction and its magnitude strongly depends on the ion temperature divided by plasma current (Ti/IP). Especially the core toroidal rotation in the steady-state is well fitted by Ti/IP scaling with a slope of ˜-23, and the possible explanation of the scaling is compared with various candidates. As a result, the calculated offset rotation could not explain the measured core toroidal rotation since KSTAR has an extremely low intrinsic error field. For the stability conditions for ion and electron turbulences, it is hard to determine a dominant turbulence mode in this study. In addition, the intrinsic toroidal rotation level in ITER is estimated based on the KSTAR scaling since the intrinsic rotation plays an important role in stabilizing resistive wall modes for future reference.
Los Alamos Compact Toroid, fast liner, and High-Density Z-Pinch programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linford, R.K.; Hammel, J.E.; Sherwood, H.R.
1982-01-01
The compact Toroid and High Density Z-Pinch are two of the plasma configurations presently being studied at Los Alamos. This paper summarizes these two programs along with the recently terminated Fast Liner Program. Included in this discussion is an analysis of compact Toroid formation techniques showing the tearing and reconnection of the fields that separate the spheromak from the radial fields of the coaxial source, and the final equilibrium state of the elongated FRC in the theta-pinch coil. In addition the typical dimensions of the geometry of the Fast Liner experiments are delineated Z-pinch and electrode assembly is displayed as is a graphic of the temporal behavior of the current required for radial equilibrium. Spheromak is examined in terms of formation, gross stability, and equilibrium and field reversed configuration is discussed in terms of gross stability, equilibrium, and confinement scaling
Grinding Inside A Toroidal Cavity
Mayer, Walter; Adams, James F.; Burley, Richard K.
1987-01-01
Weld lines ground smooth within about 0.001 in. Grinding tool for smoothing longitudinal weld lines inside toroidal cavity includes curved tunnel jig to guide grinding "mouse" along weld line. Curvature of tunnel jig matched to shape of toroid so grinding ball in mouse follows circular arc of correct radius as mouse is pushed along tunnel. Tool enables precise control of grindout shape, yet easy to use.
Equivelar toroids with few flag-orbits
Collins, José; Montero, Antonio
2018-01-01
An $(n+1)$-toroid is a quotient of a tessellation of the $n$-dimensional Euclidean space with a lattice group. Toroids are generalizations of maps in the torus on higher dimensions and also provide examples of abstract polytopes. Equivelar toroids are those that are induced by regular tessellations. In this paper we present a classification of equivelar $(n+1)$-toroids with at most $n$ flag-orbits; in particular, we discuss a classification of $2$-orbit toroids of arbitrary dimension.
Next generation toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshikawa, Shoichi
1998-10-01
A general survey of the possible approach for the next generation toroidal devices was made. Either surprisingly or obviously (depending on one's view), the technical constraints along with the scientific considerations lead to a fairly limited set of systems for the most favorable approach for the next generation devices. Specifically if the magnetic field strength of 5 T or above is to be created by superconducting coils, it imposes minimum in the aspect ratio for the tokamak which is slightly higher than contemplated now for ITER design. The similar technical constraints make the minimum linear size of a stellarator large. Scientifically, it is indicated that a tokamak of 1.5 times in the linear dimension should be able to produce economically, especially if a hybrid reactor is allowed. For the next stellarator, it is strongly suggested that some kind of helical axis is necessary both for the (almost) absolute confinement of high energy particles and high stability and equilibrium beta limits. The author still favors a heliac most. Although it may not have been clearly stated in the main text, the stability afforded by the shearless layer may be exploited fully in a stellarator. (author)
Next generation toroidal devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshikawa, Shoichi [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
1998-10-01
A general survey of the possible approach for the next generation toroidal devices was made. Either surprisingly or obviously (depending on one`s view), the technical constraints along with the scientific considerations lead to a fairly limited set of systems for the most favorable approach for the next generation devices. Specifically if the magnetic field strength of 5 T or above is to be created by superconducting coils, it imposes minimum in the aspect ratio for the tokamak which is slightly higher than contemplated now for ITER design. The similar technical constraints make the minimum linear size of a stellarator large. Scientifically, it is indicated that a tokamak of 1.5 times in the linear dimension should be able to produce economically, especially if a hybrid reactor is allowed. For the next stellarator, it is strongly suggested that some kind of helical axis is necessary both for the (almost) absolute confinement of high energy particles and high stability and equilibrium beta limits. The author still favors a heliac most. Although it may not have been clearly stated in the main text, the stability afforded by the shearless layer may be exploited fully in a stellarator. (author)
Detection of localized damage by eddy currents technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aoukili A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Non destructive evaluation techniques based on eddy currents (EC are largely used for quality control of the castings in a lot of industries. The principle of detection by EC consists in using an adequate inductive coil to generate them by a variable magnetic field, and measuring their effects by using one or several sensors. These effects result from the interaction between the induced magnetic field and the excited conductive material. A local variation of the physical properties or geometry of the tested sample, due to a singularity or a flaw, causes a modification of the EC distribution, enabling thus detection. In order to optimize the capacity of defect revealing by means of EC based probes, an accurate modelling of the problem is essential. This can be used to perform simulation of the EC distribution under different circumstances and to analyze the EC sensitivity to the various implicated parameters. In this work, the modelling of EC is made by using the finite element method. Using a B-scan strategy was used, detection of a small defect having the shape of an open cavity is shown to be correctly indicated via monitoring variations of the induced voltage in the receiver coil.
Toroidal visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamic steady states contain vortices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bates, J.W.; Montgomery, D.C.
1998-01-01
Poloidal velocity fields seem to be a fundamental feature of resistive toroidal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) steady states. They are a consequence of force balance in toroidal geometry, do not require any kind of instability, and disappear in the open-quotes straight cylinderclose quotes (infinite aspect ratio) limit. If a current density j results from an axisymmetric toroidal electric field that is irrotational inside a torus, it leads to a magnetic field B such that ∇x(jxB) is nonvanishing, so that the Lorentz force cannot be balanced by the gradient of any scalar pressure in the equation of motion. In a steady state, finite poloidal velocity fields and toroidal vorticity must exist. Their calculation is difficult, but explicit solutions can be found in the limit of low Reynolds number. Here, existing calculations are generalized to the more realistic case of no-slip boundary conditions on the velocity field and a circular toroidal cross section. The results of this paper strongly suggest that discussions of confined steady states in toroidal MHD must include flows from the outset. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Analysis of toroidal rotation data for the DIII-D tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
St John, H.; Stroth, U.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; DeBoo, J.C.; Gohil, P.
1989-01-01
Both poloidal and toroidal rotation are observed during routine neutral beam heating operation of the DIII-D tokamak. Poloidal rotation results and the empirical techniques used to measure toroidal and poloidal rotation speeds are described by Groebner. Here we concentrate on the analysis of recent measurements of toroidal rotation made during diverted, H-mode operation of the DIII-D tokamak during co- and counter-neutral beam injection of hydrogen into deuterium plasmas. Our results are based on numerical inversions using the transport code ONETWO, modified to account for the radial diffusion of toroidal angular momentum. 13 refs., 4 figs
Tearing modes in toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Cowley, S.C.; Hastie, R.J.; Hender, T.C.; Hood, A.; Martin, T.J.
1988-01-01
The separation of the cylindrical tearing mode stability problem into a resistive resonant layer calculation and an external marginal ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculation (Δ' calculation) is generalized to axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The general structure of this separation is analyzed and the marginal ideal MHD information (the toroidal generalization of Δ') required to discuss stability is isolated. This can then, in principle, be combined with relevant resonant layer calculations to determine tearing mode growth rates in realistic situations. Two examples are given: the first is an analytic treatment of toroidally coupled (m = 1, n = 1) and (m = 2, n = 1) tearing modes in a large aspect ratio torus; the second, a numerical treatment of the toroidal coupling of three tearing modes through finite pressure effects in a large aspect ratio torus. In addition, the use of a coupling integral approach for determining the stability of coupled tearing modes is discussed. Finally, the possibility of using initial value resistive MHD codes in realistic toroidal geometry to determine the necessary information from the ideal MHD marginal solution is discussed
Respiratory gated radiotherapy: current techniques and potential benefits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giraud, P.; Campana, F.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M.; Reboul, F.; Garcia, R.; Clippe, S.; Carrie, C.; Dubray, B.
2003-01-01
Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart...) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily breath-hold. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. These techniques presently investigated in several medical centers worldwide. Although promising, the first results obtained in lung and liver cancer patients require confirmation. Physical, technical and physiological questions still remain to be answered. This paper describes the most frequently used gated techniques and the main published clinical reports on the use of respiration-gated radiotherapy in order to evaluate the impact of these techniques. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tynan, George [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
2018-01-09
This was a collaboration between UCSD and MIT to study the effective application of ion-cyclotron heating (ICRH) on the EAST tokamak, located in China. The original goal was for UCSD to develop a diagnostic that would allow measurement of the steady state, or DC, convection pattern that develops on magnetic field lines that attach or connect to the ICRH antenna. This diagnostic would then be used to develop techniques and approaches that minimize or even eliminate such DC convection during application of strong ICRH heating. This was thought to then indicate reduction or elimination of parasitic losses of heating power, and thus be an indicator of effective RF heating. The original plan to use high speed digital gas-puff imaging (GPI) of the antenna-edge plasma region in EAST was ultimately unsuccessful due to limitations in machine and camera operations. We then decided to attempt the same experiment on the ALCATOR C-MOD tokamak at MIT which had a similar instrument already installed. This effort was ultimately successful, and demonstrated that the underlying idea of using GPI as a diagnostic for ICRH antenna physics would, in fact, work. The two-dimensional velocity fields of the turbulent structures, which are advected by RF-induced E x B flows, are obtained via the time-delay estimation (TDE) techniques. Both the magnitude and radial extension of the radial electric field E-r were observed to increase with the toroidal magnetic field strength B and the ICRF power. The TDE estimations of RF-induced plasma potentials are consistent with previous results based on the probe measurements of poloidal phase velocity. The results suggest that effective ICRH heating with reduced impurity production is possible when the antenna/box system is designed so as to reduce the RF-induced image currents that flow in the grounded conducting antenna frame elements that surround the RF antenna current straps.
Toroidal Trivelpiece-Gould modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoessel, F.P.
1979-01-01
Electron plasma waves are treated in quasi-electrostatic approximation in a toroidal cavity of rectangular cross-section in an infinitely strong azimuthal magnetic field. The differential equation for the electrostatic potential, derived from fluid equations, can be separated using cylindrical coordinates. The eigenvalue problem for the radial dependence is solved numerically by a shooting method. Eigenvalues are given for different aspect ratios. Comparison with appropriate modes of the straight geometry shows that the toroidal frequencies generally lie some percent above those for the straight case. Plots of the eigenfunctions demonstrate clearly the influence of toroidicity. The deviation from symmetry (which should appear for straight geometry) depends not only on the aspect ratio but also strongly on the mode numbers. (author)
Toroidal helical quartz forming machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanks, K.W.; Cole, T.R.
1977-01-01
The Scyllac fusion experimental machine used 10 cm diameter smooth bore discharge tubes formed into a simple toroidal shape prior to 1974. At about that time, it was discovered that a discharge tube was required to follow the convoluted shape of the load coil. A machine was designed and built to form a fused quartz tube with a toroidal shape. The machine will accommodate quartz tubes from 5 cm to 20 cm diameter forming it into a 4 m toroidal radius with a 1 to 5 cm helical displacement. The machine will also generate a helical shape on a linear tube. Two sets of tubes with different helical radii and wavelengths have been successfully fabricated. The problems encountered with the design and fabrication of this machine are discussed
MHD equilibrium with toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, J.
1987-03-01
The present work attempts to formulate the equilibrium of axisymmetric plasma with purely toroidal flow within ideal MHD theory. In general, the inertial term Rho(v.Del)v caused by plasma flow is so complicated that the equilibrium equation is completely different from the Grad-Shafranov equation. However, in the case of purely toroidal flow the equilibrium equation can be simplified so that it resembles the Grad-Shafranov equation. Generally one arbitrary two-variable functions and two arbitrary single variable functions, instead of only four single-variable functions, are allowed in the new equilibrium equations. Also, the boundary conditions of the rotating (with purely toroidal fluid flow, static - without any fluid flow) equilibrium are the same as those of the static equilibrium. So numerically one can calculate the rotating equilibrium as a static equilibrium. (author)
Auluck, S. K. H.
2017-11-01
This paper continues earlier discussion [S. K. H. Auluck, Phys. Plasmas 21, 102515 (2014)] concerning the formulation of conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy in a local curvilinear coordinate system in the dense plasma focus. This formulation makes use of the revised Gratton-Vargas snowplow model [S. K. H. Auluck, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112501 (2013)], which provides an analytically defined imaginary surface in three dimensions which resembles the experimentally determined shape of the plasma. Unit vectors along the local tangent to this surface, along the azimuth, and along the local normal define a right-handed orthogonal local curvilinear coordinate system. The simplifying assumption that physical quantities have significant variation only along the normal enables writing laws of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in the form of effectively one-dimensional hyperbolic conservation law equations using expressions for various differential operators derived for this coordinate system. This formulation demonstrates the highly non-trivial result that the axial magnetic field and toroidally streaming fast ions, experimentally observed by multiple prestigious laboratories, are natural consequences of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in the curved geometry of the dense plasma focus current sheath. The present paper continues the discussion in the context of a 3-region shock structure similar to the one experimentally observed: an unperturbed region followed by a hydrodynamic shock containing some current followed by a magnetic piston. Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are derived, and expressions are obtained for the specific volumes and pressures using the mass-flux between the hydrodynamic shock and the magnetic piston and current fraction in the hydrodynamic shock as unknown parameters. For the special case of a magnetic piston that remains continuously in contact with the fluid being pushed, the theory gives closed form algebraic results for the
Compact toroid refueling of reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gouge, M.J.; Hogan, J.T.; Milora, S.L.; Thomas, C.E.
1988-04-01
The feasibility of refueling fusion reactors and devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) with high-velocity compact toroids is investigated. For reactors with reasonable limits on recirculating power, it is concluded that the concept is not economically feasible. For typical ITER designs, the compact toroid fueling requires about 15 MW of electrical power, with about 5 MW of thermal power deposited in the plasma. At these power levels, ideal ignition (Q = ∞) is not possible, even for short-pulse burns. The pulsed power requirements for this technology are substantial. 6 ref., 1 figs
Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.
1993-06-01
Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the toroidal plasma. It is found that the Prandtl number is of order unity both for the ballooning mode turbulence in tokamaks and for the interchange mode turbulence in helical system. The influence on the anomalous transport and fluctuation level is evaluated. Hartmann number and magnetic Prandtl number are also discussed. (author)
Plasma flow in toroidal systems with a separatrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gribkov, V.M.; Morozov, D.Kh.; Pogutse, O.P.
1984-01-01
A hydrodynamic plasma flow in toroidal systems is considered. Rlasma flow lines for various magnetic configurations are calculated. A particular attention is given to studying plasma flow in configurations with two magnetic a axes and a separatrix. The flow picture i the toroidal case is shown to qualita ity to penetrate through the separatrix - the latter becomes ''perforated''. Th he pictkre of these flows is calculated. The plasma diffusion coefficient with account for the separatrix is calculated and is shown not to turn into the infin nity in the toroidal case as well. The plasma flow is analytically considered in the model with distributed current as well as in the model with current conce entrated at the oroidal system axis. In the first case the existence of ''stagnant'' regions near the magnetic axis is established from which the plasma a does not flow out
Efficiency of wave-driven rigid body rotation toroidal confinement
Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.
2017-03-01
The compensation of vertical drifts in toroidal magnetic fields through a wave-driven poloidal rotation is compared with compensation through the wave driven toroidal current generation to support the classical magnetic rotational transform. The advantages and drawbacks associated with the sustainment of a radial electric field are compared with those associated with the sustainment of a poloidal magnetic field both in terms of energy content and power dissipation. The energy content of a radial electric field is found to be smaller than the energy content of a poloidal magnetic field for a similar set of orbits. The wave driven radial electric field generation efficiency is similarly shown, at least in the limit of large aspect ratio, to be larger than the efficiency of wave-driven toroidal current generation.
The complex and unique ATLAS Toroid family
2002-01-01
Big parts for the toroid magnets that will be used in the ATLAS experiment have been continuously arriving at CERN since March. These structures will create the largest superconducting toroid magnet ever.
Review of the Advanced Toroidal Facility program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyon, J.F.; Murakami, M.
1987-01-01
This report summarizes the history and design goals of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). The ATF is nearing completion at ORNL with device completion expected in May 1987 and first useful plasma operation in June/July 1987. ATF is a moderate-aspect-ratio torsatron, the world's largest stellarator facility with R = 2.1 m, α bar = 0.3 m and B = 2 T (5-s pulse) or 1 T (steady-state capability). It has been specifically designed to support the US tokamak program by studying important toroidal confinement issues in a similar magnetic geometry that allows external control of the magnetic configuration properties and their radial profiles: transform, shear, well depth, shaping, axis topology, etc. ATF will operate in a current-free model which allows separation of current-driven and pressure-driven plasma behavior. It also complements the world stellarator program in its magnetic configuration (between Heliotron-E and W VII-AS) and its capabilities (large size, good access, steady state capability, second stability access, etc.). For both roles ATF will require high-power long-pulse heating to carry out its physics goals since the high power NBI pulse is limited to 0.3 s. The ATF program focuses on demonstrating the principles of high-beta, steady-state operation in toroidal geometry through its study of: (1) scaling of beta limits with magnetic configuration properties and the plasma behavior in the second stability regime; (2) transport scaling at low collisionality and the role/control of electric field; (3) control of plasma density and impurities using divertors; (4) plasma heating with NBI, ECH, ICH, and plasma fueling with gas puffing and pellet injection; and (5) optimization of the magnetic configuration
Fundamentals of functional imaging I: current clinical techniques.
Luna, A; Martín Noguerol, T; Mata, L Alcalá
2018-05-01
Imaging techniques can establish a structural, physiological, and molecular phenotype for cancer, which helps enable accurate diagnosis and personalized treatment. In recent years, various imaging techniques that make it possible to study the functional characteristics of tumors quantitatively and reproducibly have been introduced and have become established in routine clinical practice. Perfusion studies enable us to estimate the microcirculation as well as tumor angiogenesis and permeability using ultrafast dynamic acquisitions with ultrasound, computed tomography, or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Diffusion-weighted sequences now form part of state-of-the-art MR imaging protocols to evaluate oncologic lesions in any anatomic location. Diffusion-weighted imaging provides information about the occupation of the extracellular and extravascular space and indirectly estimates the cellularity and apoptosis of tumors, having demonstrated its relation with biologic aggressiveness in various tumor lines and its usefulness in the evaluation of the early response to systemic and local targeted therapies. Another tool is hydrogen proton MR spectroscopy, which is used mainly in the study of the metabolic characteristics of brain tumors. However, the complexity of the technique and its lack of reproducibility have limited its clinical use in other anatomic areas, although much experience with the use of this technique in the assessment of prostate and breast cancers as well as liver lesions has also accumulated. This review analyzes the imaging techniques that make it possible to evaluate the physiological and molecular characteristics of cancer that have already been introduced into clinical practice, such as techniques that evaluate angiogenesis through dynamic acquisitions after the administration of contrast material, diffusion-weighted imaging, or hydrogen proton MR spectroscopy, as well as their principal applications in oncology. Copyright © 2018 SERAM. Publicado
Current trends in nuclear borehole logging techniques for elemental analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1988-06-01
This report is the result of a consultants' meeting organized by the IAEA and held in Ottawa, Canada, 2-6 November 1987 in order to assess the present technical status of nuclear borehole logging techniques, to find out the well established applications and the development trends. It contains a summary report giving a comprehensive overview of the techniques and applications and a collection of research papers describing work done in industrial institutes. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 9 papers. Refs, figs and tabs
X-ray imaging with toroidal mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aoki, Sadao; Sakayanagi, Yoshimi
1978-01-01
X-ray imaging is made with a single toroidal mirror or two successive toroidal mirrors. Geometrical images at the Gaussian image plane are described by the ray trace. Application of a single toroidal mirror to small-angle scattering is presented. (author)
Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1979-07-01
A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)
Particle simulations in toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydemir, A.Y.
1992-09-01
A computational tool to be used in kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas is being developed. The initial goal of the project is to develop an electrostatic gyrokinetic model for studying transport and stability problems in tokamaks. In this brief report, preliminary results from the early stages of this effort are presented
Lowering the first ATLAS toroid
Maximilien Brice
2004-01-01
The ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN will consist of eight toroid magnets, the first of which was lowered into the cavern in these images on 26 October 2004. The coils are supported on platforms where they will be attached to form a giant torus. The platforms will hold about 300 tonnes of ATLAS' muon chambers and will envelop the inner detectors.
Hybrid winding concept for toroids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold
2013-01-01
and placement machinery. This opens up the possibility for both an automated manufacturing process and an automated production process of toroidal magnetics such as power inductors, filtering inductors, air core inductors, transformers etc. Both the proposed hybrid and the common wire wound winding...
Collapse analysis of toroidal shell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomares, R.J.
1990-01-01
This paper describes a study performed to determine the collapse characteristics of a toroidal shell using finite element method (FEM) analysis. The study also included free drop testing of a quarter scale prototype to verify the analytical results. The full sized toroidal shell has a 24-inch toroidal diameter with a 24-inch tubal diameter. The shell material is type 304 strainless steel. The toroidal shell is part of the GE Model 2000 transportation packaging, and acts as an energy absorbing device. The analyses performed were on a full sized and quarter scaled models. The finite element program used in all analyses was the LIBRA code. The analytical procedure used both the elasto-plastic and large displacement options within the code. The loading applied in the analyses corresponded to an impact of an infinite rigid plane oriented normal to the drop direction vector. The application of the loading continued incrementally until the work performed by the deforming structure equalled the kinetic energy developed in the free fall. The comparison of analysis and test results showed a good correlation
First principle leakage current reduction technique for CMOS devices
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Tsague, HD
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive study of leakage reduction techniques applicable to CMOS based devices. In the process, mathematical equations that model the power-performance trade-offs in CMOS logic circuits are presented. From those equations...
Molecular techniques for MRSA typing: current issues and perspectives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. A. Trindade
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognised as an important pathogen in human disease. Serious staphylococcal infections can frequently occur in inpatients and may lead to dire consequences, especially as to therapy with antimicrobial agents. The increase in the frequency of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA as the causal agent of nosocomial infection and the possibility of emergence of resistance to vancomycin demands a quick and trustworthy characterization of isolates and identification of clonal spread within hospitals. Enough information must be generated to permit the implementation of appropriate measures for control of infection, so that outbreaks can be contained. Molecular typing techniques reviewed in this manuscript include: plasmid profile analysis, analysis of chromosomal DNA after enzymatic restriction, Southern blotting, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, techniques involving polymerase chain reaction and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Repetitive DNA Sequence PCR (rep-PCR may be used for screening due to its practicality, low cost and reproducibility. Because of its high discriminatory power Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE still remains the gold standard for MRSA typing. New techniques with higher reproducibility and discriminatory power, such as Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST, are appearing. These are mostly useful for global epidemiology studies. Molecular typing techniques are invaluable tools for the assessment of putative MRSA outbreaks and so should be extensively used for this purpose.
Molecular techniques for MRSA typing: current issues and perspectives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trindade P. A.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognised as an important pathogen in human disease. Serious staphylococcal infections can frequently occur in inpatients and may lead to dire consequences, especially as to therapy with antimicrobial agents. The increase in the frequency of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA as the causal agent of nosocomial infection and the possibility of emergence of resistance to vancomycin demands a quick and trustworthy characterization of isolates and identification of clonal spread within hospitals. Enough information must be generated to permit the implementation of appropriate measures for control of infection, so that outbreaks can be contained. Molecular typing techniques reviewed in this manuscript include: plasmid profile analysis, analysis of chromosomal DNA after enzymatic restriction, Southern blotting, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, techniques involving polymerase chain reaction and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Repetitive DNA Sequence PCR (rep-PCR may be used for screening due to its practicality, low cost and reproducibility. Because of its high discriminatory power Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE still remains the gold standard for MRSA typing. New techniques with higher reproducibility and discriminatory power, such as Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST, are appearing. These are mostly useful for global epidemiology studies. Molecular typing techniques are invaluable tools for the assessment of putative MRSA outbreaks and so should be extensively used for this purpose.
Soft X-ray beam induced current technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Watts, B; Ade, H [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Queen, D; Hellman, F [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kilcoyne, A L D; Tyliszczak, T, E-mail: benjamin.watts@gmail.co [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2009-09-01
Direct mapping of the charge transport efficiency of polymer solar cell devices using a soft X-ray beam induced current (SoXBIC) method is described. By fabricating a polymer solar cell on an x-ray transparent substrate, we demonstrate the ability to map polymer composition and nanoscale structure within an operating solar cell device and to simultaneously measure the local charge transport efficiency via the short-circuit current. A simple model is calculated and compared to experimental SoXBIC data of a PFB:F8BT bulk-heterojunction device in order to gain greater insight into the device operation and physics.
Bulbar urethroplasty using the dorsal approach: current techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barbagli Guido
2003-01-01
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of flaps or grafts is mandatory in patients with longer and complex strictures. In 1995-96 we described a new dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty. Over time, our original technique was better defined and changed. Now this procedure (also named Barbagli technique has been greeted with a fair amount of enthusiasm in Europe and in the United States. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: The patient is placed in normal lithotomy position, and a midline perineo-scrotal incision is made. The bulbar urethra is then free from the bulbo-cavernous muscles, and is dissected from the corpora cavernosa. The urethra is completely mobilized from the corpora cavernosa, it is rotated 180 degrees, and is incised along its dorsal surface. The graft (preputial skin or buccal mucosa or the flap is fixed and quilted to the tunica albuginea of the corporal bodies. The right mucosal margin of the opened urethra is sutured to the right side of the patch-graft. The urethra is rotated back into its original position. The left urethral margin is sutured to the left side of the patch graft and to the corporal bodies, and the grafted area is entirely covered by the urethral plate. The bulbo-cavernous muscles are approximated over the grafted area. A 16F silicone Foley catheter is left in place. COMMENTS: Dorsal onlay graft urethroplasty is a versatile procedure that may be combined with various substitute materials like preputial skin, buccal mucosa grafts or pedicled flaps.
Barrel Toroid fully charged to nominal field, and it works!
Herman ten Kate
After a few weeks of testing up to intermediate currents, finally, on Thursday evening November 9, the current in the Barrel Toroid was pushed up to its nominal value of 20500 A and even 500 A beyond this value to prove that we have some margin. It went surprisingly well. Of course, the 8 coils forming the toroid were already tested individually at the surface but still, some surprise may have come from those parts added to the toroid in the cavern for the first time like the 8 cryoring sections linking the coils as well as the valve box at the bottom in sector 13 regulating the helium flow or the current lead cryostat on the top in sector 5. No training quenches, nothing to worry about, and the test was concluded with a fast dump triggered at 00:40 in the very early morning of November 10. (left) The toroid current during the evening and night of November 9. (right) The test crew oscillated between fear and hope while looking at the control panels as the current approached 21kA. Big relief was in the...
Bi-2223 HTS winding in toroidal configuration for SMES coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondratowicz-Kucewicz, B; Kozak, S; Kozak, J; Wojtasiewicz, G; Majka, M; Janowski, T
2010-01-01
Energy can be stored in the magnetic field of a coil. Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is very promising as a power storage system for load levelling or power stabilizer. However, the strong electromagnetic force caused by high magnetic field and large coil current is a problem in SMES systems. A toroidal configuration would have a much less extensive external magnetic field and electromagnetic forces in winding. The paper describes the design of HTS winding for SMES coil in modular toroid configuration consist of seven Bi-2223 double-pancakes as well as numerical analysis of SMES magnet model using FLUX 3D package. As the results of analysis the paper presents the optimal coil configuration and the parameters such as radius of toroidal magnet, energy stored in magnet and magnetic field distribution.
Chest trauma in children: current imaging guidelines and techniques.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Moore, Michael A
2011-09-01
Given the heterogeneous nature of pediatric chest trauma, the optimal imaging approach is tailored to the specific patient. Chest radiography remains the most important imaging modality for initial triage. The decision to perform a chest computed tomography scan should be based on the nature of the trauma, the child\\'s clinical condition, and the initial radiographic findings, taking the age-related pretest probabilities of serious injury into account. The principles of as low as reasonably achievable and Image Gently should be followed. The epidemiology and pathophysiology, imaging techniques, characteristic findings, and evidence-based algorithms for pediatric chest trauma are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamberlin, D.D.; Brousseau, A.T.
1981-03-01
The application of a single toroidal core, coupled with very simple circuitry, that results in the production of a simple instrument, and eliminates the problems inherent in the Faraday cup technique for the current measurements of the FMIT injector beam is described
Surface inspection technique with an eddy current testing array probe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimizu, Akira; Endo, Hisashi; Tooma, Masahiro; Otani, Kenichi; Ouchi, Hirofumi; Yoshida, Isao; Nonaka, Yoshio
2010-01-01
An eddy current testing (ECT) system has been developed for inspecting weld surfaces of components in the reactor pressure vessel of nuclear plants. The system can be applied to curved surfaces with an ECT array probe, it can discriminate flaws from other signal factors by using a combination of arrayed coils signal-phase. The system is applied to a mock-up of core internal components and the signal discrimination using the signal-phase clearly separated flaw and noise signals. (author)
Alternating current techniques for corrosion monitoring in water reactor systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaacs, H.S.; Weeks, J.R.
1977-01-01
Corrosion in both nuclear and fossil fueled steam generators is generally a consequence of the presence of aggressive impurities introduced into the coolant system through condenser leakage. The impurities concentrate in regions of the steam generator protected from coolant flow, in crevices or under deposited corrosion products and adjacent to heat transfer surfaces. These three factors, the aggressive impurity, crevice type areas and heat transfer surfaces appear to be the requirements for the onset of rapid corrosion. Under conditions where coolant impurities do not concentrate the corrosion rates are low, easily measured and can be accounted for by allowances in the design of the steam generator. Rapid corrosion conditions cannot be designed for and must be suppressed. The condition of the surfaces when rapid corrosion develops must be markedly different from those during normal operation and these changes should be observable using electrochemical techniques. This background formed the basis of a design of a corrosion monitoring device, work on which was initiated at BNL. The basic principles of the technique are described. The object of the work is to develop a corrosion monitoring device which can be operated with PWR steam generator secondary coolant feed water
Skeletal muscle proteomics: current approaches, technical challenges and emerging techniques
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Ohlendieck, Kay
2011-02-01
Abstract Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates.
Calculation of a toroidal labyrinth shields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sul'kin, A.G.
1979-01-01
Calculation of protective case with a toroidal labyrinth channel, being one of the main design elements of hose gamma-devices, is presented. The case provides relative isotropic distribution of radiation outside protection limits. The main geometric parameters of the channel are determined: r-radius of the channel hole, rho-bend radius of the channel axis, β-angle of the channel bend. General exposure dose rate of γ-radiation in the detection point at l distance (usually l=100 m during calculations), is also calculated. Differential current dose albedo values have been found for certain combinations of parameters of the labyrinth channel. It is considered for simplification of labyrinth channel calculations, that backward radiation scattering passes, without energy change and isotropically, due to which differential current albedo values of γ-radiation for any incidence angle may be determined from integral albedo current values by the empirie formula
Characterization of irradiated fuel rods using pulsed eddy current techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, M.R.; Francis, W.C.
1975-11-01
A number of irradiated fuel rods and unfueled zircaloy cladding tubes (''water tubes'') were obtained from the Saxton reactor through arrangements with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for use in subsequent irradiation effects and fuel behavior programs. A comprehensive nondestructive and corroborative destructive characterization program was undertaken on these fuel rods and tubes by ANC to provide baseline data on their characteristics prior to further testing and for comparison against post-post data. This report deals primarily with one portion of the NDT program performed remotely in the hot cells. The portion of interest in this paper is the pulsed eddy current inspection used in the nondestructive phase of the work. 6 references
Comparison of current tonometry techniques in measurement of intraocular pressure.
Kouchaki, Behrooz; Hashemi, Hassan; Yekta, Abbasali; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi
2017-06-01
To compare four tonometry techniques: Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), Dynamic contour tonometer (DCT), Non-contact tonometer (NCT), and Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA) in the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) and the impact of some corneal biomechanical factors on their performance. In this cross-sectional study, volunteers with normal ophthalmic examination and no history of eye surgery (except for uncomplicated cataract surgery) or trauma were selected. Twenty-five subjects were male, and 21 were female. The mean age was 48 ± 19.2 years. Anterior segment parameters were measured with Scheimpflug imaging. IOP was measured with GAT, DCT, NCT, and ORA in random order. A 95% limit of agreement of IOPs was analyzed. The impact of different parameters on the measured IOP with each device was evaluated by regression analysis. The average IOP measured with GAT, DCT, NCT, and ORA was 16.4 ± 3.5, 18.1 ± 3.4, 16.2 ± 3.9, and 17.3 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively. The difference of IOP measured with NCT and GAT was not significant ( P = 0.382). Intraocular pressure was significantly different between GAT with DCT and IOP CC ( P tonometers.
Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-09-15
We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.
Hollow nanotubular toroidal polymer microrings.
Lee, Jiyeong; Baek, Kangkyun; Kim, Myungjin; Yun, Gyeongwon; Ko, Young Ho; Lee, Nam-Suk; Hwang, Ilha; Kim, Jeehong; Natarajan, Ramalingam; Park, Chan Gyung; Sung, Wokyung; Kim, Kimoon
2014-02-01
Despite the remarkable progress made in the self-assembly of nano- and microscale architectures with well-defined sizes and shapes, a self-organization-based synthesis of hollow toroids has, so far, proved to be elusive. Here, we report the synthesis of polymer microrings made from rectangular, flat and rigid-core monomers with anisotropically predisposed alkene groups, which are crosslinked with each other by dithiol linkers using thiol-ene photopolymerization. The resulting hollow toroidal structures are shape-persistent and mechanically robust in solution. In addition, their size can be tuned by controlling the initial monomer concentrations, an observation that is supported by a theoretical analysis. These hollow microrings can encapsulate guest molecules in the intratoroidal nanospace, and their peripheries can act as templates for circular arrays of metal nanoparticles.
Prospects for toroidal fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.D.
1994-01-01
Work on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak has refined understanding of the realities of a deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning magnetic fusion reactor. An ITER-like tokamak reactor using ITER costs and performance would lead to a cost of electricity (COE) of about 130 mills/kWh. Advanced tokamak physics to be tested in the Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX), coupled with moderate components in engineering, technology, and unit costs, should lead to a COE comparable with best existing fission systems around 60 mills/kWh. However, a larger unit size, ∼2000 MW(e), is favored for the fusion system. Alternative toroidal configurations to the conventional tokamak, such as the stellarator, reversed-field pinch, and field-reversed configuration, offer some potential advantage, but are less well developed, and have their own challenges
Compact toroids with Alfvenic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhehui; Tang, X.Z.
2004-01-01
The Chandrasekhar equilibria form a class of stationary ideal magnetohydrodynamics equilibria stabilized by magnetic-field-aligned Alfvenic flows. Analytic solutions of the Chandrasekhar equilibria are explicitly constructed for both field-reversed configurations and spheromaks. Favorable confinement property of nested closed flux surfaces and the ideal magnetohydrodynamic stability of the compact toroids are of interest for both magnetic trapping of high energy electrons in astrophysics and confinement of high temperature plasmas in laboratory
Compact toroid formation, compression, and acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degnan, J.H.; Bell, D.E.; Baca, G.P.; Dearborn, M.E.; Douglas, M.R.; Englert, S.E.; Englert, T.J.; Holmes, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Lehr, F.M.; Marklin, G.J.; Mullins, B.W.; Peterkin, R.E.; Price, D.W.; Roderick, N.F.; Ruden, E.L.; Turchi, P.J.; Coffey, S.K.; Seiler, S.W.; Bird, G.
1992-01-01
Research on the formation, compression, and acceleration of milligram Compact Toroids (CTs) will be discussed. This includes experiments with 2-stage coaxial gun discharges and calculations including 2D- MHD. The CTs are formed by 110 μf, 70 KV, 2 MA, 3 μs rise time discharges into 2 mg gas puffs in a 90 cm inner diameter, 7.6 cm gap coaxial gun with approximately 0.15 Tesla of radial-axial initial magnetic field. Reconnection at the neck of the toroidal magnetized plasma bubble extracted from the first stage gun forms the CT. Trapping, relaxation to a minimum energy Taylor state is observed with magnetic probe arrays. Low energy (few hundred KJ, 2 MA) acceleration in straight coaxial geometry, and high energy acceleration using a conical compression stage are discussed. The Phillips Laboratory 1,300 μf, 120 KV, 9.4 MJ SHIVA STAR capacitor bank is used for the acceleration discharge. The charging and triggering of the 36-module bank has been modified to permit use of any multiple of three modules. Highlights of fast photography, current, voltage, magnetic probe array, optical spectroscopy, interferometry, VUV, and higher energy radiation data and 2D-MHD calculations will be presented. Considerably more detail is presented in companion papers
Toroidal Simulations of Sawteeth with Diamagnetic Effects
Beidler, Matthew; Cassak, Paul; Jardin, Stephen
2014-10-01
The sawtooth crash in tokamaks limits the core temperature, adversely impacts confinement, and seeds disruptions. Adequate knowledge of the physics governing the sawtooth crash and a predictive capability of its ramifications has been elusive, including an understanding of incomplete reconnection, i.e., why sawteeth often cease prematurely before processing all available magnetic flux. There is an indication that diamagnetic suppression could play an important role in this phenomenon. While computational tools to study toroidal plasmas have existed for some time, extended-MHD physics have only recently been integrated. Interestingly, incomplete reconnection has been observed in simulations when diamagnetic effects are present. In the current study, we employ the three-dimensional, extended-MHD code M3D-C1 to study the sawtooth crash in a toroidal geometry. In particular, we describe how magnetic reconnection at the q = 1 rational surface evolves when self-consistently increasing diamagnetic effects are present. We also explore how the termination of reconnection may lead to core-relaxing ideal-MHD instabilities.
Microwave produced plasma in a Toroidal Device
Singh, A. K.; Edwards, W. F.; Held, E. D.
2010-11-01
A currentless toroidal plasma device exhibits a large range of interesting basic plasma physics phenomena. Such a device is not in equilibrium in a strict magneto hydrodynamic sense. There are many sources of free energy in the form of gradients in plasma density, temperature, the background magnetic field and the curvature of the magnetic field. These free energy sources excite waves and instabilities which have been the focus of studies in several devices in last two decades. A full understanding of these simple plasmas is far from complete. At Utah State University we have recently designed and installed a microwave plasma generation system on a small tokamak borrowed from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Microwaves are generated at 2.45 GHz in a pulsed dc mode using a magnetron from a commercial kitchen microwave oven. The device is equipped with horizontal and vertical magnetic fields and a transformer to impose a toroidal electric field for current drive. Plasmas can be obtained over a wide range of pressure with and without magnetic fields. We present some preliminary measurements of plasma density and potential profiles. Measurements of plasma temperature at different operating conditions are also presented.
Current cardiac imaging techniques for detection of left ventricular mass
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Celebi Aksuyek S
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Estimation of left ventricular (LV mass has both prognostic and therapeutic value independent of traditional risk factors. Unfortunately, LV mass evaluation has been underestimated in clinical practice. Assessment of LV mass can be performed by a number of imaging modalities. Despite inherent limitations, conventional echocardiography has fundamentally been established as most widely used diagnostic tool. 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE is now feasible, fast and accurate for LV mass evaluation. 3DE is also superior to conventional echocardiography in terms of LV mass assessment, especially in patients with abnormal LV geometry. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and cardiovascular computed tomography (CCT are currently performed for LV mass assessment and also do not depend on cardiac geometry and display 3-dimensional data, as well. Therefore, CMR is being increasingly employed and is at the present standard of reference in the clinical setting. Although each method demonstrates advantages over another, there are also disadvantages to receive attention. Diagnostic accuracy of methods will also be increased with the introduction of more advanced systems. It is also likely that in the coming years new and more accurate diagnostic tests will become available. In particular, CMR and CCT have been intersecting hot topic between cardiology and radiology clinics. Thus, good communication and collaboration between two specialties is required for selection of an appropriate test.
Endoluminal weight loss and metabolic therapies: current and future techniques.
Hill, Christine; Khashab, Mouen A; Kalloo, Anthony N; Kumbhari, Vivek
2018-01-01
Obesity is a public health epidemic associated with a number of comorbidities, most notably type 2 diabetes and hypertension, as well as elevated all-cause mortality. The treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities has most recently expanded into the field of bariatric endoscopy. This field bridges a gap between lifestyle counseling with or without pharmaceutical treatment and the most effective treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery. Because of its minimally invasive nature, bariatric endoscopic therapy has the potential to appeal to the large sector of the obese population that resists surgery, as well as those early in the onset of obesity. To date, five endoscopic devices have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity, and many more are in development, undergoing clinical trials, or being used around the world. Here, we present the current state of the field, highlight recent developments, and describe the clinical outcomes of these minimally invasive procedures in terms of weight loss, improvement in metabolic profile, and reduction in comorbidities. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.
The Electromagnetic Field of Elementary Time-Dependent Toroidal Sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, G.N.; Stepanovskij, Yu.P.
1994-01-01
The radiation field of toroidal-like time-dependent current configurations is investigated. Time-dependent charge-current sources are found outside which the electromagnetic strengths disappear but the potentials survive. This can be used to carry out time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm-like experiments and the information transfer. Using the Neumann-Helmholtz parametrization of the current density we present the time-dependent electromagnetic field in a form convenient for applications. 17 refs
Transport and dynamics in toroidal fusion systems. Report of second year progress, 1993--1994
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnack, D.D.
1994-01-01
In this document the author describes an extension of the spatial gridding techniques to an MHD model suitable for the description of the dynamics of toroidal fusion devices. Since the dominant MHD modes in these devices have relatively long toroidal wavelength, the toroidal coordinate is approximated with finite Fourier series. The unstructured, triangular mesh is used to describe the details of the poloidal geometry. With some exceptions, the hydrodynamic variables are treated in a manner analogous to that used in CFD. These quantities (mass, energy, and momentum) are volume based densities that satisfy scalar or vector conservation laws. The electromagnetic variables (the magnetic flux density B and the electric current density J) are area based densities that satisfy pseudo-vector conservation laws, and have no counterpart in fluid dynamics. These variables are also constrained to remain solenoidal. These quantities are represented on the triangular mesh in a new manner that is an extension of that used on rectangular, structured meshes. In this work the author has chosen to solve the primitive MHD equations in order to make the resulting codes and techniques more generally applicable to problems beyond the narrow scope of tokamak plasmas. The temporal stiffness problems inherent in this description of tokamak dynamics that motivate the reduced MHD model are addressed here with the semi-implicit method of time integration. Finally, the author remarks that, while the present work deals strictly with the MHD equations, other volume based fluid descriptions, such as diffusive transport could easily be adapted to these techniques and coupled with the description of the electromagnetic field presented here
Feedback control of resistive wall modes in toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y.Q.
2002-01-01
Active feedback of resistive wall modes is investigated using cylindrical theory and toroidal calculations. For tokamaks, good performance is obtained by using active coils with one set of coils in the poloidal direction and sensors detecting the poloidal field inside the first wall, located at the outboard mid-plane. With suitable width of the feedback coil such a system can give robust control with respect to variations in plasma current, pressure and rotation. Calculations are shown for ITER-like geometry with a double wall. The voltages and currents in the active coils are well within the design limits for ITER. Calculations for RFP's are presented for a finite number of coils both in the poloidal and toroidal directions. With 4 coils in the poloidal and 24 coils in the toroidal direction, all non-resonant modes can be stabilized both at high and low theta. Several types of sensors, including radial and internal poloidal or toroidal sensors, can stabilize the RWM, but poloidal sensors give the most robust performance. (author)
Locked magnetic island chains in toroidally flow damped tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzpatrick, R; Waelbroeck, F L
2010-01-01
The physics of a locked magnetic island chain maintained in the pedestal of an H-mode tokamak plasma by a static, externally generated, multi-harmonic, helical magnetic perturbation is investigated. The non-resonant harmonics of the external perturbation are assumed to give rise to significant toroidal flow damping in the pedestal, in addition to the naturally occurring poloidal flow damping. Furthermore, the flow damping is assumed to be sufficiently strong to relax the pedestal ion toroidal and poloidal fluid velocities to fixed values determined by neoclassical theory. The resulting neoclassical ion flow causes a helical phase-shift to develop between the locked island chain and the resonant harmonic of the external perturbation. Furthermore, when this phase-shift exceeds a critical value, the chain unlocks from the resonant harmonic and starts to rotate, after which it decays away and is replaced by a helical current sheet. The neoclassical flow also generates an ion polarization current in the vicinity of the island chain which either increases or decreases the chain's radial width, depending on the direction of the flow. If the polarization effect is stabilizing, and exceeds a critical amplitude, then the helical island equilibrium becomes unstable, and the chain again decays away. The critical amplitude of the resonant harmonic of the external perturbation at which the island chain either unlocks or becomes unstable is calculated as a function of the pedestal ion pressure, the neoclassical poloidal and toroidal ion velocities and the poloidal and toroidal flow damping rates.
Effects of 3D magnetic perturbations on toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.
2011-01-01
Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field perturbations have many interesting and possibly useful effects on tokamak and quasi-symmetric stellarator plasmas. Plasma transport equations that include these effects, most notably on diamagnetic-level toroidal plasma flows, have recently been developed. The 3D field perturbations and their plasma effects can be classified according to their toroidal mode number n: low n (say 1-5) resonant (with field line pitch, q = m/n) and non-resonant fields, medium n (∼20, due to toroidal field ripple) and high n (due to microturbulence). Low n non-resonant fields induce a neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) that damps toroidal rotation throughout the plasma towards an offset rotation in the counter-current direction. Recent tokamak experiments have generally confirmed and exploited these predictions by applying external low n non-resonant magnetic perturbations. Medium n toroidal field ripple produces similar effects plus possible ripple-trapping NTV effects and ion direct losses in the edge. A low n (e.g. n = 1) resonant field is mostly shielded by the toroidally rotating plasma at and inside the resonant (rational) surface. If it is large enough it can stop plasma rotation at the rational surface, facilitate magnetic reconnection there and lead to a growing stationary magnetic island (locked mode), which often causes a plasma disruption. Externally applied 3D magnetic perturbations usually have many components. In the plasma their lowest n (e.g. n = 1) externally resonant components can be amplified by kink-type plasma responses, particularly at high β. Low n plasma instabilities (e.g. resistive wall modes, neoclassical tearing modes) cause additional 3D magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas. Tearing modes in their nonlinear (Rutherford) regime bifurcate the topology and form magnetic islands. Finally, multiple resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can, if not shielded by plasma rotation effects, cause local magnetic
Advanced toroidal facility vaccuum vessel stress analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammonds, C.J.; Mayhall, J.A.
1987-01-01
The complex geometry of the Advance Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel required special analysis techniques in investigating the structural behavior of the design. The response of a large-scale finite element model was found for transportation and operational loading. Several computer codes and systems, including the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center Cray machines, were implemented in accomplishing these analyses. The work combined complex methods that taxed the limits of both the codes and the computer systems involved. Using MSC/NASTRAN cyclic-symmetry solutions permitted using only 1/12 of the vessel geometry to mathematically analyze the entire vessel. This allowed the greater detail and accuracy demanded by the complex geometry of the vessel. Critical buckling-pressure analyses were performed with the same model. The development, results, and problems encountered in performing these analyses are described. 5 refs., 3 figs
Heating of toroidal plasmas by neutral injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1971-08-01
This paper presents a brief review of the physics of ion acceleration, charge exchange and ionization, trajectories for fast ions in toroidal magnetic fields, and fast-ion thermalization. The injection of fast atoms is found to be a highly competitive method both for heating present-day experimental toroidal plasmas and for bringing full-scale toroidal CTR plasmas to low-density ignition. 13 refs., 9 figs
A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1988-09-01
The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field generated by currents in a set of external conductors. A comparison between linear and toroidal Extrap geometry is made in this paper. As compared to toroidal systems, linear geometry has the advantages of relative simplicity and of a current drive by means of electrodes. Linear devices are convenient for basic studies of Extrap, at moderately high pinch currents and plasma temperatures. Within the parameter ranges of experiments at high pinch currents and plasma temperatures, linear systems have on the other hand some substantial disadvantages, on account of the plasma interaction with the end regions. This results in a limitation of the energy confinement time, and leads in the case of an ohmically heated plasma to excessively high plasma densities and small pinch radii which also complicate the introduction of the external conductors. (author)
Observation of plasma toroidal-momentum dissipation by neoclassical toroidal viscosity.
Zhu, W; Sabbagh, S A; Bell, R E; Bialek, J M; Bell, M G; LeBlanc, B P; Kaye, S M; Levinton, F M; Menard, J E; Shaing, K C; Sontag, A C; Yuh, H
2006-06-09
Dissipation of plasma toroidal angular momentum is observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment due to applied nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields and their plasma-induced increase by resonant field amplification and resistive wall mode destabilization. The measured decrease of the plasma toroidal angular momentum profile is compared to calculations of nonresonant drag torque based on the theory of neoclassical toroidal viscosity. Quantitative agreement between experiment and theory is found when the effect of toroidally trapped particles is included.
Influence of external toroidal flux on low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuno, S.; Natori, M.; Kamitani, A.
1999-01-01
In the HIST device, the external flux is generated by two kinds of currents: the current I s flowing along the symmetry axis and the bias coil current I D . The influence of the external flux on the MHD equilibrium and stability of the low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasma in the HIST device is investigated numerically. Equilibrium configurations of the low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasma in the HIST device are numerically determined by means of the combination of FDM and BEM. The influence of I s and I D on their stability is also investigated by using the Mercier criterion. The results of computations show that the Mercier limit decreases to zero with increasing I s and with decreasing I D . Moreover, either a further increase in I s or a further decrease in I D raises the Mercier limit considerably. Besides, the equilibrium configuration in the HIST device changes its state from spheromak through ultra-low q to tokamak with increasing I s and with decreasing I D . (author)
Femtometer toroidal structures in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, J.L.; Pandharipande, V.R.; Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.; Schiavilla, R.; Arriaga, A.
1996-01-01
The two-nucleon density distributions in states with isospin T=0, spin S=1, and projection M S =0 and ±1 are studied in 2 H, 3,4 He, 6,7 Li, and 16 O. The equidensity surfaces for M S =0 distributions are found to be toroidal in shape, while those of M S =±1 have dumbbell shapes at large density. The dumbbell shapes are generated by rotating tori. The toroidal shapes indicate that the tensor correlations have near maximal strength at r 3 He, 4 He, and 6 Li. The toroidal distribution has a maximum-density diameter of ∼1 fm and a half-maximum density thickness of ∼0.9 fm. Many realistic models of nuclear forces predict these values, which are supported by the observed electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron, and also predicted by classical Skyrme effective Lagrangians, related to QCD in the limit of infinite colors. Due to the rather small size of this structure, it could have a revealing relation to certain aspects of QCD. Experiments to probe this structure and its effects in nuclei are suggested. Pair distribution functions in other T,S channels are also discussed; those in T,S=1,1 have anisotropies expected from one-pion-exchange interactions. The tensor correlations in T,S=0,1 states are found to deplete the number of T,S=1,0 pairs in nuclei and cause a reduction in nuclear binding energies via many-body effects. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of a Toroidal Plasma's Separatrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webster, A. J.; Gimblett, C. G.
2009-01-01
Large tokamaks capable of fusion power production such as ITER, should avoid large edge localized modes (ELMs), thought to be triggered by an ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability due to current at the plasma's separatrix boundary. Unlike analytical work in a cylindrical approximation, numerical work finds the modes are stable. The plasma's separatrix might stabilize modes, but makes analytical and numerical work difficult. We generalize a cylindrical model to toroidal separatrix geometry, finding one parameter Δ ' determines stability. The conformal transformation method is generalized to allow nonzero derivatives of a function on a boundary, and calculation of the equilibrium vacuum field allows Δ ' to be found analytically. As a boundary more closely approximates a separatrix, we find the energy principle indicates instability, but the growth rate asymptotes to zero
The theory of toroidally confined plasmas
White, Roscoe B
2014-01-01
This graduate level textbook develops the theory of magnetically confined plasma, with the aim of bringing the reader to the level of current research in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It begins with the basic concepts of magnetic field description, plasma equilibria and stability, and goes on to derive the equations for guiding center particle motion in an equilibrium field. Topics include linear and nonlinear ideal and resistive modes and particle transport. It is of use to workers in the field of fusion both for its wide-ranging account of tokamak physics and as a kind of handbook or formulary. This edition has been extended in a number of ways. The material on mode-particle interactions has been reformulated and much new information added, including methodology for Monte Carlo implementation of mode destabilization. These results give explicit means of carrying out mode destabilization analysis, in particular for the dangerous fishbone mode. A new chapter on cyclotron motion in toroidal geometry has ...
Analysis of toroidal rotation data for the DIII-D tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
John, H.St.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.; DeBoo, J.; Gohil, P.
1989-01-01
Both poloidal and toroidal rotation are observed during routine neutral beam heating operation of the DIII-D tokamak. Poloidal rotation results and the empirical techniques used to measure toroidal and poloidal rotation speeds are described by Groebner et al. Here we concentrate on the analysis of recent measurements of toroidal rotation made during diverted, H-mode operation of the DIII-D tokamak during co- and counter-neutral beam injection of hydrogen into deuterium plasmas. Similar studies have been previously reported for Doublet III, ASDEX, TFTR, JET and other tokamaks. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs
Overview of toroidal momentum transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peeters, A.G.; Hornsby, W.A.; Angioni, C.; Hein, T.; Kluy, N.; Strintzi, D.; Tardini, G.; Bortolon, A.; Camenen, Y.; Casson, F.J.; Snodin, A.P.; Szepesi, G.; Duval, B.; Fiederspiel, L.; Idomura, Y.; Mantica, P.; Parra, F.I.; Tala, T.; De Vries, P.; Weiland, J.
2011-01-01
Toroidal momentum transport mechanisms are reviewed and put in a broader perspective. The generation of a finite momentum flux is closely related to the breaking of symmetry (parity) along the field. The symmetry argument allows for the systematic identification of possible transport mechanisms. Those that appear to lowest order in the normalized Larmor radius (the diagonal part, Coriolis pinch, E x B shearing, particle flux, and up-down asymmetric equilibria) are reasonably well understood. At higher order, expected to be of importance in the plasma edge, the theory is still under development.
Pellet injection and toroidal confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-12-01
The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs
The Superconducting Toroid for the New International AXion Observatory (IAXO)
Shilon, I.; Silva, H.; Wagner, U.; ten Kate, H.H.J.
2013-01-01
IAXO, the new International AXion Observatory, will feature the most ambitious detector for solar axions to date. Axions are hypothetical particles which were postulated to solve one of the puzzles arising in the standard model of particle physics, namely the strong CP (Charge conjugation and Parity) problem. This detector aims at achieving a sensitivity to the coupling between axions and photons of one order of magnitude beyond the limits of the current detector, the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). The IAXO detector relies on a high-magnetic field distributed over a very large volume to convert solar axions to detectable X-ray photons. Inspired by the ATLAS barrel and end-cap toroids, a large superconducting toroid is being designed. The toroid comprises eight, one meter wide and twenty one meters long racetrack coils. The assembled toroid is sized 5.2 m in diameter and 25 m in length and its mass is about 250 tons. The useful field in the bores is 2.5 T while the peak magnetic field in the windings is 5....
BPX toroidal field coil design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heitzenvoeder, D.J.
1992-01-01
This paper reports on the toroidal field (TF) coil system of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) which consists of (18) beryllium copper magnets arrayed in a wedged configuration with a major radius of 2.6 meters and a field strength capability on axis of 9.0 Tesla. The toroidal array is constructed from six (3)-coil modules to facilitate remote recovery in the event of a magnet failure after nuclear activation precludes hands-on servicing. The magnets are of a modified Bitter plate design with partial cases of type 316-LN stainless steel welded with Inconel 182 weld wire. The coil turn plates are fabricated from CDA C17510 beryllium copper with optimized mechanical, thermal, and electrical characteristics. joints within the turns and between turns are made by welding with C17200 filler wire. Cryogenic cooling is employed to reduce power dissipation and to enhance performance. The magnets are cooled between experimental pulses by pressurized liquid nitrogen flowing through channels in the edges of the coil turns. This arrangement makes possible one full-power pulse per hour. Electrical insulation consists of polyimide-glass sheets bonded in place with vacuum-pressure impregnated epoxy/glass
Waveguide and loop coupling to fast MHD toroidal eigenmodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paoloni, F.J.
1975-12-01
Heating of plasmas by wave techniques requires an effective method of coupling rf energy to the plasma. In cavities the presence of weakly damped eigenmodes will enhance the loading of antennas when the wave frequency equals an eigenmode frequency. This report considers two methods of coupling to fast MHD eigenmodes in a toroidal cavity: one is by a waveguide mounted perpendicular to the vacuum vessel wall; and the other by a loop placed within the cavity
Electrostatics of a Family of Conducting Toroids
Lekner, John
2009-01-01
An exact solution is found for the electrostatic potential of a family of conducting charged toroids. The toroids are characterized by two lengths "a" and "b", with "a" greater than or equal to "2b". They are closed, with no hole in the "doughnut". The results are obtained by considering the potential of two equal charges, displaced from the…
Fast Dump of the ATLAS Toroids
Dudarev, A; Volpini, Giovanni; Dudarev, Alexey; Kate, Herman Ten
2010-01-01
The toroidal magnet system of the ATLAS Detector at CERN consists of a Barrel Toroid (BT) and two End Cap Toroids (ECT-A and ECT-C). Each toroid is built up from eight racetrack coils wound with an aluminum stabilized NbTi conductor and indirectly cooled by forced flow liquid helium. The three toroids operate in series at 20.5 kA with a total stored energy of 1.5 GJ. In order to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the quench protection system, series of fast dump tests have been performed first of the single toroids and finally of the entire toroidal magnet system. In this paper a model to simulate the fast dump of the ATLAS toroids in single mode operation and in full system configuration is presented. The model is validated through comparison with measured data extracted from the ramp-and-quench runs. The calculated energy dissipation in the various coils is in very good agreement (within 1-2\\%) with the enthalpy changes estimated from the temperature measurements of the different parts of the cold ...
Progress on large superconducting toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haubenreich, P.N.; Luton, J.N.; Thompson, P.B.; Beard, D.S.
1979-01-01
Large superconducting toroidal field coils of competing designs are being produced by six major industrial teams. In the US, teams headed by General Dynamics Convair, General Electric, and Westinghouse are under contract to design and fabricate one coil each to specifications established by the Large Coil Program. A facility for testing 6 coils in a toroidal array at fields to 8 to 12 tesla is under construction at Oak Ridge. Through an international agreement, EURATOM, Japan, and Switzerland will produce one coil each for testing with the US coils. Each test coil will have a 2.5 x 3.5 m D-shape winding bore and is designed to operate at a current of 10 to 18 kA at a peak field of 8T while subjected to pulsed fields of 0.14 T applied in 1.0 s. There are significant differences among the six coil designs: five use NbTi, one Nb 3 Sn; three are cooled by pool boiling helium, three by forced flow; five have welded or bolted stainless steel coil cases, one has aluminum plate structure. All are designed to be cryostable at 8T, with structural margin for extended operation. The three US coil teams are almost or completely finished with detailed design and are now procuring materials and setting up manufacturing equipment. The non-US teams are at various stages of verification testing and design. The GDC and GE coils are scheduled for delivery in the spring of 1981 and the others will be completed a year later. The 11-m diameter vessel at the test facility has been completed and major components of the test stand are being procured. Engineering and procurement to upgrade the helium liquifier-refrigerator system are under way
OCLATOR (One Coil Low Aspect Toroidal Reactor)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshikawa, S.
1980-02-01
A new approach to construct a tokamak-type reactor(s) is presented. Basically the return conductors of toroidal field coils are eliminated and the toroidal field coil is replaced by one single large coil, around which there will be placed several tokamaks or other toroidal devices. The elimination of return conductors should, in addition to other advantages, improve the accessibility and maintainability of the tokamaks and offer a possible alternative to the search for special materials to withstand large neutron wall loading, as the frequency of changeover would be increased due to minimum downtime. It also makes it possible to have a low aspect ratio tokamak which should improve the ..beta.. limit, so that a low toroidal magnetic field strength might be acceptable, meaning that the NbTi superconducting wire could be used. This system is named OCLATOR (One Coil Low Aspect Toroidal Reactor).
Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.
1992-09-23
The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling.
Toroidal effects on drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LeBrun, M.J.; Tajima, T.; Gray, M.G.; Furnish, G.; Horton, W.
1992-01-01
The universal drift instability and other drift instabilities driven by density and temperature gradients in a toroidal system are investigated in both linear and nonlinear regimes via particle simulation. Runs in toroidal and cylindrical geometry show dramatic differences in plasma behavior, primarily due to the toroidicity-induced coupling of rational surfaces through the poloidal mode number m. In the toroidal system studied, the eigenmodes are seen to possess (i) an elongated, nearly global radial extent (ii) a higher growth rate than in the corresponding cylindrical system, (iii) an eigenfrequency nearly constant with radius, (iv) a global temperature relaxation and enhancement of thermal heat conduction. Most importantly, the measured Xi shows an increase with radius and an absolute value on the order of that observed in experiment. On the basis of our observations, we argue that the increase in Xi with radius observed in experiment is caused by the global nature of heat convection in the presence of toroidicity-induced mode coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzgerald, M.; Hole, M.J.; Appel, L.C.
2013-01-01
A new force balance model for the EFIT magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium technique for tokamaks is presented which includes the full toroidal flow and anisotropy changes to the Grad–Shafranov equation. The free functions are poloidal flux functions and all non-linear contributions to the toroidal current density are treated iteratively. The parallel heat flow approximation chosen for the model is that parallel temperature is a flux function and that both parallel and perpendicular pressures may be described using parallel and perpendicular temperatures. This choice for the fluid thermodynamics has been shown elsewhere to be the same as a guiding-centre kinetic solution of the same problem under the same assumptions. The model reduces identically to the static and isotropic Grad–Shafranov equation in the appropriate limit as different flux functions are set to zero. An analytical solution based on a modified Soloviev solution for non-zero toroidal flow and anisotropy is also presented. The force balance model has been demonstrated in the code EFIT TENSOR, a branch of the existing code EFIT++. Benchmark results for EFIT TENSOR are presented and the more complicated force balance model is found to converge to force balance similarly to the usual EFIT model and with comparable speed. (paper)
NCSX Toroidal Field Coil Design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalish M; Rushinski J; Myatt L; Brooks A; Dahlgren F; Chrzanowski J; Reiersen W; Freudenberg K.
2005-01-01
The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is an experimental device whose design and construction is underway at the Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The primary coil systems for the NCSX device consist of the twisted plasma-shaping Modular Coils, the Poloidal Field Coils, and the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils. The TF Coils are D-shaped coils wound from hollow copper conductor, and vacuum impregnated with a glass-epoxy resin system. There are 18 identical, equally spaced TF coils providing 1/R field at the plasma. They operate within a cryostat, and are cooled by LN2, nominally, to 80K. Wedge shaped castings are assembled to the inboard face of these coils, so that inward radial loads are reacted via the nesting of each of the coils against their adjacent partners. This paper outlines the TF Coil design methodology, reviews the analysis results, and summarizes how the design and analysis support the design requirements
Quasistatic evolution of compact toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sgro, A.G.; Spencer, R.L.; Lilliequist, C.
1981-01-01
Some results are presented of simulations of the post formation evolution of compact toroids. The simulations were performed with a 1-1/2 D transport code. Such a code makes explicit use of the fact that the shapes of the flux surfaces in the plasma change much more slowly than do the profiles of the physical variables across the flux surfaces. Consequently, assuming that the thermodynamic variables are always equilibrated on a flux surface, one may calculate the time evolution of these profiles as a function of a single variable that labels the flux surfaces. Occasionally, during the calculation these profiles are used to invert the equilibrium equation to update the shapes of the flux surfaces. In turn, these shapes imply certain geometric cofficients, such as A = 2 >, which contain the geometric information required by the 1-D equations
An Inexpensive Toroidal Solenoid for an Investigative Student Lab
Ferstl, Andrew; Broberg, John
2008-09-01
Magnetism and Ampère's law is a common subject in most calculus-based introductory physics courses. Many textbooks offer examples to calculate the magnetic field produced by a symmetric current by using Ampère's law. These examples include the solenoid and the toroidal solenoid (sometimes called a torus; see Fig. 1), which are used in many applications, including the study of plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, R.A.
1975-06-01
The structural analysis of toroidal field coils in Tokamak fusion machines can be performed with the finite element method. This technique has been employed for design evaluations of toroidal field coils on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Poloidal Diverter Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The application of the finite element method can be simplified with computer programs that are used to generate the input data for the finite element code. There are three areas of data input where significant automation can be provided by supplementary computer codes. These concern the definition of geometry by a node point mesh, the definition of the finite elements from the geometric node points, and the definition of the node point force/displacement boundary conditions. The node point forces in a model of a toroidal field coil are computed from the vector cross product of the coil current and the magnetic field. The computer programs named PDXNODE and ELEMENT are described. The program PDXNODE generates the geometric node points of a finite element model for a toroidal field coil. The program ELEMENT defines the finite elements of the model from the node points and from material property considerations. The program descriptions include input requirements, the output, the program logic, the methods of generating complex geometries with multiple runs, computational time and computer compatibility. The output format of PDXNODE and ELEMENT make them compatible with PDXFORC and two general purpose finite element computer codes: (ANSYS) the Engineering Analysis System written by the Swanson Analysis Systems, Inc., and (WECAN) the Westinghouse Electric Computer Analysis general purpose finite element program. The Fortran listings of PDXNODE and ELEMENT are provided
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, Katsumi
2001-01-01
The structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow is discussed for the high temperature plasma in toroidal systems, tokamak and Heliotron type magnetic configurations. The spontaneous toroidal and poloidal flows are observed in the plasma with improved confinement. The radial electric field is mainly determined by the poloidal flow, because the contribution of toroidal flow to the radial electric field is small. The jump of radial electric field and poloidal flow are commonly observed near the plasma edge in the so-called high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in tokamaks and electron root plasma in stellarators including Heliotrons. In general the toroidal flow is driven by the momentum input from neutral beam injected toroidally. There is toroidal flow not driven by neutral beam in the plasma and it will be more significant in the plasma with large electric field. The direction of these spontaneous toroidal flows depends on the symmetry of magnetic field. The spontaneous toroidal flow driven by the ion temperature gradient is in the direction to increase the negative radial electric field in tokamak. The direction of spontaneous toroidal flow in Heliotron plasmas is opposite to that in tokamak plasma because of the helicity of symmetry of the magnetic field configuration. (author)
Toroidal plasma reactor with low external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beklemishev, A.D.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Petviashvili, V.I.; Tajima, T.; Gordin, V.A.; Tajima, T.
1991-01-01
A toroidal pinch configuration with safety factor q < 0.5 decreasing from the center to periphery without field reversal is proposed. This is capable of containing high pressure plasma with only small toroidal external magnetic field. Sufficient conditions for magnetohydrodynamic stability are fulfilled in this configuration. The stability is studied by constructing the Lyapunov functional and investigating its extrema both analytically and numerically. Comparison of the Lyapunov stability conditions with the conventional linear theory is carried out. Stable configurations are found with average β near 15%, with magnetic field associated mainly with plasma current. The β value calculated with the external magnetic field can be over 100%. Fast charged particles produced by fusion reactions are asymmetrically confined by the poloidal magnetic field (and due to the lack of strong toroidal field). They thus generate a current in the noncentral part of plasma to reinforce the poloidal field. This current drive can sustain the monotonic decrease of q with radius. 20 refs., 9 figs
The BNL toroidal volume H- source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alessi, J.G.; Prelec, K.
1991-01-01
The BNL toroidal volume H - ion source, in pulsed operation is now producing up to 35 mA with an electron to H - ratio of less than 5, and a ratio of less than 3 for currents up to 20 mA. This improvement came about by increasing the strength of the conical filter field. The source has also been operated steady state at low arc currents, where up to 6 mA of H - was extracted. The electron to H - ratio is 2--3 times larger for dc operation. For dc currents up to 5 mA, the arc power efficiency was 5 mA/kW. Pulsed performance with Ta and W filaments were very similar, except for the large gas pumping observed with the Ta filament. In dc operation, the Ta filament performed somewhat better than W. Extraction from 7 apertures having a total area of 1 cm 2 produced the same results as a single 1 cm 2 aperture. 5 refs., 4 figs
MHD equilibrium of toroidal fusion plasma with stationary flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galkowski, A.
1994-01-01
Non-linear ideal MHD equilibria in axisymmetric system with flows are examined, both in 1st and 2nd ellipticity regions. Evidence of the bifurcation of solutions is provided and numerical solutions of several problems in a tokamak geometry are given, exhibiting bifurcation phenomena. Relaxation of plasma in the presence of zero-order flows is studied in a realistic toroidal geometry. The field aligned flow allows equilibria with finite pressure gradient but with homogeneous temperature distribution. Numerical calculations have been performed for the 1st and 2nd ellipticity regimes of the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation. Numerical technique, alternative to the well-known Grad's ADM methods has been proposed to deal with slow adiabatic evolution of toroidal plasma with flows. The equilibrium problem with prescribed adiabatic constraints may be solved by simultaneous calculations of flux surface geometry and original profile functions. (author). 178 refs, 37 figs, 5 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rao, B.P.C.; Thirunavukkarasu, S.; Sasi, B.; Jayakumar, T.; Baldev Raj
2010-01-01
Eddy current non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques find many applications during fabrication and in-service inspection of components made of stainless steel. In recent years, concurrent developments in electromagnetic field detection sensors such as giant magneto-resistive (GMR), giant-magneto impedance (GMI) and SQUIDs sensors, computers, microelectronics, and incorporating advanced signal and image processing techniques, have paved the way for enhancing the capabilities of existing eddy current (EC) techniques for examination of austenitic stainless steel (SS) plates, tubes and other geometries and several innovative methodologies have been developed. This paper highlights a few such applications in EC testing to austenitic stainless steel components used in fast reactors. (author)
Effects of modulation techniques on the input current interharmonics of Adjustable Speed Drives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz
2018-01-01
operation of the grid. This paper presents the effect of the symmetrical regularly sampled Space Vector Modulation (SVM) and Discontinuous Pulse Width Modulation-30olag (DPWM2) techniques, as the most popular modulation methods in the ASD applications, on the drive’s input current interharmonic magnitudes....... Further investigations are also devoted to the cases, where the Random Modulation (RM) technique is applied on the selected modulation strategies. The comparative results show that how different modulation techniques can influence the ASD’s input current interharmonics and consequently may...
Unified kinetic theory in toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hitchcock, D.A.; Hazeltine, R.D.
1980-12-01
The kinetic theory of toroidal systems has been characterized by two approaches: neoclassical theory which ignores instabilities and quasilinear theory which ignores collisions. In this paper we construct a kinetic theory for toroidal systems which includes both effects. This yields a pair of evolution equations; one for the spectrum and one for the distribution function. In addition, this theory yields a toroidal generalization of the usual collision operator which is shown to have many similar properties - conservation laws, H theorem - to the usual collision operator
Rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei and fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Royer, G.; Haddad, F.; Jouault, B.
1995-01-01
The energy of rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei predicted to be formed in central heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies is calculated within the generalized rotating liquid drop model. The potential barriers standing in these exotic deformation paths are compared with the three dimensional and plane fragmentation barriers. In the toroidal deformation path of the heaviest systems exists a large potential pocket localised below the plane fragmentation barriers. This might allow the temporary survival of heavy nuclear toroids before the final clusterization induced by the surface and proximity tension. (author)
Toroidal field ripple effects in large tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uckan, N.A.; Tsang, K.T.; Callen, J.D.
1975-01-01
In an experimental power reactor, the ripple produced by the finite number of toroidal field coils destroys the ideal axisymmetry of the configuration and is responsible for additional particle trapping, loss regions and plasma transport. The effects of toroidal field ripple on the plasma transport coefficient, the loss of alpha particles and energetic injection ions, and the relaxation of toroidal flows are investigated in a new and systematic way. The relevant results are applied to the ORNL-EPR reference design; the maximum ripple there of about 2.2 percent at the outer edge of the plasma column is found to be tolerable from plasma physics considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, R.A.
1975-06-01
The design evaluation of toroidal field coils on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT), the Poloidal Diverter Experiment (PDX) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been performed by structural analysis with the finite element method. The technique employed has been simplified with supplementary computer programs that are used to generate the input data for the finite element computer program. Significant automation has been provided by computer codes in three areas of data input. These are the definition of coil geometry by a mesh of node points, the definition of finite elements via the node points and the definition of the node point force/displacement boundary conditions. The computer programs by name that have been used to perform the above functions are PDXNODE, ELEMENT and PDXFORC. The geometric finite element modeling options for toroidal field coils provided by PDXNODE include one-fourth or one-half symmetric sections of circular coils, oval shaped coils or dee-shaped coils with or without a beveled wedging surface. The program ELEMENT which defines the finite elements for input to the finite element computer code can provide considerable time and labor savings when defining the model of coils of non-uniform cross-section or when defining the model of coils whose material properties are different in the R and THETA directions due to the laminations of alternate epoxy and copper windings. The modeling features provided by the program ELEMENT have been used to analyze the PLT and the TFTR toroidal field coils with integral support structures. The computer program named PDXFORC is described. It computes the node point forces in a model of a toroidal field coil from the vector crossproduct of the coil current and the magnetic field. The model can be of one-half or one-fourth symmetry to be consistent with the node model defined by PDXNODE, and the magnetic field is computed from toroidal or poloidal coils
Studies on limiter confined toroidal plasma in BETA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bera, D.; Reddy, C.; Jayakumar, R.; Kaw, P.K.
1984-01-01
Plasma equilibrium and stability in the presence of a toroidal magnetic field and a poloidal limiter is being studied experimentally in the BETA experiment. In a simple toroidal magnetic field, plasma cannot be in equilibrium because of the effect of the magnetic field curvature, which tends to expand the plasma. The electric field, which causes this expansion, is short circuited if a poloidal conducting limiter is placed and this brings about a quasi-equilibrium. In the model the charge separation current flows on the surface of the plasma and closes the path by flowing parallel to the magnetic field away from the limiter and transverse to the field at the limiter. For such an equilibrium, the vertical pressure profile is expected to be uniform, while the radial pressure profile is determined by transport. Such a profile is unstable to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, if the magnetic field gradient and the pressure gradient have the same sense
Compact toroid fueling of the TdeV tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, F.; Raman, R.; Xiao, C.; Thomas, J.
1993-01-01
Compact toroids have been proposed as a means of centrally fueling tokamak reactors because of the high velocity to which they can be accelerated. These are cold (T e ∼ 10 eV), high density (n e > 10 20 m -3 ) spheromak plasmoids that are accelerated in a magnetized Marshall gun. As a proof of principle experiment, a compact toroid fueler (CTF) has been developed for injection into the TdeV tokamak. The engineering goals of the experiment are to measure and minimize the impurity content of the CT plasma and the neutral gas remaining after CT formation. Also of importance is the effect of CT central fueling on the tokamak density profile and bootstrap current, and the relaxation rate of the density profile providing information on the confinement time of the CT fuel
On the radiation of electric, magnetic and toroidal dipoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, G.N.; Stepanovskij, Yu.P.
2002-01-01
We consider the radiation of electric, magnetic and toroidal dipoles uniformly moving in unbounded medium (this corresponds to the Tamm-Frank problem). The densities of these dipoles are obtained from the corresponding charge-current densities in an infinitesimal limit. The behaviour of radiation intensities in the neighbourhood of the Cherenkov threshold β = 1/n is investigated. The frequency and velocity regions are defined where radiation intensities are maximal. The comparison with previous attempts is given. We consider also the radiation of electric, magnetic and toroidal dipoles uniformly moving in medium, in a finite space interval (this corresponds to the Tamm problem). The properties of radiation arising from the precession of a magnetic dipole are studied
On the Radiation of Electric, Magnetic and Toroidal Dipoles
Afanasiev, G N
2002-01-01
We consider the radiation of electric, magnetic and toroidal dipoles uniformly moving in unbounded medium (this corresponds to the Tamm-Frank problem). The densities of these dipoles are obtained from the corresponding charge-current densities in an infinitesimal limit. The behaviour of radiation intensities in the neighbourhood of the Cherenkov threshold beta=1/n is investigated. The frequency and velocity regions are defined where radiation intensities are maximal. The comparison with previous attempts is given. We consider also the radiation of electric, magnetic and toroidal dipoles uniformly moving in medium, in a finite space interval (this corresponds to the Tamm problem). The properties of radiation arising from the precession of a magnetic dipole are studied.
Poloidal and toroidal heat flux distribution in the CCT tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, M.L.; Dhir, V.K.; Taylor, R.J.
1990-01-01
Plasma heat flux to the Faraday shield panels of the UCLA Continuous Current Tokamak (CCT) has been measured calorimetrically in order to identify the dominant parameters affecting the spatial distribution of heat deposition. Three heating methods were investigated: audio frequency discharge cleaning, RF heating, and AC ohmic. Significant poloidal asymmetry is present in the heat flux distribution. On the average, the outer panels received 25-30% greater heat flux than the inner ones, with the ratio of maximum to minimum values attaining a difference of more than a factor of 2. As a diagnostic experiment the current to a selected toroidal field coil was reduced in order to locally deflect the toroidal field lines outward in a ripple-like fashion. Greatly enhanced heat deposition (up to a factor of 4) was observed at this location on the outside Faraday panels. The enhancement was greatest for conditions of low toroidal field and low neutral pressure, leading to low plasma densities, for which Coulomb collisions are the smallest. An exponential model based on a heat flux e-folding length describes the experimentally found localization of thermal energy quite adequately. (orig.)
OCLATOR (One Coil Low Aspect Toroidal Reactor)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshikawa, S.
1980-02-01
A new approach to construct a tokamak-type reactor(s) is presented. Basically the return conductors of toroidal field coils are eliminated and the toroidal field coil is replaced by one single large coil, around which there will be placed several tokamaks or other toroidal devices. The elimination of return conductors should, in addition to other advantages, improve the accessibility and maintainability of the tokamaks and offer a possible alternative to the search for special materials to withstand large neutron wall loading, as the frequency of changeover would be increased due to minimum downtime. It also makes it possible to have a low aspect ratio tokamak which should improve the β limit, so that a low toroidal magnetic field strength might be acceptable, meaning that the NbTi superconducting wire could be used. This system is named OCLATOR
LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch programme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1979-01-01
The determination of the absolute energy loss due to radiation from impurities in the LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch experiment ZT-S is reported. The measurements show that over half the energy loss is accounted for by this mechanism. Thomson-scattering electron density measurements indicate only a gradual increase in temperature as the filling pressure is reduced, indicating an increased energy loss at lower pressures. Cylindrical and toroidal simulations of the experiment indicate either that a highly radiative pinch boundary or anomalous transport is needed to match the experimental results. New effects on the equilibrium due to plasma flows induced by the toroidal geometry are predicted by the toroidal simulations. The preliminary results on the low-temperature discharge cleaning of the ZT-S torus are reported. A description of the upgrade of the ZT-S experiment and the objectives, construction and theoretical predictions for the new ZT-40 experiment are given. (author)
LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.A.; Buchenauer, C.J.; Burkhardt, L.C.
1978-01-01
The determination of the absolute energy loss due to radiation from impurities in the LASL toroidal reversed-field pinch experiment ZT-S is reported. The measurements show over half of the energy loss is accounted for by this mechanism. Thomson scattering electron density measurements indicate only a gradual increase in temperature as the filling pressure is reduced indicating an increased energy loss at lower pressures. Cylindrical and toroidal simulations of the experiment indicate either that a highly radiative pinch boundary or anomalous transport are needed to match the experimental results. New effects on the equilibrium due to plasma flows induced by the toroidal geometry are predicted by the toroidal simulations. The preliminary results on the low temperature discharge cleaning of the ZT-S torus are reported. A description of the upgrade of the ZT-S experiment and the objectives, construction and theoretical predictions for the new ZT-40 experiment are given
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adi, Wisnu Ari; Sukirman, Engkir; Winatapura, Didin S.
2000-01-01
Technique of critical current density measurement (Jc) of HTc bulk ceramic superconductor has been performed by using linear extrapolation with four-point probes method. The measurement of critical current density HTc bulk ceramic superconductor usually causes damage in contact resistance. In order to decrease this damage factor, we introduce extrapolation method. The extrapolating data show that the critical current density Jc for YBCO (123) and BSCCO (2212) at 77 K are 10,85(6) Amp.cm - 2 and 14,46(6) Amp.cm - 2, respectively. This technique is easier, simpler, and the use of the current flow is low, so it will not damage the contact resistance of the sample. We expect that the method can give a better solution for bulk superconductor application. Key words. : superconductor, critical temperature, and critical current density
Critical current measurement in superconducting rings using an automatic inductive technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez-Jorge, H.; Linares, B.; Quelle, I.; Carballo, E.; Romani, L.; Domarco, G.
2007-01-01
A measurement technique was developed to identify the critical current of superconducting rings. It is based on the detection of the voltage on a secondary coil when the current induced in the superconductor by a primary one go beyond to the critical value. The technique uses a DC power supply to control the AC current circulating by the primary circuit. Such circuit mainly consists on an AC power supply which gives a constant AC voltage, a primary inducting coil and a control coil with iron core. The AC current circulating by this circuit is modified with the change in the impedance of the control coil due to the fact of the DC current supplied by the power supply in parallel with it
Bow-shaped toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonanos, P.
1981-05-01
Design features of Bow-Shaped Toroidal Field Coils are described and compared with circular and D shaped coils. The results indicate that bow coils can produce higher field strengths, store more energy and be made demountable. The design offers the potential for the production of ultrahigh toroidal fields. Included are representative coil shapes and their engineering properties, a suggested structural design and an analysis of a specific case
Unstable universal drift eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chen, L.
1979-08-01
The eigenmode equation describing ballooning collisionless drift instabilities is analyzed both analytically and numerically. A new branch of eigenmodes, which corresponds to quasi-bound states due to the finite toroidicity, is shown to be destabilized by electron Landau damping for typical Tokamak parameters. This branch cannot be understood by the strong coupling approximation. However, the slab-like (Pearlstein-Berk type) branch is found to remain stable and experience enhanced shear damping due to finite toroidicity
Viscous damping of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Tech Fusion Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2014-09-15
The Braginskii viscous stress tensor formalism was generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry in order to provide a representation for the viscous damping of toroidal rotation in tokamaks arising from various “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. In the process, it was verified that the parallel viscosity contribution to damping toroidal angular momentum still vanishes even in the presence of toroidal asymmetries, unless there are 3D radial magnetic fields.
Low-n shear Alfven spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.
1985-11-01
In toroidal plasmas, the toroidal magnetic field is nonuniform over a magnetic surface and causes coupling of different poloidal harmonics. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the toroidicity not only breaks up the shear Alfven continuous spectrum, but also creates new, discrete, toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the continuum gaps. Potential applications of the low-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes on plasma heating and instabilities are addressed. 17 refs., 4 figs
Celebrating the Barrel Toroid commissioning
Peter Jenni
ATLAS invited Funding Agency representatives and Laboratory Heads directly related to the funding and construction of the Barrel Toroid for a small ceremony on 13th December 2006 at Point 1, in order to mark the successful first full excitation of the BT (see last eNews). On that date, which was during the December CERN Council week, several of the Funding Agency Heads or their representatives could be present, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. Speeches were delivered by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni thanking the Funding Partners in the name of the Collaboration, by Magnet Project Leader Herman ten Kate tracing the BT construction history, and by the CERN Director-General Robert Aymar congratulating all those who have contributed to the successful project. Herman ten Kate addressing the delegates. The text of the introductory address by Peter Jenni is reproduced here. "It is a great pleasure for me to welcome you all here...
Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punjabi, A.
1989-12-01
When the magnetic moment of particle is conserved, there are three mechanisms which cause anomalous transport. These are: variation of magnetic field strength in flux surface, variation of electrostatic potential in flux surface, and destruction of flux surface. The anomalous transport of different groups of particles resulting from each of these mechanisms is different. This fact can be exploited to determine the cause of transport operative in an experimental situation. This approach can give far more information on the transport than the standard confinement time measurements. To implement this approach, we have developed Monte Carlo codes for toroidal geometries. The equations of motion are developed in a set of non-canonical, practical Boozer co-ordinates by means of Jacobian transformations of the particle drift Hamiltonian equations of motion. Effects of collisions are included by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion. Effects of the loop voltage on particle motions are also included. We plan to apply our method to study two problems: the problem of the hot electron tail observed in edge region of ZT-40, and the energy confinement time in TOKAPOLE II. For the ZT-40 problem three situations will be considered: a single mode in the core, a stochastic region that covers half the minor radius, a stochastic region that covers the entire plasma. A turbulent spectrum of perturbations based on the experimental data of TOKAPOLE II will be developed. This will be used to simulate electron transport resulting from ideal instabilities and resistive instabilities in TOKAPOLE II
Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punjabi, A.
1991-01-01
We have developed a Monte Carlo method to estimate the transport of different groups of particles for plasmas in toroidal geometries. This method can determine the important transport mechanisms driving the anomalous transport by comparing the numerical results with the experimental data. The important groups of particles whose transport can be estimated by this method include runaway electrons, thermal electrons, both passing and trapped diagnostic beam ions etc. The three basic mechanisms driving the anomalous transport are: spatial variation of magnetic field strength, spatial variation of electrostatic potential within the flux surfaces, and the loss of flux surfaces. The equation of motion are obtained from the drift hamiltonian. The equations of motion are developed in the canonical and in the non-canonical, practical co-ordinates as well. The effects of collisions are represented by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion at each time-step. Here we present the results of application of this method to three cases: superathermal alphas in the rippled field of tokamaks, motion in the magnetic turbulence of takapole II, and transport in the stochastic fields of ZT40. This work is supported by DOE OFE and ORAU HBCU program
Kirsch, Andrew J; Arlen, Angela M; Lackgren, Goran
2014-08-01
To determine the current preferred injection technique(s) for endoscopic management of pediatric vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Since the approval of dextranomer hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA) in 2001, injection methods have evolved and now include the hydrodistention implantation technique (HIT) and double HIT as well as subureteral transurethral injection (STING) method. In July 2012, 278 pediatric urologists in the United States were contacted to complete a 15-question survey regarding Dx/HA injection technique(s) currently used in their practice. Fifty board-certified pediatric urologists completed the survey for a response rate of 18%. Most respondents (60%) were in a single-specialty group practice, and 12% were affiliated with an academic- or university-based practice. Respondents reported seeing a mean of 159 pediatric patients (range, 40-400 patients) with VUR annually, and 94% used Dx/HA ≥4 times in the past year. Forty-seven respondents (94%) reported using double HIT over the course of their career compared with 36 (72%) for STING and 30 (60%) for HIT (P injection techniques. A significantly higher percentage currently perform double HIT (92%) compared with either STING (24%) or HIT (34%; P <.001). Respondents reported the use of double HIT 15 times more often than STING technique and 5 times more often than HIT during the past 12 months (P <.001). The double HIT method is currently the most commonly performed technique for endoscopic correction of VUR by pediatric urologists in the United States. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Non-Solenoidal Startup Research Directions on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
Fonck, R. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Lewicki, B. T.; Reusch, J. A.; Winz, G. R.
2017-10-01
The Pegasus research program has been focused on developing a physical understanding and predictive models for non-solenoidal tokamak plasma startup using Local Helicity Injection (LHI). LHI employs strong localized electron currents injected along magnetic field lines in the plasma edge that relax through magnetic turbulence to form a tokamak-like plasma. Pending approval, the Pegasus program will address a broader, more comprehensive examination of non-solenoidal tokamak startup techniques. New capabilities may include: increasing the toroidal field to 0.6 T to support critical scaling tests to near-NSTX-U field levels; deploying internal plasma diagnostics; installing a coaxial helicity injection (CHI) capability in the upper divertor region; and deploying a modest (200-400 kW) electron cyclotron RF capability. These efforts will address scaling of relevant physics to higher BT, separate and comparative studies of helicity injection techniques, efficiency of handoff to consequent current sustainment techniques, and the use of ECH to synergistically improve the target plasma for consequent bootstrap and neutral beam current drive sustainment. This has an ultimate goal of validating techniques to produce a 1 MA target plasma in NSTX-U and beyond. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.
Development of Eddy Current Technique for Reactor In-Core Flux Thimble Wear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, S. S.; Jang, Y. Y.; Yim, C. Y.; Park, K. H.
1990-01-01
Since in-core flux thimble tube wear the due to flow-induced vibration could degrade the integrity of nuclear reactor, the effective detection and interpretation of the wear is important. In order to establish an inspection technique for thimble tubes, an eddy current experiment was performed to determine the optimum test frequency, defect sensitivity and evaluation accuracy. Eddy current probes were designed and fabricated with a theory. Specimens with artificial defects were fabricated using electro discharge machining method. The results from inspection technique developed and on-site inspection showed good applicability
Nondestructive evaluation of a cermet coating using ultrasonic and eddy current techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roge, B.; Fahr, A.; Giguere, J.S.R.; McRae, K.I.
2002-01-01
This paper describes a series of experiments conducted to characterize cermet coatings using conventional ultrasonic and eddy current techniques as well as an ultrasonic leaky surface wave method. The results demonstrate the ability of these techniques to detect the presence of artificial defects on the surface or beneath the surface of the coating. In addition, ultrasonic tests in particular ultrasonic leaky surface waves demonstrate the ability to detect the presence of manufacturing flaws. Ultrasonic time-of-flight and eddy current quadrature measurements also show sensitivity to variations in coating thickness
Rotating field current drive in spherical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brotherton-Ratcliffe, D.; Storer, R.G.
1988-01-01
The technique of driving a steady Hall current in plasmas using a rotating magnetic field is studied both numerically and analytically in the approximation of negligible ion flow. A spherical plasma bounded by an insulating wall and immersed in a uniform magnetic field which has both a rotating component (for current drive) and a constant ''vertical'' component (for MHD equilibrium) is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of an expansion of field quantities in vector spherical harmonics. The numerical code SPHERE solves the resulting pseudo-harmonic equations by a multiple shooting technique. The results presented, in addition to being relevant to non-inductive current drive generally, have a direct relevance to the rotamak experiments. For the case of no applied vertical field the steady state toroidal current driven by the rotating field per unit volume of plasma is several times less than in the long cylinder limit for a plasma of the same density, resistivity and radius. The application of a vertical field, which for certain parameter regimes gives rise to a compact torus configuration, improves the current drive dramatically and in many cases gives ''better'' current drive than the long cylinder limit. This result is also predicted by a second order perturbation analysis of the pseudo-harmonic equations. A steady state toroidal field is observed which appears consistent with experimental observations in rotamaks regarding magnitude and spatial dependence. This is an advance over previous analytical theory which predicted an oppositely directed toroidal field of undefined magnitude. (author)
Study of pulse stretching in high current power supplies using multipulse techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trendler, R.C.
1977-01-01
Considerable interest exists at Fermilab to increase the pulse width of the Neutrino Focusing Horn to permit an increase in beam spill length from twenty (20) microseconds to one (1) millisecond. Two techniques to do this were examined: (1) a high current transformer, and (2) increased bank capacitance using the multi-power supply technique. The transformer is the most straightforward conceptually; it is, however, a complicated device requiring sizable changes to the existing horn power supply. This alternative is briefly reviewed. The second scheme involves pulsing a 20 kv 200 ka power supply to establish the required load current and then maintaining this current by the sequential pulsing of a number of low voltage high current power supplies. This alternative is discussed in detail with the results of tests performed on the Fermilab Focusing Horn System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pua, Uei; Tan, Cher Heng [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore (Singapore); Ho, Hee Hwa; Tan, Julian Ko Beng; Ong, Paul Jau Leong [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Singapore (Singapore)
2014-08-28
Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is an emerging technique in the treatment of resistant hypertension, most commonly performed using an endovascular approach. Clinical and anatomical criteria for RDN are well established and imaging plays an integral role in selecting patients with suitable anatomy, procedural planning and device selection. Nevertheless, the current body of literature surrounding imaging related to RDN remains limited. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the expectations and limitations of various imaging techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, MR angiography and newer techniques such as non-contrast MR angiography, in the context of RDN. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pua, Uei; Tan, Cher Heng; Ho, Hee Hwa; Tan, Julian Ko Beng; Ong, Paul Jau Leong
2015-01-01
Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) is an emerging technique in the treatment of resistant hypertension, most commonly performed using an endovascular approach. Clinical and anatomical criteria for RDN are well established and imaging plays an integral role in selecting patients with suitable anatomy, procedural planning and device selection. Nevertheless, the current body of literature surrounding imaging related to RDN remains limited. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the expectations and limitations of various imaging techniques, including Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, MR angiography and newer techniques such as non-contrast MR angiography, in the context of RDN. (orig.)
Detection and Sizing of Fatigue Cracks in Steel Welds with Advanced Eddy Current Techniques
Todorov, E. I.; Mohr, W. C.; Lozev, M. G.
2008-02-01
Butt-welded specimens were fatigued to produce cracks in the weld heat-affected zone. Advanced eddy current (AEC) techniques were used to detect and size the cracks through a coating. AEC results were compared with magnetic particle and phased-array ultrasonic techniques. Validation through destructive crack measurements was also conducted. Factors such as geometry, surface treatment, and crack tightness interfered with depth sizing. AEC inspection techniques have the potential of providing more accurate and complete sizing flaw data for manufacturing and in-service inspections.
Procedures for parametric studies of costs of superconducting toroidal test assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, P.B.
1976-05-01
A cost scaling procedure, based on a detailed reference conceptual design, has been developed to determine the effects of variations in the characteristic parameters of superconducting toroidal field coils on project costs. The primary purpose was to provide reasonably simple rational formulae for obtaining approximate costs of a complete installation, focusing on the trends and sensitivities of costs to changes in various parameters such as field strength, coil size, number of coils, and current density rather than establishing absolute costs. No results are included here because early studies applying these procedures are no longer pertinent to the present Superconducting Magnet Development Program. However, planning for the Large Coil Project and the preliminary conceptual design of the Technology Test Assembly with Plasma have employed the techniques described and results will be reported in the appropriate project documents
Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazzaro, E., E-mail: lazzaro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR (Italy)
2016-05-15
In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co-I{sub p} direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P{sub RF} absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.
Curvature-induced electrostatic drift modes in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venema, M.
1985-01-01
This thesis deals with a number of problems in the theory of linear stability of a hot, fully ionized plasma immersed in a strong magnetic field. The most widely used system to magnetically confine a plasma is the tokamak. This is a toroidal, current carrying device with a strong, externally imposed, magnetic field. The author discusses the linear theory of unstable, low-frequency waves in the gradient region, restricted to electrostatic waves. In that case the resulting radial fluxes of particles and energy are due to electric cross-field drifts. In the presence of magnetic fluctuations and small-scale reconnection phenomena, radial transport could also be predominantly along field lines. At present, it is not clear which of the two mechanisms is the dominant feature of the observed anomalous transport. First, the author introduces the theory of drift waves in toroidal geometry. Next, the electrostratic drift modes in toroidal geometry (weakly collisional regime), the equations for low-frequency waves in the strongly collisional regime and the electrostatic drift modes (strongly collisional regime) are discussed. (Auth.)
Experimental study of high beta toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kellman, A.G.
1983-09-01
Experiments on the Wisconsin Levitated Toroidal Octupole have produced a wide range of stable high β plasmas with β significantly above single fluid MHD theory predictions. A stable β approx. 8% plasma, twice the fluid limit, is obtained with 5 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/ and tau/sub β/ approx. = 6000 tau/sub Alfven/ = 600 μsec. The enhanced stability is explained with a kinetic treatment that includes the effect of finite ion gyroradius which couples the ballooning mode to an ion drift wave. In a more collisional, large gyroradius (2 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/) regime, a stable β approx. 35% plasma is obtained with a decay time of 1000 Alfven times. Measurement of the equilibrium magnetic field in this regime indicates that the diamagnetic current density is five times smaller than predicted by ideal MHD, probably due to ion gyroviscosity. Particle transport is anomalous and ranges from agreement with the classical diffusion rate at the highest beta, lowest field plasma (B/sub P/ = 200 G), to thirteen times the classical rate in a β=11%, high field plasma (B/sub P/ = 860 G) where the level of enhancement increase with magnetic field. Fluctuations in density, electrostatic potential, and magnetic field have been studied in plasmas with β from 0.1% to 40%
Formation of compact toroidal configurations for magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuentes, N.O.; Rodrigo, A.B.
1986-01-01
The formation stage of inverted magnetic field toroidal configurations (FRC) for hot plasmas confinement using a low energy linear theta pinch is studied. The diagnostic techniques used are based on optical spectroscopy, ultrarapid photography, magnetic probes and excluded flux compensated bonds. The generalities of the present research program, the used diagnostic techniques and the results obtained are discussed. (Author)
Current techniques in postmortem imaging with specific attention to paediatric applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Rijn, Rick R. van
2010-01-01
In this review we discuss the decline of and current controversies regarding conventional autopsies and the use of postmortem radiology as an adjunct to and a possible alternative for the conventional autopsy. We will address the radiological techniques and applications for postmortem imaging in children. (orig.)
Current techniques in postmortem imaging with specific attention to paediatric applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Pathology and Toxicology, The Hague (Netherlands)
2010-02-15
In this review we discuss the decline of and current controversies regarding conventional autopsies and the use of postmortem radiology as an adjunct to and a possible alternative for the conventional autopsy. We will address the radiological techniques and applications for postmortem imaging in children. (orig.)
Krauter, N.; Stefani, F.
2017-10-01
Eddy current flow meters are widely used for measuring the flow velocity of electrically conducting fluids. Since the flow induced perturbations of a magnetic field depend both on the geometry and the conductivity of the fluid, extensive calibration is needed to get accurate results. Transient eddy current flow metering has been developed to overcome this problem. It relies on tracking the position of an impressed eddy current system that is moving with the same velocity as the conductive fluid. We present an immersed version of this measurement technique and demonstrate its viability by numerical simulations and a first experimental validation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krauter, N; Stefani, F
2017-01-01
Eddy current flow meters are widely used for measuring the flow velocity of electrically conducting fluids. Since the flow induced perturbations of a magnetic field depend both on the geometry and the conductivity of the fluid, extensive calibration is needed to get accurate results. Transient eddy current flow metering has been developed to overcome this problem. It relies on tracking the position of an impressed eddy current system that is moving with the same velocity as the conductive fluid. We present an immersed version of this measurement technique and demonstrate its viability by numerical simulations and a first experimental validation. (paper)
FMIT direct-current beam monitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brousseau, A.T.; Chamberlin, D.D.
1981-01-01
The prototype injector section for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory requires that beam parameters be noninterceptively monitored. This report describes the application of a single toroidal core, coupled with very simple circuitry, that results in the production of a simple instrument, and eliminates the problems inherent in the Faraday cup technique for the current measurements of the FMIT injector beam
On the estimation of the current density in space plasmas: Multi- versus single-point techniques
Perri, Silvia; Valentini, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Reda, Antonio; Malara, Francesco
2017-06-01
Thanks to multi-spacecraft mission, it has recently been possible to directly estimate the current density in space plasmas, by using magnetic field time series from four satellites flying in a quasi perfect tetrahedron configuration. The technique developed, commonly called ;curlometer; permits a good estimation of the current density when the magnetic field time series vary linearly in space. This approximation is generally valid for small spacecraft separation. The recent space missions Cluster and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) have provided high resolution measurements with inter-spacecraft separation up to 100 km and 10 km, respectively. The former scale corresponds to the proton gyroradius/ion skin depth in ;typical; solar wind conditions, while the latter to sub-proton scale. However, some works have highlighted an underestimation of the current density via the curlometer technique with respect to the current computed directly from the velocity distribution functions, measured at sub-proton scales resolution with MMS. In this paper we explore the limit of the curlometer technique studying synthetic data sets associated to a cluster of four artificial satellites allowed to fly in a static turbulent field, spanning a wide range of relative separation. This study tries to address the relative importance of measuring plasma moments at very high resolution from a single spacecraft with respect to the multi-spacecraft missions in the current density evaluation.
Development of an eddy current inspection technique for sleeved engine disk bolt holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palanisamy, R.; Lakin, K.M.
1983-01-01
Recent research programs have concentrated mainly on developing techniques to characterize surface breaking cracks and very little has been done towards characterizing subsurface flaws in conducting materials. Presented in this paper are the results of some initial theoretical work aimed at the development of a reliable eddy current technique to detect and characterize defects in engine disk bolt holes under a 0.05'' stainless steel sleeve. The change in impedance of an absolute eddy current coil with and without ferrite core, and the distribution of eddy currents around a second layer crack with and without a thin insulating film between the two conducting layers have been predicted numerically. The overall system development goals and methods to accomplish them are outlined briefly
Application of an eddy current technique to steam generator U-bend characterization. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cramer, W.E.; de la Pintiere, L.; Narita, S.; Bergander, M.J.
1982-04-01
Eddy current nondestructive testing techniques are used widely throughout the utility industry for the early detection of tube damage in critical power plant components such as steam generators. In this project, the application of an eddy current technique for the characterization of U-bend transitions in the first row tubing in Westinghouse 51 Series Steam Generators has been investigated. A method has been developed for detection of the opposite transition in the U-bend and for defining its severity. Investigation included two different types of U-bend transitions. Using the developed eddy current method for U-bend characterization, on-site inspection was performed on all tubes in the first row in four 51 Series steam generators in Power Plant Unit No. 2 and in one 51 Series steam generator in Power Plant Unit No. 1. The advantages and limitations of the developed method as well as the recommendations for further investigations are included
Current activities in development of PIE techniques in JMTR hot laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Toshimitsu; Ohmi, Masao; Shimizu, Michio; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi
2006-01-01
A wide variety of post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) for research and development of nuclear fuels and materials to be utilized in nuclear field has been carried out since 1971 in three kinds of β-γ hot cells; concrete, lead and steel cells in the JMTR Hot Laboratory (JMTR HL) associated with the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). In addition to PIEs, the re-capsuling work including re-instrumentation was also conducted for the power ramping tests of the irradiated LWR fuels using Boiling Water Capsule (BOCA). Recently, new PIE techniques are required for the advanced irradiation studies. In this paper, the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) growth test technique of irradiated in-core structural materials and the remote operation technique of the atomic force microscope (AFM) are described as JMTR HL's current activities in the development of new PIE techniques. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chavez A, E.; Melendez L, L.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Lopez C, R.; Gaytan G, E
1991-07-15
The charged particles that constitute the plasma in the tokamaks are located in magnetic fields that determine its behavior. The poloidal magnetic field of the plasma current and the toroidal magnetic field of the tokamak possess relatively big gradients, which produce drifts on these particles. These drifts are largely the cause of the continuous lost of particles and of energy of the confinement region. In this work the results of numerical calculations of a modification to the 'traditional' toroidal magnetic field that one waits it diminishes the drifts by gradient and improve the confinement properties of the tokamaks. (Author)
Long-wavelength microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, W.W.; Rewoldt, G.
1993-01-01
Realistic kinetic toroidal eigenmode calculations have been carried out to support a proper assessment of the influence of long-wavelength microturbulence on transport in tokamak plasmas. In order to efficiently evaluate large-scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces, significant improvements have been made to a toroidal finite element code used to analyze the fully two-dimensional (r,θ) mode structures of trapped-ion and toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. It is found that even at very long wavelengths, these eigenmodes exhibit a strong ballooning character with the associated radial structure relatively insensitive to ion Landau damping at the rational surfaces. In contrast to the long-accepted picture that the radial extent of trapped-ion instabilities is characterized by the ion-gyroradius-scale associated with strong localization between adjacent rational surfaces, present results demonstrate that under realistic conditions, the actual scale is governed by the large-scale variations in the equilibrium gradients. Applications to recent measurements of fluctuation properties in TFTR L-mode plasmas indicate that the theoretical trends appear consistent with spectral characteristics as well as rough heuristic estimates of the transport level. Benchmarking calculations in support of the development of a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic code indicate reasonable agreement with respect to both the properties of the eigenfunctions and the magnitude of the eigenvalues during the linear phase of the simulations of toroidal ITG instabilities
Air core poloidal magnetic field system for a toroidal plasma producing device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcus, F.B.
1978-01-01
A poloidal magnetics system for a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration is provided that reduces both the total volt-seconds requirement and the magnitude of the field change at the toroidal field coils. The system utilizes an air core transformer wound between the toroidal field (TF) coils and the major axis outside the TF coils. Electric current in the primary windings of this transformer is distributed and the magnetic flux returned by air core windings wrapped outside the toroidal field coils. A shield winding that is closely coupled to the plasma carries a current equal and opposite to the plasma current. This winding provides the shielding function and in addition serves in a fashion similar to a driven conducting shell to provide the equilibrium vertical field for the plasma. The shield winding is in series with a power supply and a decoupling coil located outside the TF coil at the primary winding locations. The present invention requires much less energy than the usual air core transformer and is capable of substantially shielding the toroidal field coils from poloidal field flux
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Niranjan
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This paper introduces a new approach for enhancing the bandwidth of a low voltage CMOS current mirror. The proposed approach is based on utilizing body effect in a MOS transistor by connecting its gate and bulk terminals together for signal input. This results in boosting the effective transconductance of MOS transistor along with reduction of the threshold voltage. The proposed approach does not affect the DC gain of the current mirror. We demonstrate that the proposed approach features compatibility with widely used series-resistor technique for enhancing the current mirror bandwidth and both techniques have been employed simultaneously for maximum bandwidth enhancement. An important consequence of using both techniques simultaneously is the reduction of the series-resistor value for achieving the same bandwidth. This reduction in value is very attractive because a smaller resistor results in smaller chip area and less noise. PSpice simulation results using 180 nm CMOS technology from TSMC are included to prove the unique results. The proposed current mirror operates at 1Volt consuming only 102 µW and maximum bandwidth extension ratio of 1.85 has been obtained using the proposed approach. Simulation results are in good agreement with analytical predictions.
Motor current and leakage flux signature analysis technique for condition monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pillai, M.V.; Moorthy, R.I.K.; Mahajan, S.C.
1994-01-01
Till recently analysis of vibration signals was the only means available to predict the state of health of plant equipment. Motor current and leakage magnetic flux signature analysis is acquiring importance as a technique for detection of incipient damages in the electrical machines and as a supplementary technique for diagnostics of driven equipment such as centrifugal and reciprocating pumps. The state of health of the driven equipment is assessed by analysing time signal, frequency spectrum and trend analysis. For example, the pump vane frequency, piston stroke frequency, gear frequency and bearing frequencies are indicated in the current and flux spectra. By maintaining a periodic record of the amplitudes of various frequency lines in the frequency spectra, it is possible to understand the trend of deterioration of parts and components of the pump. All problems arising out of inappropriate mechanical alignment of vertical pumps are easily identified by a combined analysis of current, flux and vibration signals. It is found that current signature analysis technique is a sufficient method in itself for the analysis of state of health of reciprocating pumps and compressors. (author). 10 refs., 4 figs
Eigenvalues of relaxed toroidal plasmas of arbitrary sharp edged cross sections. Vol. 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khalil, Sh M [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)
1996-03-01
Relaxed (force-free) toroidal plasmas described by the equations cur 1 B={mu}B, and grad {mu}=O (B is the magnetic field) induces interest in nuclear fusion. Its solution is perceived to describe the gross of the reversed field pinch (RFP), spheromak configuration, current limitation in toroidal plasmas, and others. The parameter {mu} plays an important roll in relaxed states. It cannot exceed the smallest eigenvalue {mu} (min), and that for a toroidal discharge there is a maximum toroidal current which is connected to this value. The values of{mu} were calculated numerically, using the methods of collocation points, for toroids of arbitrary aspect ratio {alpha} ({alpha} = R/a, ratio of major/minor radii of tokamak) and arbitrary curved cross-sections (circle, ellipse, cassini, and D-shaped). The aim of present work is to prove the applicability of the numerical methods for calculating the eigenvalues for toroidal plasmas having sharp edged cross sections and arbitrary aspect ratio. The lowest eigenvalue {mu} (min), satisfy the boundary condition {beta} .n = O (or RB. = O) for which the toroidal flux are calculated. These are the zero field eigenvalues of the equation cur 1 b={mu}B. The poloidal magnetic field lines corresponding to different cross sections are shown by plotting the boundary condition B.n=O. The plots showed good fulfillment of the boundary condition along the whole boundaries of different cross sections. Dependence of eigenvalues {mu}a on aspect ratio {alpha} is also obtained. Several runs of the programme with various wave numbers K showed that {mu}a is very insensitive to the choice of K. 8 figs.
Current status on techniques for determining paleo-temperature using geothermometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanazawa, Sunao; Oikawa, Teruki; Umeda, Koji; Tomiyama, Shingo
2005-01-01
Development of the research technologies for geotectonic events has been carried out to evaluate the long-term stability of geological environment. In terms of the effects of geothermal activity, it is necessary to estimate the geothermal regime and thermal history on any given site. This paper describes the current status on techniques for determining paleo-temperature using geothermometer, and presents a concept of the systematic research techniques. The application of geothermometer, especially thermochronology, has been effective in the studies on the cooling history of geological body and the paleo-geothermal structure at depth. (author)
Toroidal mode-conversion in the ICRF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaun, A.; Hellsten, T.; Chiu, S.C.
1997-08-01
Mode-conversion is studied in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) taking into account the toroidal geometry relevant for tokamaks. The global wavefields obtained using the gyrokinetic toroidal PENN code illustrate how the fast wave propagates to the neighborhood of the ion-ion hybrid resonance, where it is converted to a slow wave which deposits the wave energy through resonant interactions with the particles. The power deposition profiles obtained are dramatically different from the toroidal resonance absorption, showing that Budden's model is not a good approximation in the torus. Radially and poloidally localized wavefield structures characteristic of slow wave eigenmodes are predicted and could in experiments be driven to large amplitudes so as to interact efficiently with fast particles. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 48 refs
Guiding Center Equations in Toroidal Equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, Roscoe; Zakharov, Leonid
2002-01-01
Guiding center equations for particle motion in a general toroidal magnetic equilibrium configuration are derived using magnetic coordinates. Previous derivations made use of Boozer coordinates, in which the poloidal and toroidal angle variables are chosen so that the Jacobian is inversely proportional to the square of the magnetic field. It is shown that the equations for guiding center motion in any equilibrium possessing nested flux surfaces have exactly the same simple form as those derived in this special case. This allows the use of more spatially uniform coordinates instead of the Boozer coordinates, greatly increasing the accuracy of calculations in large beta and strongly shaped equilibria
Toroidal Precession as a Geometric Phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.W. Burby and H. Qin
2012-09-26
Toroidal precession is commonly understood as the orbit-averaged toroidal drift of guiding centers in axisymmetric and quasisymmetric configurations. We give a new, more natural description of precession as a geometric phase effect. In particular, we show that the precession angle arises as the holonomy of a guiding center's poloidal trajectory relative to a principal connection. The fact that this description is physically appropriate is borne out with new, manifestly coordinate-independent expressions for the precession angle that apply to all types of orbits in tokamaks and quasisymmetric stellarators alike. We then describe how these expressions may be fruitfully employed in numerical calculations of precession.
Cryogenic Characteristics of the ATLAS Barrel Toroid Superconducting Magnet
Pengo, R; Delruelle, N; Pezzetti, M; Pirotte, O; Passardi, Giorgio; Dudarev, A; ten Kate, H
2008-01-01
ATLAS, one of the experiments of the LHC accelerator under commissioning at CERN, is equipped with a large superconducting magnet the Barrel Toroid (BT) that has been tested at nominal current (20500 A). The BT is composed of eight race-track superconducting coils (each one weights about 45 tons) forming the biggest air core toroidal magnet ever built. By means of a large throughput centrifugal pump, a forced flow (about 10 liter/second at 4.5 K) provides the indirect cooling of the coils in parallel. The paper describes the results of the measurements carried out on the complete cryogenic system assembled in the ATLAS cavern situated 100 m below the ground level. The measurements include, among other ones, the static heat loads, i.e., with no or constant current in the magnet, and the dynamic ones, since additional heat losses are produced, during the current ramp-up or slow dump, by eddy currents induced on the coil casing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noterdaeme, J.M.
1983-05-01
Applying the constraints to the design of a helical axis stellarator we find a limit on the combination of toroidal field, current density and major radius. Another major constraint for this concept is the ability to obtain the plasma physics parameters dictated by similarity considerations. This depends on the heating method used. A minimum scale experiment with 2 periods and no linkage of the toroidal and poloidal coils, would have a major radius of 1.2m, a toroidal field of 3.5T and 2MW of ECRH power (for β = 1% nu 2 = 10)
Position indicating split toroid for the RACE experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurst, B.; Folkman, K.
2007-01-01
Aspects of the recent reactor accelerator coupled experiments (RACE) carried out at University of Texas Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory will be discussed. In particular, a compact instrument that allowed a continuous non-invasive means of determining the relative electron beam position was developed. The operation of the instrument is similar to an inductive current pick up toroid except that the core is sectioned radially, which allows spatial information to be derived from the induced voltages. Results of initial tests, both in beam and with a pulser, will be presented along with plans to optimize future designs
Noninductively Driven Tokamak Plasmas at Near-Unity Toroidal Beta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlossberg, David J.; Bodner, Grant M.; Bongard, Michael W.; Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.
2017-01-01
Access to and characterization of sustained, toroidally confined plasmas with a very high plasma-to-magnetic pressure ratio (β t ), low internal inductance, high elongation, and nonsolenoidal current drive is a central goal of present tokamak plasma research. Stable access to this desirable parameter space is demonstrated in plasmas with ultralow aspect ratio and high elongation. Local helicity injection provides nonsolenoidal sustainment, low internal inductance, and ion heating. Equilibrium analyses indicate β t up to ~100% with a minimum |B| well spanning up to ~50% of the plasma volume.
Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Razali, Ramdan; Ali, Kharudin; Faraj, Moneer A.
2017-01-01
The use of the eddy current technique (ECT) for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT) use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM). The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient. PMID:28335399
A model for the neoclassical toroidal viscosity effect on Edge plasma toroidal rotation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miron, I.G. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Euratom-MEdC Association, Bucharest (Romania)
2013-11-15
A semianalytic expression for the edge plasma angular toroidal rotation frequency that includes the neoclassical toroidal viscosity braking influence is obtained. Based on the model presented in a previous paper [I.G. Miron, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 53, 214 (2013)], the less destabilizing error field spectrum is found in order to minimize the nonlinear effect of the NTV on the toroidal rotation of the edge of the plasma. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carpenter, K.H.
1976-11-01
A description is given of FORTRAN programs for transient eddy current calculations in thin, non-magnetic conductors using a perturbation-polynomial expansion technique. Basic equations are presented as well as flow charts for the programs implementing them. The implementation is in two steps--a batch program to produce an intermediate data file and interactive programs to produce graphical output. FORTRAN source listings are included for all program elements, and sample inputs and outputs are given for the major programs
Current techniques for visualizing RNA in cells [version 1; referees: 2 approved
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lilith V.J.C. Mannack
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Labeling RNA is of utmost interest, particularly in living cells, and thus RNA imaging is an emerging field. There are numerous methods relying on different concepts ranging from hybridization-based probes, over RNA-binding proteins to chemo-enzymatic modification of RNA. These methods have different benefits and limitations. This review aims to outline the current state-of-the-art techniques and point out their benefits and limitations.
Advantages and Limitations of Current Imaging Techniques for Characterizing Liposome Morphology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annie-Louise Robson
2018-02-01
Full Text Available There are currently a number of imaging techniques available for evaluating the morphology of liposomes and other nanoparticles, with each having its own advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when interpreting data. Controlling and validating the morphology of nanoparticles is of key importance for the effective clinical translation of liposomal formulations. There are a number of physical characteristics of liposomes that determine their in vivo behavior, including size, surface characteristics, lamellarity, and homogeneity. Despite the great importance of the morphology of nanoparticles, it is generally not well-characterized and is difficult to control. Appropriate imaging techniques provide important details regarding the morphological characteristics of nanoparticles, and should be used in conjunction with other methods to assess physicochemical parameters. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations of available imaging techniques used to evaluate liposomal formulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Duck Hoi; Cho, Seungyon; Ahn, Mu-Young; Lee, Eun-Seok; Jung, Ki Jung
2007-01-01
The allocation of components and systems to be delivered to ITER on an in-kind basis, was agreed between the ITER Parties. Among parties, Korea agreed to procure inboard blanket modules 1, 2 and 6, which consists of FW and shield block. Regarding shield block the detail design and Fabrication techniques development have been undertaken in Korea. Especially manufacturing feasibility study on shield block had been performed and some technical issues for the fabrication were selected. Based on these results, fabrication techniques using EB welding are being developed. Meanwhile, the detail design of inboard standard module has been carried out. The optimization of flow driver design to improve the cooling performance was executed. And, thermo-hydraulic analysis on half block of inboard standard module was performed. In this study, current status and some results from Fabrication techniques development on ITER blanket shield block are described. The detail design activity and results on shield block are also introduced herein. (orig.)
A Novel Sliding Mode Control Technique for Indirect Current Controlled Active Power Filter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juntao Fei
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A novel sliding mode control (SMC method for indirect current controlled three-phase parallel active power filter is presented in this paper. There are two designed closed loops in the system: one is the DC voltage controlling loop and the other is the reference current tracking loop. The first loop with a PI regulator is used to control the DC voltage approximating to the given voltage of capacitor, and the output of PI regulator through a low-pass filter is applied as the input of the power supply reference currents. The second loop implements the tracking of the reference currents using integral sliding mode controller, which can improve the harmonic treating performance. Compared with the direct current control technique, it is convenient to be implemented with digital signal processing system because of simpler system structure and better harmonic treating property. Simulation results verify that the generated reference currents have the same amplitude with the load currents, demonstrating the superior harmonic compensating effects with the proposed shunt active power filter compared with the hysteresis method.
Observations of toroidal and poloidal rotation in the high beta tokamak Torus II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostek, C.A.
1983-01-01
The macroscopic rotation of plasma in a toroidal containment device is an important feature of the equilibrium. Toroidal and poloidal rotation in the high beta tokamak Torus II is measured experimentally by examining the Doppler shift of the 4685.75 A He II line emitted from the plasma. The toroidal flow at an average velocity of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec, a small fraction of the ion thermal speed, moves in the same direction as the toroidal plasma current. The poloidal flow follows the ion diamagnetic current direction, also at an average speed of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec. In view of certain ordering parameters, the toroidal flow is compared with predictions from neoclassical theory in the collosional, Pfirsch-Schluter regime. The poloidal motion, however results from an E x B drift in a positive radial electric field, approaching a stable ambipolar state. This radial electric field is determined from theory by using the measured poloidal velocity. Mechanisms for the time evolution of rotation are also examined. It appears that the circulation damping is governed by a global decay of the temperature and density gradients which, in turn, may be functions of radiative cooling, loss of equilibrium due to external field decay, or the emergence of a growing instability, occasionally observed in CO 2 interferometry measurements
High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarke, J.F.
1978-01-01
A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results
Eddy current technique for detecting and sizing surface cracks in steel components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cecco, V.S.; Carter, J.R.; Sullivan, S.P.
1995-01-01
Cracking has occurred in pressure vessel nozzles and girth welds due to thermal fatigue. Pipe welds, welds in support structures, and welds in reactor vault liner panels in nuclear facilities have failed because of cracks. Cracking can also occur in turbine rotor bore surfaces due to high cycle fatigue. Dye penetrant, magnetic particle and other surface NDT methods are used to detect cracks but cannot be used for depth sizing. Crack depth can be measured with various NDT methods such as ultrasonic time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), potential drop, and eddy current. The TOFD technique can be difficult to implement on nozzle welds and is best suited for sizing deep cracks (>5 mm). The conventional eddy current method is easy to implement, but crack sizing is normally limited to shallow cracks ( 2 mm) cracks. Eddy current testing (ET) techniques are readily amenable to remote/automatic inspections. These new probes could augment present magnetic particle (MT) and dye penetrant (PT) testing through provision of reliable defect depth information. Reliable crack sizing permits identification of critical cracks for plant life extension and licensing purposes. In addition, performing PT and MT generates low level radioactive waste in some inspection applications in nuclear facilities. Replacing these techniques with ET for some components will eliminate some of this radioactive waste. (author)
Neoclassical Drift of Circulating Orbits Due toToroidal Electric Field in Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin, Hong; Guan, Xiaoyin; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-01-01
In tokamaks, Ware pinch is a well known neoclassical effect for trapped particles in response to a toroidal electric field. It is generally believed that there exists no similar neoclassical effect for circulating particles without collisions. However, this belief is erroneous, and misses an important effect. We show both analytically and numerically that under the influence of a toroidal electric field parallel to the current, the circulating orbits drift outward toward the outer wall with a characteristic velocity O ((var e psilon) -1 ) larger than the E x B velocity, where (var e psilon) is the inverse aspect-ratio of a tokamak. During a RF overdrive, the toroidal electric field is anti-parallel to the current. As a consequence, all charged particles, including backward runaway electrons, will drift inward towards the inner wall.
Theory of current-drive in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.
1986-12-01
The continuous operation of a tokamak fusion reactor requires, among other things, a means of providing continuous toroidal current. Such operation is preferred to the conventional pulsed operation, where the plasma current is induced by a time-varying magnetic field. A variety of methods has been proposed to provide continuous current, including methods which utilize particle beams or radio frequency waves in any of several frequency regimes. Currents as large as half a mega-amp have now been produced in the laboratory by such means, and experimentation in these techniques has now involved major tokamak facilities worldwide
Destabilization of a peeling-ballooning mode by a toroidal rotation in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiba, N.; Hirota, M.; Tokuda, S.; Furukawa, M.
2009-01-01
Full text: From the viewpoint of the heat load on the divertor, Type-I edge localized mode (ELM) needs to be suppressed or the amplitude of this ELM needs to be reduced. In JT-60U, some experimental results showed that the ELM frequency depends on the toroidal rotation, and the rapid rotation in the counter direction of the plasma current changes from Type-I ELM to Grassy ELM, whose frequency is high and the amplitude is small. Recent experimental and theoretical/numerical studies in a static system have identified that both Type-I and Grassy ELMs are considered ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes destabilizing near the plasma surface, called peeling-ballooning modes. To investigate the mechanism of the change of ELM frequency by a toroidal rotation, theoretical and numerical analyses are important for understanding the toroidal rotation effects on the peeling-ballooning mode. Previous works about the toroidal rotation effect on the edge MHD stability have illustrated that the toroidal rotation with shear can destabilize low/intermediate-n (<50) modes but can stabilize high-n modes, where n is the toroidal mode number. The stabilization of the high-n mode can be understood qualitatively in analogy with the infinite-n ballooning mode case. However, the destabilizing mechanism of the low/intermediate-n mode is not still clarified, and to understand the stability property related to ELM suppression/mitigation, it is important to clarify this destabilizing mechanism. In this paper, we investigate numerically the destabilizing effect of a toroidal rotation on the peeling-ballooning mode with a newly developed code MINERVA, which solves the Frieman-Rotenberg equation. Particularly, we pay attention to the effect of the centrifuged force on not only equilibrium but also change of equation of motion. (author)
Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Kwangmin, E-mail: kwangmin81@gmail.com [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju 780-713 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yunsang [Vector Fields Korea Inc., Pohang 790-834 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-15
Highlights: • The authors developed the 400 mH, 400 A class toroid-type HTS DC reactor system. • The target temperature, inductance and operating current are under 20 K at magnet, 400 mH and 400 A, respectively. All target performances of the HTS DC reactor were achieved. • The HTS DC reactor was conducted through the interconnection operation with a LCC type HVDC system. • Now, the authors are studying the 400 mH, 1500 A class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase HTS DC reactor. - Abstract: This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.
Development of toroid-type HTS DC reactor series for HVDC system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Kwangmin; Go, Byeong-Soo; Park, Hea-chul; Kim, Sung-kyu; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Sangjin; Oh, Yunsang; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The authors developed the 400 mH, 400 A class toroid-type HTS DC reactor system. • The target temperature, inductance and operating current are under 20 K at magnet, 400 mH and 400 A, respectively. All target performances of the HTS DC reactor were achieved. • The HTS DC reactor was conducted through the interconnection operation with a LCC type HVDC system. • Now, the authors are studying the 400 mH, 1500 A class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase HTS DC reactor. - Abstract: This paper describes design specifications and performance of a toroid-type high-temperature superconducting (HTS) DC reactor. The first phase operation targets of the HTS DC reactor were 400 mH and 400 A. The authors have developed a real HTS DC reactor system during the last three years. The HTS DC reactor was designed using 2G GdBCO HTS wires. The HTS coils of the toroid-type DC reactor magnet were made in the form of a D-shape. The electromagnetic performance of the toroid-type HTS DC reactor magnet was analyzed using the finite element method program. A conduction cooling method was adopted for reactor magnet cooling. The total system has been successfully developed and tested in connection with LCC type HVDC system. Now, the authors are studying a 400 mH, kA class toroid-type HTS DC reactor for the next phase research. The 1500 A class DC reactor system was designed using layered 13 mm GdBCO 2G HTS wire. The expected operating temperature is under 30 K. These fundamental data obtained through both works will usefully be applied to design a real toroid-type HTS DC reactor for grid application.
Quench propagation and protection analysis of the ATLAS Toroids
Dudarev, A; Gavrilin, A V; ten Kate, H H J; Baynham, D Elwyn; Courthold, M J D; Lesmond, C
2000-01-01
The ATLAS superconducting magnet system consists of the Barrel Toroid, two End Cap Toroids and the Central Solenoid. However, the Toroids of eight coils each are magnetically separate systems to the Central Solenoid. The Toroids are electrically connected in series and energized by a single power supply. The quench protection system is based on the use of relatively small external dump resistances in combination with quench-heaters activated after a quench event detection to initiate the inte...
New material equations for electromagnetism with toroid polarizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubovik, V.M.; Martsenyuk, M.A.; Saha, B.
1999-09-01
With regard to the toroid contributions, a modified system of equations of electrodynamics moving continuous media has been obtained. Alternative formalisms to introduce the toroid moment contributions in the equations of electromagnetism has been worked out. The two four-potential formalism has been developed. Lorentz transformation laws for the toroid polarizations has been given. Covariant form of equations of electrodynamics of continuous media with toroid polarizations has been written. (author)
A new circuit technique for reduced leakage current in Deep Submicron CMOS technologies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Schmitz
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Modern CMOS processes in the Deep Submicron regime are restricted to supply voltages below 2 volts and further to account for the transistors' field strength limitations and to reduce the power per logic gate. To maintain the high switching performance, the threshold voltage must be scaled according with the supply voltage. However, this leads to an increased subthreshold current of the transistors in standby mode (VGS=0. Another source of leakage is gate current, which becomes significant for gate oxides of 3nm and below. We propose a Self-Biasing Virtual Rails (SBVR - CMOS technique which acts like an adaptive local supply voltage in case of standby mode. Most important sources of leakage currents are reduced by this technique. Moreover, SBVR-CMOS is capable of conserving stored information in sleep mode, which is vital for memory circuits. Memories are exposed to radiation causing soft errors. This well-known problem becomes even worse in standby mode of typical SRAMs, that have low driving performance to withstand alpha particle hits. In this paper, a 16-transistor SRAM cell is proposed, which combines the advantage of extremely low leakage currents with a very high soft error stability.
Current status of molecular biological techniques for plant breeding in the Republic of Korea
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Si-Myung; Park, Bum-Seok; Yun, In-Sun; Goo, Doe-Hoe; Kim, Seok-Dong [Rural Development Administration, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon (Korea)
2002-02-01
Classical plant breeding has played an important role in developing new varieties in current agriculture. For decades, the technique of cross-pollination has been popular for breeding in cereal and horticultural crops to introduce special traits. However, recently the molecular techniques get widely accepted as an alternative tool in both introducing a useful trait for developing the new cultivars and investigating the characteristics of a trait in plant, like the identification of a gene. Using the advanced molecular technique, several genetically modified (GM) crops (e.g., Roundup Ready Soybean, YieldGard, LibertyLink etc.) became commercially cultivated and appeared in the global market since 1996. The GM crops, commercially available at the moment, could be regarded as successful achievements in history of crop breeding conferring the specific gene into economically valuable crops to make them better. Along with such achievements, on the other hand these new crops have also caused the controversial debate on the safety of GM crops as human consumption and environmental release as well. Nevertheless, molecular techniques are widespread and popular in both investigating the basic science of plant biology and breeding new varieties compared to their conventional counterparts. Thus, the Department of Bioresources at the National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology (NIAST) has been using the molecular biological techniques as a complimentary tool for the improvement of crop varieties for almost two decades. (author)
Woolley, Robert D.
2002-01-01
A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.
Application of numerical analysis techniques to eddy current testing for steam generator tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morimoto, Kazuo; Satake, Koji; Araki, Yasui; Morimura, Koichi; Tanaka, Michio; Shimizu, Naoya; Iwahashi, Yoichi
1994-01-01
This paper describes the application of numerical analysis to eddy current testing (ECT) for steam generator tubes. A symmetrical and three-dimensional sinusoidal steady state eddy current analysis code was developed. This code is formulated by future element method-boundary element method coupling techniques, in order not to regenerate the mesh data in the tube domain at every movement of the probe. The calculations were carried out under various conditions including those for various probe types, defect orientations and so on. Compared with the experimental data, it was shown that it is feasible to apply this code to actual use. Furthermore, we have developed a total eddy current analysis system which consists of an ECT calculation code, an automatic mesh generator for analysis, a database and display software for calculated results. ((orig.))
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiba, N.; Tokuda, S.; Oyama, N.; Ozeki, T.; Furukawa, M.
2009-01-01
Effects of a sheared toroidal rotation are investigated numerically on the stability of the MHD modes in the tokamak edge pedestal, which relate to the type-I edge-localized mode. A linear MHD stability code MINERVA is newly developed for solving the Frieman-Rotenberg equation that is the linear ideal MHD equation with flow. Numerical stability analyses with this code reveal that the sheared toroidal rotation destabilizes edge localized MHD modes for rotation frequencies which are experimentally achievable, though the ballooning mode stability changes little by rotation. This rotation effect on the edge MHD stability becomes stronger as the toroidal mode number of the unstable MHD mode increases when the stability analysis was performed for MHD modes with toroidal mode numbers smaller than 40. The toroidal mode number of the unstable MHD mode depends on the stabilization of the current-driven mode and the ballooning mode by increasing the safety factor. This dependence of the toroidal mode number of the unstable mode on the safety factor is considered to be the reason that the destabilization by toroidal rotation is stronger for smaller edge safety factors.
System for calibration of SPEAR transport line toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, T.V.; Smith, H.; Crook, K.
1977-01-01
A one nanosecond pulse generator was developed for calibration of the intensity monitors (toroids) in the SPEAR transport lines. The generator, located at the toroid, is simple, low cost and resistant to radiation. The generator and its connection to the standard SLAC toroid calibration system are described
Toroidal groups line bundles, cohomology and quasi-Abelian varieties
Kopfermann, Klaus
2001-01-01
Toroidal groups are the connecting link between torus groups and any complex Lie groups. Many properties of complex Lie groups such as the pseudoconvexity and cohomology are determined by their maximal toroidal subgroups. Quasi-Abelian varieties are meromorphically separable toroidal groups. They are the natural generalisation of the Abelian varieties. Nevertheless, their behavior can be completely different as the wild groups show.
On the stabilization of toroidal pinches by finite larmor radius effects and toroidal magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, R.; Weiland, J.
1989-01-01
The radial eigenvalue problem for internal modes in a large aspect ratio toriodal pinch has been solved. A particularly stable regime for a weak but nonzero toroidal magnetic field has been found. (31 refs.)
Anisotropic diffusion in a toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, Paul F
2005-01-01
As part of the Department of Energy's applications oriented SciDAC project, three model problems have been proposed by the Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling to test the potential of numerical algorithms for challenging magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problems that are required for future fusion development. The first of these, anisotropic diffusion in a toroidal geometry, is considered in this note
Trapped ion mode in toroidally rotating plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.
1995-04-01
The influence of radially sheared toroidal flows on the Trapped Ion Mode (TIM) is investigated using a two-dimensional eigenmode code. These radially extended toroidal microinstabilities could significantly influence the interpretation of confinement scaling trends and associated fluctuation properties observed in recent tokamak experiments. In the present analysis, the electrostatic drift kinetic equation is obtained from the general nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in rotating plasmas. In the long perpendicular wavelength limit k τ ρ bi much-lt 1, where ρ bi is the average trapped-ion banana width, the resulting eigenmode equation becomes a coupled system of second order differential equations nmo for the poloidal harmonics. These equations are solved using finite element methods. Numerical results from the analysis of low and medium toroidal mode number instabilities are presented using representative TFTR L-mode input parameters. To illustrate the effects of mode coupling, a case is presented where the poloidal mode coupling is suppressed. The influence of toroidal rotation on a TFTR L-mode shot is also analyzed by including a beam species with considerable larger temperature. A discussion of the numerical results is presented
Design of the TPX outboard toroidal limiters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaubel, K.M.; Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.
1995-01-01
The Tokamak Physics Experiment outboard limiter system incorporates the passive stabilizer plates, the ripple armor, the toroidal break and the support structures. These components are designed to withstand substantial steady state heat loads and high mechanical forces caused by plasma disruptions. The design of these components has been developed to deal with the challenging thermal, structural and remote handling requirements
Escape of magnetic toroids from the Sun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bieber, John W.; Rust, David M.
1996-01-01
Analysis of heliospheric magnetic fields at 1 AU shows that 10 24 Mx of net toroidal flux escapes from the Sun per solar cycle. This rate is compared with the apparent rate of flux emergence at the solar surface, and it is concluded that escaping toroids will remove at least 20% of the emerging flux, and may remove as much as 100% of emerging flux if multiple eruptions occur on the toroids. The data imply that flux escapes the Sun with an efficiency far exceeding Parker's upper limit estimate of 3%. Toroidal flux escape is almost certainly the source of the observed overwinding of the interplanetary magnetic field spiral. Two mechanisms to facilitate net flux escape are discussed: helicity charging to push open the fields and flux transport with reconnection to close them off. We estimate the Sun will shed ∼2x10 45 Mx 2 of magnetic helicity per solar cycle, leading to a mean helicity density of 100 Mx 2 cm -3 at 1 AU, which agrees well with observations
Toroidal 12 cavity klystron : a novel approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazarika, A.B.R.
2013-01-01
A toroidal 12 cavity klystron is designed to provide with high energy power with the high frequency microwave RF- plasma generated from it. The cavities are positioned in clock hour positions. The theoretical modeling and designing is done to study the novel approach. (author)
Celebration for the ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet
2007-01-01
Representatives from Funding Agencies and Barrel Toroid Magnet Laboratories during the ceremony. From left to right: Jean Zinn-Justin (Head of DAPNIA/CEA/Saclay), CERN Director-General Robert Aymar, and Roberto Petronzio (President INFN).Allan Clark (DPNC University Geneva) and Enrique Fernandez (IFAE Barcelona) were among the guests visiting the ATLAS cavern. The barrel toroid is visible in the background. A celebration took place at Point 1 on 13 December to toast the recent powering-up of the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet to full field (Bulletin No. 47-48/06). About 70 guests were invited to attend, mainly composed of representatives from funding partners and key members of the laboratory management teams of the barrel toroid magnet, representing CEA France, INFN Italy, BMBF Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Russia, JINR Dubna and CERN. An introductory speech by ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni the scene for evening. This was followed by the ATLAS magnet system project leader Herman Ten Kate's account of the...
Curvature driven instabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, P.
1986-11-01
The electromagnetic ballooning mode, the curvature driven trapped electron mode and the toroidally induced ion temperature gradient mode have been studies. Eigenvalue equations have been derived and solved both numerically and analytically. For electromagnetic ballooning modes the effects of convective damping, finite Larmor radius, higher order curvature terms, and temperature gradients have been investigated. A fully toroidal fluid ion model has been developed. It is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for an instability below the MHD limit is the presence of an ion temperature gradient. Analytical dispersion relations giving results in good agreement with numerical solutions are also presented. The curvature driven trapped electron modes are found to be unstable for virtually all parameters with growth rates of the order of the diamagnetic drift frequency. Studies have been made, using both a gyrokinetic ion description and the fully toroidal ion model. Both analytical and numerical results are presented and are found to be in good agreement. The toroidally induced ion temperature gradients modes are found to have a behavior similar to that of the curvature driven trapped electron modes and can in the electrostatic limit be described by a simple quadratic dispersion equation. (author)
Discussion of discrete D shape toroidal coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaiho, Katsuyuki; Ohara, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Ko; Onishi, Toshitada
1988-01-01
A novel design for a toroidal coil, called the D shape coil, was reported by J. File. The coil conductors are in pure tension and then subject to no bending moment. This leads to a smaller number of emf supports in a simpler configuration than that with the conventional toroidal coil of circular cross-section. The contours of the D shape are given as solutions of a differential equation. This equation includes the function of the magnetic field distribution in the conductor region which is inversely proportional to the winding radius. It is therefore important to use the exact magnetic field distribution. However the magnetic field distribution becomes complicated when the D shape toroidal coil is comprised of discrete coils and also depends on the D shape configuration. A theory and a computer program for designing the practical pure-tension toroidal coil are developed. Using this computer code, D shape conductors are calculated for various numbers of discrete coils and the results are compared. Electromagnetic forces in the coils are also calculated. It is shown that the hoop stress in the conductors depends only on the total ampere-turns of the coil when the contours of the D shape are similar. (author)
Inward transport of a toroidally confined plasma subject to strong radial electric fields
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J.; Kim, Y.
1977-01-01
The paper aims at showing that the density and confinement time of a toroidal plasma can be enhanced by radial electric fields far stronger than the ambipolar values, and that, if such electric fields point into the plasma, radially inward transport can result. The investigation deals with low-frequency fluctuation-induced transport using digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques and with the role of strong applied radial electric fields and weak vertical magnetic fields on plasma density and particle confinement times in a Bumpy Torus geometry. Results indicate that application of sufficiently strong radially inward electric fields results in radially inward fluctuation-induced transport into the toroidal electrostatic potential well; this inward transport gives rise to higher average electron densities and longer particle confinement times in the toroidal plasma.
Superconducting wire for the T-15 toroidal magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimenko, E.Yu.; Kruglov, V.S.; Martovetskij, N.N.
1987-01-01
Main characteristics of a wire designed for the T-15 toroidal superconducting magnet production are given. The wire with circulation cooling is a twist of 11 niobium-tin wires 1.5 mm in diameter, joined electrolytically by two copper tubes with 3 mm inside diameter. The wire is capable to carry 10 kA current in the 8.5 T induction field. Wire features and structures promote to receive high structural current density in winding: diffuseness of superconducting-to-normal transition increases wire stability, screw symmetry od a current-carrying core provides wire resistance to pulse longitudinal field effect at plasma current disruption, low bronze thermal conductivity in a twist increases stability to outside pulse perturbations
Long-wavelength microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.
1993-01-01
Realistic kinetic toroidal eigenmode calculations have been carried out to support a proper assessment of the influence of long-wavelength microturbulence on transport in tokamak plasmas. In order to efficiently evaluate large-scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces, significant improvements have been made to a toroidal finite element code used to analyze the fully two-dimensional (r,θ) mode structures of trapped-ion and toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. It is found that even at very long wavelengths, these eigenmodes exhibit a strong ballooning character with the associated radial structure relatively insensitive to ion Landau damping at the rational surfaces. In contrast to the long-accepted picture that the radial extent of trapped-ion instabilities is characterized by the ion-gyroradius-scale associated with strong localization between adjacent rational surfaces, present results demonstrate that under realistic conditions, the actual scale is governed by the large-scale variations in the equilibrium gradients. Applications to recent measurements of fluctuation properties in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 29] L-mode plasmas indicate that the theoretical trends appear consistent with spectral characteristics as well as rough heuristic estimates of the transport level. Benchmarking calculations in support of the development of a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic code indicate reasonable agreement with respect to both the properties of the eigenfunctions and the magnitude of the eigenvalues during the linear phase of the simulations of toroidal ITG instabilities
Relativistic stars with purely toroidal magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiuchi, Kenta; Yoshida, Shijun
2008-01-01
We investigate the effects of the purely toroidal magnetic field on the equilibrium structures of the relativistic stars. The basic equations for obtaining equilibrium solutions of relativistic rotating stars containing purely toroidal magnetic fields are derived for the first time. To solve these basic equations numerically, we extend the Cook-Shapiro-Teukolsky scheme for calculating relativistic rotating stars containing no magnetic field to incorporate the effects of the purely toroidal magnetic fields. By using the numerical scheme, we then calculate a large number of the equilibrium configurations for a particular distribution of the magnetic field in order to explore the equilibrium properties. We also construct the equilibrium sequences of the constant baryon mass and/or the constant magnetic flux, which model the evolution of an isolated neutron star as it loses angular momentum via the gravitational waves. Important properties of the equilibrium configurations of the magnetized stars obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) For the nonrotating stars, the matter distribution of the stars is prolately distorted due to the toroidal magnetic fields. (2) For the rapidly rotating stars, the shape of the stellar surface becomes oblate because of the centrifugal force. But, the matter distribution deep inside the star is sufficiently prolate for the mean matter distribution of the star to be prolate. (3) The stronger toroidal magnetic fields lead to the mass shedding of the stars at the lower angular velocity. (4) For some equilibrium sequences of the constant baryon mass and magnetic flux, the stars can spin up as they lose angular momentum.
Analysis techniques of charging damage studied on three different high-current ion implanters
Felch, S. B.; Larson, L. A.; Current, M. I.; Lindsey, D. W.
1989-02-01
One of the Greater Silicon Valley Implant Users' Group's recent activities has been to sponsor a round-robin on charging damage, where identical wafers were implanted on three different state-of-the-art, high-current ion implanters. The devices studied were thin-dielectric (250 Å SiO2), polysilicon-gate MOS capacitors isolated by thick field oxide. The three implanters involved were the Varian/Extrion 160XP, the Eaton/Nova 10-80, and the Applied Materials PI9000. Each implanter vendor was given 48 wafers to implant with 100 keV As+ ions at a dose of 1 × 1016 cm-2. Parameters that were varied include the beam current, electron flood gun current, and chamber pressure. The charge-to-breakdown, breakdown voltage, and leakage current of several devices before anneal have been measured. The results from these tests were inconclusive as to the physical mechanism of charging and as to the effectiveness of techniques to reduce its impact on devices. However, the methodology of this study is discussed in detail to aid in the planning of future experiments. Authors' industrial affiliations: S.B. Felch, Varian Research Center, 611 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA; L.A. Larson, National Semiconductor Corp., P.O. Box 58090, Santa Clara, CA 95052-8090, USA; M.I. Current, Applied Materials, 3050 Bowers Ave., Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA; D.W. Lindsey, Eaton/NOVA, 931 Benicia Ave, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA.
Jang, Jaeeun; Lee, Yongsu; Cho, Hyunwoo; Yoo, Hoi-Jun
2016-08-01
An ultra-low-power duty controlled received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is implemented for human body communication (HBC) in 180 nm CMOS technology under 1.5 V supply. The proposed RSSI adopted 3 following key features for low-power consumption; 1) current reusing technique (CR-RSSI) with replica bias circuit and calibration unit, 2) duty controller, and 3) reconfigurable gm-boosting LNA. The CR-RSSI utilizes stacked amplifier-rectifier-cell (AR-cell) to reuse the supply current of each blocks. As a result, the power consumption becomes 540 [Formula: see text] with +/-2 dB accuracy and 75 dB dynamic range. The replica bias circuit and calibration unit are adopted to increase the reliability of CR-RSSI. In addition, the duty controller turns off the RSSI when it is not required, and this function leads 70% power reduction. At last, the gm-boosting reconfigurable LNA can adaptively vary its noise and linearity performance with respect to input signal strength. Fro current reusing technique m this feature, we achieve 62% power reduction in the LNA. Thanks to these schemes, compared to the previous works, we can save 70% of power in RSSI and LNA.
Honda, M.; Satake, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Yoshida, M.; Narita, E.; Nakata, M.; Aiba, N.; Shiraishi, J.; Hayashi, N.; Matsunaga, G.; Matsuyama, A.; Ide, S.
2017-11-01
Capabilities of the integrated framework consisting of TOPICS, OFMC, VMEC and FORTEC-3D, have been extended to calculate toroidal rotation in fully non-axisymmetric perturbed magnetic fields for demonstrating operation scenarios in actual tokamak geometry and conditions. The toroidally localized perturbed fields due to the test blanket modules and the tangential neutral beam ports in ITER augment the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) substantially, while do not significantly influence losses of beam ions and alpha particles in an ITER L-mode discharge. The NTV takes up a large portion of total torque in ITER and fairly decelerates toroidal rotation, but the change in toroidal rotation may have limited effectiveness against turbulent heat transport. The error field correction coils installed in JT-60SA can externally apply the perturbed fields, which may alter the NTV and the resultant toroidal rotation profiles. However, the non-resonant n=18 components of the magnetic fields arising from the toroidal field ripple mainly contribute to the NTV, regardless of the presence of the applied field by the coil current of 10 kA , where n is the toroidal mode number. The theoretical model of the intrinsic torque due to the fluctuation-induced residual stress is calibrated by the JT-60U data. For five JT-60U discharges, the sign of the calibration factor conformed to the gyrokinetic linear stability analysis and a range of the amplitude thereof was revealed. This semi-empirical approach opens up access to an attempt on predicting toroidal rotation in H-mode plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahin, Guelden; Demirtas, Mehmet
2006-01-01
Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography has been investigated in every major peripheral joint of the body, and has been proven to be effective in determining the integrity of intraarticular ligamentous and fibrocartilaginous structures and in the detection or assessment of osteochondral lesions and loose bodies in selected cases. Several methods could be used to create arthrogram effect during MR imaging, however, direct MR arthrography using diluted gadolinium as the contrast agent is the most commonly used technique and is the most reliable of all. MR arthrography is useful for demonstrating labrocapsular-ligamentous abnormalities and distinguishing partial thickness rotator cuff tears from focal full thickness tears in the shoulder, identifying or excluding recurrent tears following meniscal operations in the knee, demonstrating perforations of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and ligaments in the wrist, showing labral tears in the hip, diagnosing ligament tears in the ankle and identifying osteochondral lesions or loose bodies in any of the aforementioned joints. In this article, an overview of techniques of MR arthrography is provided with emphasis on direct MR arthrography using diluted gadolinium as the contrast agent. The current applications of the technique in major peripheral joints are reviewed, with emphasis given to the shoulder joint where the role of this technique has become well established
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahin, Guelden [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Samanpazari, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: gsahin@medicine.ankara.edu.tr; Demirtas, Mehmet [Department of Hand Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Samanpazari, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)
2006-06-15
Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography has been investigated in every major peripheral joint of the body, and has been proven to be effective in determining the integrity of intraarticular ligamentous and fibrocartilaginous structures and in the detection or assessment of osteochondral lesions and loose bodies in selected cases. Several methods could be used to create arthrogram effect during MR imaging, however, direct MR arthrography using diluted gadolinium as the contrast agent is the most commonly used technique and is the most reliable of all. MR arthrography is useful for demonstrating labrocapsular-ligamentous abnormalities and distinguishing partial thickness rotator cuff tears from focal full thickness tears in the shoulder, identifying or excluding recurrent tears following meniscal operations in the knee, demonstrating perforations of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) and ligaments in the wrist, showing labral tears in the hip, diagnosing ligament tears in the ankle and identifying osteochondral lesions or loose bodies in any of the aforementioned joints. In this article, an overview of techniques of MR arthrography is provided with emphasis on direct MR arthrography using diluted gadolinium as the contrast agent. The current applications of the technique in major peripheral joints are reviewed, with emphasis given to the shoulder joint where the role of this technique has become well established.
Sensor Fusion Techniques for Phased-Array Eddy Current and Phased-Array Ultrasound Data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arrowood, Lloyd F. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2018-03-15
Sensor (or Data) fusion is the process of integrating multiple data sources to produce more consistent, accurate and comprehensive information than is provided by a single data source. Sensor fusion may also be used to combine multiple signals from a single modality to improve the performance of a particular inspection technique. Industrial nondestructive testing may utilize multiple sensors to acquire inspection data depending upon the object under inspection and the anticipated types of defects that can be identified. Sensor fusion can be performed at various levels of signal abstraction with each having its strengths and weaknesses. A multimodal data fusion strategy first proposed by Heideklang and Shokouhi that combines spatially scattered detection locations to improve detection performance of surface-breaking and near-surface cracks in ferromagnetic metals is shown using a surface inspection example and is then extended for volumetric inspections. Utilizing data acquired from an Olympus Omniscan MX2 from both phased array eddy current and ultrasound probes on test phantoms, single and multilevel fusion techniques are employed to integrate signals from the two modalities. Preliminary results demonstrate how confidence in defect identification and interpretation benefit from sensor fusion techniques. Lastly, techniques for integrating data into radiographic and volumetric imagery from computed tomography are described and results are presented.
Core and edge toroidal rotation study in JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Honda, M.; Kamada, Y.; Takenaga, H.; Oyama, N.; Urano, H.
2012-01-01
The relation between toroidal rotation velocities (V t ) in the core and edge regions is investigated in H-mode plasmas with a small external torque input from the viewpoint of momentum transport. The toroidal rotation velocity in the core region (core-V t ) gradually varies on a timescale of ∼20 ms after a rapid change in the toroidal rotation velocity in the edge region (edge-V t ) at the L–H transition. This timescale of ∼20 ms is consistent with a transport timescale using the momentum diffusivity (χ φ ) and convection velocity (V conv ). In steady state, a linear correlation between the core- and edge-V t is observed in H-mode plasmas when the ion pressure gradient (∇P i ) is small. This relation between core- and edge-V t is also explained by momentum transport. The V t profiles with a large ∇P i are reproduced in the core region of r/a ∼ 0.2–0.7 by adopting a residual stress term 'Π res = α k χ φ ∇P i ' proposed in this paper. Here r/a is the normalized plasma radius and α k1 is a radial constant. Using this formula, V t profiles are reproduced over a wide range of plasma conditions. Parameter dependences of the edge-V t are investigated at a constant ripple loss power, ripple amplitude and plasma current. A reduction in the CTR-rotation is observed with decreasing ion temperature gradient (∇T i ). Here CTR refers to the counter-I P direction.
Protection of toroidal field coils using multiple circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thome, R.J.; Langton, W.G.; Mann, W.R.; Pillsbury, R.D.; Tarrh, J.M.
1983-01-01
The protection of toroidal field (TF) coils using multiple circuits is described. The discharge of a single-circuit TF system is given for purposes of definition. Two-circuit TF systems are analyzed and the results presented analytically and graphically. Induced currents, maximum discharge voltages, and discharge time constants are compared to the single-circuit system. Three-circuit TF systems are analyzed. In addition to induced currents, maximum discharge voltages, and time constants, several different discharge scenarios are included. The impacts of having discharge rates versus final maximum coil temperatures as requirements are examined. The out-of-plane forces which occur in the three-circuit system are analyzed using an approximate model. The analysis of multiplecircuit TF systems is briefly described and results for a Toroidal Fusion Core Experiment (TFCX) scale device are given based on computer analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of using multiple-circuit systems are summarized and discussed. The primary disadvantages of multiple circuits are the increased circuit complexity and potential for out-of-plane forces. These are offset by the substantial reduction in maximum discharge voltages, as well as other design options which become available when using multiple circuits
Compact toroid injection system for JFT-2M
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukumoto, N. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)]. E-mail: fukumotn@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Ogawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Nagata, M. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Uyama, T. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Shibata, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kashiwa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kusama, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)
2006-11-15
The compact toroid (CT) injection system for JFT-2M is composed of a CT injector, a gas delivery and vacuum system, a power supply system, and a diagnostics system. In particular, the power supply system delivers high performance for CT formation and acceleration. The CT formation capacitor bank unit achieved a formation current of 350 kA with a rise time less than 10 {mu}s. Although the CT acceleration bank units are equipped with 14 ignitron switches instead of gap switches to attenuate the discharge noise level, an acceleration current of 400 kA with a short rise time of 9 {mu}s is controlled within a jitter of much less than 1 {mu}s. The resulting CT velocity and mass density satisfy the requirements for CT penetration into the tokamak plasma core at a toroidal field of 1 T. This CT injection system is thus suitable for CT injection in a middle-sized tokamak plasma such as the JFT-2M tokamak.
Compact toroid injection system for JFT-2M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukumoto, N.; Ogawa, H.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.; Shibata, T.; Kashiwa, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Kusama, Y.
2006-01-01
The compact toroid (CT) injection system for JFT-2M is composed of a CT injector, a gas delivery and vacuum system, a power supply system, and a diagnostics system. In particular, the power supply system delivers high performance for CT formation and acceleration. The CT formation capacitor bank unit achieved a formation current of 350 kA with a rise time less than 10 μs. Although the CT acceleration bank units are equipped with 14 ignitron switches instead of gap switches to attenuate the discharge noise level, an acceleration current of 400 kA with a short rise time of 9 μs is controlled within a jitter of much less than 1 μs. The resulting CT velocity and mass density satisfy the requirements for CT penetration into the tokamak plasma core at a toroidal field of 1 T. This CT injection system is thus suitable for CT injection in a middle-sized tokamak plasma such as the JFT-2M tokamak
Development of compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago (Japan); Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago (Japan); Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago (Japan); Uyama, T. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Nagata, M. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Fukumoto, N. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan)
1995-12-31
The application of the compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls has been investigated. The compact toroids injection can fuel particles directly into the core of the plasma and modify the plasma profiles at the desired locations. The acceleration tests of the compact toroids have been conducted at Himeji Institute of Technology. The tests showed that the hydrogen compact toroid was accelerated up to 80km/s and the plasma density of the compact toroid was compressed to 1.2 x 10{sup 21}m{sup -3}. (orig.).
Development of compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azuma, K.; Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Uyama, T.; Nagata, M.; Fukumoto, N.
1995-01-01
The application of the compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls has been investigated. The compact toroids injection can fuel particles directly into the core of the plasma and modify the plasma profiles at the desired locations. The acceleration tests of the compact toroids have been conducted at Himeji Institute of Technology. The tests showed that the hydrogen compact toroid was accelerated up to 80km/s and the plasma density of the compact toroid was compressed to 1.2 x 10 21 m -3 . (orig.)
Calculation about a modification to the toroidal magnetic field of the Tokamak Novillo. Part I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chavez A, E.; Melendez L, L.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Lopez C, R.; Gaytan G, E.
1991-07-01
The charged particles that constitute the plasma in the tokamaks are located in magnetic fields that determine its behavior. The poloidal magnetic field of the plasma current and the toroidal magnetic field of the tokamak possess relatively big gradients, which produce drifts on these particles. These drifts are largely the cause of the continuous lost of particles and of energy of the confinement region. In this work the results of numerical calculations of a modification to the 'traditional' toroidal magnetic field that one waits it diminishes the drifts by gradient and improve the confinement properties of the tokamaks. (Author)
Stability properties of a toroidal z-pinch in an external magnetic multipole field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, H.G.
1987-01-01
MHD stability of m=1, axisymmetric, external modes of a toroidal z-pinch immersed in an external multipole field (Extrap configuration) is studied. The description includes the effects of a weak toroidicity, a non-circular plasma cross-section and the influence of induced currents in the external conductors. It is found that the non-circularity of the plasma cross-section always has a destabilizing effect but that the m=1 mode can be stabilized by the external feedback if the non-circularity is small. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datlov, J.; Klima, R.; Kopecky, V.; Musil, J.; Zacek, F.
1977-01-01
An invention is described concerning high-frequency plasma heating and confinement in toroidal magnetic vessels. Microwave energy is applied to the plasma via one or more slowing-down structures exciting low phase velocity waves whose energy may be efficiently absorbed by plasma electrons. The wave momentum transfer results in a toroidal electrical current whose magnetic field together with an external magnetic field ensure plasma confinement. The low-frequency modulation of microwave energy may also be used for heating the ion plasma component. (J.U.)
Analysis of Current Visualization Techniques and Main Challenges for the Future
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Pérez Cota
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The big amount of data generated nowadays are being used by Big Data tools to generate knowledge and to facilitate the decision-making. However, this situation creates a new challenge: how to visualize all these data without losing mid/long term crucial information. The purpose of this article is to analyze the state of the art on massive data visualization, main problems and challenges of information representation current techniques as well as the evolution of the tools and the future of them, in other words, new functionalities to offer.
Comparison study of toroidal-field divertors for a compact reversed-field pinch reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.
1985-01-01
Two divertor configurations for the Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) based on diverting the minority (toroidal) field have been reported. A critical factor in evaluating the performance of both poloidally symmetric and bundle divertor configurations is the accurate determination of the divertor connection length and the monitoring of magnetic islands introduced by the divertors, the latter being a three-dimensional effect. To this end the poloidal-field, toroidal-field, and divertor coils and the plasma currents are simulated in three dimensions for field-line tracings in both the divertor channel and the plasma-edge regions. The results of this analysis indicate a clear preference for the poloidally symmetric toroidal-field divertor. Design modifications to the limiter-based CRFPR design that accommodate this divertor are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Ding, Guo-wen; Yang, Hua; Yu, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Hai-feng [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetic, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044 (China)
2015-02-23
In this paper, a low-loss and high transmission analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. It is obtained by the excitation of the low-loss electric toroidal dipolar response, which confines the magnetic field inside a dielectric substrate with toroidal geometry. The metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) structure is composed of the cut wire and asymmetric split-ring resonators. The transmission level is as high as 0.88, and the radiation loss is greatly suppressed, which can be proved by the surface currents distributions, the magnetic field distributions, and the imaginary parts of the effective permeability and permittivity. It offers an effective way to produce low-loss and high transmission metamaterial EIT.
Qualifying tests for TRIAM-1M superconducting toroidal magnetic field coil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakanura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoji; Nakamura, Kazuo; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Nagao, Akihiro; Kawasaki, Shoji; Itoh, Satoshi
1984-09-01
In the strong toroidal magnetic field experimental facility ''TRIAM-1M'' currently under construction, construction of the superconducting toroidal magnetic field coil and the following qualifying tests conducted on the full-scale superconducting toroidal magnetic field coil actually fabricated are described: (1) coil excitation test, (2) superconducting stability test, (3) external magnetic field application test, and (4) high-speed excitation test. On the basis of these test results, stability was evaluated of the superconducting coil being operated in the tokamak device. In normal tokamak operation, there occurs no normal conduction transition. At the time of plasma disruption, though this transition takes place in part of the coil, the superconducting state is immediately restored. By its electromagnetic force analysis, the superconducting coil is also stable in structure.
Feedback control of persistent-current oscillation based on the atomic-clock technique
Yu, Deshui; Dumke, Rainer
2018-05-01
We propose a scheme of stabilizing the persistent-current Rabi oscillation based on the flux qubit-resonator-atom hybrid structure. The low-Q L C resonator weakly interacts with the flux qubit and maps the persistent-current Rabi oscillation of the flux qubit onto the intraresonator electric field. This oscillating electric field is further coupled to a Rydberg-Rydberg transition of the 87Rb atoms. The Rabi-frequency fluctuation of the flux qubit is deduced from measuring the atomic population via the fluorescence detection and stabilized by feedback controlling the external flux bias. Our numerical simulation indicates that the feedback-control method can efficiently suppress the background fluctuations in the flux qubit, especially in the low-frequency limit. This technique may be extensively applicable to different types of superconducting circuits, paving a way to long-term-coherence superconducting quantum information processing.
Hysteresis current control technique of VSI for compensation of grid-connected unbalanced loads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pouresmaeil, Edris; Akorede, Mudathir Funsho; Montesinos-Miracle, Daniel
2014-01-01
interconnection issues that usually arise as DG units connect to the electric grid. The proposed strategy, implemented in Matlab/Simulink environment in different operating scenarios, provides compensation for active, reactive, unbalanced, and harmonic current components of grid-connected nonlinear unbalanced...... resources as they connect to the exiting power grid could provoke many power quality problems on the grid side. For this reason, due considerations must be given to power generation and safe running before DG units is actually integrated into the power grid. The main aim of this paper is to address the grid...... loads. The simulation results obtained in this study demonstrate the level of accuracy of the proposed technique, which ensure a balance in the overall grid phase currents, injection of maximum available power from DG resources to the grid, improvement of the utility grid power factor, and a reduction...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duggan, P.J.; Burke, C.J.; Saha, S.; Moonim, M.; George, M.; Desai, A.; Houghton, R.
2013-01-01
Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) are a recognized complication of metal-on-metal bearing hip prostheses. There is an impending concern regarding the future investigation and management of patients who have received such implants. The current literature is discussed, and the current guidelines for management of these patients in the UK are reviewed. The various imaging techniques available, such as computed tomography, metal artefact reduction magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound are discussed and evaluated with respect to the assessment of patients with suspected ALVAL. The histopathological findings are discussed with images of the tissue changes provided. Images of the radiological findings are also provided for all general radiological methods. ALVAL and its radiological presentation is an important issue that unfortunately may become a significant clinical problem
Petroleum Pumps’ Current and Vibration Signatures Analysis Using Wavelet Coherence Technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rmdan Shnibha
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Vibration analysis is widely used for rotating machinery diagnostics; however measuring vibration of operational oil well pumps is not possible. The pump’s driver’s current signatures may provide condition-related information without the need for an access to the pump itself. This paper investigates the degree of relationship between the pump’s driver’s current signatures and its induced vibration. This relationship between the driver’s current signatures (DCS and its vibration signatures (DVS is studied by calculating magnitude-squared coherence and phase coherence parameters at a certain frequency band using continuous wavelet transform (CWT. The CWT coherence-based technique allows better analysis of temporal evolution of the frequency content of dynamic signals and areas in the time-frequency plane where the two signals exhibit common power or consistent phase behaviour indicating a relationship between the signals. This novel approach is validated by experimental data acquired from 3 kW petroleum pump’s driver. Both vibration and current signatures were acquired under different speed and load conditions. The outcomes of this research suggest the use of DCS analysis as reliable and inexpensive condition monitoring tool, which could be implemented for oil pumps, real-time monitoring associated with condition-based maintenance (CBM program.
Laboratory experiment on the 3D tide-induced Lagrangian residual current using the PIV technique
Chen, Yang; Jiang, Wensheng; Chen, Xu; Wang, Tao; Bian, Changwei
2017-12-01
The 3D structure of the tide-induced Lagrangian residual current was studied using the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique in a long shallow narrow tank in the laboratory. At the mouth of the tank, a wave generator was used to make periodic wave which represents the tide movement, and at the head of the tank, a laterally sloping topography with the length of one fifth of the water tank was installed, above which the tide-induced Lagrangian residual current was studied. Under the weakly nonlinear condition in the present experiment setup, the results show that the Lagrangian residual velocity (LRV) field has a three-layer structure. The residual current flows inwards (towards the head) in the bottom layer and flows outwards in the middle layer, while in the surface layer, it flows inwards along the shallow side of the sloping topography and outwards along the deep side. The depth-averaged and breadth-averaged LRV are also analyzed based on the 3D LRV observations. Our results are in good agreement with the previous experiment studies, the analytical solutions with similar conditions and the observational results in real bays. Moreover, the volume flux comparison between the Lagrangian and Eulerian residual currents shows that the Eulerian residual velocity violates the mass conservation law while the LRV truly represents the inter-tidal water transport. This work enriches the laboratory studies of the LRV and offers valuable references for the LRV studies in real bays.
Edge pedestal characteristics in JET and JT-60U tokamaks under variable toroidal field ripple
Urano, H.; Saibene, G.; Oyama, N.; Parail, V.; P. de Vries,; Sartori, R.; Kamada, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Loarte, A.; Lonnroth, J.; Sakamoto, Y.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Takenaga, H.; Yoshida, M.
2011-01-01
The effects of toroidal field (TF) ripple on the edge pedestal characteristics were examined in the TF ripple scan experiments at the plasma current I(p) of 1.1 MA in JET and JT-60U. The TF ripple amplitude delta(R) was defined as a value averaged over the existing ripple wells at the separatrix on
Applications of pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) technique on defect and material assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nurul A'in Ahmad Latif; Noorhazleena Azaman; Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin
2014-01-01
The pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an emerging electromagnetic method and widely used in multiple field including aerospace, petrochemical, industry and transportation. PEC mainly depends on the multiple variables such as peak value and rising time to detect and quantify the defects. Apart of its advantage as non contacting technique, it has ability on conducting surface and subsurface detection. Additionally, PEC is high sensitive to variety parameters that are inherent in the flaws. Compare to conventional eddy current, PEC allows deeper penetration as it is a combination from multiple frequencies. This paper demonstrates the abilities of PEC technique performing multiple testing in various fields such as conducting conductivity testing, measuring the material thickness and identifying depth of the defects. The conductivity testing will be performed on multiple materials such as aluminium, stainless steel, copper, austenitic steel and titanium. To measure the material thicknesses, PEC testing will be conducted on the multi layered specimen with the different thickness. Meanwhile to identify depth of defects, the testing will be carried out using a stainless steel calibration block contains multiple length of defect. For the validation purposes, all the results generate through the experiments will be compared with simulation results produced using dedicated software, COMSOL. (author)
Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature.
Singh, Iqbal
2009-10-01
To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN). We searched the published English literature and the PubMed(()) for published series of 'robotic partial nephrectomy' (RPN) using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. The search yielded 15 major selected series of 'robotic partial nephrectomy'; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s), as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T(1)) renal neoplasm(s). It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchard, D.; Clark, D.; Carr, D.; Haddad, A.
2016-01-01
A technique was developed for the comparison of observed emission spectra from lightning current arcs generated through self-breakdown in air and the use of two types of initiation wire, aluminum bronze and nichrome, against previously published spectra of natural lightning events. A spectrograph system was used in which the wavelength of light emitted by the lightning arc was analyzed to derive elemental interactions. A lightning impulse of up to 100 kA was applied to a two hemispherical tungsten electrode configuration which allowed the effect of the lightning current and lightning arc length to be investigated. A natural lightning reference spectrum was reconstructed from literature, and generated lightning spectra were obtained from self-breakdown across a 14.0 mm air gap and triggered along initiation wires of length up to 72.4 mm. A comparison of the spectra showed that the generated lightning arc induced via self-breakdown produced a very similar spectrum to that of natural lightning, with the addition of only a few lines from the tungsten electrodes. A comparison of the results from the aluminum bronze initiation wire showed several more lines, whereas results from the nichrome initiation wire differed greatly across large parts of the spectrum. This work highlights the potential use for spectrographic techniques in the study of lightning interactions with surrounding media and materials, and in natural phenomena such as recently observed ball lightning.
Forensic palynology: current status of a rarely used technique in the United States of America.
Bryant, Vaughn M; Jones, Gretchen D
2006-11-22
The United States of America would seem to be an excellent location for using pollen data in forensic applications. The vegetation within the region is highly diverse ranging from areas of Arctic tundra to some of the most inhospitable deserts anywhere in the Western Hemisphere. The highly varied ecology, great plant diversity, thousands of vegetational microhabitats, and extensive published pollen records for the region provide an ideal setting for these types of analyses. This diversity, often characterized in most locations by unique combinations of pollen types, makes the use of forensic pollen a reliable technique that can often be used to associate individuals with a unique crime scene or geographical region. Nevertheless, forensic pollen studies in the United States of America are currently one of the most highly under utilized techniques available to assist in solving criminal and civil cases. During the past century there has been a very limited attempt to use pollen evidence in either criminal or civil cases, for a variety of reasons, including a lack of available information about the technique, a very limited number of specialists trained to do forensic pollen work, and an almost total absence of academic centers able to train needed specialists or forensic facilities able, or willing, to fund research in this area. Hopefully, this paucity of use will change if certain steps are taken to encourage the routine collection and use of pollen evidence in both criminal and civil cases.
Li Yuting; Gan Fangji; Wan Zhengjun; Liao Junbi; Li Wenqiang
2015-01-01
Potential drop techniques are of two types: the direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique and alternating current potential drop (ACPD) technique, and both of them are used in nondestructive testing. ACPD, as a kind of valid method in sizing metal cracks, has been applied to evaluate metal structures. However, our review of most available approaches revealed that some improvements can be done in measuring depth of metal bottom crack by means of ACPD, such as accuracy and sensitivity of s...
Toroidal charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on EAST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ye, Minyou, E-mail: yemy@ustc.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Yingying [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Yu, Yi [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Yuejiang [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Lyu, Bo; Fu, Jia [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Du, Xuewei; Yin, Xianghui; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qiuping [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wan, Baonian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
2015-10-15
A toroidal charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic, on the basis of a heating neutral beam injector (NBI), is constructed on EAST tokamak. Simulation of Spectra (SOS) code is used to design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. 30 spatial channels work simultaneously in recent experiment, which covers a radial region from 1.55 m to 2.30 m in the cross section. The CXRS has a radial resolution of 1–3.5 cm from core to edge. The acquisition time is typically 10 ms, limited by the poor photon statistics. The diagnostic can observe not only the normal C{sup 5+} emission line at 529.1 nm but also any interested wavelength in the range of 400–700 nm. In this work, a brief overview on the R&D and the instrument performance for the toroidal CXRS diagnostic is described, together with first results.
Reynolds stress of localized toroidal modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1995-02-01
An investigation of the 2D toroidal eigenmode problem reveals the possibility of a new consistent 2D structure, the dissipative BM-II mode. In contrast to the conventional ballooning mode, the new mode is poloidally localized at π/2 (or -π/2), and possesses significant radial asymmetry. The radial asymmetry, in turn, allows the dissipative BM-II to generate considerably larger Reynolds stress as compared to the standard slab drift type modes. It is also shown that a wide class of localized dissipative toroidal modes are likely to be of the dissipative BM-II nature, suggesting that at the tokamak edge, the fluctuation generated Reynolds stress (a possible source of poloidal flow) can be significant
Ballooning instabilities in toroidally linked mirror systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hastie, R.J.; Watson, C.J.H.
1977-01-01
This paper examines the stability against ballooning modes of plasma equilibria in toroidally linked mirror configurations consisting of a number of quadrupole minimum-B mirrors linked toroidally. On the basis of the Kruskal-Oberman energy principle, a class of displacements is identified which are potentially unstable, and a necessary criterion for stability is derived. The criterion is obtained from the eigenvalues of an ordinary differential equation, which determines the variation of the displacement along a field line. The coefficients in the equation are determined by the configuration, and by inserting various model configurations, estimates are obtained of the maximum value of β consistent with stability. In cases of interest, quite high β-values are obtained. (author)
Reynolds stress of localized toroidal modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Y.Z.; Mahajan, S.M.
1995-01-01
An investigation of the 2D toroidal eigenmode problem reveals the possibility of a new consistent 2D structure, the dissipative BM-II mode. In contrast to the conventional ballooning mode, the new mode is poloidally localized at π/2 (or -π/2), and possesses significant radial asymmetry. The radial asymmetry, in turn, allows the dissipative BM-II to generate considerably larger Reynolds stress as compared to the standard slab drift type modes. It is also shown that a wide class of localized dissipative toroidal modes are likely to be of the dissipative BM-II nature, suggesting that at the tokamak edge, the fluctuation generated Reynolds stress (a possible source of poloidal flow) can be significant. (author). 15 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda
2013-01-01
Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m 3 of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m 3 of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both a local
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, David; Stelcer, Ed.; Atanacio, Armand; Crawford, Jagoda [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Kirrawee DC (Australia)
2013-07-01
Full text: IBA techniques have been used for many years to characterise fine particle air pollution. This is not new the techniques are well established. Typically 2-3 MeV protons are used to bombard thin filter papers and up to four simultaneous techniques like PIXE, PIGE, RBS and ERDA will be applied to obtain (μg/g) concentrations for elements from hydrogen to lead. Generally low volume samplers are used to sample between 20-30 m{sup 3} of air over a 24 hour period, this together with IBA's sensitivity means that concentrations down to 1 ng/m{sup 3} of air sampled can be readily achieved with only a few minutes of proton irradiation. With these short irradiation times and low sensitivities for a broad range of elements in the periodic table, large numbers of samples can be obtained and analysed very quickly and easily. At ANSTO we have used IBA methods to acquire a database of over 50,000 filters from 85 different sites through Australia and Asia, each filter has been analysed for more than 21 different chemical species. Large databases extending over many years means that modern statistical techniques like positive matrix factorisation (PMF) can be used to define well characterised source fingerprints and source contributions for a range of different fine particle air pollutants. In this paper we will discuss these PMF techniques and show how they identify both natural sources like sea spray and windblown soils as well as anthropogenic sources like automobiles, biomass burning, coal-fired power stations and industrial emissions. These data are particularly useful for Governments, EPA's and managers of pollution to better understanding pollution sources and their relative contributions and hence to better manage air pollution. Current trends are to take these IBA and PMF techniques a step further and to combine them with wind speed and back trajectory data to better pin point and identify emission sources. We show how this is now being applied on both
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raja, Manoj K; Mahadevan, S; Rao, B P C; Behera, S P; Jayakumar, T; Raj, Baldev
2010-01-01
An alternating current potential drop (ACPD) technique is used for sizing depth of surface cracks in metallic components. Crack depth estimations are prone to large deviations when ACPD measurements are made on very shallow and finite length cracks, especially in low conducting materials such as austenitic stainless steel (SS). Detailed studies have been carried out to investigate the influence of crack length and aspect ratio (length to depth) on depth estimation by performing measurements on electric discharge machined notches with the aspect ratio in the range of 1 to 40 in SS plates. In notches with finite length, an additional path for current to flow through the surface along the length is available causing the notch depths to be underestimated. The experimentally observed deviation in notch depth estimates is explained from a simple mathematical approach using the equivalent resistive circuit model based on the additional path available for the current to flow. A scheme is proposed to accurately measure the depth of cracks with finite lengths in SS components
Ram Prabhakar, J.; Ragavan, K.
2013-07-01
This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.
CANDU fuel sheath integrity and oxide layer thickness determination by Eddy current technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gheorghe, Gabriela; Man, Ion; Parvan, Marcel; Valeca, Serban
2010-01-01
This paper presents results concerning the integrity assessment of the fuel elements cladding and measurements of the oxide layer on sheaths, using the eddy current technique. Flaw detection using eddy current provides information about the integrity of fuel element sheath or presence of defects in the sheath produced by irradiation. The control equipment consists of a flaw detector with eddy currents, operable in the frequency range 10 Hz to 10 MHz, and a differential probe. The calibration of the flaw detector is done using artificial defects (longitudinal, transversal, external and internal notches, bored and unbored holes) obtained on Zircaloy-4 tubes identical to those out of which the sheath of the CANDU fuel element is manufactured (having a diameter of 13.08 mm and a wall thickness of 0.4 mm). When analyzing the behavior of the fuel elements' cladding facing the corrosion is important to know the thickness of the zirconium oxide layer. The calibration of the device measuring the thickness of the oxide layer is done using a Zircaloy-4 tube identical to that which the cladding of the CANDU fuel element is manufactured of, and calibration foils, as well. (authors)
TORFA - toroidal reactor for fusion applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jassby, D.L.
1980-09-01
The near-term goal of the US controlled fusion program should be the development, for practical applications, of an intense, quasi-steady, reliable 14-MeV neutron source with an electrical utilization efficiency at least 10 times larger than the value characterizing beam/solid-target neutron generators. This report outlines a method for implementing that goal, based on tokamak fusion reactors featuring resistive toroidal-field coils designed for ease of demountability
METHODS TO DEVELOP A TOROIDAL SURFACE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
DANAILA Ligia
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The paper work presents two practical methods to draw the development of a surface unable to be developed applying classical methods of Descriptive Geometry, the toroidal surface, frequently met in technical practice. The described methods are approximate ones; the development is obtained with the help of points. The accuracy of the methods is given by the number of points used when drawing. As for any other approximate method, when practically manufactured the development may need to be adjusted on site.
Unstable universal drift eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chen, L.
1980-01-01
The eigenmode equation describing ballooning collisionless drift instabilities is analyzed both analytically and numerically. A new branch of eigenmodes, which corresponds to quasi-bound states due to toroidal coupling effects such as ion delB drifts, is shown to be destabilized by electron Landau damping for typical tokamak parameters. This branch cannot be understood by the strong coupling approximation. However, the slab-like (Pearlstein--Berk-type) branch is found to remain stable and experience enhanced shear damping
Toroidal deuteron accelerator for Mo-98 neutron activation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araujo, Wagner L.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
2017-01-01
The radionuclide Tc- 99m is the most useful radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It can be produced by the Mo-99 beta minus decay. Mo-99 has often been produced in a high- flux nuclear reactor through radioactive neutron capture reactions on Mo-98. The present paper provides a preliminary design of a toroidal transmutation system (TTS) based on a toroidal compact deuteron accelerator, which can provide the Mo-98 transmutation into Mo-99. This system is essentially composed of a multi-aperture plasma electrode and a target, submitted to 180 kV, where a positive deuteron beam is accelerated toward a titanium-target loaded with deuterium in which nuclear d-d fusion reactions are induced. The Particle Studio package of the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software was applied to design, simulate and optimize the deuteron beam on the target. MCNP code provided to neutronic analysis. Based on electromagnetic and neutronic simulations, the neutron yield and reaction rates were estimated. The simulated data allowed appraising the Mo-99 activity. A TTS, in a specific configuration, could produce a total deuterium current of 1.6 A at the target and a neutron yield of 10 13 n.s -1 . In a arrangement of 30 column samples, TTS provides 230 mCi s -1 Mo 99 in each column, which represents 80% of Tc-99m in secular equilibrium. As conclusion, the system holds potential for generating Mo-99 and Tc-99m in a suitable activity in secular equilibrium. (author)
Hamiltonian description of toroidal magnetic fields in vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, H.R.; Bates, J.W.
1996-01-01
An investigation of vacuum magnetic fields in toroidal geometry has been initiated. Previously, the general form of the magnetic scalar potential for fields regular at the poloidal axis was given. Here, these results have been expanded to obtain the magnetic scalar potential in a vacuum region that may surround a toroidal current distribution. Using this generalized magnetic scalar potential in conjunction with Boozer's canonical representation of a magnetic field, a field-line Hamiltonian for nonaxisymmetric vacuum fields has been derived. These fields axe being examined using a novel, open-quotes time-dependentclose quotes perturbation theory, which permits the iterative construction of invariants associated with magnetic field-line Hamiltonians that consist of an axisymmetric zeroth-order term, plus a nonaxisymmetric perturbation. By choosing appropriate independent variables, an explicit constructive procedure is developed which involves only a single canonical transformation. Such invariants are of interest because they provide a means of investigating the topology of magnetic field lines. Our objective is to elucidate the existence of magnetic surfaces for nonaxisymmetric vacuum configurations, as well as to provide an approach for studying the onset of stochastic behavior
Finite toroidal flow generated by unstable tearing mode in a toroidal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hao, G. Z., E-mail: haogz@swip.ac.cn; Wang, A. K.; Xu, Y. H.; He, H. D.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sun, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Cui, S. Y. [School of Mathematics and Statistics Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)
2014-12-15
The neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity torque and electromagnetic torque, generated by tearing mode (TM) in a toroidal plasma, are numerically investigated using the MARS-Q code [Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 042503 (2013)]. It is found that an initially unstable tearing mode can intrinsically drive a toroidal plasma flow resulting in a steady state solution, in the absence of the external momentum input and external magnetic field perturbation. The saturated flow is in the order of 0.5%ω{sub A} at the q=2 rational surface in the considered case, with q and ω{sub A} being the safety factor and the Alfven frequency at the magnetic axis, respectively. The generation of the toroidal flow is robust, being insensitive to the given amplitude of the perturbation at initial state. On the other hand, the flow amplitude increases with increasing the plasma resistivity. Furthermore, the initially unstable tearing mode is fully stabilized by non-linear interaction with the self-generated toroidal flow.
Superconducting magnets for toroidal fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haubenreich, P.N.
1980-01-01
Fusion reactors will soon be employing superconducting magnets to confine plasma in which deuterium and tritium (D-T) are fused to produce usable energy. At present there is one small confinement experiment with superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils: Tokamak 7 (T-7), in the USSR, which operates at 4 T. By 1983, six different 2.5 x 3.5-m D-shaped coils from six manufacturers in four countries will be assembled in a toroidal array in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for testing at fields up to 8 T. Soon afterwards ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT-P) will begin operation at Oak Ridge with superconducting TF coils. At the same time there will be tokamaks with superconducting TF coils 2 to 3 m in diameter in the USSR and France. Toroidal field strength in these machines will range from 6 to 9 T. NbTi and Nb 3 Sn, bath cooling and forced flow, cryostable and metastable - various designs are being tried in this period when this new application of superconductivity is growing and maturing
Toroidal inhomogeneity of the vertical field in a tokamak apparatus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sometani, Taro; Takashima, Hidekazu
1977-01-01
An experiment with a model device has been made on the toroidal inhomogeneity of the vertical field in a Tokamak with an iron core. The D.C. vertical field is increased near the yokes of the iron core, while the gross plasma image field (consisting of the components due to the plasma current, the primary current, and its image) is reduced there. These two vertical fields, when superposed, exert force on the plasma as a less inhomogeneous external vertical field. The vertical field can be homogenized satisfactorily by using a compensation winding wound at a proper position on the iron core even if the shielding plates, which are mounted on some Tokamaks, are dispensed with. (auth.)
A toroidal plasma MHD equilibrium code 'EQUCIR version 1'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Shinya, Kichiro; Kameari, Akihisa.
1980-10-01
A new free-boundary toroidal MHD equilibrium code ''EQUCIR version 1'' has been developed. The central problems approached by this code is as follows: 1) The magnetic flux distribution of a plasma at equilibrium is determined in the given external field. 2) A set of circuit equations between the plasma and the external conductors are constructed. These circuit equations and the Grad-Shafranov equation are solved self-consistently and the time evolutions of plasma equilibria and currents in external conductors are determined at the same time. 3) The currents in the external conductors are determined so that the plasma cross-section and plasma parameters are to be maintained with desired ones. It is shown that this code is very useful for study of the tokamak plasma equilibria, for design of the poloidal coil system and for investigation of experimental results. (author)
Quantitative Evaluation of Defect in Stainless Steel 304 Tube Using Pulsed Eddy Current Technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Nurul Ain Ahmad Latif; Nordin Jamaludin; Zaredah Hashim; Norhayati Ramli
2016-01-01
Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an advanced non-destructive testing (NDT) technique that operates based on electromagnetic principle. The excitation consists of broad frequency spectrum leading to be a potential in detecting defects that are deeply buried inside the specimen. In this paper, the experiment and simulation were conducted on stainless steel plate 304 fabricated with open surface defects having a different defect depth as an investigation towards the correlation between extracted signal feature and defect depth. Two common features; time to peak and peak value that corresponds to the location depth of defect and size of defect were used for signals analysis and evaluation. The results that acquired through finite element method (FEM) simulation were compared with experimental results for the signals evaluation and defect quantification. (author)
Particular treatments in Eddy current technique. Application to the control of corrugated tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-11-01
When the testing of a given product shows that, owing to a particular shape of this product or to its environment, disturbing effects can hide the presence of harmful defects, use must be made of testing artifices or particular treatments enabling an efficient examination to be made. On this score, many eddy current problems are solved by means of the following processes: - use of specific sensors adapted to the geometry of the product, - spectral analysis of the analog results of analyses, - combination of the results of analyses obtained simultaneously at different frequencies (multifrequency techniques). An example of an application is given for corrugated tubes achieved by hollow and helical milling of smooth tubes [fr
Current trends in pedicle screw stimulation techniques: lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical levels.
Isley, Michael R; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Balzer, Jeffrey R; Leppanen, Ronald E
2012-06-01
Unequivocally, pedicle screw instrumentation has evolved as a primary construct for the treatment of both common and complex spinal disorders. However an inevitable and potentially major complication associated with this type of surgery is misplacement of a pedicle screw(s) which may result in neural and vascular complications, as well as impair the biomechanical stability of the spinal instrumentation resulting in loss of fixation. In light of these potential surgical complications, critical reviews of outcome data for treatment of chronic, low-back pain using pedicle screw instrumentation concluded that "pedicle screw fixation improves radiographically demonstrated fusion rates;" however the expense and complication rates for such constructs are considerable in light of the clinical benefit (Resnick et al. 2005a). Currently, neuromonitoring using free-run and evoked (triggered) electromyography (EMG) is widely used and advocated for safer and more accurate placement of pedicle screws during open instrumentation procedures, and more recently, guiding percutaneous placement (minimally invasive) where the pedicle cannot be easily inspected visually. The latter technique, evoked or triggered EMG when applied to pedicle screw instrumentation surgeries, has been referred to as the pedicle screw stimulation technique. As concluded in the Position Statement by the American Society of Neurophysiological Monitoring (ASNM), multimodality neuromonitoring using free-run EMG and the pedicle screw stimulation technique was considered a practice option and not yet a standard of care (Leppanen 2005). Subsequently, the American Association of Neurological Surgeons/Congress of Neurological Surgeons (AANS/CNS) Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves published their "Guidelines for the Performance of Fusion Procedures for Degenerative Disease of the Lumbar Spine" (Heary 2005, Resnick et al. 2005a, Resnick et al. 2005b). It was concluded that the "primary
Development techniques and electron optical studies of high voltage, high current electron guns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangarajan, L.M.; Mahadevan, S.; Ramamurthi, S.S.
1992-01-01
The progress of the electron gun design, limiting to axially symmetric geometries is discussed here with a view to utilise such guns for electron accelerators. The mechanical design features leading to the physical configuration of the gun with stringent tolerances are outlined. Vacuum processing is done at pressures of 1.3x10 -5 Pa. The gun employs W-filament emitter or a cathode pellet with bombarder service. A water cooled compact faraday cup is used to measure the electron current. Electron gun geometries have been studied using the computer programme. The preveance of the gun is 0.7x10 -7 A/Vsup(1.5) at 80 kV. Developmental techniques of such pulsed electron guns are described. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez Matamoros, Angelica
2012-01-01
Ischemic cerebrovascular disease has been one of the most frequent causes of death from chronic disease, as well as cause of long-term disabilities, in both the United States, and in Latin American countries during recent years. It is therefore, important to know about it. An updated review of international recommendations to the Costa Rican health system is performed for carotid imaging study in patients at risk of accidents and ischemic cerebrovascular disease; with special emphasis on carotid Doppler ultrasonography, due to its wide availability in the medical field Costa Rican. Furthermore, certain relevant concepts of other imaging techniques currently available are listed to determine the appropriate choice of each method according to the individual patient's condition, such as conventional angiography and tomographic angiography [es
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Loh, Poh Chiang
2016-01-01
Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) based on double-stage conversion systems may inject interharmonics distortion into the grid, other than the well-known characteristic harmonic components. The problems created by interharmonics make it necessary to find their precise sources, and, to adopt an approp......Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) based on double-stage conversion systems may inject interharmonics distortion into the grid, other than the well-known characteristic harmonic components. The problems created by interharmonics make it necessary to find their precise sources, and, to adopt...... an appropriate strategy for minimizing their effects. This paper investigates the ASD's input current interharmonic sources caused by applying symmetrical regularly sampled fixed-frequency modulation techniques on the inverter. The interharmonics generation process is precisely formulated and comparative results...
Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Singh Iqbal
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Aim: To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. Materials and Methods: We searched the published English literature and the PubMed (TM for published series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′ (RPN using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Results: The search yielded 15 major selected series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s, as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. Conclusions: RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T 1 renal neoplasm(s. It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.
Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan
2011-05-01
The measurement of both renal function and structure is critical in clinical nephrology to detect, stage, and monitor chronic kidney disease (CKD). Current imaging modalities especially ultrasound (US), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide adequate information on structural changes but little on functional impairment in CKD. Although not yet considered first-line procedures for evaluating patients with renal disease, new US and MR imaging techniques may permit the assessment of renal function in the near future. Combined with established imaging techniques, contrast-enhanced US, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, blood oxygen level dependency MRI, or diffusion-weighted imaging may provide rapid, accurate, simultaneous, and noninvasive imaging of the structure of kidneys, macrovascular and microvascular renal perfusion, oxygenation, and glomerular filtration rate. Recent developments in molecular imaging indicate that pathophysiological pathways of renal diseases such as apoptosis, coagulation, fibrosis, and ischemia will be visualized at the tissue level. These major advances in imaging and developments in hardware and software could enable comprehensive imaging of renal structure and function in four dimensions (three dimensions plus time), and imaging is expected to play an increasing role in the management of CKD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulloa, Andres
2014-01-01
Technological tools and work methodologies most used in the area of geological sciences are reviewed and described. The various electronic devices such as laptops, palmtops or PDA (personal digital assistant), tablets and smartphones have allowed to take field geological data and store them efficiently. Tablets and smartphones have been convenient for data collection of scientific data by the diversity of sensors that present, portability, autonomy and the possibility to install specific applications. High precision GPS in conjunction with LIDAR technology and sonar technology have been more accessible and used for geological research, generating high resolution three-dimensional models to complement geological studies. Remote sensing techniques such as high penetration radar are used to perform models of the ice thickness and topography in Antarctic. Modern three-dimensional scanning and printing techniques are used in geological science research and teaching. Currently, the advance in the computer technology has allowed to handle three-dimensional models on personal computers efficiently way and with different display options. Some, of the new areas of geology, emerged recently, are mentioned to generate a broad panorama toward where can direct geological researches in the next years [es
A Smoothing Technique for the Multifractal Analysis of a Medium Voltage Feeders Electric Current
de Santis, Enrico; Sadeghian, Alireza; Rizzi, Antonello
2017-12-01
The current paper presents a data-driven detrending technique allowing to smooth complex sinusoidal trends from a real-world electric load time series before applying the Detrended Multifractal Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). The algorithm we call Smoothed Sort and Cut Fourier Detrending (SSC-FD) is based on a suitable smoothing of high power periodicities operating directly in the Fourier spectrum through a polynomial fitting technique of the DFT. The main aim consists of disambiguating the characteristic slow varying periodicities, that can impair the MFDFA analysis, from the residual signal in order to study its correlation properties. The algorithm performances are evaluated on a simple benchmark test consisting of a persistent series where the Hurst exponent is known, with superimposed ten sinusoidal harmonics. Moreover, the behavior of the algorithm parameters is assessed computing the MFDFA on the well-known sunspot data, whose correlation characteristics are reported in literature. In both cases, the SSC-FD method eliminates the apparent crossover induced by the synthetic and natural periodicities. Results are compared with some existing detrending methods within the MFDFA paradigm. Finally, a study of the multifractal characteristics of the electric load time series detrendended by the SSC-FD algorithm is provided, showing a strong persistent behavior and an appreciable amplitude of the multifractal spectrum that allows to conclude that the series at hand has multifractal characteristics.
Feehan, Brendan P; Fromm, David S
2017-05-01
Inguinal hernia repair is one of the most commonly performed operations in the pediatric population. While the majority of pediatric surgeons routinely use laparoscopy in their practices, a relatively small number prefer a laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair over the traditional open repair. This article provides an overview of the three port laparoscopic technique for inguinal hernia repair, as well as a review of the current evidence with respect to visualization and identification of hernias, recurrence rates, operative times, complication rates, postoperative pain, and cosmesis. The laparoscopic repair presents a viable alternative to open repair and offers a number of benefits over the traditional approach. These include superior visualization of the relevant anatomy, ability to assess and repair a contralateral hernia, lower rates of metachronous hernia, shorter operative times in bilateral hernia, and the potential for lower complication rates and improved cosmesis. This is accomplished without increasing recurrence rates or postoperative pain. Further research comparing the different approaches, including standardization of techniques and large randomized controlled trials, will be needed to definitively determine which is superior. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.
Additive Manufacturing Techniques in Prosthodontics: Where Do We Currently Stand? A Critical Review.
Alharbi, Nawal; Wismeijer, Daniel; Osman, Reham B
The aim of this article was to critically review the current application of additive manufacturing (AM)/3D-printing techniques in prosthodontics and to highlight the influence of various technical factors involved in different AM technologies. A standard approach of searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases was followed. The following search terms were used: (Prosth* OR Restoration) AND (Prototype OR Additive Manufacture* OR Compute* OR 3D-print* OR CAD/CAM) AND (Dentistry OR Dental). Hand searching the reference lists of the included articles and personal connections revealed additional relevant articles. Selection criteria were any article written in English and reporting on the application of AM in prosthodontics from 1990 to February 2016. From a total of 4,290 articles identified, 33 were seen as relevant. Of these, 3 were narrative reviews, 18 were in vitro studies, and 12 were clinical in vivo studies. Different AM technologies are applied in prosthodontics, directly and indirectly for the fabrication of fixed metal copings, metal frameworks for removable partial dentures, and plastic mock-ups and resin patterns for further conventional metal castings. Technical factors involved in different AM techniques influence the overall quality, the mechanical properties of the printed parts, and the total cost and manufacturing time. AM is promising and offers new possibilities in the field of prosthodontics, though its application is still limited. An understanding of these limitations and of developments in material science is crucial prior to considering AM as an acceptable method for the fabrication of dental prostheses.
Current surgical practices in cleft care: cleft palate repair techniques and postoperative care.
Katzel, Evan B; Basile, Patrick; Koltz, Peter F; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Girotto, John A
2009-09-01
The purpose of this study was to objectively report practices commonly used in cleft palate repair in the United States. This study investigates current surgical techniques, postoperative care, and complication rates for cleft palate repair surgery. All 803 surgeon members of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association were sent online and/or paper surveys inquiring about their management of cleft palate patients. Three-hundred six surveys were received, a 38 percent response rate. This represented responses of surgeons from 100 percent of American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association registered cleft teams. Ninety-six percent of respondents perform a one-stage repair. Eighty-five percent of surgeons perform palate surgery when the patient is between 6 and 12 months of age. The most common one-stage repair techniques are the Bardach style (two flaps) with intravelar veloplasty and the Furlow palatoplasty. After surgery, 39 percent of surgeons discharge patients within 24 hours. Another 43 percent discharge patients within 48 hours. During postoperative management, 92 percent of respondents implement feeding restrictions. Eighty-five percent of physicians use arm restraints. Surgeons' self-reported complications rates are minimal: 54 percent report a fistula in less than 5 percent of cases. The reported need for secondary speech surgery varies widely. The majority of respondents repair clefts in one stage. The most frequently used repair techniques are the Furlow palatoplasty and the Bardach style with intravelar veloplasty. After surgery, the majority of surgeons discharge patients in 1 or 2 days, and nearly all surgeons implement feeding restrictions and the use of arm restraints. The varying feeding protocols are reviewed in this article.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Beong Gyu; Kweon, Dae Cheol; Lee, Jong Seok; Jang, Keun Jo; Jeon, Sang Hwan; Kim, Yong Soo
2007-01-01
Z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique automatically adjusts tube current based on size of body region scanned. The purpose of the current study was to compare noise, and radiation dose of Multi-Detector row CT (MDCT) of lower extremity performed with Z-axis modulation technique of automatic tube current modulation with manual selection fixed tube current. Fifty consecutive underwent MDCT venography of lower extremity with use of a MDCT scanner fixed tube current and Z-axis automatic tube current modulation technique (10, 11 and 12 HU noise index, 70∼450 mA). Scanning parameters included 120 kVp, 0.5 second gantry rotation time, 1.35:1 beam pitch, and 1 mm reconstructed section thickness. For each subject, images obtained with Z-axis modulation were compared with previous images obtained with fixed tube current (200, 250, 300 mA) and with other parameters identical. Images were compared for noise at five levels: iliac, femoral, popliteal, tibial, and peroneal vein of lower extremity. Tube current and gantry rotation time used for acquisitions at these levels were recorded. All CT examinations of study and control groups were diagnostically acceptable, though objective noise was significantly more with Z-axis automatic tube current modulation. Compared with fixed tube current, Z-axis modulation resulted in reduction of CTDIvol (range, -6.5%∼-35.6%) and DLP (range,-0.2%∼-20.2%). Compared with manually selected fixed tube current, Z-axis automatic tube current modulation resulted in reduced radiation dose at MDCT of lower extremity venography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valeo, E.J.; Phillips, C.K.; Bonoli, P.T.; Wright, J.C.; Brambilla, M.
2007-01-01
The generation of energetic tails in the electron distribution function is intrinsic to lower-hybrid (LH) heating and current drive in weakly collisional magnetically confined plasma. The effects of these deformations on the RF deposition profile have previously been examined within the ray approximation. Recently, the calculation of full-wave propagation of LH waves in a thermal plasma has been accomplished using an adaptation of the TORIC code. Here, initial results are presented from TORIC simulations of LH propagation in a toroidal plasma with non-thermal electrons. The required efficient computation of the hot plasma dielectric tensor is accomplished using a technique previously demonstrated in full-wave simulations of ICRF propagation in plasma with non-thermal ions
Fed-state gastric media and drug analysis techniques: Current status and points to consider.
Baxevanis, Fotios; Kuiper, Jesse; Fotaki, Nikoletta
2016-10-01
Gastric fed state conditions can have a significant effect on drug dissolution and absorption. In vitro dissolution tests with simple aqueous media cannot usually predict drugs' in vivo response, as several factors such as the meal content, the gastric emptying and possible interactions between food and drug formulations can affect drug's pharmacokinetics. Good understanding of the effect of the in vivo fed gastric conditions on the drug is essential for the development of biorelevant dissolution media simulating the gastric environment after the administration of the standard high fat meal proposed by the FDA and the EMA in bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. The analysis of drugs in fed state media can be quite challenging as most analytical protocols currently employed are time consuming and labour intensive. In this review, an overview of the in vivo gastric conditions and the biorelevant media used for their in vitro simulation are described. Furthermore an analysis of the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the formulations related to food effect is given. In terms of drug analysis, the protocols currently used for the fed state media sample treatment and analysis and the analytical challenges and needs emerging for more efficient and time saving techniques for a broad spectrum of compounds are being discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Robot-assisted pyeloplasty: review of the current literature, technique and outcome.
Singh, Iqbal; Hemal, Ashok K
2010-04-01
To review the global select data on the current technique, perioperative outcome and literature on the robot-assisted pyeloplasty (RAP). The published English literature (PubMed) was extensively searched using the key words; robot, robot-assisted pyeloplasty, laparoscopy, laparoscopic pyeloplasty and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The selected studies were then reviewed, tracked and analyzed in order to determine the current role, outcome and status of robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty. The search yielded about 25 published series on RAP comprising about 740 cases with a mean operative time, estimated blood loss, crossing vessel prevalence, hospital stay,perioperative complication rate and follow up duration of 194 min, 50 mL, 47%, 2.3 days, 6% and 14.9 months respectively. The initial peri-operative results and intermediate follow up of cases of repair of the ureteropelvic junction obstruction with robot-assisted pyeloplasty appear to be favorable and comparable to that of open pyeloplasty, while long term outcome data is still awaited. The da Vinci surgical robotic system is a promising surgical armamentarium in the hands of the modern day urologist for the minimally invasive definitive surgical management of both primary and secondary ureteropelvic junction obstruction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, Nagayasu; Tamaru, Ken; Nagata, Akiyoshi.
1979-01-01
Formation of toroidal pre-heat plasma was studied. The pre-heat plasma without residual magnetic field was made by chopping the current for pre-heat, A small toroidal-pinch system was used for the experiment. The magnetic field was measured with a magnetic probe. One turn loop was used for the measurement of the toroidal one-turn electric field. A pair of Rogoski coil was used for the measurement of plasma current. The dependence of residual magnetic field on chopping time was measured. By fast chopping of the primary current in the pre-heating circuit, the poloidal magnetic field was reduced to several percent within 5 microsecond. After chopping, no instability was observed in the principal discharge plasma produced within several microsecond. As the conclusion, it can be said that the control of residual field can be made by current chopping. (Kato, T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urie, Marcia; FitzGerald, T.J.; Followill, David; Laurie, Fran; Marcus, Robert; Michalski, Jeff
2003-01-01
Purpose: To report current technology implementation, radiation therapy physics and treatment planning practices, and results of treatment planning exercises among 261 institutions belonging to the Children's Oncology Group (COG). Methods and Materials: The Radiation Therapy Committee of the newly formed COG mandated that each institution demonstrate basic physics and treatment planning abilities by satisfactorily completing a questionnaire and four treatment planning exercises designed by the Quality Assurance Review Center. The planning cases are (1) a maxillary sinus target volume (for two-dimensional planning), (2) a Hodgkin's disease mantle field (for irregular-field and off-axis dose calculations), (3) a central axis blocked case, and (4) a craniospinal irradiation case. The questionnaire and treatment plans were submitted (as of 1/30/02) by 243 institutions and completed satisfactorily by 233. Data from this questionnaire and analyses of the treatment plans with monitor unit calculations are presented. Results: Of the 243 clinics responding, 54% use multileaf collimators routinely, 94% use asymmetric jaws routinely, and 13% use dynamic wedges. Nearly all institutions calibrate their linear accelerators following American Association of Physicists in Medicine protocols, currently 16% with TG-51 and 81% with TG-21 protocol. Treatment planning systems are relied on very heavily for all calculations, including monitor units. Techniques and results of each of the treatment planning exercises are presented. Conclusions: Together, these data provide a unique compilation of current (2001) radiation therapy practices in institutions treating pediatric patients. Overall, the COG facilities have the equipment and the personnel to perform high-quality radiation therapy. With ongoing quality assurance review, radiation therapy compliance with COG protocols should be high
Manufacturing aspects of the ATLAS barrel toroid double pancakes
Drago, G; Gagliardi, P; Laurenti, A; Marabotto, R; Penco, R
2002-01-01
In 1999 INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) ordered to ANSALDO the manufacturing of 16 double pancakes for the ATLAS BARREL TOROID. In July 2001 four Double Pancakes have already been completed and shipped to the integration site. In this paper the main aspects of the manufacturing of the largest superconducting coils ever built (5*25 m) are described. The main phases of the manufacturing procedure are reviewed starting from the conductor preparation to the VPI impregnation, including references to the materials used as well as to the relevant customer's requirements. In particular the special winding form and the winding technique are treated. For each phase the most critical aspects and the relevant solutions are pointed out. Particular details about the technical solutions adopted for the impregnation and curing of the Double Pancake, which could not be performed inside an autoclave due to the huge dimension of the coil itself, are reported. Finally the methods used for the dimensional and electri...
First assembly phase for the ATLAS toroid coils
Maximilien Brice
2003-01-01
The ATLAS barrel toroid system consists of eight coils, each of axial length 25.3 m, assembled radially and symmetrically around the beam axis. The coils are of a flat racetrack type with two double-pancake windings made of 20.5 kA aluminium-stabilized niobium-titanium superconductor. In the first phase of assembly, the two 'pancakes' are packed into their vacuum vessel. This is done using bladders filled with resin and glass microbeads under pressure. The resin is heated and, once cooled, holds the pancakes in place. The operation has to be performed on both sides of the coil, which necessitated a special technique to turn the coils over and then transport them to the heating table. Photos 01, 02, 03: Transporting the coil to the heating table using a special lifting gantry manufactured at JINR-Dubna, Russia in preparation for the 'bladderisation' operation.
Motion of a compact toroid inside a cylindrical flux conserver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jarboe, T.R.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Linford, R.K.; Marshall, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, A.R.
1980-10-13
Compact toroids have been generated in a cylindrical resistive flux conserver. They are observed to rotate so that their major axis is perpendicular to the axis of the flux conserver. Subsequently they remain stationary and their magnetic fields decay with a time constant of about 100 ..mu..s. This is the first observation of the predicted tipping mode and its saturation when no external fields are present. The compact toroids contain toroidal fields and are initially prolate in shape.
Motion of a compact toroid inside a cylindrical flux conserver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jarboe, T.R.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Linford, R.K.; Marshall, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, A.R.
1980-01-01
Compact toroids have been generated in a cylindrical resistive flux conserver. They are observed to rotate so that their major axis is perpendicular to the axis of the flux conserver. Subsequently they remain stationary and their magnetic fields decay with a time constant of about 100 μs. This is the first observation of the predicted tipping mode and its saturation when no external fields are present. The compact toroids contain toroidal fields and are initially prolate in shape
Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari
1980-01-01
A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)
Suppression of m = 0 in a RFP by toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, D.; Robertson, S.
1993-01-01
The Reversatron RFP is normally operated with the toroidal field coils connected in series. The time-integrated voltage applied to the circuit determines the sum of the fluxes linking each turn but not the flux within each turn. Each winding may have a different flux determined by the external drive and by currents within the plasma. A parallel connection of the field coils results in the flux within each coil being determined by the volt-seconds applied to the windings; thus the toroidal flux is the same within each coil. This configuration suppresses any toroidal variation in the toroidal flux and effectively reduces the level of the m = 0 component of the radial field. The m = 0 fluctuations are expected to arise due to nonlinear coupling of the m = 1 modes. A parallel connection of field coils is impractical due to the low impedance required for driving the coils. The authors have tested the effect of parallel connected coils by adding an auxiliary set of 36 coils. These are connected in parallel but are not connected to any supply. The toroidal flux is generated by the series-connected coils which generate voltage but not current in the parallel-connected coils. With the auxiliary coils, the discharge duration is increased from 500 to 550 μsec, the plasma current is increased from 50 kA to 60 kA, F is more negative, Θ is larger, and there is less shot-to-shot variation in the discharges. The m = 0 fluctuations measured by 43 surface coils are, however, only slightly reduced
Observations of core toroidal rotation reversals in Alcator C-Mod ohmic L-mode plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rice, J.E.; Reinke, M.L.; Podpaly, Y.A.; Churchill, R.M.; Cziegler, I.; Dominguez, A.; Ennever, P.C.; Fiore, C.L.; Granetz, R.S.; Greenwald, M.J.; Hubbard, A.E.; Hughes, J.W.; Irby, J.H.; Ma, Y.; Marmar, E.S.; McDermott, R.M.; Porkolab, M.; Duval, B.P.; Bortolon, A.; Diamond, P.H.
2011-01-01
Direction reversals of intrinsic toroidal rotation have been observed in Alcator C-Mod ohmic L-mode plasmas following modest electron density or toroidal magnetic field ramps. The reversal process occurs in the plasma interior, inside of the q = 3/2 surface. For low density plasmas, the rotation is in the co-current direction, and can reverse to the counter-current direction following an increase in the electron density above a certain threshold. Reversals from the co- to counter-current direction are correlated with a sharp decrease in density fluctuations with k R ≥ 2 cm -1 and with frequencies above 70 kHz. The density at which the rotation reverses increases linearly with plasma current, and decreases with increasing magnetic field. There is a strong correlation between the reversal density and the density at which the global ohmic L-mode energy confinement changes from the linear to the saturated regime.
An eigenexpansion technique for modelling plasma start-up
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pillsbury, R.D.
1989-01-01
An algorithm has been developed and implemented in a computer program that allows the estimation of PF coil voltages required to start-up an axisymmetric plasma in a tokamak in the presence of eddy currents in toroidally continuous conducting structures. The algorithm makes use of an eigen-expansion technique to solve the lumped parameter circuit loop voltage equations associated with the PF coils and passive (conducting) structures. An example of start-up for CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak) is included
Structure of DNA toroids and electrostatic attraction of DNA duplexes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cherstvy, A G
2005-01-01
DNA-DNA electrostatic attraction is considered as the driving force for the formation of DNA toroids in the presence of DNA condensing cations. This attraction comes from the DNA helical charge distribution and favours hexagonal toroidal cross-sections. The latter is in agreement with recent cryo-electron microscopy studies on DNA condensed with cobalt hexammine. We treat the DNA-DNA interactions within the modern theory of electrostatic interaction between helical macromolecules. The size and thickness of the toroids is calculated within a simple model; other models of stability of DNA toroids are discussed and compared
The SSC superconducting air core toroid design development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fields, T.; Carroll, A.; Chiang, I.H.; Frank, J.S.; Haggerty, J.; Littenberg, L.; Morse, W.; Strand, R.C.; Lau, K.; Weinstein, R.; McNeil, R.; Friedman, J.; Hafen, E.; Haridas, P.; Kendall, H.W.; Osborne, L.; Pless, I.; Rosenson, L.; Pope, B.; Jones, L.W.; Luton, J.N.; Bonanos, P.; Marx, M.; Pusateri, J.A.; Favale, A.; Gottesman, S.; Schneid, E.; Verdier, R.
1990-01-01
Superconducting air core toroids show great promise for use in a muon spectrometer for the SSC. Early studies by SUNY at Stony Brook funded by SSC Laboratory, have established the feasibility of building magnets of the required size. The toroid spectrometer consists of a central toroid with two end cap toroids. The configuration under development provides for muon trajectory measurement outside the magnetic volume. System level studies on support structure, assembly, cryogenic material selection, and power are performed. Resulting selected optimal design and assembly is described. 4 refs., 6 figs
Form factor of some types of toroidal solenoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koryavko, V.I.; Litvinenko, Yu.A.
1979-01-01
Obtained were the type of dependence between consumed power and formed field for toroidal helical-wound solenoids and the expression for the form factor analogous to the Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids. Determined were optimum dimensions of the helical winding of ''forceless'' toroidal solenoids satisfying the condition of the formation of maximum field at minimum consumed power. Investigations also covered some types of conventional toroidal solenoids. Presented in the paper diagrams permitted to chose dimensions of the considered toroidal solenoids according to their consumed power and winding material volume
Relaxation phenomena in current-carrying toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Zensho
1986-01-01
A theory of intrinsic dissipative structure is developed, which is to analyze the decay of a dissipative dynamical system. The theory is applied to the study of stable equilibria in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems. Special sets of MHD equilibria are characterized as attractors of MHD systems, and they are shown to be classified into four classes, which cover wide range of experimentally observed MHD equilibria. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harzalla, S.; Chabaat, M.; Belgacem, F. Bin Muhammad
2014-01-01
In this paper, a nondestructive technique is used as a tool to control cracks and microcracks in materials. A simulation by a numerical approach such as the finite element method is employed to detect cracks and eventually; to study their propagation using a crucial parameter such as the stress intensity factor. This approach has been used in the aircraft industry to control cracks. Besides, it makes it possible to highlight the defects of parts while preserving the integrity of the controlled products. On the other side, it is proven that the reliability of the control of defects gives convincing results for the improvement of the quality and the safety of the material. Eddy current testing (ECT) is a standard technique in industry for the detection of surface breaking flaws in magnetic materials such as steels. In this context, simulation tools can be used to improve the understanding of experimental signals, optimize the design of sensors or evaluate the performance of ECT procedures. CEA-LIST has developed for many years semi-analytical models embedded into the simulation platform CIVA dedicated to non-destructive testing. The developments presented herein address the case of flaws located inside a planar and magnetic medium. Simulation results are obtained through the application of the Volume Integral Method (VIM). When considering the ECT of a single flaw, a system of two differential equations is derived from Maxwell equations. The numerical resolution of the system is carried out using the classical Galerkin variant of the Method of Moments. Besides, a probe response is calculated by application of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. Finally, the approach itself as well as comparisons between simulation results and measured data are presented
Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suresh C Sikka
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA, sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men′s health for reproductive success.
Ratti, Francesca; Cipriani, Federica; Ariotti, Riccardo; Giannone, Fabio; Paganelli, Michele; Aldrighetti, Luca
2015-06-01
Diffusion of laparoscopic major hepatectomies is experiencing a steady increasing trend, although slower compared to minor resections. The aim of this single-center study is to discuss current trends and indications in the application of minimally invasive techniques to major hepatic resections. Preoperative patients and disease characteristics of 49 laparoscopic major hepatectomies (LPS group), performed between 2005 and 2015, were compared with 585 open hepatectomies (Open group) to analyze differences in patients recruitment. Factors which were found to be differently distributed between groups were used as covariates in a propensity score-based case-matched analysis with a 1:3 ratio between LPS group and 147 patients from the Open group (constituting Open-mat group). Short-term outcome was analyzed in matched groups. ASA score, previous abdominal surgery, previous interventional procedures, indication, lesion size and associated procedures were significantly different between the LPS and the Open group. Short-term outcome analysis revealed that blood loss (200 vs 350 mL, p = 0.044) and time for functional recovery (3 vs 4 days, p = 0.05) were reduced in the LPS compared to the Open-mat group, in spite of longer length of surgery (260 vs 170 min, p = 0.041) and comparable oncological adequacy. Even though data on technical feasibility of laparoscopic major resections and their benefits in terms of blood loss and functional recovery support the diffusion of minimally invasive approach, the limit of the technique is still represented by the reduced pool of suitable candidates.
Current knowledge and importance of dGEMRIC techniques in diagnosis of hip joint diseases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Ruediger; Bittersohl, Bernd [University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Tiderius, Carl Johann [Lund University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Lund (Sweden)
2015-08-15
Accurate assessment of early hip joint cartilage alterations may help optimize patient selection and follow-up of hip joint preservation surgery. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is sensitive to the glycosaminoglycan content in cartilage that is lost early in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Hence, the dGEMRIC technique holds promise for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, because of the location of the hip joint deep within the body and due to the fairly thin cartilage layers that require high spatial resolution, the diagnosis of early hip joint cartilage alterations may be problematic. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of dGEMRIC in the assessment of hip joint cartilage. A literature search was performed with PubMed, using the terms ''cartilage, osteoarthritis, hip joint, MRI, and dGEMRIC'', considering all levels of studies. This review revealed that dGEMRIC can be reliably used in the evaluation of early stage cartilage pathology in various hip joint disorders. Modifications in the technique, such as the operation of three-dimensional imaging and dGEMRIC after intra-articular contrast medium administration, have expanded the range of application. Notably, the studies differ considerably in patient selection and technical prerequisites. Furthermore, there is a need for multicenter prospective studies with the required technical conditions in place to establish outcome based dGEMRIC data to obtain, in conjunction with clinical data, reliable threshold values for normal and abnormal cartilage, and for hips that may benefit from conservative or surgical treatment. (orig.)
Current knowledge and importance of dGEMRIC techniques in diagnosis of hip joint diseases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Ruediger; Bittersohl, Bernd; Tiderius, Carl Johann
2015-01-01
Accurate assessment of early hip joint cartilage alterations may help optimize patient selection and follow-up of hip joint preservation surgery. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is sensitive to the glycosaminoglycan content in cartilage that is lost early in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Hence, the dGEMRIC technique holds promise for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, because of the location of the hip joint deep within the body and due to the fairly thin cartilage layers that require high spatial resolution, the diagnosis of early hip joint cartilage alterations may be problematic. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of dGEMRIC in the assessment of hip joint cartilage. A literature search was performed with PubMed, using the terms ''cartilage, osteoarthritis, hip joint, MRI, and dGEMRIC'', considering all levels of studies. This review revealed that dGEMRIC can be reliably used in the evaluation of early stage cartilage pathology in various hip joint disorders. Modifications in the technique, such as the operation of three-dimensional imaging and dGEMRIC after intra-articular contrast medium administration, have expanded the range of application. Notably, the studies differ considerably in patient selection and technical prerequisites. Furthermore, there is a need for multicenter prospective studies with the required technical conditions in place to establish outcome based dGEMRIC data to obtain, in conjunction with clinical data, reliable threshold values for normal and abnormal cartilage, and for hips that may benefit from conservative or surgical treatment. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Harzalla, S., E-mail: harzallahozil@yahoo.fr; Chabaat, M., E-mail: mchabaat@yahoo.com [Built Environmental Research Laboratory, Civil Engineering Faculty, University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32 El Alia Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Belgacem, F. Bin Muhammad, E-mail: fbmbelgacem@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Basic Education, PAAET, Al-Aardhia (Kuwait)
2014-12-10
In this paper, a nondestructive technique is used as a tool to control cracks and microcracks in materials. A simulation by a numerical approach such as the finite element method is employed to detect cracks and eventually; to study their propagation using a crucial parameter such as the stress intensity factor. This approach has been used in the aircraft industry to control cracks. Besides, it makes it possible to highlight the defects of parts while preserving the integrity of the controlled products. On the other side, it is proven that the reliability of the control of defects gives convincing results for the improvement of the quality and the safety of the material. Eddy current testing (ECT) is a standard technique in industry for the detection of surface breaking flaws in magnetic materials such as steels. In this context, simulation tools can be used to improve the understanding of experimental signals, optimize the design of sensors or evaluate the performance of ECT procedures. CEA-LIST has developed for many years semi-analytical models embedded into the simulation platform CIVA dedicated to non-destructive testing. The developments presented herein address the case of flaws located inside a planar and magnetic medium. Simulation results are obtained through the application of the Volume Integral Method (VIM). When considering the ECT of a single flaw, a system of two differential equations is derived from Maxwell equations. The numerical resolution of the system is carried out using the classical Galerkin variant of the Method of Moments. Besides, a probe response is calculated by application of the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. Finally, the approach itself as well as comparisons between simulation results and measured data are presented.
Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey
2014-01-01
An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films
Liquid toroidal drop under uniform electric field
Zabarankin, Michael
2017-06-01
The problem of a stationary liquid toroidal drop freely suspended in another fluid and subjected to an electric field uniform at infinity is addressed analytically. Taylor's discriminating function implies that, when the phases have equal viscosities and are assumed to be slightly conducting (leaky dielectrics), a spherical drop is stationary when Q=(2R2+3R+2)/(7R2), where R and Q are ratios of the phases' electric conductivities and dielectric constants, respectively. This condition holds for any electric capillary number, CaE, that defines the ratio of electric stress to surface tension. Pairam and Fernández-Nieves showed experimentally that, in the absence of external forces (CaE=0), a toroidal drop shrinks towards its centre, and, consequently, the drop can be stationary only for some CaE>0. This work finds Q and CaE such that, under the presence of an electric field and with equal viscosities of the phases, a toroidal drop having major radius ρ and volume 4π/3 is qualitatively stationary-the normal velocity of the drop's interface is minute and the interface coincides visually with a streamline. The found Q and CaE depend on R and ρ, and for large ρ, e.g. ρ≥3, they have simple approximations: Q˜(R2+R+1)/(3R2) and CaE∼3 √{3 π ρ / 2 } (6 ln ρ +2 ln [96 π ]-9 )/ (12 ln ρ +4 ln [96 π ]-17 ) (R+1 ) 2/ (R-1 ) 2.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Jamali
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The phenomenon of magnetizing inrush is a transient condition, which occurs primarily when a transformer is energized. The magnitude of inrush current may be as high as ten times or more times of transformer rated current that causes malfunction of protection system. So, for safe running of a transformer, it is necessary to distinguish inrush current from fault currents. In this paper, an equivalent instantaneous inductance (EII technique is used to discriminate inrush current from fault currents. For this purpose, a three-phase power transformer has been simulated in Maxwell software that is based on finite elements. This three-phase power transformer has been used to simulate different conditions. Then, the results have been used as inputs in MATLAB program to implement the equivalent instantaneous inductance technique. The results show that in the case of inrush current, the equivalent instantaneous inductance has a drastic variation, while it is almost constant in the cases of fault conditions.
Structural responses to plasma disruptions in toroidal shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tillack, M.S.; Kazimi, M.S.; Lidsky, L.M.
1985-01-01
The induced pressures, stresses and strains in unrestrained axisymmetric toroidal shells are studied to scope the behavior of tokamak first walls during plasma disruptions. The modeling includes a circuit analog representation of the shell to solve for induced currents and pressures, and a separate quasi-static 1-D finite element solution for the mechanical response. This work demonstrates that the stresses in tokamkak first walls due to plasma disruption may be large, but to first order will not cause failure in the bulk structure. However, stress concentrations at structural supports and discontinuities together with resonant effects can result in large enhancements of the stresses, which could contribute to plastic deformation or failure when added to the already large steady state thermal and pressure loading of the first wall
Overview of recent results from the Advanced Toroidal Facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anabitarte, E.; Hidalgo-Vera, C.; Anderson, F.S.B.; Bell, G.L.; Gandy, R.F.; Bell, J.D.; Charlton, L.A.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Morris, R.N.; Tolliver, J.S.; Hanson, G.R.; Kwon, M.; Rogers, P.S.; Shaw, P.L.; Wade, M.R.; Kaneko, H.; Sudo, S.; Yamada, H.; Zielinski, J.J.; Murakami, M.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carreras, B.A; Colchin, R.J.; Crume, E.C.; Dominguez, N.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; England, A.C.; Fisher, P.W.; Glowienka, J.C.; Goulding, R.H.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Hillis, D.L.; Hiroe, S.; Horton, L.D.; Howe, H.C.; Hutchinson, D.E.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Kannan, K.L.; Langley, R.A.; Leboeuf, J.G.; Lue, J.W.; Lyon, J.F.; Ma, C.H.; Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Neilson, G.H.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Shaing, K.C.; Shepard, T.D.; Simpkins, J.E.; Stewart, K.A.; Uckan, T.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wing, W.R.
1989-01-01
An overview of recent experimental results from the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is presented. Beam-heated plasmas with bar n e of 10 20 m -3 and τ E * of ∼20 ms have been achieved. Thermal collapse of the plasmas is mitigated by wall conditioning and particle fueling. Confinement time scales positively with density and magnetic field, offsetting deterioration with power. Results fit the LHD scaling and the drift wave turbulence scaling. Bootstrap currents observed during ECH agree with neoclassical theory in magnitude and parameter dependences. Fast reciprocating Langmuir probe measurements show that edge fluctuations in ATF have many similarities to those in the TEXT tokamak. The location of B instabilities has shifted outward in radius, consistent with the broader pressure profiles. 14 refs., 6 figs
Overview of recent results from the Advanced Toroidal Facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, M.; Anabitarte, E.; Anderson, F.S.B.; Bell, G.L.; Bell, J.D.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Clark, T.L.; Colchin, R.J.; Crume, E.C. Jr.; Dominguez, N.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; England, A.C.; Fisher, P.W.; Gandy, R.F.; Glowienka, J.C.; Goulding, R.H.; Hanson, G.R.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Hidalgo-Vera, C.; Hillis, D.L.; Hiroe, S.; Horton, L.D.; Howe, H.C.; Hutchinson, D.E.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Kannan, K.L.; Kaneko, H.; Kwon, M.; Langley, R.A.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lue, J.W.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Ma, C.H.; Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Morris, R.N.; Neilson, G.H.; Qualls, A.L.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ritz, C.P.; Rogers, P.S.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Shaing, K.C.; Shaw, P.L.; Shepard, T.D.; Simpkins, J.E.; Stewart, K.A.; Sudo, S.; Thomas, C.E.; Tolliver, J.S.; Uckan, T.; Wade, M.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wing, W.R.; Yamada, H.; Zielinski, J.J.
1990-02-01
An overview of recent experimental results from the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is presented. Beam-heated plasmas with bar n e of 10 20 m -3 and τ E * of ∼ 20 ms have been achieved. Thermal collapse of the plasmas is mitigated by wall conditioning and particle fueling. Confinement time scales positively with density and magnetic field, offsetting deterioration with power. Results fit the Large Helical Device (LHD) scaling and the drift wave turbulence scaling. Bootstrap currents observed during electron cyclotron heating agree with neoclassical theory in magnitude and parameter dependences. Fast reciprocating Langmuir probe measurements show that edge fluctuations in ATF have many similarities to those in the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). The location of B instabilities has shifted outward in radius, consistent with the broader pressure profiles. 14 refs., 6 figs
Compact toroid development: activity plan for field reversed configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1984-06-01
This document contains the description, goals, status, plans, and approach for the investigation of the properties of a magnetic configuration for plasma confinement identified as the field reversed configuration (FRC). This component of the magnetic fusion development program has been characterized by its potential for physical compactness and a flexible range of output power. The included material represents the second phase of FRC program planning. The first was completed in February 1983, and was reported in DOE/ER-0160; Compact Toroid Development. This planning builds on that previous report and concentrates on the detailed plans for the next several years of the current DOE sponsored program. It has been deliberately restricted to the experimental and theoretical efforts possible within the present scale of effort. A third phase of this planning exercise will examine the subsequent effort and resources needed to achieve near term (1987 to 1990) FRC technical objectives
Ribeiro, Filomena; Castanheira-Dinis, Antonio; Dias, Joao Mendanha
2013-03-01
To identify and quantify sources of error on refractive assessment using exact ray tracing. The Liou-Brennan eye model was used as a starting point and its parameters were varied individually within a physiological range. The contribution of each parameter to refractive error was assessed using linear regression curve fits and Gaussian error propagation analysis. A MonteCarlo analysis quantified the limits of refractive assessment given by current biometric measurements. Vitreous and aqueous refractive indices are the elements that influence refractive error the most, with a 1% change of each parameter contributing to a refractive error variation of +1.60 and -1.30 diopters (D), respectively. In the phakic eye, axial length measurements taken by ultrasound (vitreous chamber depth, lens thickness, and anterior chamber depth [ACD]) were the most sensitive to biometric errors, with a contribution to the refractive error of 62.7%, 14.2%, and 10.7%, respectively. In the pseudophakic eye, vitreous chamber depth showed the highest contribution at 53.7%, followed by postoperative ACD at 35.7%. When optic measurements were considered, postoperative ACD was the most important contributor, followed by anterior corneal surface and its asphericity. A MonteCarlo simulation showed that current limits of refractive assessment are 0.26 and 0.28 D for the phakic and pseudophakic eye, respectively. The most relevant optical elements either do not have available measurement instruments or the existing instruments still need to improve their accuracy. Ray tracing can be used as an optical assessment technique, and may be the correct path for future personalized refractive assessment. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid
Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro
2016-01-01
The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.
Linear mode conversion in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsten, T.
1980-05-01
Linear mode conversion at the perpendicular ion cyclotron resonance has been treated for an axially symmetric toroidal plasma. The mode conversion appears between a fast electromagnetic wave and a slow-quasi electrostatic wave, due to finite electron inertia. The problem reduces to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation where the coefficients determining the reflectron, transmission and conversion are functions of the arc length along a poloidal intersection of the resonance surface. These coefficients can be determined from eigenfunctions of an ordinary differential equation. (author)
General Atomic's superconducting toroidal field coil concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcorn, J.; Purcell, J.
1978-01-01
General Atomic's concept for a superconducting toroidal field coil is presented. The concept is generic for large tokamak devices, while a specific design is indicated for a 3.8 meter (major radius) ignition/burn machine. The concept utilizes bath cooled NbTi conductor to generate a peak field of 10 tesla at 4.2 K. The design is simple and straightforward, requires a minimum of developmental effort, and draws extensively upon the perspective of past experience in the design and construction of large superconducting magnets for high energy physics. Thus, the primary emphasis is upon economy, reliability, and expeditious construction scheduling. (author)
ICRH experiments in a toroidal octupole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.; Sprott, J.C.
1974-01-01
A 100 kW, 144 μsec pulse of 1.4 MHz rf is used to heat plasmas with densities less than or equal to 3 x 10 12 cm -3 at the ion cyclotron frequency in a toroidal octupole. The rf is coupled to the plasma by a single turn, electrostatically shielded hoop coaxial to the four main hoops and located near the wall. Absorbed power is inferred from plasma loading of the hoop and measured directly with an electrostatic ion energy analyzer and compared to single particle resonance heating theory
Electrical disruption in toroidal plasma of hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberto, M.; Silva, C.A.B.; Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P.
1991-01-01
The initial phase of ionization of a toroidal plasma produced in hydrogen was investigated using zero-dimensional model. The model describes the temporal evolution of plasma by spatial medium of particle density and temperature, on whole plasma volume. The energy and particle (electrons and ions) balance equations are considered. The electron loss is due to ambipolar diffusion in the presence of magnetic field. The electron energy loss involves ionization, Coulomb interaction and diffusion. The ohmic heating converter gives the initial voltage necessary to disruption. (M.C.K.)
Impurity studies in the advanced toroidal facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isler, R.C.; Horton, L.D.; Crume, E.C.; Howe, H.C.; Voronov, G.S.
1989-01-01
Impurities have played an important role in the initial stages of operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility. Cleanup practices have been adequate enough that plasmas heated by ECH only can be operated in a quasi-steady state; however, neutral beam injected plasmas always collapse to a low temperature. It is not clear whether impurity radiation is actually responsible for initiating the collapse, but at the time the stored energy reaches a maximum, there are indications of poloidal asymmetries in radiation from low ionization stages, such as observed in marfes, which could play a dominant role in the plasma evolution. 3 refs., 5 figs
Convective cells and transport in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassam, A.B.; Kulsrud, R.M.
1978-12-01
The properties of convective cells and the diffusion resulting from such cells are significantly influenced by an inhomogeneity in the extermal confining magnetic field, such as that in toroidal plasmas. The convective diffusion in the presence of a field inhomogeneity is estimated. For a thermal background, this diffusion is shown to be substantially smaller than classical collisional diffusion. For a model nonthermal background, the diffusion is estimated, for typical parameters, to be at most of the order of collisional diffusion. The model background employed is based on spectra observed in numerical simulations of drift-wave-driven convective cells
Bifurcation theory for toroidal MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maschke, E.K.; Morros Tosas, J.; Urquijo, G.
1992-01-01
Using a general representation of magneto-hydrodynamics in terms of stream functions and potentials, proposed earlier, a set of reduced MHD equations for the case of toroidal geometry had been derived by an appropriate ordering with respect to the inverse aspect ratio. When all dissipative terms are neglected in this reduced system, it has the same linear stability limits as the full ideal MHD equations, to the order considered. When including resistivity, thermal conductivity and viscosity, we can apply bifurcation theory to investigate nonlinear stationary solution branches related to various instabilities. In particular, we show that a stationary solution of the internal kink type can be found
Gillman, Ashley; Smith, Jye; Thomas, Paul; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas
2017-12-01
Patient motion is an important consideration in modern PET image reconstruction. Advances in PET technology mean motion has an increasingly important influence on resulting image quality. Motion-induced artifacts can have adverse effects on clinical outcomes, including missed diagnoses and oversized radiotherapy treatment volumes. This review aims to summarize the wide variety of motion correction techniques available in PET and combined PET/CT and PET/MR, with a focus on the latter. A general framework for the motion correction of PET images is presented, consisting of acquisition, modeling, and correction stages. Methods for measuring, modeling, and correcting motion and associated artifacts, both in literature and commercially available, are presented, and their relative merits are contrasted. Identified limitations of current methods include modeling of aperiodic and/or unpredictable motion, attaining adequate temporal resolution for motion correction in dynamic kinetic modeling acquisitions, and maintaining availability of the MR in PET/MR scans for diagnostic acquisitions. Finally, avenues for future investigation are discussed, with a focus on improvements that could improve PET image quality, and that are practical in the clinical environment. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Lanata, C F; Black, R E
1991-01-01
Traditional survey methods, which are generally costly and time-consuming, usually provide information at the regional or national level only. The utilization of lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) methodology, developed in industry for quality control, makes it possible to use small sample sizes when conducting surveys in small geographical or population-based areas (lots). This article describes the practical use of LQAS for conducting health surveys to monitor health programmes in developing countries. Following a brief description of the method, the article explains how to build a sample frame and conduct the sampling to apply LQAS under field conditions. A detailed description of the procedure for selecting a sampling unit to monitor the health programme and a sample size is given. The sampling schemes utilizing LQAS applicable to health surveys, such as simple- and double-sampling schemes, are discussed. The interpretation of the survey results and the planning of subsequent rounds of LQAS surveys are also discussed. When describing the applicability of LQAS in health surveys in developing countries, the article considers current limitations for its use by health planners in charge of health programmes, and suggests ways to overcome these limitations through future research. It is hoped that with increasing attention being given to industrial sampling plans in general, and LQAS in particular, their utilization to monitor health programmes will provide health planners in developing countries with powerful techniques to help them achieve their health programme targets.
Experimental studies of equilibrium in the toroidal Extrap T1 experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.; Hedin, E.R.; Karlsson, P.; Jin Li; Saetherblom, H.E.
1989-03-01
Experimental studies of a toroidal, high-beta plasma discharge with a non-circular cross-section are described. In Extrap T1, four toroidal, current-carrying rings outside the plasma discharge current channel produce a separatrix which bounds the plasma. Plasma currents of up to 40 kA are induced, operating with a toroidal field of up to 0.2 T. The major radius of the device is 0.45 m and the average minor radius of the current channel is about 40 mm. The discharge pulse is approximately 100 μsec long. For the discharges reported here, the peak current density on the discharge axis is about 9 MA/m 2 , which corresponds to an on-axis safety factor q o of about 0.1. The plasma density is in the range n ≅ 0.2 to 1 x 10 21 m -3 , and the electron temperature is in the range T e ≅ 10 to 30 eV. Magnetic flux plots of the experiment have been studied using magnetic probes and current and pressure profiles have been derived from the magnetic data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narita, Emi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Honda, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Urano, Hajime; Ide, Shunsuke
2015-01-01
Tokamak plasmas with an internal transport barrier (ITB) are capable of maintaining improved confinement performance. The ITBs formed in plasmas with the weak magnetic shear and the weak radial electric field shear are often observed to be modest. In these ITB plasmas, it has been found that the electron temperature ITB is steeper when toroidal rotation is in a co-direction with respect to the plasma current than when toroidal rotation is in a counter-direction. To clarify the relationship between the direction of toroidal rotation and heat transport in the ITB region, we examine dominant instabilities using the flux-tube gyrokinetic code GS2. The linear calculations show a difference in the real frequencies; the counter-rotation case has a more trapped electron mode than the co-rotation case. In addition, the nonlinear calculations show that with this difference, the ratio of the electron heat diffusivity χ_e to the ion's χ_i is higher for the counter-rotation case than for the co-rotation case. The difference in χ_e /χ_i agrees with the experiment. We also find that the effect of the difference in the flow shear between the two cases due to the toroidal rotation direction on the linear growth rate is not significant. (author)
Wall conditioning and leak localization in the advanced toroidal facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langley, R.A.; Glowienka, J.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Murakami, M.; Rayburn, T.F.; Simpkins, J.E.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Yarber, J.L.
1989-01-01
The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel and its internal components have been conditioned for plasma operation by baking, discharge cleaning with hydrogen and helium, and gettering with chromium and titanium. The plasma-facing surface of ATF consists mainly of stainless steel with some graphite; the outgassing area is dominated by the graphite because of its open porosity. Since this situation is somewhat different from that in other fusion plasma experiments, in which a single material dominates both the outgassing area and the plasma-facing area, different cleaning and conditioning techniques are required. The situation was aggravated by air leaks in the vacuum vessel, presumably resulting from baking and from vibration during plasma operation. The results of the various cleaning and conditioning techniques used are presented and compared on the basis of residual gas analysis and plasma performance. A technique for detecting leaks from the inside of the vacuum vessel is described; this technique was developed because access to the outside of the vessel is severely restricted by external components. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Wall conditioning and leak localization in the Advanced Toroidal Facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langley, R.A.; Glowienka, J.C.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Murakami, M.; Rayburn, T.F.; Simpkins, J.E.; Schwenterly, S.W.; Yarber, J.L.
1990-01-01
The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel and its internal components have been conditioned for plasma operation by baking, discharge cleaning with hydrogen and helium, and gettering with chromium and titanium. The plasma-facing surface of ATF consists mainly of stainless steel with some graphite; the outgassing area is dominated by the graphite because of its open porosity. Since this situation is somewhat different from that in other fusion plasma experiments, in which a single material dominates both the outgassing area and the plasma-facing area, different cleaning and conditioning techniques are required. The situation was aggravated by air leaks in the vacuum vessel, presumably resulting from baking and from vibration during plasma operation. The results of the various cleaning and conditioning techniques used are presented and compared on the basis of residual gas analysis and plasma performance. A technique for detecting leaks from the inside of the vacuum vessel is described. This technique was developed because access to the outside of the vessel is severely restricted by external components
Propulsion using the electron spiral toroid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seward, Clint
1998-01-01
A new propulsion method is proposed which could potentially reduce propellant needed for space travel by three orders of magnitude. It uses the newly patented electron spiral toroid (EST), which stores energy as magnetic field energy. The EST is a hollow toroid of electrons, all spiraling in parallel paths in a thin outer shell. The electrons satisfy the coupling condition, forming an electron matrix. Stability is assured as long as the coupling condition is satisfied. The EST is held in place with a small external electric field; without an external magnetic field. The EST system is contained in a vacuum chamber. The EST can be thought of as an energetic entity, with electrons at 10,000 electron volts. Propulsion would not use combustion, but would heat propellant through elastic collisions with the EST surface and eject them for thrust. Chemical rocket combustion heats propellant to 4000 deg. C; an EST will potentially heat the propellant 29,000 times as much, reducing propellant needs accordingly. The thrust can be turned ON and OFF. The EST can be recharged as needed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sanghee (Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)); Yoon, Sang-Wook; Yoo, Seung-Min; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Kim, Sang Heum; Lee, Jong Tae (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA Univ. (Korea, Republic of)), email: jansons@cha.ac.kr; Ji, Young Geon (Preventive Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA Univ. (Korea, Republic of))
2011-12-15
Background. Tube current is an important determinant of radiation dose and image quality in X-ray-based examination. The combined automatic tube current modulation technique (ATCM) enables automatic adjustment of the tube current in various planes (x-y and z) based on the size and attenuation of the body area scanned. Purpose. To compare image quality and radiation dose of the ATCM with those of a fixed tube current technique (FTC) in CT of the abdomen and pelvis performed with a 16-slice multidetector row CT. Material and Methods. We reviewed 100 patients in whom initial and follow-up CT of the abdomen and pelvis were performed with FTC and ATCM. All acquisition parameters were identical in both techniques except for tube current. We recorded objective image noise in liver parenchyma, subjective image noise and diagnostic acceptability by using a five-point scale, radiation dose, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2). Data were analyzed with parametric and non-parametric statistical tests. Results. There was no significant difference in image noise and diagnostic acceptability between two techniques. All subjects had acceptable subjective image noise in both techniques. The significant reduction in radiation dose (45.25% reduction) was noted with combined ATCM (P < 0.001). There was a significant linear statistical correlation between BMI and dose reduction (r = -0.78, P < 0.05). Conclusion. The ATCM for CT of the abdomen and pelvis substantially reduced radiation dose while maintaining diagnostic image quality. Patients with lower BMI showed more reduction in radiation dose
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schaubel, K.M.; Menon, M.M.
1991-11-01
A cryocondensation pump will be installed in the baffle chamber of the DIII-D tokamak in the spring of 1992. The design is complete and fabrication of this pump is in progress. The purpose of the pump is to study plasma density control by pumping the divertor. The pump is toroidally continuous, approximately 10 m long, in the lower outer corner of the vacuum vessel interior. It consists of a 1 m 2 liquid helium cooled surface surrounded by a liquid nitrogen cooled shield to limit the heat load on the helium cooled surface. The stainless steel liquid nitrogen shell has a copper coating on it to enhance thermal conductivity, but the coating is broken to keep the toroidal electrical resistance high. The liquid nitrogen cooled surface is surrounded by a radiation/particle shield to prevent energetic particles from impacting and releasing condensed water molecules. The whole pump is supported off the water cooled vacuum vessel wall. Key design considerations were: how to accommodate the temperature differences between the various components, developing low heat leak paths for the various supports, and maintaining electrical insulation in a low pressure environment in the presence of induced voltage spikes. A single point ground for the system was used to limit disruption induced currents and the resulting electro-mechanical forces on the pump. A testing program was used to develop coating techniques to enhance heat transfer and emissivity of the various surfaces. Fabrication tests were done to determine the best method of attaching the liquid nitrogen flow tubes to their shield surfaces. A prototype sector of the pump was built to verify fabrication and assembly techniques
Transport and Dynamics in Toroidal Fusion Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schnack, Dalton D
2006-05-16
This document reports the successful completion of the OFES Theory Milestone for FY2005, namely, Perform parametric studies to better understand the edge physics regimes of laboratory experiments. Simulate at increased resolution (up to 20 toroidal modes), with density evolution, late into the nonlinear phase and compare results from different types of edge modes. Simulate a single case including a study of heat deposition on nearby material walls. The linear stability properties and nonlinear evolution of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in tokamak plasmas are investigated through numerical computation. Data from the DIII-D device at General Atomics (http://fusion.gat.com/diii-d/) is used for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria, but edge parameters are varied to reveal important physical effects. The equilibrium with very low magnetic shear produces an unstable spectrum that is somewhat insensitive to dissipation coefficient values. Here, linear growth rates from the non-ideal NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) agree reasonably well with ideal, i.e. non-dissipative, results from the GATO global linear stability code at low toroidal mode number (n) and with ideal results from the ELITE edge linear stability code at moderate to high toroidal mode number. Linear studies with a more realistic sequence of MHD equilibria (based on DIII-D discharge 86166) produce more significant discrepancies between the ideal and non-ideal calculations. The maximum growth rate for the ideal computations occurs at toroidal mode index n=10, whereas growth rates in the non-ideal computations continue to increase with n unless strong anisotropic thermal conduction is included. Recent modeling advances allow drift effects associated with the Hall electric field and gyroviscosity to be considered. A stabilizing effect can be observed in the preliminary results, but while the distortion in mode structure is readily apparent at n=40, the growth rate is only 13% less than the non-ideal MHD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nygaard, Peter Vagn; Geiker, Mette Rica
2012-01-01
, are in some studies considered the main reasons for the variations. This paper presents an experimental study on the quantitative effect of polarisation time and current on the measured polarisation resistance – and thus the corrosion current density – of passively and actively corroding steel. Two...... electrochemical techniques often used in instruments for on-site corrosion rate measurements are investigated. On passively corroding reinforcement the measured polarisation resistance was for both techniques found to be highly affected by the polarisation time and current and no plateaus at either short or long...... rate for actively corroding steel. For both techniques guidelines for polarisation times and currents are given for (on-site) non-destructive corrosion rate measurements on reinforcement steel in concrete....
Makris, Eleftherios A.; Hadidi, Pasha; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.
2011-01-01
Extensive scientific investigations in recent decades have established the anatomical, biomechanical, and functional importance that the meniscus holds within the knee joint. As a vital part of the joint, it acts to prevent the deterioration and degeneration of articular cartilage, and the onset and development of osteoarthritis. For this reason, research into meniscus repair has been the recipient of particular interest from the orthopedic and bioengineering communities. Current repair techniques are only effective in treating lesions located in the peripheral vascularized region of the meniscus. Healing lesions found in the inner avascular region, which functions under a highly demanding mechanical environment, is considered to be a significant challenge. An adequate treatment approach has yet to be established, though many attempts have been undertaken. The current primary method for treatment is partial meniscectomy, which commonly results in the progressive development of osteoarthritis. This drawback has shifted research interest towards the fields of biomaterials and bioengineering, where it is hoped that meniscal deterioration can be tackled with the help of tissue engineering. So far, different approaches and strategies have contributed to the in vitro generation of meniscus constructs, which are capable of restoring meniscal lesions to some extent, both functionally as well as anatomically. The selection of the appropriate cell source (autologous, allogeneic, or xenogeneic cells, or stem cells) is undoubtedly regarded as key to successful meniscal tissue engineering. Furthermore, a large variation of scaffolds for tissue engineering have been proposed and produced in experimental and clinical studies, although a few problems with these (e.g., byproducts of degradation, stress shielding) have shifted research interest towards new strategies (e.g., scaffoldless approaches, self-assembly). A large number of different chemical (e.g., TGF-β1, C-ABC) and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, S C; Teo, L P
2008-01-01
Quartic self-interacting fractional Klein-Gordon scalar massive and massless field theories on toroidal spacetime are studied. The effective potential and topologically generated mass are determined using zeta-function regularization technique. Renormalization of these quantities are derived. Conditions for symmetry breaking are obtained analytically. Simulations are carried out to illustrate regions or values of compactified dimensions where symmetry-breaking mechanisms appear
Current Techniques of Teaching and Learning in Bariatric Surgical Procedures: A Systematic Review.
Kaijser, Mirjam; van Ramshorst, Gabrielle; van Wagensveld, Bart; Pierie, Jean-Pierre
The gastric sleeve resection and gastric bypass are the 2 most commonly performed bariatric procedures. This article provides an overview of current teaching and learning methods of those techniques in resident and fellow training. A database search was performed on Pubmed, Embase, and the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) to identify the methods used to provide training in bariatric surgery worldwide. After exclusion based on titles and abstracts, full texts of the selected articles were assessed. Included articles were reviewed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. In total, 2442 titles were identified and 14 full text articles met inclusion criteria. Four publications described an ex vivo training course, and 6 focused on at least 1 step of the gastric bypass procedure. Two randomized controlled trials (RCT) provided high-quality evidence on training aspects. Surgical coaching caused significant improvement of Bariatric Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (BOSATS) scores (3.60 vs. 3.90, p = 0.017) and reduction of technical errors (18 vs. 10, p = 0.003). A preoperative warm-up increased global rating scales (GRS) scores on depth perception (p = 0.02), bimanual dexterity (p = 0.01), and efficiency of movements (p = 0.03). Stepwise education, surgical coaching, warming up, Internet-based knowledge modules, and ex vivo training courses are effective in relation to bariatric surgical training of residents and fellows, possibly shortening their learning curves. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Annular gap measurement between pressure tube and calandria tube by eddy current technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhole, V.M.; Rastogi, P.K.; Kulkarni, P.G.
1992-01-01
In pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) major distinguishing feature is that there are number of identical fuel channels in the reactor core. Each channel consists of pressure tube of Zr-2.5 Nb or zircaloy-2 through which high temperature, high pressure primary coolant is passing. The pressure tube contains fuel. Surrounding the pressure tube there is low pressure, cool heavy water (moderator). The moderator is thermally separated from coolant by the tube which is nominally concentric with pressure tube called calandria tube. There are four garter springs in the annular gap between pressure tube and calandria tube. During the life of the reactor there are number of factors by which the pressure tube sags, most important factors are irradiation creep, thermal creep, fuel load etc. Because of the sag of pressure tube it can touch the calandria tube resulting in formation of cold spot. This leads to hydrogen concentration at that spot by which the material at that place becomes brittle and can lead to catastrophic failure of pressure tube. There is no useful access for measurement of annular gap either through the gas annular space or from exterior of calandria tube. So the annular gap was measured from inside surface of pressure tube which is accessible. Eddy current technique was used for finding the gap. The paper describe the details of split coil design of bobbin probe, selection of operating point on normalised impedance diagram by choosing frequency. Experimental results on full scale mock up, and actual gap measurement in reactor channel, are also given. (author). 7 figs
Low-frequency fluctuations in a pure toroidal magnetized plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A magnetized, low- plasma in pure toroidal configuration is formed and extensively studied with ion mass as control parameter. Xenon, krypton and argon plasmas are formed at a fixed toroidal magnetic field of 0.024 T, with a peak density of ∼ 1011 cm-3, ∼ 4 × 1010 cm-3 and ∼ 2 × 1010 cm−3 respectively.
Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Scotti
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.
Parametric design studies of toroidal magnetic energy storage units
Herring, J. Stephen
Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units have a number of advantages as storage devices. Electrical current is the input, output and stored medium, allowing for completely solid-state energy conversion. The magnets themselves have no moving parts. The round trip efficiency is higher than those for batteries, compressed air or pumped hydro. Output power can be very high, allowing complete discharge of the unit within a few seconds. Finally, the unit can be designed for a very large number of cycles, limited basically by fatigue in the structural components. A small systems code was written to produce and evaluate self-consistent designs for toroidal superconducting energy storage units. The units can use either low temperature or high temperature superconductors. The coils have D shape where the conductor and its stabilizer/structure is loaded only in tension and the centering forces are borne by a bucking cylinder. The coils are convectively cooled from a cryogenic reservoir in the bore of the coils. The coils are suspended in a cylindrical metal shell which protects the magnet during rail, automotive or shipboard use. It is important to note that the storage unit does not rely on its surroundings for structural support, other than normal gravity and inertial loads. Designs are presented for toroidal energy storage units produced by the systems code. A wide range of several parameters have been considered, resulting in units storing from 1 MJ to 72 GJ. Maximum fields range from 5 T to 20 T. The masses and volumes of the coils, bucking cylinder, coolant, insulation and outer shell are calculated. For unattended use, the allowable operating time using only the boiloff of the cryogenic fluid for refrigeration is calculated. For larger units, the coils were divided into modules suitable for normal truck or rail transport.
Parametric design studies of toroidal magnetic energy storage units
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herring, J.S.
1990-01-01
Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units have a number of advantages as storage devices. Electrical current is the input, output and stored medium, allowing for completely solid-state energy conversion. The magnets themselves have no moving parts. The round-trip efficiency is higher than those for batteries, compressed air or pumped hydro. Output power can be very high, allowing complete discharge of the unit within a few seconds. Finally, the unit can be designed for a very large number of cycles, limited basically by fatigue in the structural components. A small systems code has been written to produce and evaluate self-consistent designs for toroidal superconducting energy storage units. The units can use either low temperature or high temperature superconductors. The coils have 'D' shape where the conductor and its stabilizer/structure is loaded only in tension and the centering forces are borne by a bucking cylinder. The coils are convectively cooled from a cryogenic reservoir in the bore of the coils. The coils are suspended in a cylindrical metal shell which protects the magnet during rail, automotive or shipboard use. It is important to note that the storage unit does not rely on its surroundings for structural support, other than normal gravity and inertial loads. This paper presents designs for toroidal energy storage units produced by the systems code. A wide range of several parameters have been considered, resulting in units storing from 1 MJ to 72 GJ. Maximum fields range from 5 t to 20 T. The masses and volumes of the coils, bucking cylinder, coolant, insulation and outer shell are calculated. For unattended use, the allowable operating time using only the boiloff of the cryogenic fluid for refrigeration is calculated. For larger units, the coils have been divided into modules suitable for normal truck or rail transport. 8 refs., 5 tabs
Toroidal deuteron accelerator for Mo-98 neutron activation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Araujo, Wagner L., E-mail: wagner.leite@ifnmg.edu.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais (IFN-MG), Montes Claros, MG (Brazil); Campos, Tarcisio P.R. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear
2017-07-01
The radionuclide Tc-{sup 99m} is the most useful radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It can be produced by the Mo-99 beta minus decay. Mo-99 has often been produced in a high- flux nuclear reactor through radioactive neutron capture reactions on Mo-98. The present paper provides a preliminary design of a toroidal transmutation system (TTS) based on a toroidal compact deuteron accelerator, which can provide the Mo-98 transmutation into Mo-99. This system is essentially composed of a multi-aperture plasma electrode and a target, submitted to 180 kV, where a positive deuteron beam is accelerated toward a titanium-target loaded with deuterium in which nuclear d-d fusion reactions are induced. The Particle Studio package of the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software was applied to design, simulate and optimize the deuteron beam on the target. MCNP code provided to neutronic analysis. Based on electromagnetic and neutronic simulations, the neutron yield and reaction rates were estimated. The simulated data allowed appraising the Mo-99 activity. A TTS, in a specific configuration, could produce a total deuterium current of 1.6 A at the target and a neutron yield of 10{sup 13} n.s{sup -1}. In a arrangement of 30 column samples, TTS provides 230 mCi s{sup -1} Mo{sup 99} in each column, which represents 80% of Tc-99m in secular equilibrium. As conclusion, the system holds potential for generating Mo-99 and Tc-99m in a suitable activity in secular equilibrium. (author)
Analysis of MHD equilibria by toroidal multipolar expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alladio, F.; Crisanti, F.
1986-01-01
The use of fully toroidal co-ordinates permits the two-dimensional problem of the axisymmetric plasma toroidal equilibrium to be reduced to the one-dimensional problem of determining a limited number of its toroidal multipolar moments. This has allowed the creation of a fast semi-analytic predictive equilibrium code that can be used in both free and fixed boundary conditions for plasmas with circular or mildly non-circular cross-section. The concept of toroidal multipoles is also particularly suitable for the analysis of experimental data from magnetic probe measurements and clarifies the conditions under which the plasma thermal and electrical self-inductances βsub(p) and lsub(i) can be estimated separately. Finally, the interpretation of the magnetic equilibrium measurements in terms of toroidal multipoles can directly provide the boundary conditions for a fast equilibrium reconstruction code. Examples of the application of such a code to the JET magnetic measurements are reported. (author)
Toroidal equilibrium and radial profiles from magnetic measurements in Extrap T1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunsell, Per; Jin Li; Tennfors, Einar
1991-01-01
The toroidal equilibrium position in the Extrap T1 toroidal Z-pinch is studied by measuring the currents induced in the external octupole field rings. Radial profiles are obtained by an internal magnetic coil array. From the magnetic field, profiles of current density, plasma pressure, safety factor, resistivity and input power density are deduced. A polynomial model is developed to simulate the measured profiles. The classical ion heat conduction losses in Extrap discharges are calculated using this model and compared to the power input. for polynomials matched to magnetic field profiles measured in present experiments, these losses are small. By varying the coefficients of the polynomials, a region is found where the power input can balance the classical heat conduction losses at higher values of Θ and β o . (Author)
On the evaluation of the capacitance of toroidal capacitors with a moon-shape meridian cross section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gongora T, A.; Ley-Koo, E.
1997-01-01
The toroidal capacitors studied in this paper consist of electrodes with meridian cross sections that are circular arcs meeting at the axis, and separated from each other by two small insulating spheres at their meeting points. The description and analysis of such capacitors is carried out by using bi spherical coordinates. The R-separability of the Laplace equation in these coordinates requires the use of the Green function technique, just like in the related problems of toroidal, spherical-cap-electrode, and bi spherical capacitors (1-3). An overall comparison of the solutions of the four problems is specially instructive. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernades, R.; Smith, R.A.
1977-01-01
Conceptual design configurations of D-shaped toroidal field coils applicable to the TNS program are studied under the action of the toroidal field loading condition and the vertical field loading condition, but not the fault condition. Although the analysis is specific to an 8 Tesla design using a niobium titanium superconductor, the results can be extended to a coil with a different conductor material and subjected to a field of different magnitude provided the condition of linear elasticity is not violated. The analysis technique used is the finite element method, with three dimensional finite elements defined in the ANSYS computer code, and supplemented by closed form analytical solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endo, Takashi; Kamimura, Takeo; Nishihara, Masatoshi; Araki, Yasuo; Fukui, Shigetaka.
1982-05-01
Eddy current flaw detection techniques are applied to the in-service inspection (ISI) of steam generator tubes in pressurized water reactors (PWR) plant. To improve the reliability and operating efficiency of the plants, efforts are being made to develop eddy current testing methods of various kinds. Multi-frequency eddy current testing method, one of new method, has recently been applied to actual heat exchanger tubes, contributing to the improvement of the detectability and signal evaluation of the ISI. The outline of multi-frequency eddy current testing method and its effects on the improvement of flaw detecting and signal evaluation accuracy are described. (author)
Oscillating field current drive for reversed field pinch discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenberg, K.F.; Gribble, R.F.; Baker, D.A.
1984-06-01
Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD), also known as F-THETA pumping, is a steady-state current-drive technique proposed for the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Unlike other current-drive techniques, which employ high-technology, invasive, and power intensive schemes using radio frequency or neutral particle injection, F-THETA pumping entails driving the toroidal and poloidal magnetic field circuits with low-frequency (audio) oscillating voltage sources. Current drive by this technique is a consequence of the strong nonlinear plasma coupling in the RFP. Because of its low frequency and efficient plasma coupling, F-THETA pumping shows excellent promise as a reactor-relevant current-drive technique. A conceptual and computational study of this concept, including its experimental and reactor relevance, is explored in this paper
Nonideal magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and toroidal magnetic confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furth, H.P.
1985-05-01
The marked divergence of experimentally observed plasma instability phenomena from the predictions of ideal magnetohydrodynamics led in the early 1960s to the formulations of finite-resistivity stability theory. Beginning in the 1970s, advanced plasma diagnostics have served to establish a detailed correspondence between the predictions of the finite-resistivity theory and experimental plasma behavior - particularly in the case of the resistive kink mode and the tokamak plasma. Nonlinear resistive-kink phenomena have been found to govern the transport of magnetic flux and plasma energy in the reversed-field pinch. The other predicted finite-resistivity instability modes have been more difficult to identify directly and their implications for toroidal magnetic confinement are still unresolved
Design considerations for ITER toroidal field coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalsi, S.S.; Lousteau, D.C.; Miller, J.R.
1987-01-01
The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a new tokamak design project with joint participation from Europe, Japan, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), and the United States. This paper describes a magnetic and mechanical design methodology for toroidal field (TF) coils that employs Nb 3 Sn superconductor technology. Coil winding is sized by using conductor concepts developed for the U.S. TIBER concept. Manifold concepts are presented for the complete cooling system. Also included are concepts for the coil structural arrangement. The effects of in-plane and out-of-plane loads are included in the design considerations for the windings and case. Concepts are presented for reacting these loads with a minimum amount of additional structural material. Concepts discussed in this paper could be considered for the ITER TF coils
Three dimensional transport model for toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copenhauer, C.
1980-12-01
A nonlinear MHD model, developed for three-dimensional toroidal geometries (asymmetric) and for high β (β approximately epsilon), is used as a basis for a three-dimensional transport model. Since inertia terms are needed in describing evolving magnetic islands, the model can calculate transport, both in the transient phase before nonlinear saturation of magnetic islands and afterwards on the resistive time scale. In the β approximately epsilon ordering, the plasma does not have sufficient energy to compress the parallel magnetic field, which allows the Alfven wave to be eliminated in the reduced nonlinear equations, and the model then follows the slower time scales. The resulting perpendicular and parallel plasma drift velocities can be identified with those of guiding center theory
ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] data management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kannan, K.L.; Baylor, L.R.
1988-01-01
Data management for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF), a stellarator located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is provided by DMG, a locally developed, VAX-based software system. DMG is a data storage and retrieval software system that provides the user interface to ATF raw and analyzed data. Data are described in terms of data models and data types and are organized as signals into files, which are internally documented. The system was designed with user accessibility, software maintainability, and extensibility as primary goals. Extensibility features include compatibility with ATF as it moves from pulsed to steady-state operation and capability for use of the DMG system with experiments other than ATF. DMG is implemented as a run-time library of routines available as a shareable image. General-purpose and specialized data acquisition and analysis applications have been developed using the DMG system. This paper describes the DMG system and the interfaces to it. 4 refs., 2 figs
Progress in toroidal confinement and fusion research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furth, H.P.
1987-10-01
During the past 30 years, the characteristic T/sub i/n tau/sub E/-value of toroidal-confinement experiments has advanced by more than seven orders of magnitude. Part of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of this advance has been due to an increase of gross machine parameters. Most of the advance is associated with improvements in the ''quality of plasma confinement.'' The combined evidence of spherator and tokamak research clarifies the role of magnetic-field geometry in determining confinement and points to the importance of shielding out plasma edge effects. A true physical understanding of anomalous transport remains to be achieved. 39 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab
Toroidal microinstability studies of high temperature tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
1989-07-01
Results from comprehensive kinetic microinstability calculations are presented showing the effects of toroidicity on the ion temperature gradient mode and its relationship to the trapped-electron mode in high-temperature tokamak plasmas. The corresponding particle and energy fluxes have also been computed. It is found that, although drift-type microinstabilities persist over a wide range of values of the ion temperature gradient parameter η i ≡ (dlnT i /dr)/(dlnn i /dr), the characteristic features of the dominant mode are those of the η i -type instability when η i > η ic ∼1.2 to 1.4 and of the trapped-electron mode when η i ic . 16 refs., 7 figs
Citro, Costantino; Gavriluta, Catalin; Nizak Md, H. K.; Beltran, H.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a design procedure for linear current controllers of three-phase grid-connected inverters. The proposed method consists in deriving a numerical model of the converter by using software simulations and applying the pole placement technique to design the controller with the desired performances. A clear example on how to apply the technique is provided. The effectiveness of the proposed design procedure has been verified through the experimental results obtained with ...
Radial diffusion of toroidally trapped particles induced by lower hybrid and fast waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krlin, L.
1992-10-01
The interaction of RF field with toroidally trapped particles (bananas) can cause their intrinsic stochastically diffusion both in the configuration and velocity space. In RF heating and/or current drive regimes, RF field can interact with plasma particles and with thermonuclear alpha particles. The aim of this contribution is to give some analytical estimates of induced radial diffusion of alphas and of ions. (author)
How do laboratory embryo transfer techniques affect IVF outcomes? A review of current literature.
Sigalos, George; Triantafyllidou, Olga; Vlahos, Nikos
2017-04-01
Over the last few years, many studies have focused on embryo selection methods, whereas little attention has been given to the standardization of the procedure of embryo transfer. In this review, several parameters of the embryo transfer procedure are examined, such as the: (i) culture medium volume and loading technique; (ii) syringe and catheters used for embryo transfer; (iii) viscosity and composition of the embryo transfer medium; (iv) environment of embryo culture; (v) timing of embryo transfer; (vi) and standardization of the embryo transfer techniques. The aim of this manuscript is to review these factors and compare the existing embryo transfer techniques and highlight the need for better embryo transfer standardization.
Resonant MHD modes with toroidal coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Hastie, R.J.; Taylor, J.B.
1990-07-01
This is part 2 of a study of resonant perturbations, such as resistive tearing and ballooning modes, in a torus. These are described by marginal ideal mhd equations in the regions between resonant surfaces; matching across these surfaces provides the dispersion relation. In part 1 we described how all the necessary information from the ideal mhd calculations could be represented by a so-called E-matrix. We also described the calculation of this E-matrix for tearing modes (even parity in perturbed magnetic field) in a large aspect ratio torus. There the toroidal modes comprise coupled cylinder tearing modes and the E-matrix is a generalization of the familiar Δ' quantity in a cylinder. In the present paper we discuss resistive ballooning, or twisting-modes, which have odd-parity in perturbed magnetic field. We show that, unlike the tearing modes, these odd-parity modes are instrinsically toroidal and are not directly related to the odd-parity modes in a cylinder. This is evident from the analysis of the high-n limit in ballooning-space, where a transition from a stable Δ' to an unstable Δ' occurs for the twisting mode when the ballooning effect exceeds the interchange effect, which can occur even at large aspect ratio (as in a tokamak). Analysis of the high-n limit in coordinate space, rather than ballooning space, clarifies this singular behaviour and indicates how one may define twisting-mode Δ'. It also yields a prescription for treating low-n twisting modes and a method for calculating an E-matrix for resistive ballooning modes in a large aspect ratio tokamak. The elements of this matrix are given in terms of cylindrical tearing mode solutions
Liao, Bin; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xu; Wu, Xianying; Bian, Baoan; Ying, Minju; Jianwu, Liu
2018-01-01
We successfully prepared hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) with a thickness higher than 25 μm on stainless steel using a filtered cathode vacuum arc (FCVA) technique. The structural and mechanical properties of DLC were systematically analyzed using different methods such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Vickers hardness, nanohardness, and friction and wear tests. The effect of coil current on the arc voltage, ion current, and mechanical properties of resultant films was systematically investigated. The novelty of this study is the fabrication of DLC with Vickers hardness higher than 1500 HV, in the meanwhile with the thickness higher than 30 μm through varying the coil current with FCVA technique. The results indicated that the ion current, deposition rate, friction coefficient, and Vickers hardness of DLC were significantly affected by the magnetic field inside the filtered duct.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galkowski, A. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
1994-12-31
Non-linear ideal MHD equilibria in axisymmetric system with flows are examined, both in 1st and 2nd ellipticity regions. Evidence of the bifurcation of solutions is provided and numerical solutions of several problems in a tokamak geometry are given, exhibiting bifurcation phenomena. Relaxation of plasma in the presence of zero-order flows is studied in a realistic toroidal geometry. The field aligned flow allows equilibria with finite pressure gradient but with homogeneous temperature distribution. Numerical calculations have been performed for the 1st and 2nd ellipticity regimes of the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation. Numerical technique, alternative to the well-known Grad`s ADM methods has been proposed to deal with slow adiabatic evolution of toroidal plasma with flows. The equilibrium problem with prescribed adiabatic constraints may be solved by simultaneous calculations of flux surface geometry and original profile functions. (author). 178 refs, 37 figs, 5 tabs.
Cauberg Evelyne, C. C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.
2011-01-01
The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Hasanzad
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Photovoltaic systems integrated to the grid have received considerable attention around the world. They can be connected to the electrical grid via galvanic isolation (transformer or without it (transformerless. Despite making galvanic isolation, low frequency transformer increases size, cost and losses. On the other hand, transformerless PV systems increase the leakage current (common-mode current, (CMC through the parasitic capacitors of the PV array. Inverter topology and switching technique are the most important parameters the leakage current depends on. As there is no need to extra hardware for switching scheme modification, it's an economical method for reducing leakage current. This paper evaluates the effect of different space vector modulation techniques on leakage current for a two-level three-phase four-leg inverter used in PV system. It proposes an efficient space vector modulation method which decreases the leakage current to below the quantity specified in VDE-0126-1-1 standard. furthermore, some other characteristics of the space vector modulation schemes that have not been significantly discussed for four-leg inverter, are considered, such as, modulation index, switching actions per period, common-mode voltage (CMV, and total harmonic distortion (THD. An extend software simulation using MATLAB/Simulink is performed to verify the effectiveness of the modulation technique.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jhang, Hogun
2008-01-01
A study is conducted on the feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in a tokamak plasma using a toroidal shell model. An analytically tractable form of the RWM dispersion relation is derived in the presence of a set of discrete feedback coil currents. A parametric study is carried out to optimize the feedback system configuration. It is shown that the total toroidal angle of a resistive wall spanned by the feedback coils and the poloidal angular extent of a feedback coil are crucial parameters to determine the efficacy of the feedback system
New current control based MPPT technique for single stage grid connected PV systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Sachin; Agarwal, Vivek
2007-01-01
This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking algorithm based on current control for a single stage grid connected photovoltaic system. The main advantage of this algorithm comes from its ability to predict the approximate amplitude of the reference current waveform or power that can be derived from the PV array with the help of an intermediate variable β. A variable step size for the change in reference amplitude during initial tracking helps in fast tracking. It is observed that if the reference current amplitude is greater than the array capacity, the system gets unstable (i.e. moves into the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics of the array). The proposed algorithm prevents the PV system from entering the positive slope region of the p-v characteristics. It is also capable of restoring stability if the system goes unstable due to a sudden environmental change. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a new single stage grid connected PV configuration recently developed by the authors to feed sinusoidal current into the grid. The system is operated in a continuous conduction mode to realize advantages such as low device current stress, high efficiency and low EMI. A fast MPPT tracker with single stage inverter topology operating in CCM makes the overall system highly efficient. Specific cases of the system, operating in just discontinuous current mode and discontinuous current mode and their relative merits and demerits are also discussed
Kinetic energy principle and neoclassical toroidal torque in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jong-Kyu
2011-01-01
It is shown that when tokamaks are perturbed, the kinetic energy principle is closely related to the neoclassical toroidal torque by the action invariance of particles. Especially when tokamaks are perturbed from scalar pressure equilibria, the imaginary part of the potential energy in the kinetic energy principle is equivalent to the toroidal torque by the neoclassical toroidal viscosity. A unified description therefore should be made for both physics. It is also shown in this case that the potential energy operator can be self-adjoint and thus the stability calculation can be simplified by minimizing the potential energy.
Toroidal field effects on the stability of Heliotron E
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Lynch, V.E.
1986-02-01
The addition of a small toroidal field to the Heliotron E configuration improves the stability of the n = 1 mode and increases the value of the stability beta critical. Total stabilization of this mode can be achieved with added toroidal fields between 5 and 15% of the total field. In this situation, the plasma can have direct access to the second stability regime. For the Heliotron E configuration, the self-stabilization effect is due to the shear, not to the magnetic well. The toroidal field threshold value for stability depends strongly on the pressure profile and the plasma radius. 21 refs., 15 figs
Poloidal variations in toroidal fusion reactor wall power loadings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carroll, M.C.; Miley, G.H.
1985-01-01
A geometric formulation is developed by the authors for determining poloidal variations in bremmstrahlung, cyclotron radiation, and neutron wall power loadings in toroidal fusion devices. Assuming toroidal symmetry and utilizing a numerical model which partitions the plasma into small cells, it was generally found that power loadings are highest on the outer surface of the torus, although variations are not as large as some have predicted. Results are presented for various plasma power generation configurations, plasma volume fractions, and toroidal aspect ratios, and include plasma and wall blockage effects
Deformation energy of a toroidal nucleus and plane fragmentation barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fauchard, C.; Royer, G.
1996-01-01
The path leading to pumpkin-like configurations and toroidal shapes is investigated using a one-parameter shape sequence. The deformation energy is determined within the analytical expressions obtained for the various shape-dependent functions and the generalized rotating liquid drop model taking into account the proximity energy and the temperature. With increasing mass and angular momentum, a potential well appears in the toroidal shape path. For the heaviest systems, the pocket is large and locally favourable with respect to the plane fragmentation barriers which might allow the formation of evanescent toroidal systems which would rapidly decay in several fragments to minimize the surface tension. (orig.)
Performance of a Folded-Strip Toroidally Wound Induction Machine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Bogi Bech; Jack, Alan G.; Atkinson, Glynn J.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the measured experimental results from a four-pole toroidally wound induction machine, where the stator is constructed as a pre-wound foldable strip. It shows that if the machine is axially restricted in length, the toroidally wound induction machine can have substantially...... shorter stator end-windings than conventionally wound induction machines, and hence that a toroidally wound induction machine can have lower losses and a higher efficiency. The paper also presents the employed construction method, which emphasizes manufacturability, and highlights the advantages...
Progress in gyrokinetic simulations of toroidal ITG turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nevins, W.M.; Dimits, A.M.; Cohen, B.I.; Shumaker, D.E.
2001-01-01
The 3-D nonlinear toroidal gyrokinetic simulation code PG3EQ is used to study toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence - a key cause of the anomalous transport that limits tokamak plasma performance. Systematic studies of the dependence of ion thermal transport on various parameters and effects are presented, including dependence on E-vectorxB-vector and toroidal velocity shear, sensitivity to the force balance in simulations with radial temperature gradient variation, and the dependences on magnetic shear and ion temperature gradient. (author)
Laser-induced production of large carbon-based toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyn, M. Elizabeth; He Jibao; Koplitz, Brent
2005-01-01
We report on the production of large carbon-based toroids (CBTs) from fullerenes. The process involves two-step laser irradiation of a mixed fullerene target (76% C 60 , 22% C 70 ). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly identifies toroidal-shaped structures as well as Q-shaped constructs. The typical diameters of the CBTs are ∼0.2-0.3 μm with tubular diameters of ∼50-100 nm, but toroids as wide as 0.5 μm are observed making them nanostructures on the verge of being microstructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florin Postolache
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-01-01
Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)
Lee, Ka-Wo; Chiang, Feng-Yu
2009-12-01
Since the introduction of endolaryngeal microsurgery, several basic microsurgical techniques have been described for the removal of benign vocal fold lesions. These techniques include conventional incision or dissection, bimanual retraction and cutting, microflap technique and the CO2 laser. Until recently, only a few microsurgical methods have emerged as new choices for the treatment of benign vocal fold lesions. This article introduces an innovative method that can precisely remove benign sessile vocal fold lesions with epithelial keratosis or hyperplasia without jeopardizing the intermediate or deep layer of the lamina propria. Instead of using conventional vertically opening microinstruments, this microsurgical pressing excision technique (MPET) utilized two pairs of custom-made horizontally left-opening or right-opening, curved microscissors/curved cupped microforceps to remove right or left vocal fold lesions accordingly. Using one instrument at a time, the lesion was subsequently removed with the microscissors and microforceps in a press-evert-cut manner. Among a total of 553 cases, the treatment results were satisfactory, with 520 (94%) patients retaining a satisfactory/normal (G0) voice 2 months postoperatively. More importantly, no patient's voice was worse postoperatively. This technique has several advantages: utilizing one instrument at a time can maximize exposure of the narrow endoscopic view, adjusting the pressing force makes precise excision easy in a well controlled horizontal plane. The MPET is particularly useful for removing sessile vocal nodules (especially those with epithelial keratosis), epithelial hyperplasia and leukoplakia in patients with difficult endolaryngeal exposure. This could be a well tolerated and precise microsurgical technique.
Overview of Alternative Bunching and Current-shaping Techniques for Low-Energy Electron Beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.
2015-12-01
Techniques to bunch or shape an electron beam at low energies (E <15 MeV) have important implications toward the realization of table-top radiation sources [1] or to the design of compact multi-user free-electron lasers[2]. This paper provides an overview of alternative methods recently developed including techniques such as wakefield-based bunching, space-charge-driven microbunching via wave-breaking [3], ab-initio shaping of the electron-emission process [4], and phase space exchangers. Practical applications of some of these methods to foreseen free-electron-laser configurations are also briefly discussed [5].
Measurement of plasma current in Tokamaks using an optical fibre reflectometry technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wuilpart Marc
2018-01-01
Full Text Available An optical time-domain reflectometer sensitive to the polarization of light is proposed for the measurement of plasma current in the Tore Supra fusion reactor. The measurement principle relies on the Faraday effect i.e. on the generation of a circular birefringence along an optical fiber subject to an axial magnetic field. The circular birefringence induces a polarization rotation that can be mapped along the fiber thanks to an opticaltime domain reflectometer followed by an linear polarizer. A proper fitting of the measurement trace then allows determining the applied plasma current. The sensor has been experimentally validated on the Tore Supra tokamak fusion reactor for a plasma current range going from 0.6 to 1.5 MA. A maximum error of 13.50% has been observed for the lowest current.
Tchernykh A. G.
2015-01-01
We consider the technology of application of numerical methods in the educational process in physics on the example of a study of the magnetic field induced by induction currents in a cylindrical conductor in a quasi-stationary magnetic field. Here is given the numerical calculation of the real and imaginary parts of the Bessel functions of complex argument. The listing of the program of drawing the graphs of the radial dependence of the amplitude and phase shift of the inductive currents fie...